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Sample records for activity levels results

  1. Continuum Level Results from Particle Simulations of Active Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmotte, Blaise; Climent, Eric; Plouraboue, Franck; Keaveny, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Accurately simulating active suspensions on the lab scale is a technical challenge. It requires considering large numbers of interacting swimmers with well described hydrodynamics in order to obtain representative and reliable statistics of suspension properties. We have developed a computationally scalable model based on an extension of the Force Coupling Method (FCM) to active particles. This tool can handle the many-body hydrodynamic interactions between O (105) swimmers while also accounting for finite-size effects, steady or time-dependent strokes, or variable swimmer aspect ratio. Results from our simulations of steady-stroke microswimmer suspensions coincide with those given by continuum models, but, in certain cases, we observe collective dynamics that these models do not predict. We provide robust statistics of resulting distributions and accurately characterize the growth rates of these instabilities. In addition, we explore the effect of the time-dependent stroke on the suspension properties, comparing with those from the steady-stroke simulations. Authors acknowledge the ANR project Motimo for funding and the Calmip computing centre for technical support.

  2. National level promotion of physical activity: results from England's ACTIVE for LIFE campaign

    PubMed Central

    Hillsdon, M; Cavill, N; Nanchahal, K; Diamond, A; White, I

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the impact of a national campaign on awareness of the campaign, change in knowledge of physical activity recommendations and self reported physical activity.
DESIGN—three year prospective longitudinal survey using a multi-stage, cluster random probability design to select participants.
SETTING—England.
PARTICIPANTS—A nationally representative sample of 3189 adults aged 16-74 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Awareness of the advertising element of the campaign, changes in knowledge of physical activity recommendations for health and self reported physical activity.
RESULTS—38% of participants were aware of the main advertising images, assessed six to eight months after the main television advertisement. The proportion of participants knowledgeable about moderate physical activity recommendations increased by 3.0% (95% CI: 1.4%, 4.5%) between waves 1 and 2 and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.1%, 5.3%) between waves 1 and 3. The change in proportion of active people between baseline and waves 1 and 2 was
−0.02 (95% CI: −2.0 to +1.7) and between waves 1 and 3 was −9.8 (−7.9 to −11.7).
CONCLUSION—The proportion of participants who were knowledgeable about the new recommendations, increased significantly after the campaign. There was however, no significant difference in knowledge by awareness of the main campaign advertisement. There is no evidence that ACTIVE for LIFE improved physical activity, either overall or in any subgroup.


Keywords: exercise; mass media; follow up studies; health promotion; physical activity PMID:11553661

  3. Changes in breath trihalomethane levels resulting from household water-use activities.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sydney M; Brinkman, Marielle C; Ashley, David L; Blount, Benjamin C; Lyu, Christopher; Masters, John; Singer, Philip C

    2006-04-01

    Common household water-use activities such as showering, bathing, drinking, and washing clothes or dishes are potentially important contributors to individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the major class of disinfection by-products of water treated with chlorine. Previous studies have focused on showering or bathing activities. In this study, we selected 12 common water-use activities and determined which may lead to the greatest THM exposures and result in the greatest increase in the internal dose. Seven subjects performed the various water-use activities in two residences served by water utilities with relatively high and moderate total THM levels. To maintain a consistent exposure environment, the activities, exposure times, air exchange rates, water flows, water temperatures, and extraneous THM emissions to the indoor air were carefully controlled. Water, indoor air, blood, and exhaled-breath samples were collected during each exposure session for each activity, in accordance with a strict, well-defined protocol. Although showering (for 10 min) and bathing (for 14 min), as well as machine washing of clothes and opening mechanical dishwashers at the end of the cycle, resulted in substantial increases in indoor air chloroform concentrations, only showering and bathing caused significant increases in the breath chloroform levels. In the case of bromodichloromethane (BDCM), only bathing yielded a significantly higher air level in relation to the preexposure concentration. For chloroform from showering, strong correlations were observed for indoor air and exhaled breath, blood and exhaled breath, indoor air and blood, and tap water and blood. Only water and breath, and blood and breath were significantly associated for chloroform from bathing. For BDCM, significant correlations were obtained for blood and air, and blood and water from showering. Neither dibromochloromethane nor bromoform gave measurable breath concentrations for any of the activities

  4. Understanding dog owners' increased levels of physical activity: results from RESIDE.

    PubMed

    Cutt, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna; Bull, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    We examined the influence of dog ownership on physical activity, independent of demographic, intrapersonal, and perceived environmental factors, in a cross-sectional survey of 1813 adults. Although only 23% of the dog owners walked their dogs 5 or more times per week, the adjusted odds of achieving sufficient physical activity and walking were 57% to 77% higher among dog owners compared with those not owning dogs (P< .05). Dog ownership was independently associated with physical activity and walking. Actively encouraging more dog walking may increase community physical activity levels.

  5. Fetal heart rate and motor activity associations with maternal organochlorine levels: results of an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    DiPietro, Janet A; Davis, Meghan F; Costigan, Kathleen A; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Contemporaneous associations between circulating maternal organochlorines (OCs) and measures of fetal heart rate and motor activity were evaluated. A panel of 47 OCs, including pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was analyzed from serum of 50 pregnant women at 36 weeks gestation. Data were empirically reduced into four factors and six individual compounds. All participants had detectable concentrations of at least one-quarter of the assayed OCs and, in general, higher socioeconomic level was associated with higher OC concentrations. Fetal heart rate measures were not consistently associated with maternal OCs. In contrast, one or more indicators of greater fetal motor activity were significantly associated with higher levels of the DDT and low chlorinated OC factors and five of the six individual compounds (heptachlor epoxide, trans nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs 18 and 52). This preliminary demonstration of associations between fetal motor activity and maternal concentrations of persistent and pervasive environmental contaminants suggests that fetal assessment may be useful in ascertaining the potential early effects of these compounds on development.

  6. Fetal heart rate and motor activity associations with maternal organochlorine levels: Results of an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Davis, Meghan F.; Costigan, Kathleen A; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Contemporaneous associations between circulating maternal organochlorines and measures of fetal heart rate and motor activity were evaluated. A panel of 47 organochlorines (OCs), including pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was analyzed from serum of 50 pregnant women at 36 weeks gestation. Data were empirically reduced into four factors and six individual compounds. All participants had detectable concentrations of at least one-quarter of the assayed OCs and, in general, higher socioeconomic level was associated with higher OC concentrations. Fetal heart rate measures were not consistently associated with maternal OCs. In contrast, one or more indicators of greater fetal motor activity were significantly associated with higher levels of the DDT and low chlorinated OC factors and five of the six individual compounds (heptachlor epoxide, trans nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs 18 and 52). This preliminary demonstration of associations between fetal motor activity and maternal concentrations of persistent and pervasive environmental contaminants suggests that fetal assessment may be useful in ascertaining the potential early effects of these compounds on development. PMID:23591698

  7. Physical activity levels, sport activities, and risk of acute myocardial infarction: results of the INTERHEART study in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoru; Li, Wei; Guo, Jin; Wang, Yang; Gu, Hongqiu; Teo, Koon; Liu, Lisheng; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-02-01

    Physical activity (PA) during leisure time has been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease risk in the Western populations. We evaluated PA at work and leisure time in relation to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Chinese population. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study. The cases had first AMI (n = 2909). The controls (n = 2947) were matched to the cases in age and sex. The odds ratios (ORs) of leisure-time PA for strenuous exercise compared to mainly sedentary was 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61-0.90) and for moderate exercise it was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.85-1.08). Multivariate adjustment did not substantially alter the association. The ORs of work-related PA for heavy PA compared to mainly sedentary was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.06-1.94), for climbing and lifting was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.77-.30), and for walking was 0.90 (95%CI: 0.75-1.07). Leisure-time PA was protective for AMI risk compared to sedentary lifestyles in a population in China.

  8. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal) Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Adama; Thiam, Mbeugué; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diongue, Ousmane; Mégné, Ndé; Diallo, Khady; Sembène, Pape Malick; Wade, Salimata

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA) levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI) and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA) in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24) in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day) in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23) of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day) children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004). Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children. PMID:27735876

  9. Year-round high physical activity levels in agropastoralists of Bolivian Andes: Results from repeated measurements of DLW method in peak and slack seasons of agricultural activities

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwazaki, Hiroshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Toshio; Rivera, Jose Orias; Coward, William A; Wright, Antony

    2009-01-01

    By the repeated use of the doubly labeled water method (DLW), this study aimed to investigate (1) the extent of changes in energy expenditure and physical activity level (PAL) in response to increased agricultural work demands, and (2) whether the seasonal work demands induce the changes in the fairly equitable division of work and similarity of energy needs between men and women observed in our previous study (Phase 1 study; Kashiwazaki et al., 1995: Am J Clin Nutr 62: 901–910). In a rural small agropastoral community of the Bolivian Andes, we made the follow-up study (Phase 2, 14 adults; a time of high agricultural activity) of the Phase 1 study (12 adults; a time of low agricultural activity). In the Phase 2 study, both men and women showed very high PAL (mean±SD), but there was no significant difference by sex (men; 2.18 ± 0.23 (age; 64 ± 11 years, n = 7), women; 2.26 ± 0.25 (63 ± 10 years, n = 7)). The increase of PAL by 11% (P = 0.023) in the Phase 2 was equally occurred in both men and women. The factorial approach underestimated PAL significantly by ≈15% (P < 0.05). High PAL throughout the year ranging on average 2.0 and 2.2 was attributable to everyday tasks for subsistence and domestic works undertaking over 9–11 h (men spent 2.7 h on agricultural work and 4.7 h on animal herding, whereas women spent 7.3 h almost exclusively on animal herding). The seasonal increase in PAL was statistically significant, but it was smaller than those anticipated from published reports. A flexible division of labor played an important role in the equitable energetic increase in both men and women. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19127525

  10. Health-related factors correlate with behavior trends in physical activity level in old age: longitudinal results from a population in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity in leisure time is common among elderly in Brazil and this finding is particularly alarming considering that this population is greatly affected by chronic diseases. The identification of health factors that influence physical activity level (PAL) will help in the development of strategies for increasing PAL older adults. The current research aimed to identify variables that independently affect behavior trends in PAL over the course of two years among elderly. Methods A survey entitled the Epidoso Project ("Epidemiology of aging") studied 1,667 community-based older individuals in São Paulo city, Brazil over the course of two years. Physical activity level was determined through questions about frequency and duration of physical activities. Body Mass Index was calculated; functional capacity was assessed through the ADL (activities of daily living) scale; cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination; and mental health was assessed through the Dysthymia Screening. Experiences of falls and fractures were also assessed. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their self-report of Physical Activity Level: a - Regularly Active; b - Insufficiently Active and c - Physically Inactive. Behavior trends in PAL were also measured after two years. Multivariate regression model methodology was used to test associations longitudinally. Results Results from the final model demonstrated that the risk of a not favorable behavior trend in PAL, which included the group who remained physically inactive and the group that displayed decreased PAL, in this cohort of older adults was significantly increased if the individual was female (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.60-3.89; P < 0.01), older (80 y vs. 65 y, OR = 6.29, 95% CI = 2.69-14.67; P < 0.01), dependent on help from others for activities in the ADL scale (moderate-severe = 4-7+ vs. 0 ADLs) (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.20-4.21; P < 0.011) or had experienced a history of falls with

  11. Enhancing sucrose synthase activity in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers results in increased levels of starch, ADPglucose and UDPglucose and total yield.

    PubMed

    Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Muñoz, Francisco José; Montero, Manuel; Etxeberria, Ed; Sesma, María Teresa; Ovecka, Miroslav; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Ezquer, Ignacio; Li, Jun; Prat, Salomé; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2009-09-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is a highly regulated cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of sucrose and a nucleoside diphosphate into the corresponding nucleoside diphosphate glucose and fructose. To determine the impact of SuSy activity in starch metabolism and yield in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers we measured sugar levels and enzyme activities in tubers of SuSy-overexpressing potato plants grown in greenhouse and open field conditions. We also transcriptionally characterized tubers of SuSy-overexpressing and -antisensed potato plants. SuSy-overexpressing tubers exhibited a substantial increase in starch, UDPglucose and ADPglucose content when compared with controls. Tuber dry weight, starch content per plant and total yield of SuSy-overexpressing tubers increased significantly over those of control plants. In contrast, activities of enzymes directly involved in starch metabolism in SuSy-overexpressing tubers were normal when compared with controls. Transcriptomic analyses using POCI arrays and the MapMan software revealed that changes in SuSy activity affect the expression of genes involved in multiple biological processes, but not that of genes directly involved in starch metabolism. These analyses also revealed a reverse correlation between the expressions of acid invertase and SuSy-encoding genes, indicating that the balance between SuSy- and acid invertase-mediated sucrolytic pathways is a major determinant of starch accumulation in potato tubers. Results presented in this work show that SuSy strongly determines the intracellular levels of UDPglucose, ADPglucose and starch, and total yield in potato tubers. We also show that enhancement of SuSy activity represents a useful strategy for increasing starch accumulation and yield in potato tubers.

  12. Frequency of leisure-time physical activity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in the US population: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Scragg, Robert; Camargo, Carlos A

    2008-09-15

    The decline in vitamin D status among older people is probably due to decreased synthesis of vitamin D by sun-exposed skin and/or decreased outdoor activity. The authors examined the association between outdoor leisure physical activity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) (n = 15,148 aged >/=20 years). The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration declined with increasing age, with 79, 73, and 68 nmol/liter for persons aged 20-39, 40-59, and 60 or more years. The proportion that engaged in outdoor activity in the past month was 80% for persons aged 20-39 and 40-59 years but 71% for those aged 60 or more years. In contrast, the mean difference in 25-hydroxyvitamin D between those who participated in outdoor activities daily compared with those who did not participate in the past month was similar for the youngest and oldest age groups: 13 and 16 nmol/liter, respectively. Those persons aged 60 or more years who participated in daily outdoor activities had a mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration similar to that of persons aged 20-39 years: 77 versus 79 nmol/liter, respectively. These nationally representative data suggest that persons aged 60 or more years can synthesize enough vitamin D from daily outdoor activities to maintain vitamin D levels similar to those of young adults.

  13. Enhancing sucrose synthase activity results in increased levels of starch and ADP-glucose in maize (Zea mays L.) seed endosperms.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Muñoz, Francisco José; Ovecka, Miroslav; Montero, Manuel; Sesma, María Teresa; Alonso-Casajús, Nora; Almagro, Goizeder; Sánchez-López, Angela María; Hidalgo, Maite; Zamarbide, Marta; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2013-02-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is a highly regulated cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of sucrose and a nucleoside diphosphate into the corresponding nucleoside diphosphate glucose and fructose. In cereal endosperms, it is widely assumed that the stepwise reactions of SuSy, UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase and ADPglucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase (AGP) take place in the cytosol to convert sucrose into ADPG necessary for starch biosynthesis, although it has also been suggested that SuSy may participate in the direct conversion of sucrose into ADPG. In this study, the levels of the major primary carbon metabolites, and the activities of starch metabolism-related enzymes were assessed in endosperms of transgenic maize plants ectopically expressing StSUS4, which encodes a potato SuSy isoform. A total of 29 fertile lines transformed with StSUS4 were obtained, five of them containing a single copy of the transgene that was still functional after five generations. The number of seeds per ear of the five transgenic lines containing a single StSUS4 copy was comparable with that of wild-type (WT) control seeds. However, transgenic seeds accumulated 10-15% more starch at the mature stage, and contained a higher amylose/amylopectin balance than WT seeds. Endosperms of developing StSUS4-expressing seeds exhibited a significant increase in SuSy activity, and in starch and ADPG contents when compared with WT endosperms. No significant changes could be detected in the transgenic seeds in the content of soluble sugars, and in activities of starch metabolism-related enzymes when compared with WT seeds. A suggested metabolic model is presented wherein both AGP and SuSy are involved in the production of ADPG linked to starch biosynthesis in maize endosperm cells.

  14. The Street Level Built Environment and Physical Activity and Walking: Results of a Predictive Validity Study for the Irvine Minnesota Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boarnet, Marlon G.; Forsyth, Ann; Day, Kristen; Oakes, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The Irvine Minnesota Inventory (IMI) was designed to measure environmental features that may be associated with physical activity and particularly walking. This study assesses how well the IMI predicts physical activity and walking behavior and develops shortened, validated audit tools. A version of the IMI was used in the Twin Cities Walking…

  15. High Dose Atorvastatin Decreases Cellular Markers of Immune Activation Without Affecting HIV-1 RNA Levels: Results of a Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-15

    cholesterol -depleting agents, such as 3-hydroxy- 3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors ( statins ), reduces HIV-1 particle production [5...Furthermore, virions derived from cholesterol -depleted cells demonstrate reduced infectivity in vitro [5]. In addition, statins have dem- onstrated...studies revealed that substantial statin - induced decreases in cholesterol resulted in declines in HIV-1 production [5]. We therefore chose the highest

  16. Uses and applications of the results from food surveys, physical activity estimates and other lifestyle related surveys at a population level.

    PubMed

    Aranceta Bartrina, Javier; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Alberdi Aresti, Goiuri; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-02-26

    The results and conclusions of well design nutrition studies, using the appropriate methods to achieve the intended aims with the best validity and precision possible are of great value for nutritional, food and toxicological surveillance systems; also in the planning, follow-up and evaluation of nutrition and health policies and providing high value information for the formulation of recommended reference intakes, nutritional objectives and food based dietary guidelines.

  17. Building Systems-Level Partnerships. Part 5 in a Series on Implementing Evidence-Based Practices in Out-of-School Time Programs: The Role of Organization-Level Activities. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhauser, Mary; Metz, Allison J. R.

    2009-01-01

    As out-of-school time programs become larger and more complex, they are collaborating more and more with outside individuals, groups, and organizations--in other words, with systems-level partners. Partnerships among out-of-school time programs, schools, and the community have been recognized as a feature of high-performing programs. In addition,…

  18. [Subliminal perception and the levels of activation].

    PubMed

    Borgeat, F; Chabot, R; Chaloult, L

    1981-06-01

    The influence of the auditory subliminal messages on the level of activation has been evaluated through a double-blind study. Twenty consenting subjects were alternately submitted to activating and deactivating subliminal messages. Activation changes were estimated through the variations in the scores at the Mood Adjective Check List. Five out of this test's six factors concerned by the content of the subliminal messages responded differently according to the nature of these messages; four factors did so to a statistically significant degree. These results tend to indicate that auditory subliminal perceptions can influence the level of activation. The authors raise several questions, especially stressing that the parameters regulating subliminal response and susceptibility remain largely undefined and in need of systematic investigation.

  19. Uprated OMS Engine Status-Sea Level Testing Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertolino, J. D.; Boyd, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) is pressure fed, utilizing storable propellants. Performance uprating of this engine, through the use of a gas generator driven turbopump to increase operating pressure, is being pursued by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Component level design, fabrication, and test activities for this engine system have been on-going since 1984. More recently, a complete engine designated the Integrated Component Test Bed (ICTB), was tested at sea level conditions by Aerojet. A description of the test hardware and results of the sea level test program are presented. These results, which include the test condition operating envelope and projected performance at altitude conditions, confirm the capability of the selected Uprated OME (UOME) configuration to meet or exceed performance and operational requirements. Engine flexibility, demonstrated through testing at two different operational mixture ratios, along with a summary of projected Space Shuttle performance enhancements using the UOME, are discussed. Planned future activities, including ICTB tests at simulated altitude conditions, and recommendations for further engine development, are also discussed.

  20. The effect of a behaviour change intervention on the diets and physical activity levels of women attending Sure Start Children’s Centres: results from a complex public health intervention

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Janis; Jarman, Megan; Lawrence, Wendy; Black, Christina; Davies, Jenny; Tinati, Tannaze; Begum, Rufia; Mortimore, Andrew; Robinson, Sian; Margetts, Barrie; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary; Inskip, Hazel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The UK government's response to the obesity epidemic calls for action in communities to improve people's health behaviour. This study evaluated the effects of a community intervention on dietary quality and levels of physical activity of women from disadvantaged backgrounds. Design Non-randomised controlled evaluation of a complex public health intervention. Participants 527 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres (SSCC) in Southampton (intervention) and 495 women attending SSCCs in Gosport and Havant (control). Intervention Training SSCC staff in behaviour change skills that would empower women to change their health behaviours. Outcomes Main outcomes dietary quality and physical activity. Intermediate outcomes self-efficacy and sense of control. Results 1-year post-training, intervention staff used skills to support behaviour change significantly more than control staff. There were statistically significant reductions of 0.1 SD in the dietary quality of all women between baseline and follow-up and reductions in self-efficacy and sense of control. The decline in self-efficacy and control was significantly smaller in women in the intervention group than in women in the control group (adjusted differences in self-efficacy and control, respectively, 0.26 (95% CI 0.001 to 0.50) and 0.35 (0.05 to 0.65)). A lower decline in control was associated with higher levels of exposure in women in the intervention group. There was a statistically significant improvement in physical activity in the intervention group, with 22.9% of women reporting the highest level of physical activity compared with 12.4% at baseline, and a smaller improvement in the control group. The difference in change in physical activity level between the groups was not statistically significant (adjusted difference 1.02 (0.74 to 1.41)). Conclusions While the intervention did not improve women's diets and physical activity levels, it had a protective effect on intermediate factors

  1. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  2. Monthly variations of the Caspian sea level and solar activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchuk, P. R.; Pasechnik, M. N.

    The connection between 11-year cycle of solar activity and the Caspian sea level is investigated. Seasonal changes of the Caspian sea level and annual variations of the sea level with variations of solar activity are studied. The results of the verifications of the sea level forecasts obtained with application of the rules discovered by the authors are given.

  3. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  4. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  5. [Results of 2 years of activity].

    PubMed

    Panigazzi, M

    2010-01-01

    Work-related injuries and occupational diseases are a scourge of modern, western societies, which, although technologically advanced, have difficulty in preventing, treating and rehabilitating victims with speed and efficiency. The current hospital neuromotor rehabilitation centres, whether public or accredited private structures, have notable difficulty in meeting the demand, which despite annual fluctuations and variable needs, does not, overall, seem to be decreasing. We present the results of an organization model developed at the "Fondazione Maugeri" Scientific Institute (Pavia, Italy), the criteria used for the activity, the technological innovations employed to determine ability, and the prospects for further development. This model is effective from a health care-rehabilitative point of view, also in the light of the new legislative scenarios, and is sustainable from an economic points of view; overall it is, therefore, efficient.

  6. Locomotor activity and tissue levels following acute ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pyrethroids produce neurotoxicity that depends, in part, on the chemical structure. Common behavioral effects include locomotor activity changes and specific toxic syndromes (types I and II). In general these neurobehavioral effects correlate well with peak internal dose metrics. Products of cyhalothrin, a type II pyrethroid, include mixtures of isomers (e.g., λ-cyhalothrin) as well as enriched active isomers (e.g., γ-cyhalothrin). We measured acute changes in locomotor activity in adult male rats and directly correlated these changes to peak brain and plasma concentrations of λ- and γ-cyhalothrin using a within-subject design. One-hour locomotor activity studies were conducted 1.5 h after oral gavage dosing, and immediately thereafter plasma and brains were collected for analyzing tissue levels using LC/MS/MS methods. Both isomers produced dose-related decreases in activity counts, and the effective dose range for γ-cyhalothrin was lower than for λ-cyhalothrin. Doses calculated to decrease activity by 50% were 2-fold lower for the γ-isomer (1.29 mg/kg) compared to λ-cyhalothrin (2.65 mg/kg). Salivation, typical of type II pyrethroids, was also observed at lower doses of γ-cyhalothrin. Administered dose correlated well with brain and plasma concentrations, which furthermore showed good correlations with activity changes. Brain and plasma levels were tightly correlated across doses. While γ-cyhalothrin was 2-fold more potent based on administ

  7. Topical corticosteroids do not revert the activated phenotype of eosinophils in eosinophilic esophagitis but decrease surface levels of CD18 resulting in diminished adherence to ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lingblom, Christine; Bergquist, Henrik; Johnsson, Marianne; Sundström, Patrik; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Bove, Mogens; Wennerås, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Swallowed topical corticosteroids are the standard therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in adults. Eosinophils in the blood of untreated EoE patients have an activated phenotype. Our aim was to determine if corticosteroids restore the phenotype of eosinophils to a healthy phenotype and if certain cell-surface molecules on blood eosinophils correlate with eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. Levels of eight surface markers on eosinophils from treated and untreated EoE patients were determined by flow cytometry and analyzed using multivariate methods of pattern recognition. Corticosteroid-treated EoE patients' eosinophils had decreased levels of CD18 compared to both untreated patients and healthy controls, but maintained their activated phenotype. CD18 expression correlated positively with eosinophil numbers in the esophagus and promoted the adherence of eosinophils to ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and to endothelial cells. The diminished expression of CD18 may be one mechanism behind the reduced entry of eosinophils into the esophagus in corticosteroid-treated EoE patients.

  8. Evaluating forensic biology results given source level propositions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Duncan; Abarno, Damien; Hicks, Tacha; Champod, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The evaluation of forensic evidence can occur at any level within the hierarchy of propositions depending on the question being asked and the amount and type of information that is taken into account within the evaluation. Commonly DNA evidence is reported given propositions that deal with the sub-source level in the hierarchy, which deals only with the possibility that a nominated individual is a source of DNA in a trace (or contributor to the DNA in the case of a mixed DNA trace). We explore the use of information obtained from examinations, presumptive and discriminating tests for body fluids, DNA concentrations and some case circumstances within a Bayesian network in order to provide assistance to the Courts that have to consider propositions at source level. We use a scenario in which the presence of blood is of interest as an exemplar and consider how DNA profiling results and the potential for laboratory error can be taken into account. We finish with examples of how the results of these reports could be presented in court using either numerical values or verbal descriptions of the results.

  9. Neck Muscle Activation Levels During Frontal Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    right and left upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid . Amplitude and frequency components of the signals were evaluated to determine the amount of...Gx acceleration levels. The trapezius produced more force than the sternocleidomastoid . Activity of both muscle groups was synchronized, by their...dynamic environment. The role of upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) during long-duration head and neck loading situations has been

  10. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  11. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  12. Erythrocyte aldose reductase activity and sorbitol levels in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, A.; Balakrishna, N.; Ayyagari, Radha; Padma, M.; Viswanath, K.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Activation of polyol pathway due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of diabetic complications including diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of blindness. However, the relationship between hyperglycemia-induced activation of polyol pathway in retina and DR is still uncertain. We investigated the relationship between ALR2 levels and human DR by measuring ALR2 activity and its product, sorbitol, in erythrocytes. Methods We enrolled 362 type 2 diabetic subjects (T2D) with and without DR and 66 normal subjects in this clinical case-control study. Clinical evaluation of DR in T2D patients was done by fundus examination. ALR2 activity and sorbitol levels along with glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in erythrocytes were determined. Results T2D patients with DR showed significantly higher specific activity of ALR2 as compared to T2D patients without DR. Elevated levels of sorbitol in T2D patients with DR, as compared to T2D patients without DR, corroborated the increased ALR2 activity in erythrocytes of DR patients. However, the increased ALR2 activity was not significantly associated with diabetes duration, age, and HbA1C in both the DR group and total T2D subjects. Conclusions Levels of ALR2 activity as well as sorbitol in erythrocytes may have value as a quantitative trait to be included among other markers to establish a risk profile for development of DR. PMID:18385795

  13. Standardization activities for harmonization of test results.

    PubMed

    Dati, F; Brand, B

    2000-07-01

    In the last years the search for sensitive and specific markers of renal damage and/or renal function has conducted to the development of laboratory assays for measurement of urinary proteins such as albumin, beta(2)-microglobulin, alpha(1)-microglobulin, cystatin C, etc. Furthermore, there have been new applications of already known markers based on different, reformulated methods which often rely on more advanced technologies. It is evident that such developments are connected with analytical and interpretative problems for laboratory managers and clinicians. In this situation, it is essential that international societies develop comprehensive measures for the quality management of these assays and issue uniform and carefully elaborated guidelines to ensure optimal test utilization. International activities are also directed to the development of optimized and standardized methods as well as to the production and evaluation of appropriate reference materials and, finally, to the establishment of appropriate reference ranges and cut-off values for specific analytes. The main use of reference materials is in the transfer of their accurately assigned values to the calibrators of diagnostic companies for calibration of commercially available test systems. These international standardization activities and strategies will allow a harmonized approach to disease management using a more reliable laboratory testing based on quality and value.

  14. Client satisfaction. Operations research activities and results.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    Operations research (OR) is a major component of the Quality Assurance Project's (QAP) strategy for improving the quality of health care delivery worldwide. QAP's Operations Research Program aims to improve the feasibility, utility, and cost-effectiveness of quality assurance strategies in developing countries. QAP and its field partners work to maximize the utility of each field study's findings. As such, the project hopes to disseminate information on all aspects of important OR projects, from the initial design to implementation and results. Over the course of the project, QAP's staff and their partners will develop studies in 16 technical areas. One key area of interest is the study of client satisfaction with health care delivery. The project currently has two major studies on client satisfaction underway in Niger and Peru. Phase one results from the Niger research and QAP and the Max Salud Institute in Peru are discussed.

  15. Initial results in the development of a reporter cell line for toxicology studies at gene expression level: activation of the electrophile-responsive element by copper and methyl parathion.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Daniela Volcan; Trindade, Gilma Santos; Geracitano, Laura A; Barros, Daniela Martí; Monserrat, José Maria; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2008-07-01

    Induction of many genes encoding detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant proteins is mediated through a common mechanism, which is controlled by electrophile-responsive elements (EpRE) within the regulatory region of those genes. Copper and methyl parathion are environmental pollutants known to induce the expression of EpRE-mediated genes. In order to evaluate the molecular response triggered by these pollutants, a stable cell line was produced, which carries a transgene comprised of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene under transcriptional control of the mouse glutathione-S-transferase (gst1) electrophile-responsive element fused to the mouse metallothionein (mt1) minimal promoter. The rat HTC hepatoma cells were transfected with the EpREmt-GFP construct and successfully selected with G418 antibiotic. EpREmt-GFP HTC cells were treated with 0.002 mg L(-1), 0.02 mg L(-1), 0.2 mg L(-1) and 2 mg L(-1) copper sulfate and 0.001 mg L(-1), 0.01 mg L(-1), 0.1 mg L(-1) and 1 mg L(-1) methyl parathion for 48 h. GFP expression was directly quantified in living cells using a microplate fluorimeter. GFP expression was significantly increased in higher concentrations of both pollutants, showing a 1.80- and 2.58-fold induction of GFP at 2mg copper L(-1) and 1mg methyl parathion L(-1), respectively (p<0.01). The results obtained in the present study demonstrate that the EpREmt-GFP HTC cell line can be an interesting model for further development for the study of the cellular response to aquatic pollutants as well as a new tool for environmental monitoring at the molecular level.

  16. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  17. Getting Middle-School Students up and Moving: What's the Role of School and Neighborhood Environments...and the Weather: Studying the Effect of Neighborhood and School Environments on Youth Physical Activity Levels. Program Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakashian, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at the Harvard Prevention Research Center at Harvard University School of Public Health examined how physical and social environments of schools and neighborhoods shape routine physical activities of students attending 10 middle schools in the Boston area. They also analyzed the effect of weather conditions on student physical…

  18. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  19. Two-level laser: Analytical results and the laser transition

    SciTech Connect

    Gartner, Paul

    2011-11-15

    The problem of the two-level laser is studied analytically. The steady-state solution is expressed as a continued fraction and allows for accurate approximation by rational functions. Moreover, we show that the abrupt change observed in the pump dependence of the steady-state population is directly connected to the transition to the lasing regime. The condition for a sharp transition to Poissonian statistics is expressed as a scaling limit of vanishing cavity loss and light-matter coupling, {kappa}{yields}0, g{yields}0, such that g{sup 2}/{kappa} stays finite and g{sup 2}/{kappa}>2{gamma}, where {gamma} is the rate of nonradiative losses. The same scaling procedure is also shown to describe a similar change to the Poisson distribution in the Scully-Lamb laser model, suggesting that the low-{kappa}, low-g asymptotics is of more general significance for the laser transition.

  20. First results on 236U levels in global fallout.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, A; Kawai, K; Steier, P; Quinto, F; Mino, K; Tomita, J; Hoshi, M; Whitehead, N; Yamamoto, M

    2009-07-01

    The global fallout (236)U level in soil was deduced from measurements of (236)U, (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs in surface soils which are solely influenced by global fallout. A total of 12 soil cores from the depths of 0-10, 0-20 and 0-30 cm were collected at a flat forest area in Japan. Concentrations of (239+240)Pu and (238)U were determined by alpha-particle spectrometry, while the (236)U/(238)U ratio was measured with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Consistent (236)U/(239)Pu ratios between 0.212 and 0.253 were found. Using this ratio, the total global fallout of (236)U on the earth is estimated to be as much as ca. 900 kg. This knowledge will contribute to the promotion of research on U isotopes, including (236)U, for the fields of geo-resources, waste management and geochemistry.

  1. Cardiovascular effects of variations in habitual levels of physical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.

  2. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  3. Activity level and risk of overweight in male health professionals.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, P L; Willett, W C; Rimm, E B; Colditz, G A; Gortmaker, S L; Stampfer, M J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study undertook to examine relationships between nonsedentary activity level, time spent watching television (TV)/videocassette recorder (VCR), and risk of overweight among men. METHODS. Men participating in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study were mailed surveys. Cross-sectional analyses examined the prevalence and odds of being overweight, prospective analyses determined cumulative incidence rates and relative risks of becoming overweight over 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS. Cross-sectionally, odds of being overweight were 50% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 45%; 55%) lower for men in the highest quintile of nonsedentary activity level when compared with men in the lowest quintile. Among men watching 41 or more hours of TV/VCR per week, the odds of being overweight were 406 (95% CI = 2.67, 6.17) times greater than those for men watching no more than 1 hour per week. Prospectively, higher levels is of nonsedentary activity and lower levels of TV/VCR viewing were independently associated with lower relative risks for becoming overweight between survey years. CONCLUSIONS. Both a lack of nonsedentary activity and time spent watching TV/VCR contribute to the development of overweight in men. Sedentary and nonsedentary activities represent separate domains, each with independent risks for overweight. PMID:8561237

  4. Human Development Program: Level V Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Geraldine

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade 5. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. The activity guide presents topics and directions for 180 sequential Human…

  5. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  6. Anterior cingulate activity and level of cognitive conflict: explicit comparisons.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rachel L C

    2006-12-01

    The role of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in attention is a matter of debate. One hypothesis suggests that its role is to monitor response-level conflict, but explicit evidence is somewhat lacking. In this study, the activation of ACC was compared in (a) color and number standard Stroop tasks in which response preparation and interference shared modality (response-level conflict) and (b) color and number matching Stroop tasks in which response preparation and interference did not share modality (non-response-level conflict). In the congruent conditions, there was no effect of task type. In the interference conditions, anterior cingulate activity in the matching tasks was less than that in the standard tasks. These results support the hypothesis that ACC specifically mediates generalized modality-independent selection processes invoked by response competition.

  7. A Survey of Physical Activity Levels of Certified Athletic Trainers

    PubMed Central

    Cuppett, Marchell; Latin, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the self-reported physical activities of certified athletic trainers (ATCs), both at work and at leisure. Design and Setting: We used the Baecke Questionnaire of Habitual Physical Activity and also asked for demographic information, including employment setting, years of experience, education level, and position. Subjects: The questionnaire was sent to 1200 randomly selected ATCs in the Mid-America Athletic Trainers' Association; the return rate was 53%. Measurements: We used means, standard deviations, and ranges to describe the age, total fitness index, work, and leisure and sport indexes of men and women subjects. Independent t tests were used to compare the mean total activity index between men and women within this study and with previous studies. We examined differences in activity indexes by employment setting, position, and age with one-way analysis of variance and Fisher pairwise comparison tests. Two-way χ2 analysis was used to determine the relationship between activity level and employment setting and position. Statistical significance was set at P = .05 for all analyses. Results: Certified athletic trainers who work in a clinical setting had the highest mean total activity score at 9.1 points. Clinic ATCs scored significantly higher than high school ATCs and college ATCs. When compared by position, there were no significant differences among the mean total activity indexes; however, the mean work index of program directors was significantly lower than all other positions and the mean work index of high school and clinic ATCs was significantly higher than all other employment settings. Conclusions: Female ATCs scored significantly higher in total activity levels on the Baecke Questionnaire than their male counterparts. This is in contrast to the general population, investigated by other authors, in which men scored significantly higher than women on the same scale. Additionally, we compared the total activity levels by age

  8. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  9. Good Results After Hip Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement in Top-Level Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Mikael; Ahldén, Mattias; Jonasson, Pall; Thomeé, Christoffer; Swärd, Leif; Baranto, Adad; Karlsson, Jón; Thomeé, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Background: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a common cause of hip pain and dysfunction among athletes. Although arthroscopic surgery is an established treatment option for FAI, there are few studies reporting detailed outcomes using validated outcome measurements specifically designed for young and active athletes. Purpose: To report outcomes 1 year after arthroscopic treatment of FAI in top-level athletes using validated outcome measurements adapted for a young and active population. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 85 top-level athletes (68 males, 17 females) with a mean (±SD) age of 25 ± 5 years underwent arthroscopic surgery for FAI. All athletes who reported Hip Sports Activity Scale (HSAS) levels 7 or 8 (range, 0-8) prior to symptom onset were included. The cohort was prospectively evaluated using online web-based validated health-related patient-reported outcomes measures (HR-PROMs), including the short version of the International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-12), the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS; 6 subscales), the EuroQOL 5 dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D; 2 subscales), the Hip Sports Activity Scale (HSAS) for physical activity level, and a visual analog scale (VAS) for overall hip function. Furthermore, patients reported their overall satisfaction with treatment. Results: The mean follow-up time was 12.3 ± 0.6 months. Preoperative scores compared with those obtained at the 12-month follow-up revealed statistically and clinically significant improvements (P < .0001) for all measured outcomes: iHOT-12 (42 vs 73), VAS for global hip function (52 vs 77), HSAS (4.3 vs 5.7), EQ-5D index (0.60 vs 0.83), EQ-VAS (68 vs 82), and HAGOS subscales (60 vs 83, 50 vs 73, 66 vs 86, 39 vs 75, 27 vs 70, and 34 vs 67). At the 12-month follow-up, 79 athletes (93%) reported that they were satisfied with the outcome of surgery. At follow-up, 62 athletes (73%) had returned to competitive sports (HSAS levels 5-8) and 44 (52

  10. Cues Resulting in Desire for Sexual Activity in Women

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529

  11. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  12. Physical activity levels in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Sherry, David D

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is paramount in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia, although some interventions use indirect methods to increase activity levels rather than address physical dysfunction head-on. New research explores the effects of a psychotherapeutic approach on levels of physical activity in adolescents with fibromyalgia.

  13. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  14. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  15. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway.

  16. Bird activity levels related to weather

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    The Breeding Bird Survey data bank serves as a primary source for studying effects of sky cover, wind speed, and temperature on bird census results. Other standardized methods, such as spot-mapping (Breeding Bird Census), point counts, banding, and the Winter Bird Survey, provide additional, but limited, means of assessing effects of weather. Numbers of songbirds detected are generally inversely correlated with wind speed, but hawks often are seen in larger numbers on windy days. Rain greatly reduces the numbers of birds detected. Cloud cover has relatively little influence on early morning bird counts during the peak of the breeding season. Fog selectively favors auditory detections of some species. Counts of many species are correlated with temperature, but effects are minor unless temperatures are extreme. Under marginal weather conditions, total species observed may be nearly normal, whereas number of individuals observed is reduced, as is the opportunity to record simultaneous registrations

  17. Electrocortical activity distinguishes between uphill and level walking in humans.

    PubMed

    Bradford, J Cortney; Lukos, Jamie R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if electrocortical activity is different between walking on an incline compared with level surface. Subjects walked on a treadmill at 0% and 15% grades for 30 min while we recorded electroencephalography (EEG). We used independent component (IC) analysis to parse EEG signals into maximally independent sources and then computed dipole estimations for each IC. We clustered cortical source ICs and analyzed event-related spectral perturbations synchronized to gait events. Theta power fluctuated across the gait cycle for both conditions, but was greater during incline walking in the anterior cingulate, sensorimotor and posterior parietal clusters. We found greater gamma power during level walking in the left sensorimotor and anterior cingulate clusters. We also found distinct alpha and beta fluctuations, depending on the phase of the gait cycle for the left and right sensorimotor cortices, indicating cortical lateralization for both walking conditions. We validated the results by isolating movement artifact. We found that the frequency activation patterns of the artifact were different than the actual EEG data, providing evidence that the differences between walking conditions were cortically driven rather than a residual artifact of the experiment. These findings suggest that the locomotor pattern adjustments necessary to walk on an incline compared with level surface may require supraspinal input, especially from the left sensorimotor cortex, anterior cingulate, and posterior parietal areas. These results are a promising step toward the use of EEG as a feed-forward control signal for ambulatory brain-computer interface technologies.

  18. Physical activity levels of children during school playtime.

    PubMed

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2006-01-01

    School represents a suitable setting for intervention programmes aiming to promote physical activity to benefit health. During the school day, physical education and school playtime offer children regular opportunities to engage in physical activity. However, there is growing concern that, internationally, curricular time allocated to physical education is not meeting statutory guidelines. The effectiveness of the playground environment to promote physical activity has been considered as a complementary setting to physical education. Physical activity guidelines state that children should engage in at least 1 hour of moderate intensity physical activity a day. Currently no empirically tested guidelines exist for physical activity levels during playtime. However, studies cited in this article indicate that playtime can contribute between 5-40% of recommended daily physical activity levels when no interventions have been utilised. The limited school-based investigations that have been reported in the literature suggest that boys engage in more physical activity during playtime than girls. Studies that have implemented intervention strategies in order to promote physical activity levels indicate that playtime can substantially contribute towards daily optimal physical activity guidelines. Energy expenditure and physical activity levels have increased during playtime following the implementation of playtime-based interventions. In order to advance knowledge of children's physical activity during playtime, a number of key issues for consideration in future research are detailed. Research on children's use of playtime to be physically active and the extent of the contribution of playtime to daily physical activity guidelines is warranted.

  19. Clinical application of asparaginase activity levels following treatment with pegaspargase.

    PubMed

    Bleyer, Archie; Asselin, Barbara L; Koontz, Susannah E; Hunger, Stephen P

    2015-06-01

    Asparaginase, an enzyme used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and related forms of nonHodgkin lymphoma, depletes asparagine, which leads to lymphoblast cell death. Unlike most chemotherapeutic agents, asparaginase is a foreign protein that can result in clinical allergy and/or silent hypersensitivity with production of neutralizing antibodies that inactivate asparaginase. In North America, asparaginase activity levels can now be obtained via a commercially available assay, for therapeutic drug monitoring and investigation of potential allergic reactions. Herein, we provide recommendations and a corresponding algorithm for the clinical application of this assay after treatment with pegaspargase to evaluate suspected hypersensitivity reactions and/or silent inactivation.

