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Sample records for activity levels increased

  1. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    PubMed

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p <.001. The items identified were those related to self-confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning. PMID:26599594

  2. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    PubMed

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p <.001. The items identified were those related to self-confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning.

  3. Playground Designs to Increase Physical Activity Levels during School Recess: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A…

  4. Increasing discordant antioxidant protein levels and enzymatic activities contribute to increasing redox imbalance observed during human prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Chaiswing, Luksana; Zhong, Weixiong; Oberley, Terry D.

    2014-01-01

    A metabolomics study demonstrated a decrease in glutathione and an increase in cysteine (Cys) levels in human prostate cancer (PCa) tissues as Gleason scores increased, indicating redox imbalance with PCa progression. These results were extended in the present study by analyzing redox state of the protein thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) and sulfinylation (SO3) of peroxiredoxins (Prxs) (PrxsSO3) in PCa tissues and cell lines. Lysates of paired human PCa tissues with varying degree of aggressiveness and adjacent benign (BN) tissues were used for analysis. Redox western blot analysis of Trx1 demonstrated low levels of reduced and high levels of oxidized Trx1 (functional and non-functional, respectively) in high grade PCa (Gleason scores 4+4 to 4+5) in comparison to intermediate grade PCa (Gleason scores 3+3 to 3+4) or BN tissues. PrxsSO3 were increased in high grade PCa. Oxidized Trx1 and PrxsSO3 are indicators of oxidative stress. To study whether redox imbalance may potentially affect enzyme activities of antioxidant proteins (AP), we determined levels of selected AP in PCa tissues by western blot analysis and found that mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), Prx 3, and Trx1 were increased in high grade PCa tissues when compared with BN tissues. Enzyme activities of MnSOD in high grade PCa tissues were significantly increased but at a lower magnitude when compared with the levels of MnSOD protein (0.5 folds vs. 2 folds increase). Trx1 activity was not changed in high grade PCa tissues despite a large increase in Trx1 protein expression. Further studies demonstrated a significant increase in posttranslational modifications of tyrosine and lysine residues in MnSOD protein and oxidation of Cys at active site (Cys 32 and Cys 35) and regulatory site (Cys 62 and Cys 69) of Trx1 in high grade PCa compared to BN tissues. These discordant changes between protein levels and enzyme activities are consistent with protein inactivation by redox imbalance and

  5. Increased CD28 serum levels are not associated with specific clinical activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Brambila-Tapia, Aniel J L; Gámez-Nava, Jorge I; Salazar-Páramo, Mario; Munoz-Valle, José F; González-López, Laura; Llamas-Covarrubias, Mara A; Gutiérrez-Urena, Sergio R; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ingrid P

    2011-10-01

    CD28 is one of the main activator receptors involved in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis, and its expression and serum levels are significantly higher in patients with SLE and other autoimmune diseases than in healthy controls (HC). However, it is unknown whether this increase is associated with specific organ damage. Therefore, our objective was to measure the CD28 levels in serum from SLE and HC groups to confirm the CD28 serum levels increase, as reported previously, and to determine whether this increase was associated with specific organ activity and the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Forty SLE patients and 40 matched HC were included, and the age, disease duration, SLEDAI and Mexican SLEDAI were recorded for the SLE group. CD28 serum levels were measured by ELISA. There was a statistically significant increase in the CD28 serum levels of SLE patients compared to controls (p = 0.039); however, we did not find any significant correlation with disease activity indices or organ involvement, although we found a significant but low correlation with C3. Our results and a review of the literature suggest that the increase in CD28 serum levels may be the result of CD28 gene overexpression, which could be related to the decrease in CD28+ T cells, T-cell hyporesponsiveness and immune impairment that occurs in SLE.

  6. Increased von Willebrand factor levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus reflect inflammation rather than increased propensity for platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Warren D; Eilertsen, Gro Østli

    2016-01-01

    Background von Willebrand factor (VWF) is involved in platelet plug formation and protein transport. Increased VWF levels in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) are considered risk factors for vascular events. VWF protein levels, however, do not accurately reflect its platelet-aggregating function, which has not been examined in SLE. Methods Cross-sectional study with clinical and laboratory data obtained in patients with SLE (n=92) from a regional lupus registry. VWF function was determined by ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (VWF ristocetin cofactor, VWF:RCo) and VWF levels by turbidimetric assay (VWF antigen, VWF:Ag). The platelet-aggregating activity per VWF unit was estimated by the VWF RCo/Ag ratio. Healthy controls served as comparators and associations were evaluated by non-parametric methods. Results VWF:Ag (142% vs 107%, p=0.001) and VWF:RCo levels (123% vs 78%, p<0.041) were increased in patients with SLE, but VWF RCo/Ag ratio was similar as in controls (0.83 vs 0.82, p=0.8). VWF:Ag levels were higher in patients experiencing serositis but unrelated to other manifestations, thrombotic disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematous Disease Activity Index 2000 or Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics-Damage Index. VWF:Ag levels correlated significantly with VWF:RCo levels (Rs 0.8, p<0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (Rs 0.32, p<0.01), anti-dsDNA Ab (Rs 0.27, p<0.01), total IgG (Rs 0.33 p<0.01), fibrinogen (Rs 0.28, p<0.01) and ceruloplasmin (Rs 0.367, p<0.01) levels. VWF:RCo levels were not related to clinical findings but were correlated with ESR, anti-dsDNA and transferrin levels. No serological associations existed for VWF RCo/Ag ratio (all p>0.2). Conclusions In this SLE cohort, VWF:Ag behaved similarly to acute-phase reactants, but VWF:Ag increases were not matched by increases in functional activity per unit of VWF. Thus, more VWF did not increase the propensity for platelet aggregation in SLE.

  7. Increased von Willebrand factor levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus reflect inflammation rather than increased propensity for platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Warren D; Eilertsen, Gro Østli

    2016-01-01

    Background von Willebrand factor (VWF) is involved in platelet plug formation and protein transport. Increased VWF levels in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) are considered risk factors for vascular events. VWF protein levels, however, do not accurately reflect its platelet-aggregating function, which has not been examined in SLE. Methods Cross-sectional study with clinical and laboratory data obtained in patients with SLE (n=92) from a regional lupus registry. VWF function was determined by ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (VWF ristocetin cofactor, VWF:RCo) and VWF levels by turbidimetric assay (VWF antigen, VWF:Ag). The platelet-aggregating activity per VWF unit was estimated by the VWF RCo/Ag ratio. Healthy controls served as comparators and associations were evaluated by non-parametric methods. Results VWF:Ag (142% vs 107%, p=0.001) and VWF:RCo levels (123% vs 78%, p<0.041) were increased in patients with SLE, but VWF RCo/Ag ratio was similar as in controls (0.83 vs 0.82, p=0.8). VWF:Ag levels were higher in patients experiencing serositis but unrelated to other manifestations, thrombotic disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematous Disease Activity Index 2000 or Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics-Damage Index. VWF:Ag levels correlated significantly with VWF:RCo levels (Rs 0.8, p<0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (Rs 0.32, p<0.01), anti-dsDNA Ab (Rs 0.27, p<0.01), total IgG (Rs 0.33 p<0.01), fibrinogen (Rs 0.28, p<0.01) and ceruloplasmin (Rs 0.367, p<0.01) levels. VWF:RCo levels were not related to clinical findings but were correlated with ESR, anti-dsDNA and transferrin levels. No serological associations existed for VWF RCo/Ag ratio (all p>0.2). Conclusions In this SLE cohort, VWF:Ag behaved similarly to acute-phase reactants, but VWF:Ag increases were not matched by increases in functional activity per unit of VWF. Thus, more VWF did not increase the propensity for platelet aggregation in SLE. PMID:27651919

  8. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  9. Calpain expression in lymphoid cells. Increased mRNA and protein levels after cell activation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Chakrabarti, A K; Barbosa, E; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-02-10

    Although calpain is ubiquitously present in human tissues and is thought to play a role in demyelination, its activity is very low in resting normal lymphocytes. To determine the nature of calpain expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human lymphoid cells, we studied human T lymphocytic, B lymphocytic, and monocytic lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Stimulation of cells with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in increased calpain mRNA and protein expression. Calpain mRNA expression is also increased in human T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. A dissociation between the increases of RNA and protein suggested that calpain could be released from the cells; the subsequent experiments showed its presence in the extracellular environment. 5,6-Dichloro-1b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a reversible inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, reduced calpain mRNA levels by 50-67% and protein levels by 72-91%. Its removal resulted in resumption of both calpain mRNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, reduced calpain protein levels by 77-81% and calpain mRNA levels by 96% in activated THP-1 cells. Interferon-gamma induced calpain mRNA and protein in U-937 and THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone increased mRNA expression in THP-1 cells. Our results indicate that activation of lymphoid cells results in de novo synthesis and secretion of calpain. PMID:7852311

  10. Increasing Level of Leisure Physical Activity Could Reduce the Risk of Hip Fracture in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Ke; Liu, Xiao-yu; Wu, Xu-hua; Li, Xiao-liu; Xia, Qing-quan; Chen, Jiong; Yin, Xiao-fan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We carried out the study to investigate and quantitatively assess the potential association between current level of physical activity and the risk of osteoporosis hip fracture in older women. Relevant publications before October 2015 were identified using the PubMed and Ovid searching tools. A dose–response meta-analysis was carried out to combine and analysis results. Fourteen prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. A general analysis of 9 studies showed a significant inverse relationship between increasing level of physical activity and risk of hip fracture in older women [relative risk (RR) = 0.93, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.91–0.96]. The result of a sensitivity analysis was consistent with the general analysis (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93–0.96). The association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was not statistically significant in a general analysis of three studies (RR = 1.004, 95% CI: 0.98–1.03). A potential direct association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was observed after removing 1 study with the greatest weight (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03). No significant publication bias was observed in our analysis. Our results show that increasing level of physical activity within an appropriate range may reduce the risk of hip fracture but not the risk of wrist fracture in older women. PMID:26986111

  11. Temporal aspects of increases in eye-neck activation levels during visually deficient near work.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hans O; Camilla, Lodin; Forsman, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    In an experimental study two levels of oculomotor load were induced via optical trial lenses. Trapezius muscle activity was measured with bipolar surface electromyography and normalized to a submaximal contraction. Sixty-six subjects with a median age of 36 (range 19-47, std 8) viewed a black and white Gabor grating (5 c/deg) for two 7-min periods monocularly through a 0 D lens or binocularly through -3.5 D lenses. The effect of time was separately regressed to EMG in two different subgroups of responders: a High-Oculomotor-Load (HOL) and a Low-Oculomotor-Load (LOL) group. A linear regression model was fitted on group level with exposure time on the x-axis and normalized trapezius muscle EMG (%RVE) on the y-axis. The slope coefficient was significantly positive in the -D blur condition for only the HOL subgroup of responders: 0.926 + Time(min 1-7) × 0.088 (p = 0.002, r(2)=0.865). There was no obvious sign of this activity to level off or to stabilize. These results suggest that professional information technology users that are exposed to a high level of oculomotor load, during extended times, are at an increased risk of exhibiting an increased trap.m. activity. PMID:22317234

  12. Can Population Levels of Physical Activity be Increased? Global Evidence and Experience

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Michael; Perez, Lilian G.; Goenka, Shifalika; Brownson, Ross C.; Bauman, Adrian; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease and has become a global public health priority. We review the evidence on physical activity (PA) interventions, actions, and strategies that have the greatest potential to increase PA at the population level. Using the socio-ecological framework to conceptualize PA interventions, we show that PA can be targeted at multiple levels of influence and by multiple sectors outside the health system. Examples of promoting PA on a national scale are presented from Finland, Canada, Brazil, and Colombia. A strong policy framework, consistent investment in public health programs, multi-sectoral support and actions, and good surveillance characterize each of these success stories. Increasing PA globally will depend on successfully applying and adapting these lessons around the world taking into account country, culture, and context. PMID:25304047

  13. Feasibility and Effects of Short Activity Breaks for Increasing Preschool-Age Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…

  14. Increased levels of peroxisomal active oxygen-related enzymes in copper-tolerant pea plants

    SciTech Connect

    Palma, J.M.; Gomez, M.; Yanez, J.; Del Rio, L.A.

    1987-10-01

    The effect in vivo of high nutrient levels of copper (240 micromolar) on the activity of different metalloenzymes containing Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn, distributed in chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and mitochondria, was studied in leaves of two varieties of Pisum sativum L. plants with different sensitivity to copper. The metalloenzymes studied were: cytochrome c oxidase, Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase I (Cu,Zn-SOD I), for mitochondria; catalase and Mn-SOD, for peroxisomes; and isozyme Cu,Zn-SOD II for chloroplasts. The activity of mitochondrial SOD isozymes (Mn-SOD and Cu,Zn-SOD I) was very similar in Cu-tolerant and Cu-sensitive plants, whereas cytochrome c oxidase was lower in Cu-sensitive plants. Chloroplastid Cu,Zn-SOD activity was the same in the two plant varieties. In contrast, the peroxisomal Mn-SOD activity was considerably higher in Cu-tolerant than in Cu-sensitive plants, and the activity of catalase was also increased in peroxisomes of Cu-tolerant plants. The higher activities of these peroxisomal active oxygen-related enzymes in Cu-tolerant plants suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen intermediates (O/sub 2//sup -/, OH) in the mechanism of Cu lethality, and also imply a function for peroxisomal Mn-SOD in the molecular mechanisms of plant tolerance to Cu in Pisum sativum L.

  15. Smelling lavender and rosemary increases free radical scavenging activity and decreases cortisol level in saliva.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Toshiko; Tonosaki, Keiichi

    2007-02-28

    Free radicals/reactive oxygen species are related to many biological phenomena such as inflammation, aging, and carcinogenesis. The body possesses various antioxidative systems (free radical scavenging activity, FRSA) for preventing oxidative stress, and saliva contains such activity. In the present study, we measured the total salivary FRSA induced after the smelling of lavender and rosemary essential oils that are widely used in aromatherapy. Various physiologically active substances in saliva such as cortisol, secretory IgA, and alpha-amylase activity were found to be correlated with aroma-induced FRSA. The subjects (22 healthy volunteers) sniffed aroma for 5 min, and each subject's saliva was collected immediately. FRSA was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The FRSA values were increased by stimulation with low concentrations (1000 times dilution) of lavender or by high-concentrations (10 times dilution) of rosemary. In contrast, both lavender and rosemary stimulations decreased cortisol levels. A significant inverse correlation was observed between the FRSA values and the cortisol levels with each concentration of rosemary stimulation. No significant changes were noted in sIgA or alpha-amylase. These findings clarify that lavender and rosemary enhance FRSA and decrease the stress hormone, cortisol, which protects the body from oxidative stress. PMID:17291597

  16. Restricting opportunities to be active during school time: do children compensate by increasing physical activity levels after school?

    PubMed

    Dale, D; Corbin, C B; Dale, K S

    2000-09-01

    Opportunities for children to be physically active during school time are sparse and becoming increasingly so. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if children would compensate for school days (9 a.m.-3 p.m.) of restricted physical activity opportunities by increasing activity levels after school (3 p.m.-7:30 p.m.). Third and fourth grade children (N = 76) each wore a CSA accelerometer for 4 nonconsecutive days. Two days were categorized as active--during school, all children participated in outdoor recess and physical education class. Two days were categorized as restricted--all children spent their recess time indoors at a computer terminal, and no physical education class was scheduled. Dependent t tests revealed that children did not compensate for a sedentary school day by increasing their levels of physical activity after school. In fact, average movement counts per minute were higher in the 3 p.m.-7:30 p.m. period following the active day (525 counts.min-1) versus the restricted day (186 counts.min-1). These findings suggest cause for concern if children's opportunities to be active within school time are limited. Several reasons are given as to why children did not compensate or "make up" for the physical activity opportunities missed during the restricted school day.

  17. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency. PMID:26637493

  18. Tissue plasminogen activator inhibits NMDA-receptor-mediated increases in calcium levels in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Samuel D.; Lee, Tet Woo; Christie, David L.; Birch, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in neurotransmission, acting as essential mediators of many forms of synaptic plasticity, and also modulating aspects of development, synaptic transmission and cell death. NMDAR-induced responses are dependent on a range of factors including subunit composition and receptor location. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease that has been reported to interact with NMDARs and modulate NMDAR activity. In this study we report that tPA inhibits NMDAR-mediated changes in intracellular calcium levels in cultures of primary hippocampal neurons stimulated by low (5 μM) but not high (50 μM) concentrations of NMDA. tPA also inhibited changes in calcium levels stimulated by presynaptic release of glutamate following treatment with bicucculine/4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Inhibition was dependent on the proteolytic activity of tPA but was unaffected by α2-antiplasmin, an inhibitor of the tPA substrate plasmin, and receptor-associated protein (RAP), a pan-ligand blocker of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, two proteins previously reported to modulate NMDAR activity. These findings suggest that tPA can modulate changes in intracellular calcium levels in a subset of NMDARs expressed in cultured embryonic hippocampal neurons through a mechanism that involves the proteolytic activity of tPA and synaptic NMDARs. PMID:26500501

  19. Increasing FCC regenerator catalyst level

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.F. )

    1993-11-01

    A Peruvian FCC unit's operations were improved by increasing the regenerator's catalyst level. This increase resulted in lower stack losses, an improved temperature profile, increased catalyst activity and a lower catalyst consumption rate. A more stable operation saved this Peruvian refiner over $131,000 per year in catalyst alone. These concepts and data may be suitable for your FCC unit as well.

  20. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Otsu, Elsbeth; Austin, Gregory L

    2015-11-01

    Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E.) 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01). There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09-2.90), but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use. PMID:26610562

  1. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Otsu, Elsbeth; Austin, Gregory L

    2015-11-20

    Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E.) 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01). There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09-2.90), but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use.

  2. Increasing physical activity levels in primary school physical education: The SHARP Principles Model

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Emma; Woodfield, Lorayne A.; Nevill, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year teaching intervention to increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during primary school physical education (PE). Methods: A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent group design involving four classes from two primary schools in the West Midlands, UK. In March 2014 schools were selected through purposive sampling to match schools in terms of size and demographics (baseline, n = 111: post-intervention, n = 95); data were collected from children in school years 3 and 4 (aged 7 to 9 years). The intervention involved developing teacher effectiveness through the SHARP Principles Model which was grounded in the Self Determination Theory (SDT), the Social Ecological Model (SEM) and three key ingredients from the Behaviour Change Taxonomy (BCT). MVPA was assessed at baseline and four weeks post-intervention using the System for Observing Fitness and Instruction Time (SOFIT). Four individual teacher interviews were conducted with the intervention school, to explore teachers' perceptions of the intervention. Results: A two-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) indicated large interaction effect sizes for time spent in MVPA (F(1, 27) = 11.07, p = 0.003, ηp2 = .316) and vigorous activity (VPA) (F = (1,27) = 8.557, p = .007, ηp2 = .263). PA in the intervention school increased significantly whereas in the control school MVPA remained relatively constant and VPA decreased. The qualitative findings revealed two main emergent themes: a paradigm shift and teacher's developing pedagogy. Conclusions: The intervention was effective in increasing MVPA in PE. Recommendations based on this evaluation would be for the SHARP Principles Model to be replicated and evaluated on a wider scale across a variety of contexts. PMID:26844179

  3. Increases in c-Yes expression level and activity promote motility but not proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Jane; Hodgkinson, Cassandra; Hogg, Alison; Dive, Caroline; Welman, Arkadiusz

    2007-09-01

    Increases in the levels and/or activity of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases c-Src and c-Yes are often associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. The physiological consequences of increased c-Yes activity during the early and late stages of tumorigenesis, in addition to the degree of redundancy between c-Yes and c-Src in colorectal cancer cells, remain elusive. To study the consequences of increases in c-Yes levels and activity in later stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, we developed human colorectal cancer cell lines in which c-Yes levels and activity can be inducibly increased by a tightly controlled expression of wild-type c-Yes or by constitutively active mutants of c-Yes, c-YesY537F, and c-Yes Delta t6aa. c-Yes induction resulted in increased cell motility but did not promote proliferation either in vitro or in vivo. These results suggest that in later stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, elevations in c-Yes levels/activity may promote cancer spread and metastasis rather than tumor growth.

  4. Grape pomace extract exerts antioxidant effects through an increase in GCS levels and GST activity in muscle and endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    GOUTZOURELAS, NIKOLAOS; STAGOS, DIMITRIOS; HOUSMEKERIDOU, ANASTASIA; KARAPOULIOU, CHRISTINA; KERASIOTI, EFTHALIA; ALIGIANNIS, NEKTARIOS; SKALTSOUNIS, ALEXIOS L; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M; KOURETAS, DEMETRIOS

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that a grape pomace extract (GPE) exerted antioxidant activity in endothelial (EA.hy926) and muscle (C2C12) cells through an increase in glutathione (GSH) levels. In the present study, in order to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the antioxidant activity of GPE, its effects on the expression of critical antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) were assessed in EA.hy926 and C2C12 cells. Moreover, the effects of GPE on CAT, SOD and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymatic activity were evaluated. For this purpose, the C2C12 and EA.hy926 cells were treated with GPE at low and non-cytotoxic concentrations (2.5 and 10 µg/ml for the C2C12 cells; 0.068 and 0.250 µg/ml for the EA.hy926 cells) for 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Following incubation, enzymatic expression and activity were assessed. The results revealed that treatment with GPE significantly increased GCS levels and GST activity in both the C2C12 and EA.hy926 cells. However, GPE significantly decreased CAT levels and activity, but only in the muscle cells, while it had no effect on CAT levels and activity in the endothelial cells. Moreover, treatment with GPE had no effect on HO-1 and SOD expression and activity in both cell lines. Therefore, the present results provide further evidence of the crucial role of GSH systems in the antioxidant effects exerted by GPE. Thus, GPE may prove to be effective for use as a food supplement for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced pathological conditions of the cardiovascular and skeletal muscle systems, particularly those associated with low GSH levels. PMID:26082074

  5. The Use of Refundable Tax Credits to Increase Low-Income Children's After-School Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Dunton, Genevieve; Ebin, Vicki J.; Efrat, Merav W.; Efrat, Rafael; Lane, Christianne J.; Plunkett, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates the extent to which a refundable tax credit could be used to increase low income children's after-school physical activity levels. Methods An experimental study was conducted evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention offering a simulated refundable tax credit to parents of elementary school-age children (n=130) for enrollment in after-school physical activity programs. A randomized-controlled design was used, with data collected at baseline, immediately following the four month intervention (post-intervention), and six-weeks after the end of the intervention (follow-up). Evaluation measures included: (a) enrollment rate, time spent, weekly participation frequency, duration of enrollment and long term enrollment patterns in after-school physical activity programs; and (b) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results The simulated tax credits did not significantly influence low- income children's rates of enrollment in after-school physical activity programs, frequency of participation, time spent in after-school physical activity programs, and overall moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity at post-intervention or follow-up. Conclusion The use of refundable tax credits as incentives to increase participation in after-school physical activity programs in low-income families may have limited effectiveness. Lawmakers might consider other methods of fiscal policy to promote physical activity such as direct payment to after-school physical activity program providers for enrolling and serving a low- income child in a qualified program, or improvements to programming and infrastructure. PMID:25184738

  6. Decreased paraoxonase1 activity and increased malondialdehyde and oxidative DNA damage levels in primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mumcu, Ugur Yilmaz; Kocer, Ibrahim; Ates, Orhan; Alp, H. Hakan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, paraoxonase1 (PON1) activity and 8-hydroxy 2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in the primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patient. Blood samples from 52 healthy individuals and 53 patients with POAG were analyzed for MDA and 8-OHdG by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) and PON1 by spectrophotometry. The data obtained were analyzed statistically. MDA levels were 10.46±8.4 and 4.70±1.79 µmol; PON1 levels were 121±39.55 and 161.62±60.22 U/mL; and 8-OHdG values were 1.32±0.53/106 dG and 0.47±0.27/106 dG in the POAG patients and the control group, respectively. The difference was significant in MDA levels, 8-OHdG levels and PON1 activity in POAG patients in comparison with controls (P<0.001). We concluded that the observed increase in MDA and 8-OHdG levels may be correlated with decreased PON1 activity. Oxidative stress plays an important role in glaucoma development. PMID:27803873

  7. Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus

    PubMed Central

    Spady, Blake L.; Watson, Sue-Ann; Chase, Tory J.; Munday, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm) on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19–25% and increased movement (number of line-crosses) by nearly 3 times compared to squid at present-day CO2. Squid vigilance and defensive behaviours were also altered by elevated CO2 with >80% of individuals choosing jet escape responses over defensive arm postures in response to a visual startle stimulus, compared with 50% choosing jet escape responses at control CO2. In addition, more escape responses were chosen over threat behaviours in body pattern displays at elevated CO2 and individuals were more than twice as likely to use ink as a defence strategy at 956 µatm CO2, compared with controls. Increased activity could lead to adverse effects on energy budgets as well as increasing visibility to predators. A tendency to respond to a stimulus with escape behaviours could increase survival, but may also be energetically costly and could potentially lead to more chases by predators compared with individuals that use defensive postures. These results demonstrate that projected future ocean acidification affects the behaviours of a tropical squid species. PMID:25326517

  8. Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus.

    PubMed

    Spady, Blake L; Watson, Sue-Ann; Chase, Tory J; Munday, Philip L

    2014-10-17

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm) on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19-25% and increased movement (number of line-crosses) by nearly 3 times compared to squid at present-day CO2. Squid vigilance and defensive behaviours were also altered by elevated CO2 with >80% of individuals choosing jet escape responses over defensive arm postures in response to a visual startle stimulus, compared with 50% choosing jet escape responses at control CO2. In addition, more escape responses were chosen over threat behaviours in body pattern displays at elevated CO2 and individuals were more than twice as likely to use ink as a defence strategy at 956 µatm CO2, compared with controls. Increased activity could lead to adverse effects on energy budgets as well as increasing visibility to predators. A tendency to respond to a stimulus with escape behaviours could increase survival, but may also be energetically costly and could potentially lead to more chases by predators compared with individuals that use defensive postures. These results demonstrate that projected future ocean acidification affects the behaviours of a tropical squid species.

  9. Propofol, but not etomidate, increases corticosterone levels and induces long-term alteration in hippocampal synaptic activity in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changqing; Seubert, Christoph N; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Martynyuk, Anatoly E

    2016-04-01

    Animal studies provide strong evidence that general anesthetics (GAs), administered during the early postnatal period, induce long-term cognitive and neurological abnormalities. Because the brain growth spurt in rodents is delayed compared to that in humans, a fundamental question is whether the postnatal human brain is similarly vulnerable. Sevoflurane and propofol, GAs that share positive modulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) function cause marked increase in corticosterone levels and induce long-term developmental alterations in synaptic activity in rodents. If synaptogenesis is affected, investigation of mechanisms of the synaptic effects of GAs is of high interest because synaptogenesis in humans continues for several years after birth. Here, we compared long-term synaptic effects of etomidate with those of propofol. Etomidate and propofol both positively modulate GABAAR activity, but in contrast to propofol, etomidate inhibits the adrenal synthesis of corticosterone. Postnatal day (P) 4, 5, or 6 rats received five injections of etomidate, propofol, or vehicle control during 5h of maternal separation. Endocrine effects of the anesthetics were evaluated by measuring serum levels of corticosterone immediately after anesthesia or maternal separation. The frequency and amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons were measured at P24-40 and P≥80. Only propofol caused a significant increase in serum corticosterone levels (F(4.26)=17.739, P<0.001). In contrast to increased frequency of mIPSCs in the propofol group (F(4.23)=8.731, p<0.001), mIPSC activity in the etomidate group was not different from that in the vehicle groups. The results of this study together with previously published data suggest that anesthetic-caused increase in corticosterone levels is required for GABAergic GAs to induce synaptic effects in the form of a long-term increase in the frequency of hippocampal mIPSCs.

  10. Ethylene-Induced Increase in Glutamine Synthetase Activity and mRNA Levels in Hevea brasiliensis Latex Cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pujade-Renaud, V.; Clement, A.; Perrot-Rechenmann, C.; Prevot, J. C.; Chrestin, H.; Jacob, J. L.; Guern, J.

    1994-01-01

    Ethylene, used as a stimulant of latex production in Hevea brasiliensis, significantly activates the regenerating metabolism within the laticiferous cells. In this context, attention was focused on glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2), a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism. A specific and significant activation of the cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GScyt) in the laticiferous cells after ethylene treatment parallels the increase of latex yield. A marked accumulation of the corresponding mRNA was found, but in contrast, a slight and variable increase of the polypeptide level is at the limit of detection by western blotting. The GS response to ethylene might be mediated by ammonia that increases in latex cytosol following ethylene treatment. The physiological significance for such a regulation by ethylene of the GScyt is discussed in terms of the nitrogen requirement for protein synthesis associated with latex regeneration. PMID:12232192

  11. Increased levels of brain serotonin correlated with MMP-9 activity and IL-4 levels resulted in severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M; Seo, J-E; Rahaman, K A; Kang, M-J; Jung, B-H; Kwon, O-S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of monoamine neurotransmitters on the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in obese mice. EAE was induced in mice with normal diets (ND-EAE) and obese mice with high-fat diets (HFD-EAE) through the immune response to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) (35-55). The levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in different anatomical brain regions were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The plasma and tissue NADPH oxidase and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 activities were analyzed by fluorescence spectrophotometry. The cumulative disease index and disease peaks were significantly higher in HFD-EAE compared with those in ND-EAE. Significantly higher 5-HT levels and lower 5-HT turnovers 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid ((5-HIAA)/5-HT) were found in the brains of HFD-EAE mice compared with those found in the HFD-CON and ND-EAE mice brains. Moreover, increased DA levels were observed in the caudate nucleus of the HFD-EAE mice compared with the control and ND-EAE mice. The NADPH oxidase and MMP-9 activities in the plasma and tissues were significantly higher in both the ND-EAE and HFD-EAE groups than in their respective controls. The cytokine levels in the plasma, tissues, and cultured splenocytes were found to be significantly altered in EAE mice compared with control mice. Moreover, HFD-EAE mice exhibited significantly higher MMP-9 activity and lower IL-4 levels than ND-EAE mice and were significantly correlated with brain 5-HT levels. In conclusion, the increased 5-HT levels in the brain significantly correlated with MMP-9 activity and IL-4 levels play an important role in the exacerbation of disease severity in HFD-EAE mice. PMID:26820599

  12. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes increase anxiety levels in rats and reduce exploratory activity in the open field test.

    PubMed

    Sayapina, N V; Batalova, T A; Chaika, V V; Kuznetsov, V L; Sergievich, A A; Kolosov, V P; Perel'man, Yu M; Golokhvast, K S

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first study on the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the exploratory activity and the emotional state in laboratory rats assessed by the open field test are reported. During three or ten days, rats received 8-10 nm MWNTs added to their food at a dose of 500 mg/kg. It was demonstrated that, in the group of rats which were fed with MWNTs, the integrated anxiety level index began to increase as early as the third day of the experiment; on the tenth day, it appeared to be twice increased. It was also demonstrated that MWNTs decreased the integrated exploratory activity index nearly twofold on the third day and nearly fourfold on the tenth day.

  13. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression levels in visceral adipose tissue, and serum CCL2 and interleukin-6 levels during visceral adipose tissue accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yogarajah, Thaneswary; Bee, Yvonne-Tee Get; Noordin, Rahmah; Yin, Khoo Boon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in visceral adipose tissue, as well as serum adipokine levels, in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed either a normal (control rats) or excessive (experimental rats) intake of food for 8 or 16 weeks, then sacrificed, at which time visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, as well as blood samples, were collected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARs in the visceral adipose tissues were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, the levels of adipokines in the serum samples were determined using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that at 8 weeks, the mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue was higher than that of the visceral adipose tissue in the experimental rats, but the reverse occurred at 16 weeks. Furthermore, at 16 weeks the experimental rats exhibited an upregulation of PPARγ mRNA and protein expression levels in the visceral adipose tissues, and significant increases in the serum levels of CCL2 and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed, compared with those measured at 8 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the PPARγ expression level was likely correlated with serum levels of CCL2 and IL-6, molecules that may facilitate visceral adipose tissue accumulation. In addition, the levels of the two adipokines in the serum may be useful as surrogate biomarkers for the expression levels of PPARγ in accumulated visceral adipose tissues.

  14. Developing the intervention material to increase physical activity levels of European preschool children: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    Duvinage, K; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; Androutsos, O; Lateva, M; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Zych, K; Mouratidou, T; Mesana Graffe, M I; Manios, Y; Koletzko, B

    2014-08-01

    Early childhood is an important period for adopting positive health-related behaviours. More than 95% of European preschool children attend kindergartens, making these settings ideal for the implementation of health promotion interventions. The ToyBox-intervention addressed preschool children, their parents/caregivers and teachers. The aim of the intervention was to improve four energy balance-related behaviours (i.e. healthy snacking, water consumption, physical activity and sedentary behaviour) by implementing a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). The intervention material was developed following the intervention mapping protocol, taking into account local and cultural differences among the intervention countries. The present paper focuses on the development of the physical activity component of the intervention. Parental involvement was addressed by providing parents/caregivers with two newsletters, two tip cards and a poster. Teachers received a handbook with guidance on environmental changes in the classroom, 26 physical education sessions and suggestions for fun, interactive classroom activities aiming at total class participation to increase preschoolers' physical activity levels. The ToyBox-intervention material was distributed according to a standard time frame. Teachers received their material prior to the start of the intervention and parents/caregivers received their material during the intervention when each energy balance-related behaviour was implemented. PMID:25047376

  15. Developing the intervention material to increase physical activity levels of European preschool children: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    Duvinage, K; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; Androutsos, O; Lateva, M; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Zych, K; Mouratidou, T; Mesana Graffe, M I; Manios, Y; Koletzko, B

    2014-08-01

    Early childhood is an important period for adopting positive health-related behaviours. More than 95% of European preschool children attend kindergartens, making these settings ideal for the implementation of health promotion interventions. The ToyBox-intervention addressed preschool children, their parents/caregivers and teachers. The aim of the intervention was to improve four energy balance-related behaviours (i.e. healthy snacking, water consumption, physical activity and sedentary behaviour) by implementing a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). The intervention material was developed following the intervention mapping protocol, taking into account local and cultural differences among the intervention countries. The present paper focuses on the development of the physical activity component of the intervention. Parental involvement was addressed by providing parents/caregivers with two newsletters, two tip cards and a poster. Teachers received a handbook with guidance on environmental changes in the classroom, 26 physical education sessions and suggestions for fun, interactive classroom activities aiming at total class participation to increase preschoolers' physical activity levels. The ToyBox-intervention material was distributed according to a standard time frame. Teachers received their material prior to the start of the intervention and parents/caregivers received their material during the intervention when each energy balance-related behaviour was implemented.

  16. Vanadium compounds modulate PPARγ activity primarily by increasing PPARγ protein levels in mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pan; Yang, Xiaoda

    2013-06-01

    Vanadium compounds are promising agents in the therapeutic treatment of diabetes; however, their mechanism of action has not been clearly elucidated. The current study investigated the effects of vanadium compounds, vanadyl acetylacetonate [V(IV)O(acac)2] and sodium metavanadate (NaV(V)O3), on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), especially PPARγ, which are important targets of anti-diabetic drugs. Our experimental results revealed that treatment of NIT-1 β-pancreas cells with vanadium compounds resulted in PPARγ activation and elevation of PPARγ protein levels. Vanadium compounds did not increase PPARγ transcription but ameliorated PPARγ degradation induced by inflammatory stimulators TNF-α/IL-6. Vanadium compounds induced binding of PPARγ to heat shock protein (Hsp60). This PPARγ-Hsp60 interaction might cause inhibition of PPARγ degradation, thus elevating the PPARγ level. In addition, modulation of PPARγ phosphorylation was also observed upon vanadium treatment. The present work demonstrated for the first time that vanadium compounds are novel PPARγ modulators. The results may provide new insights for the mechanism of anti-diabetic action of vanadium compounds.

  17. Systems-level analysis of proteolytic events in increased vascular permeability and complement activation in skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Prudova, Anna; Eckhard, Ulrich; Fingleton, Barbara; Overall, Christopher M

    2013-01-15

    During inflammation, vascular permeability is increased by various proteolytic events, such as the generation of bradykinin, that augment local tissue responses by enabling tissue penetration of serum proteins, including complement and acute-phase proteins. Proteases also govern inflammatory responses by processing extracellular matrix proteins and soluble bioactive mediators. We quantified changes in the proteome and the nature of protein amino termini (the N-terminome) and the altered abundance of murine proteases and inhibitors during skin inflammation. Through analysis of the N-terminome by iTRAQ-TAILS, we identified cotranslational and posttranslational αN-acetylation motifs, quantitative increases in protein abundance, and qualitative changes in the proteolytic signature during inflammation. Of the proteins identified in normal skin, about half were cleaved, and phorbol ester-induced inflammation increased the proportion of cleaved proteins, including chemokines and complement proteins, that were processed at previously uncharacterized sites. In response to phorbol ester-induced inflammation, mice deficient in matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) showed reduced accumulation of serum proteins in the skin and exhibited different proteolytic networks from those of wild-type mice. We found that the complement 1 (C1) inhibitor attenuated the increase in serum protein accumulation in inflamed skin. Cleavage and inactivation of the C1 inhibitor by MMP2 increased complement activation and bradykinin generation in wild-type mice, leading to increased vessel permeability during inflammation, which was diminished in Mmp2(-/-) mice. Thus, our systems-level analysis of proteolysis dissected cleavage events associated with skin inflammation and demonstrated that loss of a single protease could perturb the proteolytic signaling network and enhance inflammation.

  18. Increased serum levels of soluble l-selectin (CD62L) in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

    PubMed Central

    Font, J; Pizcueta, P; Ramos-Casals, M; Cervera, R; García-Carrasco, M; Navarro, M; Ingelmo, M; Engel, P

    2000-01-01

    The adhesion molecule l-selectin (CD62L) mediates lymphocyte recirculation and leucocyte rolling on vascular endothelium at sites of inflammation. Serum levels of soluble l-selectin (sl-selectin) were measured in patients with SLE in order to relate these levels to clinical activity and immunological parameters. An ELISA was used to detect the soluble form of human l-selectin (CD62L) in 42 patients with SLE and in 33 healthy individuals. The mean ± s.e.m. values of sl-selectin were 1285 ± 121 ng/ml for patients with SLE and 986 ± 180 ng/ml for healthy blood donors, but there was no significant difference. When patients with active SLE were analysed, higher levels of circulating sl-selectin were found when compared with patients without activity (1497 ± 167 ng/ml versus 941 ± 150 ng/ml; P = 0.028). We found a significant correlation between the levels of sl-selectin and of dsDNA antibodies (r = 0.36, P = 0.044) and between levels of sl-selectin and SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score (r = 0.42, P = 0.003). Patients with active SLE studied cross-sectionally showed significant elevations of sl-selectin (CD62L) compared with controls. Thus, the levels of this soluble adhesion molecule correlated with active disease and levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies. PMID:10606979

  19. Circulating interferon-α2 levels are increased in the majority of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and are associated with disease activity and multiple cytokine activation.

    PubMed

    Becker-Merok, A; Østli-Eilersten, G; Lester, S; Nossent, Jc

    2013-02-01

    Mutations in interferon (IFN) regulatory factor genes and the biological activity of type I IFN on expression of specific genes that are induced by IFN have been associated with various aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Circulating levels of IFN-α in SLE has not been extensively studied because of limited sensitivity of available ELISA assays. We performed a cross-sectional case-control study where circulating levels of IFN-α2 were measured by a highly sensitive, solution phase multiplex magnetized bead assay and investigated the relation of IFN-α2 with autoantibody profiles, clinical disease activity and levels of inflammatory cytokines in SLE patients (n = 87). Cytokine levels were determined on stored sera aliquots with cut-off levels determined by the geometric mean + 2SD in healthy controls (n = 27). IFN-α2 levels were increased in 64% of SLE patients, who displayed more renal disease and higher disease activity (p = 0.06) and had a significantly higher sum of activated cytokines (median 4.5, range 7) compared to patients with normal IFN-α2 (median one, range 3; p < 0.001). Solution phase micro-bead assay thus identified increased IFN-α2 levels in two-thirds of SLE patients with longstanding disease. The association with clinical disease and activation of multiple inflammatory cytokines supports a role for IFN-α2 in disease perpetuation in a large subset of SLE patients.

  20. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate enhances the phase II enzyme activities via the increase in intranuclear Nrf2 level and cytosolic p21 level.

    PubMed

    Yaku, Keisuke; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Azuma, Hideki; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    (1'S)-acetoxychavicol acetate ((S)-ACA) exhibits chemopreventive effects on chemically induced tumor formation. It has been shown that ACA inhibited the development of azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis through its suppression of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa and its induction of glutathione S-transferase and quinone oxidoreductase 1 in vivo. In this study, we investigated how ACA induced these enzymes by using rat intestine epithelial cells (IEC6) in vitro. ACA induced glutathione S-transferase (GST) and NAD (P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activities, increased intracellular glutathione (GSH) level, and upregulated intranuclear Nrf2 and cytosolic p21. It suggested that activation of phase II enzymes via Nrf2 associated with p21 is one of possible mechanisms of ACA to prevent advance of carcinogenesis.

  1. Effect of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced increases in ascorbic acid levels on tissue. beta. -glucuronidase activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Barrett, T.J.; Leonard, D.A.; Horton, H.M.; Kenyon, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The interrelationship between tissue ascorbic acid levels and tissue ..beta..-glucuronidase activity was examined in rats injected with 3-methylcholanthrene, an agent which induces ascorbic acid synthesis in rats. Six Fisher 344 rats were dosed intraperitoneally (IP) with 30 mg/kg of 3-methylcholanthrene. Ascorbic acid levels and ..beta..-glucuronidase (..beta..-G) activity were determined for lung, liver and kidney tissues. In a follow-up study, rats were dosed for three consecutive days with 3-methylcholanthrene. Controls in both groups were dosed IP with Emulphor (EL-620). Animals were sacrificed one week after the final dosage and lung, liver and kidney tissues were examined.

  2. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Barwais, Faisal A.; Cuddihy, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™) was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years) were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor and the 7-day SLIPA Log at both baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 h/day; p < 0.001) was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 h/day) and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 h/day). Consequent to the changes in sedentary time, significant increases were found in the amount of time spent in light- (45% (2.6 h/day), p < 0.001), moderate- (33% (1 h/day) p < 0.001), vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% (0.16 h/day), p < 0.001), and energy expenditure (47% (216.7 kcal/day), p < 0.001). Conclusion: This monitor contributes to a meaningful reduction in time spent in sedentary activities and has a large effect on energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. PMID:25568971

  3. Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors increases intracellular cAMP levels via activation of AC1 in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qing; Yakel, Jerrel L.

    2015-01-01

    The activation of α7 nAChRs has been shown to improve hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. However, the molecular mechanism of α7 nAChRs’ action remains elusive. We previously reported that activation of α7 nAChRs induced a prolonged enhancement of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in a PKA-dependent manner. Here, we investigated any connection between the activation of the α7 nAChR and cAMP signaling in hippocampal neurons. To address this question, we employed a FRET-based biosensor to measure the intracellular cAMP levels directly via live cell imaging. We found that application of the α7 nAChR-selective agonist choline, in the presence of the α7 nAChR positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596, induced a significant change in emission ratio of F535/F470, which indicated an increase in intracellular cAMP levels. This choline-induced increase was abolished by the α7 nAChR antagonist MLA and the calcium chelator BAPTA, suggesting that the cAMP increase depends on the α7 nAChR activation and subsequent intracellular calcium rise. The selective AC1 inhibitor CB-6673567 and siRNA-mediated deletion of AC1 both blocked the choline-induced cAMP increase, suggesting that calcium-dependent AC1 is required for choline’s action. Furthermore, α7 nAChR activation stimulated the phosphorylation of synapsin, which serves as a downstream effector to regulate neurotransmitter release. Our findings provide the first direct evidence to link activation of α7 nAChRs to a cAMP rise via AC1, which defines a new signaling pathway employed by α7 nAChRs. Our study sheds light into potential molecular mechanisms of the positive cognitive actions of α7 nAChR agonists and development of therapeutic treatments for cognitive impairments. PMID:25937212

  4. Chewing activities and particle size of rumen digesta and feces of precision-fed dairy heifers fed different forage levels with increasing levels of distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Lascano, G J; Heinrichs, A J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 2 differing forage to concentrate ratios (F:C) and various levels of corn dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) replacing canola meal in precision-fed dairy heifer rations on chewing behavior, rumen pH and fill, and particle size of rumen contents and feces. A split plot design with F:C as whole plot and DDGS inclusion level as subplot was administered in a 4-period 4 × 4 Latin square. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (12.5±0.5 mo of age and 344±15 kg of body weight, respectively) housed in individual stalls were allocated to F:C 50:50 (low forage) or 75:25 [high forage (HF); dry matter basis] and to a sequence of DDGS level (0, 7, 14, and 21%; dry matter basis). Forage was a mix of 50% corn silage and 50% grass hay (dry matter basis). Diets were fed once daily and formulated to provide equal amounts of nutrients and body weight gain. No differences were found for rumen pH between dietary treatments. Time spent eating tended to be longer for HF and was not affected by DDGS inclusion rate. Ruminating time did not differ by F:C, but linearly increased as DDGS increased (422 to 450±21 min/d). Total chewing time tended to be longer for HF and to increase linearly as DDGS increased (553 to 579±33 min/d). Wet rumen digesta weight and volume were greater for HF. Geometric mean particle length of rumen contents was greater for HF 2h prefeeding when analyzed with solubles (particles <0.15 mm). Proportion of rumen solubles decreased as DDGS increased 5h postfeeding. Fecal geometric mean particle length and proportion of particles >1.18 mm increased with increasing levels of DDGS and did not change with F:C. Total chewing time increased by the addition of DDGS and higher F:C. Heifers can compensate for lower physically effective neutral detergent fiber by modifying their chewing behavior. Rumen pH was never at a level that could induce acidosis, and lower eating time at lower F:C was somewhat

  5. Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to increase European preschool children's physical activity levels: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2014-08-01

    Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers.

  6. Reduced activity of CD13/aminopeptidase N (APN) in aggressive meningiomas is associated with increased levels of SPARC.

    PubMed

    Mawrin, Christian; Wolke, Carmen; Haase, Daniela; Krüger, Sabine; Firsching, Raimund; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Paulus, Werner; Gutmann, David H; Lal, Anita; Lendeckel, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Meningiomas are the second most common brain tumors in adults, and meningiomas exhibit a tendency to invade adjacent structures. Compared with high-grade gliomas, little is known about the molecular changes that potentially underlie the invasive behavior of meningiomas. In this study, we examined the expression and function of the membrane alanyl-aminopeptidase [mAAP, aminopeptidase N (APN), CD13, EC3.4.11.2] zinc-dependent ectopeptidase in meningiomas and meningioma cell lines, based on its prior association with tumor invasion in colorectal and renal carcinomas. We found a significant reduction of APNmRNA and protein expression, as well as enzymatic activity, in high-grade meningiomas. While meningioma tumor cell proliferation was not affected by either pharmacologic APN inhibition or siRNA-mediated APN silencing, APN pharmacologic and siRNA knockdown significantly reduced meningioma cell invasion in vitro. Next, we employed pathway-specific cDNA microarray analyses to identify extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules regulated by APN, and found that APN-siRNA knockdown substantially increased the expression of secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)/osteonectin. Finally, we demonstrated that SPARC, which has been previously associated with meningioma invasiveness, was increased in aggressive meningiomas. Collectively, these results suggest that APN expression and enzymatic function is reduced in aggressive meningiomas, and that alterations in the balance between APN and SPARC might favor meningioma invasion.

  7. Elastase levels and activity are increased in dystrophic muscle and impair myoblast cell survival, proliferation and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Arecco, N.; Clarke, C. J.; Jones, F. K.; Simpson, D. M.; Mason, D.; Beynon, R. J.; Pisconti, A.

    2016-01-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, progressive loss of muscle tissue is accompanied by fibrosis, chronic inflammation and reduced muscle regenerative capacity. Although much is known about the development of fibrosis and chronic inflammation in muscular dystrophy, less is known about how they are mechanistically linked to loss of muscle regenerative capacity. We have developed a proteomics method to discover dystrophy-associated changes in the muscle progenitor cell niche, which identified serine proteases, and especially neutrophil elastase, as candidates. We show that elastase activity is increased in dystrophic (mdx4cv) muscle and impairs myoblast survival in culture. While the effect of elastase on C2C12 cell survival correlates with the kinetics of elastase-mediated degradation of the substrate to which the cells adhere, the effect of elastase on satellite cell-derived primary myoblast growth and differentiation is substrate-independent and even more dramatic than the effect on C2C12 cells, suggesting a detrimental role for elastase on myogenesis in vivo. Additionally, elastase impairs differentiation of both primary and C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. Our findings evidence the importance of neutrophil-mediated inflammation in muscular dystrophy and indicate elastase-mediated regulation of myoblast behaviour as a potential mechanism underlying loss of regenerative capacity in dystrophic muscle. PMID:27241590

  8. The Risk Is That There Is "No Risk": A Simple, Innovative Intervention to Increase Children's Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Anita C.; Luckett, Tim; Tranter, Paul J.; Naughton, Geraldine A.; Wyver, Shirley R.; Ragen, Jo; Spies, Greta

    2009-01-01

    School playgrounds offer everyday opportunities for physically active and social play that combats obesity, develops skills, and promotes well-being. However, teachers' fear of the legal consequences of injury can elicit over-zealous risk reduction with the result that playgrounds lack challenge, and the potential benefits of play become limited.…

  9. Increased metalloprotease activity in the epileptogenic lesion--Lobectomy reduces metalloprotease activity and urokinase-type uPAR circulating levels.

    PubMed

    Quirico-Santos, Thereza; Nascimento Mello, Angélica; Casimiro Gomes, Aline; de Carvalho, Lian Pontes; de Souza, Jorge Marcondes; Alves-Leon, Soniza

    2013-11-13

    Inflammation influences the pathogenesis of seizures by boosting neuronal degeneration of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS). This work aimed to determine the activity of metalloproteases (MMPs) in brain tissue fragments of TLE-HS patients and the effect of lobectomy on circulating inflammatory biomarkers. Surgical fragments (n=4) from epileptogenic focus (EF) e perilesion area (PL), and control hippocampus from autopsy (n=5) were processed for glial protein (GFAP), activated microglia (IB4) immunohistochemistry, and metalloprotease activity (MMP-2, -9). Perilesional area showed GFAP positive cells with morphology of activate astrocyte and reactive gliosis nearby the lesion. In the lesion foci, astrocytes had altered cytoarchitecture with disorganized stroma suggestive of necrosis, and numerous mononuclear cells with few projections and morphological characteristics of activate microglia. Analysis of MMP-9 and MMP-2 in the sera before and after hippocampectomy confirmed the inflammatory pattern of TLE-HS, with high MMP-9 activity; high MMP-9/TIMP-1 and urokinase uPAR plasma levels before lobectomy but low after surgery. Maintenance of MMP-2 activity indicates persistent tissue remodeling in both groups. The present work shows that patients with chronic and medically intractable TLE-HS that undergone amigdalo-hippocampectomy for removal of epileptogenic lesion had a clinical enduring benefit of lack seizure recurrence for up to a year, and consistent reduction of proteases (MMP-9 and uPAR) activation that participate as important inflammatory epileptogenic inducers.

  10. Increased mRNA levels for components of the lysosomal, Ca2+-activated, and ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathways in skeletal muscle from head trauma patients.

    PubMed Central

    Mansoor, O; Beaufrere, B; Boirie, Y; Ralliere, C; Taillandier, D; Aurousseau, E; Schoeffler, P; Arnal, M; Attaix, D

    1996-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms responsible for enhanced muscle protein breakdown in hospitalized patients, which frequently results in lean body wasting, are unknown. To determine whether the lysosomal, Ca2+-activated, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathways are activated, we measured mRNA levels for components of these processes in muscle biopsies from severe head trauma patients. These patients exhibited negative nitrogen balance and increased rates of whole-body protein breakdown (assessed by [13C]leucine infusion) and of myofibrillar protein breakdown (assessed by 3-methylhistidine urinary excretion). Increased muscle mRNA levels for cathepsin D, m-calpain, and critical components of the ubiquitin proteolytic pathway (i.e., ubiquitin, the 14-kDa ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, and proteasome subunits) paralleled these metabolic adaptations. The data clearly support a role for multiple proteolytic processes in increased muscle proteolysis. The ubiquitin proteolytic pathway could be activated by altered glucocorticoid production and/or increased circulating levels of interleukin 1beta and interleukin 6 observed in head trauma patients and account for the breakdown of myofibrillar proteins, as was recently reported in animal studies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8610106

  11. Propolis Reduces Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C Activity and Increases Annexin a7 Level in Oxidized-LDL-Stimulated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Hongzhuan; Li, Zhen; Wang, Jiying; Fu, Chongluo; Yuan, Jianlong; Hu, Fuliang

    2014-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms underlying the regulating dyslipidemia action of Chinese propolis and Brazilian green propolis, we investigated their effects on phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activity and annexin a7 (ANXA7) level which play crucial roles in the control of the progress of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, active oxygen species (ROS) levels, nuclear factor-KappaB p65 (NF-κB p65), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were also investigated in oxidized-LDL- (ox-LDL-) stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data indicated that the treatment of both types of propolis 12.5 μg/mL significantly increased cell viability and attenuated apoptosis rate, increased ANXA7 level, and decreased PC-PLC activity. Both types of propolis also inhibited ROS generation as well as the subsequent MMP collapse, and NF-κB p65 activation induced by ox-LDL in HUVECs. Our results also indicated that Chinese propolis and Brazilian green propolis had similar biological activities and prevented ox-LDL induced cellular dysfunction in HUVECs. PMID:24864152

  12. Effects of a diet containing Brazilian propolis on lipopolysaccharide-induced increases in plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohkura, Naoki; Oishi, Katsutaka; Kihara-Negishi, Fumiko; Atsumi, Gen-ichi; Tatefuji, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brazilian propolis has many biological activities including the ability to help prevent thrombotic diseases, but this particular effect has not been proven. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), an inhibitor of fibrinolysis, increase under inflammatory conditions such as infection, obesity and atherosclerosis and such elevated levels predispose individuals to a risk of developing thrombotic diseases. Aim: This study aimed to determine the effects of a diet containing Brazilian propolis on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increases in plasma PAI-1 levels. Materials and Methods: Mice were fed with a diet containing 0.5% (w/w) Brazilian propolis for 8 weeks. Thereafter, the mice were subcutaneously injected with saline containing 0.015 mg/kg of LPS and sacrificed 4 h later. Results: Orally administered Brazilian propolis significantly suppressed the LPS-induced increase in PAI-1 antigen and its activity in mouse plasma. Conclusion: This study indicated that Brazilian propolis contains natural products that can decrease thrombotic tendencies in mice. PMID:27757277

  13. Increased iPLA2 activity and levels of phosphorylated GSK3B in platelets are associated with donepezil treatment in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Talib, L L; Hototian, S R; Joaquim, H P G; Forlenza, O V; Gattaz, W F

    2015-12-01

    Reduced phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3B (GSK3B) participate in the production of beta-amyloid plaques and of neurofibrillary tangles, which are two neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Experimental evidences suggest a neuroprotective effect of the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil in the treatment the disease. The aims of the present study were to evaluate in AD patients the effects of treatment with donepezil on PLA2 activity and GSK3B level. Thirty patients with AD were treated during 6 months with 10 mg daily of donepezil. Radio-enzymatic assays were used to measure PLA2 activity and Elisa assays for GSK3B level, both in platelets. Before treatment and after 3 and 6 months on donepezil, AD patients underwent a cognitive assessment and platelet samples were collected. Values were compared to a healthy control group of 42 sex- and age-matched elderly individuals. Before treatment, iPLA2 activity was lower in patients with AD as compared to controls (p < 0.001). At baseline, no differences were found in GSK3B level between both groups. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, we found a significant increase in iPLA2 activity (p = 0.015 and p < 0.001, respectively). iPLA2 increment was related to the cognitive improvement during treatment (p = 0.037). After 6 months, we found an increase in phosphorylated GSK3B (p = 0.02). The present findings suggest two possible mechanisms by which donepezil delays the progression of AD. The increment of iPLA2 activity may reduce the production of beta-amyloid plaques, whereas the phosphorylation of GSK3B inactivates the enzyme, reducing thus the phosphorylation of tau protein. PMID:25920742

  14. Increased iPLA2 activity and levels of phosphorylated GSK3B in platelets are associated with donepezil treatment in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Talib, L L; Hototian, S R; Joaquim, H P G; Forlenza, O V; Gattaz, W F

    2015-12-01

    Reduced phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3B (GSK3B) participate in the production of beta-amyloid plaques and of neurofibrillary tangles, which are two neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Experimental evidences suggest a neuroprotective effect of the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil in the treatment the disease. The aims of the present study were to evaluate in AD patients the effects of treatment with donepezil on PLA2 activity and GSK3B level. Thirty patients with AD were treated during 6 months with 10 mg daily of donepezil. Radio-enzymatic assays were used to measure PLA2 activity and Elisa assays for GSK3B level, both in platelets. Before treatment and after 3 and 6 months on donepezil, AD patients underwent a cognitive assessment and platelet samples were collected. Values were compared to a healthy control group of 42 sex- and age-matched elderly individuals. Before treatment, iPLA2 activity was lower in patients with AD as compared to controls (p < 0.001). At baseline, no differences were found in GSK3B level between both groups. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, we found a significant increase in iPLA2 activity (p = 0.015 and p < 0.001, respectively). iPLA2 increment was related to the cognitive improvement during treatment (p = 0.037). After 6 months, we found an increase in phosphorylated GSK3B (p = 0.02). The present findings suggest two possible mechanisms by which donepezil delays the progression of AD. The increment of iPLA2 activity may reduce the production of beta-amyloid plaques, whereas the phosphorylation of GSK3B inactivates the enzyme, reducing thus the phosphorylation of tau protein.

  15. Angiotensin II increases mRNA levels of all TGF-beta isoforms in quiescent and activated rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Alvarez, Paola; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; Briones-Orta, Marco A; González-Espinosa, Claudia; Medina-Tamayo, Jaciel; Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Macías-Silva, Marina

    2010-10-01

    AII (angiotensin II) is a vasoactive peptide that plays an important role in the development of liver fibrosis mainly by regulating profibrotic cytokine expression such as TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta). Activated HSCs (hepatic stellate cells) are the major cell type responsible for ECM (extracellular matrix) deposition during liver fibrosis and are also a target for AII and TGF-beta actions. Here, we studied the effect of AII on the mRNA levels of TGF-beta isoforms in primary cultures of rat HSCs. Both quiescent and activated HSCs were stimulated with AII for different time periods, and mRNA levels of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 isoforms were evaluated using RNaseI protection assay. The mRNA levels of all TGF-beta isoforms, particularly TGF-beta2and TGF-beta3, were increased after AII treatment in activated HSCs. In addition, activated HSCs were able to produce active TGF-beta protein after AII treatment. The mRNA expression of TGF-beta isoforms induced by AII required both ERK1/2 and Nox (NADPH oxidase) activation but not PKC (protein kinase C) participation. ERK1/2 activation induced by AII occurs via AT1 receptors, but independently of either PKC and Nox activation or EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) transactivation. Interestingly, AII has a similar effect on TGF-beta expression in quiescent HSCs, although it has a smaller but significant effect on ERK1/2 activation in these cells.