  20. Plutonium recycle test reactor characterization activities and results

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1997-05-01

    Report contains results of PRTR core and associated structures characterization performed in January and February of 1997. Radiation survey data are presented, along with recommendations for stabilization activities before transitioning to a decontamination and decommissioning function. Recommendations are also made about handling the waste generated by the stabilization activities, and actions suggested by the Decontamination and Decommissioning organization.

  1. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting.

  2. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  3. Annoyance resulting from intrusion of aircraft sounds upon various activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, W. J.; Shepherd, W. T.; Fletcher, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in which subjects were engaged in TV viewing, telephone listening, or reverie (no activity) for a 1/2-hour session. During the session, they were exposed to a series of recorded aircraft sounds at the rate of one flight every 2 minutes. Within each session, four levels of flyover noise, separated by dB increments, were presented several times in a Latin Square balanced sequence. The peak level of the noisiest flyover in any session was fixed at 95, 90, 85, 75, or 70 dBA. At the end of the test session, subjects recorded their responses to the aircraft sounds, using a bipolar scale which covered the range from very pleasant to extremely annoying. Responses to aircraft noises were found to be significantly affected by the particular activity in which the subjects were engaged. Not all subjects found the aircraft sounds to be annoying.

  4. Mediating role of activity level in the depressive realism effect.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R), was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R) for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R) manipulation produced differences in the participants' perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants' judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R) was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding.

  5. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  6. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  7. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Indoor Recess Dance Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The purpose of…

  8. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  9. Plantar pressures during level walking compared with other ambulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, S; Lundquist, K; Cornwall, M W; McPoil, T G

    1994-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the magnitude of plantar pressures during level walking in comparison to other activities. These activities included climbing up stairs, going down stairs, a simple pivot while walking, and a crossover pivot while walking in normal individuals. Twelve volunteers, six men and six women, mean age 28 years, served as subjects. Data were collected on the dominant foot with an EMED-SF pressure sensor platform as each subject walked barefoot and did each of the five activities. Maximum plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure-time integral (PTI) was found in the metatarsal and heel regions. The results of repeated-measures analysis of variance tests showed that the five experimental conditions were statistically different for both MPP and PTI in the metatarsal and heel regions. Post hoc analysis indicated that MPP and PTI were decreased during the going down stairs condition in the heel and increased during the crossover pivot while walking and pivot while walking conditions for the metatarsal region.

  10. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  11. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  12. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  13. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished. PMID:23476644

  14. Benchmarking Evaluation Results for Prototype Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of four prototype gloves developed by Flagsuit LLC, Final Frontier Designs, LLC Dover, and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. All of the companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test

  15. First Results of the TIGRE Chromospheric Activity Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, M.; Hempelmann, A.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results of the stellar activity survey with TIGRE (Telescopio Internacional de Guanajuato, Robótico-Espectroscópico). This long term program was started in August 2013 with the monitoring of a larger number of stars. We aim at measuring the short- and long-term variability of stellar activity for stars of different spectral types and luminosity classes, using indicators of different spectral lines (mainly Ca II S-Index, Ca II IR triplet, H_α and sodium D). A transformation equation of the TIGRE S-Index into the Mount Wilson S-index was derived in order to compare our results to the vast body of existing S-index measurements. Furthermore, the correlation between the S-index and the lines of the Ca II IR triplet has been studied, based on strictly simultaneous observations.

  16. [Determination of theophylline blood levels by a rapid immunoenzyme method ( "Accu-Level"): results in 83 cases].

    PubMed

    Arribas Blanco, J M; Casas Losada, M L; Baptista Baeza, J L; Hernández López, R; Chafer Rubilla, M

    1989-12-01

    We report the results of the use of the "Accu-level" method for the rapid measurement of theophylline blood levels in a health center, so as to evaluate it for the routine practice of family doctors. The study included 83 patients receiving sustained effect theophylline preparations from May to September 1988. The accuracy of the method in the interassay evaluation (repetitivity) showed a variation coefficient of 7.92%, whereas in the intraassay evaluation (reproducibility) the coefficients were lower than 5%. The correlation study with the EMITT method showed a correlation coefficient of r = 0.9967. The present results, the easy use of the assay by the family doctor and the small technical equipment which is required support the use of this method for the monitorization of blood theophylline levels in outpatients.

  17. Human Ebola virus infection results in substantial immune activation.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Anita K; Akondy, Rama S; Davis, Carl W; Ellebedy, Ali H; Mehta, Aneesh K; Kraft, Colleen S; Lyon, G Marshall; Ribner, Bruce S; Varkey, Jay; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Campbell, Shelley; Ströher, Ute; Damon, Inger; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Ahmed, Rafi

    2015-04-14

    Four Ebola patients received care at Emory University Hospital, presenting a unique opportunity to examine the cellular immune responses during acute Ebola virus infection. We found striking activation of both B and T cells in all four patients. Plasmablast frequencies were 10-50% of B cells, compared with less than 1% in healthy individuals. Many of these proliferating plasmablasts were IgG-positive, and this finding coincided with the presence of Ebola virus-specific IgG in the serum. Activated CD4 T cells ranged from 5 to 30%, compared with 1-2% in healthy controls. The most pronounced responses were seen in CD8 T cells, with over 50% of the CD8 T cells expressing markers of activation and proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that all four patients developed robust immune responses during the acute phase of Ebola virus infection, a finding that would not have been predicted based on our current assumptions about the highly immunosuppressive nature of Ebola virus. Also, quite surprisingly, we found sustained immune activation after the virus was cleared from the plasma, observed most strikingly in the persistence of activated CD8 T cells, even 1 mo after the patients' discharge from the hospital. These results suggest continued antigen stimulation after resolution of the disease. From these convalescent time points, we identified CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to several Ebola virus proteins, most notably the viral nucleoprotein. Knowledge of the viral proteins targeted by T cells during natural infection should be useful in designing vaccines against Ebola virus.

  18. Physical Activity Levels of Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Valderi Abreu; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; Decimo, Juliana Pereira; de Souza, William Cordeiro; Monteiro, Anna Louise Stellfeld; Lahard, Ian; França, Suzana Nesi; Leite, Neiva

    2017-01-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in comparison with healthy scholar participants. Total of 154 teenagers (T1D=45 and CON=109). Height, weight, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), and the level of physical activity by the Bouchard's Physical Activity Record were measured, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in T1D. The VO2 max was lower in the T1D (38.38 ± 7.54) in comparison with the CON (42.44 ± 4.65; p<0.05). The VO2max had correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r = 0.63; p = 0.0001) and an inverse correlation with sedentary activities (r = -0.46; p = 0.006). In the T1D the levels of HbA1c had an inverse correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r = -0.34; p = 0.041) and correlation with the BMI z-score (r = 0.43; p = 0.017). Only 37,8% of the participants in the T1D reached the adequate amount of daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, in the CON 81,7% reached the WHO's recommendation.

  19. Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD*

    PubMed Central

    Nyssen, Samantha Maria; dos Santos, Júlia Gianjoppe; Barusso, Marina Sallum; de Oliveira, Antônio Delfino; Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires Di; Jamami, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components). METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1), perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale), and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]). The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ). The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer), using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI−) and severe physical inactivity (SPI+). We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain), lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted), and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total). The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399), age (r = −0.459), and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446) and in % of predicted (r = 0.422). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day. PMID:24473759

  20. Play equipment, physical activity opportunities, and children's activity levels at childcare.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Van Kann, Dave H H; Jansen, Maria W J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment) and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level) multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of the facilities and child characteristics (age and sex) with children's activity levels. Various physical activity facilities were available in all childcare centers (e.g., balls). Riding toys and a small playing area were associated with lower indoor physical activity levels. Outdoor physical activity levels were positively associated with the availability of portable jumping equipment and the presence of a structured track on the playground. Portable slides, fixed swinging equipment, and sandboxes were negatively associated with outdoor activity levels. In addition, the 3-year old children were more active outdoors than the 2-year olds. In conclusion, not all physical activity facilities at childcare were indeed positively associated with children's activity levels. The current findings provide concrete leads for childcare providers regarding which factors they can improve in the physical environment to facilitate children's physical activity.

  1. Daily ambulatory activity levels in idiopathic Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Frank M; Mackman, Chad A; Pav, Breckon; Shulman, Lisa M; Garvan, Cyndi; Macko, Richard F; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) may have decreased physical activity due to motor deficits. We recently validated the reliability of step activity monitors (SAMs) to accurately count steps in PD, and we wished to use them to evaluate the impact of disease severity on home activity levels in PD. Twenty-six subjects with PD (Hoehn and Yahr disease stage 2-4) were recruited to participate in a study of activity levels over 48 hours. Ability to achieve 95% device accuracy was an entry requirement. A Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) evaluation was performed on all subjects, subjects were monitored for 48 hours, and total number of steps per day and maximum steps taken per hour were calculated. Out of 26 subjects, 25 met entry requirements. We calculated the number of steps taken per day, as well as maximal activity levels, and correlated these with UPDRS total score, the activity of daily living subscale, and the UPDRS motor function subscale off and on medication (all p < 0.01). Transition from Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 to stage 3 was associated with a decline in functional mobility (p < 0.005). A microprocessor-linked SAM accurately counted steps in subjects with PD. The number of steps taken correlated highly with disease severity. SAMs may be useful outcome measures in PD.

  2. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Short-term magnesium deficiency results in decreased levels of serum sphingomyelin, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis in cardiovascular tissues.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Shah, Nilank C; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Li, Zhiqiang; Perez-Albela, José Luis; Sica, Anthony C; Altura, Bella T

    2009-07-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that short-term dietary deficiency of magnesium (Mg) (21 days) in rats would 1) result in decreased serum(s) [the present study tested the levels of Mg, sphingomyelin (SM), and phosphatidylcholine (PC)]; 2) promote DNA fragmentation, lipid peroxidation (LP), and activation of caspase-3 in cardiac (ventricular and atrial) and vascular(aortic) muscle; and 3) low levels of Mg(2+) added to drinking water would either prevent or greatly ameliorate these manifestations. The data indicate that short-term Mg deficiency (10% normal dietary intake) resulted in profound reductions in serum-ionized Mg and total Mg with an elevation in serum-ionized calcium (Ca(2+)), significant lowering of serum SM and serum PC, with concomitant LP, DNA fragmentation, and activation of caspase-3 in ventricular (right and left chambers), atrial (right and left chambers) and abdominal aortic smooth muscle. The greater the reduction in serum-ionized Mg, the greater the effects on DNA fragmentation, LP, and caspase-3 activity. The intake of water-borne Mg(2+) at all levels greatly attenuated or inhibited the reductions in serum SM and serum PC, activation of LP, DNA fragmentation, and the activation of caspase-3; even very low levels of Mg(2+) in drinking water (i.e., 15 parts.million(-1).day(-1)) were cardio- and vascular protective. In addition, we demonstrate that short-term dietary deficiency of Mg probably results in a downregulation of SM synthase and a decreased synthesis of PC.

  4. Cascading Activation across Levels of Representation in Children's Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi Ting; Snedeker, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in adult psycholinguistics has demonstrated that activation of semantic representations begins long before phonological processing is complete. This incremental propagation of information across multiple levels of analysis is a hallmark of adult language processing but how does this ability develop? In two experiments, we elicit…

  5. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity Levels of Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…

  6. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  7. Genetic Influences on Mechanically-Assessed Activity Level in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Alexis C.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Rogers, Hannah; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Activity level is an important component of children's temperament, as well as being part of the core symptom domain of hyperactivity-impulsivity within attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Yet it is poorly understood, due partly to limitations on parent and teacher ratings, which are typically used as measurements of these…

  8. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) levels to physical activity and family history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490

  9. Ordinary Level as Results Predictors of Students' Academic Performance in Chemistry in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolawole, E. B.; Oginni, O. I.; Fayomi, E. O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined ordinary level result as predictors of students' academic performance in chemistry in South-west Nigeria universities. It also examined the relationship between the academic performance of students in each level of the university examinations and their corresponding secondary school certificates examination. The sample of the…

  10. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  11. Treating metabolic syndrome's metaflammation with low level light therapy: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Tania M.; Kato, Ilka T.; Deana, Alessandro M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a constellation of morbidities such as insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysglycemia and obesity (especially abdominal). Metabolic alterations are observed in major insulin target organs, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and therefore mortality. Tissue alterations are characterized by immune cells infiltrates (especially activated macrophages). Released inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α induce chronic inflammation in subjects with metabolic syndrome, since inflammatory pathways are activated in the neighboring cells. The intra-abdominal adipose tissue appears to be of particular importance in the onset of the inflammatory state, and strategies contributing to modulate the inflammatory process within this adipose tissue can mitigate the metabolic syndrome consequences. Considering the low level light therapy (LLLT) recognized benefits in inflammatory conditions, we hypothesized this therapeutic approach could promote positive effects in modulating the inflammatory state of metabolic syndrome. That being the scope of this study, male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to a high-fat/high-fructose diet among 8 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome. Animals were then irradiated on the abdominal region during 21 days using an 850 nm LED (6 sessions, 300 seconds per session, 60 mW output power, ~6 J/cm2 fluence, ~19 mW/cm2 fluence rate). Before and during treatment, blood was sampled either from the retroorbital plexus or from tail puncture for glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides analysis. So far our results indicate no alterations on these metabolic parameters after LLLT. For further investigations, blood was collected for plasma inflammatory cytokine quantification and fresh ex vivo samples of liver and intra-abdominal adipose tissue were harvested for immunohistochemistry purposes.

  12. Cancer in Utah Mormon women by church activity level.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J W; Lyon, J L

    1982-08-01

    In light of low cancer rates by the Mormon Church, this study classifies female Mormon cancer patients in Utah according to measures of adherence to Church doctrines. The distribution by Church activity level is compared for each site to a group of other cancer sites felt to represent the overall activity level distribution of Utah Mormon women. Mormon women classified as having the strongest adherence to Church doctrines had lung cancer rates during 1966-1970 much lower than did women with the weakest adherence. The relationship was not as strong, however, as that seen in Mormon men when classified by lay priesthood office. Cancer of the uterine cervix also showed lower rates in the more active groups, but this finding was not statistically significant. Cancers of the breast and ovary did not show consistent associations with Church activity level, nor did most of the gastrointestinal cancers. These data suggest that some of the differences in cancer incidence between Mormons and non-Mormons may not be explained by adherence to specific Church doctrines.

  13. Active Spacecraft Potential Control: Results From the Double Star Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkar, K.; Fazakerley, A.; Steiger, W.

    2006-10-01

    The ion emitter instrument "active spacecraft potential control" (ASPOC) has been used successfully in several magnetospheric missions including the European Space Agency Cluster Project. An improved version has been developed for the equatorial spacecraft of the Chinese-European Double Star mission (TC-1) launched in December 2003. The modifications include a new design of the ion emitter modules. As a result, higher currents than in previous missions can be achieved. The main objective of the investigation is the reduction of positive spacecraft potential in order to minimize perturbations to the plasma measurements onboard, in particular to the plasma electron instrument PEACE. These data show an almost complete suppression of photoelectrons when ASPOC is emitting at 30- to 50-muA beam current. The angular distribution of the electrons in the presence of the ion beam is investigated in detail. The measurement of ambient electron distributions is highly improved.

  14. Microgravity: a Teacher's Guide with Activities, Secondary Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.

  15. Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…

  16. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) activity and pollination levels in commercial tomato greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Morandin, L A; Laverty, T M; Kevan, P G

    2001-04-01

    Commercial greenhouse studies were conducted to assess levels of pollination of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) flowers in relation to bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colony activity and colony densities. For the assessment of pollination levels of tomato flowers, five categories were defined based on bruising levels caused by bumble bee pollination. Colony activity was measured as bee trips per ha/d using electric powered photodiode monitors inserted into the hive entrance. Levels of pollination were positively correlated with bee activity levels, up to a mean of approximately 400 pollen grains per stigma per day, after which greater activity did not result in further increases in daily pollination levels. Densities of colonies in the commercial greenhouses studied ranged from 7.6 to 19.8 colonies per hectare with a mean of 11.6 +/- 0.9. We found that an average activity of 2,000 bee trips per hectare per day was more than adequate to ensure sufficient pollination, and that this level of activity could be achieved with 7-15 colonies per hectare, depending on greenhouse conditions. Greenhouses requiring >15 colonies per hectare to achieve this level of pollination may be able to increase bee activity through alteration of greenhouse conditions. Across 50-m rows of tomato plants, levels of pollination decreased with increasing distance from bee colonies, suggesting that colonies should be evenly distributed throughout the greenhouses.

  17. Flow barrier system for long-term high-level-waste isolation: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Conca, J.L.; Apted, M.J.; Zhou, W.; Arthur, R.C.; Kessler, J.H.

    1998-10-01

    A flow barrier system (FBS) that includes a Richards barrier acts in an unsaturated hydrogeologic system to prevent the advective flow of water down through the barrier. Thus, an FBS placed above any solid waste material buried in the unsaturated zone could greatly aid in isolating the waste by keeping the waste away from flowing water. The FBS, consisting of a layer of highly conductive, fine-grained material overlying a sloped gravel layer, is proposed to isolate high-level radioactive waste (HLW) at a candidate disposal facility located in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to (a) assure that the FBS of a specific design can divert the anticipated maximum advective flow (under ideal conditions as well as for the case of a disturbed interface between the two layers caused by, for example, improper initial emplacement or faulting due to seismic activity), (b) investigate water inhibition into the gravel, and (c) measure the diffusion coefficient of the tuff gravel under partially saturated conditions. The main results show that (a) the FBS used in the study can divert point-source flow rates as high as 2.6 {times} 10{sup 5} {ell}/yr; (b) this FBS will continue performing with offsets of the interface as great as 50 cm or more; (c) after 12 months of testing, moisture penetrates the gravel only several grain diameters; and (d) the gravel effective diffusion coefficient is <10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 2}/s under such low partial saturations. These results indicate that a properly designed FBS can be successful at isolating the HLW under the anticipated range of environmental conditions that exist both now and in the future at Yucca Mountain.

  18. Activity level classification algorithm using SHIMMER™ wearable sensors for individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Emma; Tierney, Marie; Scanaill, Cliodhna Ni; Bourke, Ala; Kennedy, Norelee; Nelson, John

    2011-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) it is believed that symptoms associated with the progression of the disease result in a reduction in the physical activity level of the patient. One of the key flaws of the research surrounding this hypothesis to date is the use of non-validated physical activity outcomes measures. In this study, an algorithm to estimate physical activity levels in patients as they perform a simulated protocol of typical activities of daily living using SHIMMER kinematic sensors, incorporating tri-axial gyroscopes and accelerometers, is proposed. The results are validated against simultaneously recorded energy expenditure data and the defined activity protocol and demonstrate that SHIMMER can be used to accurately estimate physical activity levels in RA populations.

  19. Sea Level Rise: Analysis Results, and Variability within the Water Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Willis, J. K.; de Viron, O.; Llovel, W.

    2015-12-01

    This work has two major thrusts: 1) Determination of sea level rise (SLR) from 700 to 2000m, and 2) the investigation of SLR variability as a function of depth using singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and Multi-Channel Singular Spectrum Analysis (M-SSA) techniques. We use the analysis of (Llovel, 2014) to study three different slices of the ocean as a function of depths, 0-700m, 0-2000, and 700-2000m. The contribution from 700-2000m was 0.38 +/- 0.05 mm/yr, a significant amount explaining in part the current hiatus. Wavelet analysis and SSA were used to study the time dependence; values of the first three periods were the same within the uncertainty considered in all three cases. In both the SSA and M-SSA, the first 8 modes were calculated. Llovel et al. (2014) found the contribution below 2000m was consistent with zero, when the uncertainties were considered. Internal variability of the ocean is investigated as a function of depth using M-SSA and Wavelet analysis. Here we consider the ocean to have 58 layers covering the top 2000 m of the ocean with higher resolution near the surface. Each one of the ocean layers is considered a different channel (58 channels in total), which is analyzed as a function of time. The first mode was the largest and had the most robust signal active throughout the full column (0-2000m) with a period that is larger than the data series span. Modes 2-8 are concentrated near the surface. They appears have two ribbons of variability. The first signal is at sea level down to about 120-170 m; below the first ribbon, the second ribbon exists from 120-170 m down to 300-500 m. These results are similar to those of Nieves et al., 2015, where they focused on longer time-scales. The results of these analyses will be presented with their implications explained.

  20. Optimal active vibration absorber: Design and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

  1. "Read All about It!" UK News Media Coverage of A-Level Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul; Murphy, Roger

    2007-01-01

    News coverage of public examination results in the United Kingdom has escalated in recent years. The years 2002 and 2003, in particular, witnessed a bitter media debate over A-level results. Yet, while educationalists often deride the quality of the annual examination debate, there has been minimal research into the specific ways in which exam…

  2. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Characteristics and School-Level Performance Assessment Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    The relationship between selected contextual and socioeconomic variables and school-level results from a statewide performance-based student assessment system was studied using the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS). KIRIS uses portfolios of student work, scores from on-demand assessments, and student performance on…

  3. Secular trends in storm-level geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1) geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2) The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14-23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11-13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  4. Age, gender, and level of activity as moderators of personal incentives to physical activity in Israel.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Shulamith; Netz, Yael

    2007-05-01

    The authors conducted an exploratory study with Israeli adults examining their personal incentives for physical activity (e.g., appearance, weight management). The participants formed a sample of 379 physically active Israelis, aged 20-89 years, divided into 3 age groups and 3 levels of activity. The authors found a similar profile for men and women for most incentives, with men scoring more highly than did women on only competition and fitness. Participants in the highest level of activity attributed greater importance to all incentives than did those in the other levels, and older adults attributed less importance to all incentives except for health benefits. The findings are relevant for planning activities intended to encourage adults to engage in more physical activity.

  5. Mutation of Arabidopsis CATALASE2 results in hyponastic leaves by changes of auxin levels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Yuan, Hong-Mei; Hu, Ye-Qin; Li, Jing; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2014-01-01

    Auxin and H2 O2 play vital roles in plant development and environmental responses; however, it is unclear whether and how H2 O2 modulates auxin levels. Here, we investigate this question using cat2-1 mutant, which exhibits reduced catalase activity and accumulates high levels of H2 O2 under photorespiratory conditions. At a light intensity of 150 μmol m(-2) s(-1) , the mutant exhibited up-curled leaves that have increased H2 O2 contents and decreased auxin levels. At low light intensities (30 μmol m(-2) s(-1)), the leaves of the mutant were normal, but exhibited reduced H2 O2 contents and elevated auxin levels. These findings suggest that H2 O2 modulates auxin levels. When auxin was directly applied to cat2-1 leaves, the up-curled leaves curled downwards. In addition, transformation of cat2-1 plants with pCAT2:iaaM, which increases auxin levels, rescued the hyponastic leaf phenotype. Using qRT-PCR, we demonstrated that the transcription of auxin synthesis-related genes and of genes that regulate leaf curvature is suppressed in cat2-1. Furthermore, application of glutathione rescued the up-curled leaves of cat2-1 and increased auxin levels, but did not change H2 O2 levels. Thus, the hyponastic leaves of cat2-1 reveal crosstalk between H2 O2 and auxin signalling that is mediated by changes in glutathione redox status.

  6. "Exercise Dependence"--A Problem or Natural Result of High Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Bond, Dale S.; Lang, Wei; Jordan, Dustin; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence (ED) in 267 weight-loss maintainers (WLM) and 213 normal-weight (NW) controls. Methods: PA and ED assessed via accelerometery and the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire. Results: WLM had higher PA levels and ED scores than those of NW (P less than 0.0001). WLM status (P = 0.006)…

  7. Age-associated changes in the level of physical activity in elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Daisuke; Nishida, Yuusuke; Fujita, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify how light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity in older adults changes with age, subdividing physical activity according to intensity levels, by using an accelerometer. [Subjects] Older adults living independently in the community were included (n = 106, age: 65–85 years). [Methods] A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure the amount of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity (1–2.9, 3–5.9, and ≥6 metabolic equivalents, respectively) and inactive time over 7 days. Light- and moderate-intensity physical activity levels were further subdivided into 1–1.9, 2–2.9, 3–3.9, and 4–5.9 metabolic equivalents, respectively. [Results] The amount of moderate-intensity physical activity at both sub-levels showed significant inverse correlations with age (r = −0.34, −0.33, respectively), but this was not seen with other levels. Both levels of moderate-intensity physical activity were independently predicted by age using multiple regression analysis adjusted for gender and body mass index. [Conclusion] These results suggest that understanding the reduction in moderate-intensity physical activity with age in older adults, subdivided according to intensity level, could be a useful index to increase the amount of higher intensity physical activity in stages, considering individual health conditions. PMID:26834332

  8. O-Level Grades and Teachers' Estimates as Predictors of the A-Level Results of UCCA Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, R. J. L.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation studied the relationship between both GCE O-level examination grades and teachers' estimates of A-level examination grades, and actual A-level grades obtained by a sample of university applicants. Moderate levels of correlation were reported in both cases, although teachers' estimates appeared to be slightly better predictors.…

  9. Active Region Oscillations: Results from SOHO JOP 097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, E.; Fleck, B.; Muglach, K.; Sütterlin, P.

    2001-05-01

    We present here an analysis of data obtained in a sunspot region, using the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on SOHO. These data were obtained in the context of the Joint Observing Program (JOP) 97 which, together with CDS, included the Michelson Doppler Imaging (MDI) instrument on SOHO, the TRACE satellite and various ground based observatories, e.g. the DOT on La Palma. Using the lines of Fe XVI 335, Mg IX 368, He I 584, O III 599, Mg X 624 and O V 624 of CDS time series data were obtained in the pore and plage regions of sunspots associated with active regions AR 9166, 9166 and 9169 between September 19-29 2000. In addition to the time series datasets we also obtained 240 arcsec x 240 arcsec raster images of the sunspot regions examined. Using different time series analysis techniques we analyse the different periods of oscillation found in time series datasets and present the results here. This research is part of the European Solar Magnetometry Network supported by the EC through the TMR programme.

  10. ICARUS T600: physics results and future activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zani, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    The ICARUS T600 detector has proven the effectiveness of Liquid Argon TPC technology with a successful three-year long run at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS). ICARUS T600 LNGS data strongly contributed to the global effort in searching for neutrino oscillations mediated by sterile states. A definitive clarification of the sterile neutrino puzzle will come from the new multi-station, Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) experiment at the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) at Fermilab, where a refurbished T600 will act as Far Detector. Presently the T600 detector is located at CERN, undergoing a major overhauling which will allow its participation in the 5 years program of the Fermilab upcoming SBN project. Moreover, ICARUS T600 is also foreseen to collect data with the NUMI Beam to be later exploited in the wider picture of the DUNE Long-Baseline project, recently undertaken by the United States community. This contribution will report the present physics results obtained by the ICARUS Collaboration, as well as describe the overhauling activities and the physics program for the detector in its future deployment at Fermilab.

  11. Do Media Use and Physical Activity Compete in Adolescents? Results of the MoMo Study

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Sarah; Mess, Filip; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The displacement hypothesis predicts that physical activity and media use compete in adolescents; however, findings are inconsistent. A more differentiated approach at determining the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use behaviors within subjects may be warranted. The aim of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use by identifying clusters of adolescents with specific behavior patterns including physical activity in various settings (school, sports club, leisure time) and different types of media use (watching TV, playing console games, using PC / Internet). Methods Cross-sectional data of 2,083 adolescents (11–17 years) from all over Germany were collected between 2009 and 2012 in the Motorik-Modul Study. Physical activity and media use were self-reported. Cluster analyses (Ward’s method and K-means analysis) were used to identify behavior patterns of boys and girls separately. Results Eight clusters were identified for boys and seven for girls. The clusters demonstrated that a high proportion of boys (33%) as well as girls (42%) show low engagement in both physical activity and media use, irrespective of setting or type of media. Other adolescents are engaged in both behaviors, but either physical activity (35% of boys, 27% of girls) or media use (31% of boys and girls) predominates. These adolescents belong to different clusters, whereat in most clusters either one specific setting of physical activity or a specific combination of different types of media predominates. Conclusion The results of this study support to some extent the hypothesis that media use and physical activity compete: Very high media use occurred with low physical activity behavior, but very high activity levels co-occurred with considerable amounts of time using any media. There was no evidence that type of used media was related to physical activity levels, neither setting of physical activity was related to amount of media use

  12. A translocation causing increased alpha-klotho level results in hypophosphatemic rickets and hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Catherine A; Adler, Felix; Nelson-Williams, Carol; Iijima, Junko; Li, Peining; Imura, Akihiro; Nabeshima, Yo-Ichi; Reyes-Mugica, Miguel; Carpenter, Thomas O; Lifton, Richard P

    2008-03-04

    Phosphate homeostasis is central to diverse physiologic processes including energy homeostasis, formation of lipid bilayers, and bone formation. Reduced phosphate levels due to excessive renal loss cause hypophosphatemic rickets, a disease characterized by prominent bone defects; conversely, hyperphosphatemia, a major complication of renal failure, is accompanied by parathyroid hyperplasia, hyperparathyroidism, and osteodystrophy. Here, we define a syndrome featuring both hypophosphatemic rickets and hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid hyperplasia as well as other skeletal abnormalities. We show that this disease is due to a de novo translocation with a breakpoint adjacent to alpha-Klotho, which encodes a beta-glucuronidase, and is implicated in aging and regulation of FGF signaling. Plasma alpha-Klotho levels and beta-glucuronidase activity are markedly increased in the affected patient; unexpectedly, the circulating FGF23 level is also markedly elevated. These findings suggest that the elevated alpha-Klotho level mimics aspects of the normal response to hyperphosphatemia and implicate alpha-Klotho in the selective regulation of phosphate levels and in the regulation of parathyroid mass and function; they also have implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy in patients with kidney failure.

  13. Assessment Results Following Inquiry and Traditional Physics Laboratory Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Joel Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Preservice elementary teachers in a conceptual physics course were given multiple resources to use during several inquiry activities in order to investigate how materials were chosen, used, and valued. These students performed significantly better on assessment items related to the inquiry physics activities than on items related to traditional…

  14. High Fc Density Particles Result in Binary Complement Activation but Tunable Macrophage Phagocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulchek, Todd; Pacheco, Patricia; White, David

    2014-03-01

    Macrophage phagocytosis and complement system activation represent two key components of the immune system and both can be activated through the presentation of multiple Fc domains of IgG antibodies. We have created functionalized micro- and nanoparticles with various densities of Fc domains to understand the modulation of the immune system for eventual use as a novel immunomodulation platform. Phagocytosis assays were carried out by adding functionalized particles to macrophage cells and quantitatively determined using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Complement system activation by the functionalized particles in human serum was quantified with an enzyme immunoassay. Our phagocytosis assay revealed a strong dependence on particle size and Fc density. For small particles, as the Fc density increased, the number of particles phagocytosed also increased. Large particles were phagocytosed at significantly lower levels and showed no dependency on Fc density. Complement was successfully activated at levels comparable to positive controls for small particles at high Fc densities. However at low Fc densities, there is a significant decrease in complement activation. This result suggests a binary response for complement system activation with a threshold density for successful activation. Therefore, varying the Fc density on micro/nanoparticles resulted in a tunable response in macrophage phagocytosis while a more binary response for complement activation.

  15. Results of mobile gamma scanning activities in Tonawanda, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.D.; Witt, D.A.; Rodriguez, R.E.; Carrier, R.F.

    1990-12-01

    During the 1940s, the Linde Air Products Division of Union Carbide operated a plant in Tonawanda, New York, for the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Uranium production and some nickel processing were conducted at the site. It is the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to verify that radiological conditions at such sites or facilities comply with current DOE guidelines. Guidelines for release and use of such sites have become more stringent as research has provided more information since previous cleanups. The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was established as part of that effort to confirm the closeout status of facilities under contract to agencies preceding DOE during early nuclear energy development. Under the FUSRAP program, the Linde site itself has been previously investigated to determine the extent of on-site radiological contamination. As a precaution to insure that no residual radioactive materials were transported off-site, the Department of Energy requested that ORNL survey the area in the vicinity of the Linde Plant, the waste water treatment facility on Tower Road, the Sheridan Park Fire Station (District 4), and the Tonawanda Landfill to assess whether any residual radioactive material could be detected. The survey was conducted the week of April 3, 1990. Results of analysis of soil samples from the Tonawanda Landfill revealed slightly elevated concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra suggestive of residuals from former Linde Plant operations. Therefore, it is recommended that additional surveying of the landfill property and of Sheridan Creek from south of the Linde property to its confluence with the Niagara River be conducted. The survey should include the measurement of gamma radiation levels and radionuclide analysis of silt samples. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Measurements of activation induced by environmental neutrons using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez Canet, M J; Hult, M; Köhler, M; Johnston, P N

    2000-03-01

    The flux of environmental neutrons is being studied by activation of metal discs of selected elements. Near the earth's surface the total neutron flux is in the order of 10(-2) cm(-2)s(-1), which gives induced activities of a few mBq in the discs. Initial results from this technique, involving activation at ground level for several materials (W, Au, Ta, In, Re, Sm, Dy and Mn) and ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory located at 500 m.w.e., are presented. Diffusion of environmental neutrons in water is also measured by activation of gold at different depths.

  17. Physical Activity Trajectories and Multi-Level Factors among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Zook, Kathleen R.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Wu, Tong Tong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls is well-documented, there are girls whose physical activity does not follow this pattern. This study examined the relationships between physical activity trajectories and personal, psychosocial and environmental factors among adolescent girls. Methods Participants were from the University of Maryland field site of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Of 730 girls measured in 8th grade, 589 were re-measured in 11th grade. Moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed by accelererometers; participants were categorized as active maintainers (n=31), inactive maintainers (n=410), adopters (n=64), or relapsers (n=56). Height and weight were measured, personal and psychosocial information was collected from surveys, and distance from home to school and parks was assessed from Geographical Information Systems. Multivariable logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results Variables at individual, social, and environmental levels predicted active maintainers and inactive maintainers, while only individual-level variables predicted adoption. None predicted relapse. Higher (favorable) scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend and family physical activity support, frequency of physical activity with friends, and shorter distance from home to a park predicted active maintainers. Overweight/obese status, earlier age at menses, and lower scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend physical activity support, and frequency of physical activity with friends, and further distance from home to school predicted inactive maintainers. High physical self-concept and not being overweight/obese predicted adopters. Conclusion Multi-level factors appear to predict behavior maintenance rather than actual change. Implications and Contribution Although physical activity declines among girls during adolescence, some maintain and others increase their physical activity. Our

  18. Cooperative autoinhibition and multi-level activation mechanisms of calcineurin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Jie; Wang, Jue; Ma, Lei; Lu, Chang; Wang, Jie; Wu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CN), a heterodimer composed of a catalytic subunit A and an essential regulatory subunit B, plays critical functions in various cellular processes such as cardiac hypertrophy and T cell activation. It is the target of the most widely used immunosuppressants for transplantation, tacrolimus (FK506) and cyclosporin A. However, the structure of a large part of the CNA regulatory region remains to be determined, and there has been considerable debate concerning the regulation of CN activity. Here, we report the crystal structure of full-length CN (β isoform), which revealed a novel autoinhibitory segment (AIS) in addition to the well-known autoinhibitory domain (AID). The AIS nestles in a hydrophobic intersubunit groove, which overlaps the recognition site for substrates and immunosuppressant-immunophilin complexes. Indeed, disruption of this AIS interaction results in partial stimulation of CN activity. More importantly, our biochemical studies demonstrate that calmodulin does not remove AID from the active site, but only regulates the orientation of AID with respect to the catalytic core, causing incomplete activation of CN. Our findings challenge the current model for CN activation, and provide a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of CN activity regulation. PMID:26794871

  19. Statin-induced Myopathy and Ubiquinone Levels in Serum - Results from a Prospective, Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Skilving, Ilona; Acimovic, Jure; Rane, Anders; Ovesjö, Marie-Louise; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that an impaired ubiquinone (Q10) synthesis may be responsible for muscular side effects caused by statins. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether low Q10 levels in serum could be used as a marker to predict the risk of developing statin-induced myopathy. The secondary aim was to compare the change in Q10 levels during statin treatment and differences between men and women. Serum samples from a prospective, observational study in statin-treated patients who were thoroughly followed regarding muscular symptoms were used. In this cohort, 16 developed myopathy and 126 had no muscular symptoms related to statin treatment. Q10 levels were measured with a novel LC-MS method at baseline and after 2 months of statin treatment. Q10 levels showed no correlation with the risk of developing statin-induced myopathy. Individuals with low levels, Q10 < 200 ng/ml, at baseline had no increased risk of developing myopathy. In consistence with earlier reports, we showed that Q10 levels were reduced by 30% during statin treatment. There was no significant difference in the reduction between patients with or without myopathy. Women had approximately 30% lower Q10 levels compared to men both before and after treatment. In this study, there was no association between Q10 levels at baseline and statin-induced muscular side effects during a 2-month follow-up period, and our results indicate that Q10 levels in serum is not a useful marker to predict statin-induced myopathy.

  20. Children's Activity Levels and Lesson Context during Third-Grade Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In this study, researchers observed third graders' physical activity levels and associated variables in physical education classes in four Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health centers nationwide. Results found significant differences among centers for physical activity and lesson context variables. During free play, boys were more…

  1. Updating the results of glacier contribution to the sea level change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyurgerov, Mark B.; Abdalati, Waleed Dr. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    I have completed an update of global glacier volume change. All data of glacier annual mass balances, surface area over the period 1945/46 till 2004, outside the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets were included in this update. As the result global glacier volume change have been calculated, also in terms of glacier contribution to sea level change. These results were sent to Working Group 1 and 2 of IPCC-4 as the basis for modeling of sea level towards the end of 2100. In this study I have concentrated on studying glacier systems of different scales, from primary (e.g. Devon ice cap) to regional (e.g. Canadian Arctic), continental scale (e,g., entire Arctic), and global (e.g., change in glacier volume and contribution to sea level rise).

  2. Stellar activity and coronal heating: an overview of recent results

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Paola; Saar, Steven H.; Drake, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the coronae of the Sun and of solar-like stars provide complementary information to advance our understanding of stellar magnetic activity, and of the processes leading to the heating of their outer atmospheres. While solar observations allow us to study the corona at high spatial and temporal resolution, the study of stellar coronae allows us to probe stellar activity over a wide range of ages and stellar parameters. Stellar studies therefore provide us with additional tools for understanding coronal heating processes, as well as the long-term evolution of solar X-ray activity. We discuss how recent studies of stellar magnetic fields and coronae contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of activity and coronal heating in late-type stars. PMID:25897087

  3. Stellar activity and coronal heating: an overview of recent results.

    PubMed

    Testa, Paola; Saar, Steven H; Drake, Jeremy J

    2015-05-28

    Observations of the coronae of the Sun and of solar-like stars provide complementary information to advance our understanding of stellar magnetic activity, and of the processes leading to the heating of their outer atmospheres. While solar observations allow us to study the corona at high spatial and temporal resolution, the study of stellar coronae allows us to probe stellar activity over a wide range of ages and stellar parameters. Stellar studies therefore provide us with additional tools for understanding coronal heating processes, as well as the long-term evolution of solar X-ray activity. We discuss how recent studies of stellar magnetic fields and coronae contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of activity and coronal heating in late-type stars.

  4. Charpy impact test results for low-activation ferritic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, N.S.; Hu, W.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1987-05-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the shift of the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and the reduction of the upper shelf energy (USE) due to neutron irradiation of low activation ferritic alloys. Six low activation ferritic alloys have been tested following irradiation at 365/sup 0/C to 10 dpa and compared with control specimens in order to assess the effect of irradiation on Charpy impact properties.

  5. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  6. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

  7. Mediators Affecting Girls’ Levels of Physical Activity Outside of School: Findings from the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Moody, Jamie; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Background Providing after school activities is a community level approach for reducing the decline in physical activity of girls as they reach early adolescence. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral factors as potential mediators of after school physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods We assessed objectively measured levels of physical activity occurring outside of school and potential predictors and mediators of activity in girls participating in the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Results We found that the TAAG intervention had a statistically significant and positive effect on out of school activity in the 2006 cohort. Self-efficacy, friends’ social support, total social support, and difficulty getting to and from community activities mediated the level of moderate to vigorous physical activity in girls. Conclusions Parents, communities, and schools should provide and enhance opportunities outside of the school day for adolescents to be active. Reducing transportation barriers and enlisting social support appear to be key. PMID:20012810

  8. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  9. Determination of environemtal radioactivity at two different concentration levels. Results of two recent IAEA intercomparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suschny, O.

    1984-06-01

    In two recent intercomparisons, the performance of laboratories in the determination of radionuclides in environmental materials and in food was again investigated. The first dealt with stroniium isotopes and 137Cs in liquid milk at levels of nanocuries per litre, the second with the same radionuclides and others in fresh water, at levels of picocuries per litre. In both intercomparisons the results could be compared with known input values. Thirty-two laboratories from 14 countries participated in the milk intercomparison. Except for 137Cs, the number of outlying results was small (6%). The standard deviation was highest for 89Sr (54%). The differences of the overall means from the input values were not significant. In the second intercomparison, 32 laboratories from 19 countries returned 108 results. The lower concentration level led to a wider scatter of the data, 20% had to be rejected, the average standard deviation was 32% and the average difference of the overall means from the input values 28%. The positive bias found for all the radionuclides was probably due to incomplete separations. In conclusion 90Sr and 137Cs were adequately determined in the first intercomparisons (higher concentration), 89Sr was not. At the lower concentration level used in the second intercomparison, all the radionuclides investigated, except tritium, were found to present analytical problems.

  10. Analysis of skin patch test results and metalloproteinase-2 levels in a patient with contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Rafał; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The complex course of skin reactions that contact eczema involves is due in part to abnormalities of the extracellular matrix function. Proteins that degrade extracellular matrix components include metalloproteinases (MMP), which are divided into subcategories depending on the chemical structure and substrate specificity. Aim To analyse patch test results in contact dermatitis patients and to assess MMP-2 levels during skin lesion exacerbation and remission. Material and methods Fifty patients suffering from contact eczema were qualified to the study and 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. The study group patients had epidermal skin tests performed with the “European Standard” set. To assess the MMP-2 level in serum, venous blood was drawn, twice from study group patients – during contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods – and once from control group patients. Assessment of MMP-2 in serum was done with ELISA immunoassay. To verify the proposed hypotheses, parametric and nonparametric significance tests were used. Results Hands were the most frequent location of contact dermatitis. Nickel (II) sulphate was the most frequent sensitizing substance. Mean MMP-2 levels were statistically higher in the study group both in contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods than in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between MMP-2 levels and skin patch test results. Conclusions Nickel is one of the most allergenic contact allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. Metalloproteinase-2 is a good marker of contact dermatitis in various stages of the disease. PMID:26161054

  11. Do Sex Offenders Have Higher Levels of Testosterone? Results From a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jennifer S; Gravel, Jason

    2016-03-21

    The purpose of the current study is to review the available scientific evidence on the relationship between testosterone and sexual aggression. A systematic search for all primary studies comparing basal testosterone levels in sex offenders and non-sex offenders was undertaken across 20 electronic databases using an explicit search strategy and inclusion/exclusion criteria. A total of seven studies were identified and 11 effect sizes were computed; effects were pooled using both fixed and random effects meta-analysis models. Although individual study findings present a mix of results wherein sex offenders have higher or lower baseline levels of testosterone than non-sex offenders, pooled results indicate no overall difference between groups. Moderators of the analyses suggest possibly lower rates of testosterone in child molesters than controls; however, results are dependent on study weighting. Limitations, policy implications with respect to chemical castration laws, and future directions for research are discussed.

  12. Is a Coded Physical Activity Diary Valid for Assessing Physical Activity Level and Energy Expenditure in Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Cras, Patrick; Feys, Hilde; Truijen, Steven; Michielsen, Marc; Vissers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the concurrent validity of a physical activity diary for measuring physical activity level and total energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Method Sixteen stroke patients kept coded activity diaries and wore SenseWear Pro2 multi-sensor activity monitors during daytime hours for one day. A researcher observed the patients and completed a diary. Data from the patients' diaries were compared with observed and measured data to determine total activity (METs*minutes), activity level and total energy expenditure. Results Spearman correlations between the patients' and researchers' diaries revealed a high correlation for total METs*minutes (rs = 0.75, p<0.01) for sedentary (rs = 0.74,p<0.01) and moderate activities (rs = 0.71,p<0.01) and a very high correlation (rs = 0.92, p<0.01) for the total energy expenditure. Comparisons between the patients' diaries and activity monitor data revealed a low correlation (rs 0.29) for total METs*minutes and energy expenditure. Conclusion Coded self-monitoring activity diaries appear feasible as a low-tech alternative to labor-intensive observational diaries for determining sedentary, moderate, and total physical activity and for quantifying energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Given the poor correlation with objective measurements of physical activity, however, further research is needed to validate its use against a gold-standard measure of physical activity intensity and energy expenditure. PMID:24905345

  13. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  14. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition.

  15. Juvenile subsistence effort, activity levels, and growth patterns. Middle childhood among Pumé foragers.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Karen L; Greaves, Russell D

    2011-09-01

    Attention has been given to cross-cultural differences in adolescent growth, but far less is known about developmental variability during juvenility (ages 3-10). Previous research among the Pumé, a group of South American foragers, found that girls achieve a greater proportion of their adult stature during juvenility compared with normative growth expectations. To explain rapid juvenile growth, in this paper we consider girls' activity levels and energy expended in subsistence effort. Results show that Pumé girls spend far less time in subsistence tasks in proportion to their body size compared with adults, and they have lower physical activity levels compared with many juveniles cross-culturally. Low activity levels help to explain where the extra energy comes from to support rapid growth in a challenging environment. We suggest that activity levels are important to account for the variation of resource and labor transfers in mediating energy availability.

  16. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program’s standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01–4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. PMID:27942116

  17. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program's standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers.

  18. Improving the Readability of ASR Results for Lectures Using Multiple Hypotheses and Sentence-Level Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yasuhisa; Yamamoto, Kazumasa; Nakagawa, Seiichi

    This paper presents a novel method for improving the readability of automatic speech recognition (ASR) results for classroom lectures. Because speech in a classroom is spontaneous and contains many ill-formed utterances with various disfluencies, the ASR result should be edited to improve the readability before presenting it to users, by applying some operations such as removing disfluencies, determining sentence boundaries, inserting punctuation marks and repairing dropped words. Owing to the presence of many kinds of domain-dependent words and casual styles, even state-of-the-art recognizers can only achieve a 30-50% word error rate for speech in classroom lectures. Therefore, a method for improving the readability of ASR results is needed to make it robust to recognition errors. We can use multiple hypotheses instead of the single-best hypothesis as a method to achieve a robust response to recognition errors. However, if the multiple hypotheses are represented by a lattice (or a confusion network), it is difficult to utilize sentence-level knowledge, such as chunking and dependency parsing, which are imperative for determining the discourse structure and therefore imperative for improving readability. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm that infers clean, readable transcripts from spontaneous multiple hypotheses represented by a confusion network while integrating sentence-level knowledge. Automatic and manual evaluations showed that using multiple hypotheses and sentence-level knowledge is effective to improve the readability of ASR results, while preserving the understandability.

  19. Sea level measurements from inverse modelling of GNSS SNR data - initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strandberg, Joakim; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    The idea that sea level measurements could be done passively using available GNSS signals was proposed already over two decades ago. Since then several methods of using GNSS signals for measuring sea level have been proposed, using various degrees of specialized equipment. We present a new method to retrieve sea level from GNSS SNR data that relies upon inverse modelling of the detrended SNR data from a single off-the-shelf geodetic GNSS receiver. This method can simultaneously use SNR data from both GPS and GLONASS, and both L1 and L2 frequencies, in order to improve the performance with respect to prior studies. Results from the GNSS-R installation at the Onsala Space Observatory are presented and the retrieved sea level results are compared with data collected by a co-located pressure mareograph. The new method is found to give an RMS error of 1.8 cm. The results are also compared against previous implementations of GNSS tide gauges and found to have lower RMS than both the earlier SNR algorithm and also the dual receiver, phase delay method. This shows that inverse modelling for sea level retrieval has a potential to increase the precision of GNSS-R tide gauges, without the need for specialized equipment. Furthermore, since the method is based on SNR analysis, it can continue to operate during high winds and large sea roughness, in which the dual-receiver phase delay algorithm fails since the receiver connected to the nadir looking antenna does not succeed to lock on the satellites signals. This leads to a more stable and reliable operation. The ability to simultaneously use SNR data from different GNSS systems is also seen as a factor to increase the performance, further reducing the RMS. Therefore, in the future it is of interest to add further GNSS systems, such as Galileo and BeiDou.

  20. Estimation of Holocene Land Movement and Sea Level Changes in Southwest Scandinavia - Results From Interpretation of Relative Sea Level Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L.; Hede, M.; Clemmensen, L. B.; Morten Hansen, J.; Noe-Nygaard, N.; Sander, L.; Bendixen, M.; Kroon, A.; Murray, A. S.; Pejrup, M.

    2013-12-01

    Relative sea level curves from different localities in Denmark, southwest Scandinavia, are used for estimation of Holocene vertical land movement and absolute sea level variations in the gateway between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Two previous independent studies conducted in the area show that ground penetrating radar reflection images of internal beach ridge and swale architecture form a strong basis for estimation of relative sea level variation. Sediments are dated using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL); this shows that the beach ridges and swales were last exposed to daylight between ~6500 and 0 years ago. Time periods with characteristic changes in the rate of relative sea level change are identified at different localities. The observed relative sea level change rates differ in the study area, mainly because the different localities have experienced different isostatic rebound since the latest glaciation. Variations in uplift rates and absolute sea level change for the region are estimated by inversion of the observed relative sea level changes. The values obtained for the different time periods put constraints on absolute sea level variation during the Holocene and have implications for our understanding of the lithosphere's temporal response to the unloading caused by melting of the thick ice sheet formed during the latest glaciation in Scandinavia.

  1. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  2. Low physical fitness levels in older adults with ID: results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of 1050 older adults with ID, and results were compared with reference values from the general population. Across all age ranges, approximately two-third of the entire study population scored 'below average' or 'impaired'. Even the youngest age groups (50-59 or 50-54 years) in this sample achieve similar or worse results than age groups 20-30 years older in the general population. Low physical fitness levels in older adults with ID demonstrate that this group is prone to unnecessary premature loss of functioning and health problems, and maintaining physical fitness should have priority in practice and policy.

  3. Relationship between Serum Levels of Metalloproteinase-8 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 and Exercise Test Results in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mieczkowska, J.; Rutkowska, E.; Mosiewicz, B.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity as a part of the lifestyle is a significant factor influencing health condition. Exercises that require stamina are of particular importance. Oxygen metabolism, which is a significant part of all longer training processes, has an influence on cardiovascular and respiratory system functioning as well as all the processes taking part in maintenance of efficient homeostasis. Presentation of the correlation between exercise test results and MMP-8 (metalloproteinase-8) and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1) levels was attempted in this work. MMP-8 is a proteolytic enzyme taking part in progression of diseases related to process of ageing. 62 healthy women in postmenopausal period were qualified for the study (mean age: 54 ± 3.6). There was exercise test on the treadmill according to Bruce's protocol performed. MMP-8 and TIMP-1 serum levels were measured. There was statistically important correlation between increased level of MMP-8 and increased level of TIMP-1 with lower results of exercise test observed. The conducted study provides further biochemical arguments for prophylactic role of physical activity, which lowers the risk of noninfectious diseases, typical for middle adulthood, by influencing physical capacity. PMID:28115790

  4. aPKC Phosphorylation of HDAC6 Results in Increased Deacetylation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yifeng; Seibenhener, Michael L.; Yan, Jin; Jiang, Jianxiong; Wooten, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The Class II histone deacetylase, HDAC6, has been shown to be involved in cell motility, aggresome formation and mitochondria transport. HDAC6 deacetylase activity regulates α-tubulin acetylation levels and thus plays a critical role in these processes. In turn, HDAC6 activity can be regulated by interaction with various proteins including multiple kinases. Kinase mediated phosphorylation of HDAC6 can lead to either increased or reduced activity. Our previous research has shown that sequestosome1/p62 (SQSTM1/p62) interacts with HDAC6 and regulates its activity. As SQSTM1/p62 is a scaffolding protein known to interact directly with the zeta isoform of Protein Kinase C (PKCζ), we sought to examine if HDAC6 could be a substrate for PKCζ phosphorylation and if so, how its activity might be regulated. Our data demonstrate that HDAC6 is not only present in a protein complex with PKCζ but can also be phosphorylated by PKCζ. We also show that specific phosphorylation of HDAC6 by PKCζ increases HDAC6 deacetylase activity resulting in reduced acetylated tubulin levels. Our findings provide novel insight into the molecular mechanism by which HDAC6, PKCζ and SQSTM1/p62 function together in protein aggregate clearance. These results also highlight a new research direction which may prove fruitful for understanding the underlying cause of several neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25860570

  5. aPKC phosphorylation of HDAC6 results in increased deacetylation activity.

    PubMed

    Du, Yifeng; Seibenhener, Michael L; Yan, Jin; Jiang, Jianxiong; Wooten, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    The Class II histone deacetylase, HDAC6, has been shown to be involved in cell motility, aggresome formation and mitochondria transport. HDAC6 deacetylase activity regulates α-tubulin acetylation levels and thus plays a critical role in these processes. In turn, HDAC6 activity can be regulated by interaction with various proteins including multiple kinases. Kinase mediated phosphorylation of HDAC6 can lead to either increased or reduced activity. Our previous research has shown that sequestosome1/p62 (SQSTM1/p62) interacts with HDAC6 and regulates its activity. As SQSTM1/p62 is a scaffolding protein known to interact directly with the zeta isoform of Protein Kinase C (PKCζ), we sought to examine if HDAC6 could be a substrate for PKCζ phosphorylation and if so, how its activity might be regulated. Our data demonstrate that HDAC6 is not only present in a protein complex with PKCζ but can also be phosphorylated by PKCζ. We also show that specific phosphorylation of HDAC6 by PKCζ increases HDAC6 deacetylase activity resulting in reduced acetylated tubulin levels. Our findings provide novel insight into the molecular mechanism by which HDAC6, PKCζ and SQSTM1/p62 function together in protein aggregate clearance. These results also highlight a new research direction which may prove fruitful for understanding the underlying cause of several neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Free space optical communication flight mission: simulations and experimental results on ground level demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata Calvo, Ramon; Ferrero, Valter; Camatel, Stefano; Catalano, Valeria; Bonino, Luciana; Toselli, Italo

    2009-05-01

    In the context of the increasing demand in high-speed data link for scientific, planetary exploration and earth observation missions, the Italian Space Agency (ASI), involving Thales Alenia Space as prime, the Polytechnic of Turin and other Italian partners, is developing a program for feasibility demonstration of optical communication system with the goal of a prototype flight mission in the next future. We have designed and analyzed a ground level bidirectional Free Space Optical Communication (FSOC) Breadboard at 2.5Gbit/s working at 1550nm as an emulator of slant path link. The breadboard is full-working and we tested it back-toback, at 500m and 2.3km during one month. The distances were chosen in order to get an equivalent slant path cumulative turbulence in a ground level link. The measurements campaign was done during the day and the night time and under several weather conditions, from sunny, rainy or windy. So we could work under very different turbulence conditions from weak to strong turbulence. We measured the scintillation both, on-axis and off-axis by introducing known misalignments at the terminals, transmission losses at both path lengths and BER at both receivers. We present simulations results considering slant and ground level links, where we took into account the atmospheric effects; scintillation, beam spread, beam wander and fade probability, and comparing them with the ground level experimental results, we find a good agreement between them. Finally we discuss the results obtained in the experimentation and in the flight mission simulations in order to apply our experimental results in the next project phases.

  7. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Frelinger, Andrew L.; Gerrits, Anja J.; Garner, Allen L.; Torres, Andrew S.; Caiafa, Antonio; Morton, Christine A.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Carmichael, Sabrina L.; Neculaes, V. Bogdan; Michelson, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    presence of platelet-derived microparticles, platelets, and platelet aggregates whereas SMHEF pulses primarily resulted in platelet-derived microparticles. Microparticles and platelets in PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses had significantly lower annexin V-positivity than those following SMHEF activation. In contrast, the % P-selectin positivity and surface P-selectin expression (MFI) for platelets and microparticles in SMLEF bipolar pulse activated PRP was significantly higher than that in SMHEF-activated PRP, but not significantly different from that produced by thrombin activation. Higher levels of EGF were observed following either SMLEF bipolar pulses or SMHEF pulses of PRP than after bovine thrombin activation while VEGF, PDGF, and PF4 levels were similar with all three activating conditions. Cell proliferation was significantly increased by releasates of both SMLEF bipolar pulse and SMHEF pulse activated PRP compared to plasma alone. Conclusions PEF activation of PRP at bipolar low vs. monopolar high field strength results in differential platelet-derived microparticle production and activation of platelet surface procoagulant markers while inducing similar release of growth factors and similar capacity to induce cell proliferation. Stimulation of PRP with SMLEF bipolar pulses is gentler than SMHEF pulses, resulting in less platelet microparticle generation but with overall activation levels similar to that obtained with thrombin. These results suggest that PEF provides the means to alter, in a controlled fashion, PRP properties thereby enabling evaluation of their effects on wound healing and clinical outcomes. PMID:27556645

  8. Experimental results using active control of traveling wave power flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Active structural control experiments conducted on a 24-ft pinned-free beam derived feedback compensators on the basis of a traveling-wave approach. A compensator is thus obtained which eliminates resonant behavior by absorbing all impinging power. A causal solution is derived for this noncausal compensator which mimics its behavior in a given frequency range, using the Wiener-Hopf. This optimal Wiener-Hopf compensator's structure-damping performance is found to exceed any obtainable by means of rate feedback. Performance limitations encompassed the discovery of frequencies above which the sensor and actuator were no longer dual and an inadvertent coupling of the control hardware to unmodeled structure torsion modes.

  9. Towards active capsular endoscopy: preliminary results on a legged platform.

    PubMed

    Menciassi, Arianna; Stefanini, Cesare; Orlandi, Giovanni; Quirini, Marco; Dario, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the problem of active locomotion in the gastrointestinal tract for endoscopic capsules. Authors analyze the problem of locomotion in unstructured, flexible and tubular environments and explain the reasons leading to the selection of a legged system. They present a theoretical simulation of legged capsule locomotion, which is used to define the optimal parameters for capsule design and gait selection. Finally, a legged capsule--about 3 cm3 in volume--is presented; it consists of 4 back legs whose actuation is achieved thanks to a miniaturized DC brushless motor. In vitro tests demonstrate good performance in terms of achievable speed (92 mm/min).

  10. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  11. THE EFFECT OF GAMBLING ACTIVITIES ON HAPPINESS LEVELS OF NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Mark R; Nastally, Becky L; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results indicated that all residents exhibited a higher percentage of happiness levels while engaged in simulated gambling activities compared with baseline. Follow-up assessment took place 10 min and 30 min following the intervention; no lasting effects were observed. PMID:21358915

  12. [On mechanism of functional changes in the organism of teenagers at different levels of locomotor activity].

    PubMed

    Mindubaeva, F A; Shukurov, F A; Salikhova, Y Y; Niyazova, Y I; Ramazanov, A K

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive study of the cardiovascular system functional condition of 15-16 teenagers while in normal daily locomotor activity and in the mode of regular moderate physical activity was performed. The features of cerebral circulation and myocardium functional condition of teenagers are studied depending on initial tonus of the autonomic nervous system and locomotor activity level in the process of continuous step physical activity on tredmil. The condition of regulatory mechanisms, providing adaptation of teenagers in the conditions of modern school was studied. Research results showed, that elasticity of cerebrum arterial vessels, veins tone, venous outflow for teenagers not having regular physical activity, considerably mionectic. More adequate reaction of coronary blood flow in the process of physical activity is educed for the trained teenagers with the balanced autonomic regulation of cardiac rhythm. This group showed a higher level and regulation quality of organism reserve possibilities.

  13. Idaho Senior Center Activities, Activity Participation Level, and Managers' Perceptions of Activity Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girvan, James T.; Harris, Frances

    A survey completed by managers of 77 senior centers in Idaho revealed that meals, blood pressure screening, and games and trips were the most successful activities offered. Alzheimer's support groups, library books for loan, and exercise classes were the least successful. Possible reasons for the success or failure of these activities were…

  14. Changes in levels of plasminogen activator activity in normal and germ-cell-depleted testes during development.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, M; Smith, F E; Fritz, I B

    1982-05-01

    Levels of plasminogen activator activity were determined in testes obtained from normal and irradiated rats in various ages. During normal development, plasminogen activator activity per g testis increased rapidly between 40 and 60 days of age, but a comparable rise did not occur in germ-cell depleted testes of irradiated rats. Levels of enzyme in various populations of testicular cells were highest in Sertoli (varying between 1800 and 6300 units/mg protein in cell maintained under different culture conditions), and lowest in peritubular myoid cells (about 1 unit/mg protein), with intermediate levels in germinal cells (ranging between 147 and 560 units/Mg protein in residual bodies, spermatocytes and spermatids). No protease inhibitor could be detected in germ-cell extracts. The addition to the medium in which Sertoli cells were in culture of particles which can be phagocytosed (autoclaved E. coli) resulted in an increased formation of plasminogen activator activity by Sertoli cells. A synergistic enhancement of enzyme production resulted following the addition of submaximal quantities of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and autoclaved bacteria to sertoli cells in culture. On the basis of these data, we suggest that the presence of advanced germinal cells during gonadal development may stimulate the synthesis of plasminogen activator by Sertoli cells, mediated in part by the phagocytosis of residual bodies by sertoli cells which occurs prior to spermiation.

  15. Hellenic Amateur Astronomy Association's activities: Preliminary results on Perseids 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, G.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary results on the Perseids 2010 are presented. Visual and video observations were obtained by the author and a first reduction of the visual data shows that a maximum of ZHR ~120 was reached during the night 12-13 of August 2010. Moreover, a video setup was tested (DMK camera and UFO Capture v2) and the results show that, under some limitations, valuable data can be obtained.

  16. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  17. Protease inhibitor monotherapy is associated with a higher level of monocyte activation, bacterial translocation and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Berta; Guardo, Alberto C; Leal, Lorna; Leon, Agathe; Lucero, Constanza; Alvarez-Martinez, Míriam J; Martinez, Miguel J; Vila, Jordi; Martínez-Rebollar, María; González-Cordón, Ana; Gatell, Josep M; Plana, Montserrat; García, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Monotherapy with protease-inhibitors (MPI) may be an alternative to cART for HIV treatment. We assessed the impact of this strategy on immune activation, bacterial translocation and inflammation. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study comparing patients on successful MPI (n=40) with patients on cART (n=20). Activation, senescence, exhaustion and differentiation stage in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets, markers of monocyte activation, microbial translocation, inflammation, coagulation and low-level viremia were assessed. Results CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocyte subset parameters were not significantly different between both groups. Conversely, as compared with triple cART, MPI patients showed a higher proportion of activated monocytes (CD14+ CD16−CD163+ cells, p=0.031), soluble markers of monocyte activation (sCD14 p=0.004, sCD163 p=0.002), microbial translocation (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein; LBP p=0.07), inflammation (IL-6 p=0.04) and low-level viremia (p=0.035). In a multivariate model, a higher level of CD14+ CD16−CD163+ cells and sCD14, and presence of very low-level viremia were independently associated with MPI. Monocyte activation was independently associated with markers of inflammation (IL-6, p=0.006), microbial translocation (LBP, p=0.01) and low-level viremia (p=0.01). Conclusions Patients on MPI showed a higher level of monocyte activation than patients on standard therapy. Microbial translocation and low-level viremia were associated with the high level of monocyte activation observed in patients on MPI. The long-term clinical consequences of these findings should be assessed. PMID:25280865

  18. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. PMID:25887930

  19. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  20. Study Results on Knowledge Requirements for Entry-Level Airport Operations and Management Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilty, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper identifies important topical knowledge areas required of individuals employed in airport operations and management positions. A total of 116 airport managers and airfield operations personnel responded to a survey that sought to identify the importance of various subject matter for entry level airport operations personnel. The results from this study add to the body of research on aviation management curriculum development and can be used to better develop university curriculum and supplemental training focused on airport management and operations. Recommendations are made for specialized airport courses within aviation management programs. Further, this study identifies for job seekers or individuals employed in entry level positions those knowledge requirements deemed important by airport managers and operations personnel at different sized airports.

  1. Summary of FY15 results of benchmark modeling activities

    SciTech Connect

    Arguello, J. Guadalupe

    2015-08-01

    Sandia is participating in the third phase of an is a contributing partner to a U.S.-German "Joint Project" entitled "Comparison of current constitutive models and simulation procedures on the basis of model calculations of the thermo-mechanical behavior and healing of rock salt." The first goal of the project is to check the ability of numerical modeling tools to correctly describe the relevant deformation phenomena in rock salt under various influences. Achieving this goal will lead to increased confidence in the results of numerical simulations related to the secure storage of radioactive wastes in rock salt, thereby enhancing the acceptance of the results. These results may ultimately be used to make various assertions regarding both the stability analysis of an underground repository in salt, during the operating phase, and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier against the release of harmful substances into the biosphere, in the post-operating phase.

  2. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity.

  3. Results of Skylab medical experiment M171: Metabolic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, E. L.; Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Buderer, M. C.; Lem, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to establish whether man's ability to perform mechanical work would be progressively altered as a result of exposure to the weightless environment of space flight. The Skylab crewmen exercised on a bicycle ergometer at workloads approximating 25, 50, and 75 percent of their maximum aerobic capacity. The physiological parameters monitored were respiratory gas exchange, blood pressure, and vectorcardiogram/heart rate. The results of these tests indicate that the crewmen had no significant decrement in their responses to exercise during their exposure to zero gravity. The results of the third manned Skylab mission (Skylab 4) are presented and a comparison is made of the overall results obtained from the three successively longer Skylab manned missions. The Skylab 4 crewmembers' 84-day in-flight responses to exercise were no worse and were probably better than the responses of the crewmen on the first two Skylab missions. Indications that exercise was an important contributing factor in maintaining this response are discussed.

  4. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, E.; Goldenfeld, M.; Shimshoni, M.; Siegel, R.

    1993-03-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stormy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population.

  5. The uses and results of active tetanus immunization

    PubMed Central

    Scheibel, Inga

    1955-01-01

    Both in animal experiments and in the course of two world wars active immunization has proved a safe method of protection against tetanus, and a method superior to passive serum prophylaxis. The three types of vaccine—plain, combined, and precipitated or adsorbed—all have their advantages and disadvantages, and the choice between them must be left to individual national health authorities. They should, however, be administered in two or three doses to confer basic immunity. What amount of circulating antitoxin is necessary to give full protection has not been accurately determined, but it is clear that one recall dose should be given about a year after the first injections as part of the routine course of injections. This seems enough to provide a long-lasting immunity, but a dose of vaccine should also be given at the time of injury. General immunization of the population is not practicable, but children, who are among the groups most at risk, can be immunized relatively simply by combined diphtheria and tetanus vaccine; in many countries, indeed, this is being done on an ever-increasing scale. PMID:13270078

  6. Simulated changes in ground-water levels resulting from proposed phosphate mining, west-central Florida; preliminary results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, William Edward

    1977-01-01

    A digital model of two-dimensional ground-water flow was used to simulate projected changes in the Floridan aquifer potentiometric surface in 1985 and 2000, resulting from proposed ground-water developments by the phosphate mining industry in west-central Florida. The .model was calibrated under steady-state conditions to simulate the September 1975 potentiometric surface. Under one development plan, existing phosphate mines in Polk County would continue to withdraw ground water at 1975 rates, until phased out as the ore is depleted; no new mines would be introduced. Preliminary results indicate that under this plan, maximum simulated recovery of the potentiometric surface is 11.9 feet by 1985 and 36.5 feet by 2000. Under an alternative plan, all proposed mines in Polk, Hardee, DeSoto, Hillsborough and Manatee Counties would begin operations: in addition to the continuation and phasing out of existing mines. Preliminary results indicate that the potentiometric surface would generally recover in Polk County and decline elsewhere in the modeled area. Maximum simulated recovery is 4.5 feet by 1985 and 29.6 feet by 2000; maximum simulated drawdown is 15.1 feet by 1985 and feet by 2000. All results are preliminary and subject to revision as the investigation continues.

  7. Instructions, feedback, and reinforcement in reducing activity levels in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Schulman, J L; Suran, B G; Stevens, T M; Kupst, M J

    1979-01-01

    The biomotometer, an electronic device which simultaneously measures motor activity and provides auditory feedback, was used in combination with material reinforcers in an experiment to reduce children's activity level in a classroom setting. Subjects were nine boys and two girls, aged 9--13, from a day hospital program for emotionally disturbed children. After five baseline trials, each child had five contingent reinforcement trials in which he/she received feedback "beeps" from the biomotometer and was given toy or candy rewards after each trial in which activity fell at least 20% below mean baseline level. Then five noncontingent reinforcement trials were run in which children received rewards for wearing the apparatus without the feedback attachment. Results indicated that the intervention "package," including instructions, feedback, and contingent reinforcement, was successful in all five trials for 8 of 11 children. Activity levels increased during the final noncontingent phase.

  8. Current Results and Proposed Activities in Microgravity Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polezhaev, V. I.

    1996-01-01

    The Institute for Problems in Mechanics' Laboratory work in mathematical and physical modelling of fluid mechanics develops models, methods, and software for analysis of fluid flow, instability analysis, direct numerical modelling and semi-empirical models of turbulence, as well as experimental research and verification of these models and their applications in technological fluid dynamics, microgravity fluid mechanics, geophysics, and a number of engineering problems. This paper presents an overview of the results in microgravity fluid dynamics research during the last two years. Nonlinear problems of weakly compressible and compressible fluid flows are discussed.

  9. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  10. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA. Two hundred…

  11. Association between Physical Activity Levels and Physical Symptoms or Illness among University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Um, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity can cause various physical symptoms or illness. However, few studies on this association have been conducted in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity levels and physical symptoms or illness in young adults. Methods Subjects were university students who participated in a web-based self-administered questionnaire in a university in Seoul in 2013. We obtained information on physical activities and physical symptoms or illness in the past year. Independent variables were defined as symptoms or illness which were associated with decreased academic performance. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each physical symptom or illness with adjustment for covariables. Results A total of 2,201 participants were included in the study. The main physical symptoms or illness among participants were severe fatigue (64.2%), muscle or joint pain (46.3%), gastrointestinal problems (43.1%), headache or dizziness (38.6%), frequent colds (35.1%), and sleep problems (33.3%). Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with high ORs of physical symptoms or illness. Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the lowest vs. highest tertile of physical activity were 1.45 (1.14–1.83) for severe fatigue, 1.35 (1.07–1.70) for frequent colds, and 1.29 (1.02–1.63) for headaches or dizziness. We also found that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more physical symptoms or bouts of illness. Conclusion Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with various physical symptoms or illness among university students. Also, individuals in the lower levels of physical activity were more likely to experience more physical symptoms or bouts of illness than those in the highest tertile of physical activity. PMID:27688861

  12. Preliminary results and future activities at the GARFIELD apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramegna, F.; Mastinu, P. F.; Vannucci, L.; Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Fiandri, L.; Lanchais, A.; Vannini, G.; Casini, G.; Chiari, M.; Nannini, A.; Bonasera, A.; Cavallaro, S.; Cosmano, A.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Abbondanno, U.; Milazzo, P. M.; Margagliotti, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    A new apparatus has been designed and built to study reaction mechanisms in the energy regime of the ALPI linear accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (E/A = 5 - 20 MeV). In this paper the importance of studying these mechanisms will be underlined, no more as a problem limited to a narrow energy range or a single process, but as a continuous trend from low to high energies and from the physics of stable nuclei to that one regarding instabilities. With this remarks in mind, a first experiment has been performed studying the reaction 32S+58Ni at 11AMeV. Preliminary results show that important information can be derived on multi-body emission, which can contribute to renew the interest in this energy regime.

  13. Comparison of results from different NDE techniques from ceramic matrix composites with varying porosity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Imelda; Ojard, Greg; Santhosh, Unni; Ahmad, Jalees; Gowayed, Yasser

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are attractive materials for use in advanced turbine engines. Due to the nature of available processing techniques, however, the amount and distribution of porosity in CMC's can vary greatly. This can be particularly true in parts with complex geometries. It is therefore important to characterize the porosity with non-destructive techniques and understand its effect on properties. A series of CMC samples were fabricated with varying levels of porosity and analyzed with different NDE techniques. The results were categorized and analyzed with respect to ease of interpretation and degree to which they could be quantified and used in models to determine the effects of defects. The results were also correlated with microstructural examination and mechanical properties.

  14. Results of qualification tests on water-level sensing instruments, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, Randolph R.; Rapp, Donald H.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents to users of hydrological instrumentation and U.S. Geological Survey procurement personnel a list of instruments that have met or exceeded the Survey 's minimum performance requirements for water level sensing instruments. The Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility at the National Space Technology Laboratories, Mississippi conducted qualification tests on four instrument systems. The data collected are summarized, brief system descriptions are given, qualification testing purposes and procedures are summarized, and results are given for each of the three systems that met performance requirements. The fourth system was returned to the manufacturer , because in preliminary testing the instrument system did not perform properly according to the manufacturer 's operating procedures. As a result of the qualification tests, the three systems that met performance requirements have been included on the Survey 's Qualified Products List. (USGS)

  15. Oregon Indigenous Farmworkers: Results of Promotor Intervention on Pesticide Knowledge and Organophosphate Metabolite Levels

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Linda; Runkle, Jennifer D.; Samples, Julie; Williams, Bryan; Muniz, Juan F; Semple, Marie; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Examine changes in health beliefs, pesticide safety knowledge, and biomarkers of pesticide exposure in indigenous farmworker who received enhanced pesticide safety training compared to those receiving the standard training. Methods Farmworkers in Oregon were randomly assigned to either a promotores pesticide safety training program or a standard video-based training. Spot urine samples were analyzed for dialkylphosphate (DAP) urinary metabolites. Pre/post intervention questionnaires were used to measure pesticide safety knowledge, health beliefs and work practices. Results Baseline to follow-up improvements in total pesticide knowledge scores were higher in the promotor group compared to the video. Pairwise differences in mean concentrations of DAP metabolite levels showed declines from baseline to follow-up for both intervention groups. Conclusions Results showed reductions in pesticide exposure in indigenous-language speaking farmworkers who receive enhanced pesticide safety training. PMID:24064776

  16. Modelled air pollution levels versus EC air quality legislation - results from high resolution simulation.

    PubMed

    Chervenkov, Hristo

    2013-12-01

    An appropriate method for evaluating the air quality of a certain area is to contrast the actual air pollution levels to the critical ones, prescribed in the legislative standards. The application of numerical simulation models for assessing the real air quality status is allowed by the legislation of the European Community (EC). This approach is preferable, especially when the area of interest is relatively big and/or the network of measurement stations is sparse, and the available observational data are scarce, respectively. Such method is very efficient for similar assessment studies due to continuous spatio-temporal coverage of the obtained results. In the study the values of the concentration of the harmful substances sulphur dioxide, (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter - coarse (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) fraction, ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and ammonia (NH3) in the surface layer obtained from modelling simulations with resolution 10 km on hourly bases are taken to calculate the necessary statistical quantities which are used for comparison with the corresponding critical levels, prescribed in the EC directives. For part of them (PM2.5, CO and NH3) this is done for first time with such resolution. The computational grid covers Bulgaria entirely and some surrounding territories and the calculations are made for every year in the period 1991-2000. The averaged over the whole time slice results can be treated as representative for the air quality situation of the last decade of the former century.

  17. The plasmapause revisited. [Explorer 45 observation at various magnetic activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, N. C.; Grebowsky, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical investigation is conducted concerning the plasmapause behavior observed from Explorer 45 during various levels of magnetic activity. Aspects of data handling are reported and the implications of a constant density level for a plasmapause definition are discussed. The average local time dependence of the gradient saturation events and the sharp saturation events detected on Explorer 45 is shown with the aid of graphs. Other graphs show the results of the statistical processing operations. The significance of the obtained data is discussed.

  18. Balloon-related activities of the IMK/FZK: instruments, activities and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl-Vallon, Felix; Oelhaf, Hermann; Kleinert, Anne; Lengel, Anton; Maucher, Guido; Nordmeyer, Hans; Stowasser, Markus; Wetzel, Gerald; Fischer, Herbert

    2001-08-01

    The Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (IMK/FZK) is operating a balloon-borne instrument for atmospheric research since the late eighties. The MIPAS-B (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - Balloon) instrument, a cryogenic Fourier spectrometer for limb emission measurements has flown 13 times in two different versions from France and Sweden. In this time the instrument has participated in three large international campaigns (EASOE, SESAME, THESEO) and several smaller field-activities (CHORUS, CHELOSBA, POSTA) concerning stratospheric chemistry from which important contributions to the understanding of the Arctic ozone depletion mechanisms have been achieved. Additionally, the instrument participated as core payload in the validation of the Japanese ILAS instrument on-board ADEOS and supported the validation of the American CLAES instrument onboard UARS. MIPAS-B data served also to test the level 2 algorithms for the MIPAS-instrument on-board ENVISAT. Present activities focus on the understanding of the composition and role of polar stratospheric clouds. The second centre of attention in the next years will be the validation of the European satellite sensors GOMOS, MIPAS, and SCIAMACHY with the established MIPAS-B version.

  19. Neural activity underlying tinnitus generation: results from PET and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Lanting, C P; de Kleine, E; van Dijk, P

    2009-09-01

    Tinnitus is the percept of sound that is not related to an acoustic source outside the body. For many forms of tinnitus, mechanisms in the central nervous system are believed to play an important role in the pathology. Specifically, three mechanisms have been proposed to underlie tinnitus: (1) changes in the level of spontaneous neural activity in the central auditory system, (2) changes in the temporal pattern of neural activity, and (3) reorganization of tonotopic maps. The neuroimaging methods fMRI and PET measure signals that presumably reflect the firing rates of multiple neurons and are assumed to be sensitive to changes in the level of neural activity. There are two basic paradigms that have been applied in functional neuroimaging of tinnitus. Firstly, sound-evoked responses as well as steady state neural activity have been measured to compare tinnitus patients to healthy controls. Secondly, paradigms that involve modulation of tinnitus by a controlled stimulus allow for a within-subject comparison that identifies neural activity that may be correlated to the tinnitus percept. Even though there are many differences across studies, the general trend emerging from the neuroimaging studies, is that tinnitus in humans may correspond to enhanced neural activity across several centers of the central auditory system. Also, neural activity in non-auditory areas including the frontal areas, the limbic system and the cerebellum seems associated with the perception of tinnitus. These results indicate that in addition to the auditory system, non-auditory systems may represent a neural correlate of tinnitus. Although the currently published neuroimaging studies typically show a correspondence between tinnitus and enhanced neural activity, it will be important to perform future studies on subject groups that are closely matched for characteristics such as age, gender and hearing loss in order to rule out the contribution of these factors to the abnormalities specifically

  20. Return to sporting activity after Birmingham hip resurfacing arthroplasty: Mid term results

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, Nemandra; Muirhead-Allwood, SK; Skinner, JA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is primarily indicated for young, active patients with disabling coxarthrosis who wish to remain active and return to sports after surgery. Relatively few prospective studies have assessed return to sporting activity and impact of gender and age on this. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine consecutive patients treated with HRA were included. Patients were reviewed clinically and radiologically. Function was assessed using the modified University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score. The Oxford, Harris and WOMAC hip scores were calculated. Results: Average age at the time of surgery was 54.9 years (range 34.5–73.6 years). Average preoperative and postoperative UCLA scores were 4 and 7.6 respectively. Patients were involved in 2 (0–4) sporting activities preoperatively and 2 (0–5) postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative Oxford Hip Scores, Harris Hip Score and WOMAC scores were 40, 46 and 51 and 16, 94 and 3 respectively (P < 0.0001). Patients returned to sports at an average of 3 months postoperatively. Conclusion: Patients were able to return to sports by 3 months and perform the same number of activities at preoperative intensity. Activity levels are maintained up to the medium term with few complications. PMID:26806965

  1. Activity and circadian rhythm influence synaptic Shank3 protein levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarowar, Tasnuva; Chhabra, Resham; Vilella, Antonietta; Boeckers, Tobias M; Zoli, Michele; Grabrucker, Andreas M

    2016-09-01

    Various recent studies revealed that the proteins of the Shank family act as major scaffold organizing elements in the post-synaptic density of excitatory synapses and that their expression level is able to influence synapse formation, maturation and ultimately brain plasticity. An imbalance in Shank3 protein levels has been associated with a variety of neuropsychological and neurodegenerative disorders including autism spectrum disorders and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Given that sleep disorders and low melatonin levels are frequently observed in autism spectrum disorders, and that circadian rhythms may be able to modulate Shank3 signaling and thereby synaptic function, here, we performed in vivo studies on CBA mice using protein biochemistry to investigate the synaptic expression levels of Shank3α during the day in different brain regions. Our results show that synaptic Shank3 protein concentrations exhibit minor oscillations during the day in hippocampal and striatal brain regions that correlate with changes in serum melatonin levels. Furthermore, as circadian rhythms are tightly connected to activity levels in mice, we increased physical activity using running wheels. The expression of Shank3α increases rapidly by induced activity in thalamus and cortex, but decreases in striatum, superimposing the circadian rhythms of different brain regions. We conclude that synaptic Shank3 proteins build highly dynamic platforms that are modulated by the light:dark cycles but even more so driven by activity. Using wild-type CBA mice, we show that Shank3 is a highly dynamic and activity-regulated protein at synapses. In the hippocampus, changes in synaptic Shank3 levels are influenced by circadian rhythm/melatonin concentration, while running activity increases and decreases levels of Shank3 in the cortex and striatum respectively.

  2. Quality of Life, Cortisol Blood Levels and Exercise in Older Adults: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Gioia; Cossu, Giulia; Migliaccio, Gian M; Atzori, Claudio; Nardi, Antonio E; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cortisol plays a central role in the stress response; while high stress can determine physical and psychological impairment, moderate stress, with a mild increase in cortisol level, may have a positive effect on coping and physical performance. This trial attempted to determine whether cortisol levels were associated with Quality of Life (QoL) in a sample of elderly subjects undertaking an exercise program. Methods:42 subjects aged ≥65 years were randomlyassigned in a 1:1 fashion either to a vigorous physical activity (VAG: N=21) or to a postural gimnastic group (PGG: N=21). Differences between the two groups in QoL (on SF-12), and blood cortisol levels were assessed by ANOVA at different times. Results:In both the VAG and PGG, cortisol levels rose at the end of the trial, with statistically significant differences as compared to the baseline. QoL at the end of the trial was higher than in the national normative sample. Cortisol and QoL in both groups decreased slightly 12 weeks after the end of the trial (T2); however, only in the VAG did the difference from the initial level remain statistically significant. At T1 and T2, subjects with higher SF-12 scores were found in subsamples in both groups with cortisol levels moderately increased (between 200 and 300 mg/ml). Conclusion:In a sample of elderly subjects undergoing two different kinds of exercise, a better perception of Quality of Life was associated with a moderate, non-pathological increase in cortisol. The results need to be confirmed by trials on larger samples. PMID:25006344

  3. The Effects of Altered Membrane Cholesterol Levels on Sodium Pump Activity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Metabolic dysfunctions characteristic of overt hypothyroidism (OH) start at the early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Na+/K+-ATPase (the sodium pump) is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a vital role in cellular activities in combination with membrane lipids. We evaluated the effects of early changes in thyroid hormone and membrane cholesterol on sodium pump activity in SCH and OH patients. Methods In 32 SCH patients, 35 OH patients, and 34 euthyroid patients, sodium pump activity and cholesterol levels in red blood cell membranes were measured. Serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences in their mean values were analysed using post hoc analysis of variance. We assessed the dependence of the sodium pump on other metabolites by multiple regression analysis. Results Sodium pump activity and membrane cholesterol were lower in both hypothyroid groups than in control group, OH group exhibiting lower values than SCH group. In SCH group, sodium pump activity showed a significant direct dependence on membrane cholesterol with an inverse relationship with serum TSH levels. In OH group, sodium pump activity depended directly on membrane cholesterol and serum T4 levels. No dependence on serum cholesterol was observed in either case. Conclusion Despite the presence of elevated serum cholesterol in hypothyroidism, membrane cholesterol contributed significantly to maintain sodium pump activity in the cells. A critical reduction in membrane cholesterol levels heralds compromised enzyme activity, even in the early stage of hypothyroidism, and this can be predicted by elevated TSH levels alone, without any evident clinical manifestations. PMID:28256112

  4. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  5. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  6. Interpreting temporal trends in Great Lakes organochlorine levels: Results from the herring gull surveillance program

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L.; Norstrom, R.J.; Weseloh, D.V.

    1995-12-31

    The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the utility of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in Great Lakes contaminant levels. Organochlorine concentrations in herring gull eggs decreased significantly in the 1970s and early 1980s as a result of control measures. Since the mid-1980s, however, concentrations of many compounds have been relatively constant. In addition, periodic fluctuations in egg contaminant concentrations hamper the ability to interpret more recent temporal trends in organochlorine levels. To evaluate the progress towards achieving the virtual elimination of organochlorines from the Great Lakes the authors must improve their understanding of the factors which regulate organochlorine bioaccumulation. This is particularly important for those species which have been selected as key indicators of ecosystem contamination, such as the herring gull. The goal of this paper is to examine some of the factors which may be responsible for the temporal fluctuations in herring gull egg contaminant concentrations. The regulation of contaminant bioavailability and transfer by changes in weather patterns and food web dynamics will be examined.