  16. Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia — significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway

    PubMed Central

    Schwieler, Lilly; Larsson, Markus K.; Skogh, Elisabeth; Kegel, Magdalena E.; Orhan, Funda; Abdelmoaty, Sally; Finn, Anja; Bhat, Maria; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with brain immune activation. While a number of reports suggest increased cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on peripheral cytokines or confounded by various antipsychotic treatments. Here, well-characterized patients with schizophrenia, all receiving olanzapine treatment, and healthy volunteers were analyzed with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines. We correlated the CSF cytokine levels to previously analyzed metabolites of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Methods We analyzed the CSF from patients and controls using electrochemiluminescence detection with regard to cytokines. Cell culture media from human cortical astrocytes were analyzed for KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) using high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results We included 23 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients with schizophrenia had increased CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared with healthy volunteers. In patients, we also observed a positive correlation between IL-6 and the tryptophan:KYNA ratio, indicating that IL-6 activates the KYN pathway. In line with this, application of IL-6 to cultured human astrocytes increased cell medium concentration of KYNA. Limitations The CSF samples had been frozen and thawed twice before analysis of cytokines. Median age differed between patients and controls. When appropriate, all present analyses were adjusted for age. Conclusion We have shown that IL-6, KYN and KYNA are elevated in patients with chronic schizophrenia, strengthening the idea of brain immune activation in patients with this disease. Our concurrent cell culture and clinical findings suggest that IL-6 induces the KYN pathway, leading to increased production of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25455350

  17. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  18. Enhancing sucrose synthase activity in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers results in increased levels of starch, ADPglucose and UDPglucose and total yield.

    PubMed

    Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Muñoz, Francisco José; Montero, Manuel; Etxeberria, Ed; Sesma, María Teresa; Ovecka, Miroslav; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Ezquer, Ignacio; Li, Jun; Prat, Salomé; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2009-09-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is a highly regulated cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of sucrose and a nucleoside diphosphate into the corresponding nucleoside diphosphate glucose and fructose. To determine the impact of SuSy activity in starch metabolism and yield in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers we measured sugar levels and enzyme activities in tubers of SuSy-overexpressing potato plants grown in greenhouse and open field conditions. We also transcriptionally characterized tubers of SuSy-overexpressing and -antisensed potato plants. SuSy-overexpressing tubers exhibited a substantial increase in starch, UDPglucose and ADPglucose content when compared with controls. Tuber dry weight, starch content per plant and total yield of SuSy-overexpressing tubers increased significantly over those of control plants. In contrast, activities of enzymes directly involved in starch metabolism in SuSy-overexpressing tubers were normal when compared with controls. Transcriptomic analyses using POCI arrays and the MapMan software revealed that changes in SuSy activity affect the expression of genes involved in multiple biological processes, but not that of genes directly involved in starch metabolism. These analyses also revealed a reverse correlation between the expressions of acid invertase and SuSy-encoding genes, indicating that the balance between SuSy- and acid invertase-mediated sucrolytic pathways is a major determinant of starch accumulation in potato tubers. Results presented in this work show that SuSy strongly determines the intracellular levels of UDPglucose, ADPglucose and starch, and total yield in potato tubers. We also show that enhancement of SuSy activity represents a useful strategy for increasing starch accumulation and yield in potato tubers.

  19. Nobiletin, a flavone from Citrus depressa, induces gene expression and increases the protein level and activity of neprilysin in SK-N-SH cells.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hironori; Kimura, Junko; Sakamoto, Masahiro; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Murata, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Kikuji; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2014-05-01

    Neprilysin (NEP) is one of the candidate amyloid β protein (Aβ) degrading enzymes affecting brain Aβ clearance. This enzyme declines in the brain with age, which leads to the increased Aβ deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pharmacological activation of NEP during the aging process, therefore, represents a potential strategy to prevent the development of AD. To examine the influence of nobiletin on neprilysin activity, we measured cellular NEP activity in SK-N-SH cells. Moreover, NEP expression was examined by using reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Measurement of cellular NEP activity showed that nobiletin stimulated this in a dose- and time-dependent manner in SK-N-SH cells. Moreover, nobiletin increased the expression of NEP mRNA, and then the levels of NEP protein, also in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Our findings showed that nobiletin promoted NEP gene and protein expression, resulting in enhancement of cellular NEP activity in SK-N-SH cells. This compound could be a novel Aβ-degrading compound for use in the development of disease-modifying drugs to prevent and (or) cure AD.

  20. T. vaginalis Infection Is Associated with Increased IL-8 and TNFr1 Levels but with the Absence of CD38 and HLADR Activation in the Cervix of ESN

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Kirsten E.; Plants, Jill; Landay, Alan L.; Ghassemi, Mahmood; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Spear, Greg T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Trichomonas vaginalis infection is associated with an increased risk of HIV infection in exposed-seronegative women (ESN) despite their unique immune quiescent profile. It is important to understand possible mechanisms, such as recruitment of activated T cells, by which T. vaginalis could facilitate HIV infection in this population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study exploring the relationships between T. vaginalis infection, inflammatory markers and T cell activation in the cervix of ESN. During scheduled study visits, participants completed a behavioral questionnaire and physical exam, including sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening and collection of endocervical sponge and cytobrush specimens. T cell and monocyte phenotypes were measured in cervical cytobrush specimens using multi-parameter flow cytometry. Cervical sponge specimens were used to measure cytokines (IL-6, IL-8,IL-10, IP-10, RANTES) using Luminex immunoassays and the immune activation marker soluble TNF receptor 1 using ELISA. Results Specimens of 65 women were tested. Twenty-one of these women were infected with T. vaginalis. T. vaginalis infection was associated with significantly increased concentrations of IL-8 (1275pg/ml vs. 566pg/ml, p=.02) and sTNFr1 (430 pg/ml vs. 264 pg/ml, p=.005). However, T. vaginalis infection was not associated with increased percent expression of CCR5+ T cells nor increased CD38 and HLADR activation compared to uninfected women. It was also not associated with increased expression of CCR5+ monocytes. Conclusions Among ESN T. vaginalis infection is associated with increased levels of genital pro-inflammatory/immune activation markers IL-8 and TNFr1, but was not associated with an increased percentage of activated endocervical T cells along the CD38 and HLADR pathways. Thus, while T.vaginalis infection may result in some reversal of the immune quiescent profile of ESN, enhanced recruitment of activated CD38 and HLADR expressing CD4+ cells

  1. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway and increased levels of insulin receptor in protein repair-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Christine; Houser, Carolyn R; Clarke, Steven

    2005-02-01

    Protein L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyses the repair of isoaspartyl damage in proteins. Mice lacking this enzyme (Pcmt1-/- mice) have a progressive increase in brain size compared with wild-type mice (Pcmt1+/+ mice), a phenotype that can be associated with alterations in the PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway. Here we show that components of this pathway, including Akt, GSK3beta and PDK-1, are more highly phosphorylated in the brains of Pcmt1-/- mice, particularly in cells of the hippocampus, in comparison with Pcmt1+/+ mice. Examination of upstream elements of this pathway in the hippocampus revealed that Pcmt1-/- mice have increased activation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor and/or insulin receptor. Western blot analysis revealed an approximate 200% increase in insulin receptor protein levels and an approximate 50% increase in IGF-I receptor protein levels in the hippocampus of Pcmt1-/- mice. Higher levels of the insulin receptor protein were also found in other regions of the adult brain and in whole tissue extracts of brain, liver, heart and testes of both juvenile and adult Pcmt1-/- mice. There were no significant differences in plasma insulin levels for adult Pcmt1-/- mice during glucose tolerance tests. However, they did show higher peak levels of blood glucose, suggesting a mild impairment in glucose tolerance. We propose that Pcmt1-/- mice have altered regulation of the insulin pathway, possibly as a compensatory response to altered glucose uptake or metabolism or as an adaptive response to a general accumulation of isoaspartyl protein damage in the brain and other tissues.

  2. High Levels of 17β-Estradiol Are Associated with Increased Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and Metalloproteinase-9 Activity in Tears of Postmenopausal Women with Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guanglin; Ma, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the serum levels of sex steroids and tear matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 concentrations in postmenopausal women with dry eye. Methods. Forty-four postmenopausal women with dry eye and 22 asymptomatic controls were enrolled. Blood was drawn and analyzed for serum levels of sex steroids and lipids. Then, the following tests were performed: tear collection, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, fluorescein tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer test, and conjunctival impression cytology. The conjunctival mRNA expression and tear concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured. Results. Serum 17β-estradiol levels were significantly higher in the dry eye subjects than in the controls (P = 0.03), whereas there were no significant differences in levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and progesterone. Tear MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations (P < 0.001), as well as the MMP-9 mRNA expression in conjunctival samples (P = 0.02), were significantly higher in dry eye subjects than in controls. Serum 17β-estradiol levels were positively correlated with tear MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations and negatively correlated with Schirmer test values. Conclusions. High levels of 17β-estradiol are associated with increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 activity in tears of postmenopausal women with dry eye. PMID:26904272

  3. Plasma levels of galectin-3-binding protein reflect type I interferon activity and are increased in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Christoffer T; Lood, Christian; Østergaard, Ole; Iversen, Line V; Voss, Anne; Bengtsson, Anders; Jacobsen, Søren; Heegaard, Niels H H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Simple measures of type I interferon (IFN) activity constitute highly attractive biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We explore galectin-3-binding protein (G3BP) as a novel measure of type I IFN activity and serum/plasma biomarker in large independent cohorts of patients with SLE and controls. Methods Serum and plasma G3BP concentrations were quantified using ELISA. Type I IFN activity was assessed by Mx1 reporter gene expression assays and correlated to serum G3BP concentrations (SLE-IFN-α, n=26 and healthy controls (HCs), n=10). Plasma G3BP concentrations in the SLE-Denmark (DK) (n=70) and SLE-Sweden (SE) (n=68) cohorts were compared with the HC-DK (n=47) and HC-SE (n=50) cohorts and patients with systemic sclerosis (n=111). In 15 patients with SLE, serum G3BP in consecutive samples was correlated to disease activity. Correlation analysis between G3BP, clinical parameters including disease activity in the four SLE cohorts was performed. Results G3BP concentrations correlated significantly with the IFN-α reporter gene assay (r=0.56, p=0.0005) and with IFN-α gene expression scores (r=0.54, p=0.0002). Plasma concentrations were significantly increased in the SLE-DK and SLE-SE cohorts compared with HCs and patients with systemic sclerosis (p<0.0001 and p=0.0009). G3BP concentrations correlated with disease activity measures in the SLE-DK- and SLE-IFN-α cohorts (p=0.0004 and p=0.05) but not in the SLE-SE cohort (p=0.98). Markedly temporal variation was observed in G3BP levels in the consecutive SLE-samples and was significantly associated with changes in disease activity (r=0.44, p=0.014). Conclusions G3BP plasma levels reflect type I IFN activity and are increased in SLE. Associations with disease activity or clinical manifestations are uncertain. This study highlights G3BP as a convenient measure of type I IFN-dependent gene activation. PMID:25452879

  4. Shifts in Developmental Timing, and Not Increased Levels of Experience-Dependent Neuronal Activity, Promote Barrel Expansion in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex of Rats Enucleated at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Fetter-Pruneda, Ingrid; Ibarrarán-Viniegra, Ana Sofía; Martínez-Martínez, Eduardo; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Padilla-Cortés, Patricia; Mercado-Célis, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Birth-enucleated rodents display enlarged representations of whiskers (i.e., barrels of the posteromedial subfield) in the primary somatosensory cortex. Although the historical view maintains that barrel expansion is due to incremental increases in neuronal activity along the trigeminal pathway during postnatal development, recent evidence obtained in experimental models of intramodal plasticity challenges this view. Here, we re-evaluate the role of experience-dependent neuronal activity on barrel expansion in birth-enucleated rats by combining various anatomical methods and sensory deprivation paradigms. We show that barrels in birth-enucleated rats were already enlarged by the end of the first week of life and had levels of metabolic activity comparable to those in control rats at different ages. Dewhiskering after the postnatal period of barrel formation did not prevent barrel expansion in adult, birth-enucleated rats. Further, dark rearing and enucleation after barrel formation did not lead to expanded barrels in adult brains. Because incremental increases of somatosensory experience did not promote barrel expansion in birth-enucleated rats, we explored whether shifts of the developmental timing could better explain barrel expansion during the first week of life. Accordingly, birth-enucleated rats show earlier formation of barrels, accelerated growth of somatosensory thalamocortical afferents, and an earlier H4 deacetylation. Interestingly, when H4 deacetylation was prevented with a histone deacetylases inhibitor (valproic acid), barrel specification timing returned to normal and barrel expansion did not occur. Thus, we provide evidence supporting that shifts in developmental timing modulated through epigenetic mechanisms, and not increased levels of experience dependent neuronal activity, promote barrel expansion in the primary somatosensory cortex of rats enucleated at birth. PMID:23372796

  5. The crab-eating frog, Rana cancrivora, up-regulates hepatic carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I activity and tissue osmolyte levels in response to increased salinity.

    PubMed

    Wright, Patricia; Anderson, Paul; Weng, Lei; Frick, Natasha; Wong, Wei Peng; Ip, Yuen Kwong

    2004-07-01

    The crab-eating frog Rana cancrivora is one of only a handful of amphibians worldwide that tolerate saline waters. They typically inhabit brackish water of mangrove forests of Southeast Asia, but live happily in freshwater and can be acclimated to 75% seawater (25 ppt) or higher. We report here that after transfer of juvenile R. cancrivora from freshwater (1 ppt) to brackish water (10 -->20 or 20 -->25 ppt; 4-8 d) there was a significant increase in the specific activity of the key hepatic ornithine urea cycle enzyme (OUC), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (CPSase I). At 20 ppt, plasma, liver and muscle urea levels increased by 22-, 21-, and 11-fold, respectively. As well, muscle total amino acid levels were significantly elevated by 6-fold, with the largest changes occurring in glycine and beta-alanine levels. In liver, taurine levels were 5-fold higher in frogs acclimated to 20 ppt. There were no significant changes in urea or ammonia excretion rates to the environment. As well, the rate of urea influx (J(in) (urea)) and efflux (J(out) (urea)) across the ventral pelvic skin did not differ between frogs acclimated to 1 versus 20 ppt. Taken together, these findings suggest that acclimation to saline water involves the up-regulation of hepatic urea synthesis, which in turn contributes to the dramatic rise in tissue urea levels. The lack of change in urea excretion rates, despite the large increase in tissue-to-water gradients further indicates that mechanisms must be in place to prevent excessive loss of urea in saline waters, but these mechanisms do not include cutaneous urea uptake. Also, amino acid accumulation may contribute to an overall rise in the osmolarity of the muscle tissue, but relative to urea, the contribution is small. PMID:15229866

  6. Disease Activity and Damage are not Associated with Increased Levels of Fatigue in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients from LUMINA LXVII, a Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Burgos, Paula I.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; McGwin, Gerald; Crews, Kendra Q.; Reveille, John D.; Vilá, Luis M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the factors associated with increased levels of fatigue over the course of the disease in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients from LUMINA (Lupus in Minorities: Nature versus Nurture), a longitudinal multiethnic cohort. Methods Patients with SLE (American College of Rheumatology revised and updated criteria), age ≥16 years, disease duration ≤ 5 years at entry into the cohort (T0), of Hispanic (Texan or Puerto Rican), African America or Caucasian ethnicity, were studied. The association between socioeconomic-demographic, health behaviors, behavioral and psychological, functional and clinical characteristics and fatigue was examined using generalized estimating equations to account for the longitudinal nature of the data. Results Five-hundred and fifteen patients (~91% female) contributed 2,609 visits to these analyses; there were: 93 (18.1%) Texan Hispanics, 101 (19.6%) Puerto Rican Hispanics, 169 (32.8%) African Americans, and 152 (29.5%) Caucasians; the patients mean (SD) age and follow up time were 37.2 (12.0) and 4.7 (3.2) years, respectively. Variables associated with increased levels of fatigue in the multivariable analyses were Caucasian ethnicity, the presence of constitutional symptoms(fever, weight loss), higher levels of pain, of abnormal illness-related behaviors and of helplessness (p’s between 0.0018 and <0.0001). Conclusions The presence of pain, abnormal illness-related behaviors, helplessness and constitutional manifestations were associated with increased levels of fatigue; however, lupus specific measures, such as disease activity and damage were not. Interventions aimed at decreasing fatigue need to take into account these findings. PMID:19714612

  7. Increased levels of IL-21 responses are associated with the severity of liver injury in patients with chronic active hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Pan, Q; Yu, Y; Tang, Z; Xi, M; Jiang, H; Xun, Y; Liu, X; Liu, H; Hu, J; Zang, G

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) participates in tissue damage in various immune-mediated diseases. Its role in the pathogenesis of chronic active hepatitis B (CAHB) has not been clarified. The frequency of circulating IL-21(+) T cells and the levels of serum and intrahepatic IL-21 have been characterized in 70 CAHB patients, 32 inactive carrier (IC), 18 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and 20 healthy controls (HC). Their potential association with liver injury was analysed. The percentages of IL-21(+) CD3(+) CD8(-) and IL-21(+) CD3(+) CD8(+) T cells and the levels of serum IL-21 in CAHB patients were significantly higher than that in the IC, CHC patients and HC (P < 0.001) and were correlated positively with the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, r = 0.424, P < 0.001; r = 0.392, P = 0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, r = 0.388, P = 0.001; r = 0.329, P = 0.005) in CAHB patients, respectively. The levels of IL-21 expression in the liver tissues were associated significantly with increased degrees of inflammation and fibrosis in CAHB patients (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that aberrant IL-21 responses may be associated with the progression of CHB.

  8. Evidence that spontaneous contractile activity in the rat myometrium is not inhibited by NO-mediated increases in tissue levels of cyclic GMP

    PubMed Central

    Hennan, James K; Diamond, Jack

    1998-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence in the literature concerning the role of cyclic GMP in the regulation of myometrial contractility and the importance of hormonal status on the uterine response to cyclic GMP-elevating agents. The objective of the present study was to investigate further the importance of cyclic GMP in the control of uterine contractility, by monitoring the effects of cyclic GMP-elevating agents on spontaneous contractions and cyclic GMP levels in myometrial strips from pregnant rats and from ovariectomized rats under the influence of oestrogen and/or progesterone.Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) 5 mM, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) 100 nM, L-arginine 1 mM and 8-bromo-cyclic GMP 100 mM had no relaxant effect on the spontaneous contractions of myometria from pregnant rats or from ovariectomized rats under the influence of oestrogen or progesterone.Tissue levels of cyclic GMP were significantly elevated by SNP in all treatment groups, including pregnant animals. For example, in ovariectomized, progesterone-treated rats, SNP raised cyclic GMP levels approximately 8 fold from a basal level of 2.9±0.4 pmol mg−1 protein to 24.8±4.0 pmol mg−1 protein. ANP increased cyclic GMP levels approximately 2 fold in all treatment groups, except in the pregnant animals. L-Arginine elevated cyclic GMP significantly only in ovariectomized, vehicle-treated myometria.The activity of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) was significantly increased (3 fold) in myometria exposed to SNP (5 mM). Thus, the inability of SNP to relax uterine preparations was not due to a failure of SNP-elevated cyclic GMP to activate PKG.The more potent NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), at a concentration of 100 μM was able to inhibit spontaneous contractions significantly in myometrial preparations from both non-ovariectomized and ovariectomized rats treated with oestrogen or progesterone.Tissue levels of cyclic GMP were markedly increased by SNAP at

  9. Coffee intake can promote activity of antioxidant enzymes with increasing MDA level and decreasing HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jang, Jin-Young; Cho, Youn-Ok

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of coffee intake and exercise on the antioxidative activity and plasma cholesterol profile of physically trained rats while they were exercising. Forty eight rats were under either the control diet with water (C) or control diet with coffee (CF) and at the same time they were given physical training for 4 weeks. In terms of physical training, the rats were exercised on a treadmill for 30 minutes everyday. At the end of 4 weeks, animals in each dietary group were subdivided into 3 groups: before-exercise (BE); during-exercise (DE); after-exercise (AE). Animals in the DE group were exercised on a treadmill for one hour, immediately before being sacrificed. Animals in the AE group were allowed to take a rest for one hour after exercise. TG levels were significantly high in coffee intake group than in control group. Also TG level of AE group was significantly higher than that of BE group. Exercise and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in total cholesterol (P = 0.0004, 0.0170). The AE of coffee intake group showed highest total cholesterol levels. HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in coffee intake group than in control group. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in SOD (P = 0.0001, 0.0001, and 0.0001). The AE and BE of coffee intake group showed higher SOD levels than the other four groups. Catalase activities were significantly higher in coffee intake group than control group. No significant main effect was found in GSH/GSSG. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in MDA levels (P = 0.0464, 0.0016, and 0.0353). The DE and AE of coffee intake group and the DE of control group showed higher MDA levels than the BE of control group. Therefore, coffee intake can promote activities of antioxidant enzyme but it also increases MDA and decreases HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats.

  10. Coffee intake can promote activity of antioxidant enzymes with increasing MDA level and decreasing HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jang, Jin-Young

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coffee intake and exercise on the antioxidative activity and plasma cholesterol profile of physically trained rats while they were exercising. Forty eight rats were under either the control diet with water (C) or control diet with coffee (CF) and at the same time they were given physical training for 4 weeks. In terms of physical training, the rats were exercised on a treadmill for 30 minutes everyday. At the end of 4 weeks, animals in each dietary group were subdivided into 3 groups: before-exercise (BE); during-exercise (DE); after-exercise (AE). Animals in the DE group were exercised on a treadmill for one hour, immediately before being sacrificed. Animals in the AE group were allowed to take a rest for one hour after exercise. TG levels were significantly high in coffee intake group than in control group. Also TG level of AE group was significantly higher than that of BE group. Exercise and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in total cholesterol (P = 0.0004, 0.0170). The AE of coffee intake group showed highest total cholesterol levels. HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in coffee intake group than in control group. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in SOD (P = 0.0001, 0.0001, and 0.0001). The AE and BE of coffee intake group showed higher SOD levels than the other four groups. Catalase activities were significantly higher in coffee intake group than control group. No significant main effect was found in GSH/GSSG. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in MDA levels (P = 0.0464, 0.0016, and 0.0353). The DE and AE of coffee intake group and the DE of control group showed higher MDA levels than the BE of control group. Therefore, coffee intake can promote activities of antioxidant enzyme but it also increases MDA and decreases HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats. PMID:20827343

  11. Increased Spreading Activation in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Paul S.; Yung, Raegan C.; Branch, Kaylei K.; Stringer, Kristi; Ferguson, Brad J.; Sullivan, William; Drago, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The dopaminergic system is implicated in depressive disorders and research has also shown that dopamine constricts lexical/semantic networks by reducing spreading activation. Hence, depression, which is linked to reductions of dopamine, may be associated with increased spreading activation. However, research has generally found no effects of…

  12. Reduced IL-35 levels are associated with increased platelet aggregation and activation in patients with acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yi; Xu, Lanping; Han, Wei; Chen, Huan; Chen, Yuhong; Fu, Haixia; Zhou, Shiyuan; Zhao, Jingzhong; Wang, Qianming; Feng, Feier; Zhu, Xiaolu; Liu, Kaiyan; Huang, Xiaojun

    2015-05-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major complication associated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Interleukin (IL)-35 is a novel anti-inflammatory cytokine that suppresses the immune response. This prospective study explored IL-35 plasma levels in 65 patients after HSCT. The results revealed that the peripheral blood of patients with grades III-IV aGVHD (23.46 ng/ml) had reduced IL-35 compared to transplanted patients with grades I-II aGVHD (40.26 ng/ml, p < 0.01) or patients without aGVHD (41.40 ng/ml, p < 0.05). Allografts, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) and G-CSF-primed bone marrow (GBM), from 38 patients were analyzed for IL-35 levels with respect to aGVHD. The patients who received lower levels of IL-35 cells in the GBM (28.0 ng/ml, p = 0.551) or lower levels of IL-35 in PBPC (53.46 ng/ml, p = 0.03) exhibited a higher incidence of aGVHD. Patients with aGVHD have increased platelet aggregation. IL-35 was added to patient blood in vitro, and platelet aggregation was inhibited by IL-35 in a dose-dependent manner. The markers of platelet activation (CD62P/PAC-1) can also be inhibited by IL-35. The results indicate that IL-35 may affect the development of aGVHD by inhibiting platelet activation and aggregation. Our data suggests that IL-35 represents a potentially effective therapeutic agent against aGVHD after allo-HSCT.

  13. Strategies to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical activity are well known and well publicized. Healthy People 2020 has determined that physical activity is one of their key interventions to improve health in America. Despite wide acceptance that physical activity is a low-cost alternative to disease treatment and prevention, most Americans still do not exercise the recommended minimum of 150 minutes per week. Underpinning such recommendations is the growing concern that unless we change our behavior around active living, health care costs to treat preventable disease will become unsustainable and have a substantial impact on the financial health of the US. For this reason, physicians, health care executives, and community leaders are working together to improve total health for all Americans. One key intervention to prevent preventable diseases and to make health care more affordable is to increase the percentage of Americans who are physically active. No single intervention will increase activity rates, but a group of interventions working together in synergy may be the stimulus needed to get Americans moving. The five strategies discussed in this paper include 1) measure physical activity as a vital sign; 2) encourage patients to be physically active at least 150 minutes per week; 3) create healthy environments by making it easier for patients to be physically active where they live, learn, work, play, and pray; 4) monitor disease incidence of patients who are physically active vs those who are not physically active; and 5) spread best practices. PMID:26517440

  14. Increased level of apoptosis in rat brains and SH-SY5Y cells exposed to excessive fluoride--a mechanism connected with activating JNK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Jie; Guan, Zhi-Zhong; Gao, Qin; Pei, Jin-Jing

    2011-07-28

    In order to reveal the mechanism of the brain injury induced by chronic fluorosis, the levels of apoptosis and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) in brains of rats and SH-SY5Y cells exposed to different concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF) were detected. The dental fluorosis and fluoride contents in blood, urine and bones of rats were measured to evaluate the exhibition of fluorosis. The apoptotic death rate was measured by flow cytometry and the expression of JNK at protein level by Western blotting. The results showed that as compared with controls, the apoptotic death rate was obviously increased in brains of the rats exposed to high-fluoride (50ppm) for 6 months with a concentration dependent manner, but no significant change for 3 months. In SH-SY5Y cells treated with high concentration (50ppm) of fluoride, the increased apoptotic death rate was obviously observed as compared to controls. In addition, the expressions of phospho-JNK at protein level were raised by 20.5% and 107.6%, respectively, in brains of the rats exposed to low-fluoride (5ppm) and high-fluoride for 6 months; while no significant changes were found between the rats exposed to fluoride and the controls for 3 months. The protein level of phospho-JNK was also increased in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to high-fluoride. There were no changes of total-JNK both in the rats and in the SH-SY5Y cells exposed to excessive fluoride as compared to controls. When SH-SY5Y cells were singly treated with SP600125, an inhibitor of phospho-JNK, the decreased expression of phospho-JNK, but no apoptosis, was detected. Interestingly, after JNK phosphorylation in the cultured cells was inhibited by SP600125, the treatment with high-fluoride did not induce the increase of apoptosis. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the expression of phospho-JNK and the apoptotic death rate in rat brains or SH-SY5Y cells treated with high-fluoride. The results indicated that exposure to excessive fluoride resulted in

  15. A therapeutic combination of metyrapone and oxazepam increases brain levels of GABA-active neurosteroids and decreases cocaine self-administration in male rats.

    PubMed

    Schmoutz, Christopher D; Guerin, Glenn F; Runyon, Scott P; Dhungana, Suraj; Goeders, Nicholas E

    2015-09-15

    In rodents, the behavioral and neurochemical effects resulting from the pharmacological blockade of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are unclear. Metyrapone, a corticosterone synthesis inhibitor, has been demonstrated to reduce cocaine-related behaviors, especially in a low-dose combination with oxazepam, a benzodiazepine. Although this combination therapy (MET/OX) also reduces drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in both rodents and cocaine-dependent humans, these effects are not correlated with plasma glucocorticoid levels. In this brief report, we present data demonstrating that this MET/OX combination enhances brain levels of the GABA-active steroid metabolites, tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) and allopregnanolone. Male rats, trained to self-administer cocaine or that received yoked-saline infusions, were pretreated with MET/OX, at doses that reduced cocaine-motivated responding, or vehicle. Allopregnanolone and THDOC were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala in the brains from these rats. THDOC levels were enhanced following MET/OX pretreatment in both brain regions, regardless of cocaine self-administration experience. However, allopregnanolone was selectively enhanced in the rats that self-administered cocaine, but not in rats in the yoked-saline group. Thus, the MET/OX combination increased neurosteroid content in brain regions important for drug addiction. These neurosteroids have been shown to reduce cocaine-related behaviors and may contribute to the behavioral effects of MET/OX combination therapy. PMID:26003946

  16. Increased sensitivity in the interaction of the dopaminergic/adenosinergic system at the level of the adenylate cyclase activity in the striatum of the "weaver" mouse.

    PubMed

    K, Botsakis; V, Tondikidou; N, Panagopoulos; M, Margariti; N, Matsokis; F, Angelatou

    2016-10-01

    The specific antagonistic interaction between dopamine D1 and adenosine A1 receptors (D1/A1), as well as between dopamine D2 and adenosine A2a receptors (D2/A2a) exist not only at the receptor/receptor level, but also at the level of the secondary messengers. In this study, we examined the possible changes in these interactions at the level of cAMP formation in membrane preparation from "weaver" mouse striatum (a genetic model of Parkinson disease), by using specific agonists of these receptors. We also examined in the striatum of the "weaver" mouse the interaction between D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. Our results showed that in the striatum of "weaver" mice: a) the cAMP synthesis induced by D1 receptor activation (SKF 38393), was significantly reduced compared to control mice, while A1 receptor activation (L-PIA) leaded to a more intense inhibition of the D1-induced cAMP-formation compared to the controls, b) the cAMP synthesis which was induced by A2a receptor activation (CGS 21680), was significantly increased compared to the control mice. The specific D2 receptor agonist Quinpirole, added in low concentrations, caused a significant reduction of the A2a-induced cAMP formation, which was not observed in the control mouse. Furthermore, the D1 receptor induced cAMP synthesis was significantly higher in control compared to "weaver" striatum, which was more efficiently downregulated by D2 receptor agonist Quinpirole. These results suggest that the sensitivity to D1 and A2a receptor agonists is altered and that the interaction between D1/A1 and D2/A2a receptors is enhanced in the striatum of the "weaver" mutation, while an uncoupling between D1 and D2 receptors was observed. Since the adenylate cyclase basal activity did not differ between "weaver" and control striatum, the above-mentioned changes seem to be due to alterations in the function of the adenosine/dopamine receptors and their coupling to the G-proteins.

  17. Increased sMICA and TGFβ1 levels in HNSCC patients impair NKG2D-dependent functionality of activated NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Klöß, Stephan; Chambron, Nicole; Gardlowski, Tanja; Arseniev, Lubomir; Koch, Joachim; Esser, Ruth; Glienke, Wolfgang; Seitz, Oliver; Köhl, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) escapes immune surveillance and thus frequently manifests as fatal disease. Here, we report on the distribution of distinct immune cell subpopulations, natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and tumor immune escape mechanisms (TIEMs) in 55 HNSCC patients, either at initial diagnosis or present with tumor relapse. Compared to healthy controls, the regulatory NK cells and the ratio of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines were decreased in HNSCC patients, while soluble major histocompatibility complex Class I chain-related peptide A (sMICA) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) plasma levels were markedly elevated. Increased sMICA and TGFβ1 concentrations correlated with tumor progression and staging characteristics in 7 follow-up HNSCC patients, with significantly elevated levels of both soluble factors from the time of initial diagnosis to that of relapse. Patient plasma containing elevated sMICA and TGFβ1 markedly impaired NKG2D-dependent cytotoxicity against HNSCC cells upon incubation with patient-derived and IL-2 activated NK cells vs. those derived from healthy donors. Decreased antitumor recognition was accompanied by reduced NKG2D expression on the NK cell surface and an enhanced caspase-3 activity. In-vitro blocking and neutralization experiments demonstrated a synergistic negative impact of sMICA and TGFβ1 on NK cell functionality. Although we previously showed the feasibility and safety of transfer of allogeneic donor NK cells in a prior clinical study encompassing various leukemia and tumor patients, our present results suggest the need for caution regarding the sole use of adoptive NK cell transfer. The presence of soluble NKG2D ligands in the plasma of HNSCC patients and the decreased NK cell cytotoxicity due to several factors, especially TGFβ1, indicates timely depletion of these immunosuppressing molecules may promote NK cell-based immunotherapy. PMID:26451327

  18. Designing an intervention to help people with colorectal adenomas reduce their intake of red and processed meat and increase their levels of physical activity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) arise from adenomatous polyps and malignant potential is greatest in high risk adenomas. There is convincing observational evidence that red and processed meat increase the risk of CRC and that higher levels of physical activity reduce the risk. However, no definitive randomised trial has demonstrated the benefit of behaviour change on reducing polyp recurrence and no consistent advice is currently offered to minimise patient risk. This qualitative study aimed to assess patients’ preferences for dietary and physical activity interventions and ensure their appropriate and acceptable delivery to inform a feasibility trial. Methods Patients aged 60–74 included in the National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NHSBCSP) were selected from a patient tracking database. After a positive faecal occult blood test (FOBt), all had been diagnosed with an intermediate or high risk adenoma (I/HRA) at colonoscopy between April 2008 and April 2010. Interested patients and their partners were invited to attend a focus group or interview in July 2010. A topic guide, informed by the objectives of the study, was used. A thematic analysis was conducted in which transcripts were examined to ensure that all occurrences of each theme had been accounted for and compared. Results Two main themes emerged from the focus groups: a) experiences of having polyps and b) changing behaviour. Participants had not associated polyp removal with colorectal cancer and most did not remember being given any information or advice relating to this at the time. Heterogeneity of existing diet and physical activity levels was noted. There was a lack of readiness to change behaviour in many people in the target population. Conclusions This study has confirmed and amplified recently published factors involved in developing interventions to change dietary and physical activity behaviour in this population. The need to tailor the intervention to

  19. Enhancing sucrose synthase activity results in increased levels of starch and ADP-glucose in maize (Zea mays L.) seed endosperms.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Muñoz, Francisco José; Ovecka, Miroslav; Montero, Manuel; Sesma, María Teresa; Alonso-Casajús, Nora; Almagro, Goizeder; Sánchez-López, Angela María; Hidalgo, Maite; Zamarbide, Marta; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2013-02-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is a highly regulated cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of sucrose and a nucleoside diphosphate into the corresponding nucleoside diphosphate glucose and fructose. In cereal endosperms, it is widely assumed that the stepwise reactions of SuSy, UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase and ADPglucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase (AGP) take place in the cytosol to convert sucrose into ADPG necessary for starch biosynthesis, although it has also been suggested that SuSy may participate in the direct conversion of sucrose into ADPG. In this study, the levels of the major primary carbon metabolites, and the activities of starch metabolism-related enzymes were assessed in endosperms of transgenic maize plants ectopically expressing StSUS4, which encodes a potato SuSy isoform. A total of 29 fertile lines transformed with StSUS4 were obtained, five of them containing a single copy of the transgene that was still functional after five generations. The number of seeds per ear of the five transgenic lines containing a single StSUS4 copy was comparable with that of wild-type (WT) control seeds. However, transgenic seeds accumulated 10-15% more starch at the mature stage, and contained a higher amylose/amylopectin balance than WT seeds. Endosperms of developing StSUS4-expressing seeds exhibited a significant increase in SuSy activity, and in starch and ADPG contents when compared with WT endosperms. No significant changes could be detected in the transgenic seeds in the content of soluble sugars, and in activities of starch metabolism-related enzymes when compared with WT seeds. A suggested metabolic model is presented wherein both AGP and SuSy are involved in the production of ADPG linked to starch biosynthesis in maize endosperm cells.

  20. Palmitic acid increase levels of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 and p38/stress-activated protein kinase in islets from rats maintained on a low protein diet.

    PubMed

    Arantes, Vanessa C; Reis, Marise A B; Latorraca, Márcia Q; Ferreira, Fabiano; Stoppiglia, Luiz Fabrízio; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C

    2006-12-01

    A severe reduction in insulin release in response to glucose is consistently noticed in protein-deprived rats and is attributed partly to the chronic exposure to elevated levels of NEFA. Since the pancreatic and duodenal transcription factor homeobox 1 (PDX-1) is important for the maintenance of beta-cell physiology, and since PDX-1 expression is altered in the islets of rats fed a low protein (LP) diet and that rats show high NEFA levels, we assessed PDX-1 and insulin mRNA expression, as well as PDX-1 and p38/stress activated protein kinase 2 (SAPK2) protein expression, in islets from young rats fed low (6%) or normal (17%; control) protein diets and maintained for 48 h in culture medium containing 5.6 mmol/l glucose, with or without 0.6 mmol/l palmitic acid. We also measured glucose-induced insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. Insulin secretion by isolated islets in response to 16.7 mmol/l glucose was reduced in LP compared with control rats. In the presence of NEFA, there was an increase in insulin secretion in both groups. At 2.8 mmol/l glucose, the metabolism of this sugar was reduced in LP islets, regardless of the presence of this fatty acid. However, when challenged with 16.7 mmol/l glucose, LP and control islets showed a severe reduction in glucose oxidation in the presence of NEFA. The PDX-1 and insulin mRNA were significantly higher when NEFA was added to the culture medium in both groups of islets. The effect of palmitic acid on PDX-1 and p38/SAPK2 protein levels was similar in LP and control islets, but the increase was much more evident in LP islets. These results demonstrate the complex interrelationship between nutrients in the control of insulin release and support the view that fatty acids play an important role in glucose homeostasis by affecting molecular mechanisms and stimulus/secretion coupling pathways. PMID:17181874

  1. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  2. PTEN permits acute increases in D3-phosphoinositide levels following TCR stimulation but inhibits distal signaling events by reducing the basal activity of Akt.

    PubMed

    Seminario, Maria-Cristina; Precht, Patricia; Bunnell, Stephen C; Warren, Sarah E; Morris, Christa M; Taub, Dennis; Wange, Ronald L

    2004-11-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is important in TCR signaling. PI3K generates phosphatidylinositol 3, 4, 5-trisphosphate (PI-3,4,5-P3), which regulates membrane localization and/or activity of multiple signaling proteins. PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) opposes PI3K, reversing this reaction. Maintaining the balance between these two enzymes is important for normal T cell function. Here we use the PTEN-null Jurkat T cell line to address the role of PTEN in modulating proximal and distal TCR-signaling events. PTEN expression at levels that restored low basal Akt phosphorylation (an indicator of PI-3,4,5-P3 levels), but which were not themselves cytotoxic, had minimal effect on TCR-stimulated activation of phospholipase Cgamma1 and Ca2+ flux, but reduced the duration of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation. Distal signaling events, including nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activation, CD69 expression and IL-2 production, were all inhibited by PTEN expression. Notably, PTEN did not block TCR-stimulated PI-3,4,5-P3 accumulation. The effect of PTEN on distal TCR signaling events was strongly correlated with the loss of the constitutive Akt activation and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) inhibition that is typical of Jurkat cells, and could be reversed by expression of activated Akt or pharmacologic inhibition of GSK3. These results suggest that PTEN acts in T cells primarily to control basal PI-3,4,5-P3 levels, rather than opposing PI3K acutely during TCR stimulation.

  3. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Nunokawa, J; Fujii, H; Takashima, R; Hashimoto, M; Fukuhara, T; Yajima, T; Matsuzawa, H; Kurosawa, K; Yanagawa, Y; Someya, S

    2015-11-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication.

  4. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Nunokawa, J; Fujii, H; Takashima, R; Hashimoto, M; Fukuhara, T; Yajima, T; Matsuzawa, H; Kurosawa, K; Yanagawa, Y; Someya, S

    2015-11-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication. PMID:25982790

  5. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogues increase catalase at the mRNA, protein and activity level in a canine transitional carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Middleton, R P; Nelson, R; Li, Q; Blanton, A; Labuda, J A; Vitt, J; Inpanbutr, N

    2015-12-01

    Antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, superoxide dismutases (SOD), MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD, protect cells by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Numerous studies have reported the anti-cancer effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) and its related analogues, seocalcitol and analogue V. In this study, canine bladder transitional cell carcinoma (cbTCC) cells were used to determine effects of calcitriol and its related analogues on antioxidant enzyme gene expression, protein expression and activity. Catalase mRNA was increased in response to calcitriol (10(-7) M), and seocalcitol (10(-7) and 10(-9) M). MnSOD mRNA was decreased in response to calcitriol at 10(-7) M. Catalase was significantly increased in response to calcitriol (10(-7) and 10(-9) M), and seocalcitol (10(-9) M). Catalase enzymatic activity increased in response to calcitriol, seocalcitol and analogue V (10(-9) M). In addition, global gene expression analysis identified the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling in cbTCC's response to calcitriol and seocalcitol treatment.

  6. Increased numbers of motor activity peaks during light cycle are associated with reductions in adrenergic alpha(2)-receptor levels in a transgenic Huntington's disease rat model.

    PubMed

    Bode, Felix J; Stephan, Michael; Wiehager, Sara; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Björkqvist, Maria; von Hörsten, Stephan; Bauer, Andreas; Petersén, Asa

    2009-12-14

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the HD gene. Besides psychiatric, motor and cognitive symptoms, HD patients suffer from sleep disturbances. In order to screen a rat model transgenic for HD (tgHD rats) for sleep-wake cycle dysregulation, we monitored their circadian activity peaks in the present study. TgHD rats of both sexes showed hyperactivity during the dark cycle and more frequent light cycle activity peaks indicative for a disturbed sleep-wake cycle. Focusing on males at the age of 4 and 14 months, analyses of receptor levels in the hypothalamus and the basal forebrain revealed that 5-HT(2A)- and adrenergic alpha(2)-receptor densities in these regions were significantly altered in tgHD rats compared to their wild-type littermates. Adrenergic receptor densities correlated negatively with the light cycle hyperactivity peaks at later stages of the disease in male tgHD rats. Furthermore, reduced leptin levels, a feature associated with circadian misalignment, were present. Our study demonstrates that the male tgHD rat is a suitable model to investigate HD associated sleep alterations. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the role of adrenergic- and 5-HT(2A)-receptors as therapeutic targets for dysregulation of the circadian activity in HD.

  7. Increased Levels of Eotaxin and MCP-1 in Juvenile Dermatomyositis Median 16.8 Years after Disease Onset; Associations with Disease Activity, Duration and Organ Damage

    PubMed Central

    Flatø, Berit; Vistnes, Maria; Christensen, Geir; Sjaastad, Ivar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare cytokine profiles in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) after medium to long-term follow-up with matched controls, and to examine associations between cytokine levels and disease activity, disease duration and organ damage. Methods Fifty-four JDM patients were examined median 16.8 years (2–38) after disease onset (follow-up) and compared with 54 sex- and age-matched controls. Cytokine concentrations in serum were quantified by Luminex technology. In patients, disease activity score (DAS), myositis damage index (MDI) and other disease parameters were collected by chart review (early parameters) and clinical examination (follow-up). Results Serum levels of eotaxin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) were elevated in JDM patients compared to controls (31.5%, 37.2% and 43.2% respectively, all p<0.05). Patients with active (n = 28), but not inactive disease (n = 26) had a higher level of MCP-1 than their respective controls. Levels of eotaxin and MCP-1 correlated with disease duration (r = 0.47 and r = 0.64, both p<0.001) and age in patients, but not with age in controls. At follow-up, MDI was associated with MCP-1(standardized β = 0.43, p = 0.002) after adjusting for disease duration and gender. High MDI 1 year post-diagnosis predicted high levels of eotaxin and MCP-1 at follow-up (standardized β = 0.24 and 0.29, both p<0.05) after adjusting for disease duration and gender. Conclusion Patients with JDM had higher eotaxin, MCP-1 and IP-10 than controls. High eotaxin and MCP-1 at follow-up was predicted by early disease parameters, and MCP-1 was associated with organ damage at follow-up, highlighting a role of these chemokines in JDM. PMID:24647150

  8. Effects of increasing CO2 levels and the secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field on the upper atmosphere, and their dependence on solar activity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cnossen, I.

    2013-12-01

    The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration is generally seen as the main driver of long-term change in the thermosphere and ionosphere. However, long-term change in the Earth's magnetic field can also be important, especially in the ionosphere. I will present a quantitative comparison of the effects of the increase in CO2 concentration and changes in the magnetic field on multi-decadal to centennial timescales based on simulations with the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM). These show that magnetic field changes are at least as important as the increase in CO2 concentration for long-term trends in the peak height of the ionospheric F2 layer and much more important for trends in the F2 critical frequency and the daily amplitude of solar quiet (Sq) magnetic perturbations. Changes in the magnetic field even affect the neutral temperature trend at about 300 km altitude, although the increase in CO2 concentration is more important for this variable. As a further aid to discriminate between these two causes of long-term change, we also examine the solar cycle dependence of their effects. Changes in CO2 concentration are well-known to be more important under solar minimum than solar maximum conditions. Preliminary results indicate that a different type of solar activity dependence is present for the effects of changes in the Earth's magnetic field.

  9. Video Gaming Increases Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Grace

    2010-01-01

    The "2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans" and "Mypramid" recommend that children get 60 minutes of moderate level exercise each day. Obesity has become a serious health concern for children and adolescents. Idaho currently has an obesity rate of 10.1% for children ages 10-17. As a response to this, the Nintendo Wii was introduced into a 4-H…

  10. Studies on immunoproteasome in human liver. Part I: Absence in fetuses, presence in normal subjects, and increased levels in chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vasuri, Francesco; Capizzi, Elisa; Bellavista, Elena; Mishto, Michele; Santoro, Aurelia; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Capri, Miriam; Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; Grigioni, Walter Franco; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Franceschi, Claudio

    2010-06-25

    Despite the central role of proteasomes in relevant physiological pathways and pathological processes, this topic is unexpectedly largely unexplored in human liver. Here we present data on the presence of proteasome and immunoproteasome in human livers from normal adults, fetuses and patients affected by major hepatic diseases such as cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Immunohistochemistry for constitutive ({alpha}4 and {beta}1) and inducible (LMP2 and LMP7) proteasome subunits, and for the PA28{alpha}{beta} regulator, was performed in liver samples from 38 normal subjects, 6 fetuses, 2 pediatric cases, and 19 pathological cases (10 chronic active hepatitis and 9 cirrhosis). The immunohistochemical data have been validated and quantified by Western blotting analysis. The most striking result we found was the concomitant presence in hepatocyte cytoplasm of all healthy subjects, including the pediatric cases, of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunits, as well as PA28{alpha}{beta}. At variance, immunoproteasome was not present in hepatocytes from fetuses, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity for LMP2 and LMP7 was found in pathological samples, directly correlated to the histopathological grade of inflammation. At variance from other organs such as the brain, immunoproteasome is present in livers from normal adult and pediatric cases, in apparent absence of pathological processes, suggesting the presence of a peculiar regulation of the proteasome/immunoproteasome system, likely related to the physiological stimuli derived from the gut microbiota after birth. Other inflammatory stimuli contribute in inducing high levels of immunoproteasome in pathological conditions, where its role deserve further attention.

  11. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  12. Sodium bicarbonate induces crystalline wax generation, activates host-resistance, and increases imazalil level in rind wounds of oranges, improving the control of green mold during storage.

    PubMed

    Dore, Antonio; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Venditti, Tullio; D'Hallewin, Guy

    2010-06-23

    Imazalil (IMZ) was quantified in the flavedo and albedo (Citrus fruits outer and inner tissue of the exocarp) of wounded and unwounded Valencia L. Olinda oranges following a 2 min immersion at 25 degrees C in 50, 100, or 250 microg mL(-1) of the fungicide mixture with or without 3% sodium bicarbonate (SBC). The addition of SBC significantly reduced the decay incidence throughout 30 d of storage at 10 degrees C with 95% RH and 6 d of simulated marketing period at 25 degrees C and 75% RH. In unwounded oranges, IMZ uptake was not changed by the coapplication of SBC, and the fungicide was predominantly recovered in the flavedo. To the contrary, in the albedo of wounded fruit, the residue level increased by about 6-fold when the fungicide was applied with SBC. When SBC was coapplied to wounded fruit, the phytoalexin scoparone was induced in the albedo and the accumulation was not affected by IMZ. When fruit was treated with SBC, scanning electron microscopy observations evidenced a production of crystalline wax patches with branched stripes and the magnitude was positively correlated to the salt concentration in the mixture. The generation as fast as 24 h post-treatment, and the different morphology of the new wax suggests a displacement of intracuticular waxes which can affect the fungicide sorption and diffusion coefficient into the rind. PMID:20486661

  13. Hyperprolactinemia during antipsychotics treatment increases the level of coagulation markers

    PubMed Central

    Ishioka, Masamichi; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sugawara, Norio; Furukori, Hanako; Kudo, Shuhei; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective The strong association between psychiatric patients who receive antipsychotics and the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is known. Although previous reports suggest that hyperprolactinemia often increases markers of activated coagulation, few studies have examined the direct relationship between the prolactin level elevated by antipsychotics and activated markers of activated coagulation. Method The participants included 182 patients with schizophrenia (male =89, female =93) who received antipsychotic treatments for at least 3 months. Markers of VTE (D-dimer, fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, and thrombin–antithrombin complex) and serum prolactin concentrations were measured. Results Prolactin levels were significantly correlated with the logarithmic transformation of the D-dimer (r=0.320, P=0.002) and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation product levels (r=0.236, P=0.026) but not of the thrombin–antithrombin complex level (r=0.117, ns) among men. However, no correlations were found between the VTE markers and prolactin levels among women. These results were confirmed using multiple regression analyses that included demographic factors and antipsychotic dosages. Conclusion The current study indicates that hyperprolactinemia is associated with an increase in markers of activated coagulation among men receiving antipsychotics. This finding clinically implies that monitoring and modulating prolactin levels among men are important to decrease the risk of VTE. PMID:25750528

  14. Strontium ranelate increases osteoblast activity.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Monica Marletti; Nani, Edson Parra; Teixeira, Lucas Novaes; Peruzzo, Daiane Cristina; Joly, Júlio César; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; Martinez, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Strontium ranelate (SR) is the first generation of a new class of medication for osteoporosis, which is capable of inducing bone formation and, to a certain extent, inhibiting bone resorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of SR on osteoblastic cell cultures. MC3TE-E1 cells were seeded in 24-well plates at a density of 2×10(4) cells/well and exposed to SR at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5mM. The following parameters were assayed: 1) Cell proliferation by hemocytometer counting after 24, 48 and 72h, 2) Cell viability by MTT assay after 24, 48 and 72h, 3) Type I Collagen and Osteopontin (OPN) quantification by Western Blotting, ELISA, and Real Time PCR after 48h, 3) Immunolocalization of fibronectin (FN) by epifluorescence, and 4) matrix mineralization by Alizarin Red staining after 14days. After 24, 48 and 72h, the cell proliferation and viability were not affected by SR at 0.05 and 0.1mM (p>0.05). However, cell cultures exposed to SR at 0.5mM exhibited a decrease in both cell proliferation and cell viability in all time points assayed (p<0.05). High levels of protein and mRNA for Type I Collagen and OPN were detected in cultures exposed to SR, particularly at 0.5mM (p<0.05). SR allowed the expression of FN in osteoblastic cell cultures as observed by epifluorescence analysis. The mineralized bone-like nodule formation was affected in a concentration-dependent manner by SR, with large bone-like nodules being detected in osteoblastic cell cultures exposed to SR at 0.5mM. In conclusion, these results suggest that SR can accelerate acquisition of the osteoblastic phenotype, which explains, at least in part, the rebalancing of bone turnover in favor of bone formation. PMID:27157549

  15. Collaboration of local governments and experts responding to the increase of the environmental radiation level secondary to the nuclear accident: a unique activity to relieve residents' anxiety.

    PubMed

    Fujii, H; Iimoto, T; Tsuzuki, T; Iiizumi, S; Someya, S; Hamamichi, S; Kessler, M M

    2015-11-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, 'hot spots' were found in Tokatsu area in Chiba prefecture. Although ambient radiation dose in this area was too low to harm residents' health, local residents were particularly worried about possible adverse effects from exposure to radiation. To avoid unnecessary panic reactions in the public, local governments in Tokatsu area collaborated with radiation specialists and conducted activities to provide local residents with accurate information on health effects from radiation. In addition to these activities, the authors offered one-to-one consultations with a radiologist for parents of small children and expecting mothers. They herein report this unique attempt, focusing on parents' anxiety and the age of their children. Taken together, this unique collaborative activity between local government and experts would be one of the procedures to relieve residents' anxiety.

  16. Increases in Mitochondrial Biogenesis Impair Carcinogenesis at Multiple Levels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2011-01-01

    Although mitochondrial respiration is decreased in most cancer cells, the role of this decrease in carcinogenesis and cancer progression is still unclear. To better understand this phenomenon, instead of further inhibiting mitochondrial function, we induced mitochondrial biogenesis in transformed cells by activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)/ peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) pathways. This was achieved by treating the cells with bezafibrate, a PPARs panagonist that also enhances PGC-1α expression. We confirmed that bezafibrate treatment led to increased mitochondrial proteins and enzyme functions. We found that cells with increased mitochondrial biogenesis had decreased growth rates in glucose-containing medium. In addition, they became less invasive, which was directly linked to the reduced lactate levels. Surprisingly, even though bezafibrate-treated cells had higher levels of mitochondrial markers, total respiration was not significantly altered. However, respiratory coupling, and ATP levels were. Our data show that by increasing the efficiency of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, cancer progression is hampered by decreases in cell proliferation and invasiveness. PMID:21855427

  17. Persistent increase of blood lead level and suppression of δ-ALAD activity in northern bobwhite quail orally dosed with even a single 2-mm spent lead shot.

    PubMed

    Holladay, S D; Kerr, R; Holladay, J P; Meldrum, B; Williams, S M; Gogal, R M

    2012-10-01

    Birds that display grit ingestion behavior are potentially at risk of lead (Pb) poisoning from mistaken ingestion of spent Pb shot pellets. The majority of available studies designed to assess such risk have used unspent shot pellets rather than field-obtained spent shot, which is oxidized and otherwise changed by weathering. Available studies also often administered more or heavier shot pellets to a bird than it might be expected to ingest. The current study dosed northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) weighing 194.6 ± 23.1 g (female birds) and 199.3 ± 12.2 g (male birds) with one to three spent no. 9 Pb shot collected from a skeet range, with particular interest in the toxicity that may occur from ingestion of a single 2-mm, 50 mg shot. An 8 week post-dosing clinical observation period was employed, over which feed consumption, body weight, blood Pb levels, and a battery of blood physiological parameters were made. Weight loss occurred in the birds, including male birds dosed with one Pb pellet. Erythrocyte delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) levels were decreased for the duration of the study across exposures and to levels associated with injury in wild bird populations. Decreased ALAD was particularly severe in female birds dosed with one Pb pellet and was still 92 % decreased at 8 weeks after dosing. Together, these results suggest that inadvertent ingestion of a single no. 9 Pb shot pellet can adversely affect the health of northern bobwhite quail.

  18. Increased brain nitric oxide levels following ethanol administration.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Niall; O'Riordan, Saidhbhe L; Klamer, Daniel; Lowry, John; Pålsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Nitric oxide is a ubiquitous messenger molecule, which at elevated concentrations has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. Its role in oxidative stress, attributed in particular to the formation of peroxynitrite, proceeds through its high affinity for the superoxide radical. Alcoholism has recently been associated with the induction of oxidative stress, which is generally defined as a shift in equilibrium between pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant species in the direction of the former. Furthermore, its primary metabolite acetaldehyde, has been extensively associated with oxidative damage related toxic effects following alcohol ingestion. The principal objective of this study was the application of long term in vivo electrochemistry (LIVE) to investigate the effect of ethanol (0.125, 0.5 and 2.0 g kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde (12.5, 50 and 200 mg kg(-1)) on NO levels in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats. Systemic administrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde resulted in a dose-dependent increases in NO levels, albeit with very differing time courses. Subsequent to this the effect on accumbal NO levels, of subjecting the animal to different drug combinations, was also elucidated. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (20 mg kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde sequestering agent D-penicillamine (50 mg kg(-1)) both attenuated the increase in NO levels following ethanol (1 g kg(-1)) administration. Conversely, the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (25 mg kg(-1)) and catalase inhibitor sodium azide (10 mg kg(-1)) potentiated the increase in NO levels following ethanol administration. Finally, dual inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase and catalase by cyanamide (25 mg kg(-1)) caused an attenuation of ethanol effects on NO levels. Taken together these data highlight a robust increase in brain NO levels following systemic alcohol administration which is dependent on NO synthase activity and may involve both alcohol- and acetaldehyde

  19. Physical activity increases bone mass during growth

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Magnus K.; Nordqvist, Anders; Karlsson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Background The incidence of fragility fractures has increased during the last half of the 1990′s. One important determinant of fractures is the bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD), the amount of mineralised bone. If we could increase peak bone mass (the highest value of BMC reached during life) and/or decrease the age-related bone loss, we could possibly improve the skeletal resistance to fracture. Objective This review evaluates the importance of exercise as a strategy to improve peak bone mass, including some aspects of nutrition. Design Publications within the field were searched through Medline (PubMed) using the search words: exercise, physical activity, bone mass, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, BMC, BMD, skeletal structure and nutrition. We included studies dealing with exercise during growth and young adolescence. We preferably based our inferences on randomised controlled trials (RCT), which provide the highest level of evidence. Results Exercise during growth increases peak bone mass. Moderate intensity exercise intervention programs are beneficial for the skeletal development during growth. Adequate nutrition must accompany the exercise to achieve the most beneficial skeletal effects by exercise. Conclusion Exercise during growth seems to enhance the building of a stronger skeleton through a higher peak bone mass and a larger bone size. PMID:19109652

  20. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  1. Genistein increases glycosaminoglycan levels in mucopolysaccharidosis type I cell models.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Sandra D K; Wagemans, Tom; IJlst, Lodewijk; Wijburg, Frits A; van Vlies, Naomi

    2014-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by diminished degradation of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate, which results in the accumulation of these GAGs and subsequent cellular dysfunction. Patients present with a variety of symptoms, including severe skeletal disease. Genistein has been shown previously to inhibit GAG synthesis in MPS fibroblasts, presumably through inhibition of tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). To determine the potentials of genistein for the treatment of skeletal disease, MPS I fibroblasts were induced into chondrocytes and osteoblasts and treated with genistein. Surprisingly, whereas tyrosine phosphorylation levels (as a measure for tyrosine kinase inhibition) were decreased in all treated cell lines, there was a 1.3 and 1.6 fold increase in GAG levels in MPS I chondrocytes and fibroblast, respectively (p < 0.05). Sulfate incorporation in treated MPS I fibroblasts was 2.6 fold increased (p < 0.05), indicating increased GAG synthesis despite tyrosine kinase inhibition. This suggests that GAG synthesis is not exclusively regulated through the tyrosine kinase activity of the EGFR. We hypothesize that the differences in outcomes between studies on the effect of genistein in MPS are caused by the different effects of genistein on different growth factor signaling pathways, which regulate GAG synthesis. More studies are needed to elucidate the precise signaling pathways which are affected by genistein and alter GAG metabolism in order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of genistein for MPS patients. PMID:24699889

  2. Increased dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Dartevelle, Laurence; Yuan, Chunyan; Wei, Hongping; Wang, Ying; Ferveur, Jean-François; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-21

    Sexual behavior between males is observed in many species, but the biological factors involved are poorly known. In mammals, manipulation of dopamine has revealed the role of this neuromodulator on male sexual behavior. We used genetic and pharmacological approaches to manipulate the dopamine level in dopaminergic cells in Drosophila and investigated the consequence of this manipulation on male-male courtship behavior. Males with increased dopamine level showed enhanced propensity to court other males but did not change their courtship toward virgin females, general olfactory response, general gustatory response, or locomotor activity. Our results indicate that the high intensity of male-male interaction shown by these manipulated males was related to their altered sensory perception of other males.