  7. Spatial learning results in elevated agmatine levels in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Collie, Nicola D; Chary, Sree; Jing, Yu; Zhang, Hu

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that agmatine, a metabolite of L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase, is a novel neurotransmitter, and exogenous agmatine can modulate behavior functions including learning and memory. However, direct evidence of its involvement in learning and memory processes is currently lacking. This study measured agmatine levels in the hippocampus, parahippocampal region, cerebellum, and vestibular nucleus in rats that were trained to find a hidden escape platform in the water-maze task, or forced to swim in the pool with no platform presented, or kept in the holding-box, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Compared with the swimming only group and holding-box group, agmatine levels were significantly increased in the CA1 and dentate gyrus subregions of the hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex and the vestibular nucleus in the water-maze training group. These results, for the first time, demonstrate spatial learning-induced region-specific elevation in agmatine, and raise a novel issue of the involvement of agmatine in the processes of learning and memory.

  8. Castration Therapy of Prostate Cancer Results in Downregulation of HIF-1{alpha} Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ubaidi, Firas L.T.; Schultz, Niklas; Egevad, Lars; Granfors, Torvald; Helleday, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Background and Purpose: Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation in combination with radiotherapy of prostate cancer is used to improve radioresponsiveness and local tumor control. Currently, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Because hypoxia causes resistance to radiotherapy, we wanted to test whether castration affects the degree of hypoxia in prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In 14 patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, six to 12 prostatic needle core biopsy specimens were taken prior to castration therapy. Bilateral orchidectomy was performed in 7 patients, and 7 were treated with a GnRH-agonist (leuprorelin). After castrationm two to four prostatic core biopsy specimens were taken, and the level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in cancer was determined by immunofluorescence. Results: Among biopsy specimens taken before castration, strong HIF-1{alpha} expression (mean intensity above 30) was shown in 5 patients, weak expression (mean intensity 10-30) in 3 patients, and background levels of HIF-1{alpha} (mean intensity 0-10) in 6 patients. Downregulation of HIF-1{alpha} expression after castration was observed in all 5 patients with strong HIF-1{alpha} precastration expression. HIF-1{alpha} expression was also reduced in 2 of 3 patients with weak HIF-1{alpha} precastration expression. Conclusions: Our data suggest that neoadjuvant castration decreases tumor cell hypoxia in prostate cancer, which may explain increased radiosensitivity after castration.

  9. Syzygium cumini inhibits adenosine deaminase activity and reduces glucose levels in hyperglycemic patients.

    PubMed

    Bopp, A; De Bona, K S; Bellé, L P; Moresco, R N; Moretto, M B

    2009-08-01

    Syzigium cumini (L.) Skeels from the Myrtaceae family is among the most common medicinal plants used to treat diabetes in Brazil. Leaves, fruits, and barks of S. cumini have been used for their hypoglycemic activity. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an important enzyme that plays a relevant role in purine and DNA metabolism, immune responses, and peptidase activity. ADA is suggested to be an important enzyme for modulating the bioactivity of insulin, but its clinical significance in diabetes mellitus (DM) has not yet been proven. In this study, we examined the effect of aqueous leaf extracts of S. cumini (L.) (ASC) on ADA activity of hyperglycemic subjects and the activity of total ADA, and its isoenzymes in serum and erythrocytes. The present study indicates that: (i) the ADA activity in hyperglycemic serum was higher than normoglycemic serum and ADA activity was higher when the blood glucose level was more elevated; (ii) ASC (60-1000 microg/mL) in vitro caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of total ADA activity and a decrease in the blood glucose level in serum; (iii) ADA1 and 2 were reduced both in erythrocytes and in hyperglycemic serum. These results suggest that the decrease of ADA activity provoked by ASC may contribute to control adenosine levels and the antioxidant defense system of red cells and could be related to the complex ADA/DPP-IV-CD26 and the properties of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors which serve as important regulators of blood glucose.

  10. Can exergaming contribute to improving physical activity levels and health outcomes in children?

    PubMed

    Daley, Amanda J

    2009-08-01

    Physical inactivity among children is a serious public health problem. It has been suggested that high levels of screen time are contributory factors that encourage sedentary lifestyles in young people. As physical inactivity and obesity levels continue to rise in young people, it has been proposed that new-generation active computer- and video-console games (otherwise known as "exergaming") may offer the opportunity to contribute to young people's energy expenditure during their free time. Although studies have produced some encouraging results regarding the energy costs involved in playing active video-console games, the energy costs of playing the authentic versions of activity-based video games are substantially larger, highlighting that active gaming is no substitute for real sports and activities. A small number of exergaming activities engage children in moderate-intensity activity, but most do not. Only 3 very small trials have considered the effects of exergaming on physical activity levels and/or other health outcomes in children. Evidence from these trials has been mixed; positive trends for improvements in some health outcomes in the intervention groups were noted in 2 trials. No adequately powered randomized, controlled trial has been published to date, and no trial has assessed the long-term impact of exergaming on children's health. We now need high-quality randomized, controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of exergaming, as well as its clinical relevance; until such studies take place, we should remain cautious about its ability to positively affect children's health.

  11. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed.

  12. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  13. Effects of curricular activity on students' situational motivation and physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students'situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve students in grades 7-9 participated in three activities (cardiovascular fitness, ultimate football, and Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]) in physical education. ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers were used to measure students' PA levels for three classes for each activity. Students also completed a Situational Motivation Scale (Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) at the end of each class. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that students spent significantly higher percentages of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in fitness and football classes than they did in DDR class. Students reported higher lM and IR toward fitness than DDR They also scored higher in IR toward fitness than football. In contrast, students displayed significantly lower AM toward fitness than football and DDR Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that IM was the only positive predictor for time in MVPA (p = .02), whereas AM was the negative predictor (p < .01). The findings are discussed in regard to the implications for educational practice.

  14. Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Level Activity Glass Melts

    SciTech Connect

    Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, S.K.; Daniel, William E., Jr.

    2006-06-01

    The primary objectives of the current research is to develop on-line sensors for characterizing molten glass in high-level and low-activity waste glass melters using millimeter-wave (MMW) technology and to use this technology to do novel research of melt dynamics. Existing and planned waste glass melters lack sophisticated diagnostics due to the hot, corrosive, and radioactive melter environments. Without process control diagnostics, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at Hanford operate by a feed forward process control scheme that relies on predictive models with large uncertainties. This scheme severely limits production throughput and waste loading. Also operations at DWPF have shown susceptibility to anomalies such as pouring, foaming, and combustion gas build up, which can seriously disrupt operations. Future waste chemistries will be even more challenging. The scientific goals of this project are to develop new reliable on-line monitoring capability for important glass process parameters such as temperature profiles, emissivity, density, viscosity, and other characteristics using the unique advantages of millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation that can be eventually implemented in the operating melters. Once successfully developed and implemented, significant cost savings would be realized in melter operations by increasing production through put, reduced storage volumes (through higher waste loading), and reduced risks (prevention or mitigation of anomalies).

  15. Are self-reported physical activity levels associated with perceived desirability of activity-friendly communities?

    PubMed

    Librett, John J; Yore, Michelle M; Schmid, Thomas L; Kohl, Harold W

    2007-09-01

    People living in activity-friendly communities (AFCs) are more active but the self-selection influence is unknown. From 4856 respondents we explored mediating variables with expressed desire to live in AFCs. Association with desire to live in AFCs included ages 18-24 years (odds ratio [OR]=1.9), African American (OR=1.9) or Hispanic (OR=1.5), and believing AFCs would support activity-based transportation (OR=2.4). Regular physical activity (PA) was marginally associated with desire to live in AFCs (OR=1.3). These findings suggest that PA may be a significant factor in communities of this style. Strategies for social marketing along with changes to the built environment to increase PA levels are discussed.

  16. Elevated furin levels in human cystic fibrosis cells result in hypersusceptibility to exotoxin A–induced cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ornatowski, Wojciech; Poschet, Jens F.; Perkett, Elizabeth; Taylor-Cousar, Jennifer L.; Deretic, Vojo

    2007-01-01

    Progressive pulmonary disease and infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa remain an intractable problem in cystic fibrosis (CF). At the cellular level, CF is characterized by organellar hyperacidification, which results in altered protein and lipid glycosylation. Altered pH of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) may further disrupt the protein processing and packaging that occurs in this organelle. Here we measured activity of the major TGN endoprotease furin and demonstrated a marked upregulation in human CF cells. Increased furin activity was linked to elevated production in CF of the immunosuppressive and tissue remodeling cytokine TGF-β and its downstream effects, including macrophage deactivation and augmented collagen secretion by epithelial cells. As furin is responsible for the proteolytic processing of a range of endogenous and exogenous substrates including growth factors and bacterial toxins, we determined that elevated furin-dependent activation of exotoxin A caused increased cell death in CF respiratory epithelial cells compared with genetically matched CF transmembrane conductance regulator–corrected cells. Thus elevated furin levels in CF respiratory epithelial cells contributes to bacterial toxin–induced cell death, fibrosis, and local immunosuppression. These data suggest that the use of furin inhibitors may represent a strategy for pharmacotherapy in CF. PMID:17948127

  17. Pyrazinoic acid decreases the proton motive force, respiratory ATP synthesis activity, and cellular ATP levels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Haagsma, Anna C; Pham, Hoang; Maaskant, Janneke J; Mol, Selena; Lill, Holger; Bald, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Pyrazinoic acid, the active form of the first-line antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide, decreased the proton motive force and respiratory ATP synthesis rates in subcellular mycobacterial membrane assays. Pyrazinoic acid also significantly lowered cellular ATP levels in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. These results indicate that the predominant mechanism of killing by this drug may operate by depletion of cellular ATP reserves.

  18. COMPARISON OF NOVORONEZH UNIT 5 NPP AND SOUTH UKRAINE UNIT 1 NPP LEVEL I PRA RESULTS.

    SciTech Connect

    MUSICKI,Z.; GINSBERG,T.

    2002-04-18

    This paper describes a study undertaken to explain the risk profile differences in the results of PRAs of two similar WER-1000 nuclear power plants. The risk profile differences are particularly significant in the area of small steam/feedwater line breaks, small-small LOCAs, support system initiators and containment bypass initiators. A top level (limited depth) approach was used in which we studied design differences, major assumptions, data differences, and also compared the two PRA analyses on an element-by-element basis in order to discern the major causative factors for the risk profile differences. We conclude that the major risk profile differences are due to differences in assumptions and engineering judgment (possibly combined with some design and data differences) involved in treatment of uncertain physical phenomena (primarily sump plugging in LOCAs and turbine building steaming effects in secondary system breaks). Additional major differences are attributable to support system characteristics.

  19. Post-processing V&V level II ASC milestone (2360) results.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Elmer; Karelitz, David B.; Brunner, Thomas A.; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Moreland, Kenneth D.; Weirs, V. Gregory; Shead, Timothy M.

    2007-09-01

    The 9/30/2007 ASC Level 2 Post-Processing V&V Milestone (Milestone 2360) contains functionality required by the user community for certain verification and validation tasks. These capabilities include loading of edge and face data on an Exodus mesh, run-time computation of an exact solution to a verification problem, delivery of results data from the server to the client, computation of an integral-based error metric, simultaneous loading of simulation and test data, and comparison of that data using visual and quantitative methods. The capabilities were tested extensively by performing a typical ALEGRA HEDP verification task. In addition, a number of stretch criteria were met including completion of a verification task on a 13 million element mesh.

  20. Results of qualification tests on water-level sensing instruments, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olive, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey 's Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility at the Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, conducts qualification tests on water level sensing instruments. Instrument systems, which meet or exceed the Survey 's minimum performance requirements, are placed on the Survey 's Qualified Products List. The qualification tests conducted in 1987 added two instrument systems to the Survey 's Qualified Products List. One system met requirements for use at a daily-discharge station , and the other system met requirements for a special-case station. The report is prepared for users of hydrologic instruments. The report provides a list of instrument features, describes the instrument systems, summarizes test procedures, and presents test results for the two instrument systems that met the Survey 's minimum performance standards for the 1987 round of qualification tests. (USGS)

  1. Comparison of Novovoronezh Unit 5 NPP and South Ukraine Unit 1 NPP Level 1 PRA Results

    SciTech Connect

    Musicki, Zoran; Ginsberg, Ted

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a study undertaken to explain the risk profile differences in the results of PRAs of two similar VVER-1000 nuclear power plants. The risk profile differences are particularly significant in the area of small steam/feedwater line breaks, small-small LOCAs, support system initiators and containment bypass initiators. A top level (limited depth) approach was used in which we studied design differences, major assumptions, data differences, and also compared the two PRA analyses on an element-by-element basis in order to discern the major causative factors for the risk profile differences. We conclude that the major risk profile differences are due to differences in assumptions and engineering judgment (possibly combined with some design and data differences) involved in treatment of uncertain physical phenomena (primarily sump plugging in LOCAs and turbine building steaming effects in secondary system breaks). Additional major differences are attributable to support system characteristics. (authors)

  2. Calpain expression in lymphoid cells. Increased mRNA and protein levels after cell activation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Chakrabarti, A K; Barbosa, E; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-02-10

    Although calpain is ubiquitously present in human tissues and is thought to play a role in demyelination, its activity is very low in resting normal lymphocytes. To determine the nature of calpain expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human lymphoid cells, we studied human T lymphocytic, B lymphocytic, and monocytic lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Stimulation of cells with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in increased calpain mRNA and protein expression. Calpain mRNA expression is also increased in human T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. A dissociation between the increases of RNA and protein suggested that calpain could be released from the cells; the subsequent experiments showed its presence in the extracellular environment. 5,6-Dichloro-1b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a reversible inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, reduced calpain mRNA levels by 50-67% and protein levels by 72-91%. Its removal resulted in resumption of both calpain mRNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, reduced calpain protein levels by 77-81% and calpain mRNA levels by 96% in activated THP-1 cells. Interferon-gamma induced calpain mRNA and protein in U-937 and THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone increased mRNA expression in THP-1 cells. Our results indicate that activation of lymphoid cells results in de novo synthesis and secretion of calpain.

  3. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity.

  4. Can leisure-time physical activity improve health checkup results? Evidence from Japanese occupational panel data

    PubMed Central

    Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the extent to which changes in worker health, as measured by health checkup items, were associated with increased intensity of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) after controlling for individual time-invariant attributes. Methods: We used panel data from two to four waves of a Japanese occupational cohort survey, focusing on 30,206 observations of 10,106 individuals (7,669 men and 2,437 women) aged 18-76 years. We estimated first-difference and mean-centered fixed effects models to examine how changes in 10 health checkup items were associated with changes in LTPA intensity. We considered four LTPA intensity levels (none, low, moderate, and vigorous), based on self-reported assessments. Results: For men, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, glycated hemoglobin levels, body mass index, and waist circumference improved when LTPA intensity was increased even at a low level, whereas triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose levels improved when LTPA intensity was increased to moderate or vigorous levels. Blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) and total cholesterol levels were only modestly responsive to changes in LTPA intensity. For women, blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) and waist circumference were negatively associated with LTPA intensity, whereas the other variables showed more modest effects. Conclusions: The results suggest that even low- to moderate-intensity LTPA can improve health checkup results; however, the lowest LTPA intensity associated with improvement in health depends on health-risk factors as well as gender. PMID:27265532

  5. Low-level occupational 14C contamination--results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stenström, Kristina; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Mattsson, Sören

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a pilot study in which specific activities of 14C in hair and urine from 11 radiation workers handling 14C-containing substances have been measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Varying degrees of contamination were revealed: up to 63% excess in hair and 400% excess in urine. Although the 14C excess reported in this study would result in low effective doses, it would be of interest to monitor the situation at other workplaces with potentially higher risks of contamination. Simultaneous measurements of 14C in hair and urine with additional random measurements of 14C in faeces and exhaled air could provide a means of improving dose estimates for workers handling different types of 14C-containing substances.

  6. The gut microbiome and degradation enzyme activity of wild freshwater fishes influenced by their trophic levels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Guo, Xianwu; Gooneratne, Ravi; Lai, Ruifang; Zeng, Cong; Zhan, Fanbin; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity. PMID:27072196

  7. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  8. Postgraduation Activities: All Degree Levels in Pennsylvania, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donny, William F.

    The employment of graduates of all degree levels in Pennsylvania institutions of higher education was assessed in 1980, based on data for 48,162 graduates, or 54.3 percent of the graduates at all degree levels. Attention was directed to the proportions of graduates in each degree field and level: (1) employed in their fields of preparation, (2)…

  9. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  10. Digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin in embryonic redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarnatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wen; Zhao, Yunlong; Zhou, Zhongliang; An, Chuanguang; Ma, Qiang

    2008-02-01

    The digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin during the embryonic development of Cherax quadricarinatus were analyzed using biochemical and Fluorogenic Quantitative PCR (FQ—PCR) methods. The results show that the activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin had two different change patterns. Trypsin specific activity increased rapidly in the early stages of development and still remained high in preparation for the hatch stage. However, chymotrypsin activity peaked in stage 4 of embryonic development and decreased significantly in the last stage. The mRNA level of trypsin was elevated in all stages and two peak values were observed in stages 2 and 5 respectively. The results indicate that trypsin is very important for the utilization of the yolk during embryonic development and for the assimilation of dietary protein for larvae. The gene of trypsin is probably regulated at transcriptional level. The mRNA levels of trypsin can reflect not only trypsin activity, but also the regulatory mechanism for expression of trypsin gene to a certain degree.

  11. Weight gain prevention in the school worksite setting: Results of a multi-level cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie C.; Wang, Monica L.; Wedick, Nicole M.; Estabrook, Barbara; Druker, Susan; Schneider, Kristin L.; Li, Wenjun; Pbert, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the effectiveness, reach and implementation of a weight gain prevention intervention among public school employees. Method A multi-level intervention was tested in a cluster randomized trial among 782 employees in 12 central Massachusetts public high schools from 2009 to 2012. The intervention targeted the nutrition and physical activity environment and policies, the social environment and individual knowledge, attitudes and skills. The intervention was compared to a materials only condition. The primary outcome measures were change in weight and body mass index (BMI) at 24-month follow-up. Implementation of physical environment, policy and social environment strategies at the school and interpersonal levels, and intervention participation at the individual level were assessed. Results At 24-month follow-up, there was a net change (difference of the difference) of −3.03 pounds (p=.04) and of −.48 BMI units (p=.05) between intervention and comparison conditions. The majority of intervention strategies were successfully implemented by all intervention schools, although establishing formal policies was challenging. Employee participation in programs targeting the physical and social environment was maintained over time. Conclusion This study supports that a multi-level intervention integrated within the organizational culture can be successfully implemented and prevent weight gain in public high school employees. PMID:24345602

  12. A Survey of Physical Activity Levels of Certified Athletic Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuppett, Marchell; Latin, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the physical activities of certified athletic trainers (ATCs), both at work and at leisure. Survey data indicated that those who worked in clinical versus school settings had the highest mean total activity score. Females scored significantly higher than males. The mean total index activity of the over-36-years-old group was…

  13. Use of a consumer market activity monitoring and feedback device improves exercise capacity and activity levels in COPD.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Kaljo, Indira; Donnelly, Seamas

    2014-01-01

    COPD is associated with a gradual decline in physical activity, which itself contributes to a worsening of the underlying condition. Strategies that improve physical activity levels are critical to halt this cycle. Wearable sensor based activity monitoring and persuasive feedback might offer a potential solution. However it is not clear just how much intervention might be needed in this regard - i.e. whether programmes need to be tailored specifically for the target clinical population or whether more simple activity monitoring and feedback solutions, such as that offered in consumer market devices, might be sufficient. This research was carried out to investigate the impact of 4 weeks of using an off the shelf consumer market activity monitoring and feedback application on measures of physical activity, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in a population of 10 Stage I and II COPD patients. Results demonstrate a significant and positive effect on exercise capacity (measured using a 6-minute walk test) and activity levels (measured in terms of average number of steps per hour) yet no impact on health related quality of life (St Georges Respiratory Disease Questionnaire).

  14. Sentinel-2 Level 2A Prototype Processor: Architecture, Algorithms And First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller-Wilm, Uwe; Louis, Jerome; Richter, Rudolf; Gascon, Ferran; Niezette, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Sen2Core is a prototype processor for Sentinel-2 Level 2A product processing and formatting. The processor is developed for and with ESA and performs the tasks of Atmospheric Correction and Scene Classification of Level 1C input data. Level 2A outputs are: Bottom-Of- Atmosphere (BOA) corrected reflectance images, Aerosol Optical Thickness-, Water Vapour-, Scene Classification maps and Quality indicators, including cloud and snow probabilities. The Level 2A Product Formatting performed by the processor follows the specification of the Level 1C User Product.

  15. Influence of the Solar Luminosity on the Glaciations, sea Level Changes and Resulting Earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shopov, Y. Y.; Stoykova, D. A.; Tsankov, L. T.; Sanabria, M. E.; Georgieva, D. I.; Ford, D. C.; Georgiev, L. N.

    2002-12-01

    Glaciations were attributed to variations of the Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles). But the best ever dated paleoclimatic record (from Devils Hole, Nevada) demonstrated that the end of the last glacial period (termination II) happened 10 000 years before the one suggested by the orbital variations, i.e. the result appeared before the reason. This fact suggests that there is something wrong in the theory. Calcite speleothems luminescence of organics depends exponentially upon soil temperatures that are determined primarily by the solar radiation. So the microzonality of luminescence of speleothems may be used as an indirect Solar Insolation (radiation) proxy index. We obtained luminescence solar insolation proxy records in speleothems (from Jewel Cave, South Dakota, US and Duhlata cave, Bulgaria). These records exhibit very rapid increasing of the solar insolation at 139 kyrs BP responsible for the termination II (the end of the last glaciation) and demonstrate that solar luminosity variations contribute to Earth's heating almost as much as the orbital variations of the Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles). The most powerful cycle of the solar luminosity (11500 yrs) is responsible for almost 1/2 of the variations in solar insolation experimental records. Changes in the speed of Earth's rotation during glacial- interglacial transitions produce fracturing of the Earth's crust and major earthquakes along the fractures. The intensity of this process is as higher as faster is the change of the sea level and as higher is its amplitude. Glaciations and deglaciations drive changes of the sea level. Much higher dimensions of this process should be caused by eruptive increasing of solar luminosity, which may be caused only by collision of large asteroids with the Sun. We demonstrate that such collision may cause "Bible Deluge" type of event.

  16. Levels of aggressiveness are higher among alcohol-related suicides: results from a psychological autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Chachamovich, Eduardo; Ding, Yang; Turecki, Gustavo

    2012-09-01

    Suicide is one of the major causes of deaths worldwide. Several studies have showed that alcohol use disorders (AUD) are associated with suicide ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide completion. The majority of the theoretical conceptualization and the bulk of evidence on suicidal behavior and AUD are based on investigations of nonfatal cases because data on nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more readily available. This study aims to explore demographic, clinical, and behavioral dimensions in a large sample of alcohol-related suicides compared to an age-gender matched sample of non-AUD suicides to identify specific factors associated with AUD suicides. We conducted a psychological autopsy study with 158 pairs of AUD and non-AUD suicides. Findings showed that AUD suicides have lower educational level, more biological children and were more likely to be heavy smokers (OR=3.32). Cases were more likely to have family history of alcohol (OR=1.73) and drug abuse (OR=3.61). Subjects had similar prevalences of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders or psychotic disorders. AUD suicides were more likely to meet criteria for current cocaine abuse/dependence (OR=6.64). With respect to personality disorders, AUD suicides presented higher prevalence of Antisocial Personality Disorder (OR=4.68), and were less likely to meet criteria for Avoidant (OR=0.26) and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders (OR=0.35). Impulsivity scores were higher in AUD suicides (p=0.18), as well as aggression scores (p<0.001). Results form the conditional logistic regression models showed that cocaine abuse/dependence (OR=4.20) and Antisocial Personality Disorder (OR=6.24) were associated with AUD suicide. After controlling for impulsive-aggressive behaviors, levels of aggression were the only psychopathological feature statistically different between AUD and non-AUD suicides (OR=1.28). In conclusion, higher levels of aggressive behaviors are a specific characteristic of AUD suicides. Apart from

  17. Delayed onset of electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis relative to the vastus lateralis may be related to physical activity levels in females with patellofemoral pain.

    PubMed

    Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Ferreira, Amanda Schenatto; Ferrari, Deisi; de Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to examine group differences in muscle activation onset of the vastus medialis (VM) in relation to the vastus lateralis (VL) and pain level during stair ascent in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP) who maintain high and moderate levels of physical activity; to determine the association between physical activity level and muscle activation onset. Forty-three females with PFP and thirty-eight pain-free females were recruited and divided into four groups based on their level of physical activity: females with PFP (n=26) and pain-free females (n=26) who practiced a moderate level of physical activity and females with PFP (n=17) and pain-free females (n=12) who practiced an intense amount of physical activity. Participants were asked to ascend a seven-step staircase and the VM and VL activation onset was determined. Females with PFP who practiced high level of physical activity demonstrated delayed onset of VM (4.06ms) compared to healthy females (-14.4ms). Conversely, females with PFP who practiced moderate level of physical activity did not present VM delay (-2.48ms) in comparison to healthy females (-9.89ms). Furthermore, physical activity significantly correlated to the muscle activation onset difference (p=0.005; R=0.60). These findings may explain why controversial results regarding VM and VL muscle activation onset have been found.

  18. High fat diet feeding results in gender specific steatohepatitis and inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Michal; Csak, Timea; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To develop an animal model that encompasses the different facets of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which has been a challenge. METHODS: In this study, we used a high fat diet (HFD) feeding supplemented with fructose and sucrose in the water mimicking the high-fructose corn syrup that is abundant in the diet in the United States. We used C57Bl/6 wild-type mice for short and long-term feedings of 6 and 16 wk respectively, and evaluated the extent of liver damage, steatosis, and inflammasome activation. Our methods included histopathological analysis to assess liver damage and steatosis, which involved H and E and oil-red-o staining; biochemical studies to look at ALT and triglyceride levels; RNA analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction; and cytokine analysis, which included the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to look at interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) levels. Furthermore, at each length of feeding we also looked at insulin resistance and glucose tolerance using insulin tolerance tests (ITT) and glucose tolerance tests. RESULTS: There was no insulin resistance, steatosis, or inflammasome activation at 6 wk. In contrast, at 16 wk we found significant insulin resistance demonstrated by impaired glucose and ITT in male, but not female mice. In males, elevated alanine aminotransferase and triglyceride levels, indicated liver damage and steatosis, respectively. Increased liver TNFα and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA and protein, correlated with steatohepatitis. The inflammasome components, adaptor molecule, Aim2, and NOD-like receptor 4, increased at the mRNA level, and functional inflammasome activation was indicated by increased caspase-1 activity and IL-1β protein levels in male mice fed a long-term HFD. Male mice on HFD had increased α-smooth muscle actin and pro-collagen-1 mRNA indicating evolving fibrosis. In contrast, female mice displayed only elevated triglyceride levels, steatosis, and no

  19. Effect of Cognitive Activity Level on Duration of Post-Concussion Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Naomi J.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Gostine, David; Collins, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cognitive activity level on duration of post-concussion symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients who presented to a Sports Concussion Clinic within 3 weeks of injury between October 2009 and July 2011. At each visit, patients completed a scale that recorded their average level of cognitive activity since the previous visit. The product of cognitive activity level and days between visits (cognitive activity-days) was calculated and divided into quartiles. Kaplan-Meier Product Limit method was used to generate curves of symptom duration based on cognitive activity level. To adjust for other possible predictors of concussion recovery, we constructed a Cox proportional hazard model with cognitive activity-days as the main predictor. RESULTS: Of the 335 patients included in the study, 62% were male, 19% reported a loss of consciousness, and 37% reported experiencing amnesia at the time of injury. The mean age of participants was 15 years (range, 8–23) and the mean number of previous concussions was 0.76; 39% of athletes had sustained a previous concussion. The mean Post-Concussion Symptom Scale score at the initial visit was 30 (SD, 26). The overall mean duration of symptoms was 43 days (SD, 53). Of all variables assessed, only total symptom burden at initial visit and cognitive activity level were independently associated with duration of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Increased cognitive activity is associated with longer recovery from concussion. This study supports the use of cognitive rest and adds to the current consensus opinion. PMID:24394679

  20. Reduced levels of folate transporters (PCFT and RFC) in membrane lipid rafts result in colonic folate malabsorption in chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2011-03-01

    We studied the effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on folate transport across the colonic apical membranes (CAM) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed 1 g/kg body weight/day ethanol (20%) solution orally for 3 months and folate transport was studied in the isolated colon apical membrane vesicles. The folate transport was found to be carrier mediated, saturable, with pH optima at 5.0. Chronic ethanol ingestion reduced the folate transport across the CAM by decreasing the affinity of transporters (high Km) for the substrate and by decreasing the number of transporter molecules (low Vmax) on the colon luminal surface. The decreased transport activity at the CAM was associated with down-regulation of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and the reduced folate carrier (RFC) which resulted in decreased PCFT and RFC protein levels in the colon of rats fed alcohol chronically. Moreover, the PCFT and the RFC were found to be distributed in detergent insoluble fraction of the CAM in rats. Floatation experiments on Optiprep density gradients demonstrated the association of the PCFT and the RFC protein with lipid rafts (LR). Chronic alcoholism decreased the PCFT and the RFC protein levels in the CAM LR in accordance with the decreased synthesis. Hence, we propose that downregulation in the expression of the PCFT and the RFC in colon results in reduced levels of these transporters in colon apical membrane LR as a mechanism of folate malabsorption during chronic alcoholism.

  1. Chill activation of compatible solute transporters in Corynebacterium glutamicum at the level of transport activity.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Nuran; Krämer, Reinhard; Morbach, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    The gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum harbors four osmoregulated secondary uptake systems for compatible solutes, BetP, EctP, LcoP, and ProP. When reconstituted in proteoliposomes, BetP was shown to sense hyperosmotic conditions via the increase in luminal K(+) and to respond by instant activation. To study further putative ways of stimulus perception and signal transduction, we have investigated the responses of EctP, LcoP, and BetP, all belonging to the betaine-carnitine-choline transporter family, to chill stress at the level of activity. When fully activated by hyperosmotic stress, they showed the expected increase of activity at increasing temperature. In the absence of osmotic stress, EctP was not activated by chill and LcoP to only a very low extent, whereas BetP was significantly stimulated at low temperature. BetP was maximally activated at 10 degrees C, reaching the same transport rate as that observed under hyperosmotic conditions at this temperature. A role of cytoplasmic K(+) in chill-dependent activation of BetP was ruled out, since (i) the cytoplasmic K(+) concentration did not change significantly at lower temperatures and (ii) a mutant BetP lacking the C-terminal 25 amino acids, which was previously shown to have lost the ability to be activated by luminal K(+), was fully competent in chill sensing. When heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, BetP did not respond to chill stress. This may indicate that the membrane in which BetP is inserted plays an important role in chill activation and thus in signal transduction by BetP, different from the previously established K(+)-mediated process.

  2. Shifts in microbial community in response to dissolved oxygen levels in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Trilok Chandra; Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Kapley, Atya

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the degradative efficiency of activated biomass collected from a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) under three different dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, 1, 2 and 4mgl(-1). The change in bacterial diversity with reference to DO levels was also analyzed. Results demonstrate that degradative efficiency was the highest, when the reactor was maintained at 4mgl(-1) DO, but amplicon library analysis showed a greater diversity of bacteria in the reactor maintained at 2mgl(-1) DO. Bacteria belonging to the order Desulfuromonadales, Entomoplasmatales, Pasteurellales, Thermales and Chloroflexales have only been detected in this reactor. Ammonia and nitrate levels in all three reactors indicated efficient nitrification process. Results of this study offer new insights into understanding the performance of activated biomass vis-à-vis microbial diversity and degradative efficiency with reference to DO. This information would be useful in improving the efficiency of any wastewater treatment plant.

  3. Physical Activity Levels and Domains Assessed by Accelerometry in German Adolescents from GINIplus and LISAplus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maia P.; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is a well-known and underused protective factor for numerous health outcomes, and interventions are hampered by lack of objective data. We combined accelerometers with diaries to estimate the contributions to total activity from different domains throughout the day and week in adolescents. Methods Accelerometric and diary data from 1403 adolescents (45% male, mean age 15.6 ± 0.5 years) were combined to evaluate daily levels and domains of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during a typical week. Freedson’s cutoff points were applied to determine levels of activity. Total activity was broken down into school physical education (PE), school outside PE, transportation to school, sport, and other time. Results About 2/3 of adolescents’ time was spent sedentary, 1/3 in light activity, and about 5% in MVPA. Boys and girls averaged 46 (SD 22) and 38 (23) minutes MVPA per day. Adolescents were most active during leisure sport, spending about 30% of it in MVPA, followed by PE (about 20%) transport to school (14%) and either school class time or other time (3%). PE provided 5% of total MVPA, while leisure sport provided 16% and transportation to school 8%. School was the most sedentary part of the day with over 75% of time outside PE spent sedentary. Conclusions These German adolescents were typical of Europeans in showing low levels of physical activity, with significant contributions from leisure sport, transportation and school PE. Leisure sport was the most active part of the day, and participation did not vary significantly by sex, study center (region of Germany) or BMI. Transportation to school was frequent and thus accounted for a significant fraction of total MVPA. This indicates that even in a population with good access to dedicated sporting activities, frequent active transportation can add significantly to total MVPA. PMID:27010227

  4. Physical activity levels determine exercise-induced changes in brain excitability

    PubMed Central

    Fassett, Hunter J.; Nelson, Aimee J.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that regular physical activity can impact cortical function and facilitate plasticity. In the present study, we examined how physical activity levels influence corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuitry in motor cortex following a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced short-term plasticity differed between high versus low physically active individuals. Participants included twenty-eight young, healthy adults divided into two equal groups based on physical activity level determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: low-to-moderate (LOW) and high (HIGH) physical activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess motor cortex excitability via motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle at rest (MEPREST) and during tonic contraction (MEPACTIVE), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). All dependent measures were obtained in the resting FDI muscle, with the exception of AMT and MEPACTIVE recruitment curves that were obtained during tonic FDI contraction. Dependent measures were acquired before and following moderate intensity aerobic exercise (20 mins, ~60% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate) performed on a recumbent cycle ergometer. Results indicate that MEPREST recruitment curve amplitudes and area under the recruitment curve (AURC) were increased following exercise in the HIGH group only (p = 0.002 and p = 0.044, respectively). SICI and ICF were reduced following exercise irrespective of physical activity level (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). MEPACTIVE recruitment curves and SICF were unaltered by exercise. These findings indicate that the propensity for exercise-induced plasticity is different in high versus low physically active individuals. Additionally, these data highlight that a single session of

  5. Results of the pilot proof of the inquiry activities conducted in the science center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireš, Marián; BilišÅanská, Mária

    2017-01-01

    The science center SteelPARK Košice offers more than 60 interactive exhibits focused on presenting scientific principles and technical solutions connected to the production and manufacture of steel, research of its properties and its various industrial uses. We are trying to enhance the attractivity of the modern style of the exhibitions and its potential to engage students of ground and middle schools in acquiring new knowledge and capabilities, by means of the inquiry science center. Two laboratory measurements, for 5 three-person teams are provided once a month. During the introductory discussion on the activity, they are asked to answer a series of conceptual questions, which help determine their level of understanding at the beginning of the exercise. The measurements are based in guided inquiry, where the work progress is given a forehand, but the desired result is not. Every activity is focused on developing specific research capabilities. This is being monitored through a self-evaluation card, which every participants is required to fill out immediately after completing the activity. The work is tutored by a lecturer from the students of didactics. During two years and running 15 different activities, we have been able to gather information from more than 6000 students of ground and middle schools. Specific physics measurements, their respective conceptual questions, worksheets and final reports are being presented in this article. We evaluate the present level of conceptual understanding based on the acquired data and give recommendation to teachers on ways to improve the student's capabilities. The teacher, by way of observing the activity, the work of the lecturer and the students, is able to form an understanding of the inquiry activity for their own school practice, for which he/she can use all available methodical and work materials.

  6. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A.; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8 ± 0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). Results On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4–76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km2 (95% CI 1.3–3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2–24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1–23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3–34.3) elsewhere. Conclusion School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered. PMID:26807349

  7. Tadpole swimming performance and activity affected by acute exposure to sublethal levels of carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    General activity and swimming performance (i.e., sprint speed and distance) of plains leopard frog tadpoles (Rana blairi) were examined after acute exposure to three sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (3.5, 5.0, and 7.2 mg/L). Both swimming performance and spontaneous swimming activity are important for carrying out life history functions (e.g., growth and development) and for escaping from predators. Measured tadpole activity diminished by nearly 90% at 3.5 mg/L carbaryl and completely ceased at 7.2 mg/L. Sprint speed and sprint distance also decreased significantly following exposure. Carbaryl affected both swimming performance and activity after just 24 h, suggesting that 24 h may be an adequate length of exposure to determine behavioral effects on tadpoles. Slight recovery of activity levels was noted at 24 and 48 h post-exposure; no recovery of swimming performance was observed. Reduction in activity and swimming performance may result in increased predation rates and, because activity is closely associated with feeding, may result in slowed growth leading to a failure to emerge before pond drying or an indirect reduction in adult fitness. Acute exposure to sublethal toxicants such as carbaryl may not only affect immediate survival of tadpoles but also impact critical life history functions and generate changes at the local population level.

  8. Postgraduation Activities: All Degree Levels in Pennsylvania, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donny, William F.

    The employment of graduates of all degree levels in Pennsylvania institutions of higher education in 1979 was examined, based on data for 44,875 graduates or 50.6 percent of all higher education graduates. Research was designed to determine what proportion of graduates in each degree field and degree level were employed in their fields of…

  9. Physical Activity Level and Symptom Duration Are Not Associated After Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Howell, David R.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; Quinn, Bridget; Taylor, J. Andrew; Tan, Can Ozan; Meehan, William P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical rest after a concussion has been described as a key component in the management of the injury. Evidence supporting this recommendation, however, is limited. Purpose To examine the association between physical activity and symptom duration in a cohort of patients after a concussion. Study Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods This study included 364 patients who were diagnosed with a concussion, were seen by a physician within 3 weeks of injury, and completed a questionnaire at the initial clinic visit. The questionnaire assessed the postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS) score, previous number of concussions, presence of the loss of consciousness or amnesia at the time of injury, and prior treatment for headaches. During each follow-up clinic visit, physical activity level was self-reported. A Cox proportional hazard model was constructed to determine the association between symptom duration, initial clinic visit responses, and self-reported physical activity level after the injury. Results Study participants ranged in age from 8 to 27 years (mean age, 15.0 years) and had sustained a mean of 0.8 prior concussions; 222 patients (61%) were male. On initial examination, the mean PCSS score was 34.7. The mean symptom duration was 48.9 days after the injury. Among the variables included in the model, initial PCSS score and female sex were independently associated with symptom duration, while physical activity level after the injury was not. For participants aged between 13 and 18 years, however, higher levels of physical activity after the injury were associated with a shorter symptom duration. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that physical activity after the injury may not be universally detrimental to the recovery of concussion symptoms. PMID:26838933

  10. Modulation of fructokinase activity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in substantial shifts in tuber metabolism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Howard V; Shepherd, Louise V T; Burrell, Michael M; Carrari, Fernando; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Leisse, Andrea; Hancock, Robert D; Taylor, Mark; Viola, Roberto; Ross, Heather; McRae, Diane; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-07-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Desiree and Record) transformed with sense and antisense constructs of a cDNA encoding the potato fructokinase StFK1 exhibited altered transcription of this gene, altered amount of protein and altered enzyme activities. Measurement of the maximal catalytic activity of fructokinase revealed a 2-fold variation in leaf (from 90 to 180% of wild type activity) and either a 10- or 30-fold variation in tuber (from 10 or 30% to 300% in Record and Desiree, respectively) activity. The comparative effect of the antisense construct in leaf and tuber tissue suggests that this isoform is only a minor contributor to the total fructokinase activity in the leaf but the predominant isoform in the tuber. Antisense inhibition of the fructokinase resulted in a reduced tuber yield; however, its overexpression had no impact on this parameter. The modulation of fructokinase activity had few, consistent effects on carbohydrate levels, with the exception of a general increase in glucose content in the antisense lines, suggesting that this enzyme is not important for the control of starch synthesis. However, when metabolic fluxes were estimated, it became apparent that the transgenic lines display a marked shift in metabolism, with the rate of redistribution of radiolabel to sucrose markedly affected by the activity of fructokinase. These data suggest an important role for fructokinase, acting in concert with sucrose synthase, in maintaining a balance between sucrose synthesis and degradation by a mechanism independent of that controlled by the hexose phosphate-mediated activation of sucrose phosphate synthase.

  11. The International Prevalence Study on Physical Activity: results from 20 countries

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Adrian; Bull, Fiona; Chey, Tien; Craig, Cora L; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Sallis, James F; Bowles, Heather R; Hagstromer, Maria; Sjostrom, Michael; Pratt, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is one of the most important factors for improving population health, but no standardised systems exist for international surveillance. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was developed for international surveillance. The purpose of this study was a comparative international study of population physical activity prevalence across 20 countries. Methods Between 2002–2004, a standardised protocol using IPAQ was used to assess PA participation in 20 countries [total N = 52,746, aged 18–65 years]. The median survey response rate was 61%. Physical activity levels were categorised as "low", "moderate" and "high". Age-adjusted prevalence estimates are presented by sex. Results The prevalence of "high PA" varied from 21–63%; in eight countries high PA was reported for over half of the adult population. The prevalence of "low PA" varied from 9% to 43%. Males more frequently reported high PA than females in 17 of 20 countries. The prevalence of low PA ranged from 7–41% among males, and 6–49% among females. Gender differences were noted, especially for younger adults, with males more active than females in most countries. Markedly lower physical activity prevalence (10% difference) with increasing age was noted in 11 of 19 countries for males, but only in three countries for women. The ways populations accumulated PA differed, with some reporting mostly vigorous intensity activities and others mostly walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of international PA surveillance, and showed that IPAQ is an acceptable surveillance instrument, at least within countries. If assessment methods are used consistently over time, trend data will inform countries about the success of their efforts to promote physical activity. PMID:19335883

  12. Force-endurance capabilities of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The human hand is a very useful multipurpose tool in all environments. However, performance capabilities are compromised considerably when gloves are donned. This is especially true to extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves. The primary intent was to answer the question of how long a person can perform tasks requiring certain levels of exertion. The objective was to develop grip force-endurance relations. Six subjects participated in a factorial experiment involving three hand conditions, three pressure differentials, and four levels of force exertion. The results indicate that, while the force that could be exerted depended on the glove, pressure differential, and the level of exertion, the endurance time at any exertion level depended just on the level of exertion expressed as a percentage of maximum exertion possible at that condition. The impact of these findings for practitioners as well as theoreticians is discussed.

  13. Supported and unsupported breast displacement in three dimensions across treadmill activity levels.

    PubMed

    Scurr, Joanna C; White, Jennifer L; Hedger, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate sports bras are crucial to limit potential breast pain and ptosis. In an attempt to optimize breast support during exercise, manufacturers now produce activity level-specific sports bras. However, until breast movement across activity levels is understood, the criterion for such apparel is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify multi-planar breast displacement across treadmill activity levels and breast support conditions. Twenty-one D cup participants had markers attached to their nipples and trunk to calculate relative 3D breast displacement. Supported and unsupported mediolateral, anterioposterior, vertical, and resultant breast displacement was assessed during treadmill walking up to maximum running. Unsupported resultant breast displacement increased from 4.2 ± 1.0 cm during walking to 15.2 ± 4.2 cm during running. There was no change in breast displacement amplitude or direction as running speed increased above 10 km · h⁻¹, with vertical breast displacement then accounting for ∼50% of overall displacement. While breast support was effective in reducing the amplitude of breast displacement during walking and running, the direction was unaffected. In conclusion, instead of activity level-specific breast support, future research should identify multi-planar breast kinematics during various sporting modalities. This might lead to production of a sports-specific bra to reduce the negative consequences of breast movement.

  14. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormone levels and of motor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahabrach, Hanan; Piedrafita, Blanca; Ayad, Abdelmalik; El Mlili, Nisrin; Errami, Mohammed; Felipo, Vicente; Llansola, Marta

    2010-05-15

    Patients with liver cirrhosis may present hepatic encephalopathy with a wide range of neurological disturbances and alterations in sleep quality and in the sleep-wake circadian rhythm. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy. We have assessed, in an animal model of chronic hyperammonemia without liver failure, the effects of hyperammonemia per se on the circadian rhythms of motor activity, temperature, and plasma levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and of cortisol and corticosterone levels in blood. Different types of motor activity are affected differentially. Hyperammonemia significantly alters the rhythm of spontaneous ambulatory activity, reducing strongly ambulatory counts and slightly average velocity during the night (the active phase) but not during the day, resulting in altered circadian rhythms. In contrast, hyperammonemia did not affect wheel running at all, indicating that it affects spontaneous but not voluntary activity. Vertical activity was affected only very slightly, indicating that hyperammonemia does not induce anxiety. Hyperammonemia abolished completely the circadian rhythm of corticosteroid hormones in plasma, completely eliminating the peaks of cortisol and corticosterone present in control rats at the start of the dark period. The data reported show that chronic hyperammonemia, similar to that present in patients with liver cirrhosis, alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormones and of motor activity. This suggests that hyperammonemia would be a relevant contributor to the alterations in corticosteroid hormones and in circadian rhythms in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  15. Preliminary results on plasma progesterone levels during pregnancy and superfetation in the hare, Lepus Europaeus.

    PubMed

    Caillol, M; Martinet, L

    1976-01-01

    Peripheral plasma progesterone levels were studied in pregnant hares. A rise occurred at the beginning of pregnancy, followed by a plateau from Days 10 to 35, and then a drop during the days just before parturition. No significant differences were noted between progesterone levels in pregnancies initiated at the pre-partum oestrus and those from other oestrous periods.

  16. Lipid levels and risk of recurrent venous thrombosis: results from the MEGA follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Morelli, V M; Lijfering, W M; Rosendaal, F R; Cannegieter, S C

    2017-04-01

    Essentials The role of lipid levels in the risk of recurrent venous thrombosis is unclear. Lipids were assessed in patients with a first venous thrombosis (n = 2106) followed for 6.9 years. Lipids were not associated with recurrence, overall or in patients with unprovoked first events. Testing lipid levels is not useful to identify patients at an increased risk of recurrence.

  17. DOWNSTREAM-WATER-LEVEL CONTROL TEST RESULTS ON THE WM LATERAL CANAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On steep canals, distant downstream water-level control can be challenging. SacMan (Software for Automated Canal Management) was developed, in part, to test various distant downstream water level controllers. It was implemented on the WM canal of the Maricopa Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage Distri...

  18. Organism activity levels predict marine invertebrate survival during ancient global change extinctions.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Multistressor global change, the combined influence of ocean warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, poses a serious threat to marine organisms. Experimental studies imply that organisms with higher levels of activity should be more resilient, but testing this prediction and understanding organism vulnerability at a global scale, over evolutionary timescales, and in natural ecosystems remain challenging. The fossil record, which contains multiple extinctions triggered by multistressor global change, is ideally suited for testing hypotheses at broad geographic, taxonomic, and temporal scales. Here, I assess the importance of activity level for survival of well-skeletonized benthic marine invertebrates over a 100-million-year-long interval (Permian to Jurassic periods) containing four global change extinctions, including the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions. More active organisms, based on a semiquantitative score incorporating feeding and motility, were significantly more likely to survive during three of the four extinction events (Guadalupian, end-Permian, and end-Triassic). In contrast, activity was not an important control on survival during nonextinction intervals. Both the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions also triggered abrupt shifts to increased dominance by more active organisms. Although mean activity gradually returned toward pre-extinction values, the net result was a permanent ratcheting of ecosystem-wide activity to higher levels. Selectivity patterns during ancient global change extinctions confirm the hypothesis that higher activity, a proxy for respiratory physiology, is a fundamental control on survival, although the roles of specific physiological traits (such as extracellular pCO2 or aerobic scope) cannot be distinguished. Modern marine ecosystems are dominated by more active organisms, in part because of selectivity ratcheting during these ancient extinctions, so on average may be less vulnerable to global change

  19. Distant Interactions and Their Effects on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…

  20. ENSURF: multi-model sea level forecast - implementation and validation results for the IBIROOS and Western Mediterranean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, B.; Brower, R.; Beckers, J.; Paradis, D.; Balseiro, C.; Lyons, K.; Cure, M.; Sotillo, M. G.; Hacket, B.; Verlaan, M.; Alvarez Fanjul, E.

    2011-04-01

    ENSURF (Ensemble SURge Forecast) is a multi-model application for sea level forecast that makes use of existing storm surge or circulation models today operational in Europe, as well as near-real time tide gauge data in the region, with the following main goals: - providing an easy access to existing forecasts, as well as to its performance and model validation, by means of an adequate visualization tool - generation of better forecasts of sea level, including confidence intervals, by means of the Bayesian Model Average Technique (BMA) The system was developed and implemented within ECOOP (C.No. 036355) European Project for the NOOS and the IBIROOS regions, based on MATROOS visualization tool developed by Deltares. Both systems are today operational at Deltares and Puertos del Estado respectively. The Bayesian Modelling Average technique generates an overall forecast probability density function (PDF) by making a weighted average of the individual forecasts PDF's; the weights represent the probability that a model will give the correct forecast PDF and are determined and updated operationally based on the performance of the models during a recent training period. This implies the technique needs the availability of sea level data from tide gauges in near-real time. Results of validation of the different models and BMA implementation for the main harbours will be presented for the IBIROOS and Western Mediterranean regions, where this kind of activity is performed for the first time. The work has proved to be useful to detect problems in some of the circulation models not previously well calibrated with sea level data, to identify the differences on baroclinic and barotropic models for sea level applications and to confirm the general improvement of the BMA forecasts.

  1. Increasing Level of Leisure Physical Activity Could Reduce the Risk of Hip Fracture in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Ke; Liu, Xiao-yu; Wu, Xu-hua; Li, Xiao-liu; Xia, Qing-quan; Chen, Jiong; Yin, Xiao-fan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We carried out the study to investigate and quantitatively assess the potential association between current level of physical activity and the risk of osteoporosis hip fracture in older women. Relevant publications before October 2015 were identified using the PubMed and Ovid searching tools. A dose–response meta-analysis was carried out to combine and analysis results. Fourteen prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. A general analysis of 9 studies showed a significant inverse relationship between increasing level of physical activity and risk of hip fracture in older women [relative risk (RR) = 0.93, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.91–0.96]. The result of a sensitivity analysis was consistent with the general analysis (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93–0.96). The association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was not statistically significant in a general analysis of three studies (RR = 1.004, 95% CI: 0.98–1.03). A potential direct association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was observed after removing 1 study with the greatest weight (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03). No significant publication bias was observed in our analysis. Our results show that increasing level of physical activity within an appropriate range may reduce the risk of hip fracture but not the risk of wrist fracture in older women. PMID:26986111

  2. Physical activity level and quality of life in long term lung cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Nes, Lise Solberg; Liu, Heshan; Patten, Christi A.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Cheville, Andrea L; Yang, Ping; Clark, Matthew M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer is associated with a multitude of challenges, and lung cancer survivors report significantly lower quality of life (QOL) than other cancer survivors. Methods This study aimed to examine the relationship between physical activity level and QOL in a large sample of long term lung cancer survivors (N = 1937). Average age at diagnosis was 65 years, 92% were Caucasian, and 51% male. Surveys were completed at lung cancer diagnosis and then average 4.2 years post-diagnosis. Results Most survivors reported having a sedentary lifestyle at both timepoints. However, 256 survivors reported a change in physical activity level from diagnosis to follow-up. Decreased physical activity (n = 140) was associated with decreased overall, mental, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual QOL (all ps < .001) and decreased symptom control as seen in reported pain, dry coughing, coughing with phlegm, shortness of breath, and level of fatigue (all ps < .05). In contrast, increased physical activity (n = 116) was associated with improved QOL (all ps < .05), and improved symptom control as seen in frequency and severity of pain (p < .01). For all participants, those engaging in regular physical activity (30 min or more per day, at least five days per week) reported significantly higher QOL scores (all ps < .001), and better symptom control than more sedentary survivors. Conclusions Results indicate a significant association between change in physical activity and QOL and symptom control for long term lung cancer survivors, and research exploring interventions designed to improve activity level for lung cancer survivors is further warranted. PMID:22681871

  3. [Comparison of eating habits among students according to sex and level of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to rest of students. Moreover, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in YHEI in DZ compared to CH was also found. The significant differences (p < 0.05) in the frequency of consumption of red meat, vegetable oil and sweetned drinks was revealed between DZ and CH adolescents. The frequency of consumption of vegetable oil, fast - foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks, energy drinks and isotonic drinks varied with the level of physical activity. Frequency of consumption of sweets negatively correlated with skinfold thickness in DZ, whereas positive correlation between consumption frequency of energy drinks, BMI and skinfold thickness was found in CH. The results show, that nutritional habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group.

  4. Playground Designs to Increase Physical Activity Levels during School Recess: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A…

  5. Reduced Activity-Dependent Protein Levels in a Mouse Model of the Fragile X Premutation

    PubMed Central

    von Leden, Ramona E.; Curley, Lindsey C.; Greenberg, Gian D.; Hunsaker, Michael R.; Willemsen, Rob; Berman, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment results in increased levels of Fmrp in brain and increased dendritic complexity. The present experiment evaluated activity-dependent increases in Fmrp levels in the motor cortex in response to training on a skilled forelimb reaching task in the CGG KI mouse model of the fragile X premutation. Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels were quantified by Western blot in the contralateral motor cortex of mice following training to reach for sucrose pellets with a non-preferred paw and compared to levels in the ipsilateral motor cortex. After training, all mice showed increases in Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels in the contralateral compared to the ipsilateral hemisphere; however, the increase in CGG KI mice was less than wildtype mice. Increases in Fmrp and Arc proteins scaled with learning, whereas this relationship was not observed with the c-Fos levels. These data suggest the possibility that reduced levels of activity-dependent proteins associated with synaptic plasticity such as Fmrp and Arc may contribute to the neurocognitive phenotype reported in the CGG KI mice and the fragile X premutation. PMID:24462720

  6. Reduced activity-dependent protein levels in a mouse model of the fragile X premutation.

    PubMed

    von Leden, Ramona E; Curley, Lindsey C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hunsaker, Michael R; Willemsen, Rob; Berman, Robert F

    2014-03-01

    Environmental enrichment results in increased levels of Fmrp in brain and increased dendritic complexity. The present experiment evaluated activity-dependent increases in Fmrp levels in the motor cortex in response to training on a skilled forelimb reaching task in the CGG KI mouse model of the fragile X premutation. Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels were quantified by Western blot in the contralateral motor cortex of mice following training to reach for sucrose pellets with a non-preferred paw and compared to levels in the ipsilateral motor cortex. After training, all mice showed increases in Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels in the contralateral compared to the ipsilateral hemisphere; however, the increase in CGG KI mice was less than wildtype mice. Increases in Fmrp and Arc proteins scaled with learning, whereas this relationship was not observed with the c-Fos levels. These data suggest the possibility that reduced levels of activity-dependent proteins associated with synaptic plasticity such as Fmrp and Arc may contribute to the neurocognitive phenotype reported in the CGG KI mice and the fragile X premutation.

  7. Effect of low-level laser therapy on the modulation of the mitochondrial activity of macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Nadhia H. C.; Ferrari, Raquel A. M.; Silva, Daniela F. T.; Nunes, Fabio D.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Fernandes, Kristianne P. S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a major role among the inflammatory cells that invade muscle tissue following an injury. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has long been used in clinical practice to accelerate the muscle repair process. However, little is known regarding its effect on macrophages. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of LLLT on the mitochondrial activity (MA) of macrophages. METHOD: J774 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon - gamma (IFN-γ) (activation) for 24 h to simulate an inflammatory process, then irradiated with LLLT using two sets of parameters (780 nm; 70 mW; 3 J/cm2 and 660 nm; 15 mW; 7.5 J/cm2). Non-activated/non-irradiated cells composed the control group. MA was evaluated by the cell mitochondrial activity (MTT) assay (after 1, 3 and 5 days) in three independent experiments. The data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: After 1 day of culture, activated and 780 nm irradiated macrophages showed lower MA than activated macrophages, but activated and 660 nm irradiated macrophages showed MA similar to activated cells. After 3 days, activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed greater MA than activated macrophages, and after 5 days, the activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed similar MA to the activated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that 660 nm and 780 nm LLLT can modulate the cellular activation status of macrophages in inflammation, highlighting the importance of this resource and of the correct determination of its parameters in the repair process of skeletal muscle. PMID:25076002

  8. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency.

  9. Delta-1 Activation of Notch-1 Signaling Results in HES-1 Transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Jarriault, Sophie; Le Bail, Odile; Hirsinger, Estelle; Pourquié, Olivier; Logeat, Frédérique; Strong, Clare F.; Brou, Christel; Seidah, Nabil G.; Israël, Alain

    1998-01-01

    The Notch receptor is involved in many cell fate determination events in vertebrates and invertebrates. It has been shown in Drosophila melanogaster that Delta-dependent Notch signaling activates the transcription factor Suppressor of Hairless, leading to an increased expression of the Enhancer of Split genes. Genetic evidence has also implicated the kuzbanian gene, which encodes a disintegrin metalloprotease, in the Notch signaling pathway. By using a two-cell coculture assay, we show here that vertebrate Dl-1 activates the Notch-1 cascade. Consistent with previous data obtained with active forms of Notch-1 a HES-1-derived promoter construct is transactivated in cells expressing Notch-1 in response to Dl-1 stimulation. Impairing the proteolytic maturation of the full-length receptor leads to a decrease in HES-1 transactivation, further supporting the hypothesis that only mature processed Notch is expressed at the cell surface and activated by its ligand. Furthermore, we observed that Dl-1-induced HES-1 transactivation was dependent both on Kuzbanian and RBP-J activities, consistent with the involvement of these two proteins in Notch signaling in Drosophila. We also observed that exposure of Notch-1-expressing cells to Dl-1 results in an increased level of endogenous HES-1 mRNA. Finally, coculture of Dl-1-expressing cells with myogenic C2 cells suppresses differentiation of C2 cells into myotubes, as previously demonstrated for Jagged-1 and Jagged-2, and also leads to an increased level of endogenous HES-1 mRNA. Thus, Dl-1 behaves as a functional ligand for Notch-1 and has the same ability to suppress cell differentiation as the Jagged proteins do. PMID:9819428

  10. Routine activities and sexual assault: an analysis of individual- and school-level factors.

    PubMed

    Cass, Amy I

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of routine activities theory is examined to explain sexual assault on the college campus. Although many research studies have utilized routine activities theory to predict sexual assault using individual-level factors, little is known about the effect of school-level factors on a student's risk of sexual assault. Based on interviews from 3,036 randomly selected students and surveys from 11 randomly selected colleges in the United States, a hierarchical linear model was created to predict student victimizations by school characteristics. For the individual, results reveal that being female, drug use, and marital status are statistically significant for predicting the probability of a sexual assault. At the institutional level, however, none of the variables are significant in predicting sexual assault among college coeds. Policy implications for prevention measures on college campuses are discussed.

  11. Genistein upregulates LDLR levels via JNK-mediated activation of SREBP-2

    PubMed Central

    Kartawijaya, Medicia; Han, Hye Won; Kim, Yunhye; Lee, Seung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Genistein has been proved in vitro and in vivo to lower LDLR level. It is also widely consumed and implicated for its anti-atherogenic effects. However, the molecular mechanism by which genistein lowers the LDL level is still unknown. Objective To understand the anti-atherogenic molecular mechanism of action, genistein was investigated for its impact on the expression of LDLR, the receptor for LDL cholesterol, and related signaling pathways in a human hepatoma cell line. Design HepG2 cell was used for the experiments. Genistein with different concentrations was diluted in media and was incubated for 24 h or more as indicated. Protein levels were measured by western blotting, and mRNA expression was detected by RT-qPCR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (CHIP) assay was used to determine protein binding levels, and luciferase assay was used to measure promoter activity. Result Genistein increased the mRNA and protein levels of LDLR in a time-dependent manner. Genistein increased the transcriptional activity of the LDLR promoter containing the reporter gene (pLDLR-luc, −805 to +50). But the sterol regulatory element deletion mutant construct failed to be activated by genistein. Genistein increased the nuclear fraction of SREBP-2 and the DNA-binding activity of SREBP-2 to LDLR promoter, as assessed by CHIP. The genistein-phosphorylated JNK inhibitor (SP600126) abolished the genistein-stimulated levels of LDLR and the nuclear SREBP-2. The addition of cholesterol up to 5 µg/mL for 24 h did not affect the effect of genistein on LDLR protein expression. Even the addition of 40 µM genistein increased the cholesterol uptake by more than 10% in the human hepatoma cell line. Conclusion Our data support the idea that genistein may have anti-atherogenic effects by activating JNK signals and SREBP-2 processing, which is followed by the upregulation of LDLR. PMID:27211318

  12. The effects of dopamine on antioxidant enzymes activities and reactive oxygen species levels in soybean roots

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruno Ribeiro; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Marchiosi, Rogério; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the effects of dopamine, an neurotransmitter found in several plant species on antioxidant enzyme activities and ROS in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) roots. The effects of dopamine on SOD, CAT and POD activities, as well as H2O2, O2•−, melanin contents and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0), without or with 0.1 to 1.0 mM dopamine, in a growth chamber (25°C, 12 h photoperiod, irradiance of 280 μmol m−2 s−1) for 24 h. Significant increases in melanin content were observed. The levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation decreased at all concentrations of dopamine tested. The SOD activity increased significantly under the action of dopamine, while CT activity was inhibited and POD activity was unaffected. The results suggest a close relationship between a possible antioxidant activity of dopamine and melanin and activation of SOD, reducing the levels of ROS and damage on membranes of soybean roots. PMID:25482756

  13. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    PubMed

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL.

  14. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in depression: Results from Animal and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haitang; Li, Xiaoli; Chen, Suzhen; Lu, Na; Yue, Yingying; Liang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Zhijun; Yuan, Yonggui

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a stress-related factor, and serum PAI-1 levels are increased in patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). Herein, we analysed PAI-1 protein levels in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of rodents exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress or treated with escitalopram. In addition, we examined PAI-1 concentrations in serum obtained from 17 drug-free depressed patients before and after escitalopram treatment. We found that PAI-1 expression was increased in area 1 of the cingulate cortex and prelimbic cortex of the medial prefrontal cortex as well as in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 and dentate gyrus in stressed rats. A downregulation of PAI-1 following chronic escitalopram treatment was also found. PAI-1 levels were higher in the CSF and serum in stressed rats than in controls, although the difference did not reach statistical significance in the serum. Escitalopram treatment significantly decreased PAI-1 levels in the serum, but not in the CSF. MDD patients had significantly greater serum PAI-1 concentrations than controls. Our results suggest that PAI-1 is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:27456456

  15. Physical Activity Level and Medial Temporal Health in Youth at Ultra High-Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Vijay A.; Gupta, Tina; Orr, Joseph M.; Pelletier, Andrea L.; Dean, Derek J.; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R.; Smith, Ashley K.; Robustelli, Briana L.; Leopold, Daniel R.; Millman, Zachary B.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that moderate to vigorous activity levels can affect quality of life, cognition, and brain structure in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, physical activity has not been systematically studied during the period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis. Given reports of exercise-based neurogenesis in schizophrenia, understanding naturalistic physical activity levels in the prodrome may provide valuable information for early intervention efforts. The present study examined 29 ultra high-risk (UHR) and 27 matched controls to determine relationships between physical activity level, brain structure (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus), and symptoms. Participants were assessed with actigraphy for a 5-day period, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and structured clinical interviews. UHR participants showed a greater percentage of time in sedentary behavior while healthy controls spent more time engaged in light to vigorous activity. There was a strong trend to suggest the UHR group showed less total physical activity. The UHR group exhibited smaller medial temporal volumes when compared to healthy controls. Total level of physical activity in the UHR group was moderately correlated with smaller parahippocampal gyri bilaterally (right: r=.44, left: r=.55) and with occupational functioning (r=−.36; of negative symptom domain), but not positive symptomatology. Results suggest that inactivity is associated with medial temporal lobe health. Future studies are needed to determine if symptoms are driving inactivity, which in turn may be affecting the health of the parahippocampal structure and progression of illness. Although causality cannot be determined from the present design, these findings hold important implications for etiological conceptions and suggest promise for an experimental trial. PMID:24364613

  16. Effect of different levels of alcohol consumption on natural killer and lymphokine activated killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Klassen, L.W.; DeVasure, J.M.; Lemley-Gillespie, S.D.; Thiele, G.M. Omaha VA Hospital, NE )

    1991-03-11

    The effect of alcohol consumption on natural killer (NK) cell activity is controversial as both increased and decreased levels have been reported. It was the purpose of this study to determine the effects of feeding BDF1 mice different levels of alcohol on NK and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell activity. After four-six weeks of chronic alcohol feeding, mice were sacrificed, spleen cells obtained and assayed for NK and IL-2 boosted NK activity against YAC-1 cells in a traditional {sup 51}chromium release assay. Cells were also cultured in the presence of IL-2 for five days and tested for cytolytic activity using P815 cells as targets. Cells from each group were passed over a nylon wool column and the adherent (AD) and nonadherent (NAD) populations collected and tested as above. Increased NK, 24 hour IL-2 boosted NK and 5 day LAK activity were observed only in the spleen cells obtained from mice on 20% alcohol. Also, NAD populations had a 2-4 fold higher lytic unit values (LU{sub 20}) at all levels of alcohol consumption and in all assays, as compared with the unseparated spleen cells. Analysis of cell surface markers on these three populations of cells show that there were differences in MAC-2, Asialo GM-1, Thy 1.2, B220 and NK 1.1 that may correlate with the differences observed in the cytolytic assays. These data suggest that different levels of alcohol affect the cytolytic activity of NK and LAK cells and may result from alterations in the cell subset populations.

  17. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  18. The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.

    PubMed

    Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also

  19. ENSURF: multi-model sea level forecast - implementation and validation results for the IBIROOS and Western Mediterranean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, B.; Brouwer, R.; Beckers, J.; Paradis, D.; Balseiro, C.; Lyons, K.; Cure, M.; Sotillo, M. G.; Hackett, B.; Verlaan, M.; Fanjul, E. A.

    2012-03-01

    ENSURF (Ensemble SURge Forecast) is a multi-model application for sea level forecast that makes use of several storm surge or circulation models and near-real time tide gauge data in the region, with the following main goals: 1. providing easy access to existing forecasts, as well as to its performance and model validation, by means of an adequate visualization tool; 2. generation of better forecasts of sea level, including confidence intervals, by means of the Bayesian Model Average technique (BMA). The Bayesian Model Average technique generates an overall forecast probability density function (PDF) by making a weighted average of the individual forecasts PDF's; the weights represent the Bayesian likelihood that a model will give the correct forecast and are continuously updated based on the performance of the models during a recent training period. This implies the technique needs the availability of sea level data from tide gauges in near-real time. The system was implemented for the European Atlantic facade (IBIROOS region) and Western Mediterranean coast based on the MATROOS visualization tool developed by Deltares. Results of validation of the different models and BMA implementation for the main harbours are presented for these regions where this kind of activity is performed for the first time. The system is currently operational at Puertos del Estado and has proved to be useful in the detection of calibration problems in some of the circulation models, in the identification of the systematic differences between baroclinic and barotropic models for sea level forecasts and to demonstrate the feasibility of providing an overall probabilistic forecast, based on the BMA method.

  20. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use.

  1. Superoxide dismutase activity and gene expression levels in Saudi women with recurrent miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    GHNEIM, HAZEM K.; AL-SHEIKH, YAZEED A.; ALSHEBLY, MASHAEL M.; ABOUL-SOUD, MOURAD A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and SOD2, as well as the levels of the oxidant superoxide anion (SOA) and the micronutrients zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), were assayed in plasma, whole blood and placental tissue of non-pregnant (NP), healthy pregnant (HP) women and recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients. The results showed that SOD1 and SOD2 activities and the levels of Zn, Cu and Mn in plasma and whole blood of HP women were slightly, but significantly lower, and even more significantly decreased in RM patients compared to those observed in NP women (P<0.05 and P<0.0001, respectively). Additionally, whereas plasma SOD1 and SOD2 activities and Zn, Cu and Mn levels were significantly lower in RM patients, those of whole blood and placental tissue were significantly lower when compared to HP women (P<0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively). Concurrently, there were consistent increases of equal magnitude and statistical significance in SOA levels in all the assayed samples as identified by a comparison between the subjects. The findings thus supported oxidative metabolism and excessive reactive oxygen species generation. The resultant oxidative stress, identified in whole blood and placental tissues of RM patients, may have been a primary cause of RM. Dietary supplementation of Zn, Cu and Mn may be beneficial to these patients pre- and post-conception. PMID:26821085

  2. Judging disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis by serum free kappa and lambda light chain levels.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yun; Li, Su-Liang; Xie, Ming; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Kai-Ge; Li, Ya-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the levels of serum free kappa (κ) and lambda (λ) light chains in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as exploring the association between serum free κ and λ light chains and activity of RA. For this purpose, healthy individuals and patients with active RA and RA in remission were enrolled, and their serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were measured using rate nephelometry. The diagnostic accuracy of serum free κ and λ light chains was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves and 95% confidence intervals for areas under the curve (AUC). The results obtained indicated that the levels of serum free κ and λ light chains in patients with active RA were significantly higher than those of patients in remission and of healthy controls (p < 0.05). Further, the AUC values in patients with active RA were 0.871 for free κ light chain and 0.781 for free λ light chain. When the optimal cut-off point for serum κ light chain was 8.02 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 82.5% and 82.5%, respectively, and when the optimal cut-off point for serum λ light chain was 3.57 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 82.5%, respectively. It was thus found that serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were positively correlated with disease activity in RA, the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), and values for C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), platelet count (PLT), rheumatoid factor (RF), and anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, high serum levels of free κ and λ light chains in patients with active RA are closely correlated with disease activity parameters including DAS28, CRP, ESR, PLT, RF, and ACPA. Thus, the above-mentioned levels of serum free κ and λ light chains may be used as important indicators of activity of RA.

  3. An Activating Mutation in STAT3 Results in Neonatal Diabetes Through Reduced Insulin Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Velayos, Teresa; Martínez, Rosa; Alonso, Milagros; Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Aguayo, Anibal; Camarero, Cristina; Urrutia, Inés; Martínez de LaPiscina, Idoia; Barrio, Raquel; Santin, Izortze; Castaño, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare form of diabetes diagnosed within the first 6 months of life. Genetic studies have allowed the identification of several genes linked to the development of NDM; however, genetic causes for ∼20% of the cases remain to be clarified. Most cases of NDM involve isolated diabetes, but sometimes NDM appears in association with other pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases. Recent reports have linked activating mutations in STAT3 with early-onset autoimmune disorders that include diabetes of autoimmune origin, but the functional impact of STAT3-activating mutations have not been characterized at the pancreatic β-cell level. By using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a novel missense mutation in the binding domain of the STAT3 protein in a patient with NDM. The functional analyses showed that the mutation results in an aberrant activation of STAT3, leading to deleterious downstream effects in pancreatic β-cells. The identified mutation leads to hyperinhibition of the transcription factor Isl-1 and, consequently, to a decrease in insulin expression. These findings represent the first functional indication of a direct link between an NDM-linked activating mutation in STAT3 and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction.

  4. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multi-Family Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore multiple family members’ perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home. Design Ten multi-family focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting Community setting. Participants Primarily Black and White families. Family members (n = 103) were between the ages of 8–61 years. Analysis A grounded hermeneutic approach. Phenomenon of Interest Risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home environment. Results Ten major themes were identified by family members related to health behaviors in the home environment, including: (a) accessibility to healthy foods and activity, (b) time constraints, (c) stage of youth development, (d) individual investment in health behaviors, (e) family investment in health behaviors, (f) family meals and shared activities, (g) parent modeling, (h) making health behaviors fun, (i) making health behaviors part of the family lifestyle, and (j) community investment in family health behaviors. Conclusions and Implications This study identified the importance of the family system and the reciprocal influences within the home environment on health behaviors. In addition, individual and community-level suggestions were identified. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the prevention of youth obesity. PMID:22192951

  5. Mid-level Features Improve Recognition of Interactive Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-14

    Recognizing action as clouds of space-time interest points. In CVPR, 2009. [5] W. Brendel, A. Fern , and S. Todorovic. Probabilistic event logic for interval...context. In CVPR, 2009. [27] R. Messing, C. Pal, and H. Kautz. Activity recognition using the velocity histories of tracked keypoints. In ICCV, 2009

  6. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  7. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  8. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  9. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  10. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  11. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certify to the Secretary that the arrangements to establish responsibility for services pursuant to... transition of students with disabilities to postsecondary activities; (vii) To assist LEAs in meeting... State Medicaid program under Title XIX of the Social Security Act. (9) Funds reserved under paragraph...

  12. Motoneuron and sensory neuron plasticity to varying neuromuscular activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    The size and phenotypic properties of the neural and muscular elements of the neuromuscular unit are matched under normal conditions. When subjected to chronic decreases or increases in neuromuscular activity, however, the adaptations in these properties are much more limited in the neural compared with the muscular elements.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1112-87 - Determining the compliance level and reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) Nonconformance Penalties for Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy... may establish the compliance level for a pollutant for any engine or vehicle configuration by using... pollutant using the primary PCA sampling plan shall: (i) Conduct emission tests on 24 engines or vehicles...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1112-87 - Determining the compliance level and reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) Nonconformance Penalties for Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy... may establish the compliance level for a pollutant for any engine or vehicle configuration by using... pollutant using the primary PCA sampling plan shall: (i) Conduct emission tests on 24 engines or vehicles...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1112-87 - Determining the compliance level and reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENGINES Nonconformance Penalties for Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles... compliance level for a pollutant for any engine or vehicle configuration by using the primary PCA sampling... primary PCA sampling plan shall: (i) Conduct emission tests on 24 engines or vehicles in accordance...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1112-87 - Determining the compliance level and reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) Nonconformance Penalties for Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy... may establish the compliance level for a pollutant for any engine or vehicle configuration by using... pollutant using the primary PCA sampling plan shall: (i) Conduct emission tests on 24 engines or vehicles...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1112-87 - Determining the compliance level and reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) Nonconformance Penalties for Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy... may establish the compliance level for a pollutant for any engine or vehicle configuration by using... pollutant using the primary PCA sampling plan shall: (i) Conduct emission tests on 24 engines or vehicles...

  18. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  19. Analysis of Student and School Level Variables Related to Mathematics Self-Efficacy Level Based on PISA 2012 Results for China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usta, H. Gonca

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the student and school level variables that affect students' self-efficacy levels in mathematics in China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece based on PISA 2012 results. In line with this purpose, the hierarchical linear regression model (HLM) was employed. The interschool variability is estimated at approximately 17% in…

  20. School-Level Genetic Variation Predicts School-Level Verbal IQ Scores: Results from a Sample of American Middle and High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Wright, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently revealed that average IQ scores vary significantly across macro-level units, such as states and nations. The reason for this variation in IQ, however, has remained at the center of much controversy. One of the more provocative explanations is that IQ across macro-level units is the result of genetic differences, but…

  1. Symptom Assessment in Knee Osteoarthritis Needs to Account for Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Grace H.; McAlindon, Timothy E.; Hawker, Gillian A.; Driban, Jeffrey B.; Price, Lori Lyn; Song, Jing; Eaton, Charles B.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kwoh, C. Kent; Nevitt, Michael C.; Dunlop, Dorothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pain is not always correlated with radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) severity possibly because people modify activities to manage symptoms. Measures of symptoms that consider pain in the context of activity level may therefore provide greater discrimination than pain alone. Our objective was to compare discrimination of a measure of pain alone with combined measures of pain relative to physical activity across radiographic OA levels. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of the Osteoarthritis Initiative accelerometer substudy, including those with and without knee OA. Two composite pain and activity knee symptom (PAKS) scores were calculated as Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC) Universities Osteoarthritis Pain Scale plus one divided by physical activity measures (step and activity counts). Symptom score discrimination across Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grades were evaluated using histograms and quantile regression. Results 1806 participants, mean age 65.1 (9.1) years, mean BMI 28.4 (4.8) kg/m2, and 55.6% female, were included. WOMAC, but not PAKS scores, exhibited a floor effect. Adjusted median WOMAC by KL grades 0 – 4 were 0, 0, 1, 1, and 3 respectively. Median PAKS1 and PAKS2 were 24.9, 26.0, 32.4, 46.1, 97.9, and 7.2, 7.2, 9.2, 12.9, 23.8, respectively. PAKS scores had more statistically significant comparisons between KL grades compared with WOMAC. Conclusions Symptom assessments incorporating pain and physical activity did not exhibit a floor effect and were better able to discriminate radiographic severity than pain alone, particularly in milder disease. Pain in the context of physical activity level should be used to assess knee OA symptoms. PMID:26407008

  2. Virome analysis of antiretroviral-treated HIV patients shows no correlation between T-cell activation and anelloviruses levels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Da Costa, Antonio Charlys; Bruhn, Roberta; Deeks, Steven G.; Delwart, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Abnormally high levels of T-cell activation can persist in HIV-infected subjects despite effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and has been associated with negative health outcomes. The nature of the antigenic drivers or other causes of this residual T-cell activation remain uncertain. Anelloviruses are universally acquired soon after birth, resulting in persistent viremia, and considered part of the commensal human virome. Reduced immunocompetence results in increased anellovirus levels. Objectives To test whether increased levels of anelloviruses or other viruses in plasma are associated with higher levels of persistent T-cell activation during ART. Study design Two amplification methods combined with next generation sequencing were used to detect all viruses and estimate relative anellovirus levels in plasma from 19 adults on effective ART who exhibited a wide range of T-cell activation levels. Results Nucleic acids from HBV and HCV were detected in one patient each while pegivirus A (GBV-C) was found in three patients. Anellovirus DNA was detected in all patients with some individuals carrying up to eight different genotypes. Specific anellovirus genotypes or higher level of co-infections were not detected in subjects with higher levels of T-cell activation. No association was detected between relative plasma anellovirus DNA levels and the percentage of activated CD4 or CD8 T cells. Conclusions Human anelloviruses were detected in all HIV suppressed subjects, exhibited a wide range of viremia levels, and were genetically highly diverse. The level of persistent T-cell activation was not correlated with the level of viremia or genotypes present indicating that anellovirus antigens are unlikely to be a dominant source of antigens driving chronic T-cell activation. PMID:26479202

  3. Modulation of the hormone setting by Rhodococcus fascians results in ectopic KNOX activation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Depuydt, Stephen; Dolezal, Karel; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Moritz, Thomas; Holsters, Marcelle; Vereecke, Danny

    2008-03-01

    The biotrophic actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians has a profound impact on plant development and a common aspect of the symptomatology is the deformation of infected leaves. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the serrated leaf margins formed upon infection resemble the leaf phenotype of transgenic plants with ectopic expression of KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOX) genes. Through transcript profiling, we demonstrate that class-I KNOX genes are transcribed in symptomatic leaves. Functional analysis revealed that BREVIPEDICELLUS/KNOTTED-LIKE1 and mainly SHOOT MERISTEMLESS were essential for the observed leaf dissection. However, these results also positioned the KNOX genes downstream in the signaling cascade triggered by R. fascians infection. The much faster activation of ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR5 and the establishment of homeostatic and feedback mechanisms to control cytokinin (CK) levels support the overrepresentation of this hormone in infected plants due to the secretion by the pathogen, thereby placing the CK response high up in the cascade. Hormone measurements show a net decrease of tested CKs, indicating either that secretion by the bacterium and degradation by the plant are in balance, or, as suggested by the strong reaction of 35S:CKX plants, that other CKs are at play. At early time points of the interaction, activation of gibberellin 2-oxidase presumably installs a local hormonal setting favorable for meristematic activity that provokes leaf serrations. The results are discussed in the context of symptom development, evasion of plant defense, and the establishment of a specific niche by R. fascians.

  4. Role of FKBP5 in emotion processing: results on amygdala activity, connectivity and volume.

    PubMed

    Holz, Nathalie E; Buchmann, Arlette F; Boecker, Regina; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Baumeister, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Plichta, Michael M; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role of FKBP5, a co-chaperone regulating the glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity, in the etiology of depression and anxiety disorders. Based on recent findings of altered amygdala activity following childhood adversity, the present study aimed at clarifying the impact of genetic variation in FKBP5 on threat-related neural activity and coupling as well as morphometric alterations in stress-sensitive brain systems. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during an emotional face-matching task was performed in 153 healthy young adults (66 males) from a high-risk community sample followed since birth. Voxel-based morphometry was applied to study structural alterations and DNA was genotyped for FKBP5 rs1360780. Childhood adversity was measured using retrospective self-report (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and by a standardized parent interview assessing childhood family adversity. Depression was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory. There was a main effect of FKBP5 on the left amygdala, with T homozygotes showing the highest activity, largest volume and increased coupling with the left hippocampus and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Moreover, amygdala-OFC coupling proved to be associated with depression in this genotype. In addition, our results support previous evidence of a gene-environment interaction on right amygdala activity with respect to retrospective assessment of childhood adversity, but clarify that this does not generalize to the prospective assessment. These findings indicated that activity in T homozygotes increased with the level of adversity, whereas the opposite pattern emerged in C homozygotes, with CT individuals being intermediate. The present results point to a functional involvement of FKBP5 in intermediate phenotypes associated with emotional processing, suggesting a possible mechanism for this gene in conferring susceptibility to stress-related disorders.

  5. Locally constrained active contour: a region-based level set for ovarian cancer metastasis segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianfei; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shijun; Linguraru, Marius George; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of ovarian cancer metastases is clinically useful to evaluate tumor growth and determine follow-up treatment. We present a region-based level set algorithm with localization constraints to segment ovarian cancer metastases. Our approach is established on a representative region-based level set, Chan-Vese model, in which an active contour is driven by region competition. To reduce over-segmentation, we constrain the level set propagation within a narrow image band by embedding a dynamic localization function. The metastasis intensity prior is also estimated from image regions within the level set initialization. The localization function and intensity prior force the level set to stop at the desired metastasis boundaries. Our approach was validated on 19 ovarian cancer metastases with radiologist-labeled ground-truth on contrast-enhanced CT scans from 15 patients. The comparison between our algorithm and geodesic active contour indicated that the volume overlap was 75+/-10% vs. 56+/-6%, the Dice coefficient was 83+/-8% vs. 63+/-8%, and the average surface distance was 2.2+/-0.6mm vs. 4.4+/-0.9mm. Experimental results demonstrated that our algorithm outperformed traditional level set algorithms.

  6. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. “Wildlife” and “fish” were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies. PMID:27011729

  7. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. "Wildlife" and "fish" were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies.

  8. RESULTS OF THE FY09 ENHANCED DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-06-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this task is to develop data, assess property models, and refine or develop the necessary models to support increased WL of HLW at SRS. It is a continuation of the studies initiated in FY07, but is under the specific guidance of a Task Change Request (TCR)/Work Authorization received from DOE headquarters (Project Number RV071301). Using the data generated in FY07, FY08 and historical data, two test matrices (60 glasses total) were developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in order to generate data in broader compositional regions. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), viscosity, liquidus temperature (TL) measurement and durability as defined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study are summarized below: (1) In general, the current durability model predicts the durabilities of higher waste loading glasses quite well. A few of the glasses exhibited poorer durability than predicted. (2) Some of the glasses exhibited anomalous behavior with respect to durability (normalized leachate for boron (NL [B])). The quenched samples of FY09EM21-02, -07 and -21 contained no nepheline or other wasteform affecting crystals, but have unacceptable NL [B] values (> 10 g/L). The ccc sample of FY09EM21-07 has a NL [B] value that is more than one half the value of the quenched sample. These glasses also have lower concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}. (3) Five of the ccc samples (EM-13, -14, -15, -29 and

  9. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  10. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Sæther, Stig A.; Aspvik, Nils P.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Practise makes perfect’ is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ physical activity (PA) level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October). The accelerometer output, counts·min–1 (counts per unit time registered), reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min–1, June: 854.9 counts·min–1, October: 861.5 counts·min–1). Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min–1. A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814). However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001). Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players’ PA-level. Key points It is well established that to achieve a high performance level in sport, one must implement a high training and match load in childhood and youth. With the use of accelerometers and a self-reported questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ total physical activity (PA) load. These results indicate that young talented soccer players must overcome large doses of PA on a weekly basis, exposing them to a high risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. PMID:25435792

  11. Upper Limb Muscle and Brain Activity in Light Assembly Task on Different Load Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md.; Taha, Zahari

    2010-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of load on upper limb muscles and brain activities in light assembly task. The task was conducted at two levels of load (Low and high). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper limb muscle activities of twenty subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded with EMG to record brain activities from Fz, Pz, O1 and O2 channels. The EMG Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the right brachioradialis and the left upper trapezius activities were higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task. The EMG MPF values also decrease as time increases, that reflects muscle fatigue. Mean power of the EEG alpha bands for the Fz-Pz channels were found to be higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task, while for the O1-O2 channels, they were higher on the low-load task than on the high-load task. These results indicated that the load levels effect the upper limb muscle and brain activities. The high-load task will increase muscle activities on the right brachioradialis and the left upper tapezius muscles, and will increase the awareness and motivation of the subjects. Whilst the low-load task can generate drowsiness earlier. It signified that the longer the time and the more heavy of the task, the subjects will be more fatigue physically and mentally.