  3. Increased dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Dartevelle, Laurence; Yuan, Chunyan; Wei, Hongping; Wang, Ying; Ferveur, Jean-François; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-21

    Sexual behavior between males is observed in many species, but the biological factors involved are poorly known. In mammals, manipulation of dopamine has revealed the role of this neuromodulator on male sexual behavior. We used genetic and pharmacological approaches to manipulate the dopamine level in dopaminergic cells in Drosophila and investigated the consequence of this manipulation on male-male courtship behavior. Males with increased dopamine level showed enhanced propensity to court other males but did not change their courtship toward virgin females, general olfactory response, general gustatory response, or locomotor activity. Our results indicate that the high intensity of male-male interaction shown by these manipulated males was related to their altered sensory perception of other males. PMID:18495888

  4. The Health and Sport Engagement (HASE) Intervention and Evaluation Project: protocol for the design, outcome, process and economic evaluation of a complex community sport intervention to increase levels of physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Louise; Anokye, Nana; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Kay, Tess

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sport is being promoted to raise population levels of physical activity for health. National sport participation policy focuses on complex community provision tailored to diverse local users. Few quality research studies exist that examine the role of community sport interventions in raising physical activity levels and no research to date has examined the costs and cost-effectiveness of such provision. This study is a protocol for the design, outcome, process and economic evaluation of a complex community sport intervention to increase levels of physical activity, the Health and Sport Engagement (HASE) project part of the national Get Healthy Get Active programme led by Sport England. Methods and analysis The HASE study is a collaborative partnership between local community sport deliverers and sport and public health researchers. It involves designing, delivering and evaluating community sport interventions. The aim is to engage previously inactive people in sustained sporting activity for 1×30 min a week and to examine associated health and well-being outcomes. The study uses mixed methods. Outcomes (physical activity, health, well-being costs to individuals) will be measured by a series of self-report questionnaires and attendance data and evaluated using interrupted time series analysis controlling for a range of sociodemographic factors. Resource use will be identified and measured using diaries, interviews and records and presented alongside effectiveness data as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. A longitudinal process evaluation (focus groups, structured observations, in-depth interview methods) will examine the efficacy of the project for achieving its aim using the principles of thematic analysis. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, academic conference presentations, Sport England and national public health organisation

  5. Increased L-CPT-1 activity and altered gene expression in pancreatic islets of malnourished adult rats: a possible relationship between elevated free fatty acid levels and impaired insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    de Barros Reis, Marise Auxiliadora; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Cunha, Daniel Andrade; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz; Toyama, Marcos Hikari; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Boschero, Antonio Carlos

    2008-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with chronically elevated levels of serum fatty acids and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Lipid metabolism in pancreatic beta cells is critical for the regulation of insulin secretion, and the chronic exposure to fatty acids results in higher palmitate oxidation rates and an altered insulin response to glucose. Using a rat model of isocaloric protein restriction, we examined whether pre- and postnatal protein malnutrition influences the properties of pancreatic islet carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (liver isoform, L-CPT-1), a rate-limiting enzyme that regulates fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria. The activity of L-CPT-1 in pancreatic islets increased in the low protein (LP), although the L-CPT-1 mRNA levels were unaffected by malnutrition. The susceptibility of enzyme to inhibition by malonyl-CoA was unaltered and the content of malonyl-CoA was reduced in LP cells. Because the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids is related to the altered expression of a number of genes encoding proteins involved in insulin secretion, the levels of expression of insulin and GLUT-2 mRNA were assessed. A reduced expression of both genes was observed in malnourished rats. These results provide further evidence that increased L-CPT-1 activity and changes in gene expression in pancreatic islets may be involved in the reduced insulin secretion seen in malnourished rats. PMID:17531461

  6. Increased levels of metallothionein in placenta of smokers.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Arguello, Graciela; Suazo, Myriam; Llanos, Miguel N

    2005-03-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate and compare metallothionein (MT), zinc and cadmium levels in human placentas of smoking and non-smoking women. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption and urine cotinine levels before delivery. Smoking pregnant women with urine cotinine levels higher than 130 ng/ml were included in the smoking group. Determination of placental MT was performed by western blot analysis after tissue homogenization and saturation with cadmium chloride (1000 ppm). Metallothionein was analyzed with a monoclonal antibody raised against MT-1 and MT-2 and with a second anti mouse antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Zinc and cadmium were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry respectively. Smokers showed higher placental MT and cadmium levels, together with decreased newborn birth weights, as compared to non-smokers. The semi-quantitative analysis of western blots by band densitometry indicated that darker bands corresponded to MT present in smokers' samples. This study confirms that cigarette smoking increases cadmium accumulation in placental tissue and suggests that this element has a stimulatory effect on placental MT production.

  7. Best Practices and Recommendations for Increasing Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Beets, Michael W.; Centeio, Erin; Morrow, James R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Many efforts to increase the physical activity levels of Americans have been introduced and implemented over the past 20 years. National Physical Activity Guidelines have been established, and the National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is now in place, which includes a specific sector dedicated to education. This article addresses the Education…

  8. Exercise Increases Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Almeda-Valdés, Paloma; Meza-Arana, Clara Elena; Brito-Córdova, Griselda; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J.; Mehta, Roopa; Oseguera-Moguel, Jorge; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) increases glucose uptake. It is unknown if FGF21 serum levels are affected by exercise. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a comparative longitudinal study. Anthropometric and biochemical evaluation were carried out before and after a bout of exercise and repeated after two weeks of daily supervised exercise. The study sample was composed of 60 sedentary young healthy women. The mean age was 24±3.7 years old, and the mean BMI was 21.4±7.0 kg/m2. The anthropometric characteristics did not change after two weeks of exercise. FGF21 levels significantly increased after two weeks of exercise (276.8 ng/l (142.8–568.6) vs. (460.8 (298.2–742.1), p<0.0001)). The delta (final–basal) log of serum FGF21, adjusted for BMI, showed a significant positive correlation with basal glucose (r = 0.23, p = 0.04), mean maximal heart rate (MHR) (r = 0.54, p<0.0001), mean METs (r = 0.40, p = 0.002), delta plasma epinephrine (r = 0.53, p<0.0001) and delta plasma FFAs (r = 0.35, p = 0.006). A stepwise linear regression model showed that glucose, MHR, METs, FFAs, and epinephrine, were factors independently associated with the increment in FGF21 after the exercise program (F = 4.32; r2 = 0.64, p<0.0001). Conclusions Serum FGF21 levels significantly increased after two weeks of physical activity. This increment correlated positively with clinical parameters related to the adrenergic and lipolytic response to exercise. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01512368 PMID:22701542

  9. Increased alveolar plasminogen activator in early asbestosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cantin, A.; Allard, C.; Begin, R.

    1989-03-01

    Alveolar macrophage-derived plasminogen activator (PA) activity is decreased in some chronic interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis but increased in experimental models of acute alveolitis. Although asbestos fibers can stimulate alveolar macrophages (AM) to release PA in vitro, the effect of chronic asbestos exposure of the lower respiratory tract on lung PA activity remains unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate PA activity of alveolar macrophages and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in asbestos-exposed sheep and asbestos workers. Forty-three sheep were exposed to either 100 mg UICC chrysotile B asbestos in 100 ml phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or to 100 ml PBS by tracheal infusion every 2 wk for 18 months. At Month 18, chest roentgenograms were analyzed and alveolar macrophage and extracellular fluid PA activity were measured in samples obtained by BAL. Alveolar macrophage PA activity was increased in the asbestos-exposed sheep compared to control sheep (87.2 +/- 17.3 versus 41.1 +/- 7.2 U/10(5) AM-24 h, p less than 0.05) as was the BAL fluid PA activity (674.9 +/- 168.4 versus 81.3 +/- 19.7 U/mg alb-24 h, p less than 0.01). Among the asbestos-exposed sheep, 10 had normal chest roentgenograms (Group SA) and 15 had irregular interstitial opacities (Group SB). Strikingly, whereas Group SA did not differ from the control group in BAL cellularity or PA activity, Group SB had marked increases in alveolar macrophages (p less than 0.005), AM PA activity (p less than 0.02), and BAL PA activity (p less than 0.001) compared to the control group.

  10. Are increased frequency of macrophage-like and natural killer (NK) cells, together with high levels of NKT and CD4+CD25high T cells balancing activated CD8+ T cells, the key to control Chagas’ disease morbidity?

    PubMed Central

    Vitelli-Avelar, D M; Sathler-Avelar, R; Massara, R L; Borges, J D; Lage, P S; Lana, M; Teixeira-Carvalho, A; Dias, J C P; Elói-Santos, S M; Martins-Filho, O A

    2006-01-01

    The immunological response during early human Trypanosoma cruzi infection is not completely understood, despite its role in driving the development of distinct clinical manifestations of chronic infection. Herein we report the results of a descriptive flow cytometric immunophenotyping investigation of major and minor peripheral blood leucocyte subpopulations in T. cruzi-infected children, characterizing the early stages of the indeterminate clinical form of Chagas’ disease. Our results indicated significant alterations by comparison with uninfected children, including increased values of pre-natural killer (NK)-cells (CD3– CD16+ CD56–), and higher values of proinflammatory monocytes (CD14+ CD16+ HLA-DR++). The higher values of activated B lymphocytes (CD19+ CD23+) contrasted with impaired T cell activation, indicated by lower values of CD4+ CD38+ and CD4+ HLA-DR+ lymphocytes, a lower frequency of CD8+ CD38+ and CD8+ HLA-DR+ cells; a decreased frequency of CD4+ CD25HIGH regulatory T cells was also observed. These findings reinforce the hypothesis that simultaneous activation of innate and adaptive immunity mechanisms in addition to suppression of adaptive cellular immune response occur during early events of Chagas’ disease. Comparative cross-sectional analysis of these immunophenotypes with those exhibited by patients with late chronic indeterminate and cardiac forms of disease suggested that a shift toward high values of macrophage-like cells extended to basal levels of proinflammatory monocytes as well as high values of mature NK cells, NKT and regulatory T cells, may account for limited tissue damage during chronic infection favouring the establishment/maintenance of a lifelong indeterminate clinical form of the disease. On the other hand, development of an adaptive cell-mediated inflammatory immunoprofile characterized by high levels of activated CD8+ cells and basal levels of mature NK cells, NKT and CD4+ CD25HIGH cells might lead to late chronic

  11. Increased Ribozyme Activity in Crowded Solutions*

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ravi; Kilburn, Duncan; Lee, Hui-Ting; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs must function in the crowded environment of the cell. Previous small-angle x-ray scattering experiments showed that molecular crowders stabilize the structure of the Azoarcus group I ribozyme, allowing the ribozyme to fold at low physiological Mg2+ concentrations. Here, we used an RNA cleavage assay to show that the PEG and Ficoll crowder molecules increased the biochemical activity of the ribozyme, whereas sucrose did not. Crowding lowered the Mg2+ threshold at which activity was detected and increased total RNA cleavage at high Mg2+ concentrations sufficient to fold the RNA in crowded or dilute solution. After correcting for solution viscosity, the observed reaction rate was proportional to the fraction of active ribozyme. We conclude that molecular crowders stabilize the native ribozyme and favor the active structure relative to compact inactive folding intermediates. PMID:24337582

  12. Technology to promote and increase physical activity in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Nina C

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is firmly recommended as part of a multifaceted approach to heart failure (HF) self-management. Unfortunately, research indicates that most patients are less likely to engage in and adhere to such activities. The widespread use of information and communication technology tools and resources offers an innovative and potentially beneficial avenue for increasing physical activity levels in HF patients. This article presents specific ways in which advances in information and communication technologies, including Internet- and mobile-based communications, social media platforms, and self-monitoring health devices, can serve as a means to broadly promote increasing levels of physical activity to improve health outcomes in the HF population.

  13. Plasma FGF23 levels increase rapidly after acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Christov, Marta; Waikar, Sushrut; Pereira, Renata; Havasi, Andrea; Leaf, David E.; Goltzman, David; Pajevic, Paola Divieti; Wolf, Myles; Jüppner, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels are elevated in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). In order to determine how early this increase occurs we used a murine folic acid nephropathy model and found that plasma FGF23 levels increased significantly from baseline already after 1 hour of AKI, with an 18-fold increase at 24 hours. Similar elevations of FGF23 levels were found when AKI was induced in mice with osteocyte-specific parathyroid hormone receptor ablation or the global deletion of parathyroid hormone or vitamin D receptor, indicating that the increase in FGF23 was independent of parathyroid hormone and vitamin D signaling. Furthermore, FGF23 levels increased to a similar extent in wild-type mice maintained on normal or phosphate-depleted diets prior to induction of AKI, indicating that the marked FGF23 elevation is at least partially independent of dietary phosphate. Bone production of FGF23 was significantly increased in AKI. The half-life of intravenously administered recombinant FGF23 was only modestly increased. Consistent with the mouse data, plasma FGF23 levels rose 15.9-fold by 24 hours following cardiac surgery in patients who developed AKI. The levels were significantly higher than in those without postoperative AKI. Thus, circulating FGF23 levels rise rapidly during AKI in rodents and humans. In mice this increase is independent of established modulators of FGF23 secretion. PMID:23657144

  14. Addressing childhood obesity through increased physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hills, Andrew P; Okely, Anthony D; Baur, Louise A

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children globally. Despite an appreciation that physical activity is essential for the normal growth and development of children and prevents obesity and obesity-related health problems, too few children are physically active. A concurrent problem is that today's young people spend more time than previous generations did in sedentary pursuits, including watching television and engaging in screen-based games. Active behavior has been displaced by these inactive recreational choices, which has contributed to reductions in activity-related energy expenditure. Implementation of multifactorial solutions considered to offer the best chance of combating these trends is urgently required to redress the energy imbalance that characterizes obesity. The counterproductive 'shame and blame' mentality that apportions responsibility for the childhood obesity problem to sufferers, their parents, teachers or health-care providers needs to be changed. Instead, these groups should offer constant support and encouragement to promote appropriate physical activity in children. Failure to provide activity opportunities will increase the likelihood that the children of today will live less healthy (and possibly shorter) lives than their parents.

  15. In vivo activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the rat hippocampus increases prostaglandin E(2) extracellular levels and triggers lipid peroxidation through cyclooxygenase-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pepicelli, O; Fedele, E; Bonanno, G; Raiteri, M; Ajmone-Cat, M A; Greco, A; Levi, G; Minghetti, L

    2002-06-01

    Cyclooxygenases (COX) are a family of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of prostaglandin (PG) and thromboxanes. The inducible enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is the major isoform found in normal brain, where it is constitutively expressed in neurons and is further up-regulated during several pathological events, including seizures and ischaemia. Emerging evidence suggests that COX-2 is implicated in excitotoxic neurodegenerative phenomena. It remains unclear whether PGs or other products associated to COX activity take part in these processes. Indeed, it has been suggested that reactive oxygen species, produced by COX, could mediate neuronal damage. In order to obtain direct evidence of free radical production during COX activity, we undertook an in vivo microdialysis study to monitor the levels of PGE(2) and 8-epi-PGF(2alpha) following infusion of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). A 20-min application of 1 mm NMDA caused an immediate, MK-801-sensitive increase of both PGE(2) and 8-epi-PGF(2alpha) basal levels. These effects were largely prevented by the specific cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2) ) inhibitor arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (ATK), by non- selective COX inhibitors indomethacin and flurbiprofen or by the COX-2 selective inhibitor NS-398, suggesting that the NMDA-evoked prostaglandin synthesis and free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation are largely dependent on COX-2 activity. As several lines of evidence suggest that prostaglandins may be potentially neuroprotective, our findings support the hypothesis that free radicals, rather than prostaglandins, mediate the toxicity associated to COX-2 activity.

  16. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase and cyclooxygenase-2 increases levels of endocannabinoid related molecules and produces analgesia via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in a model of inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Jhaveri, Maulik D; Richardson, Denise; Robinson, Ian; Garle, Michael J; Patel, Annie; Sun, Yan; Sagar, Devi R; Bennett, Andrew J; Alexander, Stephen P H; Kendall, David A; Barrett, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2008-07-01

    The antinociceptive effects of the endocannabinoids (ECs) are enhanced by inhibiting catabolic enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The physiological relevance of the metabolism of ECs by other pathways, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) is less clear. To address this question we compared the effects of local inhibition of FAAH versus COX2 (URB597 and nimesulide, respectively) on inflammatory hyperalgesia and levels of endocannabinoids and related molecules in the hindpaw. Inflammatory hyperalgesia was measured following intraplantar injection of carrageenan. Effects of intraplantar injection of URB597 (25 microg and 100 microg) or nimesulide (50 microg) on hyperalgesia and hindpaw levels of anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) were determined. Although both doses of URB597 increased levels of AEA and 2AG in the carrageenan inflamed hindpaw, only the lower dose of URB597 attenuated hyperalgesia (P<0.05). Nimesulide attenuated both hyperalgesia and hindpaw oedema (P<0.001, P<0.01, respectively) and increased levels of PEA (P<0.05) in the hindpaw. Since both AEA and PEA are ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha), the effects of the PPARalpha antagonist GW6471 on nimesulide- and URB597-mediated effects were studied. GW6471, but not a PPARgamma antagonist, blocked the inhibitory effects of nimesulide and URB597 on hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that both COX2 and FAAH play a role in the metabolism of endocannabinoids and related molecules. The finding that PPARalpha antagonism blocked the inhibitory effects of nimesulide and URB597 suggests that PPARalpha contributes to their antinociceptive effects in the carrageenan model of inflammatory hyperalgesia.

  17. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  18. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  19. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-11-30

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  20. Increased levels of inosine in a mouse model of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Prestwich, Erin G; Mangerich, Aswin; Pang, Bo; McFaline, Jose L; Lonkar, Pallavi; Sullivan, Matthew R; Trudel, Laura J; Taghizedeh, Koli; Dedon, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    One possible mechanism linking inflammation with cancer involves the generation of reactive oxygen, nitrogen and halogen species by activated macrophages and neutrophils infiltrating sites of infection or tissue damage, with these chemical mediators causing damage that ultimately leads to cell death and mutation. To determine the most biologically deleterious chemistries of inflammation, we previously assessed products across the spectrum of DNA damage arising in inflamed tissues in the SJL mouse model nitric oxide over-production (Pang et al., Carcinogenesis 28: 1807–1813, 2007). Among the anticipated DNA damage chemistries, we observed significant changes only in lipid peroxidation-derived etheno adducts. We have now developed an isotope-dilution, liquid chromatography-coupled, tandem quadrupole mass spectrometric method to quantify representative species across the spectrum of RNA damage products predicted to arise at sites of inflammation, including nucleobase deamination (xanthosine, inosine), oxidation (8-oxoguanosine), and alkylation (1,N6-etheno-adenosine). Application of the method to liver, spleen, and kidney from the SJL mouse model revealed generally higher levels of oxidative background RNA damage than was observed in DNA in control mice. However, compared to control mice, RcsX treatment to induce nitric oxide overproduction resulted in significant increases only in inosine and only in the spleen. Further, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-methylarginine, did not significantly affect the levels of inosine in control and RcsX-treated mice. The differences between DNA and RNA damage in the same animal model of inflammation point to possible influences from DNA repair, RcsX-induced alterations in adenosine deaminase activity, and differential accessibility of DNA and RNA to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as determinants of nucleic acid damage during inflammation. PMID:23506120

  1. Adenosine A1 receptor protein levels and activity is increased in the cerebral cortex in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in bovine spongiform encephalopathy-infected bovine-PrP mice.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Agustín; Martín, Mairena; Albasanz, José Luís; Barrachina, Marta; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Torres, Juan María; Ferrer, Isidro

    2006-10-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by neuronal loss, astrocytic gliosis, spongiform change, and abnormal protease-resistant prion protein (PrP) deposition. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most prevalent human prion disease, whereas scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are the most common animal prion diseases. Several candidates have been proposed as mediators of degeneration in prion diseases, one of them glutamate. Recent studies have shown reduced metabotropic glutamate receptor/phospholipase C signaling in the cerebral cortex in CJD, suggesting that this important neuromodulator and neuroprotector pathway is attenuated in CJD. Adenosine is involved in the regulation of different metabolic processes under physiological and pathologic conditions. Adenosine function is mediated by adenosine receptors, which are categorized into 4 types: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. A1Rs are G-protein-coupled receptors that induce the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. The most dramatic inhibitory actions of adenosine receptors are on the glutamatergic system. For these reasons, we examined the levels of A1Rs in the frontal cortex of 12 patients with CJD and 6 age-matched controls and in BSE-infected bovine-PrP transgenic mice (BoPrP-Tg110 mice) at different postincubation times to address modifications in A1Rs with disease progression. A significant increase in the protein levels of A1Rs was found in the cerebral cortex in CJD and in the murine BSE model at advanced stages of the disease and coincidental with the appearance of PrP expression. In addition, the activity of A1Rs was analyzed by in vitro assays with isolated membranes of the frontal cortex in CJD. Increased activity of the receptor, as revealed by the decreased forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in response to the A1R agonists cyclohexyl adenosine and cyclopentyl adenosine, was observed in CJD cases when compared with controls. Finally, mRNA A1R levels were similar in CJD and control cases, thus

  2. Cocaine selectively increases striatonigral dynorphin levels by a dopaminergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sivam, S P

    1989-09-01

    The influence of the acute (single dose) or subchronic (one dose daily for 4 days) administration of cocaine to Sprague-Dawley rats on striatal enkephalin (Met5-enkephalin) and striatonigral tachykinin (substance P) and dynorphin [dynorphin A (1-8), DYN] levels was investigated. The peptide levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The concentrations of the striatal levels of dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine and their acid metabolites were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. An acute administration of cocaine (20 or 30 mg/kg i.p.) did not affect the peptide levels in the striatum or in the substantia nigra. A regimen of subchronic administration of cocaine (20 mg/kg/day for 4 days) increased the striatonigral DYN levels, without altering the levels of Met5-enkephalin or substance P. The increase in DYN levels were persistent for at least 4 days after the last dose of the subchronic administration of cocaine. The DYN levels returned to control values by 12 days after the last dose. The DA levels in the striatum were increased 30 min after a single dose of cocaine. None of the other treatments elicited any changes in DA or 5-hydroxytryptamine or their metabolites. The subchronic cocaine administration to dopaminergic denervated rats with 6-hydroxydopamine failed to evoke any increase in DYN levels in the striatum or substantia nigra. The concurrent administration of the D1 DA antagonist, SCH-23390, or the D2 DA antagonist, spiperone, to the subchronic regimen of cocaine also blocked the cocaine-induced increase in DYN levels. These results indicate that cocaine selectively enhances the synthesis or decreases the release of DYN in the striatonigral neurons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Building a better mousetrap (exergame) to increase youth physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While exergames have been demonstrated to induce moderate levels of physical activity (PA) if played as designed, there is conflicting evidence on use of exergaming leading to increased habitual PA. Exergames have increased PA in some home and school studies, but not others. Exergames have been us...

  4. The recent increase in Atlantic hurricane activity: causes and implications.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, S B; Landsea, C W; Mestas-Nunez, A M; Gray, W M

    2001-07-20

    The years 1995 to 2000 experienced the highest level of North Atlantic hurricane activity in the reliable record. Compared with the generally low activity of the previous 24 years (1971 to 1994), the past 6 years have seen a doubling of overall activity for the whole basin, a 2.5-fold increase in major hurricanes (>/=50 meters per second), and a fivefold increase in hurricanes affecting the Caribbean. The greater activity results from simultaneous increases in North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures and decreases in vertical wind shear. Because these changes exhibit a multidecadal time scale, the present high level of hurricane activity is likely to persist for an additional approximately 10 to 40 years. The shift in climate calls for a reevaluation of preparedness and mitigation strategies.

  5. Proliferative effect of histamine on MA-10 Leydig tumor cells mediated through HRH2 activation, transient elevation in cAMP production, and increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation levels.

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Romina María; Monzón, Casandra; Moreno, Marcos Besio; Pignataro, Omar Pedro; Mondillo, Carolina

    2012-06-01

    Mast cells (MC) occur normally in the testis with a species-specific distribution, yet their precise role remains unclear. Testicular MC express histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the unique enzyme responsible for histamine (HA) generation. Evidence to date supports a role for HA as a local regulator of steroidogenesis via functional H₁ and H₂ receptor subtypes (HRH1 and HRH2, respectively) present in Leydig cells. Given that HA is a well-known modulator of physiological and pathological proliferation in many different cell types, we aimed in the present study to evaluate whether HA might contribute to the regulation of Leydig cell number as well as to the control of androgen production. Herein, we demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that MA-10 Leydig tumor cells, but not normal immature Leydig cells (ILC), exhibit a proliferative response upon stimulation with HA that involves HRH2 activation, transient elevation of cAMP levels, and increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Our results also reveal that MA-10 cells show significantly heightened HDC expression compared to normal ILC or whole-testicular lysate and that inhibition of HDC activity decreases MA-10 cell proliferation, suggesting a possible correlation between autocrine overproduction of HA and abnormally increased proliferation in Leydig cells. The facts that germ cells are also both source and target of HA and that multiple testicular cells are susceptible to HA action underline the importance of the present study, which we hope will serve as a first step for further research into regulation of non-MC-related HDC expression within the testis and its significance for testicular function.

  6. Increased flexibility decreases antifreeze protein activity

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shruti N; Graether, Steffen P

    2010-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins protect several cold-blooded organisms from subzero environments by preventing death from freezing. The Type I antifreeze protein (AFP) isoform from Pseudopleuronectes americanus, named HPLC6, is a 37-residue protein that is a single α-helix. Mutational analysis of the protein showed that its alanine-rich face is important for binding to and inhibiting the growth of macromolecular ice. Almost all structural studies of HPLC6 involve the use of chemically synthesized protein as it requires a native N-terminal aspartate and an amidated C-terminus for full activity. Here, we examine the role of C-terminal amide and C-terminal arginine side chain in the activity, structure, and dynamics of nonamidated Arg37 HPLC6, nonamidated HPLC6 Ala37, amidated HPLC6 Ala37, and fully native HPLC6 using a recombinant bacterial system. The thermal hysteresis (TH) activities of the nonamidated mutants are 35% lower compared with amidated proteins, but analysis of the NMR data and circular dichroism spectra shows that they are all still α-helical. Relaxation data from the two nonamidated mutants indicate that the C-terminal residues are considerably more flexible than the rest of the protein because of the loss of the amide group, whereas the amidated Ala37 mutant has a C-terminus that is as rigid as the wild-type protein and has high TH activity. We propose that an increase in flexibility of the AFP causes it to lose activity because its dynamic nature prevents it from binding strongly to the ice surface. PMID:20936690

  7. EDD induces cell cycle arrest by increasing p53 levels.

    PubMed

    Smits, Veronique A J

    2012-02-15

    Tight regulation of p53 is essential for its central role in maintaining genome stability and tumor prevention. Here, EDD/ UBR5/hHyd, hereafter called EDD, is identified as a novel regulator of p53. Downregulation of EDD results in elevated p53 protein levels both in transformed and untransformed cells. Concomitant with a rise in p53, the levels of p21, a critical p53 target, are also elevated in these conditions. Surprisingly, EDD knockdown does not affect p53 protein stability, and p53 mRNA levels do not increase significantly upon EDD depletion. Consistent with the function of p53, EDD downregulation triggers a senescent phenotype in fibroblasts at later time points. In addition, the increased p53 levels upon EDD depletion cause a G(1) arrest, as co-depletion of EDD and p53 completely rescues this effect on cell cycle progression. PMID:22374670

  8. ACTIVITY LEVEL AND LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SJOGREN, DOUGLAS D.; STAKE, ROBERT E.

    A STUDY OF LEARNING ACTIVITY EXPLORED (1) AN ACTIVITY-ACHIEVEMENT SCALE TO DESCRIBE THE IMPACT OF ACTIVITY ON ACHIEVEMENT AND (2) THE POSSIBLE COMPLEXITY OR DIMENSIONALITY OF THIS IMPACT. TEN GROUPS, OF 10 COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS EACH, WERE SCHEDULED TO STUDY UNDER EACH OF 10 LEARNING SITUATIONS. THE SITUATIONS CONSISTED OF TWO MODES OF…

  9. Local school policies increase physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The implementation of school policies to support the adoption of physical activity is one of the main strategies recommended to increase physical activity levels among this age group. However, documentation of the effect of such policies is so far limited. The purpose of this study was to explore policy-related practices to support physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools and their association with recess physical activity. Emphasis was given to examine the association between policies and physical activity, over and beyond, individual level interests and environmental factors and to examine cross-level interaction effects. This cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Data were collected through questionnaires. The results showed that schools with a written policy for physical activity and schools offering organized non-curricular physical activity several times a week had a higher proportion of students reporting daily participation in recess physical activity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis demonstrated a cross-level main effect of the policy index after controlling for sex, socio-economic status, individual-level interests and the physical environment. A significant contribution of adding the policy index to the prediction of recess physical activity above that provided by the individual-level interests and the physical environment was demonstrated. The results are encouraging and give scientific support to policy documents recommending the implementation of school policies to increase physical activity. PMID:19884244

  10. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed. PMID:25844975

  11. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  12. Endozepine-4 levels are increased in hepatic coma

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Vacante, Marco; Drago, Filippo; Bertino, Gaetano; Motta, Massimo; Giordano, Maria; Malaguarnera, Michele

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the serum levels of endozepine-4, their relation with ammonia serum levels, the grading of coma and the severity of cirrhosis, in patients with hepatic coma. METHODS: In this study we included 20 subjects with Hepatic coma, 20 subjects with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and 20 subjects control. All subjects underwent blood analysis, Child Pugh and Model for End - stage liver disease (MELD) assessment, endozepine-4 analysis. RESULTS: Subjects with hepatic coma showed significant difference in endozepine-4 (P < 0.001) and NH3 levels (P < 0.001) compared both to MHE and controls patients. Between NH3 and endozepine-4 we observed a significant correlation (P = 0.009; Pearson correlation 0.570). There was a significant correlation between endozepine-4 and MELD (P = 0.017; Pearson correlation = 0.529). In our study blood ammonia concentration was noted to be raised in patients with hepatic coma, with the highest ammonia levels being found in those who were comatose. We also found a high correlation between endozepine-4 and ammonia (P < 0.001). In patients with grade IV hepatic coma, endozepine levels were significantly higher compared to other groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that an increased level of endozepine in subjects with higher levels of MELD was observed. In conclusion, data concerning involvement of the GABA-ergic system in HE coma could be explained by stage-specific alterations. PMID:26290636

  13. Increased Mitochondrial Activity in Anthrax-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chi

    2009-01-01

    Pathogenesis of anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is attributed to its ability to cause death of infected cells. New work has demonstrated that increase of mitochondrial F1F0 ATPase activity and subsequent depletion of cellular ATP level are critical early events during LT-induced cell death. PMID:26124679

  14. Increased matriptase zymogen activation in inflammatory skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng-Jueng; Wu, Bai-Yao; Tsao, Pai-In; Chen, Chi-Yung; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Chan, Yee Lam E.; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Johnson, Michael D.; Eckert, Richard L.; Chen, Ya-Wen; Chou, Fengpai; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2011-01-01

    Matriptase, a type 2 transmembrane serine protease, and its inhibitor hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-1 are required for normal epidermal barrier function, and matriptase activity is tightly regulated during this process. We therefore hypothesized that this protease system might be deregulated in skin disease. To test this, we examined the level and activation state of matriptase in examples of 23 human skin disorders. We first examined matriptase and HAI-1 protein distribution in normal epidermis. Matriptase was detected at high levels at cell-cell junctions in the basal layer and spinous layers but was present at minimal levels in the granular layer. HAI-1 was distributed in a similar pattern, except that high-level expression was retained in the granular layer. This pattern of expression was retained in most skin disorders. We next examined the distribution of activated matriptase. Although activated matriptase is not detected in normal epidermis, a dramatic increase is seen in keratinocytes at the site of inflammation in 16 different skin diseases. To gain further evidence that activation is associated with inflammatory stimuli, we challenged HaCaT cells with acidic pH or H2O2 and observed matriptase activation. These findings suggest that inflammation-associated reactive oxygen species and tissue acidity may enhance matriptase activation in some skin diseases. PMID:21123732

  15. Increasing carbonmonoxide blood levels in Bangkok bus drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Saenghirunvattana, S.; Wananukul, W.; Mokkhavesa, C.; Opasi, N.

    1995-05-01

    In order to study the effects of air pollution in Bangkok, 31 bus drivers were examined and blood was drawn for measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) prior to and after work. The COHb level before work was 2.19{+-}2.46% (range 0.7.18). It had increased after work to 5.26{+-}2.52% (range 0-10.4) (p<0.001). Twenty-one drivers complained of chronic headaches, myalgia, and eye irritation during working hours. The COHb level was not statistically different between smokers and nonsmokers.

  16. Methamphetamine increases basal ganglia iron to levels observed in aging.

    PubMed

    Melega, William P; Laćan, Goran; Harvey, Dennis C; Way, Baldwin M

    2007-10-29

    Increases in basal ganglia iron are well documented for neurodegenerative diseases but have not been associated with methamphetamine (METH). In this study, vervet monkeys that received two doses of METH (2 mg/kg, intramuscularly, 6 h apart) showed at 1 month, iron increases in substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus, with concurrent increases of ferritin-immunoreactivity and decreases of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity in substantia nigra. At 1.5 years, substantia nigra tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity had recovered while iron and ferritin-immunoreactivity increases persisted. Globus pallidus and substantia nigra iron levels of the adult METH-exposed animals (age 5-9 years) were now comparable with those of drug-naive, aged animals (19-22 years), suggesting an aging-related condition that might render those regions more vulnerable to oxidative stress.

  17. Increased plasma levels of interleukin-6 in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hack, C E; De Groot, E R; Felt-Bersma, R J; Nuijens, J H; Strack Van Schijndel, R J; Eerenberg-Belmer, A J; Thijs, L G; Aarden, L A

    1989-10-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is likely to be an important mediator of the inflammatory response. We measured levels of this cytokine in plasma samples from 37 patients with sepsis or septic shock obtained at the time of admission to the intensive care unit and related these levels to hemodynamic and biochemical parameters as well as to clinical outcome. In 32 of the 37 patients, increased levels of IL-6 were found, occasionally up to 7,500 times the normal level. The highest IL-6 levels were encountered in patients who suffered from septic shock (P value of the difference between patients with and without shock less than .0001). In addition, IL-6 significantly correlated with plasma lactate (P less than .0001), heart rate (P = .05) and, inversely, with mean arterial pressure (P = .01) and platelet counts (P = .0002). Significant correlations of IL-6 with the anaphylatoxins C3a (P = .0001) and C4a (P = .0002) and with the main inhibitor of the classical pathway of complement, C1-inhibitor (inverse correlation, P = .05), were also observed. IL-6 on admission appeared to be of prognostic significance: levels were higher in septic patients who subsequently died than in those who survived (P = .0003), in particular when only patients with septic shock were considered (P less than .0001). All nine septic patients with levels of less than 40 U/mL on admission survived, whereas 89% of the nine patients with levels exceeding 7,500 U/mL died. These data provide evidence for a role of IL-6 in the pathophysiology of septic shock. Further studies are needed to reveal whether IL-6 in sepsis is directly involved in mediating lethal complications or whether it is to be considered as an "alarm hormone" that reflects endothelial cell injury probably mediated by the anaphylatoxines.

  18. Increased plasma homocysteine levels in shift working bus drivers

    PubMed Central

    Martins, P; D'Almeida, V; Vergani, N; Perez, A; Tufik, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have indicated an association between shift work and cardiovascular disease. There is also considerable epidemiological evidence that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Aims: To analyse plasma homocysteine levels in shift work bus drivers, and to investigate possible relations with sleep parameters and other biochemical factors. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 30 male shift working long-haul bus drivers in a Brazilian sample and analysed for plasma levels of homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, and serum lipids. A group of 22 daytime workers, matched for age and body mass index served as controls. The incidence of mutations in the gene coding for methylene tetrahydrofolate, an enzyme which is related to hyperhomocysteinemia, was also assessed. Polysomnographic recordings were obtained from the target group. Results: Bus drivers showed significantly higher levels of plasma homocysteine than the control group (18.57 v 9.43 µM). Most of the other biochemical, behavioural, and molecular parameters did not differ between groups. Likewise, sleep parameters appeared to be within the normal range. Conclusions: The significantly increased plasma homocysteine levels in long-haul bus drivers did not appear to be secondary to other biochemical or behavioural problems in this group. These results suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia may be involved in the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases observed in shift workers. PMID:12937187

  19. Placental Cadmium Levels Are Associated with Increased Preeclampsia Risk

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Jessica E.; Ray, Paul; Bodnar, Wanda; Cable, Peter H.; Boggess, Kim; Offenbacher, Steven; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposure to heavy metals is a potentially modifiable risk factor for preeclampsia (PE). Toxicologically, there are known interactions between the toxic metal cadmium (Cd) and essential metals such as selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), as these metals can protect against the toxicity of Cd. As they relate to preeclampsia, the interaction between Cd and these essential metals is unknown. The aims of the present study were to measure placental levels of Cd, Se, and Zn in a cohort of 172 pregnant women from across the southeast US and to examine associations of metals levels with the odds of PE in a nested case-control design. Logistic regressions were performed to assess odds ratios (OR) for PE with exposure to Cd controlling for confounders, as well as interactive models with Se or Zn. The mean placental Cd level was 3.6 ng/g, ranging from 0.52 to 14.5 ng/g. There was an increased odds ratio for PE in relationship to placental levels of Cd (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1–2.2). The Cd-associated OR for PE increased when analyzed in relationship to lower placental Se levels (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1–3.5) and decreased with higher placental Se levels (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.5–1.9). Similarly, under conditions of lower placental Zn, the Cd-associated OR for PE was elevated (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.8–3.9), whereas with higher placental Zn it was reduced (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8–2.0). Data from this pilot study suggest that essential metals may play an important role in reducing the odds of Cd-associated preeclampsia and that replication in a larger cohort is warranted. PMID:26422011

  20. Chromosome 1 replacement increases brain orexins and antidepressive measures without increasing locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pingfu; Hu, Yufen; Vurbic, Drina; Akladious, Afaf; Strohl, Kingman P

    2014-12-01

    Decreased orexin level has been well demonstrated in patients suffering from narcolepsy, depression accompanied with suicide attempt; obstructive sleep apnea and comorbidity were also demonstrated in these diseases. As C57BL/6J (B6) mice are more "depressed" and have lower brain orexins than A/J mice, B6 mice having chromosome 1 replacement (B6A1 mice) might have restored orexin levels and less depressive behavior. We studied the behavior of 4-6 month old B6, A/J and B6A1 mice with forced swim, tail suspension, and locomotor activity tests. The animals were then sacrificed and hypothalamus and medullas dissected from brain tissue. Orexins-A and -B were determined by radioimmunoassay. Compared with A/J mice, B6 mice displayed several signs of depression, including increased immobility, increased locomotors activity, and decreased orexin A and -B levels in both the hypothalamus and medulla. Compared to B6 mice, B6A1 mice exhibited significantly higher levels of orexins-A and -B in both brain regions. B6A1 mice also exhibited antidepressive features in most of measured variables, including decreased locomotor activity, decreased immobility and increased swim in tail suspension test; compared with B6 mice, however. B6A1 mice also reversed immobility in the early phase of the swim test. In summary, B6 mice exhibited depressive attributes compared with A/J mice, including increased locomotor activity, greater immobility, and decreased brain orexins, these were largely reversed in B6A1 mice. We conclude that orexin levels modulate these B6 behaviors, likely due to expression of A/J alleles on Chromosome 1.

  1. Experimentally increased noise levels change spatial and singing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Kunc, Hansjoerg P.

    2013-01-01

    The reasons why animal populations decline in response to anthropogenic noise are still poorly understood. To understand how populations are affected by noise, we must understand how individuals are affected by noise. By modifying the acoustic environment experimentally, we studied the potential relationship between noise levels and both spatial and singing behaviour in the European robin (Erithacus rubecula). We found that with increasing noise levels, males were more likely to move away from the noise source and changed their singing behaviour. Our results provide the first experimental evidence in a free ranging species, that not merely the presence of noise causes changes in behaviour and distribution, but that the level of noise pollution plays a crucial role as well. Our results have important implications for estimating the impact of infrastructure which differs in the level of noise produced. Thus, governmental planning bodies should not only consider the physical effect on the landscape when assessing the impact of new infrastructure, but also the noise levels emitted, which may reduce the loss of suitable habitats available for animals. PMID:23173189

  2. Decreased training volume and increased carbohydrate intake increases oxidized LDL levels.

    PubMed

    Välimäki, I A; Vuorimaa, T; Ahotupa, M; Kekkonen, R; Korpela, R; Vasankari, T

    2012-04-01

    We studied effects of probiotics and training volume on oxidized LDL lipids (ox-LDL), serum antioxidant potential (s-TRAP) and serum antioxidants (s-α-tocopherol, s-γ-tocopherol, s-retinol, s-β-carotene and s-ubiquinone-10) in marathon runners during 3-months training period, 6-days preparation period and marathon run. Runners (n=127) were recruited for a randomized, double-blind intervention during which they received either Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG, probiotic group) or placebo drink (placebo group) during whole study. During the preparation period, subjects decreased training and increased carbohydrate intake. Blood samples were taken at baseline, before 6-days preparation, before and immediately after the marathon. Probiotics did not have any effect on ox-LDL, s-TRAP or serum antioxidants levels during the study. Interestingly, ox-LDL increased by 28% and 33% during the preparation period and decreased by 16% and 19% during the marathon run in the placebo and probiotic groups, respectively (in all, P<0.001). No changes were seen in s-TRAP before marathon, but during run s-TRAP raised by 16% in both groups (both, P<0.001). The increase of ox-LDL level during the preparative period after several months' training suggests that aerobic training may reduce the concentration of ox-LDL and that decrease of training together with increased energy intake, mainly carbohydrate, before marathon is capable of increasing the level of ox-LDL.

  3. Hydrocellular foam dressing increases the leptin level in wound fluid.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Sawako; Nakagami, Gojiro; Ohira, Tomomi; Kawasaki, Rui; Shimura, Mari; Iwatsuki, Ken; Sanada, Hiromi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo; Oishi, Yuichi; Yamane, Takumi

    2015-09-01

    Hydrocellular foam dressing (HCF) absorbs excessive wound fluid, which contains various cytokines and growth factors, and ensures a moist environment to promote wound healing. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the wound fluid component changes induced by HCF are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of HCF on wound healing and the associated regulatory mechanisms in relation to variations in cytokine levels in the wound fluid. We created full-thickness wounds on the dorsolateral skin of rats and collected the resulting wound fluid samples. HCF was immersed in a plate containing the wound fluids. HCF was then removed and the excess wound fluid remaining in the plate was examined by cytokine array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also used a rat model and human dermal fibroblast cultures to examine the effect of wound fluid component changes during the wound healing process. Upon treatment with HCF, leptin levels were upregulated in the wound fluid. Fibroblast proliferation was enhanced and the effect was suppressed in the presence of leptin antagonist. In our in vivo model, HCF increased wound contraction compared with film dressings and this positive effect of HCF was suppressed by addition of leptin antagonist. Our results suggest that dermal fibroblast proliferation is upregulated by HCF due to increased leptin level at the wound surface, and these effects promote wound healing. We believe that the present study contributes to furthering the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of HCF-induced wound healing.

  4. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  5. A Three Level Autonomous Software System for Increased Science Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. I.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Landheim, R.

    2005-12-01

    The development of smart science instruments for autonomous operation (on Earth or in space) has the potential to increase science return and reduce the risk of experiment failure. When researchers are confronted with unexpected data/results of the experimental test system, they must determine whether the experimental setup has failed, or scientific discovery is being made. These two classes of events could have the same time series signature. To directly address this issue, we have developed a three-level software system referred to as E3, which consists of an engineering level, an experiment level, and an executive level. Each level of the software system is designed in a modular fashion using model based feedback controllers. The same feedback control mechanism is used for each level; the model itself determines the level. To determine if failure of the experimental setup can explain the data/results, researchers run calibration tests for hardware (e.g., sensors and actuators) as well as verify that the software (e.g., controls and analog to digital conversion routines) is running as planned. If anomalies are found, then modifications are made to the experimental setup, or the anomaly is accepted as the new baseline state of the instrument. The engineering level of the E3 software system is responsible for this process. To determine if scientific discovery, as opposed to failure, can explain the data/results, a researcher tries to explain the difference between the observed and expected results. These explanations are terms of the basic processes of nature to determine the rate limiting step(s) of a complex set of processes, where the flux could be due to heat transfer, mass transfer, momentum transfer, or chemical reaction processes. Once the differences are understood, modifications are made to the software control of the experiment, as well as to the model the researcher is building over the course of repeated experiments. The experiment level of the E3

  6. [Human tolerance to rotation at different levels of increased gravitation].

    PubMed

    Genin, A M; Kotovskaia, A R; Galle, R R; Gavrilova, L N; Sarkisov, I Iu

    1982-01-01

    The effects of acceleration of different value (up to 2 g) on the level of motion sickness, vestibular and postural reactions to rotation were studied. The experiments were carried out in a centrifuge equipped with a cabin that could be mounted at a different distance from the axis of rotation. Three experimental runs were conducted with a rate of rotation of 15.3 and accelerations values of 1.09, 1.6 and 2.0 g. Vestibular stimulation was produced by head movements of a predetermined number. It was found that with increase in the acceleration value the level of motion sickness decreased and the nystagmic reaction and balance dysfunction enhanced. PMID:6977679

  7. Increasing Physical Activity through Recess. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity promotes important health benefits, reduces risk for obesity and is linked with enhanced academic performance among students. The U.S. Surgeon General recommends that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week, yet fewer than half of children ages 6 to 11 meet that…

  8. Increasing Physical Activity in Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Teri; Reid, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the outcomes of an intervention package on participation in two physical activities: snowshoeing and walking/jogging. Three male secondary school students who had been diagnosed with autism and were attending a school for students with intellectual disabilities participated in a 6-month outdoor physical activity program.…

  9. Co-ruminating increases stress hormone levels in women.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Geary, David C; Rose, Amanda J; Ponzi, Davide

    2008-03-01

    Same-sex friendships are an important source of social support and typically contribute to positive adjustment. However, there can be adjustment trade-offs if the friends co-ruminate (i.e., talk excessively about problems) in that co-rumination is related to having close friendships but also to increased internalizing symptoms. The current study utilized an experimental manipulation that elicited co-rumination in young women and thus mirrored an everyday response to stress. Observed co-rumination was associated with a significant increase in the stress hormone, cortisol (after controlling for self-reported co-rumination and for cortisol levels assessed before the discussion of problems). These findings suggest that co-rumination can amplify, rather than mitigate, the hormonal stress response to personal life stressors.

  10. Can increased atmospheric CO2 levels trigger a runaway greenhouse?

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ramses M; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Lindner, Valerie; Kasting, James F

    2014-08-01

    Recent one-dimensional (globally averaged) climate model calculations by Goldblatt et al. (2013) suggest that increased atmospheric CO(2) could conceivably trigger a runaway greenhouse on present Earth if CO(2) concentrations were approximately 100 times higher than they are today. The new prediction runs contrary to previous calculations by Kasting and Ackerman (1986), which indicated that CO(2) increases could not trigger a runaway, even at Venus-like CO(2) concentrations. Goldblatt et al. argued that this different behavior is a consequence of updated absorption coefficients for H(2)O that make a runaway more likely. Here, we use a 1-D climate model with similar, up-to-date absorption coefficients, but employ a different methodology, to show that the older result is probably still valid, although our model nearly runs away at ∼12 preindustrial atmospheric levels of CO(2) when we use the most alarmist assumptions possible. However, we argue that Earth's real climate is probably stable given more realistic assumptions, although 3-D climate models will be required to verify this result. Potential CO(2) increases from fossil fuel burning are somewhat smaller than this, 10-fold or less, but such increases could still cause sufficient warming to make much of the planet uninhabitable by humans.

  11. Can increased atmospheric CO2 levels trigger a runaway greenhouse?

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ramses M; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Lindner, Valerie; Kasting, James F

    2014-08-01

    Recent one-dimensional (globally averaged) climate model calculations by Goldblatt et al. (2013) suggest that increased atmospheric CO(2) could conceivably trigger a runaway greenhouse on present Earth if CO(2) concentrations were approximately 100 times higher than they are today. The new prediction runs contrary to previous calculations by Kasting and Ackerman (1986), which indicated that CO(2) increases could not trigger a runaway, even at Venus-like CO(2) concentrations. Goldblatt et al. argued that this different behavior is a consequence of updated absorption coefficients for H(2)O that make a runaway more likely. Here, we use a 1-D climate model with similar, up-to-date absorption coefficients, but employ a different methodology, to show that the older result is probably still valid, although our model nearly runs away at ∼12 preindustrial atmospheric levels of CO(2) when we use the most alarmist assumptions possible. However, we argue that Earth's real climate is probably stable given more realistic assumptions, although 3-D climate models will be required to verify this result. Potential CO(2) increases from fossil fuel burning are somewhat smaller than this, 10-fold or less, but such increases could still cause sufficient warming to make much of the planet uninhabitable by humans. PMID:25061956

  12. Acute stress induces increases in salivary IL-10 levels.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Yvette Z; Newton, Tamara L; Miller, James J; Lyle, Keith B; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress-reactivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in saliva and to determine how salivary IL-10 levels change in relation to those of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, following stress. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to retrieve a negative emotional memory (n = 46) or complete a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 45). Saliva samples were taken 10 min before (baseline) and 50 min after (post-stressor) onset of a 10-min stressor, and were assayed using a high sensitivity multiplex assay for cytokines. Measurable IL-10 levels (above the minimum detectable concentration) were found in 96% of the baseline samples, and 98% of the post-stressor samples. Flow rate-adjusted salivary IL-10 levels as well as IL-1β/IL-10 ratios showed moderate but statistically significant increases in response to stress. Measurement of salivary IL-10 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios may be useful, noninvasive tools, in stress research.

  13. Increased physical activity has a greater effect than reduced energy intake on lifestyle modification-induced increases in testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Yoshikawa, Toru; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Obesity results in reduced serum testosterone levels, which causes many disorders in men. Lifestyle modifications (increased physical activity and calorie restriction) can increase serum testosterone levels. However, it is unknown whether increased physical activity or calorie restriction during lifestyle modifications has a greater effects on serum testosterone levels. Forty-one overweight and obese men completed a 12-week lifestyle modification program (aerobic exercise training and calorie restriction). We measured serum testosterone levels, the number of steps, and the total energy intake. We divided participants into two groups based on the median change in the number of steps (high or low physical activities) or that in calorie restriction (high or low calorie restrictions). After the program, serum testosterone levels were significantly increased. Serum testosterone levels in the high physical activity group were significantly higher than those in the low activity group. This effect was not observed between the groups based on calorie restriction levels. We found a significant positive correlation between the changes in serum testosterone levels and the number of steps. Our results suggested that an increase in physical activity greatly affected the increased serum testosterone levels in overweight and obese men during lifestyle modification. PMID:26798202

  14. [Increased serum PIVKA-II levels in hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, M; Takeda, K; Ohara, E; Nishimori, Y; Hisahara, T; Nishida, M; Sugiura, T

    2001-11-01

    PIVKA-II has been practically used as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma. On the other hand, increased serum PIVKA-II concentration was reported in a Japanese patient who had hyperthyroidism without liver diseases. To evaluate whether thyroid hormone is related with serum PIVKA-II, we examined serum PIVKA-II concentrations in patients with various thyroid diseases. Eight patients with Hashimoto disease, 24 patients with Graves' disease, and 8 healthy subjects were studied. There was no significant difference of serum PIVKA-II levels among the three groups. However, serum PIVKA-II concentrations(mean +/- SD mAU/ml) in hyperthyroidism(37 +/- 27) were significantly higher than those in hypothyroidism(16 +/- 9) and normal controls(12 +/- 4) (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). When hyperthyroid patients were treated by antithyroid drug or isotope, serum PIVKA-II concentrations decreased in accordance with the decrease of serum FT4 concentrations. Our data indicate that serum PIVKA-II concentration was increased in patients with hyperthyroidism, but further in vivo studies are necessary to clarify the mechanism related to increased serum PIVKA-II by thyroid hormone.

  15. Physiological response to increasing levels of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA).

    PubMed

    Lecomte, François; Brander, Lukas; Jalde, Fredrick; Beck, Jennifer; Qui, Haibo; Elie, Caroline; Slutsky, Arthur S; Brunet, Fabrice; Sinderby, Christer

    2009-04-30

    This study evaluated the response to increasing levels of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA), a mode converting electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) into pressure, regulated by a proportionality constant called the NAVA level. Fourteen rabbits were studied during baseline, resistive loading and ramp increases of the NAVA level. EAdi, airway (Paw) and esophageal pressure (Pes), Pes pressure time product (PTPes), breathing pattern, and blood gases were measured. Resistive loading increased PTPes and EAdi. P(a)(CO)(2) increased with high load but not during low load. Increasing NAVA levels increased Paw until a breakpoint where the Paw increase was reduced despite increasing NAVA level. At this breakpoint, Pes, PTPes, EAdi, and P(a)(CO)(2) were similar to baseline. Further increase of the NAVA level reduced Pes, PTPes and EAdi without changes in ventilation. In conclusion, observing the trend in Paw during a ramp increase of the NAVA level allows determination of a level where the inspiratory effort matches unloaded conditions. PMID:19429528

  16. Increased apolipoprotein E and c-fms gene expression without elevated interleukin 1 or 6 mRNA levels indicates selective activation of macrophage functions in advanced human atheroma.

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, R N; Underwood, R; Doyle, M V; Wang, A; Libby, P

    1992-01-01

    human atheroma appear to exhibit a selective program of activation as they express high levels of apoE, whereas overall levels of interleukin 1 or 6 mRNAs in plaques are not elevated. Images PMID:1557388

  17. Towards engineering increased pantothenate (vitamin B(5)) levels in plants.

    PubMed

    Chakauya, Ereck; Coxon, Katy M; Wei, Ma; Macdonald, Mary V; Barsby, Tina; Abell, Chris; Smith, Alison G

    2008-11-01

    Pantothenate (vitamin B(5)) is the precursor of the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety of coenzyme A and acyl-carrier protein. It is made by plants and microorganisms de novo, but is a dietary requirement for animals. The pantothenate biosynthetic pathway is well-established in bacteria, comprising four enzymic reactions catalysed by ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase (KPHMT), L: -aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase (ADC), pantothenate synthetase (PS) and ketopantoate reductase (KPR) encoded by panB, panD, panC and panE genes, respectively. In higher plants, the genes encoding the first (KPHMT) and last (PS) enzymes have been identified and characterised in several plant species. Commercially, pantothenate is chemically synthesised and used in vitamin supplements, feed additives and cosmetics. Biotransformation is an attractive alternative production system that would circumvent the expensive procedures of separating racemic intermediates. We explored the possibility of manipulating pantothenate biosynthesis in plants. Transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) lines were generated in which the E. coli KPHMT and PS genes were expressed under a strong constitutive CaMV35SS promoter. No significant change of pantothenate levels in PS transgenic lines was observed. In contrast plants expressing KPHMT had elevated pantothenate levels in leaves, flowers siliques and seed in the range of 1.5-2.5 fold increase compared to the wild type plant. Seeds contained the highest vitamin content, indicating that they might be the ideal target for production purposes.

  18. Brassinosteroid Levels Increase Drastically Prior to Morphogenesis of Tracheary Elements

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Ryo; Fujioka, Shozo; Demura, Taku; Takatsuto, Suguru; Yoshida, Shigeo; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2001-01-01

    As the first step toward understanding the involvement of endogenous brassinosteroids (BRs) in cytodifferentiation, we analyzed biosynthetic activities of BRs in zinnia (Zinnia elegans L. cv Canary Bird) cells differentiating into tracheary elements. The results of feeding experiments suggested that both the early and late C6-oxidation pathways occur during tracheary element differentiation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that five BRs, castasterone, typhasterol, 6-deoxocastasterone, 6-deoxotyphasterol, and 6-deoxoteasterone, actually existed in cultured zinnia cells and culture medium. Quantification of endogenous BRs in each stage of tracheary element differentiation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry exhibited that they increased dramatically prior to the morphogenesis, which was consistent with the idea that BRs are necessary for the initiation of the final stage of tracheary element differentiation. Moreover, the proportion of each BR in culture medium was quite different from that in cells, suggesting that specific BRs are selectively secreted into medium and may function outside the cells. PMID:11161013

  19. Effect of Increased Water Vapor Levels on TBC Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A; Garner, George Walter; Lowe, Tracie M; Haynes, James A; Zhang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of increased water vapor levels on thermal barrier coating (TBC) lifetime, furnace cycle tests were performed at 1150 C in air with 10 vol.% water vapor (similar to natural gas combustion) and 90 vol.%. Either Pt diffusion or Pt-modified aluminide bond coatings were applied to specimens from the same batch of a commercial second-generation single-crystal superalloy and commercial vapor-deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats were applied. Three coatings of each type were furnace cycled to failure to compare the average lifetimes obtained in dry O{sub 2}, using the same superalloy batch and coating types. Average lifetimes with Pt diffusion coatings were unaffected by the addition of water vapor. In contrast, the average lifetime of Pt-modified aluminide coatings was reduced by more than 50% with 10% water vapor but only slightly reduced by 90% water vapor. Based on roughness measurements from similar specimens without a YSZ coating, the addition of 10% water vapor increased the rate of coating roughening more than 90% water vapor. Qualitatively, the amount of {beta}-phase depletion in the coatings exposed in 10% water vapor did not appear to be accelerated.

  20. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  1. The tolerance of the Arabidopsis defense hormone receptor mutant coi1 against the vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum is not due to increased levels of the active hormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine.

    PubMed

    Ralhan, Anjali; Thurow, Corinna; Gatz, Christiane

    2013-11-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a soil-borne vascular pathogen found primarily on oilseed rape in Northern Europe. Infection of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana can be achieved under laboratory conditions. In the article related to this addendum, we have shown that Arabidopsis dde2-2 mutants that are compromised in their ability to synthesize the defense hormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) are slightly more susceptible than wild-type. Contrary to the expectation that hormone biosynthesis mutants and their respective receptor mutants should have the same phenotype, we found that plants that lack the JA-Ile receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) are more tolerant to the disease. This addendum addressed the question whether the increased JA-Ile levels found in coi1 are responsible for its tolerance phenotype. Based on the evidence that the JA-Ile-deficient dde2-2 coi1-t double mutant is as tolerant as coi1-t, we conclude that increased JA-Ile levels do not protect Arabidopsis against the fungus in the absence of COI1.