  12. Salivary Platelet Activating Factor Levels in Periodontal Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    multifarious and is activated through multiple mediators. The inflammatory process can be subdivided into acute and chronic inflammation. Stedman’s Medical...Just recently, inflammed human gingival tissues were analyzed and found to contain PAF (Noguchi, et al, 1989). Thus, multiple components of the...17.9% release of peroxidase, 20.6% release of P-glucuronidase, 22.4% release of alkaline phosphatase and 28.8% release of aryl sulfatase . At higher

  13. SMOS CATDS Level 3 products, Soil Moisture and Brightness Temperature: Presentation and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthon, Lucie; Mialon, Arnaud; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Cabot, François; Bircher, Simone; Jacquette, Elsa; Quesney, Arnaud; Kerr, Yann H.

    2013-04-01

    The ESA's (European Space Agency) SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission, operating since November 2009, is the first satellite dedicated to measuring surface soil moisture and ocean salinity. The CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) has developed the CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS) ground segment. It provides spatial and temporal synthesis products (referred to as Level 3) of soil moisture, which are now covering the whole SMOS operation period since January 2010. These products have different time resolutions: daily products, 3-day global products (insuring a complete coverage of the Earth's surface), 10-day composite products, and monthly averaged products. Moreover, a new product provides brightness temperatures at H and V polarizations which are computed at fixed incidence angles every 5 degrees. All the CATDS products are presented in the NetCDF format on the EASE grid (Equal Area Scalable Earth grid) with a spatial resolution of ~ 25*25 km². The soil moisture Level 3 algorithm is based on ESA's Level 2 retrieval scheme with the improvement of using several overpasses (3 at most) over a 7-day window. Using many revisits is expected to improve the quality of the retrieved soil moisture. This communication aims at presenting the CATDS soil moisture and brightness temperature products as well as other geophysical parameters retrieved on the side, such as the vegetation optical depth or the dielectric constant of the surface. Furthermore, we illustrate the validation of this database, including the comparison of the Level 3 soil moisture to in-situ measurements available from various sites (Australia, US, southwest of France, Spain, Denmark, West Africa, French Alps), spanning different surface conditions.

  14. Urban versus rural lifestyle in adolescents: associations between environment, physical activity levels and sedentary behavior

    PubMed Central

    Regis, Manuela Ferreira; de Oliveira, Luciano Machado Ferreira Tenório; dos Santos, Ana Raquel Mendes; Leonidio, Ameliane da Conceição Reubens; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; de Freitas, Clara Maria Silvestre Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in adolescents living in urban and rural areas. Methods An epidemiological, cross-section study with quantitative design, carried out at the regional level. The sample comprised 6,234 students aged 14 to 19 years, selected using random cluster sampling. The χ2 test and binary logistic regression were used in the analysis. Results A total of 74.5% of adolescents lived in urban areas. After adjustment, rural residents spent less time watching television (odds ratio – OR: 0.45; 95% confidence interval – 95%CI: 0.39-0.52), using a computer and/or playing video games (OR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.22-0.42), or sitting down (OR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.54-0.80); chose passive leisure less often (OR: 0.83; 95%IC: 0.72-0.95) and were less likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 0.88; 95%IC: 0.78-0.99) when compared to urban residents, regardless of sex or age. The fact that adolescents living in rural areas who did not work were more likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 2.59; 95%CI: 2.07-3.24) emphasized the significant role of occupation in physical activity levels in this group. Conclusion Adolescents living in rural areas were less exposed to the sedentary behaviors, chose more active leisure, and had higher levels of physical activity. Place of residence and occupation may play a major role in youth lifestyle. PMID:28076591

  15. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema.

    PubMed

    Pettis, Jeffery S; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Johnson, Josephine; Dively, Galen

    2012-02-01

    Global pollinator declines have been attributed to habitat destruction, pesticide use, and climate change or some combination of these factors, and managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, are part of worldwide pollinator declines. Here we exposed honey bee colonies during three brood generations to sub-lethal doses of a widely used pesticide, imidacloprid, and then subsequently challenged newly emerged bees with the gut parasite, Nosema spp. The pesticide dosages used were below levels demonstrated to cause effects on longevity or foraging in adult honey bees. Nosema infections increased significantly in the bees from pesticide-treated hives when compared to bees from control hives demonstrating an indirect effect of pesticides on pathogen growth in honey bees. We clearly demonstrate an increase in pathogen growth within individual bees reared in colonies exposed to one of the most widely used pesticides worldwide, imidacloprid, at below levels considered harmful to bees. The finding that individual bees with undetectable levels of the target pesticide, after being reared in a sub-lethal pesticide environment within the colony, had higher Nosema is significant. Interactions between pesticides and pathogens could be a major contributor to increased mortality of honey bee colonies, including colony collapse disorder, and other pollinator declines worldwide.

  16. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Johnson, Josephine; Dively, Galen

    2012-02-01

    Global pollinator declines have been attributed to habitat destruction, pesticide use, and climate change or some combination of these factors, and managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, are part of worldwide pollinator declines. Here we exposed honey bee colonies during three brood generations to sub-lethal doses of a widely used pesticide, imidacloprid, and then subsequently challenged newly emerged bees with the gut parasite, Nosema spp. The pesticide dosages used were below levels demonstrated to cause effects on longevity or foraging in adult honey bees. Nosema infections increased significantly in the bees from pesticide-treated hives when compared to bees from control hives demonstrating an indirect effect of pesticides on pathogen growth in honey bees. We clearly demonstrate an increase in pathogen growth within individual bees reared in colonies exposed to one of the most widely used pesticides worldwide, imidacloprid, at below levels considered harmful to bees. The finding that individual bees with undetectable levels of the target pesticide, after being reared in a sub-lethal pesticide environment within the colony, had higher Nosema is significant. Interactions between pesticides and pathogens could be a major contributor to increased mortality of honey bee colonies, including colony collapse disorder, and other pollinator declines worldwide.

  17. A community-level HIV prevention intervention for inner-city women: results of the women and infants demonstration projects.

    PubMed Central

    Lauby, J L; Smith, P J; Stark, M; Person, B; Adams, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of a multisite community-level HIV prevention intervention on women's condom-use behaviors. METHODS: The theory-based behavioral intervention was implemented with low-income, primarily African American women in 4 urban communities. It was evaluated with data from pre- and postintervention cross-sectional surveys in matched intervention and comparison communities. RESULTS: At baseline, 68% of the women had no intention of using condoms with their main partners and 70% were not using condoms consistently with other partners. After 2 years of intervention activities, increases in rates of talking with main partners about condoms were significantly larger in intervention communities than in comparison communities (P = .03). Intervention communities also had significant increases in the proportion of women who had tried to get their main partners to use condoms (P = .01). The trends for condom use with other partners were similar but nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Many women at risk for HIV infection are still not using condoms. Community-level interventions may be an effective way to reach large numbers of women and change their condom-use behaviors, particularly their behaviors with regard to communication with main sex partners. PMID:10667182

  18. Relationship of Species-Specific Filament Levels to Filamentous Bulking in Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jiangying; Lou, Inchio; de los Reyes, Francis L.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the relationship between activated-sludge bulking and levels of specific filamentous bacteria, we developed a statistics-based quantification method for estimating the biomass levels of specific filaments using 16S rRNA-targeted fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes. The results of quantitative FISH for the filament Sphaerotilus natans were similar to the results of quantitative membrane hybridization in a sample from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Laboratory-scale reactors were operated under different flow conditions to develop bulking and nonbulking sludge and were bioaugmented with S. natans cells to stimulate bulking. Instead of S. natans, the filament Eikelboom type 1851 became dominant in the reactors. Levels of type 1851 filaments extending out of the flocs correlated strongly with the sludge volume index, and extended filament lengths of approximately 6 × 108 μm ml−1 resulted in bulking in laboratory-scale and full-scale activated-sludge samples. Quantitative FISH showed that high levels of filaments occurred inside the flocs in nonbulking sludge, supporting the “substrate diffusion limitation” hypothesis for bulking. The approach will allow the monitoring of incremental improvements in bulking control methods and the delineation of the operational conditions that lead to bulking due to specific filaments. PMID:15066840

  19. Anesthetic Isoflurane Increases Phosphorylated Tau Levels Mediated by Caspase Activation and Aβ Generation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuanlin; Wu, Xu; Xu, Zhipeng; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong

    2012-01-01

    Anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to promote Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathogenesis by inducing caspase activation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ). Phosphorylation of tau protein is another important feature of AD neuropathogenesis. However, the effects of isoflurane on phosphorylated tau levels remain largely to be determined. We therefore set out to determine whether isoflurane can increase phosphorylated tau levels. 5 to 8 month-old wild-type and AD transgenic mice [B6.Cg-Tg (APPswe, PSEN1dE9)85Dbo/J] were treated with 1.4% isoflurane for two hours. The mice brain tissues were harvested at six, 12 and 24 hours after the anesthesia. For the in vitro studies, primary neurons from wild-type and the AD transgenic mice were exposed to 2% isoflurane for six hours, and were harvested at the end of anesthesia. The harvested brain tissues and neurons were subjected to Western blot analysis by which the levels of phosphorylated tau protein at Serine 262 (Tau-PS262) were determined. Here we show that the isoflurane anesthesia increased Tau-PS262 levels in brain tissues and primary neurons from the wild-type and AD transgenic mice. Moreover, the isoflurane anesthesia may induce a greater increase in Tau-PS262 levels in primary neurons and brain tissues from the AD transgenic mice. Finally, caspase activation inhibitor Z-VAD and Aβ generation inhibitor L-685,458 attenuated the isoflurane-induced increases in Tau-PS262 levels. In conclusion, clinically relevant isoflurane anesthesia increases phosphorylated tau levels, which may result from the isoflurane-induced caspase activation and Aβ generation. These findings will promote more studies to determine the effects of anesthetics on tau phosphorylation. PMID:22745746

  20. Physical activity levels, duration pattern and adherence to WHO recommendations in German adults

    PubMed Central

    Luzak, Agnes; Heier, Margit; Thorand, Barbara; Laxy, Michael; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Background Intensity and duration of physical activity are associated with the achievement of health benefits. Our aim was to characterize physical activity behavior in terms of intensity, duration pattern, and adherence to the WHO physical activity recommendations in a population-based sample of adults from southern Germany. Further, we investigated associations between physical activity and sex, age, and body mass index (BMI), considering also common chronic diseases. Methods We analyzed 475 subjects (47% males, mean age 58 years, range 48–68 years) who wore ActiGraph accelerometers for up to seven days. Measured accelerations per minute obtained from the vertical axis (uniaxial) and the vector magnitude of all three axes (triaxial) were classified as sedentary, light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to predefined acceleration count cut-offs. The average minutes/day spent in each activity level per subject served as outcome. Associations of sex, age, BMI, and seven chronic diseases or health limitations, with the activity levels were analyzed by negative binomial regression. Results Most of the wear time was spent in sedentarism (median 61%/day), whereas the median time spent in MVPA was only 3%, with men achieving more MVPA than women (35 vs. 28 minutes/day, p<0.05). Almost two thirds of MVPA was achieved in short bouts of less than 5 minutes, and 35% of the subjects did not achieve a single 10-minute bout. Hence, only 14% adhered to the WHO recommendation of 2.5 hours of MVPA/week in at least 10-minute bouts. Females, older subjects and obese subjects spent less time in MVPA (p<0.05), but no clear association with hypertension, asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety/depression, pain or walking difficulties was observed in regression analyses with MVPA as outcome. Conclusions Activity behavior among middle-aged German adults was highly insufficient, indicating a further need for physical activity promotion in

  1. Chronic lamotrigine treatment increases rat hippocampal GABA shunt activity and elevates cerebral taurine levels.

    PubMed

    Hassel, B; Taubøll, E; Gjerstad, L

    2001-02-01

    The mechanism of action of the antiepileptic drug lamotrigine has previously been investigated only in acute experiments and is thought to involve inhibition of voltage-dependent sodium channels. However, lamotrigine is effective against more forms of epilepsies than other antiepileptic drugs that also inhibit sodium channels. We investigated whether chronic lamotrigine treatment may affect cerebral amino acid levels. Rats received lamotrigine, 10 mg/kg/day, for 90 days. The hippocampal level of GABA increased 25%, and the activities of glutamate decarboxylase and succinic semialdehyde/GABA transaminase increased 12 and 21% (p< 0.05), respectively, indicating increased GABA turnover. The uptake of GABA and glutamate into proteoliposomes remained unaltered. The level of taurine increased 27% in the hippocampus and 16% in the frontal and parietal cortices. The activities of hexokinase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, remained at control values. Serum lamotrigine was 41.7+/-1.5 microM (mean+/-S.E.M.), which is within the range seen in epileptic patients. Acute experiments with 5, 20 or 100 mg lamotrigine/kg, caused no changes in brain amino acid levels. The results suggest that chronic lamotrigine treatment increases GABAergic activity in the hippocampus. The cerebral increase in taurine, which has neuromodulatory properties, may contribute to the antiepileptic effect of lamotrigine.

  2. Self-reported exertion levels on time/activity diaries: application to exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, M.; Terblanche, A.P.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    Recent developments in air pollution analysis have focused on methods for collecting data on contaminant levels in the locations actually frequented by people, especially personal monitoring. While there is still much to understand about human exposures, the next advancements will be in the area of dose assessment. This paper discusses the results of a study designed to provide data for linking exposure to dose. Specifically, we used time/activity diaries to collect information on the exertion levels associated with the reported activities. As part of a community health study, 91 children between the ages of 9 and 11 kept diaries over a two-week summer-time period (July 1989) and during a two-week school-time period (September 1989). The diary was also administered for two days to 42 teenagers between the ages of 15 and 17. This paper describes our concerns about interpreting self-reported exertion levels, particularly with respect to the disparity between participant and researcher perception and coding. We then present the distribution of exertion levels associated with children's activities, highlighting seasonal, day-of-week, and age-group differences.

  3. Post-processing V&V Level II ASC Milestone (2843) results.

    SciTech Connect

    Karelitz, David B.; Ice, Lisa G.; Wilke, Jason; Moreland, Kenneth D.; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2008-10-01

    The 9/30/2008 ASC Level 2 Post-Processing V&V Milestone (Milestone 2843) contains functionality required by the user community for certain verification and validation tasks. These capabilities include fragment detection from CTH simulation data, fragment characterization and analysis, and fragment sorting and display operations. The capabilities were tested extensively both on sample and actual simulations. In addition, a number of stretch criteria were met including a comparison between simulated and test data, and the ability to output each fragment as an individual geometric file.

  4. Does calprotectin level identify a subgroup among patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome? Results of a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Moutaz; Aubry, Typhaine; Gourcerol, Guillaume; Quillard, Muriel; Zalar, Alberto; Coëffier, Moïse; Dechelotte, Pierre; Leroi, Anne-Marie; Ducrotté, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome is a multifactorial disease. Although faecal calprotectin has been shown to be a reliable marker of intestinal inflammation, its role in irritable bowel syndrome remains debated. Objective The aims of this prospective study were to select a subgroup of irritable bowel syndrome patients and to characterise those patients with high faecal calprotectin by systematic work-up. Methods Calprotectin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test in consecutive irritable bowel syndrome patients fulfilling Rome III criteria in whom normal colonoscopy and appropriate tests had excluded organic disease. Calprotectin levels were compared in irritable bowel syndrome patients, healthy controls and patients with active and quiescent Crohn’s disease. When the calprotectin level was higher than 50 µg/g, the absence of ANCA/ASCA antibodies and a normal small bowel examination were required to confirm irritable bowel syndrome diagnosis. Additional explorations included assessment of irritable bowel syndrome severity, anxiety and depression, impact on quality of life, glucose and fructose breath tests, rectal distension test by barostat and quantitative and qualitative assessment of inflammation on colonic biopsies. Results Among the 93 irritable bowel syndrome patients (73% women; 66.7% with diarrhoea) recruited, 34 (36.6%) had reproducibly elevated calprotectin. Although they tended to be older than those with normal calprotectin (P = 0.06), there were no other differences between the two groups. When elevated, calprotectin was correlated with age (P = 0.03, r = 0.22). Conclusions Elevated faecal calprotectin was observed in one third of patients in this series, without any significant association with a specific clinical phenotype (except age) or specific abnormalities. PMID:28344794

  5. Decreased glycogen synthase kinase-3 levels and activity contribute to Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Nogales, Marta; Hernández, Félix; Miguez, Andrés; Alberch, Jordi; Ginés, Silvia; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Lucas, José J

    2015-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder characterized by brain atrophy particularly in striatum leading to personality changes, chorea and dementia. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase in the crossroad of many signaling pathways that is highly pleiotropic as it phosphorylates more than hundred substrates including structural, metabolic, and signaling proteins. Increased GSK-3 activity is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and GSK-3 inhibitors have been postulated as therapeutic agents for neurodegeneration. Regarding HD, GSK-3 inhibitors have shown beneficial effects in cell and invertebrate animal models but no evident efficacy in mouse models. Intriguingly, those studies were performed without interrogating GSK-3 level and activity in HD brain. Here we aim to explore the level and also the enzymatic activity of GSK-3 in the striatum and other less affected brain regions of HD patients and of the R6/1 mouse model to then elucidate the possible contribution of its alteration to HD pathogenesis by genetic manipulation in mice. We report a dramatic decrease in GSK-3 levels and activity in striatum and cortex of HD patients with similar results in the mouse model. Correction of the GSK-3 deficit in HD mice, by combining with transgenic mice with conditional GSK-3 expression, resulted in amelioration of their brain atrophy and behavioral motor and learning deficits. Thus, our results demonstrate that decreased brain GSK-3 contributes to HD neurological phenotype and open new therapeutic opportunities based on increasing GSK-3 activity or attenuating the harmful consequences of its decrease.

  6. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  7. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  8. Visualization on supercomputing platform level II ASC milestone (3537-1B) results from Sandia.

    SciTech Connect

    Geveci, Berk; Fabian, Nathan; Marion, Patrick; Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2010-09-01

    This report provides documentation for the completion of the Sandia portion of the ASC Level II Visualization on the platform milestone. This ASC Level II milestone is a joint milestone between Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratories. This milestone contains functionality required for performing visualization directly on a supercomputing platform, which is necessary for peta-scale visualization. Sandia's contribution concerns in-situ visualization, running a visualization in tandem with a solver. Visualization and analysis of petascale data is limited by several factors which must be addressed as ACES delivers the Cielo platform. Two primary difficulties are: (1) Performance of interactive rendering, which is most computationally intensive portion of the visualization process. For terascale platforms, commodity clusters with graphics processors(GPUs) have been used for interactive rendering. For petascale platforms, visualization and rendering may be able to run efficiently on the supercomputer platform itself. (2) I/O bandwidth, which limits how much information can be written to disk. If we simply analyze the sparse information that is saved to disk we miss the opportunity to analyze the rich information produced every timestep by the simulation. For the first issue, we are pursuing in-situ analysis, in which simulations are coupled directly with analysis libraries at runtime. This milestone will evaluate the visualization and rendering performance of current and next generation supercomputers in contrast to GPU-based visualization clusters, and evaluate the performance of common analysis libraries coupled with the simulation that analyze and write data to disk during a running simulation. This milestone will explore, evaluate and advance the maturity level of these technologies and their applicability to problems of interest to the ASC program. Scientific simulation on parallel supercomputers is traditionally performed in four

  9. Exergame Apps and Physical Activity: The Results of the ZOMBIE Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowdery, Joan; Majeske, Paul; Frank, Rebecca; Brown, Devin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although there are thousands of health and fitness smartphone apps currently available, little research exists regarding the effects of mobile app technology on physical activity behavior. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test whether Exergame smartphone applications increase physical activity levels. Methods: This was a…

  10. Do intervention fidelity and dose influence outcomes? Results from the move to improve worksite physical activity program.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark G; Basta, Tania B; Bynum, Bethany H; DeJoy, David M; Vandenberg, Robert J; Dishman, Rod K

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the implementation of the Move to Improve worksite physical activity program using a four step framework that includes the following: (i) defining the active ingredients, (ii) using good methods to measure implementation, (iii) monitoring implementation and (iv) relating implementation to outcomes. The intervention active ingredients consisted of a goal setting behavior change program, a team competition and environmental supports. Intervention fidelity and dose were measured by surveys administered to site co-ordinators, team captains and employees. Implementation was monitored by the use of biweekly assessments that tracked individual physical activity levels and through weekly reports of the project director and site co-ordinators. Latent growth modeling was conducted to determine whether intervention outcomes were affected by site implementation (i.e. fidelity) and/or participation by employees (i.e. dose). Results showed high levels of intervention fidelity, moderate to high levels of intervention dose delivered and moderate levels of the intervention dose received. Level of implementation affected the degree of change in vigorous physical activity (Mean = 5.4 versus 2.2; chi(2) = 4.9, df = 1), otherwise outcome measures were unaffected by fidelity and dose. These findings suggest that practitioners should focus more energy assuring that the core components are fully implemented and be less concerned about the level of participation.

  11. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrwas, R. B.

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  12. Decreased glutathione levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in untreated and treated schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Monia; Mechri, Anwar; Othman, Leila Ben; Fendri, Chiraz; Gaha, Lotfi; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2009-10-01

    There is substantial evidence found in the literature that supports the fact that the presence of oxidative stress may play an important role in the physiopathology of schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of impairments in the glutathione levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in patients suffering from schizophrenia. However, most of these studies were performed on treated patients. The present study evaluated treated schizophrenic patients (n=52) along with neuroleptic-free or untreated schizophrenic patients (n=36) and healthy controls (n=46). The blood glutathione levels: total glutathione (GSHt), reduced glutathione (GSHr), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) were measured. The psychopathology of the patients was assessed through the Clinical Global Impressions-severity (CGI-severity). The tests revealed that in comparison with the healthy controls, the schizophrenic patients showed significantly lower levels of GSHr, SOD, and CAT. Among the schizophrenic patients, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT were recorded to be significantly lower in untreated patients than in the treated ones. In addition, the levels of both GSHt and GSHr were found to be inversely correlated with the obtained CGI-severity score. These results evidently suggest that a decrease in the glutathione levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is not related to neuroleptic treatment and could be considered as a biological indicator of the degree of severity of the symptoms of schizophrenia.

  13. Physical activity level in Achilles tendinosis is associated with blood levels of pain-related factors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bagge, J; Gaida, J E; Danielson, P; Alfredson, H; Forsgren, S

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity affects the pain symptoms for Achilles tendinosis patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and their receptors have been detected in human Achilles tendon. This pilot study aimed to compare serum BDNF and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFRI) levels in Achilles tendinosis patients and healthy controls and to examine the influence of physical activity, and BMI and gender, on these levels. Physical activity was measured with a validated questionnaire, total physical activity being the parameter analyzed. Physical activity was strongly correlated with BDNF among tendinosis women [Spearman's rho (ρ)=0.90, P<0.01] but not among control women (ρ=-0.08, P=0.83), or among tendinosis and control men. Physical activity was significantly correlated with sTNFRI in the entire tendinosis group and among tendinosis men (ρ=0.65, P=0.01), but not in the entire control group or among control men (ρ=0.04, P=0.91). Thus, the physical activity pattern is related to the TNF and BDNF systems for tendinosis patients but not controls, the relationship being gender dependent. This is new information concerning the relationship between physical activity and Achilles tendinosis, which may be related to pain for the patients. This aspect should be further evaluated using larger patient materials.

  14. Effects of Chronic Active Cannabis Use on Visuomotor Integration, in Relation to Brain Activation and Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    King, G.R.; Ernst, T.; Deng, W.; Stenger, A.; Gonzales, R.M.K; Nakama, H.; Chang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is the most abused illegal substance in the United States. Alterations in brain function and motor behavior have been reported in chronic cannabis users, but the results have been variable. The current study aimed to determine whether chronic active cannabis use in humans may alter psychomotor function, brain activation, and hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) function in men and women. 30 cannabis users (16 men and 14 women, 18 to 45 years old) and 30 non-drug user controls (16 men and 14 women, 19 to 44 years old) were evaluated with neuropsychological tests designed to assess motor behavior and functional MRI (fMRI), using a 3 Tesla scanner, during a visually paced finger-sequencing task, cued by a flashing checkerboard (at 2 or 4 Hz). Salivary cortisol was measured to assess HPA function. Male, but not female, cannabis users had significantly slower performance on psychomotor speed tests. As a group, cannabis users had greater activation in BA 6 than controls, while controls had greater activation in the visual area BA 17 than cannabis users. Cannabis users also had higher salivary cortisol levels than controls (p = 0.002). Chronic active cannabis use is associated with slower and less efficient psychomotor function, especially in the male users, as indicated by a shift from regions involved with automated visually guided responses to more executive or attentional control areas. These brain activities may be attenuated by the higher cortisol levels in the cannabis users which in turn may lead to less efficient visual-motor function. PMID:22159107

  15. Effects of a Community-Based, Professionally Supervised Intervention on Physical Activity Levels Among Residents of Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hallal, Pedro; Pratt, Michael; Ramos, Luiz; Munk, Marcia; Damascena, Wilson; Parra Perez, Diana; Hoehner, Christine M.; Gilbertz, David; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Brownson, Ross C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of a community-based intervention, the Academia da Cidade program (ACP), on increasing leisure-time physical activity among residents of Recife, Brazil. Methods. We used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess leisure-time physical activity and transport physical activity (i.e., activities involved in traveling from place to place) levels in a random sample of 2047 Recife residents surveyed in 2007. We also examined factors related to exposure to ACP (participation in the intervention, residing near an intervention site, hearing about or seeing intervention activities). We estimated prevalence odds ratios (ORs) of moderate to high leisure-time and transport physical activity levels via intervention exposures adjusted for sociodemographic, health, and environmental variables. Results. Prevalence ORs for moderate to high levels of leisure-time physical activity were higher among former (prevalence OR = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 3.9) and current (prevalence OR = 11.3; 95% CI = 3.5, 35.9) intervention participants and those who had heard about or seen an intervention activity (prevalence OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.5). Transport physical activity levels were inversely associated with residing near an ACP site. Conclusions. The ACP program appears to be an effective public health strategy to increase population-level physical activity in urban developing settings. PMID:19008499

  16. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"].

    PubMed

    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M

    2015-06-01

    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentary<10/30). Subjects with normal HBPM value (<135/85 mm Hg) (55% of them) compared to those with high HBPM were older, had a non-significant trend towards higher weekly caloric expenditure (4959 ± 5045 kcal/week vs. 4048 ± 4199 kcal/week, P=0.3755) and score of Dijon (19.44 ± 5.81 vs. 18.00 ± 4.32, P=0.2094) with a higher proportion of "active" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor.

  17. Threshold level of NF-kB activation in small bowel ischemic preconditioning procedure.

    PubMed

    Ferencz, A; Rácz, B; Gasz, B; Kalmár-Nagy, K; Horváth, O P; Röth, E

    2006-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), which is obtained by exposure to brief periods of vascular occlusion, improves organ tolerance to prolonged ischemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the threshold level of NF-kB activation in small intestine during an IPC procedure. Various intestinal IPC were performed on 20 Wistar rats in seven groups: group I (GI, nonpreconditioned); group II (GII, 1-minute ischemia and 1-minute reperfusion); group III (GIII, two cycles of 1-minute ischemia and 1-minute reperfusion); group IV (GIV, 2-minutes ischemia and 2-minutes reperfusion); group V (GV, two cycles of 2-minute ischemia and 2-minute reperfusion); group VI (GVI, 5-minute ischemia and 10-minute reperfusion); group VII (GVII, two cycles of 5-minute ischemia and 10-minute reperfusion). Bowel biopsies were collected after laparotomy (control) as well as at 30, 60, and 120 minutes following IPC. We determined the cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-kB by a chemiluminescence-based ELISA method. Our results showed low, constant NF-kB levels in GI. In the preconditioned groups (GII-GVII), NF-kB was significantly elevated at 30 minutes following IPC (P < .05 vs control). After 1 hour, NF-kB activity decreased to the control level. However, 2 hours after IPC both forms of NF-kB were elevated significantly again, which was independent of the number of IPC cycles (P < .05 vs control). Our experiments revealed that one cycle of 1-minute ischemia and 1-minute reperfusion is a critical threshold level for NF-kB activation during small bowel IPC. Longer and more IPC cycles did not result in further elevation of NF-kB activation.

  18. Physical Activity Level of Urban Pregnant Women in Tianjin, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Shengwen; Zuo, Jianhua; Hu, Xiangqin; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18–44 years of age) in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Median total energy expenditure of pregnant women in each of the three trimesters ranged from 18.50 to 21.90 metabolic equivalents of task (METs) h/day. They expended 1.76–1.85 MET h/day on moderate and vigorous activities and 0.11 MET h/day on exercise. Only 117 of the women (11.1%) met the international guideline for physical activity in pregnancy (≥150 min moderate intensity exercise per week). The most frequent reason given for not being more physically active was the fear of miscarriage. Higher education level (OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.59–10.62), habitual exercise before pregnancy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.39–3.28), and husbands who exercised regularly (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.33–3.67) significantly increased the odds of meeting the guideline (p<0.001). A low pre gravid body mass index (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20–0.87) significantly decreased the odds (p<0.001). Conclusions Few urban Chinese pregnant women met the recommended physical activity guideline. They also expended little energy exercising. Future interventions should be based on the clinic environment and targeting family members as well as the subjects. All pregnant women should be targeted, not just those in high-risk groups. PMID:25286237

  19. Fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification for an active pelvis orthosis: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kebin; Parri, Andrea; Yan, Tingfang; Wang, Long; Munih, Marko; Vitiello, Nicola; Wang, Qining

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification method for an active pelvis orthosis. Locomotion information measured by the onboard hip joint angle sensors and the pressure insoles is used to classify five locomotion modes, including two static modes (sitting, standing still), and three dynamic modes (level-ground walking, ascending stairs, and descending stairs). The proposed method classifies these two kinds of modes first by monitoring the variation of the relative hip joint angle between the two legs within a specific period. Static states are then classified by the time-based absolute hip joint angle. As for dynamic modes, a fuzzy-logic based method is proposed for the classification. Preliminary experimental results with three able-bodied subjects achieve an off-line classification accuracy higher than 99.49%.

  20. State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979

    SciTech Connect

    Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

    1981-11-01

    Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

  1. Results of repeated leveling surveys at Newberry Volcano, Oregon, and near Lassen Peak Volcano, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory conducted first-order, class-II leveling surveys near Lassen Peak, California, in 1991 and at Newberry Volcano, Oregon, in 1985, 1986, and 1994. Near Lassen Peak no significant vertical displacements had occurred along either of two traverses, 33 and 44 km long, since second-order surveys in 1932 and 1934. At Newberry, however, the 1994 survey suggests that the volcano's summit area had risen as much as 97??22 mm with respect to a third-order survey in 1931. The 1931 and 1994 surveys measured a 37-km-long, east-west traverse across the entire volcano. The 1985 and 1986 surveys, on the other hand, measured only a 9-km-long traverse across the summit caldera with only one benchmark in common with the 1931 survey. Comparison of the 1985, 1986, and 1994 surveys revealed no significant differential displacements inside the caldera. A possible mechanism for uplift during 1931-1994 is injection of approximately 0.06 km3 of magma at a depth of approximately 10 km beneath the volcano's summit. The average magma supply rate of approximately 1 x 10-3 km3/year would be generally consistent with the volcano's growth rate averaged over its 600,000-year history (0.7-1.7 x 10-3 km3/year).

  2. EPA project-level research strategies for chemical mixtures: targeted research for meaningful results.

    PubMed

    Teuschler, Linda K; Hertzberg, Richard C; Rice, Glenn E; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2004-12-01

    Project-level research strategies at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regarding chemical mixtures are impacted by administrative priorities, public interests, expert opinions, scientific advances, regulatory needs, and legislative actions, influencing the setting of priorities and goals. Perhaps, the most significant influence on conducting chemical mixtures research is the passage of laws requiring the EPA to investigate the potential toxicity of various mixtures, specifically the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, and the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996. Scarce resources are allocated to broadly defined issues for consideration by teams of scientists, who design and implement specific projects. Because resources are limited, projects may have several goals, e.g., filling specific data gaps to support a regulation and, simultaneously, producing data to evaluate a risk assessment method. Research areas of emphasis are shaped by risk assessment needs, data gap uncertainties, and experimental design considerations. This paper discusses factors shaping EPA research strategies for chemical mixtures and presents an example of efficient research planning to investigate potential toxicity from exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products.

  3. Correlation of FEM/BEM Vibroacoustic Prediction to System-Level Acoustic Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, G.; Ngan, I.; Santiago-Prowald, J.

    2014-06-01

    Coupled FEM/BEM vibroacoustic analyses are employed for deriving spacecraft random vibration environments and supporting the design of low aerial density structures. They offer deterministic predictions which are very accurate at low-frequency and meaningful across all the spectrum of interest for vibroacoustic response.An assessment of the standard procedure of FEM/BEM vibroacoustic analyses was carried out by correlation to measurements from system-level tests of several spacecraft. This allowed a quantification of the typical errors committed, and concluded on the adequacy of applying the standard factor of safety +4dB to the predictions. It was observed that a major source of error is the lack of representativeness of the models of the spacecraft, which adds to the diffuse field idealization made on the acoustic environment inside the fairing and the test chambers. In particular, it was observed a clear impact from a lack of detail of the damping of the structure, and an often crude lumped representation of units and equipment as well as tanks and fixations.

  4. Results from the first p+p runs of the ALICE High Level Trigger at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaki, Kalliopi; ALICE HLT Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The High Level Trigger for the ALICE experiment at LHC is a powerful, sophisticated tool aimed at compressing the raw data volume and issuing selective triggers for events with desirable physics content. At its current state it integrates information from all major ALICE detectors, i. e. the inner tracking system, the time projection chamber, the electromagnetic calorimeters, the transition radiation detector and the muon spectrometer performing real-time event reconstruction. The steam engine behind HLT is a high performance computing cluster of several hundred nodes. It has to reduce the data rate from 25 GB/s to 1.25 GB/s for fitting the DAQ mass storage bandwidth. The cluster is served by a full GigaBit Ethernet network, in addition to an InfiniBand backbone network. To cope with the great challenge of Pb+Pb collisions in autumn 2010, its performance capabilities are being enhanced with the addition of new nodes. Towards the same end the first GPU co-processors are in place. During the first period of data taking with p+p collisions the HLT was extensively used to reconstruct, analyze and display data from the various participating detectors. Among other tasks it contributed to the monitoring of the detector performance, selected events for their calibration and efficiency studies, and estimated primary and secondary vertices from p+p collisions identifying V0 topologies. The experience gained during these first months of online operation will be presented.

  5. Single-Level Degenerative Cervical Disc Disease and Driving Disability: Results from a Prospective, Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Michael P.; Mitchell, M. David; Hacker, Robert J.; Riew, K. Daniel; Sasso, Rick C.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Post hoc analysis of prospective, randomized trial. Objective To investigate the disability associated with driving and single-level degenerative, cervical disc disease and to investigate the effect of surgery on driving disability. Methods Post hoc analysis of data obtained from three sites participating in a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial comparing cervical disc arthroplasty (TDA) with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The driving subscale of the Neck Disability Index (NDI) was analyzed for all patients. A dichotomous severity score was created from the NDI. Statistical comparisons were made within and between groups. Results Two-year follow-up was available for 118/135 (87%) patients. One half of the study population (49.6%) reported moderate or severe preoperative driving difficulty. This disability associated with driving was similar among the two groups (ACDF: 2.5 ± 1.1, TDA: 2.6 ± 1.0, p = 0.646). The majority of patients showed improvement, with no or little driving disability, at the sixth postoperative week (ACDF: 75%, TDA: 90%, p = 0.073). At no follow-up point did a difference exist between groups according to the severity index. Conclusions Many patients suffering from radiculopathy or myelopathy from cervical disc disease are limited in their ability to operate an automobile. Following anterior cervical spine surgery, most patients are able to return to comfortable driving at 6 weeks. PMID:24436875

  6. Evaluation of English Results Course Books at Upper-Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haghi, Eshrat Bazarmaj

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the course books in language teaching leads the way to the evaluation of them. Evaluating the teaching materials specially course books can help teachers to understand more about language learning. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate English Results course books which are widely used at Iranian institutes. The focus…

  7. Active beam shaping in multi-levels amplification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tianzhuo; Fan, Zhongwei; Qiu, Jisi; Tang, Xiongxin; Lin, Weiran; Zhang, Hongbo

    2016-09-01

    Using Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator (LC-SLM) as a beam shaping device to improve beam quality in high-gain amplification system is reported. 1.6 nJ injected small-size signal Gaussian beam can be amplified to 5 J by 4 stages amplification, and finally output beam is a 50mm×50mm square spot with flat-top intensity distribution. In the amplification system we designed, LC-SLM is placed after the second level of amplifier, where the signal laser energy is about 20mJ, and beam size is 10mm×10mm. The structure of Fourier image transfer is also implemented in this amplifications system to be capable of maintaining high-quality image transmission in the amplification process. The LC-SLM as an object, is imaged by beam expand lenses and spatial filters lenses in the amplifications system to get good quality of imaging. By catching output spot and making a feed-back, transmission efficiency of each pixel on LC-SLM is modulated, high energy density area can be decreased to realize flat-top intensity distribution. A spot modulation function is defined as, using the maximum grey value on spot area divided by the average grey value of the image after background correction. By this, amplified laser obtains the spot modulation of 1.24 on central 90% area of the spot. Furthermore, un-uniform distribution on the full spot, soften effects of spot edge, and output beam shape can also be optimized by the LC-SLM shaping scheme in the amplification system.

  8. Factors increasing physical activity levels in diabetes mellitus: a survey of patients after an inpatient diabetes education program.

    PubMed

    Murano, Isamu; Asakawa, Yasutsugu; Mizukami, Masafumi; Takihara, Jun; Shimizu, Kaoru; Imai, Taihei

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to understand the factors involved in increasing physical activity levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients for improved glycemic control. [Subjects] The subjects were 101 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who had completed an inpatient diabetes education program. [Methods] The survey evaluated physical activity levels on the basis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire listing physical and psychosocial factors. [Results] Four variables-participation or non-participation in farm work, presence or absence of a job, stage of change in attitude toward exercise behavior, and social support-accounted for 34% of physical activity levels in these diabetes mellitus patients. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between physical activity level and HbA1c was -0.31. [Conclusion] Intervention in terms of practical use of living environments, promotion of exercise behavior, and social support may be effective in helping to improve glycemic control.

  9. High Levels of Expression of P-glycoprotein/Multidrug Resistance Protein Result in Resistance to Vintafolide.

    PubMed

    Guertin, Amy D; O'Neil, Jennifer; Stoeck, Alexander; Reddy, Joseph A; Cristescu, Razvan; Haines, Brian B; Hinton, Marlene C; Dorton, Ryan; Bloomfield, Alicia; Nelson, Melissa; Vetzel, Marilynn; Lejnine, Serguei; Nebozhyn, Michael; Zhang, Theresa; Loboda, Andrey; Picard, Kristen L; Schmidt, Emmett V; Dussault, Isabelle; Leamon, Christopher P

    2016-08-01

    Targeting surface receptors overexpressed on cancer cells is one way to specifically treat cancer versus normal cells. Vintafolide (EC145), which consists of folate linked to a cytotoxic small molecule, desacetylvinblastine hydrazide (DAVLBH), takes advantage of the overexpression of folate receptor (FR) on cancer cells. Once bound to FR, vintafolide enters the cell by endocytosis, and the reducing environment of the endosome cleaves the linker, releasing DAVLBH to destabilize microtubules. Vintafolide has shown efficacy and improved tolerability compared with DAVLBH in FR-positive preclinical models. As the first FR-targeting drug to reach the clinic, vintafolide has achieved favorable responses in phase II clinical trials in FR-positive ovarian and lung cancer. However, some FR-positive patients in these clinical trials do not respond to vintafolide. We sought to identify potential biomarkers of resistance to aid in the future development of this and other FR-targeting drugs. Here, we confirm that high P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression was the strongest predictor of resistance to DAVLBH in a panel of 359 cancer cell lines. Furthermore, targeted delivery of DAVLBH via the FR, as in vintafolide, fails to overcome P-gp-mediated efflux of DAVLBH in both in vitro and in vivo preclinical models. Therefore, we suggest that patients whose tumors express high levels of P-gp be excluded from future clinical trials for vintafolide as well as other FR-targeted therapeutics bearing a P-gp substrate. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1998-2008. ©2016 AACR.

  10. How the Venus flytrap actively snaps: hydrodynamic measurements at the cellular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombani, Mathieu; Forterre, Yoel; GEP Team

    2012-11-01

    Although they lack muscle, plants have evolved a remarkable range of mechanisms to create rapid motion, from the rapid folding of sensitive plants to seed dispersal. Of these spectacular examples that have long fascinated scientists, the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap, whose leaves snap together in a fraction of second to capture insects, has long been a paradigm for study. Recently, we have shown that this motion involves a snap-buckling instability due to the shell-like geometry of the leaves of the trap. However, the origin of the movement that allows the plant to cross the instability threshold and actively bend remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigate this active motion using a micro-fluidic pressure probe that gives direct hydraulic and mechanical measurements at the cellular level (osmotic pressure, cell membrane permeability, cell wall elasticity). Our results challenge the role of osmotically-driven water flows usually put forward to explain Venus flytrap's active closure.

  11. Oxidative DNA damage levels and catalase activity in the clam Ruditapes decussatus as pollution biomarkers of Tunisian marine environment.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2007-01-01

    Levels of the oxidative DNA damage 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and catalase (CAT) activity were measured in the digestive gland and gills of clams Ruditapes decussatus, related to the presence of pollutants along Tunisian marine environment. Increased levels of CAT were observed in tissues of clams from all the sites studied, compared to control values, and elevated 8-oxodG levels were observed at specific sites. Results obtained in this work indicate that the measurement of 8-oxodG levels and CAT activity in tissues of R. decussatus is promising in pollution monitoring studies of the Tunisian marine environment.