  2. The tolerance of the Arabidopsis defense hormone receptor mutant coi1 against the vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum is not due to increased levels of the active hormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine

    PubMed Central

    Ralhan, Anjali; Thurow, Corinna; Gatz, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a soil-borne vascular pathogen found primarily on oilseed rape in Northern Europe. Infection of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana can be achieved under laboratory conditions. In the article related to this addendum, we have shown that Arabidopsis dde2–2 mutants that are compromised in their ability to synthesize the defense hormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) are slightly more susceptible than wild-type. Contrary to the expectation that hormone biosynthesis mutants and their respective receptor mutants should have the same phenotype, we found that plants that lack the JA-Ile receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) are more tolerant to the disease. This addendum addressed the question whether the increased JA-Ile levels found in coi1 are responsible for its tolerance phenotype. Based on the evidence that the JA-Ile-deficient dde2–2 coi1-t double mutant is as tolerant as coi1-t, we conclude that increased JA-Ile levels do not protect Arabidopsis against the fungus in the absence of COI1. PMID:24300304

  3. Low Physical Activity Level and Short Sleep Duration Are Associated with an Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile: A Longitudinal Study in 8-11 Year Old Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Andersen, Rikke; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Background As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Objective To examine independent and combined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between movement behaviors and the MetS score in 8-11 year old Danish children. Design Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration (seven days and eight nights) were assessed by accelerometer and fat mass index (fat mass/height2) was assessed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The MetS-score was based on z-scores of waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. All measurements were taken at three time points separated by 100 days. Average of the three measurements was used as habitual behavior in the cross-sectional analysis and changes from first to third measurement was used in the longitudinal analysis. Results 723 children were included. In the cross-sectional analysis, physical activity was negatively associated with the MetS-score (P<0.03). In the longitudinal analysis, low physical activity and high sedentary time were associated with an increased MetS-score (all P<0.005); however, after mutual adjustments for movement behaviors, physical activity and sleep duration, but not sedentary time, were associated with the MetS-score (all P<0.03). Further adjusting for fat mass index while removing waist circumference from the MetS-score rendered the associations no longer statistically significant (all P>0.17). Children in the most favorable tertiles of changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sleep duration and sedentary time during the 200-day follow-up period had an improved MetS-score relative to children in the opposite tertiles (P = 0

  4. Reduced Vglut2/Slc17a6 Gene Expression Levels throughout the Mouse Subthalamic Nucleus Cause Cell Loss and Structural Disorganization Followed by Increased Motor Activity and Decreased Sugar Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Anttila, Casey J.A.; Nordenankar, Karin; Arvidsson, Emma; Mahmoudi, Souha; Zampera, André; Wärner Jonsson, Hanna; Bergquist, Jonas; Lévesque, Daniel; Andersson, Malin; Dumas, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a central role in motor, cognitive, and affective behavior. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN is the most common surgical intervention for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), and STN has lately gained attention as target for DBS in neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and addiction. Animal studies using STN-DBS, lesioning, or inactivation of STN neurons have been used extensively alongside clinical studies to unravel the structural organization, circuitry, and function of the STN. Recent studies in rodent STN models have exposed different roles for STN neurons in reward-related functions. We have previously shown that the majority of STN neurons express the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 gene (Vglut2/Slc17a6) and that reduction of Vglut2 mRNA levels within the STN of mice [conditional knockout (cKO)] causes reduced postsynaptic activity and behavioral hyperlocomotion. The cKO mice showed less interest in fatty rewards, which motivated analysis of reward-response. The current results demonstrate decreased sugar consumption and strong rearing behavior, whereas biochemical analyses show altered dopaminergic and peptidergic activity in the striatum. The behavioral alterations were in fact correlated with opposite effects in the dorsal versus the ventral striatum. Significant cell loss and disorganization of the STN structure was identified, which likely accounts for the observed alterations. Rare genetic variants of the human VGLUT2 gene exist, and this study shows that reduced Vglut2/Slc17a6 gene expression levels exclusively within the STN of mice is sufficient to cause strong modifications in both the STN and the mesostriatal dopamine system. PMID:27699212

  5. Reduced Vglut2/Slc17a6 Gene Expression Levels throughout the Mouse Subthalamic Nucleus Cause Cell Loss and Structural Disorganization Followed by Increased Motor Activity and Decreased Sugar Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Anttila, Casey J.A.; Nordenankar, Karin; Arvidsson, Emma; Mahmoudi, Souha; Zampera, André; Wärner Jonsson, Hanna; Bergquist, Jonas; Lévesque, Daniel; Andersson, Malin; Dumas, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a central role in motor, cognitive, and affective behavior. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN is the most common surgical intervention for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), and STN has lately gained attention as target for DBS in neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and addiction. Animal studies using STN-DBS, lesioning, or inactivation of STN neurons have been used extensively alongside clinical studies to unravel the structural organization, circuitry, and function of the STN. Recent studies in rodent STN models have exposed different roles for STN neurons in reward-related functions. We have previously shown that the majority of STN neurons express the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 gene (Vglut2/Slc17a6) and that reduction of Vglut2 mRNA levels within the STN of mice [conditional knockout (cKO)] causes reduced postsynaptic activity and behavioral hyperlocomotion. The cKO mice showed less interest in fatty rewards, which motivated analysis of reward-response. The current results demonstrate decreased sugar consumption and strong rearing behavior, whereas biochemical analyses show altered dopaminergic and peptidergic activity in the striatum. The behavioral alterations were in fact correlated with opposite effects in the dorsal versus the ventral striatum. Significant cell loss and disorganization of the STN structure was identified, which likely accounts for the observed alterations. Rare genetic variants of the human VGLUT2 gene exist, and this study shows that reduced Vglut2/Slc17a6 gene expression levels exclusively within the STN of mice is sufficient to cause strong modifications in both the STN and the mesostriatal dopamine system.

  6. Acute aerobic exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in elderly with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; Arantes, Franciel José; Rueda, André Veloso; Camarini, Rosana; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decreased BDNF levels may constitute a lack of trophic support and contribute to cognitive impairment in AD. The benefits of acute and chronic physical exercise on BDNF levels are well-documented in humans, however, exercise effects on BDNF levels have not been analyzed in older adults with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on BDNF levels in older adults with AD and to verify associations among BDNF levels, aerobic fitness, and level of physical activity. Using a controlled design, twenty-one patients with AD (76.3 ± 6.2 years) and eighteen healthy older adults (74.6 ± 4.7 years) completed an acute aerobic exercise. The outcomes included measures of BDNF plasma levels, aerobic fitness (treadmill grade, time to exhaustion, VO2, and maximal lactate) and level of physical activity (Baecke Questionnaire Modified for the Elderly). The independent t-test shows differences between groups with respect to the BDNF plasma levels at baseline (p = 0.04; t = 4.53; df = 37). In two-way ANOVA, a significant effect of time was found (p = 0.001; F = 13.63; df = 37), the aerobic exercise significantly increased BDNF plasma levels in AD patients and healthy controls. A significant correlation (p = 0.04; r = 0.33) was found between BDNF levels and the level of physical activity. The results of our study suggest that aerobic exercise increases BDNF plasma levels in patients with AD and healthy controls. In addition to that, BDNF levels had association with level of physical activity.

  7. Increase in voice level and speaker comfort in lecture rooms.

    PubMed

    Brunskog, Jonas; Gade, Anders Christian; Bellester, Gaspar Payá; Calbo, Lilian Reig

    2009-04-01

    Teachers often suffer from health problems related to their voice. These problems are related to their working environment, including the acoustics of the lecture rooms. However, there is a lack of studies linking the room acoustic parameters to the voice produced by the speaker. In this pilot study, the main goals are to investigate whether objectively measurable parameters of the rooms can be related to an increase in the voice sound power produced by speakers and to the speakers' subjective judgments about the rooms. In six different rooms with different sizes, reverberation times, and other physical attributes, the sound power level produced by six speakers was measured. Objective room acoustic parameters were measured in the same rooms, including reverberation time and room gain, and questionnaires were handed out to people who had experience talking in the rooms. It is found that in different rooms significant changes in the sound power produced by the speaker can be found. It is also found that these changes mainly have to do with the size of the room and to the gain produced by the room. To describe this quality, a new room acoustic quantity called "room gain" is proposed.

  8. JAK-2 V617F mutation increases heparanase procoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Inna; Chap, Dafna; Hoffman, Ron; Axelman, Elena; Brenner, Benjamin; Nadir, Yona

    2016-01-01

    Patients with polycythaemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythaemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are at increased risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. In patients with ET a positive correlation was observed between JAK-2 V617F mutation, that facilitates erythropoietin receptor signalling, and thrombotic events, although the mechanism involved is not clear. We previously demonstrated that heparanase protein forms a complex and enhances the activity of the blood coagulation initiator tissue factor (TF) which leads to increased factor Xa production and subsequent activation of the coagulation system. The present study was aimed to evaluate heparanase procoagulant activity in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Forty bone marrow biopsies of patients with ET, PV, PMF and chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) were immunostained to heparanase, TF and TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI). Erythropoietin receptor positive cell lines U87 human glioma and MCF-7 human breast carcinoma were studied. Heparanase and TFPI staining were more prominent in ET, PV and PMF compared to CML. The strongest staining was in JAK-2 positive ET biopsies. Heparanase level and procoagulant activity were higher in U87 cells transfected to over express JAK-2 V617F mutation compared to control and the effect was reversed using JAK-2 inhibitors (Ruxolitinib, VZ3) and hydroxyurea, although the latter drug did not inhibit JAK-2 phosphorylation. Erythropoietin increased while JAK-2 inhibitors decreased the heparanase level and procoagulant activity in U87 and MCF-7 parental cells. In conclusion, JAK-2 is involved in heparanase up-regulation via the erythropoietin receptor. The present findings may potentially point to a new mechanism of thrombosis in JAK-2 positive ET patients. PMID:26489695

  9. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion).

  10. INCREASES IN CYTOSOLIC CALCIUM ION LEVELS IN HUMAN NATURAL KILLER CELLS IN RESPONSE TO BUTYLTIN EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Rhonda; Ghazi, Sabah O.; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether exposures to butyltins (BTs), tributylin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) were able to alter cytosolic calcium levels in human natural killer (NK) cells. Additionally, the effects of cytosolic calcium ion increases on the activation state of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in NK cells were also investigated. NK cells are an intital immune defense against the development of tumors or viral infections. TBT and DBT are widespread environmental contaminants, due to their various industrial applications. Both TBT and DBT have been shown to decrease the ability of NK cells to lyse tumor cells (lytic function). TBT has also been shown to activate MAPKs in NK cells. The results of this study indicated that TBT increased cytosolic calcium levels by as much as 100% after a 60 min exposure to 500 nM TBT while DBT increased cytosolic calcium levels to a much smaller extent (and required higher concentrations). The results also indicated that increases in cytosolic calcium could activate MAPKs but only for a short period of time (5 min), while previous studies showed that activation of MAPKs by TBT last for at least 6 hours. Thus, it appears that TBT stimulated increases in cytosolic calcium may contribute to, but are not fully responsible for, TBT-induced activation of MAPKs. PMID:19365649

  11. Increased platelet oxidative metabolism, blood oxidative stress and neopterin levels after ultra-endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    de Lucas, Ricardo Dantas; Caputo, Fabrizio; Mendes de Souza, Kristopher; Sigwalt, André Roberto; Ghisoni, Karina; Lock Silveira, Paulo Cesar; Remor, Aline Pertile; da Luz Scheffer, Débora; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci; Latini, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to identify muscle damage, inflammatory response and oxidative stress blood markers in athletes undertaking the ultra-endurance MultiSport Brazil race. Eleven well-trained male athletes (34.3 ± 3.1 years, 74.0 ± 7.6 kg; 172.2 ± 5.1 cm) participated in the study and performed the race, which consisted of about 90 km of alternating off-road running, mountain biking and kayaking. Twelve hours before and up to 15 minutes after the race a 10 mL blood sample was drawn in order to measure the following parameters: lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities, lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, protein carbonylation, respiratory chain complexes I, II and IV activities, oxygen consumption and neopterin concentrations. After the race, plasma lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities were significantly increased. Erythrocyte TBA-RS levels and plasma protein carbonylation were markedly augmented in post-race samples. Additionally, mitochondrial complex II activity and oxygen consumption in post-race platelet-rich plasma were also increased. These altered biochemical parameters were accompanied by increased plasma neopterin levels. The ultra-endurance event provoked systemic inflammation (increased neopterin) accompanied by marked oxidative stress, likely by increasing oxidative metabolism (increased oxidative mitochondrial function). This might be advantageous during prolonged exercise, mainly for efficient substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, even when tissue damage is induced.

  12. Cortical injury increases cholesterol 24S hydroxylase (Cyp46) levels in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Cartagena, Casandra M; Ahmed, Farid; Burns, Mark P; Pajoohesh-Ganji, Ahdeah; Pak, Daniel T; Faden, Alan I; Rebeck, G William

    2008-09-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI), cellular loss from initial impact as well as secondary neurodegeneration leads to increased cholesterol and lipid debris at the site of injury. Cholesterol accumulation in the periphery can trigger inflammatory mechanisms while cholesterol clearance may be anti-inflammatory. Here we investigated whether TBI altered the regulation of cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase (Cyp46), an enzyme that converts cholesterol to the more hydrophilic 24S-hydroxycholesterol. We examined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry changes in Cyp46 expression following fluid percussion injury. Under normal conditions, most Cyp46 was present in neurons, with very little measurable in glia. Cyp46 levels were significantly increased at 7 days post-injury, and cell type specific analysis at 3 days post-injury showed a significant increase in levels of Cyp46 (84%) in microglia. Since 24-hydroxycholesterol induces activation of genes through the liver X receptor (LXR), we examined protein levels of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and apolipoprotein E, two LXR regulated cholesterol homeostasis proteins. Apolipoprotein E and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 were increased at 7 days post-injury, indicating that increased LXR activity coincided with increased Cyp46 levels. We found that activation of primary rat microglia by LPS in vitro caused increased Cyp46 levels. These data suggest that increased microglial Cyp46 activity is part of a system for removal of damaged cell membranes post-injury, by conversion of cholesterol to 24-hydroxycholesterol and by activation of LXR-regulated gene transcription.

  13. Testing the feasibility and acceptability of using the Nintendo Wii in the home to increase activity levels, vitality and well-being in people with multiple sclerosis (Mii-vitaliSe): protocol for a pilot randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sarah; Fazakarley, Louise; Thomas, Peter W; Brenton, Sarah; Collyer, Sarah; Perring, Steve; Scott, Rebecca; Galvin, Kathleen; Hillier, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of physical activity for people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) have been recognised. However, exercise regimens can be difficult to maintain over the longer term and pwMS may face unique barriers to physical activity engagement. Pilot research suggests the Nintendo Wii can be used safely at home by pwMS with minimal mobility/balance issues and may confer benefits. We have developed a home-based physiotherapist supported Wii intervention (‘Mii-vitaliSe’) for pwMS that uses commercial software. This is a pilot study to explore the feasibility of conducting a full scale clinical and cost-effectiveness trial of Mii-vitaliSe. Methods and analysis 30 ambulatory, relatively inactive pwMS will be randomised to receive Mii-vitaliSe immediately, or after 6 months. Outcomes, measured at baseline and 6 and 12 months later, will include balance, gait, mobility, hand dexterity and self-reported physical activity levels, fatigue, self-efficacy, mood and quality of life. Interviews conducted on a purposive sample of participants will explore experiences of participation in the study and barriers and facilitators to using the Wii. Mean recruitment, adherence rate and standard deviations (SDs) of potential primary outcomes for the full trial will be estimated and precision summarised using 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Interview transcripts will be thematically analysed using a generic qualitative approach. Ethics and dissemination National Health Service (NHS; ref 12/SC/0420) and university ethical approvals have been obtained as has NHS Research and Development permission from the relevant trust. A home risk assessment will be undertaken for all potential participants. All adverse events will be closely monitored, documented and reported to the study Safety Monitoring Committee. At least one publication in a peer reviewed journal will be produced and research findings presented at a national and international conference. With service users, we

  14. Estuaries May Face Increased Parasitism as Sea Levels Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-12-01

    Invertebrates in estuaries could be at a greater risk of parasitism as climate change causes sea levels to rise. A new paper published 8 December in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (doi:10.1073/pnas.1416747111) describes how rapid sea level rise in the Holocene affected the population of parasitic flatworms called trematodes.

  15. Increases in choline levels in rat brain elicited by meclofenoxate.

    PubMed

    Wood, P L; Péloquin, A

    1982-04-01

    Meclofenoxate, the p-cholorophenoxyacetic acid ester of deanol, was found to dramatically elevate choline (Ch) levels in the rat CNS. In the hippocampus, this elevation in choline was accompanied by a new elevated steady state level in acetylcholine (ACh). No such coupling was observed in the striatum or parietal cortex. Deanol also elevated choline levels in the CNS but was about half as potent as meclofenoxate; p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid was inactive in this respect. Lesions of striatal neurons with kainic acid and of hippocampal cholinergic nerve endings with surgical section of the fimbria indicated that the changes in choline levels were mainly extraneuronal. In spite of the changes in choline and ACh levels, no consistant alterations in ACh turnover were measured. In summary, meclofenoxate induced dramatic alterations in CNS choline metabolism and may, therefore, be a useful therapeutic tool for potentiating depressed cholinergic neurons.

  16. How Active Are Your Students? Increasing Physical Activity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Marybell; Brandt, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that youth engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day, most of which should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. Half of this amount (30 minutes) should be achieved during the school day. NASPE provides guidance in the form of a…

  17. Diesterified nitrone rescues nitroso-redox levels and increases myocyte contraction via increased SR Ca(2+) handling.

    PubMed

    Traynham, Christopher J; Roof, Steve R; Wang, Honglan; Prosak, Robert A; Tang, Lifei; Viatchenko-Karpinski, Serge; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Racoma, Ira O; Catalano, Dominic J; Huang, Xin; Han, Yongbin; Kim, Shang-U; Gyorke, Sandor; Billman, George E; Villamena, Frederick A; Ziolo, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O(2) (-)) are important cardiac signaling molecules that regulate myocyte contraction. For appropriate regulation, NO and O(2) (.-) must exist at defined levels. Unfortunately, the NO and O(2) (.-) levels are altered in many cardiomyopathies (heart failure, ischemia, hypertrophy, etc.) leading to contractile dysfunction and adverse remodeling. Hence, rescuing the nitroso-redox levels is a potential therapeutic strategy. Nitrone spin traps have been shown to scavenge O(2) (.-) while releasing NO as a reaction byproduct; and we synthesized a novel, cell permeable nitrone, 2-2-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide (EMEPO). We hypothesized that EMEPO would improve contractile function in myocytes with altered nitroso-redox levels. Ventricular myocytes were isolated from wildtype (C57Bl/6) and NOS1 knockout (NOS1(-/-)) mice, a known model of NO/O(2) (.-) imbalance, and incubated with EMEPO. EMEPO significantly reduced O(2) (.-) (lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence) and elevated NO (DAF-FM diacetate) levels in NOS1(-/-) myocytes. Furthermore, EMEPO increased NOS1(-/-) myocyte basal contraction (Ca(2+) transients, Fluo-4AM; shortening, video-edge detection), the force-frequency response and the contractile response to β-adrenergic stimulation. EMEPO had no effect in wildtype myocytes. EMEPO also increased ryanodine receptor activity (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak/load relationship) and phospholamban Serine16 phosphorylation (Western blot). We also repeated our functional experiments in a canine post-myocardial infarction model and observed similar results to those seen in NOS1(-/-) myocytes. In conclusion, EMEPO improved contractile function in myocytes experiencing an imbalance of their nitroso-redox levels. The concurrent restoration of NO and O(2) (.-) levels may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of various cardiomyopathies. PMID:23300588

  18. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  19. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. PMID:26179801

  20. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A.; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K.; Fuiman, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. PMID:26179801

  1. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs.

  2. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  3. Increased Plasminogen Activator (Urokinase) in Tissue Culture After Fibrin Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Bernik, Maria B.

    1973-01-01

    Lysis of fibrin in tissue culture has been shown to be due to plasminogen activator identified immunologically as urokinase. The present study examines fibrinolytic events in culture, particularly mechanisms leading to increased urokinase levels and accelerated fibrinolysis. Deposition of fibrin on cells in culture was followed by a two- to six-fold increase in urokinase in the supernates and rapid disappearance of the fibrin. Investigation of factors that might be responsible for these events (including fibrin, fibrinogen, vasoactive stimuli, and the enzymes thrombin and plasmin) indicated that the enhanced urokinase yields were mediated through plasmin and thrombin. Study of the possible modes of action of thrombin and plasmin indicated that these enzymes are capable of acting on the cells themselves as well as on cell-produced material. The effect on cells was manifested by mitotic activity or, occasionally, cell injury and death. Although these effects influenced urokinase levels, enhanced yields were explained best by the action of enzymes on cellproduced material. Studies with plasmin and thrombin, and also trypsin, indicated that proteolytic enzymes may act in various ways—affect the stability of urokinase, interfere with inhibition of urokinase by naturally occurring inhibitor(s), and induce urokinase activity from inactive material. Plasma and thrombin appeared to act primarily through the latter mechanism. Inactive material, which gave rise to urokinase upon exposure to proteolytic enzymes and which may represent urokinase precursor, was found in cultures of kidney, lung, spleen, and thyroid. Urokinase in such inactive state appears to be readily accessible to activation by enzymes, particularly plasmin and thrombin, thus facilitating removal of fibrin and possibly also providing pathways to excessive fibrinolysis. PMID:4266421

  4. Pistachio intake increases high density lipoprotein levels and inhibits low-density lipoprotein oxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Nur; Aksoy, Mehmet; Bagci, Cahit; Gergerlioglu, H Serdar; Celik, Hakim; Herken, Emine; Yaman, Abdullah; Tarakcioglu, Mehmet; Soydinc, Serdar; Sari, Ibrahim; Davutoglu, Vedat

    2007-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that nuts have protective effects against coronary artery disease by improving lipid profile and inhibiting lipid oxidation. However, data about pistachio nuts are limited, and to our knowledge, there is no study investigating the effects of pistachio intake on lipid oxidation and serum antioxidant levels. This study, therefore, sought to determine the effects of pistachio intake on serum lipids and determine whether consumption of pistachio would alter serum antioxidant levels. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=12 for each): control group fed basic diet for 10 weeks and treated groups fed basic diet plus pistachio which constituted 20% and 40% of daily caloric intake, respectively. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and decreased total cholesterol (TC)/HDL ratio, compared with those not taking pistachio. However, TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were unaffected by pistachio consumption. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased serum paraoxonase activity by 35% and arylesterase activity by 60%, which are known to inhibit LDL cholesterol oxidation, compared with the control group. However, increased antioxidant activity was blunted when pistachio intake was increased to 40% of daily caloric intake. In conclusion, the present results show that consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake leads to significant improvement in HDL and TC/HDL ratio and inhibits LDL cholesterol oxidation. These results suggest that pistachio may be beneficial for both prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease.

  5. β-asarone increases MEF2D and TH levels and reduces α-synuclein level in 6-OHDA-induced rats via regulating the HSP70/MAPK/MEF2D/Beclin-1 pathway: Chaperone-mediated autophagy activation, macroautophagy inhibition and HSP70 up-expression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Deng, Minzhen; He, Yuping; Lu, Shiyao; Liu, Shu; Fang, Yongqi

    2016-10-15

    Inactive myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) and alpha-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation will cause neuronal death. MEF2D or α-syn degradation is also associated with macroautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70). We found that β-asarone had positive effects on treating 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rats, but mechanisms of β-asarone affecting on MEF2D and α-syn via regulating the HSP70/MAPK/MEF2D/Beclin-1 pathway remain unclear. Unilateral 6-OHDA injection into the medial forebrain bundle was used to create PD rats, which were divided into four groups and administered for 30days: 6-OHDA model group, MEF2D inhibitor-treated group (SB203580, 0.5mg/kg, i.p.), MEF2D activator-treated group (LiCl, 100mg/kg, i.p.), β-asarone-treated group (15mg/kg, p.o.). Expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), α-syn, heat-shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70), lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2a (LAMP-2A), MEF2D, HSP70, Beclin-1, light chain 3B (LC3B) and p62 in the mesencephalon were measured after 30-day administration. α-syn, Beclin-1 and LC3B levels were higher in the 6-OHDA model group, while TH, MEF2D, HSC70, LAMP-2A, p62 levels were lower compared to the sham-operated group. Our results also showed thatβ-asarone treatment reduced protein and mRNA levels of α-syn, Beclin-1 and LC3B, but increased HSP70, TH, MEF2D, HSC70, LAMP-2A and p62 levels compared to the 6-OHDA model group. Additionally, certain correlations among α-syn, TH, Beclin-1, LC3B, p62, HSP70, LAMP-2A and MEF2D were also discovered in this study. These findings suggested that β-asarone treatment could increase MEF2D and TH as well as reduce α-syn to protect against 6-OHDA induced damage in PD rat mesencephalon via modulating the HSP70/MAPK/MEF2D/Beclin-1 pathway.

  6. Serum osteocalcin (BGP) levels in normal men: a longitudinal evaluation reveals an age-associated increase.

    PubMed

    Orwoll, E S; Deftos, L J

    1990-03-01

    Serum levels of bone gla protein (BGP) have been reported to increase with aging and hence to reflect an age-related increase in bone remodeling activity. To evaluate the relationship between aging and serum BGP levels in a study of longitudinal design, we measured BGP concentrations in 77 normal men at 6 month intervals over a 3 year period. Mean BGP levels at the onset (4.95 +/- 1.5 ng/ml) increased significantly during the study (p = 0.004), and the mean of individual BGP slopes was positive (0.38 +/- 0.6 ng/ml per year, p = 0.0001). The rate of change in BGP was not related to serum creatinine levels or dietary calcium intake.

  7. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Action levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, J.S.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1991-10-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide for early leak detection and to monitor performance of the active low-level waste disposal facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and the transuranic waste storage areas in SWSA 5 North. Early leak detection is accomplished by sampling runoff, groundwater, and perched water in burial trenches. Sample results are compared to action levels that represent background contamination by naturally occurring and fallout-derived radionuclides. 15 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Essential fructosuria: increased levels of fructose 3-phosphate in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Petersen, A; Steinmann, B; Gitzelmann, R

    1992-01-01

    Erythrocytes of 3 adult siblings with essential fructosuria contained 45-200 mumol/l fructose 3-phosphate (Fru-3-P), i.e. 3-15 times the concentration in normal controls. Sorbitol 3-phosphate was also increased, but to a lesser degree. An oral load with 50 g of fructose produced an additional 40 mumol/l increase of erythrocyte Fru-3-P after 5 h. The rate of Fru-3-P formation by red cells in vitro was normal. HbA1 and HbA1c were normal. The suspected pathogenetic role of Fru-3-P in diabetic complications is questioned.

  9. Increase in plasma thrombomodulin level in patients with vibration syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kanazuka, M; Shigekiyo, T; Toibana, N; Saito, S

    1996-04-01

    To determine whether endothelial cells are injured in vibration syndrome, we measured plasma levels of thrombomodulin (TM) in 100 patients with this syndrome using one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Plasma level of TM in patients with vibration syndrome was significantly higher than that in normal control (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the plasma TM level between patients with vibration syndrome and those with collagen disease. Plasma TM concentration in chain-saw operators was significantly higher than that in rock-drill operators (p < 0.05). Plasma TM value did not significantly differ between patients with vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and those without VWF. These results suggest that endothelial injury is present in patients with vibration syndrome, the degree of endothelial injury in patients with vibration syndrome equals that in patients with collagen disease, and the endothelial injury in chain-saw operators is greater than that in rock-drill operators. However, there was no difference in the degree of endothelial injury between patients with VWF and those without VWF.

  10. Increasing Children's Physical Activity During the School Day.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Daniel Philip; Chomitz, Virginia Rall

    2015-06-01

    Insufficient levels of daily physical activity (PA) among children in the USA and worldwide have profound implications for pediatric obesity and children's health and well-being more generally. Public health recommendations highlight the central role that schools play in providing equitable opportunities for PA for all children. This review identifies evidence-based approaches for increasing children's PA throughout the school day and discusses multilevel factors that support implementation of such approaches. Opportunities to increase school-day PA span not only in-school time (e.g., quality recess and physical education, classroom activity breaks) but also time before school (e.g., active commuting initiatives) and after school (e.g., intramural and interscholastic sports programs). For such approaches to impact children's PA, dimensions of implementation such as adoption, fidelity, penetration, implementation costs, and sustainability are critical. Multilevel factors that influence implementation include policies, school environment and organizational factors, teacher and classroom factors, child and family characteristics, and attributes of the PA approach itself. Research and field observations reinforce the importance of understanding challenges specific to working with schools, including multiple stakeholders, competing priorities, limited facilities and staff capacity, and heterogeneity of students. Thus, while schools hold promise as promoters and equalizers of PA engagement for all children, more research is needed on the levers that influence implementation of effective school-based PA policies and programs.

  11. 43 CFR 4110.3-1 - Increasing active use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Increasing active use. 4110.3-1 Section... Qualifications and Preference § 4110.3-1 Increasing active use. When monitoring or documented field observations... forage is available, in proportion to their active use; and (2) To other qualified applicants...

  12. 43 CFR 4110.3-1 - Increasing active use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Increasing active use. 4110.3-1 Section... Qualifications and Preference § 4110.3-1 Increasing active use. When monitoring or documented field observations... forage is available, in proportion to their active use; and (2) To other qualified applicants...

  13. 43 CFR 4110.3-1 - Increasing active use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Increasing active use. 4110.3-1 Section... Qualifications and Preference § 4110.3-1 Increasing active use. When monitoring or documented field observations... forage is available, in proportion to their active use; and (2) To other qualified applicants...

  14. 43 CFR 4110.3-1 - Increasing active use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Increasing active use. 4110.3-1 Section... Qualifications and Preference § 4110.3-1 Increasing active use. When monitoring or documented field observations... forage is available, in proportion to their active use; and (2) To other qualified applicants...

  15. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  16. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  17. Rotational stress-induced increase in epinephrine levels delays cutaneous wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Romana-Souza, Bruna; Otranto, Marcela; Vieira, Andreza M; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Fierro, Iolanda M; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa

    2010-03-01

    Stress impairs wound healing of cutaneous lesions; however, the mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rotational stress on cutaneous wound healing in mice and propose a mechanism. Male mice were spun at 45 rpm for 15 min every hour beginning 3 days before wounding until euthanasia. Control animals were not subjected to stress. To confirm that catecholamines participate in stress-induced delay of wound healing, mice were treated daily with propranolol. An excisional lesion was created and measured. Seven and 14 days later, animals were killed and lesions collected. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunostained for alpha-smooth muscle actin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 activity, nitrite levels, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression were measured in the wounds. In addition, murine skin fibroblast cultures were treated with high levels of epinephrine and fibroblast activity was evaluated. Stressed mice exhibited reduced locomotor activity and increased normetanephrine plasma levels. Rotational stress was associated with decreased wound contraction, reduced re-epithelialization, reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activation, but with strongly increased nitrite levels. Furthermore, inflammatory cell infiltration, TNF-alpha expression, myofibroblastic differentiation, and angiogenesis were all delayed in the stress group. Propranolol administration reversed the deleterious effects of stress on wound contraction and re-epithelialization. High epinephrine concentrations increased murine skin fibroblast proliferation and nitric oxide synthesis, and strongly inhibited skin fibroblast migration and both pro- and active MMP-2. In conclusion, rotational stress impairs cutaneous wound healing due to epinephrine increased levels.

  18. Increased Rho kinase activity in congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ming; Liao, James K.; Fang, Fang; Lee, Alex Pui-Wai; Yan, Bryan Ping-Yen; Liu, Ming; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2012-01-01

    Aims Rho kinases (ROCKs) are the best characterized effectors of the small G-protein RhoA, and play a role in enhanced vasoconstriction in animal models of congestive heart failure (CHF). This study examined if ROCK activity is increased in CHF and how it is associated with the outcome in CHF. Methods and results Patients admitted with CHF (n =178), disease controls (n =31), and normal subjects (n =30) were studied. Baseline ROCK activity was measured by phosphorylation of themyosin-binding subunit in peripheral leucocytes. The patients were followed up for 14.4 ± 7.2 months (range 0.5–26 months) or until the occurrence of cardiac death. The ROCK activity in CHF patients (2.93 ± 0.87) was significantly higher than that of the disease control (2.06 ± 0.38, P < 0.001) and normal control (1.57 ± 0.43, P < 0.001) groups. Similarly, protein levels of ROCK1 and ROCK2 as well as the activity of RhoA in CHF were significantly higher than in disease controls and normal controls (all P < 0.05). Dyspnoea at rest (β =0.338, P < 0.001), low left ventricular ejection fraction (β = –0.277, P < 0.001), and high creatinine (β =0.202, P =0.006) were independent predictors of the baseline ROCK activity in CHF. Forty-five patients died within 2 years follow-up (25.3%). Combining ROCK activity and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) had an incremental value (log rank χ2 =11.62) in predicting long-term mortality when compared with only NT-proBNP (log rank χ2 =5.16, P < 0.05). Conclusion ROCK activity is increased in CHF and it might be associated with the mortality in CHF. ROCK activity might be a complementary biomarker to CHF risk stratification. PMID:22588320

  19. Men on the Move: A Pilot Program to Increase Physical Activity among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Langford, Aisha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important contribution increasing physical activity levels may play in reducing chronic disease morbidity and mortality, there is a paucity of interventions and research indicating how to improve physical activity levels in African American men. "Men on the Move" was a pilot study to increase African American men's…

  20. Increase of inherent protection level in spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnobaev, A.; Kryuchkov, E.; Glebov, V.

    2006-07-01

    The paper is devoted to upgrading inherent proliferation protection of fissionable nuclear materials (FNM). Some possibilities were investigated to form high radiation barrier inside spent fuel assemblies (SFA) discharged from power reactors of VVER-1000 type and research reactors of IRT type. The radiation barrier is estimated in the terms of rate of equivalent dose (RED) at 30-cm distance from SFA. The values of RED were calculated with application of the computer code package SCALE 4.3. The paper considers the criteria adopted for estimation of FNM proliferation resistance. The paper presents numerical results on a component-wise analysis of the radiation barrier in SFA from reactors of VVER-1000 and IRT type and on capability of various radionuclides to prolong action of the radiation barrier. Isotopic admixtures were selected and amounts of these admixtures were evaluated for significant prolongation of the radiation barrier action at the levels of the radiation standards used for estimation of FNM proliferation resistance. The paper considers vulnerability of the radiation barriers in respect to thermal processing of spent fuel. (authors)

  1. Correlation between organophosphate poisoning, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, and increased cyclic GMP levels in malathion-treated insects.

    PubMed

    Bodnaryk, R P

    1977-05-01

    Organophosphate poisoning with malathion caused large increases (up to 125 and 440%, respectively) in the level of cyclic GMP in larvae of Mamestra configurata Wlk. and in the fly Sarcophaga bullata Parker. Cyclic AMP was little affected. The malathion-induced increase in cyclic GMP was time and dose dependent. Time-course studies with the head and thorax of S. bullata demonstrated that the increase in cyclic GMP level occurred precipitously after a lag period of about 1 h, during which time the activity of acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) was progressively inhibited. The abrupt increase in cyclic GMP began when acetylcholinesterase activity had been inhibited to a sufficient extent to permit accumulation of acetylcholine. It is suggested that the accumulation of acetylcholine in the malathion-poisoned insects caused cyclic GMP levels to rise. Cyclic GMP may have a role in cholinergic transmission in normally functioning insect neural tissue. Increased levels of cyclic GMP induced by organophosphate and organocholorine (Bodnaryk, R. P. (1976) Can. J. Biochem. 54, 957-962) insecticides appear to be a vital and previously unrecognized biochemical lesion in insects poisoned by these compounds.

  2. Vertebrate blood cell volume increases with temperature: implications for aerobic activity.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; Zenil-Ferguson, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic activity levels increase with body temperature across vertebrates. Differences in these levels, from highly active to sedentary, are reflected in their ecology and behavior. Yet, the changes in the cardiovascular system that allow for greater oxygen supply at higher temperatures, and thus greater aerobic activity, remain unclear. Here we show that the total volume of red blood cells in the body increases exponentially with temperature across vertebrates, after controlling for effects of body size and taxonomy. These changes are accompanied by increases in relative heart mass, an indicator of aerobic activity. The results point to one way vertebrates may increase oxygen supply to meet the demands of greater activity at higher temperatures.

  3. Empagliflozin, via Switching Metabolism Toward Lipid Utilization, Moderately Increases LDL Cholesterol Levels Through Reduced LDL Catabolism.

    PubMed

    Briand, François; Mayoux, Eric; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Burr, Noémie; Urbain, Isabelle; Costard, Clément; Mark, Michael; Sulpice, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    In clinical trials, a small increase in LDL cholesterol has been reported with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. The mechanisms by which the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin increases LDL cholesterol levels were investigated in hamsters with diet-induced dyslipidemia. Compared with vehicle, empagliflozin 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks significantly reduced fasting blood glucose by 18%, with significant increase in fasting plasma LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, and total ketone bodies by 25, 49, and 116%, respectively. In fasting conditions, glycogen hepatic levels were further reduced by 84% with empagliflozin, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and total cholesterol hepatic levels were 31 and 10% higher, respectively (both P < 0.05 vs. vehicle). A significant 20% reduction in hepatic LDL receptor protein expression was also observed with empagliflozin. Importantly, none of these parameters were changed by empagliflozin in fed conditions. Empagliflozin significantly reduced the catabolism of (3)H-cholesteryl oleate-labeled LDL injected intravenously by 20%, indicating that empagliflozin raises LDL levels through reduced catabolism. Unexpectedly, empagliflozin also reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption in vivo, which led to a significant increase in LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion (both P < 0.05 vs. vehicle). These data suggest that empagliflozin, by switching energy metabolism from carbohydrate to lipid utilization, moderately increases ketone production and LDL cholesterol levels. Interestingly, empagliflozin also reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, which in turn promotes LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion. PMID:27207551

  4. Empagliflozin, via Switching Metabolism Toward Lipid Utilization, Moderately Increases LDL Cholesterol Levels Through Reduced LDL Catabolism.

    PubMed

    Briand, François; Mayoux, Eric; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Burr, Noémie; Urbain, Isabelle; Costard, Clément; Mark, Michael; Sulpice, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    In clinical trials, a small increase in LDL cholesterol has been reported with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. The mechanisms by which the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin increases LDL cholesterol levels were investigated in hamsters with diet-induced dyslipidemia. Compared with vehicle, empagliflozin 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks significantly reduced fasting blood glucose by 18%, with significant increase in fasting plasma LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, and total ketone bodies by 25, 49, and 116%, respectively. In fasting conditions, glycogen hepatic levels were further reduced by 84% with empagliflozin, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and total cholesterol hepatic levels were 31 and 10% higher, respectively (both P < 0.05 vs. vehicle). A significant 20% reduction in hepatic LDL receptor protein expression was also observed with empagliflozin. Importantly, none of these parameters were changed by empagliflozin in fed conditions. Empagliflozin significantly reduced the catabolism of (3)H-cholesteryl oleate-labeled LDL injected intravenously by 20%, indicating that empagliflozin raises LDL levels through reduced catabolism. Unexpectedly, empagliflozin also reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption in vivo, which led to a significant increase in LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion (both P < 0.05 vs. vehicle). These data suggest that empagliflozin, by switching energy metabolism from carbohydrate to lipid utilization, moderately increases ketone production and LDL cholesterol levels. Interestingly, empagliflozin also reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, which in turn promotes LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion.

  5. Increased microglial catalase activity in multiple sclerosis grey matter.

    PubMed

    Gray, Elizabeth; Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly; Redondo, Julianna; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2014-04-22

    Chronic demyelination, on-going inflammation, axonal loss and grey matter neuronal injury are likely pathological processes that contribute to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the precise contribution of each process and their aetiological substrates is not fully known, recent evidence has implicated oxidative damage as a major cause of tissue injury in MS. The degree of tissue injury caused by oxidative molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), is balanced by endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes which detoxify ROS. Understanding endogenous mechanisms which protect the brain against oxidative injury in MS is important, since enhancing anti-oxidant responses is a major therapeutic strategy for preventing irreversible tissue injury in the disease. Our aims were to determine expression and activity levels of the hydrogen peroxide-reducing enzyme catalase in MS grey matter (GM). In MS GM, a catalase enzyme activity was elevated compared to control GM. We measured catalase protein expression by immune dot-blotting and catalase mRNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein analysis studies showed a strong positive correlation between catalase and microglial marker IBA-1 in MS GM. In addition, calibration of catalase mRNA level with reference to the microglial-specific transcript AIF-1 revealed an increase in this transcript in MS. This was reflected by the extent of HLA-DR immunolabeling in MS GM which was significantly elevated compared to control GM. Collectively, these observations provide evidence that microglial catalase activity is elevated in MS grey matter and may be an important endogenous anti-oxidant defence mechanism in MS.

  6. Licochalcone A induces T24 bladder cancer cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Jiangtao; Yang, Xinyan; Han, Jichun; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2016-07-01

    Licochalcone A (LCA) has been reported to significantly inhibit cell proliferation, increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induce apoptosis of T24 human bladder cancer cells via mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-triggered signaling pathways. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which LCA induces apoptosis of T24 cells. Cultured T24 cells were treated with LCA, and cell viability was measured using the sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, and by fluorescent microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining. The levels of intracellular free calcium ions were determined using Fluo-3 AM dye marker. Intracellular ROS levels were assessed using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate probe assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl benzimidazole carbocyanine iodide. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑extra large, Bcl‑2‑associated X protein, Bcl‑2‑interacting mediator of cell death, apoptotic protease activating factor‑1 (Apaf‑1), calpain 2, cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (caspase)‑3, caspase‑4 and caspase‑9 were determined using reverse transcription semiquantitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Treatment with LCA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of T24 cells, and increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and ROS production. Furthermore, LCA induced mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the mRNA expression levels of Apaf‑1, caspase‑9 and caspase‑3. Exposure of T24 cells to LCA also triggered calpain 2 and caspase‑4 activation, resulting in apoptosis. These findings indicated that LCA increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, which may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, the ER stress pathway may be

  7. Src activity increases and Yes activity decreases during mitosis of human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Park, J; Cartwright, C A

    1995-01-01

    Src and Yes protein-tyrosine kinase activities are elevated in malignant and premalignant tumors of the colon. To determine whether Src activity is elevated throughout the human colon carcinoma cell cycle as it is in polyomavirus middle T antigen- or F527 Src-transformed cells, and whether Yes activity, which is lower than that of Src in the carcinoma cells, is regulated differently, we measured their activities in cycling cells. We observed that the activities of both kinases were higher throughout all phases of the HT-29 colon carcinoma cell cycle than in corresponding phases of the fibroblast cycle. In addition, during mitosis of HT-29 cells, Src specific activity increased two- to threefold more, while Yes activity and abundance decreased threefold. The decreased steady-state protein levels of Yes during mitosis appeared to be due to both decreased synthesis and increased degradation of the protein. Inhibition of tyrosine but not serine/threonine phosphatases abolished the mitotic activation of Src. Mitotic Src was phosphorylated at novel serine and threonine sites and dephosphorylated at Tyr-527. Two cellular proteins (p160 and p180) were phosphorylated on tyrosine only during mitosis. Tyrosine phosphorylation of several other proteins decreased during mitosis. Thus, Src in HT-29 colon carcinoma cells, similar to Src complexed to polyomavirus middle T antigen or activated by mutation at Tyr-527, is highly active in all phases of the cell cycle. Moreover, Src activity further increases during mitosis, whereas Yes activity and abundance decrease. Thus, Src and Yes appear to be regulated differently during mitosis of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. PMID:7739521

  8. Aerobic training in rats increases skeletal muscle sphingomyelinase and serine palmitoyltransferase activity, while decreasing ceramidase activity.

    PubMed

    Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Zabielski, Piotr; Baranowski, Marcin; Gorski, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Sphingolipids are important components of cell membranes that may also serve as cell signaling molecules; ceramide plays a central role in sphingolipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 5 weeks of aerobic training on key enzymes and intermediates of ceramide metabolism in skeletal muscles. The experiments were carried out on rats divided into two groups: (1) sedentary and (2) trained for 5 weeks (on a treadmill). The activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), neutral and acid sphingomyelinase (nSMase and aSMase), neutral and alkaline ceramidases (nCDase and alCDase) and the content of sphingolipids was determined in three types of skeletal muscle. We also measured the fasting plasma insulin and glucose concentration for calculating HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment) for estimating insulin resistance. We found that the activities of aSMase and SPT increase in muscle in the trained group. These changes were followed by elevation in the content of sphinganine. The activities of both isoforms of ceramidase were reduced in muscle in the trained group. Although the activities of SPT and SMases increased and the activity of CDases decreased, the ceramide content did not change in any of the studied muscle. Although ceramide level did not change, we noticed increased insulin sensitivity in trained animals. It is concluded that training affects the activity of key enzymes of ceramide metabolism but also activates other metabolic pathways which affect ceramide metabolism in skeletal muscles.

  9. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  10. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  11. Cannabis use is associated with increased CCL11 plasma levels in young healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Scoriels, Linda; Theegala, Swathi; Giro, Maria; Ozanne, Susan E; Burling, Keith; Jones, Peter B

    2013-10-01

    Cannabis is a widely used recreational drug. Its effect on human health and psychosis remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility that cannabis use influenced CCL11 plasma levels. Increased CCL11 chemokine has been reported in schizophrenia and cannabis is a known trigger of schizophrenia. Additionally, plasma levels of the chemokine CCL11 have recently been shown to increase with age and with cognitive deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis. For this study, a total of 87 healthy volunteers (68% men, age range 18-35 years) completed the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire that included information on sociodemographic and morphometric data and provided a blood sample for CCL11 measurement. 'Current users' of cannabis (n=18) had significantly higher CCL11 plasma levels compared to 'past users' (n=33) and 'never users' (n=36) [F(3,84)=3.649; p=0.030]. The latter two groups had similar CCL11 levels. Higher CCL11 plasma levels could not be attributed to gender, age, body mass index, physical activity or use of other legal/illegal drugs. These results suggest that cannabis use increases CCL11 plasma levels and the effects are reversible when cannabis use ceases. PMID:23820464

  12. Cannabis use is associated with increased CCL11 plasma levels in young healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Scoriels, Linda; Theegala, Swathi; Giro, Maria; Ozanne, Susan E; Burling, Keith; Jones, Peter B

    2013-10-01

    Cannabis is a widely used recreational drug. Its effect on human health and psychosis remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility that cannabis use influenced CCL11 plasma levels. Increased CCL11 chemokine has been reported in schizophrenia and cannabis is a known trigger of schizophrenia. Additionally, plasma levels of the chemokine CCL11 have recently been shown to increase with age and with cognitive deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis. For this study, a total of 87 healthy volunteers (68% men, age range 18-35 years) completed the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire that included information on sociodemographic and morphometric data and provided a blood sample for CCL11 measurement. 'Current users' of cannabis (n=18) had significantly higher CCL11 plasma levels compared to 'past users' (n=33) and 'never users' (n=36) [F(3,84)=3.649; p=0.030]. The latter two groups had similar CCL11 levels. Higher CCL11 plasma levels could not be attributed to gender, age, body mass index, physical activity or use of other legal/illegal drugs. These results suggest that cannabis use increases CCL11 plasma levels and the effects are reversible when cannabis use ceases.

  13. Increased serum levels of sortilin are associated with depression and correlated with BDNF and VEGF

    PubMed Central

    Buttenschøn, H N; Demontis, D; Kaas, M; Elfving, B; Mølgaard, S; Gustafsen, C; Kaerlev, L; Petersen, C M; Børglum, A D; Mors, O; Glerup, S

    2015-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors have been investigated in relation to depression. The aim of the present study was to widen this focus to sortilin, a receptor involved in neurotrophic signalling. The serum sortilin level was investigated in 152 individuals with depression and 216 control individuals, and eight genetic markers located within the SORT1 gene were successfully analysed for association with depression. Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. All the individuals returned a questionnaire and participated in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Sortilin levels were measured by immunoassay, and potential determinants of the serum sortilin level were assessed by generalized linear models. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in previous studies. We identified a significant increase of serum sortilin levels in depressed individuals compared with controls (P=0.0002) and significant positive correlation between serum sortilin levels and the corresponding levels of BDNF and VEGF. None of the genotyped SNPs were associated with depression. Additional analyses showed that the serum sortilin level was influenced by several other factors. Alcohol intake and body mass index, as well as depression, serum BDNF and serum VEGF were identified as predictors of serum sortilin levels in our final multivariate model. In conclusion, the results suggest a role of circulating sortilin in depression which may relate to altered activity of neurotrophic factors. PMID:26556286

  14. Rosiglitazone improves insulin sensitivity with increased serum leptin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Soo Kyung; Shim, Wan Sub; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kang, Eun Seok; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lim, Sung Kil; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2008-07-01

    Rosiglitazone (RSG) is known to be an agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) and promotes differentiation of pre-adipocytes into adipocytes. Leptin is highly correlated with adiposity, while the activation of PPARgamma is known to inhibit Lep gene expression and leptin release. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between changes in circulating leptin levels, insulin sensitivity and regional adiposity after RSG treatment. Two hundred fifty-one type 2 diabetic patients (176 men and 75 women) who had been treated with sulfonylurea and/or metformin received 4 mg of RSG daily, in addition to the previous medications. Before and after RSG treatment (average duration 5.6+/-0.9 months), indices of insulin resistance, metabolic parameters, and serum leptin and adiponectin levels were measured. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT(max)) and visceral fat thickness were measured by sonography. After RSG treatment, HOMA-IR index decreased significantly (2.82+/-1.94 vs. 2.01+/-1.58), while BMI and SFT(max) increased, and leptin (4.72+/-3.77 vs. 5.69+/-4.30 ng/ml) and adiponectin levels (7.54+/-10.20 vs. 12.89+/-10.13 microg/ml) increased. The increase in serum leptin correlated with an increase in SFT(max) (r=0.511, p<0.001) and with a reduction in HOMA-IR (r=-0.368, p<0.001). The correlation of Delta leptin with Delta HOMA-IR and with Delta SFT(max) was higher in females and among insulin-resistant subjects. In conclusion, RSG improves the insulin sensitivity with increased serum leptin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is related to an increase in subcutaneous adiposity.

  15. Increased plasma neopterin and hs-CRP levels in patients with endemic fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Varol, Ercan; Aksoy, Fatih; Icli, Atilla; Arslan, Akif; Yuksel, Ozlem; Ersoy, I Hakki; Varol, Simge; Dogan, Abdullah

    2012-11-01

    Although fluoride induced inflammatory reactions have been shown in animals and in vitro humans, there are few studies about fluoride induced inflammatory reactions in human beings at clinical setting. We aimed to measure the plasma neopterin, a marker of activation of the monocyte/macrophage system, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in patients with endemic fluorosis to investigate the possible role of inflammatory processes (monocyte/macrophage activity) in the underlying pathophysiology of fluoride toxicity at clinical level. Plasma neopterin and hs-CRP levels were determined in endemic fluorosis patients and control subjects. Plasma neopterin levels were significantly higher among patients with endemic fluorosis when compared with control group (2.40 ± 0.66 vs. 1.63 ± 0.27 ng/mL respectively; p < 0.001) and plasma hs-CRP levels were also significantly higher among patients with endemic fluorosis when compared with control group (2.41 ± 1.23 vs. 1.93 ± 0.64 mg/L respectively; p < 0.001). Plasma neopterin levels were positively correlated with urine fluoride levels (r = 0.67, p < 0.001) and serum hs-CRP levels were positively correlated with urine fluoride levels (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). We have found that plasma neopterin and hs-CRP levels are increased in patients with endemic fluorosis. We have concluded that inflammation play an important role in the pathophysiology of fluoride toxicity in patients with endemic fluorosis.

  16. Writer's cramp: increased dorsal premotor activity during intended writing.

    PubMed

    Delnooz, Cathérine C S; Helmich, Rick C; Medendorp, W P; Van de Warrenburg, Bart P C; Toni, Ivan

    2013-03-01

    Simple writer's cramp (WC) is a task-specific form of dystonia, characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the hand during writing. It is extremely task-specific, since dystonic symptoms can occur when a patient uses a pencil for writing, but not when it is used for sharpening. Maladaptive plasticity, loss of inhibition, and abnormal sensory processing are important pathophysiological elements of WC. However, it remains unclear how those elements can account for its task-specificity. We used fMRI to isolate cerebral alterations associated with the task-specificity of simple WC. Subjects (13 simple WC patients, 20 matched controls) imagined grasping a pencil to either write with it or sharpen it. On each trial, we manipulated the pencil's position and the number of imagined movements, while monitoring variations in motor output with electromyography. We show that simple WC is characterized by abnormally increased activity in the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) when imagined actions are specifically related to writing. This cerebral effect was independent from the known deficits in dystonia in generating focal motor output and in processing somatosensory feedback. This abnormal activity of the PMd suggests that the task-specific element of simple WC is primarily due to alterations at the planning level, in the computations that transform a desired action outcome into the motor commands leading to that action. These findings open the way for testing the therapeutic value of interventions that take into account the computational substrate of task-specificity in simple WC, e.g. modulations of PMd activity during the planning phase of writing.

  17. L-tyrosine administration increases acetylcholinesterase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Vieira, Júlia S; Scaini, Giselli; Ghedim, Fernando V; Deroza, Pedro F; Zugno, Alexandra I; Pereira, Talita C B; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-12-01

    Tyrosinemia is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations on genes that codify enzymes responsible for tyrosine metabolism. Considering that tyrosinemics patients usually present symptoms associated with central nervous system alterations that ranges from slight decreases in intelligence to severe mental retardation, we decided to investigate whether acute and chronic administration of L-tyrosine in rats would affect acetylcholinesterase mRNA expression and enzymatic activity during their development. In our acute protocol, Wistar rats (10 and 30 days old) were killed one hour after a single intraperitoneal L-tyrosine injection (500 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic administration consisted of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline injections 12 h apart for 24 days in Wistar rats (7 days old) and rats were killed 12 h after last injection. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured by Ellman's method and acetylcholinesterase expression was carried out by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. We observed that acute (10 and 30 days old rats) and chronic L-tyrosine administration increased acetylcholinesterase activity in serum and all tested brain areas (hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex) when compared to control group. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in mRNA levels of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus was observed after acute protocol (10 and 30 days old rats) and in striatum after chronic protocol. In case these alterations also occur in the brain of the patients, our results may explain, at least in part, the neurological sequelae associated with high plasma concentrations of tyrosine seen in patients affected by tyrosinemia type II. PMID:23046746

  18. L-tyrosine administration increases acetylcholinesterase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Vieira, Júlia S; Scaini, Giselli; Ghedim, Fernando V; Deroza, Pedro F; Zugno, Alexandra I; Pereira, Talita C B; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-12-01

    Tyrosinemia is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations on genes that codify enzymes responsible for tyrosine metabolism. Considering that tyrosinemics patients usually present symptoms associated with central nervous system alterations that ranges from slight decreases in intelligence to severe mental retardation, we decided to investigate whether acute and chronic administration of L-tyrosine in rats would affect acetylcholinesterase mRNA expression and enzymatic activity during their development. In our acute protocol, Wistar rats (10 and 30 days old) were killed one hour after a single intraperitoneal L-tyrosine injection (500 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic administration consisted of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline injections 12 h apart for 24 days in Wistar rats (7 days old) and rats were killed 12 h after last injection. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured by Ellman's method and acetylcholinesterase expression was carried out by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. We observed that acute (10 and 30 days old rats) and chronic L-tyrosine administration increased acetylcholinesterase activity in serum and all tested brain areas (hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex) when compared to control group. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in mRNA levels of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus was observed after acute protocol (10 and 30 days old rats) and in striatum after chronic protocol. In case these alterations also occur in the brain of the patients, our results may explain, at least in part, the neurological sequelae associated with high plasma concentrations of tyrosine seen in patients affected by tyrosinemia type II.

  19. Increased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Klein, Anders B; Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-06-01

    Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy), fragmentation of nocturnal sleep and sleep paralysis. The symptoms of the disease strongly correlate with a reduction in hypocretin levels in CSF and a reduction in hypocretin neurons in hypothalamus in post-mortem tissue. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are important for activity-dependent neuronal function and synaptic modulation and it is considered that these mechanisms are important in sleep regulation. We hypothesized that serum levels of these factors are altered in patients with narcolepsy compared to healthy controls without sleep disturbances. Polysomnography data was obtained and serum BDNF and NGF levels measured using ELISA, while hypocretin was measured using RIA. Serum BDNF levels were significantly higher in narcolepsy patients than in healthy controls (64.2±3.9 ng/ml vs. 47.3±2.6 ng/ml, P<0.01), while there were no significant differences in NGF levels. As expected, narcolepsy patients had higher BMI compared to controls, but BMI did not correlate with the serum BDNF levels. The change in BDNF levels was not related to disease duration and sleep parameters did not correlate with BDNF in narcolepsy patients. The mechanisms behind the marked increase in BDNF levels in narcolepsy patients remain unknown. PMID:23570723

  20. Exogenous t-PA Administration Increases Hippocampal Mature BDNF Levels. Plasmin- or NMDA-Dependent Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, Marion; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Béjot, Yannick; Jacquin, Agnès; Mossiat, Claude; Marie, Christine; Garnier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through TrkB activation is central for brain functioning. Since the demonstration that plasmin is able to process pro-BDNF to mature BDNF and that these two forms have opposite effects on neuronal survival and plasticity, a particular attention has been paid to the link between tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin system and BDNF metabolism. However, t-PA via its action on different N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits is also considered as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic transmission. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of recombinant (r)t-PA administration on brain BDNF metabolism in rats. In the hippocampus, we found that rt-PA (10 mg/kg) administration induced a progressive increase in mature BDNF levels associated with TrkB activation. In order to delineate the mechanistic involved, plasmin activity was assessed and its inhibition was attempted using tranexamic acid (30 or 300 mg/kg, i.v.) while NMDA receptors were antagonized with MK801 (0.3 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with rt-PA treatment. Our results showed that despite a rise in rt-PA activity, rt-PA administration failed to increase hippocampal plasmin activity suggesting that the plasminogen/plasmin system is not involved whereas MK801 abrogated the augmentation in mature BDNF levels observed after rt-PA administration. All together, our results show that rt-PA administration induces increase in hippocampal mature BDNF expression and suggests that rt-PA contributes to the control of brain BDNF synthesis through a plasmin-independent potentiation of NMDA receptors signaling. PMID:24670989

  1. Exogenous t-PA administration increases hippocampal mature BDNF levels. plasmin- or NMDA-dependent mechanism?

    PubMed

    Rodier, Marion; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Béjot, Yannick; Jacquin, Agnès; Mossiat, Claude; Marie, Christine; Garnier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through TrkB activation is central for brain functioning. Since the demonstration that plasmin is able to process pro-BDNF to mature BDNF and that these two forms have opposite effects on neuronal survival and plasticity, a particular attention has been paid to the link between tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin system and BDNF metabolism. However, t-PA via its action on different N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits is also considered as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic transmission. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of recombinant (r)t-PA administration on brain BDNF metabolism in rats. In the hippocampus, we found that rt-PA (10 mg/kg) administration induced a progressive increase in mature BDNF levels associated with TrkB activation. In order to delineate the mechanistic involved, plasmin activity was assessed and its inhibition was attempted using tranexamic acid (30 or 300 mg/kg, i.v.) while NMDA receptors were antagonized with MK801 (0.3 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with rt-PA treatment. Our results showed that despite a rise in rt-PA activity, rt-PA administration failed to increase hippocampal plasmin activity suggesting that the plasminogen/plasmin system is not involved whereas MK801 abrogated the augmentation in mature BDNF levels observed after rt-PA administration. All together, our results show that rt-PA administration induces increase in hippocampal mature BDNF expression and suggests that rt-PA contributes to the control of brain BDNF synthesis through a plasmin-independent potentiation of NMDA receptors signaling.