  12. Hypouricaemic action of mangiferin results from metabolite norathyriol via inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanfen; Liu, Jia; Liu, Hai-Yang; Gao, Li-Hui; Feng, Guo-Hua; Liu, Xu; Li, Ling

    2016-09-01

    Context Mangiferin has been reported to possess a potential hypouricaemic effect. However, the pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed that its oral bioavailability was only 1.2%, suggesting that mangiferin metabolites might exert the action. Objective The hypouricaemic effect and the xanthine oxidase inhibition of mangiferin and norathyriol, a mangiferin metabolite, were investigated. Inhibition of norathyriol analogues (compounds 3-9) toward xanthine oxidase was also evaluated. Materials and methods For a dose-dependent study, mangiferin (1.5-6.0 mg/kg) and norathyriol (0.92-3.7 mg/kg) were administered intragastrically to mice twice daily for five times. For a time-course study, mice received mangiferin and norathyriol both at a single dose of 7.1 μmol/kg. In vitro, inhibition of test compounds (2.4-2.4 mM) against xanthine oxidase activity was evaluated by the spectrophotometrical method. The inhibition type was identified from Lineweaver-Burk plots. Results Norathyriol (0.92, 1.85 and 3.7 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the serum urate levels by 27.0, 33.6 and 37.4%, respectively. The action was more potent than that of mangiferin at the low dose, but was equivalent at the higher doses. Additionally, the hypouricaemic action of them exhibited a time dependence. In vitro, norathyriol markedly inhibited the xanthine oxidase activities, with the IC50 value of 44.6 μM, but mangiferin did not. The kinetic studies showed that norathyriol was an uncompetitive inhibitor by Lineweaver-Burk plots. The structure-activity relationships exhibited that three hydroxyl groups in norathyriol at the C-1, C-3 and C-6 positions were essential for maintaining xanthine oxidase inhibition. Discussion and conclusion Norathyriol was responsible for the hypouricaemic effect of mangiferin via inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity.

  13. Levels of gingival tissue platelet activating factor after conventional and regenerative periodontal surgery.

    PubMed

    Keles, Gonca Cayir; Cetinkaya, Burcu Ozkan; Ayas, Bulent; Isildak, Ibrahim; Diraman, Emine; Koprulu, Hulya; Acikgoz, Gokhan

    2007-12-01

    The hypothesis, a relationship between gingival tissue platelet activating factor (PAF) levels and healing after periodontal surgery, was tested by measuring PAF levels in gingival tissues collected from sites that had undergone flap surgery and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) or flap surgery alone. Using a split-mouth design, 20 intrabony defects were randomly assigned to treatment with flap surgery and GTR (group 1) or with flap surgery alone (group 2). Gingival tissue samples were obtained at surgery (baseline) and at 6-month follow-up evaluation visit. One half of each sample was used for analysis of PAF levels by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the other half of the sample was used for histomorphometric analysis that included measurements of number and diameter of blood vessels. PAF levels and diameter of blood vessels were significantly decreased (p < 0.01), and the number of blood vessels was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in both groups after 6 months compared to the baseline values. Postoperative number of blood vessels were significantly higher in group 1 (p < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in postoperative PAF levels between the two groups (p > 0.05). Based on the reported results, it is suggested that a decrease in gingival PAF levels might be found after conventional and regenerative periodontal surgery.

  14. Effects of spaceflight on levels and activity of immune cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Berry, Wallace D.; Mandel, Adrian D.; Konstantinova, Irena V.; Taylor, Gerald R.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on cells from rats that had been flown on Soviet Biosputnik Cosmos 1887 to explore the effects of speceflight on immune responses. Rat bone marrow cells were examined for their response to colony stimulating factor-M. Rat spleen and bone marrow cells were stained with antibodies directed against cell surface antigenic markers. The results of the studies indicate that bone marrow cells from flown rats showed a decreased response to colony stimulating factor. There was a higher percentage of spleen cells from flown rats staining positively for pan-T-cell, suppressor-T-cell, and interleukin-2 receptor cell surface antigens. A small increase in the percentage of cells staining positively for helper-T-cell antigens was also noted. In addition, a higher percentage of cells that appeared to be part of the myelogenous population of bone marrow cells from flown rats stained positively for surface immunoglobulin.

  15. Daily activity level improvement with antidepressant medications predicts long-term clinical outcomes in outpatients with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Manish K; Teer, Raymond B; Minhajuddin, Abu; Greer, Tracy L; Rush, A John; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2017-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) significantly impacts performance of both work- and nonwork-related routine daily activities. We have shown that work productivity is significantly impaired in employed MDD patients, but the extent of impairments in nonwork-related routine activities and its association with antidepressant treatment outcomes has not been established. Materials and methods Activity impairment was measured using the sixth item of Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Scale in the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial (n=665). Published norms were used to define activity impairment levels. The relationship between activity impairment and baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was evaluated along with changes in activity impairment and its relationship with other clinical outcomes such as symptom severity, function, and side effect burden. Remission status at 3 and 7 months was predicted based on week 6 activity impairment level. Results Higher psychosocial and cognitive impairments and greater number of comorbid medical conditions were associated with greater activity impairment at baseline. Proportion of participants with severe activity impairment declined from 47.6% at baseline to 18.7% at 3 months, while mean activity impairment decreased from 57.1 at baseline to 32.8 at 3 months. During course of treatment, levels of activity impairment correlated most strongly with psychosocial function among measures of symptom severity, function, quality of life, and side effect burden. No or minimal activity impairment at week 6 was associated with two to three times higher rates of remission at 3 and 7 months as compared to moderate or severe activity impairment levels even after controlling for remission status at week 6 and select baseline variables. Conclusion Depressed patients have high levels of nonwork-related activity impairment at baseline that improves significantly with treatment and

  16. Estimating fetal morbidity and mortality resulting from cigarette smoke exposure by measuring cotinine levels in maternal serum.

    PubMed

    Haddow, J E; Knight, G J; Palomaki, G E; Haddow, P K

    1988-01-01

    An essay for cotinine levels in maternal serum was used to define cigarette smoking exposure level and fetal morbidity and mortality. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has a circulating half-life of about a day, making it more reliable than nicotine as an indicator or active and passive smoke exposure. Maternal smoking has been linked in previous studies with low Apgar scores, low birthweight, decreased placental blood flow, fetal activity, fetal breathing movements, depressed prostacyclin synthesis in umbilical artery, increased perinatal mortality and spontaneous abortion. In this study, 8063 2nd trimester pregnant women whose serum had been collected and frozen in 1979-1983 were analyzed for smoking habit determined from intake questionnaires. Cotinine levels correlated with 95% of those reporting no smoking, and 93% of those reporting smoking. Smokers with cotinine 10 ng/ml was higher than expected, possible because some women quit before blood was drawn. Cotinine levels did not correlate as well as number of cigarettes per day reported. There was a significant association between serum cotinine and birthweight at the 10 and 20 cigarette/day level, and a trend toward a link between cotinine and fetal deaths in 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Among infants of the 30% of women exposed to passive smoke whose serum cotinine levels were 1 ng/ml, the average birth weight was 107 g lower than those of non-exposed women, a difference remaining after controlling for maternal weight and height, infant's sex, maternal age, gravidity and education.

  17. A Relationship Between Microbial Activity in Soils and Phosphate Levels in Tributaries to Lake Champlain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, R.; Lee, S.; Lane, T.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Champlain is a large natural freshwater lake. It forms the western boundary of Vermont and drains over half of the state. It is bordered by the state of New York on its western side and drains to the north into Quebec, Canada. Lake Champlain is the source of fresh drinking water for over quarter of a million people and provides for the livelihoods and recreational opportunities of many well beyond its borders. The health of this lake is important. During the summer month's algae blooms plague the lake. These unsightly growths, which affect other aquatic organisms, are the result of excess phosphate flowing into the lake from many sources. Examining whether there is a relationship between microbial activity in the soils bordering tributaries to Lake Champlain and phosphate levels in those tributaries sheds insight into the origins and paths by which phosphate moves into Lake Champlain. Understanding the how phosphate moves into the water system may assist in mitigation efforts.Total Phosphate levels and Total Suspended Solids were measured in second and third order streams in the Lake Champlain Basin over a three-year period. In addition microbial activity was measured within the toe, bank and upland riparian zone areas of these streams during the summer months. In general in areas showing greater microbial activity in the soil(s) there were increased levels of phosphate in the streams.

  18. Physical Activity Is Associated With Greater Visuospatial Cognitive Functioning Regardless of the Level of Cognitive Load in Elderly Adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Hao; Tsai, Chia Liang

    2016-02-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of regular physical activity on visuospatial cognition in elderly adults, and to further understand the potential neural mechanisms underpinning such effects. We assessed 24 physically active elderly adults and 24 sedentary counterparts using behavioral and neuroelectric measures during a visuospatial cognitive task with different levels of cognitive load. The results showed that the active group had higher behavioral accuracy along with greater P3 amplitudes, regardless of the level of cognitive load. Moreover, the correlation results revealed that physical activity levels were positively associated with accuracy performance in both conditions, while being correlated with frontal P3 amplitudes in the high cognitively demanding condition. However, no significant effects were observed in terms of P3 latency and contingent negative variation. These findings suggest that regular physical activity might be part of an effective lifestyle to attenuate the trajectory of age-related cognitive declines, thus increasing the likelihood of individuals becoming high-functioning older adults.

  19. Regulatory mechanisms of cAMP levels as a multiple target for antiplatelet activity and less bleeding risk.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Palomo, Iván

    2014-08-01

    Platelet activation is a critical component of atherothrombosis. The multiple pathways of platelet activation limit the effect of specific receptor/pathway inhibitors, resulting in limited clinical efficacy. Recent research has confirmed that combination therapy results in enhanced antithrombotic efficacy without increasing bleeding risk. In this way, the best-known inhibitor and turn off signaling in platelet activation is cAMP. In this article we discuss the mechanisms of regulation of intraplatelet cAMP levels, a) platelet-dependent pathway: Gi/Gs protein-coupled receptors, phosphodiesterase inhibition and activation of PPARs and b) platelet-independent pathway: inhibition of adenosine uptake by erythrocytes. With respect to the association between intraplatelet cAMP levels and bleeding risk it is possible to establish that compounds/drugs with pleitropic effect for increased intraplatelet cAMP level could have an antithrombotic activity with less risk of bleeding.

  20. Physical activity level and related factors in adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    van Eck, Mirjam; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Beckerman, Heleen; van den Hoven, Petronella A M; Voorman, Jeanine M; Becher, Jules G

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity level of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate the associated factors. The physical activity level was measured by means of a questionnaire filled in by the parents of 72 adolescents with CP (12-16 years of age) and expressed in METs. Older age, female gender, and hip dysplasia were significantly associated with a lower level of physical activity. Eighty-nine percent were not physically active enough according to the Dutch norm. Physical activity needs to be promoted, especially among older adolescents with CP (age 14-16 years), girls, and adolescents with hip dysplasia.

  1. Successful pod infections by Moniliophthora roreri result in differential Theobroma cacao gene expression depending on the clone's level of tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahin S; Melnick, Rachel L; Crozier, Jayne; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Strem, Mary D; Shao, Jonathan; Zhang, Dapeng; Sicher, Richard; Meinhardt, Lyndel; Bailey, Bryan A

    2014-09-01

    An understanding of the tolerance mechanisms of Theobroma cacao used against Moniliophthora roreri, the causal agent of frosty pod rot, is important for the generation of stable disease-tolerant clones. A comparative view was obtained of transcript populations of infected pods from two susceptible and two tolerant clones using RNA sequence (RNA-Seq) analysis. A total of 3009 transcripts showed differential expression among clones. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated shifts in 152 different metabolic pathways between the tolerant and susceptible clones. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) analyses of 36 genes verified the differential expression. Regression analysis validated a uniform progression in gene expression in association with infection levels and fungal loads in the susceptible clones. Expression patterns observed in the susceptible clones diverged in tolerant clones, with many genes showing higher expression at a low level of infection and fungal load. Principal coordinate analyses of real-time qRT-PCR data separated the gene expression patterns between susceptible and tolerant clones for pods showing malformation. Although some genes were constitutively differentially expressed between clones, most results suggested that defence responses were induced at low fungal load in the tolerant clones. Several elicitor-responsive genes were highly expressed in tolerant clones, suggesting rapid recognition of the pathogen and induction of defence genes. Expression patterns suggested that the jasmonic acid-ethylene- and/or salicylic acid-mediated defence pathways were activated in the tolerant clones, being enhanced by reduced brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and catabolic inactivation of both BR and abscisic acids. Finally, several genes associated with hypersensitive response-like cell death were also induced in tolerant clones.

  2. Association between Municipal Health Promotion Volunteers’ Health Literacy and Their Level of Outreach Activities in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Atsuko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the association between health literacy and levels of three types of core activities among health promotion volunteers (developing a healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community members). Study Design A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-administered postal survey of registered health promotion volunteers in the Konan area in Shiga Prefecture in Japan, conducted in January 2010. The study sample was 575 registered health promotion volunteers. Methods The survey collected data on health literacy, gender, age, education, self-rated health, perceptions about the volunteer organization, and perceptions of recognition in the community. The level of engagement in health promotion activities was measured by the extent to which the participants engaged in seven healthy behaviors and promoted them to family members and the community. The authors compared the health literacy level and other characteristics of the participants by core health promotion activities, using a chi-squared test, to examine the associations between demographic and other variables and the three core activities (healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community).Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between the degree to which the volunteers engaged in core activities (“healthy lifestyle,” “outreach to family,” “outreach to community”) and the levels of health literacy (low, medium, high) among health promotion volunteers, controlling for the effects of age, gender, health condition, education which may also have an impact on volunteers’ outreach activities. Results Four hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned, a 79.0% response rate. Excluding 16 cases with missing values on health literacy or the degree of health promotion activities, 438 research subjects were included in the analysis (valid response rate: 76.2%). Health literacy and a few demographic and other characteristics of the

  3. The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, C.P.; Schweitzer, J.S.; McDowell, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Oden, C P; Schweitzer, J S; McDowell, G M

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min.

  5. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanbin; Pollock, Norman; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger Susanne; Gutin, Bernard; Lan, Ling; Chen, Tai C; Keeton, Daniel; Petty, Karen; Holick, Michael F; Zhu, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to characterize the vitamin D status of black and white adolescents residing in the southeastern United States (latitude: 33°N) and to investigate relationships with adiposity. Methods Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy for 559 adolescents 14 to 18 years of age (45% black and 49% female). Fat tissues, physical activity, and cardiovascular fitness also were measured. Results The overall prevalences of vitamin D insufficiency (<75nmol/L) and deficiency (≤50 nmol/L) were 56.4% and 28.8%, respectively. Black versus white subjects had significantly lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in every season (winter, 35.9±2.5 vs 77.4±2.7 nmol/L; spring, 46.4±3.5 vs 101.3±3.5 nmol/L; summer, 50.7±4.0 vs 104.3±4.0 nmol/L; autumn, 54.4± 4.0 vs 96.8±2.7 nmol/L). With adjustment for age, gender, race, season, height, and sexual maturation, there were significant inverse correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and all adiposity measurements, including BMI percentile (P=.02), waist circumference (P<.01), total fat mass (P<.01), percentage of body fat (P <.01), visceral adipose tissue (P <.015), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (P<.039). There were significant positive associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and vigorous physical activity (P <.01) and cardiovascular fitness (P =.025). Conclusions Low vitamin D status is prevalent among adolescents living in a year-round sunny climate, particularly among black youths. The relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness seem to be present in adolescence. PMID:20439594

  6. Laterality of brain activity during motor imagery is modulated by the provision of source level neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Boe, Shaun; Gionfriddo, Alicia; Kraeutner, Sarah; Tremblay, Antoine; Little, Graham; Bardouille, Timothy

    2014-11-01

    Motor imagery (MI) may be effective as an adjunct to physical practice for motor skill acquisition. For example, MI is emerging as an effective treatment in stroke neurorehabilitation. As in physical practice, the repetitive activation of neural pathways during MI can drive short- and long-term brain changes that underlie functional recovery. However, the lack of feedback about MI performance may be a factor limiting its effectiveness. The provision of feedback about MI-related brain activity may overcome this limitation by providing the opportunity for individuals to monitor their own performance of this endogenous process. We completed a controlled study to isolate neurofeedback as the factor driving changes in MI-related brain activity across repeated sessions. Eighteen healthy participants took part in 3 sessions comprised of both actual and imagined performance of a button press task. During MI, participants in the neurofeedback group received source level feedback based on activity from the left and right sensorimotor cortex obtained using magnetoencephalography. Participants in the control group received no neurofeedback. MI-related brain activity increased in the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the imagined movement across sessions in the neurofeedback group, but not in controls. Task performance improved across sessions but did not differ between groups. Our results indicate that the provision of neurofeedback during MI allows healthy individuals to modulate regional brain activity. This finding has the potential to improve the effectiveness of MI as a tool in neurorehabilitation.

  7. Moisture measurement for high-level-waste tanks using copper activation probe in cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Reeves, J.H.; Wilson, W.E.

    1995-10-01

    Laboratory tests have established the feasibility of using neutron activation of copper as a means for measuring the moisture in Hanford`s high-level radioactive waste tanks. The performance of the neutron activation technique to measure moisture is equivalent to the neutron moisture gauges or neutron logs commonly used in commercial well-logging. The principle difference is that the activation of {sup 64}Cu (t{sub 1/2} = 12.7 h) replaces the neutron counters used in moisture gauges or neutron logs. For application to highly radioactive waste tanks, the Cu activation technique has the advantage that it is insensitive to very strong gamma radiation fields or high temperatures. In addition, this technique can be deployed through tortuous paths or in confined spaces such as within the bore of a cone penetrometer. However, the results are not available in ``real-time``. The copper probe`s sensitivity to moisture was measured using simulated tank waste of known moisture content. This report describes the preparation of the simulated waste mixtures and the experiments performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the neutron activation technique. These experiments included determination of the calibration curve of count rate versus moisture content using a single copper probe, measurement of the calibration curve based on ``near-field `` to ``far-field`` counting ratios using a multiple probe technique, and profiling the activity of the copper probe as a function of the vertical height within a simulated waste barrel.

  8. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  9. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  10. The Tellurium compound, AS101, increases SIRT1 level and activity and prevents type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Halperin-Sheinfeld, Meital; Gertler, Asaf; Okun, Eitan; Sredni, Benjamin; Cohen, Haim Y

    2012-06-01

    The histone deacetylase, SIRT1, plays a major role in glucose regulation and lipid metabolism. Ammonium Trichloro (dioxoethylene-o,o') Tellurate, AS101, is a potent in vitro and in vivo immunomodulator, with several potential therapeutic applications. AS101 administration resulted in upregulation of SIRT1 protein expression and activity. These effects were associated with decreased levels of serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and of insulin. The properties of AS101 prompted us to investigate its potential therapeutic role in rats with type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was induced by a high fat diet combined with a low dose of Streptozotocin (STZ). Treatment with AS101 before manifestation of hyperglycemia, resulted in increased insulin sensitivity, and decreased blood glucose levels, and prevented symptoms of diabetes including defective glucose clearance, fatty liver, and abnormal distribution of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Treatment after disease emergence resulted in partial restoration of normal glucose homeostasis. Diabetic rats showed a reduction in liver SIRT1 levels. In both treatment regimens the reduction in SIRT1 levels in the liver were blocked by AS101 consumption. Together, these findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of AS101 for treating T2D, and for reversing impaired fat and glucose metabolism.

  11. Granular Activated Carbon Treatment May Result in Higher Predicted Genotoxicity in the Presence of Bromide.

    PubMed

    Krasner, Stuart W; Lee, Tiffany Chih Fen; Westerhoff, Paul; Fischer, Natalia; Hanigan, David; Karanfil, Tanju; Beita-Sandí, Wilson; Taylor-Edmonds, Liz; Andrews, Robert C

    2016-09-06

    Certain unregulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are more of a health concern than regulated DBPs. Brominated species are typically more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogs. The impact of granular activated carbon (GAC) on controlling the formation of regulated and selected unregulated DBPs following chlorine disinfection was evaluated. The predicted cyto- and genotoxicity of DBPs was calculated using published potencies based on the comet assay for Chinese hamster ovary cells (assesses the level of DNA strand breaks). Additionally, genotoxicity was measured using the SOS-Chromotest (detects DNA-damaging agents). The class sum concentrations of trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and unregulated DBPs, and the SOS genotoxicity followed the breakthrough of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), however the formation of brominated species did not. The bromide/DOC ratio was higher than the influent through much of the breakthrough curve (GAC does not remove bromide), which resulted in elevated brominated DBP concentrations in the effluent. Based on the potency of the haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes, these nitrogen-containing DBPs were the driving agents of the predicted genotoxicity. GAC treatment of drinking or reclaimed waters with appreciable levels of bromide and dissolved organic nitrogen may not control the formation of unregulated DBPs with higher genotoxicity potencies.

  12. Ten years of photonics education at the college level in Ontario: results and by-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nantel, Marc

    2010-08-01

    In 2000, there was no way for an Ontario student to obtain a credential in optics, laser or photonics without going through graduate school. This was in, arguably, the world-leading jurisdiction in photonics-enabled telecommunications industry. To alleviate this problem and supply the job market with highly-qualified people in the field of optics and photonics, the Ontario Centres of Excellence - then as Photonics Research Ontario - partnered with Algonquin College (Ottawa) and Niagara College (Welland) to establish over the past decade a suite of programs: a 1-year Certificate in Advanced Lasers, a 2-year Diploma for Photonics Engineering Technician, a 3-year Diploma for Photonics Engineering Technologists and a 4-year Bachelor of Applied Technology - Photonics. Much has been learnt along the way - the crucial need for industrial partner and government support, for example - and many course corrections had to be made (telecom bust, anyone?). The author will share the results of this 10-year journey so far, the lessons learnt, and a view to the next ten years for these programs and photonics education in Ontario in general.

  13. Adverse effects in adulthood resulting from low-level dioxin exposure in juvenile zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Tracie R; Peterson, Richard E; Heideman, Warren

    2015-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that disease in adult humans stems from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. A problem in identifying environmental factors is that subacute exposures during early life are often unnoticed, or exposures are variable among a diverse population. This leads to a confusing pattern in adulthood. An additional problem in following exposure effects in humans is the length of time needed to study outcomes spanning a human generation. We have recently developed a zebrafish model for studying the effects of sublethal juvenile exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin). Although the initial exposure produces no effect at the time, we find skeletal and reproductive defects in adulthood and into subsequent generations. The short generation time of zebrafish along with the ability to maintain large cohorts of exposed individuals and their offspring allows us to overcome variation in exposure and genetic background. Here we describe progress in studying TCDD as an endocrine and developmental disruptor, and our results showing adult consequences of early exposure. PMID:26180821

  14. Artifactual mutations resulting from DNA lesions limit detection levels in ultrasensitive sequencing applications

    PubMed Central

    Arbeithuber, Barbara; Makova, Kateryna D.; Tiemann-Boege, Irene

    2016-01-01

    The need in cancer research or evolutionary biology to detect rare mutations or variants present at very low frequencies (<10−5) poses an increasing demand on lowering the detection limits of available methods. Here we demonstrated that amplifiable DNA lesions introduce important error sources in ultrasensitive technologies such as single molecule PCR (smPCR) applications (e.g. droplet-digital PCR), or next-generation sequencing (NGS) based methods. Using templates with known amplifiable lesions (8-oxoguanine, deaminated 5-methylcytosine, uracil, and DNA heteroduplexes), we assessed with smPCR and duplex sequencing that templates with these lesions were amplified very efficiently by proofreading polymerases (except uracil), leading to G->T, and to a lesser extent, to unreported G->C substitutions at 8-oxoguanine lesions, and C->T transitions in amplified uracil containing templates. Long heat incubations common in many DNA extraction protocols significantly increased the number of G->T substitutions. Moreover, in ∼50-80% smPCR reactions we observed the random amplification preference of only one of both DNA strands explaining the known ‘PCR jackpot effect’, with the result that a lesion became indistinguishable from a true mutation or variant. Finally, we showed that artifactual mutations derived from uracil and 8-oxoguanine could be significantly reduced by DNA repair enzymes. PMID:27477585

  15. Artifactual mutations resulting from DNA lesions limit detection levels in ultrasensitive sequencing applications.

    PubMed

    Arbeithuber, Barbara; Makova, Kateryna D; Tiemann-Boege, Irene

    2016-12-01

    The need in cancer research or evolutionary biology to detect rare mutations or variants present at very low frequencies (<10(-5)) poses an increasing demand on lowering the detection limits of available methods. Here we demonstrated that amplifiable DNA lesions introduce important error sources in ultrasensitive technologies such as single molecule PCR (smPCR) applications (e.g. droplet-digital PCR), or next-generation sequencing (NGS) based methods. Using templates with known amplifiable lesions (8-oxoguanine, deaminated 5-methylcytosine, uracil, and DNA heteroduplexes), we assessed with smPCR and duplex sequencing that templates with these lesions were amplified very efficiently by proofreading polymerases (except uracil), leading to G->T, and to a lesser extent, to unreported G->C substitutions at 8-oxoguanine lesions, and C->T transitions in amplified uracil containing templates. Long heat incubations common in many DNA extraction protocols significantly increased the number of G->T substitutions. Moreover, in ∼50-80% smPCR reactions we observed the random amplification preference of only one of both DNA strands explaining the known 'PCR jackpot effect', with the result that a lesion became indistinguishable from a true mutation or variant. Finally, we showed that artifactual mutations derived from uracil and 8-oxoguanine could be significantly reduced by DNA repair enzymes.

  16. Adverse effects in adulthood resulting from low-level dioxin exposure in juvenile zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tracie R; Peterson, Richard E; Heideman, Warren

    There is strong evidence indicating that disease in adult humans stems from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. A problem in identifying environmental factors is that subacute exposures during early life are often unnoticed, or exposures are variable among a diverse population. This leads to a confusing pattern in adulthood. An additional problem in following exposure effects in humans is the length of time needed to study outcomes spanning a human generation. We have recently developed a zebrafish model for studying the effects of sublethal juvenile exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin). Although the initial exposure produces no effect at the time, we find skeletal and reproductive defects in adulthood and into subsequent generations. The short generation time of zebrafish along with the ability to maintain large cohorts of exposed individuals and their offspring allows us to overcome variation in exposure and genetic background. Here we describe progress in studying TCDD as an endocrine and developmental disruptor, and our results showing adult consequences of early exposure.

  17. 76 FR 67142 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ...-activation chemical treatment (chemical or water washing, chemical impregnation or other treatment), or... dehydrates molecules in the raw material, and results in the formation of water that is removed from the raw... analysis memoranda. \\13\\ CCT submitted Active Carbon India Private Limited's (``Active Carbon'')...

  18. Physical activity levels in three Brazilian birth cohorts as assessed with raw triaxial wrist accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Inácio CM; van Hees, Vincent T; Ramires, Virgílio V; Knuth, Alan G; Bielemann, Renata M; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Hallal, Pedro C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Data on objectively measured physical activity are lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe objectively measured overall physical activity and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in individuals from the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts, according to weight status, socioeconomic status (SES) and sex. Methods: All children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in hospitals in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, constitute the sampling frame; of these 99% agreed to participate. The most recent follow-ups were conducted between 2010 and 2013. In total, 8974 individuals provided valid data derived from raw triaxial wrist accelerometry. The average acceleration is presented in milli-g (1 mg = 0.001g), and time (min/d) spent in MVPA (>100 mg) is presented in 5- and 10-min bouts. Results: Mean acceleration in the 1982 (mean age 30.2 years), 1993 (mean age 18.4 years) and 2004 (mean age 6.7 years) cohorts was 35 mg, 39 mg and 60 mg, respectively. Time spent in MVPA was 26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 25; 27], 43 (95% CI 42; 44) and 45 (95% CI 43; 46) min/d in the three cohorts, respectively, using 10-min bouts. Mean MVPA was on average 42% higher when using 5-min bouts. Males were more active than females and physical activity was inversely associated with age of the cohort and SES. Normal-weight individuals were more active than underweight, overweight and obese participants. Conclusions: Overall physical activity and time spent in MVPA differed by cohort (age), sex, weight status and SES. Higher levels of activity in low SES groups may be explained by incidental physical activity. PMID:25361583

  19. Results of sampling the contents of the liquid low-level waste evaporator feed tank W-22 at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, M.B.

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of the fall 1994 sampling of the contents of the liquid low- level waste (LLLW) tank W-22 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Tank W-22 is the central collection and holding tank for LLLW at ORNL before the waste is transferred to the evaporators. Samples of the tank liquid and sludge were analyzed to determine (1) the major chemical constituents, (2) the principal radionuclides, (3) the metals listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Contract Laboratory Program Inorganic Target Analyte List, (4) organic compounds, and (5) some physical properties. The organic chemical characterization consisted of the determinations of the EPA Contract Laboratory Program Target Compound List semivolatile compounds, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Water-soluble volatile organic compounds were also determined. Information provided in this report forms part of the technical basis in support of (1) waste management for the active LLLW system and (2) planning for the treatment and disposal of the waste.

  20. Increases in Physical Activity Result in Diminishing Increments in Daily Energy Expenditure in Mice.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Timothy J; Friend, Danielle M; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-06

    Exercise is a common component of weight loss strategies, yet exercise programs are associated with surprisingly small changes in body weight [1-4]. This may be due in part to compensatory adaptations, in which calories expended during exercise are counteracted by decreases in other aspects of energy expenditure [1, 5-10]. Here we examined the relationship between a rodent model of voluntary exercise- wheel running- and total daily energy expenditure. Use of a running wheel for 3 to 7 days increased daily energy expenditure, resulting in a caloric deficit of ∼1 kcal/day; however, total daily energy expenditure remained stable after the first week of wheel access, despite further increases in wheel use. We hypothesized that compensatory mechanisms accounted for the lack of increase in daily energy expenditure after the first week. Supporting this idea, we observed a decrease in off-wheel ambulation when mice were using the wheels, indicating behavioral compensation. Finally, we asked whether individual variation in wheel use within a group of mice would be associated with different levels of daily energy expenditure. Despite a large variation in wheel running, we did not observe a significant relationship between the amount of daily wheel running and total daily energy expenditure or energy intake across mice. Together, our experiments support a model in which the transition from sedentary to light activity is associated with an increase in daily energy expenditure, but further increases in physical activity produce diminishingly small increments in daily energy expenditure.

  1. Memory based active contour algorithm using pixel-level classified images for colon crypt segmentation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Assaf; Rivlin, Ehud; Shimshoni, Ilan; Sabo, Edmond

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel method for detection and segmentation of crypts in colon biopsies. Most of the approaches proposed in the literature try to segment the crypts using only the biopsy image without understanding the meaning of each pixel. The proposed method differs in that we segment the crypts using an automatically generated pixel-level classification image of the original biopsy image and handle the artifacts due to the sectioning process and variance in color, shape and size of the crypts. The biopsy image pixels are classified to nuclei, immune system, lumen, cytoplasm, stroma and goblet cells. The crypts are then segmented using a novel active contour approach, where the external force is determined by the semantics of each pixel and the model of the crypt. The active contour is applied for every lumen candidate detected using the pixel-level classification. Finally, a false positive crypt elimination process is performed to remove segmentation errors. This is done by measuring their adherence to the crypt model using the pixel level classification results. The method was tested on 54 biopsy images containing 4944 healthy and 2236 cancerous crypts, resulting in 87% detection of the crypts with 9% of false positive segments (segments that do not represent a crypt). The segmentation accuracy of the true positive segments is 96%.

  2. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2008-06-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death) was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years). From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  3. Distinguishing body mass and activity level from the lower limb: can entheses diagnose obesity?

    PubMed

    Godde, Kanya; Taylor, Rebecca Wilson

    2013-03-10

    The ability to estimate body size from the skeleton has broad applications, but is especially important to the forensic community when identifying unknown skeletal remains. This research investigates the utility of using entheses/muscle skeletal markers of the lower limb to estimate body size and to classify individuals into average, obese, and active categories, while using a biomechanical approach to interpret the results. Eighteen muscle attachment sites of the lower limb, known to be involved in the sit-to-stand transition, were scored for robusticity and stress in 105 white males (aged 31-81 years) from the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection. Both logistic regression and log linear models were applied to the data to (1) test the utility of entheses as an indicator of body weight and activity level, and (2) to generate classification percentages that speak to the accuracy of the method. Thirteen robusticity scores differed significantly between the groups, but classification percentages were only slightly greater than chance. However, clear differences could be seen between the average and obese and the average and active groups. Stress scores showed no value in discriminating between groups. These results were interpreted in relation to biomechanical forces at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. Even though robusticity alone is not able to classify individuals well, its significance may show greater value when incorporated into a model that has multiple skeletal indicators. Further research needs to evaluate a larger sample and incorporate several lines of evidence to improve classification rates.

  4. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern

  5. A possible long-term activity cycle for ι Horologii: First results from SPI-HKα project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Matías G.; Buccino, Andrea P.; Saffe, Carlos E.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2017-02-01

    In order to detect stellar activity cycles and study possible star-planet interactions (SPIs), we have been developing the HKα and SPI-HKα projects since 1999 and 2012 respectively. In this work, we present preliminary results of possible SPIs from studies of chromospheric activity and look for possible correlations between stellar activity and stellar/planetary parameters. We find that for stars with a similar Teff, stellar activity increases with the mass of the planet, similar to results from previous works. However, stellar ages can also play a role, and a larger stellar sample is needed to verify these trends. We also note that some of these stars present a remarkably high level of chromospheric activity, comparable even with RSCvn or BY Dra active stars. In addition, we do not observe any correlation between stellar activity and semi-major axis. We present the first long-term activity study of the star ι Horologii, a young solar-type star that hosts a non-transiting Jovian planet and exhibits a high activity level. We analysed our own spectra, obtained between 2002 and 2015, in conjunction with public HARPS (High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher) observations. We calculated the Ca II indexes derived from the 987 Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO) and HARPS spectra and converted them to the Mt Wilson scale. We found a long-term activity cycle of ˜5 yr which fits the active sequence of Böhm-Vitense. The amplitude of this longer cycle is irregular, as was also observed for the shorter cycle. This phenomenon could be attributable to an antisymmetric distribution of active regions on the stellar surface.

  6. Brain Injury Alters Ectonucleotidase Activities and Adenine Nucleotide Levels in Rat Serum

    PubMed Central

    Laketa, Danijela; Savić, Jasmina; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Lavrnja, Irena; Vasić, Vesna; Stojiljković, Mirjana; Nedeljković, Nadežda

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cortical stab injury (CSI) induces changes in the activity, expression and cellular distribution of specific ectonucleotidases at the injury site. Also, several experimentally induced neuropathologies are associated with changes in soluble ectonucleotidase activities in the plasma and serum, whilst various insults to the brain alter purine compounds levels in cerebrospinal fluid, but also in serum, indicating that insults to the brain may induce alterations in nucleotides release and rate of their hydrolysis in the vascular system. Since adenine nucleotides and adenosine regulate diverse cellular functions in the vascular system, including vascular tone, platelet aggregation and inflammatory responses of lymphocytes and macrophages, alterations of ectonucleotidase activities in the vascular system may be relevant for the clinical outcome of the primary insult. Methods We explored ectonucleotidase activities using specific enzyme assays and determined adenine nucleotides concentrations by the UPLC method in the rat serum after cortical stab injury. Results At 4-h post-injury, ATP and AMP hydrolysis increased by about 60% and 40%, respectively, while phosphodiesterase activity remained unchanged. Also, at 4-h post-injury a marked decrease in ATP concentration and more than 2-fold increase in AMP concentration were recorded. Conclusions CSI induces rapid up-regulation of nucleotide catabolizing soluble ectonucleotidases in rat serum, which leads to the observed shift in serum nucleotide levels. The results obtained imply that ectonucleotidases and adenine nucleotides participate in the communication between the brain and the vascular system in physiological and pathological conditions and thereby may be involved in the development of various human neuropathologies.

  7. Level of Physical Activity and In-Hospital Course of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Juliana de Goes; Santos, Marcos Antonio Almeida; Barreto Filho, José Augusto Soares; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; de Oliveira, Norma Alves; Faro, Gustavo Baptista de Almeida; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. A sedentary lifestyle, present in 85% of the Brazilian population, is considered a risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. However, the correlation of a sedentary lifestyle with cardiovascular events (CVE) during hospitalization for ACS is not well established. Objective To evaluate the association between physical activity level, assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), with in-hospital prognosis in patients with ACS. Methods Observational, cross-sectional, and analytical study with 215 subjects with a diagnosis of ACS consecutively admitted to a referral hospital for cardiac patients between July 2009 and February 2011. All volunteers answered the short version of the IPAQ and were observed for the occurrence of CVE during hospitalization with a standardized assessment conducted by the researcher and corroborated by data from medical records. Results The patients were admitted with diagnoses of unstable angina (34.4%), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) without ST elevation (41.4%), and AMI with ST elevation (24.2%). According to the level of physical activity, the patients were classified as non-active (56.3%) and active (43.7%). A CVE occurred in 35.3% of the cohort. The occurrence of in-hospital complications was associated with the length of hospital stay (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15) and physical inactivity (OR = 2.54), and was independent of age, systolic blood pressure, and prior congestive heart failure. Conclusion A physically active lifestyle reduces the risk of CVE during hospitalization in patients with ACS. PMID:26690692

  8. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  9. Dueling Volcanoes: How Activity Levels At Kilauea Influence Eruptions At Mauna Loa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusdell, F.

    2011-12-01

    Loa inflates its flank is not buttressed on the southeast. Consequently, asymmetrical spreading occurs resulting in dilation of the shallow magma storage centers, which ultimately culminates in decreased magma pressure and therefore lessened ability to erupt. Whether or not this hypothesis is accurate, there is growing geologic evidence for inverse activity levels at both volcanoes. This hypothesis is readily testable and can have profound implications on how we monitor shield volcanoes, which impacts our ability to forecast eruptions, conduct hazard assessments, and risk analysis.

  10. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  11. Differences in Physical Activity Levels between Urban and Rural School Children in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.; Bennett, Neville

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to examine differences in physical activity levels between urban and rural primary school children. The sample consisted of 256 Greek-Cypriot children and their parents from two schools representing urban areas and three schools representing rural areas. Children's activity levels were assessed for 4 weekdays in the winter and…

  12. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  13. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  14. Physical activity levels during phase IV cardiac rehabilitation in a group of male myocardial infarction patients

    PubMed Central

    Woolf-May, K; Bird, S; MacIntyre, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine physical activity levels during phase IV cardiac rehabilitation in 31 male myocardial infarction patients (median age 62, range 53–77 years). Methods: Patients recorded daily physical activity over 16 weeks in a diary. Diaries were analysed for total general physical activity (TGPA), leisure time physical activity (LTPA), and "active for life" exercise classes (AFL). Pre- and post-observation period (OP) subjects underwent a 10 m shuttle walking test (SWT) to determine changes in aerobic fitness. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) determined exercise intensity. Estimated gross energy expenditure (EEE) was determined by a regression equation between RPE and Vo2 (l min–1) during SWT. A total of 97% of subjects were on lipid lowering medication. Results: There were no correlations between Vo2 (l min–1) and body mass, therefore kcal min–1 indicated activity intensity. There were no significant changes in physical activity patterns or in aerobic fitness. Estimated total LTPA (median 1376, range 128–3380 kcal week–1) was less than that recommended to improve aerobic fitness and/or slow progression of coronary artery disease. Sixteen subjects attended a median of 29 (range 1–46) AFL during LTPA; one way ANOVA showed these subjects worked at greater EEE (AFL, n = 16, 6.6 (standard deviation 1.4) v no-AFL, n = 15, 5.1 (1.8) EEE kcal min–1, p = 0.017). Conclusion: Physical activity was stable, but patients' EEE appeared insufficient to improve aerobic fitness or slow progression of coronary artery disease. It was suggested that the promotion of LTPA and the availability of AFL classes should be reconsidered. PMID:15728680

  15. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyunbum; Banerjee, Avik; Chavan, Tanmay S.; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Is nucleotide exchange sufficient to activate K-Ras4B? To signal, oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) anchors in the membrane and recruits effectors by exposing its effector lobe. With the use of NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we observed that in solution, farnesylated guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP)-bound K-Ras4B is predominantly autoinhibited by its hypervariable region (HVR), whereas the GTP-bound state favors an activated, HVR-released state. On the anionic membrane, the catalytic domain adopts multiple orientations, including parallel (∼180°) and perpendicular (∼90°) alignments of the allosteric helices, with respect to the membrane surface direction. In the autoinhibited state, the HVR is sandwiched between the effector lobe and the membrane; in the active state, with membrane-anchored farnesyl and unrestrained HVR, the catalytic domain fluctuates reinlessly, exposing its effector-binding site. Dimerization and clustering can reduce the fluctuations. This achieves preorganized, productive conformations. Notably, we also observe HVR-autoinhibited K-Ras4B-GTP states, with GDP-bound-like orientations of the helices. Thus, we propose that the GDP/GTP exchange may not be sufficient for activation; instead, our results suggest that the GDP/GTP exchange, HVR sequestration, farnesyl insertion, and orientation/localization of the catalytic domain at the membrane conjointly determine the active or inactive state of K-Ras4B. Importantly, K-Ras4B-GTP can exist in active and inactive states; on its own, GTP binding may not compel K-Ras4B activation.—Jang, H., Banerjee, A., Chavan, T. S, Lu, S., Zhang, J., Gaponenko, V., Nussinov, R. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane. PMID:26718888

  16. The effects of changing dairy intake on trans and saturated fatty acid levels- results from a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dairy food is an important natural source of saturated and trans fatty acids in the human diet. This study evaluates the effect of dietary advice to change dairy food intake on plasma fatty acid levels known to be present in milk in healthy volunteers. Methods Twenty one samples of whole fat dairy milk were analyzed for fatty acids levels. Changes in levels of plasma phospholipid levels were evaluated in 180 healthy volunteers randomized to increase, not change or reduce dairy intake for one month. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and levels are normalized to d-4 alanine. Results The long chain fatty acids palmitic (13.4%), stearic (16.7%) and myristic (18.9%) acid were most common saturated fats in milk. Four trans fatty acids constituted 3.7% of the total milk fat content. Increased dairy food intake by 3.0 (± 1.2) serves/ day for 1 month was associated with small increases in plasma levels of myristic (+0.05, 95% confidence level-0.08 to 0.13, p = 0.07), pentadecanoic (+0.014, 95% confidence level -0.016 to 0.048, p = 0.02) and margaric acid (+0.02, -0.03 to 0.05, p = 0.03). There was no significant change in plasma levels of 4 saturated, 4 trans and 10 unsaturated fatty acids. Decreasing dairy food intake by 2.5 (± 1.2) serves per day was not associated with change in levels of any plasma fatty acid levels. Conclusion Dietary advice to change dairy food has a minor effect on plasma fatty acid levels. Trial registration ACTRN12612000574842. PMID:24708591

  17. Visualizing changes in circuit activity resulting from denervation and reinnervation using immediate early gene expression.