  2. Mannosylerythritol lipid increases levels of galactoceramide in and neurite outgrowth from PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shibahara, M; Zhao, X; Wakamatsu, Y; Nomura, N; Nakahara, T; Jin, C; Nagaso, H; Murata, T; Yokoyama, K K

    2000-07-01

    We report here that a microbial extracellular glycolipid,mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL), induces the outgrowth ofneurites from and enhances the activity of acetylcholinesterase(AChE) in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Furthermore, treatment ofPC12 cells with MEL increased levels of galactosylceramide(Galbeta1-1'Cer; GalCer). Exposure of PC12 cells to exogenous GalCer caused the dose-dependent outgrowth ofneurites. By contrast, treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growthfactor (NGF) did not increase the level of GalCer in the cells. The neurite-related morphological changes induced by GalCerdifferend from those induced by NGF, indicating differencesbetween the signal transduction pathways triggered by NGF and by GalCer. PMID:19002832

  3. Increased levels of ambient fungal spores in Taiwan are associated with dust events from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pei-Chih; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Li, Fang-Chun; Lung, Shih-Chun; Su, Huey-Jen

    2004-09-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in nature and their spores are often dispersed into the atmosphere through turbulent airstreams. As yellow sandstorm blown from deserts in China had affected the ambient air quality with increasing levels of ambient particulates, often including significant amounts of biologically active particles has therefore become imperative for concerns of their health implications. Our study was aimed to examine the effects of yellow sandstorm events on the fungal composition and concentrations in ambient air. Atmospheric fungal spores were continuously collected using Burkard Volumetric Spore Trap. Samples collected between December 2000 and April 2001 were selected for priority analysis from days when the yellow sandstorms were reported to affect Taiwan according to the Central Weather Bureau in Taiwan. The composition of dominant spores such as Basidiospore, Penicillium/Aspergillus, Nigrospora, Arthrinium, Curvularia, Rusts, Stemphylium, Cercospora, Pithomyces, and unidentified fungi were significantly higher than those of background days. The increase of Basidiospore, Penicillium/Aspergillus, Nigrospora, and those unidentified fungi seems to be significantly associated with the increase of ambient particulate levels with regression coefficients ranging from 0.887 to 31.98. Our study has identified increasing ambient concentrations during sandstorm episodes are observed for some major fungi, Basidiospore, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and those unidentified fungi and the trends of the increase seems to associate with ambient particulate levels. Further efforts to clarify the relationship between those high fungal spore exposures and clinical adverse health effects are suggested in the future. In addition, effects of climatic factors and other particulate levels on the variation of ambient fungal spore levels are also desired in further study. Additional monitoring of ambient fungal spores in the first line of west coastline is hoped to assist in

  4. Platelet-activating factor-induced increases in glucose kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, C.H.; Dobrescu, C.; Hargrove, D.M.; Bagby, G.J.; Spitzer, J.J. )

    1988-02-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a postulated mediator of many of the early hemodynamic effects of endotoxin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether in vivo administration of PAF could produce alterations in whole-body glucose metabolism that would mimic those seen during endotoxemia. Glucose kinetics were assessed in chronically catheterized conscious rats by the constant infusion of (6-{sup 3}H)- and (U-{sup 14}C)glucose before and for 4 h after either a bolus injection or a constant infusion of PAF. The bolus injection of PAF elevated the rate of glucose appearance (R{sub a}; 44%) for 1.5 h. The lower PAF infusion rate decreased blood pressure 11% to 104 mmHg, whereas the higher infusion rate decreased pressure 34% to 77 mmHg. Both PAF infusion rates produced elevations in plasma glucose and glucose R{sub a} throughout the 4-h infusion period in a dose-related manner. The PAF infusions also induced dose-related increases in plasma glucagon and catecholamine levels throughout the infusion period. Because the constant infusion of PAF did stimulate many of the hemodynamic and metabolic alterations produced by endotoxin, this study provides additional support for the potential importance of PAF as a mediator of the early hemodynamic and metabolic sequela of endotoxin shock. Furthermore, the PAF-induced changes in glucose metabolism appear to be mediated by the resultant elevation in plasma catecholamines.

  5. Glucose deprivation increases hydrogen peroxide level in immunostimulated rat primary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Woong; Shin, Chan Young; Yoo, Byoung Kwon; Choi, Min Sik; Lee, Woo Jong; Han, Byoung Hee; Kim, Won-Ki; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Ko, Kwang Ho

    2004-03-01

    Activated astrocytes produce a large amount of bioactive molecules, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Astrocytes are in general resistant to those reactive species. However, we previously reported that immunostimulated astrocytes became highly vulnerable to metabolic insults, such as glucose deprivation. In this study, we investigated whether H(2)O(2) production was associated with the increased vulnerability. Glucose deprivation for up to 8 hr did not change the intracellular level of H(2)O(2) in astrocytes. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-gamma for 48 hr evoked astroglial H(2)O(2) production; however, no apparent death or injury was observed in immunostimulated astrocytes. Glucose deprivation after 48 hr of immunostimulation markedly increased H(2)O(2) level, depleted adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and enhanced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. The ATP depletion and LDH release were in part prevented by catalase, mannitol, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. The enhanced level of H(2)O(2) in glucose-deprived immunostimulated astrocytes appeared to be secondary to the depletion of reduced glutathione. 4-(2-Aminoethyl)bebzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, reduced H(2)O(2) level and LDH release in glucose-deprived immunostimulated astrocytes. H(2)O(2), either endogenously produced or exogenously added, depolarized mitochondrial transmembrane potential in glucose-deprived astrocytes, leading to their ATP depletion and death. The present results strongly indicate that glucose deprivation causes deterioration of immunostimulated astrocytes by increasing the intracellular concentration of H(2)O(2).

  6. Sodium Chloride IncreasesLevels by Suppressing Aβ Clearance in Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Wu; Cheng, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that high-salt diet is associated with cognitive decline in human and mouse. The fact that genetic factors account for less than 50% cases of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) highlights the important contribution of environmental factors, such as high-salt diet, in AD pathogenesis. However, whether and how high-salt diet fits the "amyloid cascade" hypothesis remains unexplored. Here, we show sodium chloride (NaCl) could increaselevels in the medium of HEK293 cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) or C99 fragment. NaCl treatment dose not affect APP level, gamma secretase level or activity. Instead, NaCl treatment suppresses the capacity of cells to clear Aβ and reduces Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) level. Finally, NaCl treated THP-1 or BV2 cells are inefficient in clearing Aβ when co-cultured with rat primary neurons. Our study suggests that high-salt diet may increase AD risk by directly modulating Aβ levels.

  7. Texting to increase physical activity among teenagers (TXT Me!): Rationale, design, and methods proposal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity decreases from childhood through adulthood. Among youth, teenagers (teens) achieve the lowest levels of physical activity, and high school age youth are particularly at risk of inactivity. Effective methods are needed to increase youth physical activity in a way that can be maintai...

  8. Increased extracellular levels of glutamate in the hippocampus of chronically epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Soukupova, M; Binaschi, A; Falcicchia, C; Palma, E; Roncon, P; Zucchini, S; Simonato, M

    2015-08-20

    An increase in the release of excitatory amino acids has consistently been observed in the hippocampus during seizures, both in humans and animals. However, very little or nothing is known about the extracellular levels of glutamate and aspartate during epileptogenesis and in the interictal chronic period of established epilepsy. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the relationship between seizure activity and changes in hippocampal glutamate and aspartate extracellular levels under basal and high K(+)-evoked conditions, at various time-points in the natural history of experimental temporal lobe epilepsy, using in vivo microdialysis. Hippocampal extracellular glutamate and aspartate levels were evaluated: 24h after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE); during the latency period preceding spontaneous seizures; immediately after the first spontaneous seizure; in the chronic (epileptic) period. We found that (i) basal (spontaneous) glutamate outflow is increased in the interictal phases of the chronic period, whereas basal aspartate outflow remains stable for the entire course of the disease; (ii) high K(+) perfusion increased glutamate and aspartate outflow in both control and pilocarpine-treated animals, and the overflow of glutamate was clearly increased in the chronic group. Our data suggest that the glutamatergic signaling is preserved and even potentiated in the hippocampus of epileptic rats, and thus may favor the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Together with an impairment of GABA signaling (Soukupova et al., 2014), these data suggest that a shift toward excitation occurs in the excitation/inhibition balance in the chronic epileptic state. PMID:26073699

  9. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it. PMID:26634573

  10. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  11. Blood SC5b-9 complement levels increase at parturition during term and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Segura-Cervantes, Enrique; Mancilla-Ramirez, Javier; Zurita, Luis; Paredes, Yuriria; Arredondo, José Luis; Galindo-Sevilla, Norma

    2015-06-01

    We explored the hypothesis that complement, an innate and adaptive immune effector, is active in the plasma of parturient women and is deposited on fetal membranes collected after delivery. A cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate complement activity at parturition. Pregnant women (n = 97) between 15 and 41 years of age were enrolled in a hospital protocol during the perinatal period to assess both SC5b-9 complement activity in blood and complement deposition on fetal membranes during parturition. Soluble SC5b-9 complement activity in plasma fractions was measured using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that included specific anti-complement antibodies. Complement deposition on membranes was analyzed using immuno-dot blots and immunohistochemistry. Soluble SC5b-9 complement complex levels were increased in the plasma of women during term labor (TL; median 3361; range 1726-5670 ng/mL), preterm labor (PL; median 2958; range 1552-7092 ng/mL), and preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM; median 2272; range 167-6540 ng/mL) compared with pregnant women who were not in labor (P; median 1384; range 174-4570 ng/mL; P < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Active complement, as assessed by the C9 neo-antigen in C5b-9 complexes, was deposited on fetal membranes, with no difference between term and preterm delivery. The deposition of active complement on fetal membranes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Women who underwent non-labor-indicated Cesarean sections did not exhibit complement deposition. Soluble SC5b-9 complement complex levels increased in the plasma of women during parturition, and complement C5b-9 complexes were deposited on fetal membranes.

  12. Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mazière, Cécile; Salle, Valéry; Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 μg/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NFκB inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

  13. Increased plasma levels of CK-18 as potential cell death biomarker in patients with HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    John, K; Wielgosz, S; Schulze-Osthoff, K; Bantel, H; Hass, R

    2013-01-01

    HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome represents a life-threatening pregnancy disorder with high fetal and maternal mortality, but its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Although apoptosis has been implicated in HELLP syndrome, its pathogenic role remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the detection of apoptosis by novel plasma biomarkers is of diagnostic value in HELLP patients. For this purpose, we analyzed two biomarkers that specifically detect apoptosis or overall cell death of epithelial cells, such as hepatocytes or placental trophoblasts, through the release of caspase-cleaved or total (caspase-cleaved and uncleaved) cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) in plasma of HELLP patients compared with pregnant as well as non-pregnant healthy women. In addition, caspase activation and cell death were determined in placental tissues of HELLP patients and individuals with normal pregnancy. In contrast to pregnant or non-pregnant healthy controls, we observed significantly increased levels of both caspase-cleaved and total CK-18 in plasma of HELLP patients. Following delivery, CK-18 levels rapidly decreased in HELLP patients. Caspase activation and cell death were also elevated in placental tissues from HELLP patients compared with healthy pregnant women. These data demonstrate not only that apoptosis is increased in HELLP syndrome, but also that caspase-cleaved or total CK-18 are promising plasma biomarkers to identify patients with HELLP syndrome. Thus, further studies are warranted to evaluate the utility of these biomarkers for monitoring disease activity in HELLP syndrome. PMID:24157880

  14. Bothrops jararaca Venom Metalloproteinases Are Essential for Coagulopathy and Increase Plasma Tissue Factor Levels during Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Karine M.; Alves, André F.; Barbaro, Katia C.; Santoro, Marcelo L.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF), resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a) whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b) the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) and serine proteinases (SVSP) to hemostatic disturbances. Methods/Principal Findings Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. Conclusions SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in engendering

  15. The ATF6-Met[67]Val substitution is associated with increased plasma cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Meex, Steven J.R.; Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; van der Kallen, Carla J.H.; Thuerauf, Donna J.; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M.J.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Stehouwer, Coen D.A.; Feskens, Edith J.M.; Heldens, Lonneke; Ayoubi, Torik A.; Hofker, Marten H.; Wouters, Bradly G.; Vlietinck, Robert; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; de Bruin, Tjerk W.A.; Pajukanta, Päivi; Glembotski, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Activating Transcription Factor 6 (ATF6) is a sensor of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and regulates expression of several key lipogenic genes. We utilized a two-stage design to investigate whether ATF6 polymorphisms are associated with lipids in subjects at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and Results In stage 1, 13 tag-SNPs were tested for association in Dutch samples ascertained for Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia (FCHL) or increased risk for CVD (CVR). In stage 2, we further investigated the SNP with the strongest association from stage 1, a Methionine/Valine substitution at amino-acid 67, in Finnish FCHL families and in subjects with CVR from METSIM, a Finnish population-based cohort. The combined analysis of both stages reached region-wide significance (P=9×10−4), but this association was not seen in the entire METSIM cohort. Our functional analysis demonstrated that Valine at position 67 augments ATF6 protein and its targets Grp78 and Grp94 as well as increases luciferase expression through Grp78 promoter. Conclusions A common nonsynonymous variant in ATF6 increases ATF6 protein levels and is associated with cholesterol levels in subjects at increased risk for CVD, but this association was not seen in a population-based cohort. Further replication is needed to confirm this variant's role in lipids. PMID:19667116

  16. Mitochondrial impairment increases FL-PINK1 levels by calcium-dependent gene expression☆

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Gegg, Matthew E.; Bravo-San Pedro, José M.; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Martín, Yolanda; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fuentes, José M.; González-Polo, Rosa Ana; Schapira, Anthony H.V.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). This gene encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which is partly localized to mitochondria, and has been shown to play a role in protecting neuronal cells from oxidative stress and cell death, perhaps related to its role in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. In this study, we report that increased mitochondrial PINK1 levels observed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophelyhydrazone (CCCP) treatment were due to de novo protein synthesis, and not just increased stabilization of full length PINK1 (FL-PINK1). PINK1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 4-fold after 24 h. FL-PINK1 protein levels at this time point were significantly higher than vehicle-treated, or cells treated with CCCP for 3 h, despite mitochondrial content being decreased by 29%. We have also shown that CCCP dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and induced entry of extracellular calcium through L/N-type calcium channels. The calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM impaired the CCCP-induced PINK1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, CCCP treatment activated the transcription factor c-Fos in a calcium-dependent manner. These data indicate that PINK1 expression is significantly increased upon CCCP-induced mitophagy in a calcium-dependent manner. This increase in expression continues after peak Parkin mitochondrial translocation, suggesting a role for PINK1 in mitophagy that is downstream of ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. This sensitivity to intracellular calcium levels supports the hypothesis that PINK1 may also play a role in cellular calcium homeostasis and neuroprotection. PMID:24184327

  17. Increase in Endogenous and Exogenous Cyclic AMP Levels Inhibits Sclerotial Development in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Jeffrey A.; Dickman, Martin B.

    1998-01-01

    Growth and development of a wild-type Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolate were examined in the presence of various pharmacological compounds to investigate signal transduction pathways that influence the development of sclerotia. Compounds known to increase endogenous cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in other organisms by inhibiting phosphodiesterase activity (caffeine and 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine) or by activating adenylate cyclase (NaF) reduced or eliminated sclerotial development in S. sclerotiorum. Growth in the presence of 5 mM caffeine correlated with increased levels of endogenous cAMP in mycelia. In addition, incorporation of cAMP into the growth medium decreased or eliminated the production of sclerotia in a concentration-dependent manner and increased the accumulation of oxalic acid. Inhibition of sclerotial development was cAMP specific, as exogenous cyclic GMP, AMP, and ATP did not influence sclerotial development. Transfer of developing cultures to cAMP-containing medium at successive time points demonstrated that cAMP inhibits development prior to or during sclerotial initiation. Together, these results indicate that cAMP plays a role in the early transition between mycelial growth and sclerotial development. PMID:9647827

  18. IL-33 circulating serum levels are increased in patients with non-segmental generalized vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Mario; Cicero, Francesca; Mannucci, Carmen; Calapai, Gioacchino; Spatari, Giovanna; Barbuzza, Olga; Cannavò, Serafinella P; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-09-01

    IL-33 is a recently identified cytokine, encoded by the IL-33 gene, which is a member of the IL-1 family that drives the production of T-helper-2 (Th-2)-associated cytokines. Serum levels of IL-33 have been reported to be up-regulated in various T-helper (Th)-1/Th-17-mediated diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel. To investigate whether cytokine imbalance plays a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, we performed a case-control association study by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of IL-33 in our patients. IL-33 serum levels were measured by a quantitative enzyme immunoassay technique in patients with non-segmental generalized vitiligo and compared with those of healthy controls. IL-33 serum levels in patients with vitiligo were significantly increased than those in healthy controls. There was a positive correlation of IL-33 serum levels with extension of vitiligo and disease activity. This study suggests a possible systemic role of IL-33 in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Inhibiting IL-33 activity might be a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory disease, like vitiligo. PMID:27388717

  19. Social challenge increases cortisol and hypothalamic monoamine levels in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    PubMed

    Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Serra, Mônica; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2015-12-01

    The neural circuitry for social behavior and aggression appears to be evolutionarily conserved across the vertebrate subphylum and involves a complex neural network that includes the hypothalamus as a key structure. In the present study, we evaluated the changes in monoamine levels in the hypothalamus and on serum cortisol and plasma glucose of resident matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) submitted to a social challenge (introduction of an intruder in their territory). The fight promoted a significant increase in hypothalamic 5-HT, NA and DA levels and on the metabolites 5-HIAA and DOPAC, and decreased 5-HIAA/5-HT and DOPAC/DA ratios in resident fish. Furthermore, an increase in serum cortisol and plasma glucose was also observed after the fight. Resident fish presented a high aggressiveness even with increased 5-HT levels in the hypothalamus. The alteration in hypothalamic monoaminergic activity of matrinxã suggests that this diencephalic region is involved in aggression and stress modulation in fish; however, it does not exclude the participation of other brain areas not tested here. PMID:26205527

  20. State Legislation Related to Increasing Physical Activity: 2006-2012

    PubMed Central

    Eyler, Amy A.; Budd, Elizabeth; Camberos, Gabriela J.; Yan, Yan; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Strategies to improve physical activity prevalence often include policy and environmental changes. State-level policies can be influential in supporting access and opportunities for physical activity in schools and communities. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of state legislation related to physical activity and identify the correlates of enactment of this legislation. Methods An online legislative database was used to collect bills from 50 states in the U.S. from 2006-2012 for ten topics related to physical activity. Bills were coded for content and compiled into a database with state-level variables (e.g., obesity prevalence). With enactment status as the outcome, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results Of the 1542 bills related to physical activity introduced, 30% (N=460) were enacted. Bills on public transportation and trails were more likely to be enacted than those without these topics. Primary sponsorship by the Republican Party, bipartisan sponsorship, and mention of specific funding amounts were also correlates of enactment. Conclusion Policy surveillance of bills and correlates of enactment are important for understanding patterns in legislative support for physical activity. This information can be used to prioritize advocacy efforts and identify ways for research to better inform policy. PMID:26104603

  1. Reduced frontal activation with increasing 2nd language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Stein, Maria; Federspiel, Andrea; Koenig, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Lehmann, Christoph; Wiest, Roland; Strik, Werner; Brandeis, Daniel; Dierks, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    The factors influencing the degree of separation or overlap in the neuronal networks responsible for the processing of first and second language are still subject to investigation. This longitudinal study investigates how increasing second language proficiency influences activation differences during lexico-semantic processing of first and second language. Native English speaking exchange students learning German were examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging while reading words in three different languages at two points in time: at the beginning of their stay (day 1) and 5 months later (day 2), when second language proficiency had significantly increased. On day 1, second language words evoked more frontal activation than words from the mother tongue. These differences were diminished on day 2. We therefore conclude that with increasing second language proficiency, lexico-semantic processing of second language words needs less frontal control. Our results demonstrate that lexico-semantic processing of first and second language converges onto similar networks as second language proficiency increases.

  2. Microbial Translocation Is Associated with Increased Monocyte Activation and Dementia in AIDS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ancuta, Petronela; Kamat, Anupa; Kunstman, Kevin J.; Kim, Eun-Young; Autissier, Patrick; Wurcel, Alysse; Zaman, Tauheed; Stone, David; Mefford, Megan; Morgello, Susan; Singer, Elyse J.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Gabuzda, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). To determine whether high LPS levels are associated with increased monocyte activation and HAD, we obtained peripheral blood samples from AIDS patients and examined plasma LPS by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, peripheral blood monocytes by FACS, and soluble markers of monocyte activation by ELISA. Purified monocytes were isolated by FACS sorting, and HIV DNA and RNA levels were quantified by real time PCR. Circulating monocytes expressed high levels of the activation markers CD69 and HLA-DR, and harbored low levels of HIV compared to CD4+ T-cells. High plasma LPS levels were associated with increased plasma sCD14 and LPS-binding protein (LBP) levels, and low endotoxin core antibody levels. LPS levels were higher in HAD patients compared to control groups, and were associated with HAD independently of plasma viral load and CD4 counts. LPS levels were higher in AIDS patients using intravenous heroin and/or ethanol, or with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection, compared to control groups. These results suggest a role for elevated LPS levels in driving monocyte activation in AIDS, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of HAD, and provide evidence that cofactors linked to substance abuse and HCV co-infection influence these processes. PMID:18575590

  3. Activation of HIF-1α does not increase intestinal tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiang; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K.

    2014-01-01

    The hypoxic response is mediated by two transcription factors, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α. These highly homologous transcription factors are induced in hypoxic foci and regulate cell metabolism, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and cell survival. HIF-1α and HIF-2α are activated early in cancer progression and are important in several aspects of tumor biology. HIF-1α and HIF-2α have overlapping and distinct functions. In the intestine, activation of HIF-2α increases inflammation and colon carcinogenesis in mouse models. Interestingly, in ischemic and inflammatory diseases of the intestine, activation of HIF-1α is beneficial and can reduce intestinal inflammation. HIF-1α is a critical transcription factor regulating epithelial barrier function following inflammation. The beneficial value of pharmacological agents that chronically activate HIF-1α is decreased due to the tumorigenic potential of HIFs. The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic activation of HIF-1α may enhance colon tumorigenesis. Two models of colon cancer were assessed, a sporadic and a colitis-associated colon cancer model. Activation of HIF-1α in intestinal epithelial cells does not increase carcinogenesis or progression of colon cancer. Together, the data provide proof of principle that pharmacological activation of HIF-1α could be a safe therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24875099

  4. Tenascin-C Deficiency in Apo E−/− Mouse Increases Eotaxin Levels: Implications for Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lai; Shah, Prediman K.; Wang, Wei; Song, Lei; Yang, Mingjie; Sharifi, Behrooz G.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the potential role of inflammatory cytokines in apo E−/− mouse in response to deletion of Tenascin-C (TNC) gene. Methods and results We used antibody array and ELISA to compare the profile of circulating inflammatory cytokines in apo E−/− mice and apo E−/− TNC−/− double knockout mice. In addition, tissue culture studies were performed to investigate the activity of cells from each mouse genotype in vitro. Cytokine array analysis and subsequent ELISA showed that circulating eotaxin levels were selectively and markedly increased in response to TNC gene deletion in apo E−/− mice. In addition, considerable variation was noted in the circulating level of eotaxin among the control apo E−/− mouse group. Inbreeding of apo E−/− mice with high or low levels of plasma eotaxin showed that the level of eotaxin per se determines the extent of atherosclerosis in this mouse genotype. While endothelial cells from apo E−/− mice had low level of eotaxin expression, cells derived from apo E−/−TNC−/− mice expressed a high level of eotaxin. Transient transfection of eotaxin promoter-reporter constructs revealed that eotaxin expression is regulated at the transcriptional level by TNC. Histochemical analysis of aortic sections revealed the massive accumulation of mast cells in the adventitia of double KO mice lesions whereas no such accumulation was detected in the control group. Plasma from the apo E−/−TNC−/− mice markedly stimulated mast cell migration whereas plasma from the apo E−/− mice had no such effect. Conclusion These observations support the emerging hypothesis that TNC expression controls eotaxin level in apo E−/− mice and that this chemokine plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:23433402

  5. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  6. Texting to increase adolescent physical activity: Feasibility assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feasibility trials assess whether a behavior change program warrants a definite trial evaluation. This paper reports the feasibility of an intervention consisting of Self Determination Theory-informed text messages, pedometers, and goal prompts to increase adolescent physical activity. A 4-group ran...

  7. Utilizing Wisconsin Afterschool Programs to Increase Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Bradley D.; Meinen, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 31.7% of children in the United States are overweight or obese. Interventions in the afterschool setting may help combat childhood obesity. Research exists on interventions in school settings, but a few data exist for interventions about afterschool programs. This study investigates increasing physical activity (PA) in…

  8. Using the Web to Increase Physical Activity in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoc, Dejan; Tomaka, Joe; Bridges-Arzaga, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of a theoretically based and Web-delivered intervention using common course technology for increasing physical activity in a college student sample. Methods: One hundred four students randomly participated in either a Web-based intervention involving 7 theory-based learning lessons or a control group that…

  9. Games for increasing physical activity: Mechanisms for change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small conference was held in Houston, TX, in May 2014, to address how to enhance exergames to increase physical activity. Several leading researchers were asked to address specific topics. Attendees came from across the globe. This Games for Health Journal Special Issue is devoted to sharing the a...

  10. Reduced Frontal Activation with Increasing 2nd Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Maria; Federspiel, Andrea; Koenig, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Lehmann, Christoph; Wiest, Roland; Strik, Werner; Brandeis, Daniel; Dierks, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The factors influencing the degree of separation or overlap in the neuronal networks responsible for the processing of first and second language are still subject to investigation. This longitudinal study investigates how increasing second language proficiency influences activation differences during lexico-semantic processing of first and second…

  11. Sea-level Rise Increases the Frequency of Nuisance Flooding in Coastal Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moftakhari Rostamkhani, H.; Aghakouchak, A.; Sanders, B. F.; Feldman, D.; Sweet, W.; Matthew, R.; Luke, A.

    2015-12-01

    The global warming-drivensea-level rise (SLR) posesa serious threat for population and assets in flood-prone coastal zones over the next century. The rate of SLR is accelerated in recent decades and is expected to increase based on current trajectories of anthropogenic activities and greenhouse gas emissions. Over the 20th century, an increase in the frequency of nuisance (minor) flooding has been reported due to the reduced gap between tidal datum and flood stage. Nuisance flooding (NF), however non-destructive, causes public inconvenience, business interruption, and substantial economic losses due to impacts such as road closures and degradation of infrastructure. It also portends an increased risk in severe floods. Here we report substantial increases in NF along the coasts of United States due to SLR over the past decades. We then take the projected SLR under the least and the most extreme representative concentration pathways (e.gRCP2.6 and RCP 8.5) to estimate the increase in NF in the near- (2030) and mid-term (2050) future. The results suggest that projected SLR will cause up to two-fold more frequent NF by 2050, compared with the 20th century. The projected increase in NF will have significant socio-economic impacts and pose public health risks especially in rapidly urbanized coastal regions.

  12. Middle-aged rats orally supplemented with gel-encapsulated catechin favorably increases blood cytosolic NADPH levels.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Tamura, Muneaki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2015-04-15

    Green tea catechins are primarily known to function as free radical scavengers and have several beneficial uses. Orally supplemented catechin (OSC) was previously shown to increase mitochondrial heme and catalase levels in rat heart blood, however, its effect in the cytosol has not been elucidated. Here, we determined the effects of OSC in the rat heart blood cytosol. We used middle-aged (40 week-old) and young (4 week-old) rats throughout the study. We isolated blood cytosol, verified its purity, and determined heme, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, catalase (CAT) activities, gp91(phox) amounts, NADP and NAD pools, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and free fatty acids (FFA). We established that OSC is associated with decreased heme-dependent H2O2 amounts while increasing heme-independent CAT activity. Moreover, we found that OSC-related decrease in NAD(+) amounts among middle-aged rats is associated to increased NADPH levels and SIRT1 activity. In contrast, we associated OSC-related decrease in NAD(+) amounts among young rats to decreased NADPH levels and increased SIRT1 activity. This highlights a major difference between catechin-treated middle-aged and young rats. Furthermore, we observed that cytosolic FFA and GR levels were significantly increased only among OSC-treated middle-aged rats which we hypothesize are related to increased NADPH levels. This insinuates that OSC treatment allows higher catechin amounts to enter the bloodstream of middle-aged rats. We propose that this would favorably increase NADPH amounts and lead to the simultaneous decrease in NADPH-related pro-oxidant activity and increase in NADPH-related biomolecules and anti-oxidant activities.

  13. Progesterone inhibits behavioral responses and estrogen increases corticosterone levels after acute cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Niyomchai, Tipyamol; Russo, Scott J; Festa, Eugene D; Akhavan, Alaleh; Jenab, Shirzad; Quiñones-Jenab, Vanya

    2005-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that estrogen and progesterone contribute to the sexually dimorphic behavioral response to cocaine. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that varying the level of estrogen or progesterone affects cocaine-induced locomotive behavior in female rats. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats received estrogen (0, 5, 10, 20, or 50 microg) 48 h or progesterone (0, 50, 100, 250, or 500 microg) 24 h before acute saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg) administration. Although estrogen did not affect cocaine-induced ambulatory and rearing behaviors, it affected stereotypic behaviors regardless of cocaine administration (animals receiving 50 microg had higher stereotypic counts than did the OVX group). In contrast, progesterone affected rearing activity dose-dependently: 50 and 500 microg of progesterone inhibited, whereas 100 microg and 250 microg stimulated, rearing in response to cocaine. That estrogen and progesterone did not affect overall baseline behavioral activity suggests their effects are mediated in part through interactions with cocaine. Progesterone administration did not affect corticosterone levels in saline- or cocaine-treated rats. Estrogen administration, however, affected levels of corticosterone both at baseline and after cocaine treatment. After accounting for baseline differences, we found that rats receiving 5 or 10 microg of estrogen and cocaine had higher percentage increases in serum corticosterone levels than did the control group that did not receive estrogen. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that progesterone fluctuations during the estrous cycle impact cocaine-induced behavioral responses, whereas estrogen may affect activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Thus, dose-dependent effects of gonadal hormones may underlie some of the reported sex differences and reproductive cycle effects of cocaine.

  14. In vivo levels of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide increase with age in mtDNA mutator mice.

    PubMed

    Logan, Angela; Shabalina, Irina G; Prime, Tracy A; Rogatti, Sebastian; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Hartley, Richard C; Budd, Ralph C; Cannon, Barbara; Murphy, Michael P

    2014-08-01

    In mtDNA mutator mice, mtDNA mutations accumulate leading to a rapidly aging phenotype. However, there is little evidence of oxidative damage to tissues, and when analyzed ex vivo, no change in production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide and hydrogen peroxide by mitochondria has been reported, undermining the mitochondrial oxidative damage theory of aging. Paradoxically, interventions that decrease mitochondrial ROS levels in vivo delay onset of aging. To reconcile these findings, we used the mitochondria-targeted mass spectrometry probe MitoB to measure hydrogen peroxide within mitochondria of living mice. Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide was the same in young mutator and control mice, but as the mutator mice aged, hydrogen peroxide increased. This suggests that the prolonged presence of mtDNA mutations in vivo increases hydrogen peroxide that contributes to an accelerated aging phenotype, perhaps through the activation of pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory redox signaling pathways.

  15. Vertebrate blood cell volume increases with temperature: implications for aerobic activity

    PubMed Central

    Zenil-Ferguson, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic activity levels increase with body temperature across vertebrates. Differences in these levels, from highly active to sedentary, are reflected in their ecology and behavior. Yet, the changes in the cardiovascular system that allow for greater oxygen supply at higher temperatures, and thus greater aerobic activity, remain unclear. Here we show that the total volume of red blood cells in the body increases exponentially with temperature across vertebrates, after controlling for effects of body size and taxonomy. These changes are accompanied by increases in relative heart mass, an indicator of aerobic activity. The results point to one way vertebrates may increase oxygen supply to meet the demands of greater activity at higher temperatures. PMID:24765580

  16. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Minfang; Shao, Xinghua; Chang, Xinbei; Fan, Zhuping; Cao, Qin; Mou, Shan; Wang, Qin; Yan, Yucheng; Desir, Gary; Ni, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lupus nephritis (LN) is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity–2000 (SLEDAI-2K) scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages. Conclusion Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest

  17. Increasing the hydrogenation activity of commercial catalysts for selective hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect

    Khashagul`gova, N.S.; Freiman, L.L.; Zelentsov, Yu.N.

    1994-07-01

    The catalysts generally used in hydrodewaxing or selective hydrocracking of n-paraffins are zeolites with the pentasil structure: TsVK, TsVM, TsVN, and Ultrasil. For use in the production of high-quality transformer oils from paraffinic feedstocks, these catalysts have not only a high cracking activity but also an adequate hydrogenating activity. Catalysts containing a nickel-molybdenum complex (or nickel molybdate synthesized by a specific method) are higher in hydrogenating activity in comparison with catalysts in which the metals are introduced by coextrusion or impregnation. Precipitation of a nickel-molybdenum complex on a solid support (aluminosilicate or zeolite) tends to increase its hydrogenating activity, so that the content of the hydrogenating metals in the catalyst can be reduced. This report describes studies on catalysts based on TsVM and TsVN high-silica zeolites.

  18. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    DOEpatents

    Merino, Sandra

    2014-05-27

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  19. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    DOEpatents

    Merino, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  20. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Merino, Sandra

    2014-10-28

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  1. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Merino, Sandra

    2015-04-14

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  2. Increasing testosterone levels and effects on cognitive functions in elderly men and women: a review.

    PubMed

    Hogervorst, E; Bandelow, S; Moffat, S D

    2005-10-01

    Low testosterone (T) levels may predispose to Alzheimer disease (AD), but it is unclear whether this is a co-morbid effect due to cachexia, subclinical hyperthyroidism or other co-morbidity. The biological plausibility for potential protective effects of T on brain functions is substantial. In addition, higher levels of gonadotropins found in older cases with AD suggest that low levels of T are not due to brain degeneration and that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is still intact. Men genetically at risk for AD were also already found to have lower levels of T. However, despite having lower levels of T, women do not show accelerated cognitive decline with age when compared to men. In addition, castration has not necessarily shown a decline in cognitive functions; some studies even found improvement of memory recall. Age may be an important factor when assessing optimal levels of T and several studies suggest that free or bioavailable T may be a better marker than total T levels when investigating associations of androgen activity with cognitive function. Small-scale T intervention trials in elderly men with and without dementia suggest that some cognitive deficits may be reversed, at least in part, by short term T supplementation. Age and prior hypogonadism may play an important role in therapy success and these factors should be investigated in more detail in future large scale randomized controlled studies. For elderly women, T treatment does not seem to have additional benefits over estrogen treatment for postmenopausal complaints and cognitive decline and may increase cardiovascular disease.

  3. Chronic mild stress increases alcohol intake in mice with low dopamine D2 receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Delis, Foteini; Thanos, Panayotis K; Rombola, Christina; Rosko, Lauren; Grandy, David; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders emerge from a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Stress and dopamine D2 receptor levels (DRD2) have been shown to play a central role in alcoholism. To better understand the interactions between DRD2 and stress in ethanol intake behavior, we subjected Drd2 wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and knockout (-/-) mice to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) and to an ethanol two-bottle choice during CMS weeks 2-4. Prior to and at the end of the experiment, the animals were tested in the forced swim and open field tests. We measured ethanol intake and preference, immobility in the force swim test, and activity in the open field. We show that under no CMS, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had lower ethanol intake and preference compared with Drd2+/+. Exposure to CMS decreased ethanol intake and preference in Drd2+/+ and increased them in Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice. At baseline, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had significantly lower activity in the open field than Drd2+/+, whereas no genotype differences were observed in the forced swim test. Exposure to CMS increased immobility during the forced swim test in Drd2+/- mice, but not in Drd2+/+ or Drd2-/- mice, and ethanol intake reversed this behavior. No changes were observed in open field test measures. These findings suggest that in the presence of a stressful environment, low DRD2 levels are associated with increased ethanol intake and preference and that under this condition, increased ethanol consumption could be used as a strategy to alleviate negative mood. PMID:23148856

  4. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L E P; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-02-28

    Disturbance of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16-25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3-6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness. PMID:26749569

  5. Pomegranate juice consumption increases GSH levels and reduces lipid and protein oxidation in human blood.

    PubMed

    Matthaiou, Chrysoula M; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Sarafoglou, Eleni; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Koulocheri, Sofia D; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was the assessment of the antioxidant effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) consumption in humans. Thus, 14 healthy volunteers consumed PJ daily for a period of 15days and the changes of oxidative stress markers in their blood were assessed at four different time points, immediately before the experiment (T1), after 15days of juice administration (T2), one (T3) and three weeks (T4) after the interruption of PJ administration. The markers studied were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyls (CARB) measured in plasma, as well as reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase activity (CAT) measured in erythrocytes. The MDA was reduced by 24.4% at T3 and CARB were reduced by 19.6% and 17.7% at T2 and T3, respectively, supporting the evidence that PJ consumption enhances the antioxidant status in humans by decreasing lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. Moreover, GSH levels were significantly increased (22.6%) at T2, indicating that PJ consumption improves the antioxidant mechanisms in erythrocytes by increasing GSH levels. Finally, it was shown that even a week after stopping PJ consumption some of its beneficial effects on antioxidant status still remained in the organism.

  6. Sex steroid levels temporarily increase in response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Billig, Håkan; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2012-06-01

    It is well known that acute psychosocial stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). However, the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and levels of sex steroids are less known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute psychosocial stress on serum concentrations of sex steroids in healthy men and women. Twenty men and 19 women (age 30-50 years) underwent Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. Concentrations of androgens were measured with high specificity LC-MS/MS method; concentrations of cortisol, estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined using immunoassays. In both men and women we observed significantly elevated levels of testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione and sex hormone binding globulin along with significantly increased adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol, heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) as a response to the stressor. Thus, even though the HPG axis and the production of sex steroids may be inhibited during prolonged periods of stress, the sex steroid levels may increase in the initial phase of acute psychosocial stress.

  7. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L.E.P.; Wood, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16–25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3–6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness. PMID:26749569

  8. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L E P; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-02-28

    Disturbance of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16-25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3-6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness.

  9. Smoking further increases platelet activity in patients with mild hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gleerup, G; Winther, K

    1996-01-01

    In this study the authors examine whether smoking further heightens platelet activity and reduces fibrinolysis above that already present in mild hypertension. Ten smokers and 11 non-smokers, all with mild hypertension (defined as a diastolic pressure between 90 and 110 mm Hg) were compared for their platelet activity in vitro and in vivo and for their fibrinolytic activity. Successive measurements were made with the patients lying at rest after they had assumed the erect posture for 10 min and at the end of a 5-min moderately strenuous exercise test. The threshold for platelet aggregation by ADP in vitro was significantly lower in samples taken from the smokers at rest (1.4 +/- 0.9 mumol L(-1)) than in the non-smokers (3.5 +/- 2.5 mumol L(-1)), and the difference persisted both in the upright posture and after exercise. The level of platelet release of beta-thromboglobulin was, likewise, higher in the smokers in the upright posture. Neither standing up nor physical exercise had any significant influence on either of these two indices of platelet activity. The euglobulin clot lysis time was slightly longer in the smokers than in the non-smokers in all three experimental situations, but the differences were not significant. Inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator was not materially different in the two groups (Table 2). The results indicate that smoking adds a further element of heightened platelet activity to that inherently present in hypertension.

  10. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Barber, Sarah J; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V; Mather, Mara

    2015-12-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: (1) immediate handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, (2) residual handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip 15min prior to encoding, or (3) no handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10min after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal interacts

  11. Plant species richness increases phosphatase activities in an experimental grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Nina; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Oelmann, Yvonne

    2014-05-01

    Plant species richness has been shown to increase aboveground nutrient uptake requiring the mobilization of soil nutrient pools. For phosphorus (P) the underlying mechanisms for increased P release in soil under highly diverse grassland mixtures remain obscure because aboveground P storage and concentrations of inorganic and organic P in soil solution and differently reactive soil P pools are unrelated (Oelmann et al. 2011). The need of plants and soil microorganisms for P can increase the exudation of enzymes hydrolyzing organically bound P (phosphatases) which might represent an important release mechanism of inorganic P in a competitive environment such as highly diverse grassland mixtures. Our objectives were to test the effects of i) plant functional groups (legumes, grasses, non-leguminous tall and small herbs), and of (ii) plant species richness on microbial P (Pmic) and phosphatase activities in soil. In autumn 2013, we measured Pmic and alkaline phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities in soil of 80 grassland mixtures comprising different community compositions and species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 60) in the Jena Experiment. In general, Pmic and enzyme activities were correlated (r = 0.59 and 0.46 for phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities, respectively; p

  12. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  13. Novel psychoactive benzofurans strongly increase extracellular serotonin level in mouse corpus striatum.

    PubMed

    Fuwa, Tatsu; Suzuki, Jin; Tanaka, Toyohito; Inomata, Akiko; Honda, Yoshiko; Kodama, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of three benzofurans [1-(Benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine (5-MAPB), 1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine (2-MAPB), and 1-(Benzofuran-5-yl)-N-ethylpropan-2-amine (5-EAPB)] on the extracellular monoamine level in mouse corpus striatum by the microdialysis method and compared them with the effects of psychoactive 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The effects of benzofurans on the extracellular monoamine level were qualitatively analogous to that of MDMA, with an increase in serotonin (5-HT) level exceeding dopamine (DA) level. The effects of 2-MAPB and 5-EAPB were almost the same as the effect of MDMA. However, 5-MAPB strongly increased extracellular monoamine level than MDMA. These differences in the potency appear to have a structure-activity relationship. The administration of 5-MAPB (1.6 × 10(-4) mol/kg B.W.) resulted in the death of two-thirds of the mice. The same dose of MDMA did not cause any deaths. The administration of 5-MAPB (1.6 × 10(-4) mol/kg B.W.) produced a 3.41°C ± 0.28°C rise in rectal temperature after 1 hr, whereas the administration of MDMA (1.6 × 10(-4) mol/kg B.W.) produced an approximate 1.85°C ± 0.26°C rise. These results suggest that benzofurans have 5-HT toxicity similar to MDMA, and 5-MAPB has a higher risk of lethal intoxication than MDMA. Furthermore, 5-APB, the metabolic product of 5-MAPB demethylation, may be involved in the acute 5-HT toxicity and may cause lethal intoxication in mice. PMID:27193726

  14. Increased hurricane activity during the Early Toarcian extreme warmth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Stephane; Krencker, Francois-Nicolas; Suan, Guillaume; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Theoretical considerations led to the postulation that hurricane activity should increase on a warming planet. Finding physical proof for this relationship remains, however, a difficult task since no clear trend is yet emerging from records of present-day anthropogenic warming. The geological past offers the opportunity to test this hypothesis by assessing episodes of extreme warming events, such as the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE, Early Jurassic, ca. 180 Ma). The T-OAE is characterized by a rapid 4-5°C global warming likely induced by the massive release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere as a consequence of the activity of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province. Within the western Tethyan realm (Morocco, Portugal, France, England, etc.), a systematic increase in the occurrence of storm-related deposits is observed within the shallow-water sediments deposited during the T-OAE, notably at its onset. Increased tempestite occurrences can be observed in both siliciclastic- and carbonate-dominated environments. In the Moroccan High Atlas, hummocky cross-stratification (HCS) occurs ubiquitous within the T-OAE, but is otherwise rare in this tide-dominated basin. Interestingly, the palaeolatitude of the High Atlas Basin (10°N during the Early Jurassic) rules out winter storms as the driving mechanism behind the formation of the HCS, and suggests therefore a significant increase of tropical hurricane activity associated with the Early Toarcian global warming.

  15. Increasing Arabian dust activity and the Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solmon, F.; Nair, V. S.; Mallet, M.

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decade, aerosol optical depth (AOD) observations based on satellite and ground measurements have shown a significant increase over Arabia and the Arabian Sea, attributed to an intensification of regional dust activity. Recent studies have also suggested that west Asian dust forcing could induce a positive response of Indian monsoon precipitations on a weekly timescale. Using observations and a regional climate model including interactive slab-ocean and dust aerosol schemes, the present study investigates possible climatic links between the increasing June-July-August-September (JJAS) Arabian dust activity and precipitation trends over southern India during the 2000-2009 decade. Meteorological reanalysis and AOD observations suggest that the observed decadal increase of dust activity and a simultaneous intensification of summer precipitation trend over southern India are both linked to a deepening of JJAS surface pressure conditions over the Arabian Sea. In the first part of the study, we analyze the mean climate response to dust radiative forcing over the domain, discussing notably the relative role of Arabian vs. Indo-Pakistani dust regions. In the second part of the study, we show that the model skills in reproducing regional dynamical patterns and southern Indian precipitation trends are significantly improved only when an increasing dust emission trend is imposed on the basis of observations. We conclude that although interannual climate variability might primarily determine the observed regional pattern of increasing dust activity and precipitation during the 2000-2009 decade, the associated dust radiative forcing might in return induce a critical dynamical feedback contributing to enhancing regional moisture convergence and JJAS precipitations over southern India.

  16. Increased amounts of the influenza virus nucleoprotein do not promote higher levels of viral genome replication.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Anne E; Dalton, Rosa M; Amorim, Maria Joao; Elton, Debra; Digard, Paul

    2004-12-01

    Influenza virus genome replication requires the virus-encoded nucleoprotein (NP), partly because it is necessary to encapsidate the viral genomic RNA (vRNA) and antigenomic cRNA segments into ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). However, there is also evidence that NP actively regulates viral RNA synthesis and there is a long-standing hypothesis that increased concentrations of NP in the cell are responsible for a switch from genome transcription to replication. Here, this hypothesis is tested in a recombinant setting and in the context of virus infection. In a plasmid-based system for reconstituting active viral RNPs in cells, titration of increasing amounts of NP did not promote higher levels of genome replication relative to transcription, but in fact caused the opposite effect. An approximately fourfold reduction in the ratio of genomic and antigenomic RNAs to mRNA was seen across an 80-fold range of NP plasmid concentrations. When cells were transfected with the same amounts of NP plasmid to establish a concentration gradient of NP prior to virus superinfection, no change in the ratio of cRNA to mRNA was seen for segments 5 and 7, or for the ratio of segment 5 vRNA to mRNA. A slight reduction in the ratio of segment 7 vRNA to mRNA was seen. These findings do not support the simple hypothesis that increased intracellular concentrations of NP promote influenza virus genome replication.

  17. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.

  18. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  19. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L.; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K.; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes—although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  20. Increasing Student Physical Activity during the School Day: Opportunities for the Physical Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Joan D.; Luebbers, Paul E.; Shane, Shawna D.

    2009-01-01

    America is facing an obesity epidemic--one that is difficult to ignore. In order to combat the nation's obesity crisis, it is imperative that schools find ways to increase the physical activity levels of students during the school day, as well as encourage additional activity outside of school. By teaching youth to incorporate physical activity…

  1. Focused Campaign Increases Activity among Participants in "Nature's Notebook," a Citizen Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Surina, Echo M.; Marsh, Lee; Denny, Ellen G.

    2014-01-01

    Science projects, which engage non-professional scientists in one or more stages of scientific research, have been gaining popularity; yet maintaining participants' activity level over time remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a short-term, focused campaign to increase participant activity in a…

  2. Heparanase procoagulant activity, factor Xa, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 are increased in shift work female nurses.

    PubMed

    Nadir, Yona; Saharov, Gleb; Hoffman, Ron; Keren-Politansky, Anat; Tzoran, Inna; Brenner, Benjamin; Shochat, Tamar

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate on an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in shift workers, although the underlying mechanism is obscure. Heparanase directly enhances tissue factor (TF) activity leading to increased factor Xa production and subsequent activation of the coagulation system. In the present study, a comparison of coagulation markers among healthy shift working (SW) vs. healthy daytime working (DW) female nurses was performed. Thirty SW and 30 DW female nurses were enrolled. For each of the 60 participants, blood was drawn between 7:00 and 8:00 a.m. and at least 8 h after the last work shift. Plasma was studied for coagulation marker that included TF/heparanase procoagulant activity, TF activity, heparanase procoagulant activity, heparanase level, factor Xa level, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), plasminogen, α2-antiplasmin, fibrinogen, global protein C, von Willebrand factor, and D-dimer by chromogenic assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Sleep quality was assessed by self-report according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The heparanase procoagulant activity increased by 2-fold and the TF/heparanase procoagulant activity increased by 1.5-fold in SW nurses compared to DW nurses (P < 0.05). Factor Xa levels and PAI-1 levels were significantly higher among SW nurses compared to the DW group (22 vs. 18 ng/ml, P < 0.05, and 32 vs. 22 ng/ml, P < 0.005, respectively). No significant differences were found in the other tested coagulation markers between the study groups. Heparanase procoagulant activity, factor Xa level, and PAI-1 level were significantly higher in SW nurses compared to the DW group. These alterations of blood coagulation activation may potentially contribute to cardiovascular and cancer morbidity.

  3. Increased serum thymidine kinase activity in acute sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Syunji; Sando, Yoshichika; Maeno, Toshitaka; Sagawa, Naoki; Nara, Mami; Maeno, Yuri; Nakagawa, Junichi; Ito, Toshio; Hoshino, Yoichi; Suga, Tatsuo; Arai, Masashi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2002-02-01

    This is the first case report of acute sarcoidosis with increased serum thymidine kinase (TK) activity. A 43-year-old male presented fever, swelling of parotid glands, lymphadenopathy, and peripheral neuropathy. Sarcoidosis was pathologically diagnosed by lung and parotid gland biopsy. His serum TK, which was increased to 11.2 U/l at diagnosis (normal <5 U/l), normalized after glucocorticoid therapy. Serum TK has been considered as a good marker of the proliferative activity of various types of neoplasms. Its rise in sarcoidosis has, however, not been described. Because acute sarcoidosis sometimes resembles malignant lymphoma, the possible rise of serum TK in sarcoidosis may be worthy of note. PMID:11868600

  4. [Adaptive increase of serotonergic system activity in tissues of half-migratory and migratory fish at increased water salinity].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with studies of the serotoninergic system activity in different tissues of half-migratory fish--the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) and carpbream (Abramis brama orientalis)--and migratory fish--shemaya (Chalcalburnus chalcoides) caught in fresh and brackish waters, as well as in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues under effect of brackish water in model experiments. Using indirect solid-phase ELISA-test, the serotoninergic system activity was evaluated by measuring in the tissues of the studied fish the serotonin-modulated anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) which is in linear relationship with serotonin level. There was found a significant elevation of the SMAP levels in the brain of the Caspian roach, carpbream, shemaya, and the common carp under effect of increased water sainity. The revealed increase of the SMAP content in brains of the Caspian roach, carpbream, shemaya, and the common carp under action of increased water salinity reflects the corresponding elevated activity of the serotoninergic system and indicates involvement of adaptive readjustments in the animals' body. PMID:25509051

  5. [Adaptive increase of serotonergic system activity in tissues of half-migratory and migratory fish at increased water salinity].

    PubMed

    Mustafaev, N J; Mekhtiev, A A

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with studies of the serotoninergic system activity in different tissues of half-migratory fish--the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) and carpbream (Abramis brama orientalis)--and migratory fish--shemaya (Chalcalburnus chalcoides) caught in fresh and brackish waters, as well as in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues under effect of brackish water in model experiments. Using indirect solid-phase ELISA-test, the serotoninergic system activity was evaluated by measuring in the tissues of the studied fish the serotonin-modulated anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) which is in linear relationship with serotonin level. There was found a significant elevation of the SMAP levels in the brain of the Caspian roach, carpbream, shemaya, and the common carp under effect of increased water sainity. The revealed increase of the SMAP content in brains of the Caspian roach, carpbream, shemaya, and the common carp under action of increased water salinity reflects the corresponding elevated activity of the serotoninergic system and indicates involvement of adaptive readjustments in the animals' body. PMID:25490850

  6. Cytochrome oxidase activity is increased in +/Lc Purkinje cells destined to die.

    PubMed

    Vogel, M W; Fan, H; Sydnor, J; Guidetti, P

    2001-10-01

    +/Lc Purkinje cells degenerate postnatally because of a gain-of-function mutation in the delta2 glutamate receptor (Grid2) that causes a constitutive Na+ current leak. The effect of the resulting chronic depolarization on Purkinje cell metabolism was investigated by measuring levels of cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity in Purkinje cell dendrites using quantitative densitometry. Analysis of wild type controls and +/Lc mutants at P10, P15 and P25 showed that levels of COX activity were significantly increased above control levels by P15 and continued to increase through P25. The increase in COX activity is likely to reflect an increase in oxidative phosphorylation to accommodate the energy demands of removing excess Na+ and Ca2+ entering the Purkinje cells in response to the Grid2 leak current.

  7. Interactions Increase Forager Availability and Activity in Harvester Ants

    PubMed Central

    Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Crow, Sam; Allen, Kelsey; Mathur, Maya B.; Gordon, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Social insect colonies use interactions among workers to regulate collective behavior. Harvester ant foragers interact in a chamber just inside the nest entrance, here called the 'entrance chamber'. Previous studies of the activation of foragers in red harvester ants show that an outgoing forager inside the nest experiences an increase in brief antennal contacts before it leaves the nest to forage. Here we compare the interaction rate experienced by foragers that left the nest and ants that did not. We found that ants in the entrance chamber that leave the nest to forage experienced more interactions than ants that descend to the deeper nest without foraging. Additionally, we found that the availability of foragers in the entrance chamber is associated with the rate of forager return. An increase in the rate of forager return leads to an increase in the rate at which ants descend to the deeper nest, which then stimulates more ants to ascend into the entrance chamber. Thus a higher rate of forager return leads to more available foragers in the entrance chamber. The highest density of interactions occurs near the nest entrance and the entrances of the tunnels from the entrance chamber to the deeper nest. Local interactions with returning foragers regulate both the activation of waiting foragers and the number of foragers available to be activated. PMID:26539724

  8. Interactions Increase Forager Availability and Activity in Harvester Ants.

    PubMed

    Pless, Evlyn; Queirolo, Jovel; Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Crow, Sam; Allen, Kelsey; Mathur, Maya B; Gordon, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    Social insect colonies use interactions among workers to regulate collective behavior. Harvester ant foragers interact in a chamber just inside the nest entrance, here called the 'entrance chamber'. Previous studies of the activation of foragers in red harvester ants show that an outgoing forager inside the nest experiences an increase in brief antennal contacts before it leaves the nest to forage. Here we compare the interaction rate experienced by foragers that left the nest and ants that did not. We found that ants in the entrance chamber that leave the nest to forage experienced more interactions than ants that descend to the deeper nest without foraging. Additionally, we found that the availability of foragers in the entrance chamber is associated with the rate of forager return. An increase in the rate of forager return leads to an increase in the rate at which ants descend to the deeper nest, which then stimulates more ants to ascend into the entrance chamber. Thus a higher rate of forager return leads to more available foragers in the entrance chamber. The highest density of interactions occurs near the nest entrance and the entrances of the tunnels from the entrance chamber to the deeper nest. Local interactions with returning foragers regulate both the activation of waiting foragers and the number of foragers available to be activated. PMID:26539724

  9. Interactions Increase Forager Availability and Activity in Harvester Ants.

    PubMed

    Pless, Evlyn; Queirolo, Jovel; Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Crow, Sam; Allen, Kelsey; Mathur, Maya B; Gordon, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    Social insect colonies use interactions among workers to regulate collective behavior. Harvester ant foragers interact in a chamber just inside the nest entrance, here called the 'entrance chamber'. Previous studies of the activation of foragers in red harvester ants show that an outgoing forager inside the nest experiences an increase in brief antennal contacts before it leaves the nest to forage. Here we compare the interaction rate experienced by foragers that left the nest and ants that did not. We found that ants in the entrance chamber that leave the nest to forage experienced more interactions than ants that descend to the deeper nest without foraging. Additionally, we found that the availability of foragers in the entrance chamber is associated with the rate of forager return. An increase in the rate of forager return leads to an increase in the rate at which ants descend to the deeper nest, which then stimulates more ants to ascend into the entrance chamber. Thus a higher rate of forager return leads to more available foragers in the entrance chamber. The highest density of interactions occurs near the nest entrance and the entrances of the tunnels from the entrance chamber to the deeper nest. Local interactions with returning foragers regulate both the activation of waiting foragers and the number of foragers available to be activated.

  10. [Increasing activity of a monoamine oxidase by random mutation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuejun; Ma, Yuanhui; Shao, Jianhua; Lai, Dunyue; Wang, Zhiguo; Chen, Zhenming

    2014-01-01

    The monoamine oxidase mutant A-1 (F210V/L213C) from Aspergillus niger showed some catalytic activity on mexiletine. To futher improve its activity, the mutant was subjected to directed evolution with MegaWHOP PCR (Megaprimer PCR of Whole Plasmid) and selection employing a high-throughput agar plate-based colorimetric screen. This approach led to the identification of a mutant ep-1, which specific activity was 189% of that for A-1. The ep-1 also showed significantly improved enantioselectivity, with the E value increased from 101 to 282; its kinetic k(cat)/K(m) value increased from 0.001 51 mmol/(L x s) to 0.002 89 mmol/(L x s), suggesting that catalytic efficiency of ep-1 had been improved. The mutant showed obviously higher specific activities on 7 of all tested 11 amines substrates, and the others were comparable. Sequence analysis revealed that there was a new mutation T162A on ep-1. The molecular dynamics simulation indicated that T162A may affect the secondary structure of the substrate channel and expand the binding pocket. PMID:24818485

  11. Changes in baseball batters' brain activity with increased pitch choice.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Kim, Jingu; Ali, Asif; Kim, Woojong; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    In baseball, one factor necessary for batters to decide whether to swing or not depends on what type of pitch is thrown. Oftentimes batters will look for their pitch (i.e., waiting for a fastball). In general, when a pitcher has many types of pitches in his arsenal, batters will have greater difficulty deciding upon the pitch thrown. Little research has been investigated the psychophysiology of a batters decision-making processes. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine how brain activation changes according to an increase in the number of alternatives (NA) available. A total of 15 male college baseball players participated in this study. The stimuli used in this experiment were video clips of a right-handed pitcher throwing fastball, curve, and slider pitches. The task was to press a button after selecting the fastball as the target stimulus from two pitch choices (fastball and curve), and then from three possibilities (fastball, curve, and slider). Functional and anatomic image scanning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) runs took 4 and 5[Formula: see text]min, respectively. According to our analysis, the right precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were activated when the NA was one. The supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortex were activated when there were two alternatives to choose from and the inferior orbitofrontal gyrus was specifically activated with three alternatives. Contrary to our expectations, the NA was not a critical factor influencing the activation of related decision making areas when the NA was compared against one another. These findings highlight that specific brain areas related to decision making were activated as the NA increased.

  12. Changes in baseball batters' brain activity with increased pitch choice.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Kim, Jingu; Ali, Asif; Kim, Woojong; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    In baseball, one factor necessary for batters to decide whether to swing or not depends on what type of pitch is thrown. Oftentimes batters will look for their pitch (i.e., waiting for a fastball). In general, when a pitcher has many types of pitches in his arsenal, batters will have greater difficulty deciding upon the pitch thrown. Little research has been investigated the psychophysiology of a batters decision-making processes. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine how brain activation changes according to an increase in the number of alternatives (NA) available. A total of 15 male college baseball players participated in this study. The stimuli used in this experiment were video clips of a right-handed pitcher throwing fastball, curve, and slider pitches. The task was to press a button after selecting the fastball as the target stimulus from two pitch choices (fastball and curve), and then from three possibilities (fastball, curve, and slider). Functional and anatomic image scanning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) runs took 4 and 5[Formula: see text]min, respectively. According to our analysis, the right precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were activated when the NA was one. The supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortex were activated when there were two alternatives to choose from and the inferior orbitofrontal gyrus was specifically activated with three alternatives. Contrary to our expectations, the NA was not a critical factor influencing the activation of related decision making areas when the NA was compared against one another. These findings highlight that specific brain areas related to decision making were activated as the NA increased. PMID:26227537

  13. Projecting climate-driven increases in North American fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through controls on vegetation productivity (fuels), lightning ignitions, and conditions governing fire spread. In many regions of the world, human management also influences the timing, duration, and extent of fire activity. These coupled interactions between human and natural systems make fire a complex component of the Earth system. Satellite data provide valuable information on the spatial and temporal dynamics of recent fire activity, as active fires, burned area, and land cover information can be combined to separate wildfires from intentional burning for agriculture and forestry. Here, we combined satellite-derived burned area data with land cover and climate data to assess fire-climate relationships in North America between 2000-2012. We used the latest versions of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) burned area product and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate data to develop regional relationships between burned area and potential evaporation (PE), an integrated dryness metric. Logistic regression models were developed to link burned area with PE and individual climate variables during and preceding the fire season, and optimal models were selected based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Overall, our model explained 85% of the variance in burned area since 2000 across North America. Fire-climate relationships from the era of satellite observations provide a blueprint for potential changes in fire activity under scenarios of climate change. We used that blueprint to evaluate potential changes in fire activity over the next 50 years based on twenty models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). All models suggest an increase of PE under low and high emissions scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5, respectively), with largest increases in projected burned area across the western US and central Canada. Overall, near

  14. Job level risk assessment using task level ACGIH hand activity level TLV scores: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drinkaus, Phillip; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Donald S; Mann, Clay; Bernard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Existing upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder analytical tools are primarily intended for single or mono-task jobs. However, many jobs contain more than 1 task and some include job rotation. This case/control study investigates methods of modifying an existing tool, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Hand Activity Level (HAL) Threshold Limit Value (TLV), to assess the upper extremity risk of multi-task jobs. Various methods of combining the task differences and ratios into a job level assessment were explored. Two methods returned significant odds ratios, (p < .05) of 18.0 (95% CI 1.8-172) and 12.0 (95% CI 1.2-120). These results indicate that a modified ACGIH HAL TLV may provide insight into the work-related risk of multi-task jobs. Further research is needed to optimize this process. PMID:16219155

  15. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  16. Reduced antioxidant level and increased oxidative damage in intact liver lobes during ischaemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Váli, László; Taba, Gabriella; Szentmihályi, Klára; Fébel, Hedvig; Kurucz, Tímea; Pallai, Zsolt; Kupcsulik, Péter; Blázovics, Anna

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether increased blood flow of the liver can cause oxidative stress and hepatocyte damage, and to elaborate methods suitable for measuring the antioxidant defence during hepatic surgery on rat model. METHODS: In nembutal narcosis, the left lateral and the medial lobes of the liver were clipped for 45 min to make the total blood supply flow through the other lobes. Total antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dysmutase activity, as well as the concentrations of diene conjugates and free sulphydril groups, H-donating ability and reducing power of the liver samples were determined. Chemiluminescent intensity of the liver was also measured. Metal ions (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn) and P and S concentrations of the liver were determined with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and Se content was measured by cathodic stripping voltammetry. RESULTS: Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dysmutase activities of the liver decreased significantly in the hyperemia group compared to those observed in the sham operated group. The level of total antioxidant status was also significantly lower in the hyperemia group. H-donating ability, reducing power and free sulphydril group concentration showed the same tendency. A significant correlation (P<0.05) was found between the changes in non-specific antioxidant activities. This pointed to simultaneous activity of the antioxidant defence system. Al, Cu, Mn, Zn, and S were lower in the hyperemia group than in the sham operated group when the levels of Ca, Fe, Mg, Se and P ions were higher during hyperemia. CONCLUSION: Oxidative stress is one of the main factors for the injury of intact liver lobes during ischaemia-reperfusion. PMID:16534850

  17. Decreasing excessive media usage while increasing physical activity: a single-subject research study.

    PubMed

    Larwin, Karen H; Larwin, David A

    2008-11-01

    The Kaiser Family Foundation released a report entitled Kids and Media Use in the United States that concluded that children's use of media--including television, computers, Internet, video games, and phones--may be one of the primary contributor's to the poor fitness and obesity of many of today's adolescents. The present study examines the potential of increasing physical activity and decreasing media usage in a 14-year-old adolescent female by making time spent on the Internet and/or cell phone contingent on physical activity. Results of this investigation indicate that requiring the participant to earn her media-usage time did correspond with an increase in physical activity and a decrease in media-usage time relative to baseline measures. Five weeks after cessation of the intervention, the participant's new level of physical activity was still being maintained. One year after the study, the participant's level of physical activity continued to increase. PMID:18544746

  18. Central injection of CDP-choline suppresses serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyici, Sinem; Basaran, Nesrin Filiz; Cavun, Sinan; Savci, Vahide

    2015-10-01

    In this study we aimed to test central administration of CDP-choline on serum ghrelin, leptin, glucose and corticosterone levels in rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µmol CDP-choline and saline were administered to male Wistar-Albino rats. For the measurement of serum leptin and ghrelin levels, blood samples were obtained baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min following i.c.v. CDP-choline injection. Equimolar doses of i.c.v. choline (1.0 µmol) and cytidine (1.0 µmol) were administered and measurements were repeated throughout the second round of the experiment. Atropine (10 µg) and mecamylamine (50 µg) were injected intracerebroventricularly prior to CDP-choline and measurements repeated in the third round of the experiment. After 1 µmol CDP-choline injection, serum ghrelin levels were suppressed significantly at 60 min (P=0.025), whereas serum leptin levels were increased at 60 and 120 min (P=0.012 and P=0.017 respectively). CDP-choline injections also induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in serum glucose and corticosterone levels. The effect of choline on serum leptin and ghrelin levels was similar with CDP-choline while no effect was seen with cytidine. Suppression of serum ghrelin levels was eliminated through mecamylamine pretreatment while a rise in leptin was prevented by both atropine and mecamylamine pretreatments. In conclusion; centrally injected CDP-choline suppressed serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels. The observed effects following receptor antagonist treatment suggest that nicotinic receptors play a role in suppression of serum ghrelin levels,whereas nicotinic and muscarinic receptors both play a part in the increase of serum leptin levels.

  19. Fasting-induced increases in food hoarding are dependent on the foraging-effort level.

    PubMed

    Day, Diane E; Bartness, Timothy J

    2003-04-01

    Two strategies that have evolved to help animals meet energy demands are increases in body fat and in hoarded food. Reliance on each varies, but both are characterized by energy stored in excess of current demands for future use. Fasted Siberian hamsters decrease their lipid stores and, upon refeeding, food hoarding rather than food intake increases. Here, we tested the effect of foraging-effort level on fasting-induced increases in food hoarding and whether decreases in total body fat or individual fat pad masses were associated with the hoarding increases. This was accomplished by housing female Siberian hamsters in a foraging/hoarding system where they earned food pellets upon completion of a programmed number of wheel revolutions (10, 75 or 200 per 75-mg pellet), or had no foraging requirement (free food and an active or blocked running wheel). After baseline, half the hamsters in each group were food deprived for 32 h and then refed (control hamsters were killed after the fast without refeeding). Fasted-refed hamsters increased foraging and food hoarding, especially at the lowest foraging effort, but not food intake, with few exceptions. These responses became progressively smaller as foraging effort increased. Fasting induced similar losses in carcass lipid across foraging efforts, but the lipid loss was not uniform across the fat pads and was not clearly related to hoard size. Collectively, the fasting-induced, increased food hoarding may be triggered by an overall change in energy metabolism rather than by a general or fat-pad-specific decrease in lipid stores. PMID:12782221

  20. Cofilin/Twinstar Phosphorylation Levels Increase in Response to Impaired Coenzyme A Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Siudeja, Katarzyna; Grzeschik, Nicola A.; Rana, Anil; de Jong, Jannie; Sibon, Ody C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) is a pantothenic acid-derived metabolite essential for many fundamental cellular processes including energy, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Pantothenate kinase (PANK), which catalyses the first step in the conversion of pantothenic acid to CoA, has been associated with a rare neurodegenerative disorder PKAN. However, the consequences of impaired PANK activity are poorly understood. Here we use Drosophila and human neuronal cell cultures to show how PANK deficiency leads to abnormalities in F-actin organization. Cells with reduced PANK activity are characterized by abnormally high levels of phosphorylated cofilin, a conserved actin filament severing protein. The increased levels of phospho-cofilin coincide with morphological changes of PANK-deficient Drosophila S2 cells and human neuronal SHSY-5Y cells. The latter exhibit also markedly reduced ability to form neurites in culture – a process that is strongly dependent on actin remodeling. Our results reveal a novel and conserved link between a metabolic biosynthesis pathway, and regulation of cellular actin dynamics. PMID:22912811

  1. Increased glucose metabolism and ATP level in brain tissue of Huntington's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Oláh, Judit; Klivényi, Péter; Gardián, Gabriella; Vécsei, László; Orosz, Ferenc; Kovacs, Gabor G; Westerhoff, Hans V; Ovádi, Judit

    2008-10-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by multifarious dysfunctional alterations including mitochondrial impairment. In the present study, the formation of inclusions caused by the mutation of huntingtin protein and its relationship with changes in energy metabolism and with pathological alterations were investigated both in transgenic and 3-nitropropionic acid-treated mouse models for HD. The HD and normal mice were characterized clinically; the affected brain regions were identified by immunohistochemistry and used for biochemical analysis of the ATP-producing systems in the cytosolic and the mitochondrial compartments. In both HD models, the activities of some glycolytic enzymes were somewhat higher. By contrast, the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was much lower in the affected region of the brain compared to that of the control. Paradoxically, at the system level, glucose conversion into lactate was enhanced in cytosolic extracts from the HD brain tissue, and the level of ATP was higher in the tissue itself. The paradox could be resolved by taking all the observed changes in glycolytic enzymes into account, ensuing an experiment-based detailed mathematical model of the glycolytic pathway. The mathematical modelling using the experimentally determined kinetic parameters of the individual enzymes and the well-established rate equations predicted the measured flux and concentrations in the case of the control. The same mathematical model with the experimentally determined altered V(max) values of the enzymes did account for an increase of glycolytic flux in the HD sample, although the extent of the increase was not predicted quantitatively. This suggested a somewhat altered regulation of this major metabolic pathway in HD tissue. We then used the mathematical model to develop a hypothesis for a new regulatory interaction that might account for the observed changes; in HD, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

  2. Targeting increased copper levels in diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma cells in rats by epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Mohd; Rizvi, Asim; Naseem, Imrana; Hadi, S M; Ahmad, Aamir

    2015-11-01

    We have earlier elucidated a pathway for the anticancer action of plant polyphenolic compounds against malignant cells involving mobilisation of endogenous copper ions and the consequent prooxidant action. To further confirm our hypothesis in vivo, we induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). We show that in such carcinoma cells, there is a progressive elevation in copper levels at various intervals after DEN administration. Concurrently with increasing copper levels, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG; a potent anticancer plant polyphenol found in green tea) mediated DNA breakage in malignant cells is also increased. The cell membrane permeable copper chelator neocuproine inhibited the EGCG-mediated cellular DNA degradation, whereas the membrane impermeable chelator bathocuproine was ineffective. Iron and zinc specific chelators desferoxamine mesylate and histidine, respectively, were also ineffective in inhibiting EGCG mediated DNA breakage. Through the use of specific scavengers, the mechanism of DNA breakage was determined to be mediated by reactive oxygen species. In summary, we provide an in vivo evidence of accumulating copper in hepatocellular carcinoma that is targeted by EGCG, leading to its anticancer role in a prooxidant manner. Our findings confirm a novel mechanism of anticancer activity of EGCG in particular and plant derived nutraceuticals in general.

  3. 5 CFR 531.504 - Level of performance required for quality step increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... step increase. 531.504 Section 531.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Quality Step Increases § 531.504 Level of performance required for quality step increase. A quality step increase shall not be required but may be granted...

  4. 5 CFR 531.504 - Level of performance required for quality step increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... step increase. 531.504 Section 531.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Quality Step Increases § 531.504 Level of performance required for quality step increase. A quality step increase shall not be required but may be granted...

  5. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  6. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  7. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  8. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  9. Secular trends in storm-level geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1) geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2) The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14-23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11-13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  10. Level of independence of motor unit properties from neuromuscular activity.

    PubMed

    Pierotti, D J; Roy, R R; Hodgson, J A; Edgerton, V R

    1994-11-01

    Neuromuscular activity was eliminated in the tibialis anterior muscle of adult cats for 6 months by spinal isolation (SI), i.e., complete spinal cord transections at T-12-13 and at L-7-S-1, plus bilateral dorsal rhizotomy between the two transection sites. One motor unit from each muscle was isolated using ventral root teasing procedures and physiologically tested. The fibers belonging to each motor unit were visualized in PAS-stained sections by the loss of glycogen following prolonged repetitive stimulation. Qualitatively, the normal enzymatic interrelationships among fibers identified by myosin heavy chain composition were unchanged by SI. Generally, each motor unit from SI cats were of a single myosin immunohistochemical type. The same physiological motor unit types that typify control muscles were found in SI cats. In SI compared to control cats, there was approximately a 10% increase in the number of muscle fibers expressing fast myosin. Mean fiber activity levels of ATPase and SDH for a given fiber type (based on MHC antibody reactions) decreased by approximately 10% and 25%, whereas GPD activity increased approximately 35%. It is concluded that differential levels or patterns of activity are not essential to maintain the range of histochemical and physiological motor unit types found in the tibialis anterior of normal adult cats.

  11. Higher levels of circulating monocyte-platelet aggregates are correlated with viremia and increased sCD163 levels in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hua; Duan, Zhaojun; Li, Dan; Li, Dongliang; Wang, Zheng; Ren, Li; Shen, Tao; Shao, Yiming

    2015-07-01

    Increased levels of monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) are reported to be highly correlated with cardiovascular events. In this study, the MPA levels in different monocyte subsets and the associations between MPA levels, HIV-1 viremia and monocyte activation were evaluated during HIV-1 infection. The results showed that the percentages of MPAs in all three monocyte subsets were higher in HIV-1-infected subjects than in healthy controls, and were associated with the plasma viral load in the non-classical and intermediate monocyte subsets. The plasma levels of sCD14 and sCD163 were upregulated in HIV-1 infection and were positively associated with viral loads and negatively associated with CD4 counts. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) was shown to be expressed at significantly lower levels on all three monocyte subsets and was negatively correlated with the sCD163 level. The MPA level was correlated with the levels of plasma sCD163 but negatively correlated with CD163 and PSGL-1 on all three monocyte subsets. An elevated immune activation status was correlated with increased MPA formation, underlying the potential interaction between monocyte activation and MPA formation. This interaction may be related to a higher thromboembolic risk in patients infected with HIV-1.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 11 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.66.

  12. Diagnostic performance of increased prolidase activity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Güneş, Mehmet; Bulut, Mahmut; Demir, Süleyman; İbiloğlu, Aslıhan Okan; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Atlı, Abdullah; Kaplan, İbrahim; Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Sir, Aytekin

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether prolidase activity has a diagnostic test value in schizophrenia and assessed the relation between prolidase activity and sociodemographic-clinical characteristics of patients with schizophrenia. Fifty patients with schizophrenia (diagnosed as schizophrenia according to DSM-V criteria) and 50 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Case and control groups had a similar distribution in age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status. Serum prolidase activity was measured in both groups and was determined to be significantly higher in the patient group (509.706±41.918) compared to the control group (335.4±13.6; t=6.231; p=0.0001). A cut-off point of 392.65U/L prolidase was determined for diagnostic measures from the plotted ROC curve. The area under the ROC curve was 1.000, which was significant (p<0.0001). Higher values were assigned as the disease state. Both positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 100% at the cut-off point of 392.650U/L. The prolidase levels of the control group were all below the cut-off point. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with regard to age, gender, or BMI (p>0.05), and no correlation was found between mean prolidase activity and age of onset of the disease, family history, disease duration, number of hospitalizations, subtypes of schizophrenia, PANSS scores or sub-scores, CGI-S scores, S-A scale scores, and the antipsychotic treatment (p>0.05). The results of this study indicate that serum prolidase activity may be a useful diagnostic test for schizophrenia; however, further studies are needed to verify this.

  13. Cold acclimation increases levels of some heat shock protein and sirtuin isoforms in threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Teigen, Laura E; Orczewska, Julieanna I; McLaughlin, Jessica; O'Brien, Kristin M

    2015-10-01

    Molecular chaperones [heat shock proteins (HSPs)] increase in response to rapid changes in temperatures, but long-term acclimation to cold temperature may also warrant elevations in HSPs. In fishes, cold acclimation increases mitochondrial density and oxidative stress in some tissues, which may increase demand for HSPs. We hypothesized that levels of HSPs, as well as sirtuins (SIRTs), NAD-dependent deacetylases that mediate changes in metabolism and responses to oxidative stress (including increases in HSPs), would increase during cold acclimation of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Transcript levels of hsp70, hsc70, hsp60 and hsp90-α, sirts1-4, as well as protein levels of HSP60, HSP90 and HSC70 were quantified in liver and pectoral adductor muscle of stickleback during cold acclimation from 20 °C to 8 °C. In liver, cold acclimation stimulated a transient increase in mRNA levels of hsp60 and hsc70. Transcript levels of sirt1 and sirt2 also increased in response to cold acclimation and remained elevated. In pectoral muscle, mRNA levels of hsp60, hsp90-α, hsc70 and sirt1 all transiently increased in response to cold acclimation, while levels of sirts2-4 remained constant or declined. Similar to transcript levels, protein levels of HSC70 increased in both liver and pectoral muscle. Levels of HSP90 also increased in liver after 4 weeks at 8 °C. HSP60 remained unchanged in both tissues, as did HSP90 in pectoral muscle. Our results indicate that while both HSPs and SIRTs increase in response to cold acclimation in stickleback, the response is tissue and isoform specific, likely reflecting differences in metabolism and oxidative stress.

  14. Compound 49b Prevents Diabetes-Induced Apoptosis through Increased IGFBP-3 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiuhua; Guy, Kimberly; Pagadala, Jayaprakash; Jiang, Youde; Walker, Robert J; Liu, Luhong; Soderland, Carl; Kern, Timothy S; Ferry, Robert; He, Hui; Yates, C. Ryan; Miller, Duane D; Steinle, Jena J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether Compound 49b, a novel PKA-activating drug, can prevent diabetic-like changes in the rat retina through increased insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels. Methods. For the cell culture studies, we used both human retinal endothelial cells (REC) and retinal Müller cells in either 5 mM (normal) or 25 mM (high) glucose. Cells were treated with 50 nM Compound 49b alone of following treatment with protein kinase A (PKA) siRNA or IGFBP-3 siRNA. Western blotting and ELISA analyses were done to verify PKA and IGFBP-3 knockdown, as well as to measure apoptotic markers. For animal studies, we used streptozotocin-treated rats after 2 and 8 months of diabetes. Some rats were treated topically with 1 mM Compound 49b. Analyses were done for retinal thickness, cell numbers in the ganglion cell layer, pericyte ghosts, and numbers of degenerate capillaries, as well as electroretinogram and heart morphology. Results. Compound 49b requires active PKA and IGFBP-3 to prevent apoptosis of REC. Compound 49b significantly reduced the numbers of degenerate capillaries and pericyte ghosts, while preventing the decreased retinal thickness and loss of cells in the ganglion cell layer. Compound 49b maintained a normal electroretinogram, with no changes in blood pressure, intraocular pressure, or heart morphological changes. Conclusions. Topical Compound 49b is able to prevent diabetic-like changes in the rat retina, without producing systemic changes. Compound 49b is able to prevent REC apoptosis through increasing IGFBP-3 levels, which are reduced in response to hyperglycemia. PMID:22467575

  15. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host-parasitoid food chain.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Dirk; Moser, Andrea; Newton, Jason; van Veen, F J Frank

    2016-03-16

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host-parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary-secondary-tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ(15)N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ(15)N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host-parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems.

  16. 12 CFR 263.85 - Establishment of increased capital level for specific institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... establish a capital level higher than the minimum specified in the Board's Capital Adequacy Guidelines for a... capital levels above those in the Board's Capital Adequacy Guidelines may be necessary and appropriate for... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of increased capital level...

  17. Both novelty and expertise increase action observation network activity.

    PubMed

    Liew, Sook-Lei; Sheng, Tong; Margetis, John L; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Our experiences with others affect how we perceive their actions. In particular, activity in bilateral premotor and parietal cortices during action observation, collectively known as the action observation network (AON), is modulated by one's expertise with the observed actions or individuals. However, conflicting reports suggest that AON activity is greatest both for familiar and unfamiliar actions. The current study examines the effects of different types and amounts of experience (e.g., visual, interpersonal, personal) on AON activation. fMRI was used to scan 16 healthy participants without prior experience with individuals with amputations (novices), 11 experienced occupational therapists (OTs) who had varying amounts of experience with individuals with amputations, and one individual born with below-elbow residual limbs (participant CJ), as they viewed video clips of goal-matched actions performed by an individual with residual limbs and by an individual with hands. Participants were given increased visual exposure to actions performed by both effectors midway through the scanning procedure. Novices demonstrated a large AON response to the initial viewing of an individual with residual limbs compared to one with hands, but this signal was attenuated after they received visual exposure to both effectors. In contrast, OTs, who had moderate familiarity with residual limbs, demonstrated a lower AON response upon initial viewing-similar to novices after they received visual exposure. At the other extreme, CJ, who has extreme familiarity with residual limbs both visually and motorically, shows a largely increased left-lateralized AON response, exceeding that of novices and experienced OTs, when viewing the residual limb compared to hand actions. These results suggest that a nuanced model of AON engagement is needed to explain how cases of both extreme experience (CJ) and extreme novelty (novices) can result in the greatest AON activity.

  18. Increased resistance to free radical damage induced by low-level sound conditioning.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kelly Carney; Bielefeld, Eric; Hu, Bo Hua; Henderson, Donald

    2006-03-01

    Conditioning is the phenomenon where exposure to moderate-level acoustic stimuli can increase the ear's resistance to subsequent more intense sound exposures. In recent years, research has shown that conditioning increases the availability of antioxidant enzymes which presumably protects the ear from oxidative stress induced by a traumatic noise exposure [Jacono, A.A., Hu, B., Kopke, R.D., Henderson, D., Van De Water, T.R., Steinman, H.M., 1998. Changes in cochlear antioxidant enzyme activity after sound conditioning and noise exposure in the chinchilla. Hear Res 117, 31-8]. The current study was designed to assess whether the increase in endogenous antioxidants seen following conditioning could provide protection from oxidative stress induced by Paraquat, a potent generator of superoxide. Chinchillas were exposed to a conditioning noise, 500 Hz OBN at 95 dB for 6 h/day for 10 days, followed 5 days later with Paraquat application to the round window. Controls underwent the Paraquat application surgery, without prior conditioning. Evoked potential thresholds were determined prior to conditioning, at day 1, 5 and 10 during conditioning, at day 15 (5 days after conditioning), and at day 17, 19, 23, and 35 (1, 3, 7, and 20 days post-Paraquat). The conditioned animals showed reductions in permanent threshold shift and reduced inner hair cell loss relative to controls. These results reinforce the hypothesis that antioxidants are primary mediators of the conditioning effect.

  19. Increase of exhaled nitric oxide in children exposed to low levels of ambient ozone.

    PubMed

    Nickmilder, Marc; de Burbure, Claire; Carbonnelle, Sylviane; Sylviane, Carbonnelle; Dumont, Xavier; Xavier, Dumont; Bernard, Alfred; Alfred, Bernard; Derouane, Alain; Alain, Derouane

    2007-02-01

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce lung function impairment and airways inflammation during episodes of photochemical smog. The aim of the present study was to assess the inflammatory effect of ambient O3 in healthy children using nitric oxide in exhaled air (eNO) as a noninvasive test. The study was performed on 6 groups of children (n = 11-15), aged 6.5 to 15 yr, who attended summer camps in rural areas of the south of Belgium in 2002. Ambient O3 concentrations continuously monitored in the camps ranged from 48 to 221 microg/m3 (1-h maximal concentration). Children remained outdoors during the experimental days, doing various recreational activities but no sports. Lung function tests (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] and forced vital capacity [FVC]) and eNO were measured twice in each child in the morning and in the evening. While lung function tests did not show any consistent pattern of decrease at these O3 levels, a highly significant increase in eNO was found in all subjects from an ambient 1-h O3 level of 167 microg/m3. A multivariate analysis did not reveal any influence of age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of the children. The threshold for this O3-induced increase in eNO estimated benchmark dose analysis was 135 microg/m3 for 1-h exposure and 110 microg/m3 for 8-h exposure. These observations suggest that ambient ozone produces early inflammatory changes in the airways of children at levels slightly below current air quality standards. PMID:17365589

  20. Increased cortisol levels in hair of recent Ecstasy/MDMA users.

    PubMed

    Parrott, A C; Sands, H R; Jones, L; Clow, A; Evans, P; Downey, L A; Stalder, T

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has revealed an acute 8-fold increase in salivary cortisol following self-administrated Ecstasy/MDMA in dance clubbers. It is currently not known to what extent repeated usage impacts upon activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis over a more prolonged period of time. This study investigated the integrated cortisol levels in 3-month hair samples from recent Ecstasy/MDMA users and non-user controls. One hundred and one unpaid participants (53 males, 48 females; mean age 21.75 years) completed the University of East London recreational drug use questionnaire, modified to cover the past 3-months of usage. They comprised 32 light recent Ecstasy/MDMA users (1-4 times in last 3 months), 23 recent heavy MDMA users (+5 times in last 3 months), and 54 non-user controls. Volunteers provided 3 cm hair samples for cortisol analysis. Hair cortisol levels were observed to be significantly higher in recent heavy MDMA users (mean = 55.0 ± 80.1 pg/mg), compared to recent light MDMA users (19.4 ± 16.0 pg/mg; p=0.015), and to non-users (13.8 ± 6.1 pg/mg; p<0.001). Hence the regular use of Ecstasy/MDMA was associated with almost 4-fold raised hair cortisol levels, in comparison with non-user controls. The present results are consistent with the bio-energetic stress model for Ecstasy/MDMA, which predicts that repeated stimulant drug use may increase cortisol production acutely, and result in greater deposits of the hormone in hair. These data may also help explain the neurocognitive, psychiatric, and other psychobiological problems of some abstinent users. Future study design and directions for research concerning the psychoneuroendocrinological impact of MDMA are also discussed.

  1. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  2. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  3. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  4. Components of the increased circulating proteolytic activity in pediatric burn patients.

    PubMed

    Neely, A N; Warden, G D; Rieman, M; Friedberg, D L; Holder, I A

    1992-12-01

    Total proteolytic activity (PA) is increased in the circulation of pediatric burn patients. The extent of the increase correlates with the percent total body surface area (TBSA) burned and is associated with increased susceptibility to fatal infection. To determine the source or sources of this PA, three factors were evaluated: (1) levels of proteinase inhibitors--antithrombin, alpha 2-antiplasmin, and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor; (2) levels of proteinase--neutrophil elastase; and (3) activation of circulating proteolytic cascade systems as indicated by changes in levels of system components--plasminogen and prekallikrein. All assays measured functional levels of the proteins. Normal levels were determined in 25 consecutive well children who were seeing their pediatrician for checkups (14 boys, 11 girls, ranging in age from 10 months to 17 years). Twenty-five consecutive burn victims admitted to the Shriners Burns Institute, Cincinnati Unit (19 boys, six girls, aged 10 months to 17 years), with a mean full-thickness burn of 43.2% TBSA (range, 6%-87%) were studied in the first week postburn. Antithrombin, alpha 2-antiplasmin, plasminogen, and prekallikrein levels decreased (p < 0.001) postburn, whereas elastase increased (p < 0.001). We conclude that, in pediatric burn patients, decreased proteinase inhibitors, increased proteinase, and activation of circulating proteinase cascades all contribute to elevated total circulating PA postburn.

  5. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG.

  6. Prostate cancer and the increasing role of active surveillance.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, David Gabriel; Mure, Amanda Lynne; Soloway, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most often diagnosed non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among men in the United States. As a result, for many years the American Urological Association (AUA) and the American Cancer Society have issued statements recommending screening for PC, resulting in its widespread implementation in the United States. Recently, the United States Preventative Services Task Force gave PC screening a recommendation of D, that is, against PC screening for all men. The AUA countered this recommendation, stating that since the development of PC screening using prostate-specific antigen, a reduction in PC-specific mortality has been seen, and that the risk reduction occurred in a setting in which many of the patients were not aggressively treated for prostate cancer. Active surveillance may be described as a method to potentially delay or obviate the need for treatment in men with clinically insignificant PC or PC thought to be at low risk for progression. Studies have shown no significant difference in outcome or pathology between men with low risk PC who receive treatment at the point of progression and those undergoing immediate treatment. Ongoing studies are evaluating the efficacy and utility of active surveillance for low-risk PC. Interim results of these studies have shown that approximately 30% of patients progress on active surveillance. However, "progression" does not necessarily mean treatment failure; rarely do patients develop locally advanced or metastatic disease. Active surveillance has also been shown to be cost-effective when compared with immediate treatment for PC. Longer follow-up may continue to show an increased benefit of active surveillance as a reasonable initial approach to the management of men with low-risk, clinically localized PC.

  7. Possible Increase in Serum FABP4 Level Despite Adiposity Reduction by Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Masato; Matsumoto, Megumi; Hiramitsu, Shinya; Omori, Akina; Tanaka, Marenao; Moniwa, Norihito; Yoshida, Hideaki; Ishii, Junnichi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Background Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2) is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Secreted FABP4 as a novel adipokine leads to insulin resistance via increased hepatic glucose production (HGP). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors decrease blood glucose level via increased urinary glucose excretion, though HGP is enhanced. Here we investigated whether canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, modulates serum FABP4 level. Methods Canagliflozin (100 mg/day) was administered to type 2 diabetic patients (n = 39) for 12 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment. Results At baseline, serum FABP4 level was correlated with adiposity, renal dysfunction and noradrenaline level. Treatment with canagliflozin significantly decreased adiposity and levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c but increased average serum FABP4 level by 10.3% (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 19.8 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P = 0.008), though elevation of FABP4 level after treatment was observed in 26 (66.7%) out of 39 patients. Change in FABP4 level was positively correlated with change in levels of fasting glucose (r = 0.329, P = 0.044), HbA1c (r = 0.329, P = 0.044) and noradrenaline (r = 0.329, P = 0.041) but was not significantly correlated with change in adiposity or other variables. Conclusions Canagliflozin paradoxically increases serum FABP4 level in some diabetic patients despite amelioration of glucose metabolism and adiposity reduction, possibly via induction of catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Increased FABP4 level by canagliflozin may undermine the improvement of glucose metabolism and might be a possible mechanism of increased HGP by inhibition of SGLT2. Trial Registration UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000018151 PMID:27124282

  8. Prescribed Active Learning Increases Performance in Introductory Biology

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Eileen; Parks, John W.; Cunningham, Matthew; Hurley, David; Haak, David; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2007-01-01

    We tested five course designs that varied in the structure of daily and weekly active-learning exercises in an attempt to lower the traditionally high failure rate in a gateway course for biology majors. Students were given daily multiple-choice questions and answered with electronic response devices (clickers) or cards. Card responses were ungraded; clicker responses were graded for right/wrong answers or participation. Weekly practice exams were done as an individual or as part of a study group. Compared with previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, students in the new course designs performed better: There were significantly lower failure rates, higher total exam points, and higher scores on an identical midterm. Attendance was higher in the clicker versus cards section; attendance and course grade were positively correlated. Students did better on clicker questions if they were graded for right/wrong answers versus participation, although this improvement did not translate into increased scores on exams. In this course, achievement increases when students get regular practice via prescribed (graded) active-learning exercises. PMID:17548875

  9. Prescribed active learning increases performance in introductory biology.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; O'Connor, Eileen; Parks, John W; Cunningham, Matthew; Hurley, David; Haak, David; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2007-01-01

    We tested five course designs that varied in the structure of daily and weekly active-learning exercises in an attempt to lower the traditionally high failure rate in a gateway course for biology majors. Students were given daily multiple-choice questions and answered with electronic response devices (clickers) or cards. Card responses were ungraded; clicker responses were graded for right/wrong answers or participation. Weekly practice exams were done as an individual or as part of a study group. Compared with previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, students in the new course designs performed better: There were significantly lower failure rates, higher total exam points, and higher scores on an identical midterm. Attendance was higher in the clicker versus cards section; attendance and course grade were positively correlated. Students did better on clicker questions if they were graded for right/wrong answers versus participation, although this improvement did not translate into increased scores on exams. In this course, achievement increases when students get regular practice via prescribed (graded) active-learning exercises.

  10. Ethynylestradiol increases expression and activity of rat liver MRP3.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, María L; Villanueva, Silvina S M; Luquita, Marcelo G; Vore, Mary; Mottino, Aldo D; Catania, Viviana A

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of ethynylestradiol (EE) administration (5 mg/kg b.wt. s.c., for 5 consecutive days) on the expression and activity of multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (Mrp3) in rats. Western blotting analysis revealed decreased Mrp2 (-41%) and increased Mrp3 (+200%) expression by EE. To determine the functional impact of up-regulation of Mrp3 versus Mrp2, we measured the excretion of acetaminophen glucuronide (APAP-glu), a common substrate for both transporters, into bile and perfusate in the recirculating isolated perfused liver (IPL) model. APAP-glu was generated endogenously from acetaminophen (APAP), which was administered as a tracer dose (2 micromol/ml) into the perfusate. Biliary excretion of APAP-glu after 60 min of perfusion was reduced in EE-treated rats (-80%). In contrast, excretion into the perfusate was increased by EE (+45%). Liver content of APAP-glu at the end of the experiment was reduced by 36% in the EE group. The total amount of glucuronide remained the same in both groups. Taken together, these results indicate that up-regulation of Mrp3 led to an exacerbated basolateral versus canalicular excretion of conjugated APAP in IPL. We conclude that induced expression of basolateral Mrp3 by EE may represent a compensatory mechanism to prevent intracellular accumulation of common Mrp substrates, either endogenous or exogenous, due to reduced expression and activity of apical Mrp2. PMID:16554369

  11. Jujube promotes learning and memory in a rat model by increasing estrogen levels in the blood and nitric oxide and acetylcholine levels in the brain

    PubMed Central

    LI, BAOLI; WANG, LU; LIU, YONGXIAN; CHEN, YAHUI; ZHANG, ZHENGXIANG; ZHANG, JING

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of jujube on learning and memory in ovariectomized rats. The effects of jujube on learning and memory in ovariectomized rats were observed using the Morris water maze method. The serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, and the brain nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels of the rats were determined. The results indicated that jujube reduced the latency period and increased the number of crossings made by the ovariectomized rats in the Morris water maze test. Jujube also increased the serum estrogen level, reduced the serum FSH and corpus luteum LH levels, increased brain NOS activity and reduced AChE activity. The results indicate that jujube promoted the learning and memory of the ovariectomized rats. This effect may be correlated with the increase in the estrogen level in the blood, and the changes in the nitric oxide and acetylcholine levels in the brain. PMID:23837068

  12. Different effect of prostaglandin E2 on B-cell activation by two distinct B-cell differentiation factors, B151-TRF1/IL-5 and B151-TRF2: selective inhibition of B151-TRF2-induced antibody response through increases in intracellular cyclic AMP levels

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, K.; Ono, S.; Takahama, Y.; Hirayama, F.; Hirano, H.; Itoh, K.; Dobashi, K.; Murakami, S.; Katoh, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Hamaoka, T.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on murine B-cell activation induced by two distinct B-cell differentiation factors, B151-TRF1/IL-5 and B151-TRF2, were examined. A final differentiation of unprimed B cells into IgM-producing cells induced by B151-TRF2 was markedly inhibited by PGE2 at physiological concentrations (around 10-8 M), whereas B151-TRF1/IL-5-induced antibody responses of unprimed as well as activated B cells were not affected by PGE2, even at 10-6 M. B-cell responses induced by B151-TRF2-like factors from autoimmune-prone MRL/1pr mice were also inhibited by PGE2. Biphasic increases in intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were induced by culturing B cells with 10-6 or 10-8 M PGE2: rapid increases within 8 min and delayed increases around 16 hr. The direct addition of dibutyryl cAMP to cultures of B cells resulted in marked inhibition of antibody responses when stimulated with B151-TRF2 but not with B151-TRF1/IL-5. The B151-TRF2-induced antibody responses were also inhibited by cAMP-elevating reagents such as forskolin, cholera toxin and theophyline. Furthermore, 2′, 5′-dideoxyadenosine, which is an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, prevented the PGE2-mediated cAMP accumulation in unprimed B cells as well as the PGE2-mediated inhibition of B151-TRF2-induced B-cell responses when added at the initiation of culture. These results suggest that PGE2 inhibits B151-TRF2-induced antibody responses through the activation of adenylate cyclase and subsequent accumulation of intracellular cAMP, whereas B151-TRF1/IL-5-responsive B cells are resistant to the inhibitory effect of PGE2 and cAMP. PMID:2553585

  13. The Potential for Pocket Parks to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Marsh, Terry; Williamson, Stephanie; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Golinelli, Daniella; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the use of new pocket parks in low-income neighborhoods. Setting Los Angeles Subjects Parks users and residents living within ½ mile of 3 pocket parks and 15 neighborhood parks Intervention The creation of pocket parks Design Quasi-experimental post-only comparison Measures We used the System of Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) to measure park use and park-based physical activity and surveyed park users and residents about their park use. Analysis We surveyed 392 and 432 household members within one-half mile of the 3 pocket parks before and after park construction, respectively, as well as 71 pocket park users and compared them to 992 neighborhood park users and 342 residents living within ½ mile of other neighborhood parks. We compared pocket park use to playground area use in the larger neighborhood parks. We used descriptive statistics and Generalized Estimating Equations for the analysis. Results Overall, pocket park use compared favorably in promoting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity with that of existing playground space in nearby parks and they were cost-effective at $0.73/MET hour gained. Pocket park visitors walked an average of 0.25 miles to get there. Conclusions Pocket parks, when perceived as attractive and safe destinations, may increase physical activity by encouraging families with children to walk there. Additional strategies and programs may be needed to encourage more residents to use the parks. PMID:24380461

  14. Use of active video games to increase physical activity in children: a (virtual) reality?

    PubMed

    Foley, Louise; Maddison, Ralph

    2010-02-01

    There has been increased research interest in the use of active video games (in which players physically interact with images onscreen) as a means to promote physical activity in children. The aim of this review was to assess active video games as a means of increasing energy expenditure and physical activity behavior in children. Studies were obtained from computerized searches of multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The last search was conducted in December 2008. Eleven studies focused on the quantification of the energy cost associated with playing active video games, and eight studies focused on the utility of active video games as an intervention to increase physical activity in children. Compared with traditional nonactive video games, active video games elicited greater energy expenditure, which was similar in intensity to mild to moderate intensity physical activity. The intervention studies indicate that active video games may have the potential to increase free-living physical activity and improve body composition in children; however, methodological limitations prevent definitive conclusions. Future research should focus on larger, methodologically sound intervention trials to provide definitive answers as to whether this technology is effective in promoting long-term physical activity in children.

  15. Mitohormesis: Promoting Health and Lifespan by Increased Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

    PubMed Central

    Ristow, Michael; Schmeisser, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS), consisting of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and multiple others, do not only cause oxidative stress, but rather may function as signaling molecules that promote health by preventing or delaying a number of chronic diseases, and ultimately extend lifespan. While high levels of ROS are generally accepted to cause cellular damage and to promote aging, low levels of these may rather improve systemic defense mechanisms by inducing an adaptive response. This concept has been named mitochondrial hormesis or mitohormesis. We here evaluate and summarize more than 500 publications from current literature regarding such ROS-mediated low-dose signaling events, including calorie restriction, hypoxia, temperature stress, and physical activity, as well as signaling events downstream of insulin/IGF-1 receptors, AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK), target-of-rapamycin (TOR), and lastly sirtuins to culminate in control of proteostasis, unfolded protein response (UPR), stem cell maintenance and stress resistance. Additionally, consequences of interfering with such ROS signals by pharmacological or natural compounds are being discussed, concluding that particularly antioxidants are useless or even harmful. PMID:24910588

  16. Increased Umbilical Cord PAI-1 Levels in Placental Insufficiency Are Associated with Fetal Hypoxia and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Seferovic, Maxim D.; Gupta, Madhulika B.

    2016-01-01

    In intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a subset of pregnancies undergoes placental vascular dysregulation resulting in restricted blood flow and fetal hypoxemia. Altered transcription of hypoxic regulated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) has been associated with pregnancy complications and angiogenic regulation. Here we assessed circulating PAI-1 as an indicator of placental insufficiency. Venous umbilical PAI-1 of hypoxemic (VpO2 20 versus 35 mmHg, p < 0.0001) placental insufficient pregnancies (resistance index 0.9 versus 0.63, p < 0.05) (n = 18) was compared to controls (n = 12). PAI-1 was increased (~10-fold, p < 0.001) and had a positive predictive ratio of 6.7. Further, PAI-1 levels correlated to blood oxygen (r = −0.68, p < 0.0001). The plasma's angiogenic potency measured in vitro was associated with umbilical cord blood PAI-1 levels (r = 0.65, p < 0.01). This association was attenuated by PAI-1 inhibiting antibody (p < 0.001). The results demonstrate PAI-1 as a potential marker of placental insufficiency and identify its close association with pathological hypoxia and angiogenesis in a subset of growth restricted pregnancies. PMID:26903689

  17. Oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 levels at least partially via stimulation of parathyroid hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Takasugi, Satoshi; Akutsu, Miho; Nagata, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Oral phosphorus supplementation stimulates fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secretion; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in increased plasma FGF23 levels after oral phosphorus supplementation in rats. Rats received single dose of phosphate with concomitant subcutaneous injection of saline or human PTH (1-34) after treatment with cinacalcet or its vehicle. Cinacalcet is a drug that acts as an allosteric activator of the calcium-sensing receptor and reduces PTH secretion. Plasma phosphorus and PTH levels significantly increased 1 h after oral phosphorus administration and returned to basal levels within 3 h, while plasma FGF23 levels did not change up to 2 h post-treatment, but rather significantly increased at 3 h after administration and maintained higher levels for at least 6 h compared with the 0 time point. Plasma PTH and FGF23 levels were significantly lower in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats. Plasma phosphorus levels were significantly higher in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats at 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after oral phosphorus administration. Furthermore, rats treated with cinacalcet+human PTH (1-34) showed transiently but significantly higher plasma FGF23 levels at 3 h after oral phosphorus administration compared with cinacalcet-treated rats. These results suggest that oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating FGF23 levels at least partially by stimulation of PTH secretion.

  18. Plasma levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 are increased in patients with β-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Tselepis, Alexandros D.; Hahalis, George; Tellis, Constantinos C.; Papavasiliou, Eleni C.; Mylona, Panagiota T.; Kourakli, Alexandra; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios C.

    2010-01-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We investigated the plasma levels of Lp-PLA2 activity and mass as a function of plasma lipid levels, LDL subclass profile, and oxidative stress in patients with β-thalassemia. Thirty-five patients with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) and 25 patients with β-thalassemia intermedia (β-TI) participated in the study. Lp-PLA2 activity and mass were measured in total plasma, in apolipoprotein (apo)B-depleted plasma (HDL-Lp-PLA2), and in LDL subclasses. Lp-PLA2 activity produced and secreted from peripheral blood monocytes in culture was also determined. Patients with β-thalassemia are characterized by a predominance of small-dense LDL particles, increased oxidative stress, and very high plasma levels of Lp-PLA2 mass and activity, despite low LDL-cholesterol levels. A significant positive correlation between plasma Lp-PLA2 activity or mass and 8-isoprostane (8-epiPGF2a) and ferritin levels as well as intima-media thickness (IMT) values was observed. An increase in secreted and cell-associated Lp-PLA2 activity from monocytes in culture was observed in both patient groups. The HDL-Lp-PLA2 activity and mass as well as the ratio of HDL-Lp-PLA2/plasma Lp-PLA2 were significantly higher in both patient groups compared with the control group. In conclusion, patients with β-thalassemia exhibit high plasma Lp-PLA2 levels, attributed to increased enzyme secretion from monocytes/macrophages and to the predominance of sdLDL particles in plasma. Plasma Lp-PLA2 is correlated with carotid IMT, suggesting that this enzyme may be implicated in premature carotid atherosclerosis observed in β-thalassemia. PMID:20625038

  19. Ketoconazole increases fingolimod blood levels in a drug interaction via CYP4F2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, John M; Dole, Kiran; Riviere, Gilles-Jacques; Pommier, Francoise; Maton, Steve; Jin, Yi; Lasseter, Kenneth C; Schmouder, Robert L

    2009-02-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator fingolimod is predominantly hydroxylated by cytochrome CYP4F2. In vitro experiments showed that ketoconazole significantly inhibited the oxidative metabolism of fingolimod by human liver microsomes and by recombinant CYP4F2. The authors used ketoconazole as a putative CYP4F2 inhibitor to quantify its influence on fingolimod pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects. In a 2-period, single-sequence, crossover study, 22 healthy subjects received a single 5-mg dose of fingolimod in period 1. In period 2, subjects received ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily for 9 days and a single 5-mg dose of fingolimod coadministered on the 4th day of ketoconazole treatment. Ketoconazole did not affect fingolimod t(max) or half-life, but there was a weak average increase in C(max) of 1.22-fold (90% confidence interval, 1.15-1.30). The AUC over the 5 days of ketoconazole coadministration increased 1.40-fold (1.31-1.50), and the full AUC to infinity increased 1.71-fold (1.53-1.91). The AUC of the active metabolite fingolimod-phosphate was increased to a similar extent by 1.67-fold (1.50-1.85). Ketoconazole predose plasma levels were not altered by fingolimod. The magnitude of this interaction suggests that a proactive dose reduction of fingolimod is not necessary when adding ketoconazole to a fingolimod regimen. The clinician, however, should be aware of this interaction and bear in mind the possibility of a fingolimod dose reduction based on clinical monitoring. PMID:19118083

  20. USING THE Internet TO INCREASE Physical Activity IN A FAITH COMMUNITY.

    PubMed

    Washington, Enrika; Weed, Latricia Diane; Vardaman, Shellye A

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is the biggest public health problem of the 21st Century. Additionally, minority populations have higher rates of obesity and obesity-related illnesses, supporting the need to develop culturally-appropriate physical activity interventions for these populations. For African Americans (AAs), churches promote spiritual, mental, and physical well-being. The Internet offers an innovative medium to produce health behavior change and may be ideal to use with AAs in a church setting. A simple, no-cost, 8-week, Internet-delivered intervention to increase physical activity was piloted in an AA church. Level of activity increased, whereas time spent sitting decreased. PMID:26211303

  1. Rice Bran Amendment Suppresses Potato Common Scab by Increasing Antagonistic Bacterial Community Levels in the Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Tomihama, Tsuyoshi; Nishi, Yatsuka; Mori, Kiyofumi; Shirao, Tsukasa; Iida, Toshiya; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Ikeda, Seishi

    2016-07-01

    Potato common scab (PCS), caused by pathogenic Streptomyces spp., is a serious disease in potato production worldwide. Cultural practices, such as optimizing the soil pH and irrigation, are recommended but it is often difficult to establish stable disease reductions using these methods. Traditionally, local farmers in southwest Japan have amended soils with rice bran (RB) to suppress PCS. However, the scientific mechanism underlying disease suppression by RB has not been elucidated. The present study showed that RB amendment reduced PCS by repressing the pathogenic Streptomyces population in young tubers. Amplicon sequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA genes from the rhizosphere microbiome revealed that RB amendment dramatically changed bacterial composition and led to an increase in the relative abundance of gram-positive bacteria such as Streptomyces spp., and this was negatively correlated with PCS disease severity. Most actinomycete isolates derived from the RB-amended soil showed antagonistic activity against pathogenic Streptomyces scabiei and S. turgidiscabies on R2A medium. Some of the Streptomyces isolates suppressed PCS when they were inoculated onto potato plants in a field experiment. These results suggest that RB amendment increases the levels of antagonistic bacteria against PCS pathogens in the potato rhizosphere.

  2. Acute UV irradiation increases heparan sulfate proteoglycan levels in human skin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Yong; Oh, Jang-Hee; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Shin, Mi Hee; Lee, Dayae; Chung, Jin Ho

    2012-03-01

    Glycosaminoglycans are important structural components in the skin and exist as various proteoglycan forms, except hyaluronic acid. Heparan sulfate (HS), one of the glycosaminoglycans, is composed of repeated disaccharide units, which are glucuronic acids linked to an N-acetyl-glucosamine or its sulfated forms. To investigate acute ultraviolet (UV)-induced changes of HS and HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), changes in levels of HS and several HSPGs in male human buttock skin were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after 2 minimal erythema doses (MED) of UV irradiation (each n = 4-7). HS staining revealed that 2 MED of UV irradiation increased its expression, and staining for perlecan, syndecan-1, syndecan-4, CD44v3, and CD44 showed that UV irradiation increased their protein levels. However, analysis by real-time qPCR showed that UV irradiation did not change mRNA levels of CD44 and agrin, and decreased perlecan and syndecan-4 mRNA levels, while increased syndecan-1 mRNA level. As HS-synthesizing or -degrading enzymes, exostosin-1 and heparanase mRNA levels were increased, but exostosin-2 was decreased by UV irradiation. UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression was confirmed for proper experimental conditions. Acute UV irradiation increases HS and HSPG levels in human skin, but their increase may not be mediated through their transcriptional regulation.

  3. Enterostatin decreases postprandial pancreatic UCP2 mRNA levels and increases plasma insulin and amylin.

    PubMed

    Arsenijevic, Denis; Gallmann, Eva; Moses, William; Lutz, Thomas; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the chronic effect of enterostatin on body weight and some of the associated changes in postprandial metabolism. Rats were adapted to 6 h of food access/day and a choice of low-fat and high-fat (HF) food and then given enterostatin or vehicle by an intraperitoneally implanted minipump delivering 160 nmol enterostatin/h continuously over a 5-day infusion period. Enterostatin resulted in a slight but significant reduction of HF intake and body weight. After the last 6-h food access period, enterostatin-treated animals had lower plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid but higher plasma glucose and lactate levels than control animals. Enterostatin infusion resulted in increased uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) expression in various tissues, including epididymal fat and liver. UCP2 was reduced in the pancreas of enterostatin-treated animals, and this was associated with increased plasma levels of insulin and amylin. Whether these two hormones are involved in the observed decreased food intake due to enterostatin remains to be determined. As lipid metabolism appeared to be altered by enterostatin, we measured peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) expression in tissues and observed that PPARalpha, -beta, -gamma1, and -gamma2 expression were modified by enterostatin in epididymal fat, pancreas, and liver. This further links altered lipid metabolism with body weight loss. Our data suggest that alterations in UCP2 and PPARgamma2 play a role in the control of insulin and amylin release from the pancreas. This implies that enterostatin changes lipid and carbohydrate metabolic pathways in addition to its effects on food intake and energy expenditure. PMID:15713687

  4. Effect of increasing the level of omega-3 fatty acids on rat skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, C D; Kisielewski, A E

    1990-09-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil as compared to corn oil on the lipid dynamics and calcium ATPase activity of rat skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum was examined. After four-week supplementation with fish oil, the levels of eicosapentaenoic (20:5 omega 3), docosapentaenoic (22:5 omega 3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6 omega 3) acids in the total lipids were 5.3, 5.5 and 28.1% of the total fatty acids, respectively. In contrast, with corn oil only 22:6 was found (8.9%). The level of these fatty acids in phosphatidylethanolamine from the membranes of animals fed fish oil was 4.2 (20:5), 5.4 (22:5) and 49.1% (22:6); and for phosphatidylcholine it was 5.4 (20:5), 4.6 (22:5) and 17.4% (22:6). Again, in corn oil fed animals, only 22:6 was found in appreciable amounts, namely 28.3% in phosphatidylethanolamine and 1.8% in phosphatidylcholine. The steady state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) was used to assess lipid order and was found to be only slightly less for membranes from animals supplemented with fish oil (0.120) as compared to those supplemented with corn oil (0.124). The calcium ATPase was found to be unaffected by supplementation consistent with the observed modest changes in lipid order as well as with suggestions that the enzyme is relatively insensitive to the level of unsaturation. It could be argued that if large increases in fatty acyl polyunsaturation in mammalian cell membranes would lead to marked alterations in bulk membrane lipid motional properties, this may not be in the interest of preserving physiological function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Increased serum levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in patients with microscopic polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    Kanemitsu, Hirohito; Matsunawa, Mizuho; Wakabayashi, Kuninobu; Sato, Michihito; Takahashi, Ryo; Odai, Tsuyoshi; Isozaki, Takeo; Yajima, Nobuyuki; Miwa, Yusuke; Kasama, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is involved in the disease activity of systemic vasculitis. Methods Patients with systemic vasculitis were divided into three groups based on the size of the affected vessels. Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) was considered as small vessel vasculitis (SVV), polyarteritis nodosa as medium-sized vessel vasculitis (MVV), and giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis as large vessel vasculitis (LVV). Sera from patients with systemic vasculitis and healthy individuals were collected, and MIF levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Disease activity of vasculitis was assessed using the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS). Results Serum MIF levels were significantly higher in the vasculitis patients than in healthy individuals. Among the vasculitis patients, MIF levels were significantly higher in patients in the SVV group (median; 4161.7 pg/ml) than in the other groups (MVV; 1443.2 pg/ml and LVV; 1576.7 pg/ml). In patients with MPA, a positive correlation was observed between serum MIF levels and CRP levels and disease activity (BVAS). Notably, serum MIF levels were significantly diminished after clinical improvement. Conclusions Our findings suggest that MIF may have an important role in small vessel vasculopathy and serve as a useful serologic marker of MPA disease activity.

  6. Increased parietal activity after training of interference control.

    PubMed

    Oelhafen, Stephan; Nikolaidis, Aki; Padovani, Tullia; Blaser, Daniela; Koenig, Thomas; Perrig, Walter J

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that computerized cognitive training leads to improved performance in related but untrained tasks (i.e. transfer effects). However, most study designs prevent disentangling which of the task components are necessary for transfer. In the current study, we examined whether training on two variants of the adaptive dual n-back task would affect untrained task performance and the corresponding electrophysiological event-related potentials (ERPs). Forty three healthy young adults were trained for three weeks with a high or low interference training variant of the dual n-back task, or they were assigned to a passive control group. While n-back training with high interference led to partial improvements in the Attention Network Test (ANT), we did not find transfer to measures of working memory and fluid intelligence. ERP analysis in the n-back task and the ANT indicated overlapping processes in the P3 time range. Moreover, in the ANT, we detected increased parietal activity for the interference training group alone. In contrast, we did not find electrophysiological differences between the low interference training and the control group. These findings suggest that training on an interference control task leads to higher electrophysiological activity in the parietal cortex, which may be related to improvements in processing speed, attentional control, or both.

  7. Using targeted messaging to increase physical activity in older adults: a review.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Rachel E; Thompson, Hilaire J; Demiris, George

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity has many benefits for older adults; however, motivating older adults to engage in and maintain optimal levels of physical activity can be challenging for health care providers. A comprehensive literature review was performed to determine whether any evidence-based methods of delivery or particular content for targeted messaging exist that result in actual improvements in physical activity of older adults. Findings of the review demonstrate that messaging directed toward older adults to be physically active resulted in improvements in physical activity up to 1 year. Across studies many different modes of message delivery were shown to be effective. Message content, whether tailored or not, resulted in significant increases in physical activity. There is evidence to support the use of environmentally mediated messaging (i.e., local walking paths) for stronger results. Targeting the client's stage of change, having an activity partner if preferred, and scheduling physical activity also contribute to improved effects.

  8. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  9. Wnt Pathway Activation Increases Hypoxia Tolerance during Development

    PubMed Central

    Gersten, Merril; Zhou, Dan; Azad, Priti; Haddad, Gabriel G.; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to hypoxia, defined as a condition of inadequate oxygen supply, has enabled humans to successfully colonize high altitude regions. The mechanisms attempted by organisms to cope with short-term hypoxia include increased ATP production via anaerobic respiration and stabilization of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α). However, less is known about the means through which populations adapt to chronic hypoxia during the process of development within a life time or over generations. Here we show that signaling via the highly conserved Wnt pathway impacts the ability of Drosophila melanogaster to complete its life cycle under hypoxia. We identify this pathway through analyses of genome sequencing and gene expression of a Drosophila melanogaster population adapted over >180 generations to tolerate a concentration of 3.5–4% O2 in air. We then show that genetic activation of the Wnt canonical pathway leads to increased rates of adult eclosion in low O2. Our results indicate that a previously unsuspected major developmental pathway, Wnt, plays a significant role in hypoxia tolerance. PMID:25093834

  10. Increased oscillatory theta activation evoked by violent digital game events.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Mikko; Ravaja, Niklas

    2008-04-11

    The authors examined electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory responses to two violent events, the player character wounding and killing an opponent character with a gun, in the digital game James Bond 007: NightFire. EEG was recorded from 25 (16 male) right-handed healthy young adults. EEG data were segmented into one 1-s baseline epoch before each event and two 1-s epochs after event onset. Power estimates (microV(2)) were derived with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) for each artefact free event. Both of the studied events evoked increased occipital theta (4-6Hz) responses as compared to the pre-event baseline. The wounding event evoked also increased occipital high theta (6-8Hz) response and the killing event evoked low alpha (8-10Hz) asymmetry over the central electrodes, both relative to the pre-event baseline. The results are discussed in light of facial electromyographic and electrodermal activity responses evoked by these same events, and it is suggested that the reported EEG responses may be attributable to affective processes related to these violent game events. PMID:18325669

  11. Increased levels of adrenocortical and gonadal hormones in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rasmuson, Sigbritt; Näsman, Birgitta; Carlström, Kjell; Olsson, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    Hormonal changes during normal aging include decreasing levels of gonadal hormones and adrenal androgens. These hormones influence multiple nervous functions, including cognition and mood. Related to this, abnormalities at several levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) have been reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied steroid hormones in 33 patients with mild to moderate AD (12 men; 21 women, 76.4 +/- 7.8 years) and 22 healthy elderly controls (10 men; 12 women, 75.4 +/- 7.5 years old, respectively). Basal levels of serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione were significantly increased in AD patients. Women with AD had significantly higher levels of DHEA and androstenedione. Serum estradiol levels were non-significantly increased in women with AD. After adjustment for age and BMI women with AD had significantly increased levels of androstenedione and DHEA. Increased gonadal hormone levels in mild to moderate AD may reflect an increased secretion, and/or alterations in metabolism of these hormones. This may influence the symptomatology and progression of the disease.

  12. Aerobic conditions increase isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway gene expression levels for carotenoid production in Enterococcus gilvus.

    PubMed

    Hagi, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Some lactic acid bacteria that harbour carotenoid biosynthesis genes (crtNM) can produce carotenoids. Although aerobic conditions can increase carotenoid production and crtNM expression levels, their effects on the pathways that synthesize carotenoid precursors such as mevalonate and isoprene are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated whether aerobic conditions affected gene expression levels involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway that includes the mevalonate and isoprene biosynthesis pathways in Enterococcus gilvus using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. NADH oxidase (nox) and superoxide dismutase (sod) gene expression levels were investigated as controls for aerobic conditions. The expression levels of nox and sod under aerobic conditions were 7.2- and 8.0-fold higher, respectively, than those under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic conditions concomitantly increased the expression levels of crtNM carotenoid biosynthesis genes. HMG-CoA synthase gene expression levels in the mevalonate pathway were only slightly increased under aerobic conditions, whereas the expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase and five other genes in the isoprene biosynthesis pathways were 1.2-2.3-fold higher than those under anaerobic conditions. These results demonstrated that aerobic conditions could increase the expression levels of genes involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway via mevalonate in E. gilvus.

  13. Increasing levels of assistance in refinement of knowledge-based retrieval systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baudin, Catherine; Kedar, Smadar; Pell, Barney

    1994-01-01

    The task of incrementally acquiring and refining the knowledge and algorithms of a knowledge-based system in order to improve its performance over time is discussed. In particular, the design of DE-KART, a tool whose goal is to provide increasing levels of assistance in acquiring and refining indexing and retrieval knowledge for a knowledge-based retrieval system, is presented. DE-KART starts with knowledge that was entered manually, and increases its level of assistance in acquiring and refining that knowledge, both in terms of the increased level of automation in interacting with users, and in terms of the increased generality of the knowledge. DE-KART is at the intersection of machine learning and knowledge acquisition: it is a first step towards a system which moves along a continuum from interactive knowledge acquisition to increasingly automated machine learning as it acquires more knowledge and experience.

  14. Effect of Increasing the Choice of Active Options on Children’s Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Feda, Denise M.; Lambiase, Maya J.; McCarthy, Thomas F.; Barkley, Jacob E.; Roemmich, James. N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether increasing the choice of physical activity options increases the duration and intensity of children’s physically active play. Design This cross-sectional laboratory study included gender (male, female) and choice group [single toy (no choice), three toys (low choice), five toys (high choice)] as between participant factors. Methods Boys and girls (n = 36, 8–12 y) were stratified, randomly assigned to a choice group that always provided access to each participant’s most liked active toy(s), and allowed 60 min of free time. The same sedentary alternatives were freely available to all participants. Physical activity outcomes were measured by accelerometry, heart rate, and direct observation. Results The number of active toys the children played with increased (p < 0.001) across each choice group. Minutes spent in MPA were greater in the low choice (p < 0.05) and high choice (p < 0.02) groups than the no choice group. Active play time was greater (p < 0.01) in the low choice (79%) and high choice (95%) groups compared to the no choice group. Girls in the low and high choice groups had greater (p < 0.05) percent heart rate reserve when compared to girls in the no choice group. There was no difference in the boys’ percent heart rate reserve between the no choice, low choice and high choice groups. Conclusions Increasing the choice of active toys increases both the duration and intensity of physically active play, especially in girls. PMID:22342111

  15. Aversive emotional interference impacts behavior and prefronto-striatal activity during increasing attentional control

    PubMed Central

    Papazacharias, Apostolos; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Quarto, Tiziana; Mancini, Marina; Porcelli, Annamaria; Romano, Raffaella; Caforio, Grazia; Todarello, Orlando; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that emotional stimulation modulates attentional processing during goal-directed behavior and related activity of a brain network including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the caudate nucleus. However, it is not clear how emotional interference modulates behavior and brain physiology during variation in attentional control, a relevant question for everyday life situations in which both emotional stimuli and cognitive load vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of negative emotions on behavior and activity in IFG and caudate nucleus during increasing levels of attentional control. Twenty two healthy subjects underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task in which neutral or fearful facial expressions were displayed before stimuli eliciting increasing levels of attentional control processing. Results indicated slower reaction time (RT) and greater right IFG activity when fearful compared with neutral facial expressions preceded the low level of attentional control. On the other hand, fearful facial expressions preceding the intermediate level of attentional control elicited faster behavioral responses and greater activity in the right and left sides of the caudate. Finally, correlation analysis indicated a relationship between behavioral correlates of attentional control after emotional interference and right IFG activity. All together, these results suggest that the impact of negative emotions on attentional processing is differentially elicited at the behavioral and physiological levels as a function of cognitive load. PMID:25954172

  16. Fluid Shear Stress Increases Neutrophil Activation via Platelet-Activating Factor

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Michael J.; Lin, Kimberly S.; King, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Leukocyte exposure to hemodynamic shear forces is critical for physiological functions including initial adhesion to the endothelium, the formation of pseudopods, and migration into tissues. G-protein coupled receptors on neutrophils, which bind to chemoattractants and play a role in neutrophil chemotaxis, have been implicated as fluid shear stress sensors that control neutrophil activation. Recently, exposure to physiological fluid shear stresses observed in the microvasculature was shown to reduce neutrophil activation in the presence of the chemoattractant formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Here, however, human neutrophil preexposure to uniform shear stress (0.1–2.75 dyn/cm2) in a cone-and-plate viscometer for 1–120 min was shown to increase, rather than decrease, neutrophil activation in the presence of platelet activating factor (PAF). Fluid shear stress exposure increased PAF-induced neutrophil activation in terms of L-selectin shedding, αMβ2 integrin activation, and morphological changes. Neutrophil activation via PAF was found to correlate with fluid shear stress exposure, as neutrophil activation increased in a shear stress magnitude- and time-dependent manner. These results indicate that fluid shear stress exposure increases neutrophil activation by PAF, and, taken together with previous observations, differentially controls how neutrophils respond to chemoattractants. PMID:24853753

  17. Acid-activated biochar increased sulfamethazine retention in soils.

    PubMed

    Vithanage, Meththika; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Zhang, Ming; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-02-01

    Sulfamethazine (SMZ) is an ionizable and highly mobile antibiotic which is frequently found in soil and water environments. We investigated the sorption of SMZ onto soils amended with biochars (BCs) at varying pH and contact time. Invasive plants were pyrolyzed at 700 °C and were further activated with 30 % sulfuric (SBBC) and oxalic (OBBC) acids. The sorption rate of SMZ onto SBBC and OBBC was pronouncedly pH dependent and was decreased significantly when the values of soil pH increased from 3 to 5. Modeled effective sorption coefficients (K D,eff) values indicated excellent sorption on SBBC-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils for 229 and 183 L/kg, respectively. On the other hand, the low sorption values were determined for OBBC- and BBC700-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Kinetic modeling demonstrated that the pseudo second order model was the best followed by intra-particle diffusion and the Elovich model, indicating that multiple processes govern SMZ sorption. These findings were also supported by sorption edge experiments based on BC characteristics. Chemisorption onto protonated and ligand containing functional groups of the BC surface, and diffusion in macro-, meso-, and micro-pores of the acid-activated BCs are the proposed mechanisms of SMZ retention in soils. Calculated and experimental q e (amount adsorbed per kg of the adsorbent at equilibrium) values were well fitted to the pseudo second order model, and the predicted maximum equilibrium concentration of SBBC for loamy sand soils was 182 mg/kg. Overall, SBBC represents a suitable soil amendment because of its high sorption rate of SMZ in soils.

  18. Increased serum levels of interleukin-8 in polyarteritis nodosa and Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Freire, Alzírton de Lira; Bertolo, Manoel Barros; de Pinho, Antônio José; Samara, Adil Muhib; Fernandes, Sandra Regina Muchinechi

    2004-06-01

    The pathogenesis of Behçet's disease (BD) and polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is not yet well established. Endothelial cells have been shown to express chemokines that are involved in inflammatory processes. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophils. We evaluated serum IL-8 levels in patients with PAN and BD. We measured serum IL-8 levels in 21 patients with BD and 16 with PAN. Sera from 30 age-matched healthy blood donors were used as normal controls. Serum IL-8 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean serum IL-8 level of the active BD (1522.31 pg/ml) and that of the active PAN (654.8 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that of the normal controls (40.39 pg/ml, P <0.05). There was no difference in mean serum IL-8 levels between patients with inactive disease and normal controls. We found higher serum levels of IL-8 in those patients with more severe disease. These results suggest that IL-8 may play a role in the pathogenesis of PAN and/or BD. Our study also suggests a possible relation between serum IL-8 levels and the severity of these diseases.

  19. Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone levels in patients with gout treated with inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Chinchilla, Sandra Pamela; Atxotegi, Joana; Urionagüena, Irati; Herrero-Beites, Ana Maria; Aniel-Quiroga, Maria Angeles

    2015-11-01

    Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels over the upper normal limit has been reported in a small percentage of patients treated with febuxostat in clinical trials, but a mechanistic explanation is not yet available. In an observational parallel longitudinal cohort study, we evaluated changes in TSH levels in patients with gout at baseline and during urate-lowering treatment with febuxostat. Patients to be started on allopurinol who had a measurement of TSH in the 6-month period prior to baseline evaluation were used for comparison. TSH levels and change in TSH levels at 12-month follow-up were compared between groups. Patients with abnormal TSH levels or previous thyroid disease or on amiodarone were not included for analysis. Eighty-eight patients treated with febuxostat and 87 with allopurinol were available for comparisons. Patients to be treated with febuxostat had higher urate levels and TSH levels, more severe gout, and poorer renal function, but were similar regarding other characteristics. A similar rise in TSH levels was observed in both groups (0.4 and 0.5 µUI/mL for febuxostat and allopurinol, respectively); at 12-mo, 7/88 (7.9 %) of patients on febuxostat and 4/87 (3.4 %) of patients on allopurinol showed TSH levels over 0.5 µUI/mL. Doses prescribed (corrected for estimated glomerular filtration rate in the case if patients on allopurinol) and baseline TSH levels were determinants of TSH levels at 12-month follow-up. No impact on free T4 (fT4) levels was observed. Febuxostat, but also allopurinol, increased TSH levels in a dose-dependent way, thus suggesting rather a class effect than a drug effect, but with no apparent impact on either clinical or fT4 levels. PMID:26342297

  20. Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone levels in patients with gout treated with inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Chinchilla, Sandra Pamela; Atxotegi, Joana; Urionagüena, Irati; Herrero-Beites, Ana Maria; Aniel-Quiroga, Maria Angeles

    2015-11-01

    Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels over the upper normal limit has been reported in a small percentage of patients treated with febuxostat in clinical trials, but a mechanistic explanation is not yet available. In an observational parallel longitudinal cohort study, we evaluated changes in TSH levels in patients with gout at baseline and during urate-lowering treatment with febuxostat. Patients to be started on allopurinol who had a measurement of TSH in the 6-month period prior to baseline evaluation were used for comparison. TSH levels and change in TSH levels at 12-month follow-up were compared between groups. Patients with abnormal TSH levels or previous thyroid disease or on amiodarone were not included for analysis. Eighty-eight patients treated with febuxostat and 87 with allopurinol were available for comparisons. Patients to be treated with febuxostat had higher urate levels and TSH levels, more severe gout, and poorer renal function, but were similar regarding other characteristics. A similar rise in TSH levels was observed in both groups (0.4 and 0.5 µUI/mL for febuxostat and allopurinol, respectively); at 12-mo, 7/88 (7.9 %) of patients on febuxostat and 4/87 (3.4 %) of patients on allopurinol showed TSH levels over 0.5 µUI/mL. Doses prescribed (corrected for estimated glomerular filtration rate in the case if patients on allopurinol) and baseline TSH levels were determinants of TSH levels at 12-month follow-up. No impact on free T4 (fT4) levels was observed. Febuxostat, but also allopurinol, increased TSH levels in a dose-dependent way, thus suggesting rather a class effect than a drug effect, but with no apparent impact on either clinical or fT4 levels.

  1. Increased viability of odontoblast-like cells subjected to low-level laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C. F.; Basso, F. G.; Lins, E. C.; Kurachi, C.; Hebling, J.; Bagnato, V. S.; de Souza Costa, C. A.

    2010-07-01

    Studies have shown that the increase of cell metabolism depends on the low level laser therapy (LLLT) parameters used to irradiate the cells. However, the optimal laser dose to up-regulate pulp cell activity remains unknown. Consequently, the aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic response of odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23) exposed to different LLLT doses. Cells at 20000 cells/cm2 were seeded in 24-well plates using plain culture medium (DMEM) and were incubated in a humidified incubator with 5% CO2 at 37°C. After 24 h, the culture medium was replaced by fresh DMEM supplemented with 5% (stress by nutritional deficit) or 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The cells were exposed to different laser doses from a near infrared diode laser prototype designed to provide a uniform irradiation of the wells. The experimental groups were: G1: 1.5 J/cm2 + 5% FBS; G2: 1.5 J/cm2 + 10% FBS; G3: 5 J/cm2 + 5% FBS; G4: 5 J/cm2 + 10% FBS; G5: 19 J/cm2 + 5% FBS; G6: 19 J/cm2 + 10% FBS. LLLT was performed in 3 consecutive irradiation cycles with a 24-hour interval. Non-irradiated cells cultured in DMEM supplemented with either 5 or 10% FBS served as control groups. The analysis of the metabolic response was performed by the MTT assay 3 h after the last irradiation. G1 presented an increase in SDH enzyme activity and differed significantly (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05) from the other groups. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy showed normal cell morphology in all groups. Under the tested conditions, LLLT stimulated the metabolic activity of MDPC-23 cultured in DMEM supplemented with 5% FBS and exposed to a laser dose of 1.5 J/cm2. These findings are relevant for further studies on the action of near infrared lasers on cells with odontoblast phenotype.

  2. Agomelatine Increases BDNF Serum Levels in Depressed Patients in Correlation with the Improvement of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Pettorruso, Mauro; De Berardis, Domenico; Varasano, Paola Annunziata; Lucidi Pressanti, Gabriella; De Remigis, Valeria; Valchera, Alessandro; Ricci, Valerio; Di Nicola, Marco; Janiri, Luigi; Biggio, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Agomelatine modulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression via its interaction with melatonergic and serotonergic receptors and has shown promising results in terms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor increase in animal models. Methods: Twenty-seven patients were started on agomelatine (25mg/d). Venous blood was collected and brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels were measured at baseline and after 2 and 8 weeks along with a clinical assessment, including Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale. Results: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentration increased after agomelatine treatment. Responders showed a significant increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels after 2 weeks of agomelatine treatment; no difference was observed in nonresponders. Linear regression analysis showed that more prominent brain-derived neurotrophic factor level variation was associated with lower baseline BDNF levels and greater anhedonic features at baseline. Conclusions: Patients affected by depressive disorders showed an increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentration after a 2-week treatment with agomelatine. The increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels was found to be greater in patients with lower brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and marked anhedonia at baseline. PMID:26775293

  3. [Increase of rising activity of commercial yeasts by application of stress conditions during their propagation].

    PubMed

    Galvagno, M A; Cerrutti, P

    2004-01-01

    Rising activity determined as CO2 production of two commercial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be increased mainly in sweet bread doughs by introducing a "starvation/pulse feeding" schedule of sugar cane molasses during a fed-batch propagation. Such increase was strain dependent. Except for the trehalose intracellular level, other traits related to the yeast industrial performance were unaffected. Applicability of method for baker's yeast industrial production is discussed.

  4. Increased anterior insula activity in anxious individuals is linked to diminished perceived control

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, R P; Kirlic, N; Misaki, M; Bodurka, J; Rhudy, J L; Paulus, M P; Drevets, W C

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with high-trait anxiety frequently report decreased perceived control. However, it is unclear how these processes are instantiated at a neural level. Prior research suggests that individuals prone to anxiety may have exaggerated activity in the anterior insula and altered activity in the cingulate cortex during anticipation of aversive events. Thus, we hypothesized that anxiety proneness influences anterior insula activation during anticipation of unpredictable threat through decreased perceived control. Forty physically healthy adults underwent neuroimaging while they explored computer-simulated contexts associated either with or without the threat of an unpredictable shock. Skin conductance, anxiety ratings and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging were used to assess responses to threat versus no threat. Perceived control was measured using the Anxiety Control Questionnaire-Revised. Mediation analysis examined how anxiety proneness influenced BOLD activity. Anticipation of unpredictable threat resulted in increased skin conductance responses, anxiety ratings and enhanced activation in bilateral insula, anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Individuals with greater anxiety proneness and less perceived control showed greater activity in dorsal anterior insula (dAI). Perceived control mediated the relationship between anxiety proneness and dAI activity. Increased dAI activity was associated with increased activity in aMCC, which correlated with increased exploratory behavior. Results provide evidence that exaggerated insula activation during the threat of unpredictable shock is directly related to low perceived control in anxiety-prone individuals. Perceived control thus may constitute an important treatment target to modulate insula activity during anxious anticipation in anxiety-disordered individuals. PMID:26125154

  5. Magnesium deficiency increases serum fibroblast growth factor-23 levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Kajita, Yasutaka; Miwa, Misao

    2013-01-01

    A magnesium (Mg)-deficient diet results in decreased serum phosphorus (P) levels and increased urinary P excretion; however, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are unclear. Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is a potent regulator of P homeostasis. To determine the mechanisms responsible for the change in serum levels and urinary excretion of P with Mg deficiency, the present study examined the effects of Mg deficiency on serum FGF-23 levels. Male rats were randomized by weight into two groups and fed a control diet (Mg concentration: 0.05%) or a Mg-deficient diet (Mg concentration: Mg-free) for 21 days. Serum P levels in rats fed the Mg-deficient diet were significantly lower than in rats fed the control diet. Furthermore, urinary P excretion was significantly higher in rats fed the Mg-deficient diet compared to rats fed the control diet. Conversely, the tubular reabsorption rate of P was significantly lower in rats fed the Mg-deficient diet than in the controls. Serum FGF-23 levels in rats fed the Mg-deficient diet were significantly higher than those in animals fed the control diet. The results from the present study indicate that 1) Mg deficiency increases serum FGF-23 levels; and 2) Mg deficiency causes increased urinary P excretion via inhibition of renal P reabsorption, resulting in a lowering of serum P levels. Moreover, we suggest that the high serum FGF-23 levels induced by Mg deficiency contribute to the decrease in renal P reabsorption.

  6. Inhibition of Cancer Cell Proliferation by PPARγ is Mediated by a Metabolic Switch that Increases Reactive Oxygen Species Levels

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Nishi; Kollipara, Rahul K.; Singh, Dinesh K.; Sudderth, Jessica; Hu, Zeping; Nguyen, Hien; Wang, Shan; Humphries, Caroline G.; Carstens, Ryan; Huffman, Kenneth E.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Kittler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The nuclear receptor peroxisome-proliferation activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a transcriptional master regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, inhibits the growth of several common cancers including lung cancer. In this study, we show that the mechanism by which activation of PPARγ inhibits proliferation of lung cancer cells is based on metabolic changes. We found that treatment with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone triggers a metabolic switch that inhibits pyruvate oxidation and reduces glutathione levels. These PPARγ-induced metabolic changes result in a marked increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels that lead to rapid hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (RB) and cell cycle arrest. The antiproliferative effect of PPARγ activation can be prevented by suppressing pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) or β-oxidation of fatty acids in vitro and in vivo. Our proposed mechanism also suggests that metabolic changes can rapidly and directly inhibit cell cycle progression of cancer cells by altering ROS levels. PMID:25264247

  7. Altered behavior in spotted hyenas associated with increased human activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boydston, Erin E.; Kapheim, Karen M.; Watts, Heather E.; Szykman, Micaela; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate how anthropogenic activity might affect large carnivores, we studied the behaviour of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) during two time periods. From 1996 to 1998, we documented the ecological correlates of space utilization patterns exhibited by adult female hyenas defending a territory at the edge of a wildlife reserve in Kenya. Hyenas preferred areas near dense vegetation but appeared to avoid areas containing the greatest abundance of prey, perhaps because these were also the areas of most intensive livestock grazing. We then compared hyena behaviour observed in 1996–98 with that observed several years earlier and found many differences. Female hyenas in 1996–98 were found farther from dens, but closer to dense vegetation and to the edges of their territory, than in 1988–90. Recent females also had larger home ranges, travelled farther between consecutive sightings, and were more nocturnal than in 1988–90. Finally, hyenas occurred in smaller groups in 1996–98 than in 1988–90. We also found several changes in hyena demography between periods. We next attempted to explain differences observed between time periods by testing predictions of hypotheses invoking prey abundance, climate, interactions with lions, tourism and livestock grazing. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that increased reliance on the reserve for livestock grazing was responsible for observed changes. That behavioural changes were not associated with decreased hyena population density suggests the behavioural plasticity typical of this species may protect it from extinction.

  8. Altered behaviour in spotted hyenas associated with increased human activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boydston, E.E.; Kapheim, K.M.; Watts, H.E.; Szykman, M.; Holekamp, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate how anthropogenic activity might affect large carnivores, we studied the behaviour of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) during two time periods. From 1996 to 1998, we documented the ecological correlates of space utilization patterns exhibited by adult female hyenas defending a territory at the edge of a wildlife reserve in Kenya. Hyenas preferred areas near dense vegetation but appeared to avoid areas containing the greatest abundance of prey, perhaps because these were also the areas of most intensive livestock grazing. We then compared hyena behaviour observed in 1996-98 with that observed several years earlier and found many differences. Female hyenas in 1996-98 were found farther from dens, but closer to dense vegetation and to the edges of their territory, than in 1988-90. Recent females also had larger home ranges, travelled farther between consecutive sightings, and were more nocturnal than in 1988-90. Finally, hyenas occurred in smaller groups in 1996-98 than in 1988-90. We also found several changes in hyena demography between periods. We next attempted to explain differences observed between time periods by testing predictions of hypotheses invoking prey abundance, climate, interactions with lions, tourism and livestock grazing. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that increased reliance on the reserve for livestock grazing was responsible for observed changes. That behavioural changes were not associated with decreased hyena population density suggests the behavioural plasticity typical of this species may protect it from extinction. ?? 2003 The Zoological Society of London.

  9. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increases pain behavior and the blood glucose level: possible involvement of glucocorticoid system.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Choi, Seong-Soo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-10-01

    The possible involvement of glucocorticoid system in interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced nociception and the blood glucose level was studied in ICR mice. In the first experiment, mice were treated intrathecally (i.t.) with IL-1β (100 pg). Corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA (hypothalamus) and c-Fos mRNA (pituitary gland, spinal cord, and the adrenal gland) levels were measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after IL-1β administration. We found that i.t. injection with IL-1β increased CRH mRNA level in the hypothalamus. The IL-1β administered i.t. elevated c-Fos mRNA levels in the spinal cord, pituitary and adrenal glands. Furthermore, i.t. administration of IL-1β significantly increased the plasma corticosterone level up to 60 min. In addition, the adrenalectomy caused the reductions of the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β injected i.t. in normal and D-glucose-fed groups. Furthermore, intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment with RU486 (100mg/kg) attenuated the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β administered i.t. in normal and D-glucose-fed groups. Our results suggest that IL-1β administered i.t. increases the blood glucose level and pain behavior via an activation of the glucocorticoid system. PMID:23773309

  10. Arsenic increased lipid peroxidation in rat tissues by a mechanism independent of glutathione levels.

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, O; Carrizales, L; Yáñez, L; Mejía, J; Batres, L; Ortíz, D; Díaz-Barriga, F

    1995-01-01

    The role of lipid peroxidation in the mechanism of arsenic toxicity was investigated in female rats pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a glutathione [GSH] inducer) or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a GSH depletor). Rats were challenged with sodium arsenite, and sacrificed 1 hr after this treatment. Results showed that arsenic decreased GSH levels and increased lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney, and heart, with a larger effect at 18.2 mg/kg than at 14.8 mg/kg for lipid peroxidation induction. In the liver of rats treated with arsenic, pretreatment with NAC increased the levels of GSH and decreased lipid peroxidation. In kidney and heart, NAC pretreatment protected the tissues against arsenic-induced depletion of GSH levels, but the same degree of protection was not found for lipid peroxidation induction. In its turn, BSO had an additive effect with arsenic in lowering the levels of GSH in the liver and kidney, but an inverse correlation between GSH levels and lipid peroxidation was found only in liver. Arsenic content in tissues of rats pretreated with NAC was lower than in rats treated only with arsenic. In rats with depleted levels of GSH (BSO-pretreated rats), a shift in arsenic tissue distribution was found, with higher levels in skin and lower levels in kidney. A clear tendency for a positive correlation between arsenic concentration and lipid peroxidation levels was found in liver, kidney, and heart. PMID:7621808

  11. Neprilysin and insulin-degrading enzyme levels are increased in Alzheimer disease in relation to disease severity.

    PubMed

    Miners, James Scott; Baig, Shabnam; Tayler, Hannah; Kehoe, Patrick Gavin; Love, Seth

    2009-08-01

    Experimental reduction of neprilysin (NEP) or insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) in vivo exacerbates beta-amyloid accumulation in the brain. The level of these enzymes is reportedly reduced during aging and in postmortem brains of patients with sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). To distinguish between primary decreases in NEP and IDE activity that might contribute to beta-amyloid accumulation and decreases secondary to neurodegenerative changes in AD, we measured NEP and IDE levels by indirect sandwich ELISA and enzyme activities by immunocapture-based fluorogenic assays in postmortem frontal cortex from patients of different ages and at different pathological stages of AD, as indicated by Braak tangle stage. The ELISA measurements of neuron-specific enolase were used to adjust for neuronal loss. Both unadjusted and neuron-specific enolase-adjusted NEP levels and activity were significantly increased in AD and positively correlated with Braak stage but negatively with age in AD patients. Insulin-degrading enzyme activity was higher in AD than controls; this was significant after adjustment for neuron-specific enolase level; unadjusted IDE protein level was decreased in AD but not after adjustment. Our findings suggest that reduction in NEP and IDE activity is not the primary cause of beta-amyloid accumulation in AD, but rather a late-stage phenomenon secondary to neurodegeneration.

  12. Calpain activity and expression are increased in splenic inflammatory cells associated with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Shields, D C; Schaecher, K E; Goust, J M; Banik, N L

    1999-09-01

    Since calcium-activated neutral proteinase (calpain) activity and expression are significantly increased in activated glial/inflammatory cells in the central nervous system of animals with autoimmune demyelinating diseases, this enzyme may also play a role in peripheral organ systems in these diseases. In this study, the activity and expression of calpain and the endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin, were evaluated at transcriptional and translational levels in spleens of Lewis rats with acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Calpain activity and translational expression were increased by 475.5% and 44.3% respectively, on day 4 post-induction in adjuvant controls and animals with EAE. These levels remained elevated compared to normal controls on days 8 and 12. Calpastatin translational expression was similarly increased at these time points although transcriptional expression was not significantly altered at any time following induction of EAE. Likewise, transcriptional expression of mu-calpain was unchanged following induction, while small increases in m-calpain transcriptional expression were observed on days 2 and 8. Most calpain expression was observed in activated splenic macrophages at day 8 post-induction even though activated T cells were also calpain positive. In spinal cords of animals with EAE, calpain expression was significantly increased in rats with severe disease compared to those exhibiting only mild symptoms at day 12 post-induction. Thus, prior to symptomatic EAE, increased calpain activity and expression in peripheral lymphoid organs may play an important role in T cell migration and subsequent disease progression. PMID:10496171

  13. Increased expression of the Ras suppressor Rsu-1 enhances Erk-2 activation and inhibits Jun kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Masuelli, L; Cutler, M L

    1996-10-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the effect of the Ras suppressor Rsu-1 on Ras signal transduction pathways in two different cell backgrounds. An expression vector containing the mouse rsu-1 cDNA under the control of a mouse mammary tumor virus promoter was introduced into NIH 3T3 cells and the pheochromocytoma cell line PC12. Cell lines developed in the NIH 3T3 background expressed p33rsu-1 at approximately twice the normal endogenous level. However, PC12 cell clones which expressed p33rsu-1 at an increased level in a regulatable fashion in response to dexamethasone were isolated. Analysis of proteins involved in regulation of Ras and responsive to Ras signal transduction revealed similar changes in the two cell backgrounds in the presence of elevated p33rsu-1. There was an increase in the level of SOS, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, and an increase in the percentage of GTP-bound Ras. In addition, there was an increase in the amount of p120 Ras-specific GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and GAP-associated p190. However, a decrease in Ras GTPase-activating activity was detected in lysates of the Rsu-1 transfectants, and immunoprecipitated p120 GAP from the Rsu-1 transfectants showed less Ras GTPase-activating activity than GAP from control cells. Activation of Erk-2 kinase by growth factor and tetradecanyol phorbol acetate was greater in the Rsu-1 transfectants than in control cells. However, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase activity (Jun kinase) was not activatable by epidermal growth factor in Rsu-1 PC12 cell transfectants, in contrast to the PC12 vector control cell line. Transient expression of p33rsu-1 in Cos1 cells following cotransfection with either hemagglutinin-tagged Jun kinase or hemagglutinin-tagged Erk-2 revealed that Rsu-1 expression inhibited constitutive Jun kinase activity while enhancing Erk-2 activity. Detection of in vitro binding of Rsu-1 to Raf-1 suggested that in Rsu-1 transfectants, increased activation of the Raf-1 pathway occurred

  14. Peripheral Sensitization Increases Opioid Receptor Expression and Activation by Crotalphine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Fernandes, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; Gutierrez, Vanessa Pacciari; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Parada, Carlos Amilcar; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Cury, Yara

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation enhances the peripheral analgesic efficacy of opioid drugs, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. Crotalphine (CRP), a peptide that was first isolated from South American rattlesnake C.d. terrificus venom, induces a potent and long-lasting anti-nociceptive effect that is mediated by the activation of peripheral opioid receptors. Because the high efficacy of CRP is only observed in the presence of inflammation, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the CRP anti-nociceptive effect induced by inflammation. Using real-time RT-PCR, western blot analysis and ELISA assays, we demonstrate that the intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases the mRNA and protein levels of the µ- and κ-opioid receptors in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and paw tissue of rats within 3 h of the injection. Using conformation state-sensitive antibodies that recognize activated opioid receptors, we show that PGE2, alone does not increase the activation of these opioid receptors but that in the presence of PGE2, the activation of specific opioid receptors by CRP and selective µ- and κ-opioid receptor agonists (positive controls) increases. Furthermore, PGE2 down-regulated the expression and activation of the δ-opioid receptor. CRP increased the level of activated mitogen-activated protein kinases in cultured DRG neurons, and this increase was dependent on the activation of protein kinase Cζ. This CRP effect was much more prominent when the cells were pretreated with PGE2. These results indicate that the expression and activation of peripheral opioid receptors by opioid-like drugs can be up- or down-regulated in the presence of an acute injury and that acute tissue injury enhances the efficacy of peripheral opioids. PMID:24594607

  15. Peripheral sensitization increases opioid receptor expression and activation by crotalphine in rats.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Fernandes, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; Gutierrez, Vanessa Pacciari; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Parada, Carlos Amilcar; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Cury, Yara

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation enhances the peripheral analgesic efficacy of opioid drugs, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. Crotalphine (CRP), a peptide that was first isolated from South American rattlesnake C.d. terrificus venom, induces a potent and long-lasting anti-nociceptive effect that is mediated by the activation of peripheral opioid receptors. Because the high efficacy of CRP is only observed in the presence of inflammation, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the CRP anti-nociceptive effect induced by inflammation. Using real-time RT-PCR, western blot analysis and ELISA assays, we demonstrate that the intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases the mRNA and protein levels of the µ- and κ-opioid receptors in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and paw tissue of rats within 3 h of the injection. Using conformation state-sensitive antibodies that recognize activated opioid receptors, we show that PGE2, alone does not increase the activation of these opioid receptors but that in the presence of PGE2, the activation of specific opioid receptors by CRP and selective µ- and κ-opioid receptor agonists (positive controls) increases. Furthermore, PGE2 down-regulated the expression and activation of the δ-opioid receptor. CRP increased the level of activated mitogen-activated protein kinases in cultured DRG neurons, and this increase was dependent on the activation of protein kinase Cζ. This CRP effect was much more prominent when the cells were pretreated with PGE2. These results indicate that the expression and activation of peripheral opioid receptors by opioid-like drugs can be up- or down-regulated in the presence of an acute injury and that acute tissue injury enhances the efficacy of peripheral opioids.

  16. Treatment with endotracheal therapeutics after sarin microinstillation inhalation exposure increases blood cholinesterase levels in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Che, Magnus M; Song, Jian; Oguntayo, Samuel; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Rezk, Peter; Perkins, Michael W; Sciuto, Alfred M; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2012-05-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were measured in the blood and tissues of animals that are treated with a number of endotracheally aerosolized therapeutics for protection against inhalation toxicity to sarin. Therapeutics included, aerosolized atropine methyl bromide (AMB), scopolamine or combination of AMB with salbutamol, sphingosine 1-phosphate, keratinocyte growth factor, adenosine A1 receptor antisense oligonucleotide (EPI2010), 2,3-diacetyloxybenzoic acid (2,3 DABA), oxycyte, and survanta. Guinea pigs exposed to 677.4 mg/m(3) or 846.5 mg/m(3) (1.2 LCt(50)) sarin for 4 min using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique and treated 1 min later with the aerosolized therapeutics. Treatment with all therapeutics significantly increased the survival rate with no convulsions throughout the 24 h study period. Blood AChE activity determined using acetylthiocholine as substrate showed 20% activity remaining in sarin-exposed animals compare to controls. In aerosolized AMB and scopolamine-treated animals the remaining AChE activity was significantly higher (45-60%) compared to sarin-exposed animals (p < 0.05). Similarly, treatment with all the combination therapeutics resulted in significant increase in blood AChE activity in comparison to sarin-exposed animals although the increases varied between treatments (p < 0.05). BChE activity was increased after treatment with aerosolized therapeutics but was lesser in magnitude compared to AChE activity changes. Various tissues showed elevated AChE activity after therapeutic treatment of sarin-exposed animals. Increased AChE and BChE activities in animals treated with nasal therapeutics suggest that enhanced breathing and reduced respiratory toxicity/lung injury possibly contribute to rapid normalization of chemical warfare nerve agent inhibited cholinesterases.

  17. Increased Myeloperoxidase Activity and Protein Nitration Are Indicators of Inflammation in Patients with Chagas' Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Monisha; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo; Pando, Jasmine M.; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Spratt, Heidi; Vazquez-Corzo, Sara; Perez-Molina, Gladys; Gallegos-Sandoval, Rosa; Moreno, Roberto; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether inflammatory responses contribute to oxidative/nitrosative stress in patients with Chagas' disease. We used three tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immuno-flow cytometry, and STAT-PAK immunochromatography) to screen human serum samples (n = 1,481) originating from Chiapas, Mexico, for Trypanosoma cruzi-specific antibodies. We identified 121 subjects who were seropositive for T. cruzi-specific antibodies, a finding indicative of an 8.5% seroprevalence in the rural population from Chiapas. Seropositive and seronegative subjects were examined for plasma levels of biomarkers of inflammation, i.e., myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and xanthine oxidase (XOD), as well as for oxidative (advanced oxidation protein products [AOPPs]) and nitrosative (3-nitrotyrosine [3NT]) biomarkers. The seropositive subjects exhibited a significant increase in MPO activity and protein level, the indicator of neutrophil activation. Subsequently, a corresponding increase in AOPP contents, formed by MPO-dependent hypochlorous acid and chloramine formation, was noted in seropositive subjects. The plasma level of 3NT was significantly increased in seropositive subjects, yet we observed no change in XOD activity (O2− source) and nitrate/nitrite contents (denotes iNOS activation and NO production), which implied that direct peroxynitrite formation does not contribute to increased nitrosative damage in chagasic subjects. Instead, a positive correlation between increased MPO activity and protein 3NT formation was observed, which suggested to us that MPO-dependent formation of nitrylchloride that occurs in the presence of physiological NO and O2− concentrations contributes to protein nitration. Overall, our data demonstrate that T. cruzi-induced neutrophil activation is pathological and contributes to MPO-mediated collateral protein oxidative and nitrosative damage in human patients with Chagas' disease. Therapies

  18. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  19. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively. PMID:23369617

  20. Nest predation increases with parental activity: Separating nest site and parental activity effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.; Scott, J.; Menge, C.

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators have found similar results. We tested whether nest site effects might yield higher predation during incubation because the most obvious sites are depredated most rapidly. We conducted experiments using nest sites from the previous year to remove parental activity. Our results showed that nest sites have highly repeatable effects on nest predation risk; poor nest sites incurred rapid predation and caused predation rates to be greater during the incubation than nestling stage. This pattern also was exhibited in a bird species with similar (i.e. controlled) parental activity between nesting stages. Once nest site effects are taken into account, nest predation shows a strong proximate increase with parental activity during the nestling stage within and across species. Parental activity and nest sites exert antagonistic influences on current estimates of nest predation between nesting stages and both must be considered in order to understand current patterns of nest predation, which is an important source of natural selection.

  1. Physical Activity Levels during Adventure-Physical Education Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehris, Jeffrey; Myers, Elizabeth; Whitaker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Adventure-physical education has been proposed to promote adolescents' physical development, but little is known about physical activity levels during such lessons. Using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time, we observed students' (ages 11-14 years) physical activity levels in co-educational classes during 43 adventure-physical…

  2. Increased Heme Levels in the Heart Lead to Exacerbated Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sawicki, Konrad Teodor; Shang, Meng; Wu, Rongxue; Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Khechaduri, Arineh; Sato, Tatsuya; Kamide, Christine; Liu, Ting; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V; Ardehali, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background Heme is an essential iron-containing molecule for cardiovascular physiology, but in excess it may increase oxidative stress. Failing human hearts have increased heme levels, with upregulation of the rate-limiting enzyme in heme synthesis, δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2), which is normally not expressed in cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that increased heme accumulation (through cardiac overexpression of ALAS2) leads to increased oxidative stress and cell death in the heart. Methods and Results We first showed that ALAS2 and heme levels are increased in the hearts of mice subjected to coronary ligation. To determine the causative role of increased heme in the development of heart failure, we generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of ALAS2. While ALAS2 transgenic mice have normal cardiac function at baseline, their hearts display increased heme content, higher oxidative stress, exacerbated cell death, and worsened cardiac function after coronary ligation compared to nontransgenic littermates. We confirmed in cultured cardiomyoblasts that the increased oxidative stress and cell death observed with ALAS2 overexpression is mediated by increased heme accumulation. Furthermore, knockdown of ALAS2 in cultured cardiomyoblasts exposed to hypoxia reversed the increases in heme content and cell death. Administration of the mitochondrial antioxidant MitoTempo to ALAS2-overexpressing cardiomyoblasts normalized the elevated oxidative stress and cell death levels to baseline, indicating that the effects of increased ALAS2 and heme are through elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress. The clinical relevance of these findings was supported by the finding of increased ALAS2 induction and heme accumulation in failing human hearts from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy compared to nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Conclusions Heme accumulation is detrimental to cardiac function under ischemic conditions, and reducing heme in the heart may be a

  3. High D-dimer levels increase the likelihood of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Tick, L W; Nijkeuter, M; Kramer, M H H; Hovens, M M C; Büller, H R; Leebeek, F W G; Huisman, M V

    2008-08-01

    Objective. To determine the utility of high quantitative D-dimer levels in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Methods. D-dimer testing was performed in consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. We included patients with suspected pulmonary embolism with a high risk for venous thromboembolism, i.e. hospitalized patients, patients older than 80 years, with malignancy or previous surgery. Presence of pulmonary embolism was based on a diagnostic management strategy using a clinical decision rule (CDR), D-dimer testing and computed tomography. Results. A total of 1515 patients were included with an overall pulmonary embolism prevalence of 21%. The pulmonary embolism prevalence was strongly associated with the height of the D-dimer level, and increased fourfold with D-dimer levels greater than 4000 ng mL(-1) compared to levels between 500 and 1000 ng mL(-1). Patients with D-dimer levels higher than 2000 ng mL(-1) and an unlikely CDR had a pulmonary embolism prevalence of 36%. This prevalence is comparable to the pulmonary embolism likely CDR group. When D-dimer levels were above 4000 ng mL(-1), the observed pulmonary embolism prevalence was very high, independent of CDR score. Conclusion. Strongly elevated D-dimer levels substantially increase the likelihood of pulmonary embolism. Whether this should translate into more intensive diagnostic and therapeutic measures in patients with high D-dimer levels irrespective of CDR remains to be studied. PMID:18452520

  4. Spirulina elicits the activation of innate immunity and increases resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Tayag, Carina Miranda; Li, Hui-Fang; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Bai, Jia-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    The effect of Spirulina dried powder (SDP) on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied in vitro and in vivo. Incubating shrimp haemocytes in 0.5 mg ml(-1) SDP caused the degranulation of haemocytes and a reduction in the percentage of large cells within 30 min. Shrimp haemocytes incubated in 1 mg ml(-1) SDP significantly increased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity, serine proteinase activity, and respiratory burst activity (RB, release of superoxide anion). A recombinant protein of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) of the white shrimp was produced, named rLvLGBP, and examined for its binding with SDP. An ELISA binding assay showed that rLvLGBP binds to SDP with a dissociation constant of 0.0507 μM. In another experiment, shrimp fed diets containing SDP at 0 (control), 30, and 60 g kg(-1) after four weeks were examined for LGBP transcript level and lysozyme activity, as well as phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus. These parameters were significantly higher in shrimp receiving diets containing SDP at 60 g kg(-1) or 30 g kg(-1) than in controls. In conclusion, shrimp haemocytes receiving SDP provoked the activation of innate immunity as evidenced by the recognition and binding of LGBP, degranulation of haemocytes, reduction in the percentage of large cells, increases in PO activity, serine proteinase activity, superoxide anion levels, and up-regulated LGBP transcript levels. Shrimp receiving diets containing SDP had increased lysozyme activity and resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. This study showed the mechanism underlying the immunostimulatory action of Spirulina and its immune response in shrimp.

  5. Let's Move for Pacific Islander Communities: an Evidence-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    LaBreche, Mandy; Cheri, Ashley; Custodio, Harold; Fex, Cleo Carlos; Foo, Mary Anne; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; May, Vanessa Tui'one; Orne, Annette; Pang, Jane Ka'ala; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Surani, Zul; Talavou, Melevesi Fifita; Toilolo, Tupou; Palmer, Paula Healani; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2016-06-01

    Pacific Islander (PI) populations of Southern California experience high obesity and low physical activity levels. Given PI's rich cultural ties, efforts to increase physical activity using a community-tailored strategy may motivate members in a more sustainable manner. In this paper, we (1) detail the program adaptation methodology that was utilized to develop the Weaving an Islander Network for Cancer Awareness, Research and Training (WINCART) Center's PI Let's Move Program, a culturally tailored program aimed to increase physical activity levels among members of PI organizations in Southern California, and (2) share the program's pilot evaluation results on individual and organizational changes. The WINCART Center applied the National Cancer Institute's program adaptation guidelines to tailor the evidence-based Instant Recess program to fit the needs of PIs. The end product, the PI Let's Move Program, was piloted in 2012 with eight PI organizations, reaching 106 PI adults. At baseline, 52 % of participants reported that they were not physically active, with the average number of days engaged in medium-intensity physical activity at 2.09 days/week. After the 2-month program, participants increased the number of days that they engaged in medium-intensity physical activity from 2.09 to 2.90 days/week. Post-pilot results found that 82 % of participants reported intentions to engage in physical activity for at least the next 6 months. At baseline, only one organization was currently implementing a physical activity program, and none had implemented an evidence-based physical activity program tailored for PIs. After the 2-month timeframe, despite varying levels of capacity, all eight organizations were able to successfully implement the program. In conclusion, results from our program provide evidence that disparity populations, such as PIs, can be successfully reached through programs that are culturally tailored to both individuals and their community

  6. Spirulina elicits the activation of innate immunity and increases resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Tayag, Carina Miranda; Li, Hui-Fang; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Bai, Jia-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    The effect of Spirulina dried powder (SDP) on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied in vitro and in vivo. Incubating shrimp haemocytes in 0.5 mg ml(-1) SDP caused the degranulation of haemocytes and a reduction in the percentage of large cells within 30 min. Shrimp haemocytes incubated in 1 mg ml(-1) SDP significantly increased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity, serine proteinase activity, and respiratory burst activity (RB, release of superoxide anion). A recombinant protein of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) of the white shrimp was produced, named rLvLGBP, and examined for its binding with SDP. An ELISA binding assay showed that rLvLGBP binds to SDP with a dissociation constant of 0.0507 μM. In another experiment, shrimp fed diets containing SDP at 0 (control), 30, and 60 g kg(-1) after four weeks were examined for LGBP transcript level and lysozyme activity, as well as phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus. These parameters were significantly higher in shrimp receiving diets containing SDP at 60 g kg(-1) or 30 g kg(-1) than in controls. In conclusion, shrimp haemocytes receiving SDP provoked the activation of innate immunity as evidenced by the recognition and binding of LGBP, degranulation of haemocytes, reduction in the percentage of large cells, increases in PO activity, serine proteinase activity, superoxide anion levels, and up-regulated LGBP transcript levels. Shrimp receiving diets containing SDP had increased lysozyme activity and resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. This study showed the mechanism underlying the immunostimulatory action of Spirulina and its immune response in shrimp. PMID:27368541

  7. Prolonged CD154 Expression on Pediatric Lupus CD4 T Cells Correlates with Increased CD154 Transcription, Increased NFAT Activity, and Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Jay; Genin, Anna; Brunner, Michael; Scalzi, Lisabeth V; Mishra, Nilamadhab; Beukelman, Timothy; Cron, Randy Q

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess CD154 expression in pediatric lupus and explore a transcriptional mechanism explaining dysregulated CD154 expression. Methods Cell surface CD154 expression was examined, pre- and post-activation, on peripheral blood CD4 T cells from 29 children with lupus and matched controls by flow cytometry. CD154 expression was correlated with clinical features, laboratory parameters, and treatments received. Increased CD154 expression on lupus CD4 T cells was correlated with CD154 message and transcription rates by real-time RT-PCR and nuclear run-on assays, respectively. NFAT transcriptional activity and NFAT mRNA levels in lupus CD4 T cells were explored by reporter gene analysis and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Results CD154 surface protein levels were increased 1.44-fold on lupus CD4 T cells compared to controls at one day post-activation ex vivo. This increase correlated clinically with the presence of nephritis and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Increased CD154 protein also correlated with increased CD154 mRNA levels and rates of CD154 transcription, particularly at later time-points post-T cell activation. Reporter gene analyses revealed a trend for increased NFAT, but decreased AP-1 and similar NFκB, activity in lupus CD4 T cell compared to controls. Moreover, NFAT1 and, in particular, NFAT2 mRNA levels were notably increased in lupus CD4 T cells compared to controls. Conclusion Following activation, cell surface CD154 is increased on pediatric lupus CD4 T cells compared to controls, and this correlates with the presence of nephritis, increased CD154 transcription rates, and NFAT activity. These results suggest that NFAT/calcineurin inhibitors, such as tacrolimus and cyclosporine, may be beneficial in treating lupus nephritis. PMID:20506525

  8. Stress-induced increases in brainstem amino acid levels are prevented by chronic sodium hydrosulfide treatment.

    PubMed

    Warenycia, M W; Kombian, S B; Reiffenstein, R J

    1990-01-01

    Neurotransmitter amino acid levels were measured in select brain regions of rats and mice after chronic treatment with sublethal doses of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Brainstem aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, taurine and GABA levels increased in chronically but not acutely saline-treated rats. These increases may have been due to stress from frequent handling, and were prevented by chronic NaHS treatment (7.5 mg/kg ip every 8 hr for 3 consecutive days). In contrast, aspartate, glutamate and glutamine increased in female but not in male ICR mouse brainstems after once daily treatment with 7.0 mg/kg NaHS for 5 consecutive days. These effects of NaHS may indicate chronic low level H2S neurotoxicity. Differences between chronic and acute treatments, female and male responses, and treatment paradigms may complicate interpretations of such toxicity studies.

  9. Nutrient levels modify saltmarsh responses to increased inundation in different soil types.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joanne X W; Van Colen, Carl; Airoldi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Saltmarshes have been depleted historically, and cumulative stressors threaten their future persistence. We examined experimentally how nutrient availability (high vs. low) affects the responses of Spartina maritima to increased inundation in two mineral soil types (low vs. medium organic). Increased inundation, one of the effects of accelerated sea level rise, had negative effects on most plant growth parameters, but the magnitude varied with soil and nutrient levels, and between plants from different locations. Average differences between inundation treatments were largest at high nutrient conditions in low organic matter soils. We conclude that saltmarsh vegetation would be more drastically affected by increased inundation in low than in medium organic matter soils, and especially in estuaries already under high nutrient availability. This knowledge enhances the prediction of changes at the foreshore of saltmarshes related to sea level rise, and the development of site-specific conservation strategies.

  10. Stimulation of calcitonin secretory capacity by increased serum levels of testosterone in men treated with tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Schopman, W; Slager, E; Hackeng, W H; Mulder, H

    1987-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sex steroids, including both oestrogen and testosterone, influence calcitonin secretion. However, a negative effect of gonadotrophins on calcitonin has not been excluded. Twelve men with infertility and low-normal serum levels of testosterone were studied before and during tamoxifen therapy. Increases in the serum levels of LH, FSH, testosterone and calcitonin were observed after treatment. Our findings suggest that testosterone has a direct influence on calcitonin secretion. PMID:3123401

  11. Increase of intracellular cisplatin levels and radiosensitization by ultrasound in combination with microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Lammertink, Bart H A; Bos, Clemens; van der Wurff-Jacobs, Kim M; Storm, Gert; Moonen, Chrit T; Deckers, Roel

    2016-09-28

    The possibility to enhance drug delivery by using ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (USMB) is extensively studied. So far, these studies have focused on the delivery and efficacy of a single drug, e.g. in chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the intracellular delivery of cisplatin by USMB and the subsequent increased efficacy in combination with radiotherapy in a head and neck cancer cell line in vitro. After USMB-mediated intracellular delivery was verified using the model-drug SYTOX® Green, we investigated the efficacy of cisplatin when combined with USMB and radiotherapy and measured whether intracellular cisplatin concentration was enhanced after applying USMB. In addition, the effect of USMB on cisplatin and radiotherapy-induced DNA damage was studied. Flow cytometry showed that USMB treatment increased the average percentage SYTOX® Green positive cells from 2.2% to 34.5%. Clonogenic assays demonstrated that exposure to USMB significantly increased the efficacy of cisplatin combined with radiotherapy. The enhanced efficacy was associated with increased intracellular cisplatin levels, which were 2.7-fold higher when cisplatin was combined with USMB. As a result, an 82% increase in levels of DNA double strand breaks was found when cisplatin was combined with USMB, compared to cisplatin only (p<0.05). In conclusion, cisplatin uptake was significantly increased by USMB, which resulted in enhanced levels of DNA damage and increased efficacy of cisplatin in combination with radiotherapy in vitro. PMID:27476609

  12. Grape Polyphenols Increase the Activity of HDL Enzymes in Old and Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zagayko, Andriy L.; Kravchenko, Ganna B.; Krasilnikova, Oksana A.; Ogai, Yuri O.

    2013-01-01

    HDL particles are protein-rich particles that act as a vehicle for reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to the liver. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-dependent changes in the functional activity of HDL and the effect of high-energy diet on this index, as well as to correct it under the influence of grape polyphenols from “Enoant” obtained from Vitis vinifera grapes. We observed the age-dependent composition changes in HDL particle. It was shown that total lipids and triacylglycerol (TG) levels were higher in 24-month-old animals. In obese rats, HDL total lipids and TG levels were higher in 24-month-old than in the 3-month-old and 12-month-old groups but did not differ from 24-month-old group. The plasma HDL paraoxonase (PON) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels were decreased in old-aged rats, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity was higher in old rats. Keeping 12-month-old animals on high-fructose diet completely leveled the age differences in the data that have been measured between 12-month-old and 24-month-old rats. After “Enoant” administration, an increase of HDL PON and LCAT activity levels and a reduction of CETP activity were found in 24-month-old and obese rats. PMID:23936611

  13. Grape polyphenols increase the activity of HDL enzymes in old and obese rats.

    PubMed

    Zagayko, Andriy L; Kravchenko, Ganna B; Krasilnikova, Oksana A; Ogai, Yuri O

    2013-01-01

    HDL particles are protein-rich particles that act as a vehicle for reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to the liver. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-dependent changes in the functional activity of HDL and the effect of high-energy diet on this index, as well as to correct it under the influence of grape polyphenols from "Enoant" obtained from Vitis vinifera grapes. We observed the age-dependent composition changes in HDL particle. It was shown that total lipids and triacylglycerol (TG) levels were higher in 24-month-old animals. In obese rats, HDL total lipids and TG levels were higher in 24-month-old than in the 3-month-old and 12-month-old groups but did not differ from 24-month-old group. The plasma HDL paraoxonase (PON) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels were decreased in old-aged rats, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity was higher in old rats. Keeping 12-month-old animals on high-fructose diet completely leveled the age differences in the data that have been measured between 12-month-old and 24-month-old rats. After "Enoant" administration, an increase of HDL PON and LCAT activity levels and a reduction of CETP activity were found in 24-month-old and obese rats. PMID:23936611

  14. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting.

  15. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. PMID:27029522

  16. No Evidence for Activity Adjustment in Response to Increased Density in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Sereni, Laura; Einum, Sigurd

    2015-01-01

    Increased population density may lead to a decrease in energy available for growth and reproduction via effects on the activity level of individuals. Whilst this may be of particular importance for organisms that compete for defendable resources and/or have a high frequency of social interactions, it is less obvious how individual activity should covary with population density when food resources are not defendable or direct interactions among individuals are negligible. Based on observations that there is a general negative relationship between population density and metabolism it has been suggested that organisms actively reduce activity under increased density to accommodate an expected decrease in food availability. However, in the absence of direct activity measurements the validity of this hypothesis is unclear. Here we test for such anticipatory adjustments of activity levels in the planktonic cladoceran Daphnia magna Straus, a filter feeder whose food resources are not defendable, meaning that density responses can be evaluated in the absence of direct interactions. We tested for changes in activity in response to two separate density cues, one being the direct physical and visual stimuli resulting from being in the vicinity of conspecifics ('direct density experiment'), and the other being the detection of olfactory cues in their environment ('olfactory cue experiment'). Ten genetically distinct clones were used to evaluate the potential for genetic variation in these responses. Our measures of activity were highly repeatable, and there was significant variation in activity among clones. Furthermore, this clonal variation was consistent in the 'direct density' and 'olfactory cue' experiments. The estimated evolvability of the trait (1.3-3.2%) was within the range typically observed in behavioural traits. However, there was no indication that the activity level of individuals respond to population density, either directly to actual density or to olfactory

  17. A rapid increase in lipoprotein (a) levels after ethanol withdrawal in alcoholic men

    SciTech Connect

    Kervinen, K.; Savolainen, J.J.; Kesaeniemi, Y.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were studied in 11 male alcoholics at the end of a drinking period and monitored during subsequent abstinence. Lp(a) levels showed a daily increase for four consecutive days after the beginning of abstinence, the values for the third and the fourth day being significantly higher than those of the first day. The changes in Lp(a) showed no association with the changes in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. In one alcoholic subject with a heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia who was monitored for 11 days, the Lp(a) levels rose up to the fourth day and remained at a high level thereafter. These results suggest that ethanol ingestion may be associated with a lower of Lp(a) levels, which may contribute to the delayed progression of atherosclerosis observed in alcohol drinkers.

  18. Ultraviolet B radiation was increased at ground level in scotland during a period of ozone depletion.

    PubMed

    Moseley, H; Mackie, R M

    1997-07-01

    The potentially harmful effects associated with stratospheric ozone depletion are widely acknowledged. As the ozone layer principally absorbs ultraviolet (UV) radiation of wavelengths below 290 nm, reductions in stratospheric ozone levels are likely to result in increased UVB at the earth's surface, with the risk of increased incidence of skin cancer. Measuring the sun's spectrum at ground level requires sophisticated and reliable spectral instruments. Results are reported for this for the first time in the U.K. using spectral instruments, showing a significant increase in short wavelength UV radiation at a time of depleted stratospheric ozone. If this trend increases, future ozone depletion could contribute to known risks for cutaneous malignancies of all types.

  19. Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels.

    PubMed

    Albertine, Jennifer M; Manning, William J; DaCosta, Michelle; Stinson, Kristina A; Muilenberg, Michael L; Rogers, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    One expected effect of climate change on human health is increasing allergic and asthmatic symptoms through changes in pollen biology. Allergic diseases have a large impact on human health globally, with 10-30% of the population affected by allergic rhinitis and more than 300 million affected by asthma. Pollen from grass species, which are highly allergenic and occur worldwide, elicits allergic responses in 20% of the general population and 40% of atopic individuals. Here we examine the effects of elevated levels of two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), a growth and reproductive stimulator of plants, and ozone (O3), a repressor, on pollen and allergen production in Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). We conducted a fully factorial experiment in which plants were grown at ambient and/or elevated levels of O3 and CO2, to simulate present and projected levels of both gases and their potential interactive effects. We captured and counted pollen from flowers in each treatment and assayed for concentrations of the allergen protein, Phl p 5. We found that elevated levels of CO2 increased the amount of grass pollen produced by ∼50% per flower, regardless of O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly reduced the Phl p 5 content of the pollen but the net effect of rising pollen numbers with elevated CO2 indicate increased allergen exposure under elevated levels of both greenhouse gases. Using quantitative estimates of increased pollen production and number of flowering plants per treatment, we estimated that airborne grass pollen concentrations will increase in the future up to ∼200%. Due to the widespread existence of grasses and the particular importance of P. pratense in eliciting allergic responses, our findings provide evidence for significant impacts on human health worldwide as a result of future climate change.

  20. Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels.

    PubMed

    Albertine, Jennifer M; Manning, William J; DaCosta, Michelle; Stinson, Kristina A; Muilenberg, Michael L; Rogers, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    One expected effect of climate change on human health is increasing allergic and asthmatic symptoms through changes in pollen biology. Allergic diseases have a large impact on human health globally, with 10-30% of the population affected by allergic rhinitis and more than 300 million affected by asthma. Pollen from grass species, which are highly allergenic and occur worldwide, elicits allergic responses in 20% of the general population and 40% of atopic individuals. Here we examine the effects of elevated levels of two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), a growth and reproductive stimulator of plants, and ozone (O3), a repressor, on pollen and allergen production in Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). We conducted a fully factorial experiment in which plants were grown at ambient and/or elevated levels of O3 and CO2, to simulate present and projected levels of both gases and their potential interactive effects. We captured and counted pollen from flowers in each treatment and assayed for concentrations of the allergen protein, Phl p 5. We found that elevated levels of CO2 increased the amount of grass pollen produced by ∼50% per flower, regardless of O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly reduced the Phl p 5 content of the pollen but the net effect of rising pollen numbers with elevated CO2 indicate increased allergen exposure under elevated levels of both greenhouse gases. Using quantitative estimates of increased pollen production and number of flowering plants per treatment, we estimated that airborne grass pollen concentrations will increase in the future up to ∼200%. Due to the widespread existence of grasses and the particular importance of P. pratense in eliciting allergic responses, our findings provide evidence for significant impacts on human health worldwide as a result of future climate change. PMID:25372614

  1. Increased O-GlcNAc Levels Correlate with Decreased O-GlcNAcase Levels in Alzheimer Disease Brain

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Sarah; Welleford, Andrew S.; Triplett, Judy C.; Sultana, Rukhsana; Schmitz, Brigitte; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2014-01-01

    The potential role of the posttranslational modification of proteins with O-linked N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) has been studied extensively, yet the exact function of O-GlcNAc in AD remains elusive. O-GlcNAc cycling is facilitated by only two highly conserved enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes the addition, while O-GlcNAcase (OGA) catalyzes the removal of GlcNAc from proteins. Studies analyzing global O-GlcNAc levels in AD brain have produced inconsistent results and the reasons for altered O-GlcNAcylation in AD are still poorly understood. In this study, we show a 1.2 fold increase in cytosolic protein O-GlcNAc modification in AD brain when compared to age-matched controls. Interestingly, O-GlcNAc changes seem to be attributable to differential modification of a few individual proteins. While our finding of augmented O-GlcNAcylation concurs with some reports, it is contrary to others demonstrating decreased O-GlcNAc levels in AD brain. These conflicting results emphasize the need for further studies providing conclusive evidence on the subject of O-GlcNAcylation in AD. We further demonstrate that, while OGT protein levels are unaffected in AD, OGA protein levels are significantly decreased to 75 % of those in control samples. In addition, augmented protein O-GlcNAc modification correlates to decreased OGA protein levels in AD subjects. While OGA inhibitors are already being tested for AD treatment, our results provide a strong indication that the general subject of O-GlcNAcylation and specifically its regulation by OGA and OGT in AD need further investigation to conclusively elucidate its potential role in AD pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:24859566

  2. Hydrostatic Pressure Increases the Catalytic Activity of Amyloid Fibril Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Luong, Trung Quan; Erwin, Nelli; Neumann, Matthias; Schmidt, Andreas; Loos, Cornelia; Schmidt, Volker; Fändrich, Marcus; Winter, Roland

    2016-09-26

    We studied the combined effects of pressure (0.1-200 MPa) and temperature (22, 30, and 38 °C) on the catalytic activity of designed amyloid fibrils using a high-pressure stopped-flow system with rapid UV/Vis absorption detection. Complementary FT-IR spectroscopic data revealed a remarkably high pressure and temperature stability of the fibrillar systems. High pressure enhances the esterase activity as a consequence of a negative activation volume at all temperatures (about -14 cm(3)  mol(-1) ). The enhancement is sustained in the whole temperature range covered, which allows a further acceleration of the enzymatic activity at high temperatures (activation energy 45-60 kJ mol(-1) ). Our data reveal the great potential of using both pressure and temperature modulation to optimize the enzyme efficiency of catalytic amyloid fibrils.

  3. Opportunities for public health to increase physical activity among youths.

    PubMed

    Piercy, Katrina L; Dorn, Joan M; Fulton, Janet E; Janz, Kathleen F; Lee, Sarah M; McKinnon, Robin A; Pate, Russell R; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Young, Deborah Rohm; Troiano, Richard P; Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2015-03-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of youths engaging in 60 or more minutes of daily physical activity, physical inactivity remains a significant public health concern. The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAG) provides recommendations on the amount of physical activity needed for overall health; the PAG Midcourse Report (2013) describes effective strategies to help youths meet these recommendations. Public health professionals can be dynamic change agents where youths live, learn, and play by changing environments and policies to empower youths to develop regular physical activity habits to maintain throughout life. We have summarized key findings from the PAG Midcourse Report and outlined actions that public health professionals can take to ensure that all youths regularly engage in health-enhancing physical activity. PMID:25602864

  4. Hydrostatic Pressure Increases the Catalytic Activity of Amyloid Fibril Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Luong, Trung Quan; Erwin, Nelli; Neumann, Matthias; Schmidt, Andreas; Loos, Cornelia; Schmidt, Volker; Fändrich, Marcus; Winter, Roland

    2016-09-26

    We studied the combined effects of pressure (0.1-200 MPa) and temperature (22, 30, and 38 °C) on the catalytic activity of designed amyloid fibrils using a high-pressure stopped-flow system with rapid UV/Vis absorption detection. Complementary FT-IR spectroscopic data revealed a remarkably high pressure and temperature stability of the fibrillar systems. High pressure enhances the esterase activity as a consequence of a negative activation volume at all temperatures (about -14 cm(3)  mol(-1) ). The enhancement is sustained in the whole temperature range covered, which allows a further acceleration of the enzymatic activity at high temperatures (activation energy 45-60 kJ mol(-1) ). Our data reveal the great potential of using both pressure and temperature modulation to optimize the enzyme efficiency of catalytic amyloid fibrils. PMID:27573584

  5. Increased lactate/pyruvate ratio augments blood flow in physiologically activated human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintun, Mark A.; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Rundle, Melissa M.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2004-01-01

    The factors regulating cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in physiological activation remain the subject of great interest and debate. Recent experimental studies suggest that an increase in cytosolic NADH mediates increased blood flow in the working brain. Lactate injection should elevate NADH levels by increasing the lactate/pyruvate ratio, which is in near equilibrium with the NADH/NAD+ ratio. We studied CBF responses to bolus lactate injection at rest and in visual stimulation by using positron-emission tomography in seven healthy volunteers. Bolus lactate injection augmented the CBF response to visual stimulation by 38-53% in regions of the visual cortex but had no effect on the resting CBF or the whole-brain CBF. These lactate-induced CBF increases correlated with elevations in plasma lactate/pyruvate ratios and in plasma lactate levels but not with plasma pyruvate levels. Our observations support the hypothesis that an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio activates signaling pathways to selectively increase CBF in the physiologically stimulated brain regions.

  6. Engineering of TM1459 from Thermotoga maritima for Increased Oxidative Alkene Cleavage Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Matthias; Trunk, Sarah; Hall, Mélanie; Schwab, Helmut; Steiner, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative cleavage of alkenes is a widely employed process allowing oxyfunctionalization to corresponding carbonyl compounds. Recently, a novel biocatalytic oxidative alkene cleavage activity on styrene derivatives was identified in TM1459 from Thermotoga maritima. In this work we engineered the enzyme by site-saturation mutagenesis of active site amino acids to increase its activity and to broaden its substrate scope. A high-throughput assay for the detection of the ketone products was successfully developed. Several variants with up to twofold improved conversion level of styrene derivatives were successfully identified. Especially, changes in or removal of the C-terminus of TM1459 increased the activity most significantly. These best variants also displayed a slightly enlarged substrate scope. PMID:27713741

  7. Increased Enterococcus faecalis infection is associated with clinically active Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Youlian; Chen, Huiting; He, Hanchang; Du, Yanlei; Hu, Jiaqi; Li, Yingfei; Li, Yuyuan; Zhou, Yongjian; Wang, Hong; Chen, Ye; Nie, Yuqiang

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the abundance of pathogenic gut microbes in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and disease severity.We collected clinical data and fecal samples from 47 therapy-naive Chinese patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 67 patients with Crohn disease (CD), and 48 healthy volunteers. Bacteria levels of Fusobacterium species (spp), enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (B fragilis), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E coli), and Enterococcus faecalis (E faecalis) were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to test associations between bacterial content and clinical parameters.Compared to healthy controls, the levels of both Fusobacterium spp and E faecalis were significantly increased in the feces of patients with IBD (P < 0.01). B fragilis levels were higher (P < 0.05) and E faecalis levels lower (P < 0.05) in patients with CD compared to those with UC. Increased E faecalis colonization in CD associated positively with disease activity (P = 0.015), Crohn disease activity index (CDAI; R = 0.3118, P = 0.0108), and fecal calprotectin (P = 0.016).E faecalis and Fusobacterium spp are significantly enriched in patients with IBD, and increased E faecalis infection is associated with clinically active CD. PMID:27684872

  8. Single ingestion of soy β-conglycinin induces increased postprandial circulating FGF21 levels exerting beneficial health effects

    PubMed Central

    Hashidume, Tsutomu; Kato, Asuka; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Miyoshi, Shoko; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Nakata, Rieko; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Oikawa, Akira; Nakai, Yuji; Shimizu, Makoto; Inoue, Jun; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Soy protein β-conglycinin has serum lipid-lowering and anti-obesity effects. We showed that single ingestion of β-conglycinin after fasting alters gene expression in mouse liver. A sharp increase in fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) gene expression, which is depressed by normal feeding, resulted in increased postprandial circulating FGF21 levels along with a significant decrease in adipose tissue weights. Most increases in gene expressions, including FGF21, were targets for the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), but not for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of ATF4 significantly reduced β-conglycinin-induced increases in hepatic FGF21 gene expression. In FGF21-deficient mice, β-conglycinin effects were partially abolished. Methionine supplementation to the diet or primary hepatocyte culture medium demonstrated its importance for activating liver or hepatocyte ATF4-FGF21 signaling. Thus, dietary β-conglycinin intake can impact hepatic and systemic metabolism by increasing the postprandial circulating FGF21 levels. PMID:27312476

  9. Single ingestion of soy β-conglycinin induces increased postprandial circulating FGF21 levels exerting beneficial health effects.

    PubMed

    Hashidume, Tsutomu; Kato, Asuka; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Miyoshi, Shoko; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Nakata, Rieko; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Oikawa, Akira; Nakai, Yuji; Shimizu, Makoto; Inoue, Jun; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Soy protein β-conglycinin has serum lipid-lowering and anti-obesity effects. We showed that single ingestion of β-conglycinin after fasting alters gene expression in mouse liver. A sharp increase in fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) gene expression, which is depressed by normal feeding, resulted in increased postprandial circulating FGF21 levels along with a significant decrease in adipose tissue weights. Most increases in gene expressions, including FGF21, were targets for the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), but not for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of ATF4 significantly reduced β-conglycinin-induced increases in hepatic FGF21 gene expression. In FGF21-deficient mice, β-conglycinin effects were partially abolished. Methionine supplementation to the diet or primary hepatocyte culture medium demonstrated its importance for activating liver or hepatocyte ATF4-FGF21 signaling. Thus, dietary β-conglycinin intake can impact hepatic and systemic metabolism by increasing the postprandial circulating FGF21 levels. PMID:27312476

  10. Term myometrium is characterized by increased activating epigenetic modifications at the progesterone receptor-A promoter.

    PubMed

    Chai, S Y; Smith, R; Zakar, T; Mitchell, C; Madsen, G

    2012-08-01

    Term human myometrial expression of progesterone receptor (PR)-A is increased relative to PR-B, and as PR-A is a repressor of progesterone action mediated through PR-B, this increase may mediate the withdrawal of progesterone action and precipitate the onset of labour. PR-A and PR-B expression is regulated by two separate promoters of the PR gene. We hypothesized that epigenetic histone modifications at the two promoters contribute to the labour-associated regulation of PR-A and PR-B expression in term myometrium. PR total, PR-B and PR-A mRNA levels were determined using quantitative real-time PCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to determine the levels of activating and repressive histone modifications at the PR-A and PR-B promoters in human myometrial samples not in labour (n = 4) and in labour (n = 4). Chromatin extracts were immunoprecipitated with antibodies against activating (histone H3 and H4 acetylation and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation), and repressive (histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation, histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation and asymmetrical histone H3 arginine 2 dimethylation) histone modifications. PR-A mRNA levels increased during labour, while PR-B mRNA levels remained constant resulting in an increase of PR-A/PR-B mRNA ratio, as expected. Regardless of labour status, significantly higher levels of the activating histone modifications were found at the PR-A promoter compared with the PR-B promoter (P <0.001). H3K4me3 increased significantly at both promoters with labour onset (P =0.001). Low levels of the repressive histone modifications were also present at both promoters, with no labour-associated changes observed. Our data indicate that the PR-A promoter is epigenetically marked for activation in term myometrium more extensively than the PR-B promoter, and that labour is associated with an increase in H3K4me3 activating modification, consistent with the previously described increase in PR protein at this time. PMID:22369759

  11. High dose of N-acetylcysteine increase H₂O₂ and MDA levels and decrease GSH level of HUVECs exposed with malaria serum.

    PubMed

    Fitri, L E; Sardjono, T W; Simamora, D; Sumarno, R P; Setyawati, S K

    2011-04-01

    Dysfunction of endothelial cells in severe malaria may result from excessive activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α which leads to an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease of antioxidant level of endothelial cells. To investigate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels produced by endothelial cells exposed with serum of malaria falciparum patient, an in vitro model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) culture was used. Sample groups were normal HUVECs (group A), HUVECs that was exposed with malaria serum without any treatment (group B), HUVECs that were exposed with malaria serum and treated with NAC 2 μM (group C), HUVECs that were exposed with malaria serum and treated with NAC 4 μM (group D), and HUVECs that were exposed with malaria serum and treated with NAC 8 μM (group E). The level of MDA was measured by thio-barbituric acid reaction assay and H2O2 level was measured by NWLSS Hydrogen Peroxyde/Peroxydase Assay kit. The level of GSH was determined by using NWLSS Glutathione Assay kit. The level of H2O2 and MDA decreased after administration of low dose of NAC. Unfortunately, increased H2O2 and MDA levels were found on HUVECs treated with high dose of NAC (8 μM). There was a positive correlation between NAC dose and H2O2 level (r= 0,603) and between NAC dose and MDA level (r= 0,721). A significant decreased level of GSH was found on HUVECs treated with high dose of NAC (p = 0,023). It can be concluded that the use of high dose of NAC as supportive therapy in severe malaria infection must be taken carefully.

  12. Bilirubin Increases Insulin Sensitivity by Regulating Cholesterol Metabolism, Adipokines and PPARγ Levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; Dong, Huansheng; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Mingjun; Song, Lili; Pan, Qingjie; Bulmer, Andrew; Adams, David B; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Moderate elevations in bilirubin levels have anti-diabetic effects. This study is aimed at determining the mechanisms by which bilirubin treatment reduces obesity and insulin resistance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. DIO mice were treated with bilirubin or vehicle for 14 days. Body weights, plasma glucose, and insulin tolerance tests were performed prior to, immediately, and 7 weeks post-treatment. Serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, total and direct bilirubin levels were measured. Expression of factors involved in adipose metabolism including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1), insulin receptor (IR), and PPARγ in liver were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Compared to controls, bilirubin-treated mice exhibited reductions in body weight, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), leptin, total and direct bilirubin, and increases in adiponectin and expression of SREBP-1, IR, and PPARγ mRNA. The improved metabolic control achieved by bilirubin-treated mice was persistent: at two months after treatment termination, bilirubin-treated DIO mice remained insulin sensitive with lower leptin and higher adiponectin levels, together with increased PPARγ expression. These results indicate that bilirubin regulates cholesterol metabolism, adipokines and PPARγ levels, which likely contribute to increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in DIO mice. PMID:26017184

  13. Bilirubin Increases Insulin Sensitivity by Regulating Cholesterol Metabolism, Adipokines and PPARγ Levels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinfeng; Dong, Huansheng; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Mingjun; Song, Lili; Pan, Qingjie; Bulmer, Andrew; Adams, David B.; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Moderate elevations in bilirubin levels have anti-diabetic effects. This study is aimed at determining the mechanisms by which bilirubin treatment reduces obesity and insulin resistance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. DIO mice were treated with bilirubin or vehicle for 14 days. Body weights, plasma glucose, and insulin tolerance tests were performed prior to, immediately, and 7 weeks post-treatment. Serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, total and direct bilirubin levels were measured. Expression of factors involved in adipose metabolism including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1), insulin receptor (IR), and PPARγ in liver were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Compared to controls, bilirubin-treated mice exhibited reductions in body weight, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), leptin, total and direct bilirubin, and increases in adiponectin and expression of SREBP-1, IR, and PPARγ mRNA. The improved metabolic control achieved by bilirubin-treated mice was persistent: at two months after treatment termination, bilirubin-treated DIO mice remained insulin sensitive with lower leptin and higher adiponectin levels, together with increased PPARγ expression. These results indicate that bilirubin regulates cholesterol metabolism, adipokines and PPARγ levels, which likely contribute to increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in DIO mice. PMID:26017184

  14. Short communication: artificial ultraviolet B light exposure increases vitamin D levels in cow plasma and milk.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Jette; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Hymøller, Lone; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Kaas, Poul; Burild, Anders; Jäpelt, Rie Bak

    2015-09-01

    The number of dairy cows without access to pasture or sunlight is increasing; therefore, the content of vitamin D in dairy products is decreasing. Ultimately, declining vitamin D levels in dairy products will mean that dairy products are a negligible source of natural vitamin D for humans. We tested the ability of a specially designed UVB lamp to enhance the vitamin D3 content in milk from dairy cows housed indoors. This study included 16 cows divided into 4 groups. Each group was exposed daily to artificial UVB light simulating 1, 2, 3, or 4 h of summer sun at 56°N for 24 d, and the group with simulated exposure to 2 h of summer sun daily continued to be monitored for 73 d. We found a significant increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) levels in plasma as well as vitamin D3 and 25OHD3 levels in milk after daily exposure for 24 d in all treatment groups. Extending daily exposure to artificial UVB light to 73 d did not lead to an increase of vitamin D3 or 25OHD3 level in the milk. In conclusion, the change in production facilities for dairy cows providing cows with no access to pasture and sunlight causes a decrease of vitamin D levels in dairy products. This decrease may be prevented by exposing cows to artificial UVB light in the stable. PMID:26117346

  15. Short communication: artificial ultraviolet B light exposure increases vitamin D levels in cow plasma and milk.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Jette; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Hymøller, Lone; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Kaas, Poul; Burild, Anders; Jäpelt, Rie Bak

    2015-09-01

    The number of dairy cows without access to pasture or sunlight is increasing; therefore, the content of vitamin D in dairy products is decreasing. Ultimately, declining vitamin D levels in dairy products will mean that dairy products are a negligible source of natural vitamin D for humans. We tested the ability of a specially designed UVB lamp to enhance the vitamin D3 content in milk from dairy cows housed indoors. This study included 16 cows divided into 4 groups. Each group was exposed daily to artificial UVB light simulating 1, 2, 3, or 4 h of summer sun at 56°N for 24 d, and the group with simulated exposure to 2 h of summer sun daily continued to be monitored for 73 d. We found a significant increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) levels in plasma as well as vitamin D3 and 25OHD3 levels in milk after daily exposure for 24 d in all treatment groups. Extending daily exposure to artificial UVB light to 73 d did not lead to an increase of vitamin D3 or 25OHD3 level in the milk. In conclusion, the change in production facilities for dairy cows providing cows with no access to pasture and sunlight causes a decrease of vitamin D levels in dairy products. This decrease may be prevented by exposing cows to artificial UVB light in the stable.

  16. Nerve growth factor in Alzheimer's disease: increased levels throughout the brain coupled with declines in nucleus basalis.

    PubMed

    Scott, S A; Mufson, E J; Weingartner, J A; Skau, K A; Crutcher, K A

    1995-09-01

    The current study analyzed NGF protein levels in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as compared with aged neurologically normal individuals. An established two-site ELISA was used to measure NGF-like immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, superior temporal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, frontal and occipital cortical poles, cerebellum, amygdala, putamen, and nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM). ChAT activity was assayed in adjacent tissue samples. NGF levels were also evaluated in Parkinson's disease for comparison with both AD and age-matched control cases. Regardless of the brain bank (University of Cincinnati, Rush Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical Center in Chicago, or University of Alabama at Birmingham), NGF-like activity was at least moderately increased with AD in virtually every brain region examined except for the nbM, in which significant declines were observed. NGF levels were also increased when compared with age-matched Parkinson's cases (frontal cortex). NGF-like activity was not related to age at onset or disease duration in AD cases, nor did NGF levels correlate with age at death in the control or AD groups. Correlations between ChAT and NGF-like activity across brains varied considerably and were generally not significant. The present findings indicate that AD is characterized by a widespread increase in cortical and subcortical NGF. Although a correlation with ChAT activity was not observed in cortex, the AD-related decline in NGF found in nbM is consistent with the possibility of impaired retrograde transport of NGF to this region.

  17. Increased circulating urocortin-3 levels is associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Temur, Muzaffer; Yilmaz, Özgür; Aksun, Saliha; Özün Özbay, Pelin; Calan, Mehmet; Küme, Tuncay; Karakulak, Murat; Korkmaz, Hüseyin Anıl

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare serum urocortin-3 (UCN3) levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy women, and establish what role UCN3 levels play in PCOS. Fifty-two patients with PCOS and 55 healthy women were included in the study, matched for age and body mass index. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, hs-CRP, UCN3 and free-testosterone levels of the all participants were measured. HOMA-IR was used to calculate the insulin resistance. Circulating UCN3 levels were significantly increased in women with PCOS than in control subjects (54.49 ± 5.77 versus 51.28 ± 5.86 pmol/l, p = 0.005). Serum insulin, hs-CRP and HOMA-IR levels were higher in women with PCOS than in control group. UCN3 levels positively correlated with hs-CRP in PCOS group (r = 0.391, p = 0.004). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curves were 0.732 (95% CI 0.634-0.830, p < 0.001) for UCN3 levels. The optimal cut-off value of UCN3 for detecting PCOS was ≥51.46 pmol/l, at which the sensitivity was 75% and specificity was 68%. Our results suggest that there is a potential link between PCOS and UCN3 levels. The results of this study support the presence of increased UCN3 levels for the association of inflammation with PCOS. PMID:26488073

  18. Increasing the Comfort Level of Teachers Toward Inclusion Through Use of School Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Beth Ann

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the comfort level of teachers toward inclusion of students with learning, behavioral, and physical disabilities in general-education classrooms for one high school. Participants included 3 focus groups of teachers with 2 groups consisting of 6 teachers and 1 group consisting of 7 teachers. One…

  19. Increased cancer cell proliferation in prostate cancer patients with high levels of serum folate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: A recent clinical trial revealed that folic acid supplementation is associated with an increased incidence of prostate cancer (1). The present study evaluates serum and prostate tissue folate levels in men with prostate cancer, compared to histologically normal prostate glands from can...

  20. Record-breaking ozone losses matched by record increase in ultraviolet radiation levels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    For the fourth consecutive austral spring, the antarctic ozone hole broke existing records for decrease levels of ozone abundance. This article discusses the possible explainations including unusually low temperatures of the polar vortex, which may enhance ozone loss. UV increases at South Pole, McMurdo, and Palmer Stations were also discussed in conjunction with the Ozone hole.

  1. Testosterone-induced increase of insulin-like growth factor I levels depends upon normal levels of growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Saggese, G; Cesaretti, G; Franchi, G; Startari, L

    1996-08-01

    Pubertal development is associated with a rise in plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels that is related both to the increase in sex steroids and/or to the sex steroid-induced augmentation in endogenous growth hormone (GH) secretion. In order to investigate the relationship between IGF-I, GH and testosterone, we examined 42 male subjects with various clinical conditions (classical GH deficiency (CGHD, N = 5), non-classical GH deficiency (NCGHD, N = 7), short idiopathic stature (N = 6), nutritional obesity (N = 8), GH-treated CGHD (N = 4), GH-treated NCGHD (N = 5) and normal stature (N = 7)) in which , for evaluation of hypogonadism (i.e. the absence of one or both testes from the scrotal sac), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) tests were performed. We measured IGF-I, total and free testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) by radioimmunoassays before and 48 and 96 h after the start of the test. The values of IGF-I were lower (0.001 < p < 0.005) in CGHD and NCGHD than in the other groups. In comparison to basal levels, IGF-I values increased (0.005 < p < 0.05) both 48 and 96 h after the start of the hCG test in short idiopathic and normal stature children and in GH-treated subjects with NCGHD, but only 96 h in subjects with untreated NCGHD and GH-treated CGHD. No difference was demonstrated in basal values of total testosterone among any of the groups, while basal free testosterone levels were higher (0.001 < p < 0.05) in GH-treated subjects with NCGHD than in all the other groups except nutritional obesity; furthermore, free testosterone was higher (p < 0.05) in nutritional obesity than in CGHD. The values of total and free testosterone obtained both 48 and 96 h after the start of the hCG test were higher (0.001 < p < 0.05) than basal values in all groups. The DHEAS values did not show any significant change during the hCG test. Basal values were higher (0.01 < p < 0.05) in nutritional obesity than in the other groups. Considering all

  2. High level increase in liver enzymes and severe thrombocytopenia in a male case of anorexia nervosa*

    PubMed Central

    Karahmadi, Mojgan; Layegh, Elmira; Layegh, Samira; Keypour, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a difficult-to-treat psychosomatic disease. Very few cases of acute liver failure associated with AN have been described. We describe one patient who was affected by AN and presented high level increase of serum liver enzymes, along with sever thrombocytopenia. Then, we discuss the possible etiopathogenic factors. METHODS: A 14-year-old boy with AN was admitted in the pediatric psychiatric emergency department of Alzahra Hospital with impaired electrolyte levels, bradycardia, hypotension, liver dysfunction, and thrombocytopenia. RESULTS: A ten-time increase in liver enzymes and thrombocytopenia were observed on admission. After two months of treatment, the levels were within the normal range. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement of initial clinical symptoms and recovery of liver enzymes and thrombocytopenia after the treatment suggested that liver dysfunction and thrombocytopenia may be observed in AN patients and should be taken care of by physicians. PMID:22973335

  3. Proteinase-activated receptors induce nonoxidative, antimicrobial peptides and increased antimicrobial activity in human mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Lippuner, Nadine; Morell, Bernhard; Schaffner, Andreas; Schaer, Dominik J

    2007-02-01

    As thrombin and SFLLRNPNDKYEPF (SFLLRN-14), a synthetic ligand, mainly of the proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), induce in monocytes the synthesis and secretion of chemokines, the PAR pathway can be viewed as a mononuclear phagocyte-activating principle. Classically, antimicrobial activity of mononuclear phagocytes is the measure for activation. Here, we investigated whether thrombin or SFLLRN-14 increases the antimicrobial activity of human monocytes and compared these effects to those of IFN-gamma. Furthermore, we measured the effects of these agents on the secretion of reactive oxygen intermediates and the antimicrobial activity of acid peptide extracts from monocytes. Human monocytes were exposed to maximally active concentrations of thrombin, SFLLRN-14, and IFN-gamma. Human monocytes treated with thrombin or SFLLRN-14 and then challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium, including its attenuated mutant phoP, or Listeria monocytogenes killed, within 3 h, significantly more bacteria than control cells, an effect comparable with or surpassing the effect of IFN-gamma. This finding establishes the proteinase-PAR pathway as a potent, alternate activation pathway of mononuclear phagocytes. Thrombin and SFLLRN-14 had no significant effects on the amount of H(2)O(2) secreted by monocytes. This was in contrast to IFN-gamma, which as expected, increased the secretion of H(2)O(2) by approximately fourfold. Thrombin and SFLLRN-14, but not IFN-gamma, however, significantly increased the antimicrobial activity of acid peptide extracts of monocytes in a radial diffusion assay. Taken together, these findings suggest that IFN-gamma and thrombin differentially regulate oxidative and nonoxidative killing systems of human monocytes. PMID:17095611

  4. Copper uptake is required for pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-mediated oxidation and protein level increase of p53 in cells.

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Saori; Ortiz, Fausto; Zhu Sun, Xiu; Wu, Hsiao-Huei; Mason, Andrew; Momand, Jamil

    2002-01-01

    The p53 tumour-suppressor protein is a transcription factor that activates the expression of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA repair. The p53 protein is vulnerable to oxidation at cysteine thiol groups. The metal-chelating dithiocarbamates, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), diethyldithiocarbamate, ethylene(bis)dithiocarbamate and H(2)O(2) were tested for their oxidative effects on p53 in cultured human breast cancer cells. Only PDTC oxidized p53, although all oxidants tested increased the p53 level. Inductively coupled plasma MS analysis indicated that the addition of 60 microM PDTC increased the cellular copper concentration by 4-fold, which was the highest level of copper accumulated amongst all the oxidants tested. Bathocuproinedisulphonic acid, a membrane-impermeable Cu(I) chelator inhibited the PDTC-mediated copper accumulation. Bathocuproinedisulphonic acid as well as the hydroxyl radical scavenger d-mannitol inhibited the PDTC-dependent increase in p53 protein and oxidation. Our results show that a low level of copper accumulation in the range of 25-40 microg/g of cellular protein increases the steady-state levels of p53. At copper accumulation levels higher than 60 microg/g of cellular protein, p53 is oxidized. These results suggest that p53 is vulnerable to free radical-mediated oxidation at cysteine residues. PMID:11964141

  5. Global increasing of mean sea level and erroneous treatment of a role of thermal factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite methods of studies of the ocean surface - methods of altimetry - have been obtained intensive development in the last decades (since 1993). However, altimetry studies with the help of special satellites such as TOPEX-Poseidon not only have not cleared up understanding of the phenomenon of increase of sea level (SLR), but have even more confused and without that a complex question on the reasons of increase of sea level. Appeared, that classical determinations of average velocity of increase of sea level on coastal observations (1.4-1.7 mm / yr) approximately for 0.8-1.0 mm / yr it is less, rather than by modern satellite determinations of satellites TOPEX - Poseidon etc. (2.5 - 2.8 mm / yr). On the basis of the data of altimetry observations of TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason for the period 1993-2003 for geocentric velocity of increase of sea level (of global ocean) the value 2.8+/-0.4 mm / yr [1] has been obtained. In the given report the full answer is actually is given to a question put by leading experts on research of the sea level: "The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeter missions provided a 12 year record of sea level change, which show increase of global mean sea level of 2.8+/-0.4 mm/yr, with considerable geographic variation. An important question for climate studies is to determine the cause of this change - specifically how much of the change is due to steric (heating) versus eustatic (runoff, melting ice, etc.) contribution?" [1]. There is, a big value of average velocity of increase of the sea level on the satellite data, it is possible to explain only by kinematical effect in data of observations. The motion of the satellite "is concerned" to the centre of mass of our planet, and its position is determined by a geocentric radius - vector. Therefore northern drift of the centre of mass in the Earth body [2] as though results in reduction of distances from the satellite up to the sea surface in the southern hemisphere and to their reduction

  6. ROFA INCREASES CASPASE-3 ACTIVITY IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACRAPHAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to air pollution particles produces pulmonary inflammation and injury, but the mechanisms of this injury are unclear. Apoptosis, involving activation of caspases, may be one potential mechanism. In this study, we hypothesized that ROFA, a constituent of air pollution...

  7. Increased Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activities in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Li, Yuzi; Cui, Lan; Jiang, Haiying; Li, Xiang; Jin, Chunzi; Jin, Dehao; Zhao, Guangxian; Jin, Jiyong; Sun, Rui; Piao, Limei; Xu, Wenhu; Fang, Chenghu; Lei, Yanna; Yuan, Kuichang; Xuan, Chunhua; Ding, Dazi

    2016-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) is one of the most potent mammalian serine proteases participated in the pathogenesis of subclinical atherosclerosis. Here we investigated whether the plasma soluble form of DPP4 is associated with the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). A cross-sectional study was conducted of 496 aged 26–81 years with (n = 362) and without (n = 134) CAD. Plasma DPP4 activity, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein levels were measured. The coronary atherosclerotic plaques were evaluated by coronary angiography. The CAD patients with (n = 84) and without (n = 278) DM had significantly higher DPP4 levels (11.8 ± 3.1 vs. 6.9 ± 3.5 ng/mL, P<0.01) than the nonCAD subjects. The acute coronary syndrome patients (n = 299) had elevated DPP4 levels than those with stable angina patients (n = 83). CAD patients even without DM had increased plasma DPP4 activities as compared with nonCAD subjects (10.9 ± 4.9 vs. 6.4 ± 3.1, ng/L, P< 0.01). A linear regression analysis revealed that overall, the DPP4 levels were positively associated with LCL-C and hs-CRP levels as well as syntax scores. A multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that plasma DPP4 activity was independent predictor of CAD (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.19–1.73; P<0.01). Our study shows that increased DPP4 activity levels are associated with the presence of CAD and that the plasma DPP4 level serves as a novel biomarker for CAD even without DM. PMID:27654253

  8. Superpredation increases mercury levels in a generalist top predator, the eagle owl.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Rui; Tavares, Paula C; del Mar Delgado, Maria; Rabaça, João E; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2011-06-01

    Superpredation can increase the length of the food chain and potentially lead to mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in top predators. We analysed the relationship of Hg concentrations in eagle owls Bubo bubo to diet composition and the percentage of mesopredators in the diet. Hg levels were measured in the adult feathers of eagle owls from 33 owl territories in the south-western Iberian Peninsula, and in three trophic levels of their prey: primary consumers, secondary consumers and mesopredators. In addition, we studied 6,181 prey in the eagle owl diet. Hg concentrations increased along the food chain, but the concentrations in eagle owls showed considerable variation. The Hg concentration in eagle owls increased when the percentage of mesopredators in the diet increased and the percentage of primary consumers decreased. Superpredation is often related to food stress, and the associated increase in accumulation of Hg may cause additional negative effects on vertebrate top predators. Hg levels in these eagle owl populations are relatively low, but future monitoring is recommended. PMID:21298339

  9. Exercise increases serum endostatin levels in female and male patients with diabetes and controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often associated with atherosclerotic changes in coronary vessels, most notably plaques. The angiostatic parameter endostatin is able to inhibit angiogenesis in tissue as well as in plaques and therefore plays an important role in physiological and pathological neovascularisation. The aim of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences and the influence of exercise on circulating endostatin levels in patients suffering from diabetes, and control subjects. Methods In total, 42 T2DM-patients and 45 control subjects were investigated. They underwent a graded physical stress test (ergometry). Serum endostatin levels were measured in venous blood at rest and directly after reaching maximum workload. Results Females showed significantly higher endostatin levels at baseline measurements compared to men, independently of their underlying disease. In both female and male T2DM-patients endostatin levels were significantly lower compared to controls. Both groups and sexes showed a significant increase of endostatin after physical stress, whereas the extent of endostatin-increase was between 10.59-15.05%. Conclusion Middle-aged healthy female individuals as well as female T2DM-patients showed higher circulating serum endostatin levels compared to males, suggesting a hormonal influence on baseline circulating endostatin amounts. Exercise-induced increase in endostatin is also observable in patients suffering from T2DM. Concerning vascularisation, lower endostatin levels in T2DM might be advantageous. Concerning plaque stability, lower levels might be prejudicial. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01165515 PMID:24393402

  10. Cocaine increases dopaminergic neuron and motor activity via midbrain α1 adrenergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Richard Brandon; Wanat, Matthew J; Gomez, Jorge A; Brown, Zeliene J; Phillips, Paul E M; Paladini, Carlos A

    2015-03-13

    Cocaine reinforcement is mediated by increased extracellular dopamine levels in the forebrain. This neurochemical effect was thought to require inhibition of dopamine reuptake, but cocaine is still reinforcing even in the absence of the dopamine transporter. Here, we demonstrate that the rapid elevation in dopamine levels and motor activity elicited by cocaine involves α1 receptor activation within the ventral midbrain. Activation of α1 receptors increases dopaminergic neuron burst firing by decreasing the calcium-activated potassium channel current (SK), as well as elevates dopaminergic neuron pacemaker firing through modulation of both SK and the hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih). Furthermore, we found that cocaine increases both the pacemaker and burst-firing frequency of rat ventral-midbrain dopaminergic neurons through an α1 adrenergic receptor-dependent mechanism within the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta. These results demonstrate the mechanism underlying the critical role of α1 adrenergic receptors in the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission and behavior by cocaine.

  11. Increased levels of carbonic anhydrase II in the developing Down syndrome brain.

    PubMed

    Palminiello, Sonia; Kida, Elizabeth; Kaur, Kulbir; Walus, Marius; Wisniewski, Krystyna E; Wierzba-Bobrowicz, Teresa; Rabe, Ausma; Albertini, Giorgio; Golabek, Adam A

    2008-01-23

    By using a proteomic approach, we found increased levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) in the brain of Ts65Dn mice, a mouse model for Down syndrome (DS). Further immunoblot analyses showed that the levels of CA II are increased not only in the brain of adult Ts65Dn mice but also in the brain of infants and young children with DS. Cellular localization of the enzyme in human brain, predominantly in the oligodendroglia and primitive vessels in fetal brain and in the oligodendroglia and some GABAergic neurons postnatally, was similar in DS subjects and controls. Given the role of CA II in regulation of electrolyte and water balance and pH homeostasis, up-regulation of CA II may reflect a compensatory mechanism mobilized in response to structural/functional abnormalities in the developing DS brain. However, this up-regulation may also have an unfavorable effect by increasing susceptibility to seizures of children with DS.

  12. Cyclic strain increases protease-activated receptor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Frye, S. R.; Eskin, S. G.; Patterson, C.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic strain regulates many vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) functions through changing gene expression. This study investigated the effects of cyclic strain on protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) expression in VSMCs and the possible signaling pathways involved, on the basis of the hypothesis that cyclic strain would enhance PAR-1 expression, reflecting increased thrombin activity. Uniaxial cyclic strain (1 Hz, 20%) of cells cultured on elastic membranes induced a 2-fold increase in both PAR-1 mRNA and protein levels. Functional activity of PAR-1, as assessed by cell proliferation in response to thrombin, was also increased by cyclic strain. In addition, treatment of cells with antioxidants or an NADPH oxidase inhibitor blocked strain-induced PAR-1 expression. Preincubation of cells with protein kinase inhibitors (staurosporine or Ro 31-8220) enhanced strain-increased PAR-1 expression, whereas inhibitors of NO synthase, tyrosine kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinases had no effect. Cyclic strain in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor induced PAR-1 mRNA levels beyond the effect of cyclic strain alone, whereas no additive effect was observed between cyclic strain and platelet-derived growth factor-AB. Our findings that cyclic strain upregulates PAR-1 mRNA expression but that shear stress downregulates this gene in VSMCs provide an opportunity to elucidate signaling differences by which VSMCs respond to different mechanical forces.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production.

  14. Osteopontin is increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease and its levels correlate with cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Comi, Cristoforo; Carecchio, Miryam; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Nicola, Stefania; Galimberti, Daniela; Fenoglio, Chiara; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Monaco, Francesco; Scarpini, Elio; Dianzani, Umberto

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is believed to play a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Osteopontin (OPN) is a molecule involved in macrophage recruitment and activation and implicated in neurodegeneration. In order to elucidate the role of OPN in AD, we evaluated its levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 67 AD patients, 46 frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients, and 69 controls. We found that OPN levels: i) are significantly increased in the CSF of AD patients; ii) correlate with MMSE score; and iii) are higher in the early disease phases ( 2 years). These findings support a role of OPN in AD pathogenesis. PMID:20308780

  15. [Effect of the increasing levels of soil radioactive pollution on the biochemical composition of plants].

    PubMed

    Gromova, V S; Pchelenok, O A; Kozlova, N M

    2012-01-01

    The study was undertaken to study a relationship between the changes of some parameters of the biochemical and mineral composition of different plants, such as rape, pods, and lentil, and the levels of soil radiation pollution, by using the conventional methods. Radioactive pollution of dark-grey forest soils was found to cause a change in the biochemical composition of plant seeds even at the level of cesium 137 (137Cs) within the present temporary permissible levels (TPL) (600 Bq/kg): there were elevated concentrations of salts of potassium, phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, catechols, sucrose, and some amino acids. With the radioactive cesium level exceeding the TPL, biochemical changes in the seeds depended on the species of the plants: in the rape seeds, the additional formation of sucrose and amino acids continued, but less intensively than with its lower radiation; the pod beans were significantly positively correlated with the increasing amounts of catechols.

  16. [Effect of the increasing levels of soil radioactive pollution on the biochemical composition of plants].

    PubMed

    Gromova, V S; Pchelenok, O A; Kozlova, N M

    2012-01-01

    The study was undertaken to study a relationship between the changes of some parameters of the biochemical and mineral composition of different plants, such as rape, pods, and lentil, and the levels of soil radiation pollution, by using the conventional methods. Radioactive pollution of dark-grey forest soils was found to cause a change in the biochemical composition of plant seeds even at the level of cesium 137 (137Cs) within the present temporary permissible levels (TPL) (600 Bq/kg): there were elevated concentrations of salts of potassium, phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, catechols, sucrose, and some amino acids. With the radioactive cesium level exceeding the TPL, biochemical changes in the seeds depended on the species of the plants: in the rape seeds, the additional formation of sucrose and amino acids continued, but less intensively than with its lower radiation; the pod beans were significantly positively correlated with the increasing amounts of catechols. PMID:22834257

  17. Hydralazine administration activates sympathetic preganglionic neurons whose activity mobilizes glucose and increases cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lindsay M; Damanhuri, Hanafi A; Fletcher, Sophie P S; Goodchild, Ann K

    2015-04-16

    Hypotensive drugs have been used to identify central neurons that mediate compensatory baroreceptor reflex responses. Such drugs also increase blood glucose. Our aim was to identify the neurochemical phenotypes of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) and adrenal chromaffin cells activated following hydralazine (HDZ; 10mg/kg) administration in rats, and utilize this and SPN target organ destination to ascribe their function as cardiovascular or glucose regulating. Blood glucose was measured and adrenal chromaffin cell activation was assessed using c-Fos immunoreactivity (-ir) and phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase, respectively. The activation and neurochemical phenotype of SPN innervating the adrenal glands and celiac ganglia were determined using the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit, in combination with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Blood glucose was elevated at multiple time points following HDZ administration but little evidence of chromaffin cell activation was seen suggesting non-adrenal mechanisms contribute to the sustained hyperglycemia. 16±0.1% of T4-T11 SPN contained c-Fos and of these: 24.3±1.4% projected to adrenal glands and 29±5.5% projected to celiac ganglia with the rest innervating other targets. 62.8±1.4% of SPN innervating adrenal glands were activated and 29.9±3.3% expressed PPE mRNA whereas 53.2±8.6% of SPN innervating celiac ganglia were activated and 31.2±8.8% expressed PPE mRNA. CART-ir SPN innervating each target were also activated and did not co-express PPE mRNA. Neurochemical coding reveals that HDZ administration activates both PPE+SPN, whose activity increase glucose mobilization causing hyperglycemia, as well as CART+SPN whose activity drive vasomotor responses mediated by baroreceptor unloading to raise vascular tone and heart rate.

  18. Increased Hepatic Fatty Acids Uptake and Oxidation by LRPPRC-Driven Oxidative Phosphorylation Reduces Blood Lipid Levels.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shi; Sun, Run-Zhu; Wang, Di; Gong, Mei-Zhen; Su, Xiang-Ping; Yi, Fei; Peng, Zheng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC)-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc). Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using (14)C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism. Increased OxPhos in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic OxPhos could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. PMID:27462273

  19. Increased Hepatic Fatty Acids Uptake and Oxidation by LRPPRC-Driven Oxidative Phosphorylation Reduces Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shi; Sun, Run-zhu; Wang, Di; Gong, Mei-zhen; Su, Xiang-ping; Yi, Fei; Peng, Zheng-wu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC)-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc). Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using 14C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism. Increased OxPhos in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic OxPhos could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. PMID:27462273

  20. Increased β-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity improves cyanide tolerance and assimilation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Brendan; Preston, Gail M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2014-01-01

    Plants naturally produce cyanide (CN) which is maintained at low levels in their cells by a process of rapid assimilation. However, high concentrations of environmental CN associated with activities such as industrial pollution are toxic to plants. There is thus an interest in increasing the CN detoxification capacity of plants as a potential route to phytoremediation. Here, Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing the Pseudomonas fluorescens β-cyanoalanine nitrilase pinA were compared with wild-type and a β-cyanoalanine nitrilase knockout line (ΔAtnit4) for growth in the presence of exogenous CN. After incubation with CN, +PfpinA seedlings had increased root length, increased fresh weight, and decreased leaf bleaching compared with wild-type, indicating increased CN tolerance. The increased tolerance was achieved without an increase in β-cyanoalanine synthase activity, the other enzyme in the cyanide assimilation pathway, suggesting that nitrilase activity is the limiting factor for cyanide detoxification. Labeling experiments with [¹³C]KCN demonstrated that the altered CN tolerance could be explained by differences in flux from CN to Asn caused by altered β-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity. Metabolite profiling after CN treatment provided new insight into downstream metabolism, revealing onward metabolism of Asn by the photorespiratory nitrogen cycle and accumulation of aromatic amino acids.

  1. Dietary resveratrol administration increases MnSOD expression and activity in mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Ellen L.; Winkelmolen, Lieke; Visanji, Naomi; Brotchie, Jonathan; Stuart, Jeffrey A.

    2008-07-18

    trans-Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES) is of interest for its reported protective effects in a variety of pathologies, including neurodegeneration. Many of these protective properties have been attributed to the ability of RES to reduce oxidative stress. In vitro studies have shown an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities following exposure to RES, including upregulation of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, an enzyme that is capable of reducing both oxidative stress and cell death. We sought to determine if a similar increase in endogenous antioxidant enzymes is observed with RES treatment in vivo. Three separate modes of RES delivery were utilized; in a standard diet, a high fat diet and through a subcutaneous osmotic minipump. RES given in a high fat diet proved to be effective in elevating antioxidant capacity in brain resulting in an increase in both MnSOD protein level (140%) and activity (75%). The increase in MnSOD was not due to a substantial proliferation of mitochondria, as RES treatment induced a 10% increase in mitochondrial abundance (Citrate Synthase activity). The potential neuroprotective properties of MnSOD have been well established, and we demonstrate that a dietary delivery of RES is able to increase the expression and activity of this enzyme in vivo.

  2. Increased serum levels of apoptosis in deficit syndrome schizophrenia patients: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Beyazyüz, Murat; Küfeciler, Tarkan; Bulut, Leyla; Ünsal, Cüneyt; Albayrak, Yakup; Akyol, Esra Soydaş; Baykal, Saliha; Kuloglu, Murat; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating disorder, the etiology of which remains unclear. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death mechanism that might be implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to compare the serum levels of apoptosis among deficit schizophrenia (DS) syndrome patients, nondeficit schizophrenia (NDS) patients, and healthy controls (HCs). Patients and methods After the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 23 DS patients, 46 NDS patients, and 33 HCs were included in the study. The serum apoptosis levels were measured using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay with human monoclonal antibodies directed against DNA and histones. Results There was a significant difference among the three groups in terms of the levels of apoptosis (F2,96=16.58; P<0.001). The serum apoptosis levels in the DS and NDS groups were significantly higher than those in the HC group. Furthermore, the serum apoptosis levels in the DS group were significantly higher than the levels in the NDS group. Conclusion This study suggests that increased levels of apoptosis may be implicated in the pathophysiology of DS syndrome. However, further studies are needed to support the role of apoptosis in DS. PMID:27307738

  3. Methodology for Prototyping Increased Levels of Automation for Spacecraft Rendezvous Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy J.; Valasek, John

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle necessitates higher levels of automation than previous NASA vehicles, due to program requirements for automation, including Automated Rendezvous and Docking. Studies of spacecraft development often point to the locus of decision-making authority between humans and computers (i.e. automation) as a prime driver for cost, safety, and mission success. Therefore, a critical component in the Crew Exploration Vehicle development is the determination of the correct level of automation. To identify the appropriate levels of automation and autonomy to design into a human space flight vehicle, NASA has created the Function-specific Level of Autonomy and Automation Tool. This paper develops a methodology for prototyping increased levels of automation for spacecraft rendezvous functions. This methodology is used to evaluate the accuracy of the Function-specific Level of Autonomy and Automation Tool specified levels of automation, via prototyping. Spacecraft rendezvous planning tasks are selected and then prototyped in Matlab using Fuzzy Logic techniques and existing Space Shuttle rendezvous trajectory algorithms.

  4. Running increases neurogenesis without retinoic acid receptor activation in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Elin; Perlmann, Thomas; Olson, Lars; Brené, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Both vitamin A deficiency and high doses of retinoids can result in learning and memory impairments, depression as well as decreases in cell proliferation, neurogenesis and cell survival. Physical activity enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and can also exert an antidepressant effect. Here we elucidate a putative link between running, retinoid signaling, and neurogenesis in hippocampus. Adult transgenic reporter mice designed to detect ligand-activated retinoic acid receptors (RAR) or retinoid X receptors (RXR) were used to localize the distribution of activated RAR or RXR at the single-cell level in the brain. Two months of voluntary wheel-running induced an increase in hippocampal neurogenesis as indicated by an almost two-fold increase in doublecortin-immunoreactive cells. Running activity was correlated with neurogenesis. Under basal conditions a distinct pattern of RAR-activated cells was detected in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG), thalamus, and cerebral cortex layers 3-4 and to a lesser extent in hippocampal pyramidal cell layers CA1-CA3. Running did not change the number of RAR-activated cells in the DG. There was no correlation between running and RAR activation or between RAR activation and neurogenesis in the DG of hippocampus. Only a few scattered activated retinoid X receptors were found in the DG under basal conditions and after wheel-running, but RXR was detected in other areas such as in the hilus region of hippocampus and in layer VI of cortex cerebri. RAR agonists affect mood in humans and reduce neurogenesis, learning and memory in animal models. In our study, long-term running increased neurogenesis but did not alter RAR ligand activation in the DG in individually housed mice. Thus, our data suggest that the effects of exercise on neurogenesis and other plasticity changes in the hippocampal formation are mediated by mechanisms that do not involve retinoid receptor activation.

  5. A cost for high levels of sperm competition in rodents: increased sperm DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; García-Álvarez, Olga; Soler, Ana Josefa; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Garde, José Julián; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2016-03-16

    Sperm competition, a prevalent evolutionary process in which the spermatozoa of two or more males compete for the fertilization of the same ovum, leads to morphological and physiological adaptations, including increases in energetic metabolism that may serve to propel sperm faster but that may have negative effects on DNA integrity. Sperm DNA damage is associated with reduced rates of fertilization, embryo and fetal loss, offspring mortality, and mutations leading to genetic disease. We tested whether high levels of sperm competition affect sperm DNA integrity. We evaluated sperm DNA integrity in 18 species of rodents that differ in their levels of sperm competition using the sperm chromatin structure assay. DNA integrity was assessed upon sperm collection, in response to incubation under capacitating or non-capacitating conditions, and after exposure to physical and chemical stressors. Sperm DNA was very resistant to physical and chemical stressors, whereas incubation in non-capacitating and capacitating conditions resulted in only a small increase in sperm DNA damage. Importantly, levels of sperm competition were positively associated with sperm DNA fragmentation across rodent species. This is the first evidence showing that high levels of sperm competition lead to an important cost in the form of increased sperm DNA damage.

  6. Increased Cord Blood Betatrophin Levels in the Offspring of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shimin; Zhao, Yue; Du, Caiqi; Yuan, Guandou; Ning, Qin; McCormick, Kenneth; Luo, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Aim Exposing a fetus to hyperglycemia can increase the risk for later-life metabolic disorders. Betatrophin has been proposed as a key regulator of pancreatic beta cell proliferation and lipid regulation. Highly responsive to nutritional signals, serum betatrophin concentrations have been found to be altered by various physiological and pathological conditions. We hypothesized that betatrophin levels are increased in the cord blood in offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study including 54 mothers who underwent uncomplicated Cesarean delivery in a university hospital. Maternal gestational glucose concentration was determined at 24–48 weeks gestation after a 75-g OGTT. Cord blood and placental tissue was collected immediately post delivery. Metabolic parameters were determined in the Clinical Laboratory. Cord blood betatrophin levels were assayed using a commercially available ELISA kit. Placental mitochondrial content was determined by real-time PCR. Results Cord blood betatrophin levels were increased in the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) group compared with the normoglycemic group. Furthermore, betatrophin levels were positively correlated with maternal gestational 2h post-OGTT glucose, cord blood insulin, HOMA-IR, and inversely correlated with placental mitochondrial content. Conclusions Cord blood betatrophin may function as a potential biomarker of maternal intrauterine hyperglycemia and fetal insulin resistance, which may presage for long-term metabolic impact of GDM on offspring. PMID:27196053

  7. Mothers Do Not Show Increased Offspring Avoidance and Elevated Corticosterone Levels during Weaning Conflict in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Charlotte; Hager, Reinmar

    2016-01-01

    Parent-offspring conflict is predicted to occur because offspring will demand more parental investment than is optimal for the parent, and is said to be strongest during weaning when parents reduce nursing while offspring continue to demand parental care. While weaning conflict has been shown to be stressful in offspring, little is known about the effects of weaning conflict on mothers. We hypothesized that during weaning mothers have higher levels of stress hormone (corticosterone) compared to early lactation because of increased offspring demand. Further, we predicted that if mothers are given the option to avoid offspring solicitation they would do so and show lower corticosterone levels. We tested our hypotheses in an experimental population of rats in which one group of females was given the opportunity to avoid offspring solicitation. We measured faecal corticosterone metabolite levels using a non-invasive approach, and maternal and offspring behaviours during weaning. In contrast to our predictions, we detected lower levels of corticosterone metabolites during weaning than before, irrespective of cage type. Further, during weaning mothers did not show increased offspring avoidance behaviour although offspring solicitation increased significantly. Our results therefore cast doubt on the generally accepted notion of weaning conflict as a stressful period for mothers characterized by overt offspring solicitation. PMID:27662366

  8. Potato chip intake increases ascorbic acid levels and decreases reactive oxygen species in SMP30/GNL knockout mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Sakuma, Rui; Ichisawa, Megumi; Ishihara, Katsuyuki; Kubo, Misako; Handa, Setsuko; Mugita, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Naoki; Koga, Hidenori; Ishigami, Akihito

    2014-09-24

    Potato chips (PC) contain abundant amounts of the free radical scavenger ascorbic acid (AA) due to the rapid dehydration of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) that occurs during frying. To evaluate the antioxidant activity of PC, this study examined reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in tissues from SMP30/GNL knockout (KO) mice that cannot synthesize AA and determined AA and ROS levels after the animals were fed 20 and 10% PC diets for 7 weeks. Compared with AA-sufficient mice, AA-depleted SMP30/GNL KO mice showed high ROS levels in tissues. SMP30/GNL KO mice fed a PC diet showed high AA and low ROS levels in the brain, heart, lung, testis, soleus muscle, plantaris muscle, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, eyeball, and epididymal fat compared with AA-depleted mice. The data suggest that PC intake increases AA levels and enhances ROS scavenging activity in tissues of SMP30/GNL KO mice, which are a promising model for evaluating the antioxidant activity of foods. PMID:25180784

  9. Dipeptides Increase Functional Activity of Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Malinin, V V; Durnova, A O; Polyakova, V O; Kvetnoi, I M

    2015-05-01

    We analyzed the effect of dipeptide Glu-Trp and isovaleroyl-Glu-Trp in concentrations of 0.2, 2 and 20 μg/ml and Actovegin preparation on functional activity of human skin fibroblasts. Dipeptides, especially Glu-Trp, produce a stimulating effect on human skin fibroblasts and their effect is equivalent to that of Actovegin. Dipeptides stimulate cell renewal processes by activating synthesis of Ki-67 and reducing expression of caspase-9 and enhance antioxidant function of the cells by stimulating the expression of Hsp-90 and inducible NO-synthase. These findings suggest that dipeptides are promising candidates for preparations stimulating reparative processes.

  10. Vascular activity increases with time off of tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle continue to recover from depressed vasoactivity (vasoconstriction) beyond 60 days after removal from endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture and after prolactin (an indicator of fescue toxicosis) had returned to physiologic levels. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of...

  11. Long-term environmental enrichment leads to regional increases in neurotrophin levels in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ickes, B R; Pham, T M; Sanders, L A; Albeck, D S; Mohammed, A H; Granholm, A C

    2000-07-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that both morphological and biochemical indices in the brain undergo alterations in response to environmental influences. In previous work we have shown that rats raised in an enriched environmental condition (EC) perform better on a spatial memory task than rats raised in isolated conditions (IC). We have also found that EC rats have a higher density of immunoreactivity than IC rats for both low and high affinity nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors in the basal forebrain. In order to determine if these alterations were coupled with altered levels of neurotrophins in other brain regions as well, we measured neurotrophin levels in rats that were raised in EC or IC conditions. Rats were placed in the different environments at 2 months of age and 12 months later brain regions were dissected and analyzed for NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) levels using Promega ELISA kits. We found that NGF and BDNF levels were increased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampal formation, basal forebrain, and hindbrain in EC animals compared to age-matched IC animals. NT-3 was found to be increased in the basal forebrain and cerebral cortex of EC animals as well. These findings demonstrate significant alterations in NGF, BDNF, and NT-3 protein levels in several brain regions as a result of an enriched versus an isolated environment and thus provide a possible biochemical basis for behavioral and morphological alterations that have been found to occur with a shifting environmental stimulus.

  12. Diffuse radiation increases global ecosystem-level water-use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, A. M.; Reichstein, M.; Cescatti, A.; Knohl, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Current environmental changes lead not only to rising atmospheric CO2 levels and air temperature but also to changes in air pollution and thus the light quality of the solar radiation reaching the land-surface. While rising CO2 levels are thought to enhance photosynthesis and closure of stomata, thus leading to relative water savings, the effect of diffuse radiation on transpiration by plants is less clear. It has been speculated that the stimulation of photosynthesis by increased levels of diffuse light may be counteracted by higher transpiration and consequently water depletion and drought stress. Ultimately, in water co-limited systems, the overall effect of diffuse radiation will depend on the sensitivity of canopy transpiration versus photosynthesis to diffuse light, i.e. whether water-use efficiency changes with relative levels of diffuse light. Our study shows that water-use efficiency increases significantly with higher fractions of diffuse light. It uses the ecosystem-atmosphere gas-exchange observations obtained with the eddy covariance method at 29 flux tower sites. In contrast to previous global studies, the analysis is based directly on measurements of diffuse radiation. Its effect on water-use efficiency was derived by analyzing the multivariate response of carbon and water fluxes to radiation and air humidity using a purely empirical approach based on artificial neural networks. We infer that per unit change of diffuse fraction the water-use efficiency increases up to 40% depending on diffuse fraction levels and ecosystem type. Hence, in regions with increasing diffuse radiation positive effects on primary production are expected even under conditions where water is co-limiting productivity.

  13. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß levels in rat primary neuronal culture.

    PubMed

    Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar

    2015-01-01

    S100ß a neurotrophic factor mainly released by astrocytes, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Thus, lithium may exert its neuroprotective effects to some extent through S100ß. Furthermore, the possible effects of lithium on astrocytes as well as on interactions between neurons and astrocytes as a part of its mechanisms of actions are unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of lithium on S100β in neurons, astrocytes and a mixture of neurons and astrocytes. Rat primary astrocyte, neuronal and mixed neuro-astroglia cultures were prepared from cortices of 18-day's embryos. Cell cultures were exposed to lithium (1mM) or vehicle for 1day (acute) or 7 days (chronic). RT-PCR and ELISA determined S100β mRNA and intra- and extracellular protein levels. Chronic lithium treatment significantly increased intracellular S100β in neuronal and neuro-astroglia cultures in comparison to control cultures (P<0.05). Acute and chronic lithium treatments exerted no significant effects on intracellular S100β protein levels in astrocytes, and extracellular S100β protein levels in three studied cultures as compared to control cultures. Acute and chronic lithium treatments did not significantly alter S100β mRNA levels in three studied cultures, compared to control cultures. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß protein levels in a cell-type specific manner which may favor its neuroprotective action. The findings of this study suggest that lithium may exert its neuroprotective action, at least partly, by increasing neuronal S100ß level, with no effect on astrocytes or interaction between neurons and astrocytes.

  14. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A-induced fever is associated with increased circulating levels of cytokines in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, W T; Lin, M T; Won, S J

    1997-01-01

    Rabbits were injected intravenously with 10 to 100 ng of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) per kg, and colonic temperatures were monitored. The febrile responses were compared with circulating levels of interferon (IFN), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-2, and IL-6 just before the injection of SEA. Both colonic temperatures and circulating levels of IFN, TNF, and IL-2 started to rise at 1 to 2 h and reached their peak levels at 3 to 5 h after SEA injection. Both the fever and the increased circulating levels of IFN, TNF, and IL-2 produced by SEA were decreased by pretreatment with indomethacin (a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor) (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), anisomycin (a protein synthesis inhibitor) (15 mg/kg, subcutaneously), or dexamethasone (an effective anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent) (4 mg/kg, intravenously) in rabbits. Rabbits were injected intravenously with 30 ng of SEA per kg on four consecutive days, and colonic temperatures were monitored. Compared to rabbits that received the single