    PubMed

    Temple, Meredith D; Worley, Paul F; Steward, Oswald

    2003-04-01

    We describe a novel strategy to evaluate circuit function after brain injury that takes advantage of experience-dependent immediate early gene (IEG) expression. When normal rats undergo training or are exposed to a novel environment, there is a strong induction of IEG expression in forebrain regions, including the hippocampus. This gene induction identifies the neurons that are engaged during the experience. Here, we demonstrate that experience-dependent IEG induction is diminished after brain injury in young adult rats (120-200 gm), specifically after unilateral lesions of the entorhinal cortex (EC), and then recovers with a time course consistent with reinnervation. In situ hybridization techniques were used to assess the expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein Arc at various times after the lesion (4, 8, 12, 16, or 30 d). One group of rats was allowed to explore a complex novel environment for 1 hr; control operated animals remained in their home cage. In unoperated animals, exposure to the novel environment induced Arc mRNA levels in most pyramidal neurons in CA1, in many pyramidal neurons in CA3, and in a small number of dentate granule cells. This characteristic pattern of induction was absent at early time points after unilateral EC lesions (4 and 8 d) but recovered progressively at later time points. The recovery of Arc expression occurred with approximately the same time course as the reinnervation of the dentate gyrus as a result of postlesion sprouting. These results document a novel approach for quantitatively assessing activity-regulated gene expression in polysynaptic circuits after trauma.

  18. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase tissue-specific activities: evidence for baseline levels in mammalian tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Uziel, M.; Griffin, G.D.; Walsh, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The tissue-specific activities of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase benzo(a)pyrene (AHH(BaP)) in human, mouse, rat, and hamster tissues have been reviewed. Three categories of AHH activities are defined: baseline values from tissues that have been protected from adventitious exposures to AHH inducers; background levels from tissues where there have been no overt measures to protect against exposure; and induced levels resulting from overt exposure to chemical inducers. Evidence that the baseline category exists is derived from the observations that an upper limit of AHH tissue-specific activity of about 1.5 nmol/h x g tissue occurs in human placenta, human foreskin, lymphocyte, and epitheliod and fibroblastoid cell lines; mouse lung and liver; rat fetal liver, and noninducible rat cell lines from lung, liver, embryo kidney, and adrenals; and hamster kidney. The collected values for nonexposed tissues range from 0.02 nmol/h x g to values less than 1.5 nmol/h x g. The most consistent observation of this type was from human placental material from nonsmoking mothers. Animals raised under standard laboratory conditions without special dietary precautions show background AHH activities that range from 2 nmol/h x g to 200 nmol/h x g in portal of entry tissues such as liver, lung, and intestines. Almost all tissue samples showed induced AHH levels of up to 500 nmol/h x g when those tissues were overtly exposed to substances containing chemical inducers of AHH. Measurements of placental AHH from smoking mothers showed that more than 95% of those samples had AHH values exceeding 2.5 nmol/h x g.

  19. Physical activity on prescription schemes (PARS): do programme characteristics influence effectiveness? Results of a systematic review and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Arsenijevic, Jelena; Groot, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity on prescription schemes (PARS) are health promotion programmes that have been implemented in various countries. The aim of this study was to outline the differences in the design of PARS in different countries. This study also explored the differences in the adherence rate to PARS and the self-reported level of physical activity between PARS users in different countries. Method A systematic literature review and meta-analyses were conducted. We searched PubMed and EBASCO in July 2015 and updated our search in September 2015. Studies that reported adherence to the programme and self-reported level of physical activity, published in the English language in a peer-reviewed journal since 2000, were included. The difference in the pooled adherence rate after finishing the PARS programme and the adherence rate before or during the PARS programme was 17% (95% CI 9% to 24%). The difference in the pooled physical activity was 0.93 unit score (95 CI −3.57 to 1.71). For the adherence rate, a meta-regression was conducted. Results In total, 37 studies conducted in 11 different countries met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 31 reported the adherence rate, while the level of physical activity was reported in 17 studies. Results from meta-analyses show that PARS had an effect on the adherence rate of physical activity, while the results from the meta-regressions show that programme characteristics such as type of chronic disease and the follow-up period influenced the adherence rate. Conclusions The effects of PARS on adherence and self-reported physical activity were influenced by programme characteristics and also by the design of the study. Future studies on the effectiveness of PARS should use a prospective longitudinal design and combine quantitative and qualitative data. Furthermore, future evaluation studies should distinguish between evaluating the adherence rate and the self-reported physical activity among participants with different

  20. Decreasing SMPD1 activity in BEAS-2B bronchial airway epithelial cells results in increased NRF2 activity, cytokine synthesis and neutrophil recruitment.

    PubMed

    MacFadden-Murphy, Elyse; Roussel, Lucie; Martel, Guy; Bérubé, Julie; Rousseau, Simon

    2017-01-22

    Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type B is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by variable levels of impairment in sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) activity. Lung involvement is the most important prognostic factor in NPD-B, with recurrent respiratory infections starting in infancy being the major cause of morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that decreased SMPD1 activity impaired airway epithelium host defense response. SMPD1 activity was reduced using inducible shRNA. Surprisingly, decreasing SMPD1 activity by 50%, resulted in increased neutrophil recruitment, both at baseline and in response to bacterial stimulation. This correlated with elevated levels of cytokine mRNA shown to contribute to neutrophil recruitment in unstimulated (e.g. IL-8 and GRO-α) and infected cells (e.g. IL-8, GRO-α, GM-CSF and CCL20). Instead of preventing the host defence responses, decreased SMPD1 activity results in an inflammatory response even in the absence of infection. Moreover, decreasing SMPD1 activity resulted in a pro-oxidative shift. Accordingly, expression of an inactive mutant, SMPD1[L225P] but not the WT enzyme increased activation of the antioxidant transcription factor NRF2. Therefore, decreasing SMPD1 activity by 50% in airway epithelial cells, the equivalent of the loss of one allele, results in the accumulation of oxidants that activates NRF2 and a concomitant increased cytokine production as well as neutrophil recruitment. This can result in a chronic inflammatory state that impairs host defence similar to scenarios observe in other chronic inflammatory lung disease such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or Cystic Fibrosis.

  1. Anaerobic homolactate fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in depletion of ATP and impaired metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Derek A; van den Brink, Joost; Minneboo, Inge M K; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2009-05-01

    Conversion of glucose to lactic acid is stoichiometrically equivalent to ethanol formation with respect to ATP formation from substrate-level phosphorylation, redox equivalents and product yield. However, anaerobic growth cannot be sustained in homolactate fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ATP-dependent export of the lactate anion and/or proton, resulting in net zero ATP formation, is suspected as the underlying cause. In an effort to understand the mechanisms behind the decreased lactic acid production rate in anaerobic homolactate cultures of S. cerevisiae, aerobic carbon-limited chemostats were performed and subjected to anaerobic perturbations in the presence of high glucose concentrations. Intracellular measurements of adenosine phosphates confirmed ATP depletion and decreased energy charge immediately upon anaerobicity. Unexpectedly, readily available sources of carbon and energy, trehalose and glycogen, were not activated in homolactate strains as they were in reference strains that produce ethanol. Finally, the anticipated increase in maximal velocity (V(max)) of glycolytic enzymes was not observed in homolactate fermentation suggesting the absence of protein synthesis that may be attributed to decreased energy availability. Essentially, anaerobic homolactate fermentation results in energy depletion, which, in turn, hinders protein synthesis, central carbon metabolism and subsequent energy generation.

  2. Associations of blood lead levels with reproductive hormone levels in men and postmenopausal women: Results from the SPECT-China Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi; Wang, Ningjian; Zhai, Hualing; Nie, Xiaomin; Sun, Honglin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Jing; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhao, Li; Zheng, Yanjun; Shen, Zhoujun; Lu, Yingli

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether blood lead levels (BLLs) were associated with reproductive hormone levels in a cross-sectional study using data from the SPECT-China study. We selected 2286 men and 1571 postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy. BLLs, blood cadmium, total testosterone (TT), oestradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG) levels were measured. The results showed that median values (interquartile range) of BLLs were 44.00 μg/L (29.00–62.30) for men and 41.00 μg/L (27.00–59.81) for postmenopausal women. In linear regression, after adjusting for age, current smoking status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes and blood cadmium level, TT (P for trend = 0.001) and SHBG (P for trend < 0.001) levels were still positively associated with BLLs in men. Meanwhile, significant positive associations were found for BLLs with SHBG (P for trend = 0.002), FSH (P for trend = 0.001) and LH (P for trend = 0.026) levels in postmenopausal women. Additionally, the association between BLL and SHBG was modified by dysglycaemia (P for interaction = 0.03) in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, BLLs were associated with reproductive hormone levels in the general population of Chinese men and postmenopausal women, which may have important implications for human health. Concerted efforts to reduce adult lead exposure are warranted. PMID:27898110

  3. Associations of blood lead levels with reproductive hormone levels in men and postmenopausal women: Results from the SPECT-China Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi; Wang, Ningjian; Zhai, Hualing; Nie, Xiaomin; Sun, Honglin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Jing; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhao, Li; Zheng, Yanjun; Shen, Zhoujun; Lu, Yingli

    2016-11-01

    We examined whether blood lead levels (BLLs) were associated with reproductive hormone levels in a cross-sectional study using data from the SPECT-China study. We selected 2286 men and 1571 postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy. BLLs, blood cadmium, total testosterone (TT), oestradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG) levels were measured. The results showed that median values (interquartile range) of BLLs were 44.00 μg/L (29.00–62.30) for men and 41.00 μg/L (27.00–59.81) for postmenopausal women. In linear regression, after adjusting for age, current smoking status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes and blood cadmium level, TT (P for trend = 0.001) and SHBG (P for trend < 0.001) levels were still positively associated with BLLs in men. Meanwhile, significant positive associations were found for BLLs with SHBG (P for trend = 0.002), FSH (P for trend = 0.001) and LH (P for trend = 0.026) levels in postmenopausal women. Additionally, the association between BLL and SHBG was modified by dysglycaemia (P for interaction = 0.03) in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, BLLs were associated with reproductive hormone levels in the general population of Chinese men and postmenopausal women, which may have important implications for human health. Concerted efforts to reduce adult lead exposure are warranted.

  4. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  5. Histidine tag fusion increases expression levels of active recombinant amelogenin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Johan; Andersson, Christer; Reseland, Janne E; Lyngstadaas, Petter; Bülow, Leif

    2006-07-01

    Amelogenin is a dental enamel matrix protein involved in formation of dental enamel. In this study, we have expressed two different recombinant murine amelogenins in Escherichia coli: the untagged rM179, and the histidine tagged rp(H)M180, identical to rM179 except that it carries the additional N-terminal sequence MRGSHHHHHHGS. The effects of the histidine tag on expression levels, and on growth properties of the amelogenin expressing cells were studied. Purification of a crude protein extract containing rp(H)M180 was also carried out using IMAC and reverse-phase HPLC. The results of this study showed clearly that both growth properties and amelogenin expression levels were improved for E. coli cells expressing the histidine tagged amelogenin rp(H)M180, compared to cells expressing the untagged amelogenin rM179. The positive effect of the histidine tag on amelogenin expression is proposed to be due to the hydrophilic nature of the histidine tag, generating a more hydrophilic amelogenin, which is more compatible with the host cell. Human osteoblasts treated with the purified rp(H)M180 showed increased levels of secreted osteocalcin, compared to untreated cells. This response was similar to cells treated with enamel matrix derivate, mainly composed by amelogenin, suggesting that the recombinant protein is biologically active. Thus, the histidine tag favors expression and purification of biologically active recombinant amelogenin.

  6. Diversity in sound pressure levels and estimated active space of resident killer whale vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patrick J O

    2006-05-01

    Signal source intensity and detection range, which integrates source intensity with propagation loss, background noise and receiver hearing abilities, are important characteristics of communication signals. Apparent source levels were calculated for 819 pulsed calls and 24 whistles produced by free-ranging resident killer whales by triangulating the angles-of-arrival of sounds on two beamforming arrays towed in series. Levels in the 1-20 kHz band ranged from 131 to 168 dB re 1 microPa at 1 m, with differences in the means of different sound classes (whistles: 140.2+/-4.1 dB; variable calls: 146.6+/-6.6 dB; stereotyped calls: 152.6+/-5.9 dB), and among stereotyped call types. Repertoire diversity carried through to estimates of active space, with "long-range" stereotyped calls all containing overlapping, independently-modulated high-frequency components (mean estimated active space of 10-16 km in sea state zero) and "short-range" sounds (5-9 km) included all stereotyped calls without a high-frequency component, whistles, and variable calls. Short-range sounds are reported to be more common during social and resting behaviors, while long-range stereotyped calls predominate in dispersed travel and foraging behaviors. These results suggest that variability in sound pressure levels may reflect diverse social and ecological functions of the acoustic repertoire of killer whales.

  7. Locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalization and oxytocin levels in infant CD38 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Kato, Ichiro; Takasawa, Shin; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2008-12-19

    Oxytocin (OT), a neurohormone involved in reproduction, plays a critical role in social behavior in a wide range of mammalian species from rodents to humans. The role of CD38 in regulating OT secretion for social behavior has been demonstrated in adult mice, but has not been examined in pups or during development. Separation from the dam induces stress in 7-day-old mouse pups. During such isolation, locomotor activity was higher in CD38 knockout (CD38(-/-)) pups than in wild-type (CD38(+/+)) or heterozygous (CD38(+/-)) controls. The number of ultrasonic vocalizations was lower in CD38(-/-) pups than in CD38(+/+) pups. However, the difference between the two genotypes was less severe than that in OT knockout or OT receptor knockout mice. To explain this, we measured plasma OT levels. The level was not lower in CD38(-/-) pups during the period 1-3 weeks after birth, but was significantly reduced after weaning (>3 weeks). ADP-ribosyl cyclase activities in the hypothalamus and pituitary were markedly lower from 1 week after birth in CD38(-/-) mice and were consistently lower thereafter to the adult stage (2 months old). These results showed that the reduced severity of behavioral abnormalities in CD38(-/-) pups was due to partial compensation by the high level of plasma OT.

  8. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  9. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The antibacterial effect of the extracts was studied using the well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was carried out by χ2 test using SPSS 17 software. Results Only cinnamon and ginger were found to have activity against all the isolates, whereas cumin and cloves had a variable effect on the strains. Fenugreek, black pepper and cardamom did not show any effect on the isolates. The zone diameter of inhibition obtained for cinnamon, ginger, cloves and cumin was in the range 31–34 mm, 27–30 mm, 25–26 mm and 19–20 mm respectively. Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Z. officinale showed the maximum antibacterial activity against the enterococcal isolates followed by S. aromaticum and C. cyminum. The findings of the study show that spices used in the study can contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in the anti-enterococcal treatment regimen. PMID:26322099

  10. Playing outdoor and practising sport: A study of physical activity levels in Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula; Santos, Maria Paula

    2017-03-01

    In outdoor activities, it seems reasonable that the longer children spend in spontaneous physical activity (PA), the higher the probability of being active. Indeed, the time spent outdoor has been identified as a variable consistently associated with the children's PA. Outdoor playing, such as the organized sports practice, appears associated with healthier lifestyle standards. All the recommendations mention the importance of increasing daily PA practice in children and teenagers, but few studies highlight the relationship between outdoor play and the recommended PA levels. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between the frequency of outdoor play, the frequency of the organized sports practice, and the compliance of the recommendations for PA practice in children in the inner city area of Porto. The sample of this study is composed of 422 individuals (mean age of 11.6 years). Two hundred and twenty-five of them were girls and 197 were boys from the sixth grade (elementary schools located in the inner city area of Porto). PA was objectively evaluated using accelerometers. Participants reported frequency of participation in different PA contexts, such as sports practice and outdoor play. The results show a predictor effect of participating in sports three or more times per week on compliance of PA guidelines. In conclusion, organized sports practice seems more effective than outdoor play to reach the recommended levels of PA in children.

  11. Effects of portable computing devices on posture, muscle activation levels and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Werth, Abigail; Babski-Reeves, Kari

    2014-11-01

    Very little research exists on ergonomic exposures when using portable computing devices. This study quantified muscle activity (forearm and neck), posture (wrist, forearm and neck), and performance (gross typing speed and error rates) differences across three portable computing devices (laptop, netbook, and slate computer) and two work settings (desk and computer) during data entry tasks. Twelve participants completed test sessions on a single computer using a test-rest-test protocol (30min of work at one work setting, 15min of rest, 30min of work at the other work setting). The slate computer resulted in significantly more non-neutral wrist, elbow and neck postures, particularly when working on the sofa. Performance on the slate computer was four times less than that of the other computers, though lower muscle activity levels were also found. Potential or injury or illness may be elevated when working on smaller, portable computers in non-traditional work settings.

  12. Distinct association between the antagonistic jaw muscle activity levels and cardiac activity during chewing and NREM sleep in the freely moving guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takafumi; Masuda, Yuji; Miyano, Keiji; Higashiyama, Makoto; Yano, Hiroyuki; Haque, Tahsinul; Sato, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2015-04-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of the association between cardiac activity and the electromyographic (EMG) level of the antagonistic jaw muscles during chewing and NREM sleep in guinea pigs after systemic clonidine injections. Ten animals were prepared for chronic experiments to monitor sleep, cardiac activity and EMG activity of jaw-closing masseter (MAS) and jaw-opening anterior belly of digastric (ADG) muscles. The recordings were made for ten hours with the injections of saline or clonidine (10 μg/kg, i.p.). Integrated EMG activity of the two muscles and mean heart rate (mHR) were calculated for every 10-s epoch. During the two hours after clonidine injection, the duration of REM sleep and mHR were significantly reduced. During chewing, the high EMG activity level of the two muscles and the activity ratio between the two muscles were not modified although mHR was decreased. During NREM sleep, after clonidine injection, the low EMG activity level at baseline was further decreased by 20-30% in parallel to a decrease of mHR although the heterogeneity of the activity ratio remained unaltered. The results suggest that the maintenance of the activity level for the antagonistic jaw muscles are regulated by the distinct physiological mechanisms reflecting the behavioral states during conscious chewing and unconscious NREM sleep.

  13. Levels and Characteristics of Physical Activity among a College Student Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim; Staten, Ruth R.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Noland, Melody

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity levels and the relationships between activity and personal characteristics among a cohort of college students and to determine personal characteristics that predict activity. A sample of 1,700 undergraduates was mailed a survey that requested demographic information and assessed health…

  14. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  15. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  16. Results of the first order leveling surveys in the Mexicali Valley and at the Cerro Prieto field

    SciTech Connect

    de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results obtained from the third leveling survey carried out by the Direccion General de Geografia del Territorio Nacional (previously DETENAL) during November and December 1979 are presented. Calculations of the changes in field elevation and plots showing comparisons of the 1977, 1978, and 1979 surveys are also presented. Results from a second order leveling survey performed to ascertain the extent of ground motion resulting from the 8 June 1980 earthquake are presented. This magnitude ML = 6.7 earthquake with epicenter located 15 km southeast of the Guadalupe Victoria village, caused fissures on the surface, the formation of small sand volcanos, and the ejection of ground water in the vicinity of the Cerro Prieto field. This leveling survey was carried out between benchmark BN-10067 at the intersection of the Solfatara canal and the Sonora-Baja California railroad, and benchmark BN-10055 located at the Delta station.

  17. Meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity levels

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Many internet-delivered physical activity behaviour change programs have been developed and evaluated. However, further evidence is required to ascertain the overall effectiveness of such interventions. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity, whilst also examining the effect of intervention moderators. A systematic search strategy identified relevant studies published in the English-language from Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINHAL, and Sport Discuss (January 1990 – June 2011). Eligible studies were required to include an internet-delivered intervention, target an adult population, measure and target physical activity as an outcome variable, and include a comparison group that did not receive internet-delivered materials. Studies were coded independently by two investigators. Overall effect sizes were combined based on the fixed effect model. Homogeneity and subsequent exploratory moderator analysis was undertaken. A total of 34 articles were identified for inclusion. The overall mean effect of internet-delivered interventions on physical activity was d = 0.14 (p = 0.00). Fixed-effect analysis revealed significant heterogeneity across studies (Q = 73.75; p = 0.00). Moderating variables such as larger sample size, screening for baseline physical activity levels and the inclusion of educational components significantly increased intervention effectiveness. Results of the meta-analysis support the delivery of internet-delivered interventions in producing positive changes in physical activity, however effect sizes were small. The ability of internet-delivered interventions to produce meaningful change in long-term physical activity remains unclear. PMID:22546283

  18. Increased rat neonatal activity influences adult cytokine levels and relative muscle mass

    PubMed Central

    Buchowicz, Bryce; Yu, Tiffany; Nance, Dwight M.; Zaldivar, Frank P.; Cooper, Dan M.; Adams, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of physical activity in early life on subsequent growth and regulation of inflammation. We previously reported that exposure of muscles in growing rats to IL-6 results in decreased muscle growth apparently due to a state of resistance to growth factors such IGF-I and that running exercise could ameliorate this growth defect. Herein we hypothesized that increased activity, for a brief period during neonatal life, would pattern the adult rat towards a less inflammatory phenotype. Neonatal rats were induced to move about their cage for brief periods from day 5 to day 15 postpartum. Additional groups were undisturbed controls (CON) and handled (HAND). Sub-groups of rats were sampled at 30 and 65 days of age. Relative to CON and HAND, neonatal exercise (EX) results in decreased circulating levels of TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β in adulthood, primarily in male rats. In addition, adult male EX rats had lower body mass and increased skeletal muscle mass suggesting a leaner phenotype. The results of this study suggest that moderate increases in activity early in life can influence the adult toward a more healthy phenotype with regard to inflammatory mediators and relative muscle mass. PMID:20657345

  19. L-4F Differentially Alters Plasma Levels of Oxidized Fatty Acids Resulting in more Anti-Inflammatory HDL in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Satoshi; Grijalva, Victor; Navab, Mohamad; Van Lenten, Brian J.; Wagner, Alan C.; Anantharamaiah, G.M.; Fogelman, Alan M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.

    2011-01-01

    To determine in vivo if L-4F differentially alters plasma levels of oxidized fatty acids resulting in more anti-inflammatory HDL. Injecting L-4F into apoE null mice resulted in a significant reduction in plasma levels of 15-HETE, 5-HETE, 13-HODE and 9-HODE. In contrast, plasma levels of 20-HETE were not reduced and plasma levels of 14,15-EET, which are derived from the cytochrome P450 pathway, were elevated after injection of L-4F. Injection of 13(S)-HPODE into wild-type C57BL/6J mice caused an increase in plasma levels of 13-HODE and 9-HODE and was accompanied by a significant loss in the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL. The response of atherosclerosis resistant C3H/HeJ mice to injection of 13(S)-HPODE was similar but much more blunted. Injection of L-4F at a site different from that at which the 13(S)-HPODE was injected resulted in significantly lower plasma levels of 13-HODE and 9-HODE and significantly less loss of HDL anti-inflammatory properties in both strains. i) L-4F differentially alters plasma levels of oxidized fatty acids in vivo. ii) The resistance of the C3H/HeJ strain to atherosclerosis may in part be mediated by a reduced reaction of this strain to these potent lipid oxidants. L-4F differentially alters plasma levels of oxidized fatty acids in mice and the resistance of C3H/HeJ mice to atherosclerosis may be mediated by a reduced reaction of this strain to these potent lipid oxidants. PMID:20642447

  20. Bone speed of sound and physical activity levels of overweight and normal-weight girls and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yao, Mathew; Ludwa, Izabella; Corbett, Lauren; Klentrou, Panagiota; Bonsu, Peter; Gammage, Kimberley; Falk, Bareket

    2011-02-01

    Bone properties, reflected by speed of sound (SOS), and physical activity levels were examined in overweight (OW) girls (n = 19) and adolescents (n = 22), in comparison with normal-weight (NW) girls (n = 21) and adolescents (n = 13). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was higher in NW than in OW in both age groups. Tibial SOS was lower in OW compared with NW in both age groups. MVPA correlated with tibial SOS, once age was partialed out. The results suggest that overweight girls and adolescents are characterized by low tibial SOS, which may be partially attributed to lower physical activity levels.

  1. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being.

  2. Influence of physical fitness on antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde level in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physical fitness level could affect antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level at rest and in response to exhaustive exercise in healthy older adults. Fifty older adults (average age: 66.1 ± 3.8 years) were divided according to their physical fitness level into an unfit group (UG) (n = 15), a low fitness level group (LFG) (n = 18), and a high fitness level group (HFG) (n = 17). Fitness status was classified based on answers to a questionnaire about physical activity in the previous 12 months. Before and after an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion, the following markers were assessed: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and MDA. At rest, SOD, GPX, and α-tocopherol activities were higher in the HFG (p < 0.05), whereas MDA level was lower in the LFG in comparison with the 2 other groups (p < 0.05). During the postexercise period, antioxidant activity increased only in the LFG and the HFG (GPX, SOD, and α-tocopherol). MDA level increased in all groups after the exercise (p < 0.05). In addition, MDA level was higher during the recovery period in the HFG as compared with the others groups. This study concluded that both low and high physical fitness levels help maintain better antioxidant defenses in older adults. However, a higher physical fitness level, rather than a lower physical fitness level, could increase lipid peroxidation.

  3. Sea level change from BeiDou Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (BDS-R): First results and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Qian, Xiaodong; Wu, X.

    2017-02-01

    Sea level changes affect human living environments, particularly ocean coasts. The tide gauges (TG) can measure sea level change, while it is the relative variations with respect to the land. Recently, GPS-Reflectometry (GPS-R) has been demonstrated to measure sea level change as an altimetry. With the rapid development of China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), it may provide a new possible opportunity to monitor sea level changes with three frequencies (L2, L6 and L7). In this paper, BDS-Reflectometry (BDS-R) is the first time used to estimate the sea level changes based on Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) data and triple-frequency phase and code combinations, which are compared to tide gauge observations. Results show that sea level changes from BDS SNR and phase combination have a good agreement with correlation coefficients of 0.83-0.91 and RMSEs of less than 0.6 m, while BDS code combination is not as good as others. Furthermore, a new negative linear model between phase and code peak frequencies and tide gauge observations is further obtained and analyzed, which improves the results from three-frequency phase and code combinations with the RMSE of about 10 cm and 18 cm.

  4. Low dose cadmium poisoning results in sustained ERK phosphorylation and caspase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Patrick . E-mail: pmartin@unice.fr; Poggi, Marie Christine . E-mail: poggi@unice.fr; Chambard, Jean Claude . E-mail: chambard@unice.fr; Boulukos, Kim E. . E-mail: boulukos@unice.fr; Pognonec, Philippe . E-mail: pognonec@unice.fr

    2006-11-24

    Cadmium poisoning has been known to result in a wide variety of cellular responses, including oxidative stress and kinase activation. It has been reported that ERK is activated following acute cadmium exposure, and this response is commonly seen as a classical ERK survival mechanism. Here, we analyzed different cell types for their responses to low concentrations of cadmium poisoning. We found that there is an association between cell susceptibility to cadmium toxicity and ERK activation. This activation is atypical, since it consists of a sustained ERK phosphorylation, that lasts up to 6 days post stimulation. This activation is associated with the appearance of cleaved caspases 8 and 3, processed PARP, and irreversible damage. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK phosphorylation results in the ability of cells to resist cadmium poisoning. Our data indicate that low cadmium concentrations result in an unconventional ERK sustained phosphorylation, which in turn leads to death signaling.

  5. Repeated Activation of a CS-US-Contingency Memory Results in Sustained Conditioned Responding

    PubMed Central

    Joos, Els; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Individuals seem to differ in conditionability, i.e., the ease by which the contingent presentation of two stimuli will lead to a conditioned response. In contemporary learning theory, individual differences in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders are, among others, explained by individual differences in temperamental variables (Mineka and Zinbarg, 2006). One such individual difference variable is how people process a learning experience when the conditioning stimuli are no longer present. Repeatedly thinking about the conditioning experience, as in worry or rumination, might prolong the initial (fear) reactions and as such, might leave certain individuals more vulnerable to developing an anxiety disorder. However, in human conditioning research, relatively little attention has been devoted to the processing of a memory trace after its initial acquisition, despite its potential influences on subsequent performance. Post-acquisition processing can be induced by mental reiteration of a conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US)-contingency. Using a human conditioned suppression paradigm, we investigated the effect of repeated activations of a CS-US-contingency memory on the level of conditioned responding at a later test. Results of three experiments showed more sustained responding to a “rehearsed” CS+ as compared to a “non-rehearsed” CS+. Moreover, the second experiment showed no effect of rehearsal when only the CS was rehearsed instead of the CS-US-contingency. The third experiment demonstrated that mental CS-US-rehearsal has the same effect regardless of whether it was cued by the CS and a verbal reference to the US or by a neutral signal, making the rehearsal “purely mental.” In sum, it was demonstrated that post-acquisition activation of a CS-US-contingency memory can impact conditioned responding, underlining the importance of post-acquisition processes in conditioning. This might indicate that individuals who are more prone

  6. Repeated Activation of a CS-US-Contingency Memory Results in Sustained Conditioned Responding.

    PubMed

    Joos, Els; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Individuals seem to differ in conditionability, i.e., the ease by which the contingent presentation of two stimuli will lead to a conditioned response. In contemporary learning theory, individual differences in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders are, among others, explained by individual differences in temperamental variables (Mineka and Zinbarg, 2006). One such individual difference variable is how people process a learning experience when the conditioning stimuli are no longer present. Repeatedly thinking about the conditioning experience, as in worry or rumination, might prolong the initial (fear) reactions and as such, might leave certain individuals more vulnerable to developing an anxiety disorder. However, in human conditioning research, relatively little attention has been devoted to the processing of a memory trace after its initial acquisition, despite its potential influences on subsequent performance. Post-acquisition processing can be induced by mental reiteration of a conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US)-contingency. Using a human conditioned suppression paradigm, we investigated the effect of repeated activations of a CS-US-contingency memory on the level of conditioned responding at a later test. Results of three experiments showed more sustained responding to a "rehearsed" CS+ as compared to a "non-rehearsed" CS+. Moreover, the second experiment showed no effect of rehearsal when only the CS was rehearsed instead of the CS-US-contingency. The third experiment demonstrated that mental CS-US-rehearsal has the same effect regardless of whether it was cued by the CS and a verbal reference to the US or by a neutral signal, making the rehearsal "purely mental." In sum, it was demonstrated that post-acquisition activation of a CS-US-contingency memory can impact conditioned responding, underlining the importance of post-acquisition processes in conditioning. This might indicate that individuals who are more prone to mentally

  7. Circadian Variation of Plasminogen-Activator-Inhibitor-1 Levels in Children with Meningococcal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Boeddha, Navin P.; Driessen, Gertjan J.; Cnossen, Marjon H.; Hazelzet, Jan A.; Emonts, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study whether the circadian variation of plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, with high morning levels, is associated with poor outcome of children with meningococcal sepsis presenting in the morning hours. Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected clinical and laboratory data. Setting Single center study at Erasmus MC-Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects 184 patients aged 3 weeks to 18 years with meningococcal sepsis. In 36 of these children, PAI-1 levels at admission to the PICU were measured in plasma by ELISA. Interventions None. Measurements and main results Circadian variation was studied by dividing one day in blocks of 6 hours. Patients admitted between 6:00 am and 12:00 am had increased illness severity scores and higher PAI-1 levels (n = 9, median 6912 ng/mL, IQR 5808–15600) compared to patients admitted at night (P = 0.019, n = 9, median 3546 ng/mL, IQR 1668–6118) or in the afternoon (P = 0.007, n = 7, median 4224 ng/mL, IQR 1804–5790). In 184 patients, analysis of circadian variation in relation to outcome showed more deaths, amputations and need for skin grafts in patients admitted to the PICU between 6:00 am and 12:00 am than patients admitted during the rest of the day (P = 0.009). Conclusions Circadian variation of PAI-1 levels is present in children with meningococcal sepsis and is associated with illness severity, with a peak level in the morning. Whether circadian variation is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in meningococcal sepsis needs to be explored in future studies. PMID:27893784

  8. Does Pedometer Goal Setting Improve Physical Activity among Native Elders? Results from a Randomized Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Craig N.; Russo, Joan E.; Charles, Steve; Goldberg, Jack; Forquera, Ralph; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Buchwald, Dedra

    2011-01-01

    We examined if step-count goal setting resulted in increases in physical activity and walking compared to only monitoring step counts with pedometers among American Indian/Alaska Native elders. Outcomes included step counts, self-reported physical activity and well-being, and performance on the 6-minute walk test. Although no significant…

  9. A Study Of The Radionuclidic Content Of The Environmental Samples Resulting From NIPNE Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Stochioiu, Ana I.; Bercea, Sorin I.; Ivan, Constantin G.; Dumitru, Octavian R.; Pantelica, Ana I.

    2007-04-23

    The results of alpha, beta, gamma global activity measurements and gamma spectrometric measurements are presented. For more detailed characterization of samples, gamma-spectrometric measurement, implying identification of radionuclides and their activities are carried-out on significant ambiental annual samples.

  10. The Voltage Activation of Cortical KCNQ Channels Depends on Global PIP2 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang S.; Duignan, Kevin M.; Hawryluk, Joanna M.; Soh, Heun; Tzingounis, Anastasios V.

    2016-01-01

    The slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) is a calcium-activated potassium conductance with critical roles in multiple physiological processes. Pharmacological and genetic data suggest that KCNQ channels partly mediate the sAHP. However, these channels are not typically open within the observed voltage range of the sAHP. Recent work has shown that the sAHP is gated by increased PIP2 levels, which are generated downstream of calcium binding by neuronal calcium sensors such as hippocalcin. Here, we examined whether changes in PIP2 levels could shift the voltage-activation range of KCNQ channels. In HEK293T cells, expression of the PIP5 kinase PIPKIγ90, which increases global PIP2 levels, shifted the KCNQ voltage activation to within the operating range of the sAHP. Further, the sensitivity of this effect on KCNQ3 channels appeared to be higher than that on KCNQ2. Therefore, we predict that KCNQ3 plays an essential role in maintaining the sAHP under low PIP2 conditions. In support of this notion, we find that sAHP inhibition by muscarinic receptors that increase phosphoinositide turnover in neurons is enhanced in Kcnq3-knockout mice. Likewise, the presence of KCNQ3 is essential for maintaining the sAHP when hippocalcin is ablated, a condition that likely impairs PIP2 generation. Together, our results establish the relationship between PIP2 and the voltage dependence of cortical KCNQ channels (KCNQ2/3, KCNQ3/5, and KCNQ5), and suggest a possible mechanism for the involvement of KCNQ channels in the sAHP. PMID:26958886

  11. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  12. The effect of bilateral trainings on upper extremities muscle activation on level of motor function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyung Min; Jung, Jinhwa; Shim, Sunhwa

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted in order to compare muscle activation level on the affected and unaffected limb according to the recovery level of upper limb between bilateral activity with hands clasped and bilateral activity with pilates ring. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty inpatient who have had a stroke were recruited. Subjects were divided into two groups by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Motor Function score of moderately recovered group and well recovered group. The muscles activation of upper extremity and Co-Contraction Ratio (CCR) were analyzed. [Results] In the muscles activation of the well group, trapezius, anterior deltoid, and triceps muscles of affected side and biceps muscles of both sides were significantly higher when activity with pilates ring than activity with hands clasped. CCR of both side in the well group was significantly decreased during activity with pilates ring and in the moderate group, CCR of affected side was significantly decreased during activity with pilates ring. [Conclusion] Bilateral activity with a pilates ring is more effective than activity with hands clasped for the facilitation of muscle activation and coordination in stroke patients. PMID:28174466

  13. High frequency of antidrug antibodies and association of random drug levels with efficacy in certolizumab pegol-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the BRAGGSS cohort

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, John D; Morgan, Ann W; Wilson, Anthony G; Chinoy, Hector

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate (i) the association between random certolizumab drug levels, antidrug antibodies (ADAbs) and treatment response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); (ii) longitudinal factors associated with ADAbs and certolizumab drug levels. Methods This prospective cohort included 115 patients with RA treated with certolizumab. Serum samples were collected at 3, 6 and 12 months following treatment initiation. Drug levels and ADAbs were measured using ELISA and radioimmunoassay, respectively, at 3, 6 and 12 months. Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) were measured at each visit and 12 months European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response was calculated. Patient self-reported adherence was collected longitudinally. Ordinal logistic regression and generalised estimating equation were used to test the association: (i) between drug levels, from serum sampled and treatment response; (ii) between ADAbs and drug levels; (iii) patient-centred factors and drug levels. Results ADAbs were detected in 37% (42/112 patients by 12 months). The presence of ADAbs were significantly associated with lower drug levels over 12 months (β=−0.037, 95% CI −0.055 to 0.018, p<0.0001) but not independently with 12 months EULAR response (β=0.0013 (95% CI −0.0032 to 0.00061), p=0.18). Drug level was associated with 12 months EULAR response (β=0.032 (95% CI 0.0011 to 0.063), p=0.042). In the multivariate model, ADAb level and adherence were significantly associated with drug concentrations. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that higher certolizumab drug levels are associated with better 12 months EULAR response. ADAbs in certolizumab-treated patients with RA were detected at higher levels than previous studies and help determine the aetiology of a low drug level. PMID:27245864

  14. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 48 regulates Mdm2 protein levels independent of its deubiquitinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Cetkovská, Kateřina; Šustová, Hana; Uldrijan, Stjepan

    2017-01-01

    The overexpression of Mdm2 has been linked to the loss of p53 tumour suppressor activity in several human cancers. Here, we present results suggesting that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 48 (USP48), a deubiquitinase that has been linked in previous reports to the NF-κB signaling pathway, is a novel Mdm2 binding partner that promotes Mdm2 stability and enhances Mdm2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation. In contrast to other deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) that have been previously implicated in the regulation of Mdm2 protein stability, USP48 did not induce Mdm2 stabilization by significantly reducing Mdm2 ubiquitination levels. Moreover, two previously characterized USP48 mutants lacking deubiquitinase activity were also capable of efficiently stabilizing Mdm2, indicating that USP48 utilizes a non-canonical, deubiquitination-independent mechanism to promote Mdm2 oncoprotein stability. This study represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first report suggesting DUB-mediated target protein stabilization that is independent of its deubiquitinase activity. In addition, our results suggest that USP48 might represent a new mechanism of crosstalk between the NF-κB and p53 stress response pathways. PMID:28233861

  15. Classification of multi muscle activation patterns of osteoarthritis patients during level walking.

    PubMed

    von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Valderrabano, Victor

    2010-08-01

    The study compares the timing and frequency changes of surface EMGs recorded from osteoarthritis patients with previous traumatic ankle injury and normal subjects during level walking. EMG intensity (power) was obtained by a wavelet analysis. There were intensity values for each frequency characterized by the wavelets for every time point. The intensities were compounded into Multi Muscle Patterns (MMP) simultaneously showing the time and spectral aspects of the lower leg muscle activity. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the differences between the group of the MMPs from the affected leg (AFL) and the not affected leg (NAL) allow detecting whether a newly measured MMP results from an AFL or NAL. This hypothesis was tested by a spherical classification procedure yielding the correctly classified MMPs thus indicating the significance of the differences between the MMPs of the AFL and NAL. The hypothesis was supported (not falsified) by the results. Thus there were common features of muscle activity in the AFL of most osteoarthritis patients that allowed detecting whether the MMP of a new patient was of the kind seen in most other osteoarthritis patients. The spectral, timing and intensity factors in the MMP that allowed this classification were visualized in the mean MMPs of the patients and the control group. The comparison revealed where on average the relative timing and spectral differences of the muscle activation of osteoarthritis patients and control subjects occurred.

  16. A broad-scale comparison of aerobic activity levels in vertebrates: endotherms versus ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V

    2017-02-22

    Differences in the limits and range of aerobic activity levels between endotherms and ectotherms remain poorly understood, though such differences help explain basic differences in species' lifestyles (e.g. movement patterns, feeding modes, and interaction rates). We compare the limits and range of aerobic activity in endotherms (birds and mammals) and ectotherms (fishes, reptiles, and amphibians) by evaluating the body mass-dependence of VO2 max, aerobic scope, and heart mass in a phylogenetic context based on a newly constructed vertebrate supertree. Contrary to previous work, results show no significant differences in the body mass scaling of minimum and maximum oxygen consumption rates with body mass within endotherms or ectotherms. For a given body mass, resting rates and maximum rates were 24-fold and 30-fold lower, respectively, in ectotherms than endotherms. Factorial aerobic scope ranged from five to eight in both groups, with scope in endotherms showing a modest body mass-dependence. Finally, maximum consumption rates and aerobic scope were positively correlated with residual heart mass. Together, these results quantify similarities and differences in the potential for aerobic activity among ectotherms and endotherms from diverse environments. They provide insights into the models and mechanisms that may underlie the body mass-dependence of oxygen consumption.

  17. Results of Scoping Tests Examining the Effects of Gilsulate, Aluminum Silicate and Defoamers on the Operation of Conductivity Level Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, R.F.

    1999-02-17

    Scoping tests have been completed examining the effects of Gilsulate, sodium aluminum silicate, and some organic materials on the operation of tank level conductivity probes. This report documents the results of scoping studies completed to examine the effect of those materials on conductivity probes.

  18. Exit Level Retesting Results, May 1-2, 1986. Preliminary Report. Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    The Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) exit level test was first administered to all eleventh grade students in October 1985. A make-up testing was conducted in January 1986. This report contains the results of the May 1986 retesting of approximately 3,200 11th-grade students who had previously failed to master either the…

  19. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity

    PubMed Central

    Polich, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle. PMID:27293763

  20. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  1. Access to environmental resources and physical activity levels of adults in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Geller, KS; Nigg, CR; Ollberding, NJ; Motl, RW; Horwath, C; Dishman, RK

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Examine associations between physical activity (PA) and spatial accessibility to environmental PA resources in Hawaii. Methods Metabolic equivalents (METs) of mild, moderate, and strenuous PA were compared for accessibility to environmental PA resources within a population-based sample of Hawaiian adults (n=381). Multiple linear regression estimated differences in PA levels for residing further from a PA resource or residing in an area with a greater number of resources. Results No associations were found in the total sample. Analyses within subsamples stratified by ethnicity revealed that greater spatial accessibility to a PA resource was positively associated with strenuous PA among Caucasians (p=0.04), but negatively associated with moderate PA among Native Hawaiians (p=0.00). Conclusion The lack of association in the total sample may be a consequence of Hawaii’s unique environment. Results of stratified sample analyses are unique, providing groundwork for future examinations within parallel environments and among similar ethnic groups. PMID:22500037

  2. Incomplete suppression of distractor-related activity in the frontal eye field results in curved saccades.

    PubMed

    McPeek, Robert M

    2006-11-01

    Saccades in the presence of distractors show significant trajectory curvature. Based on previous work in the superior colliculus (SC), we speculated that curvature arises when a movement is initiated before competition between the target and distractor goals has been fully resolved. To test this hypothesis, we recorded frontal eye field (FEF) activity for curved and straight saccades in search. In contrast to the SC, activity in FEF is normally poorly correlated with saccade dynamics. However, the FEF, like the SC, is involved in target selection. Thus if curvature is caused by incomplete target selection, we expect to see its neural correlates in the FEF. We found that saccades that curve toward a distractor are accompanied by an increase in perisaccadic activity of FEF neurons coding the distractor location, and saccades that curve away are accompanied by a decrease in activity. In contrast, for FEF neurons coding the target location, there is no significant difference in activity between curved and straight saccades. To establish that the distractor-related activity is causally related to saccade curvature, we applied microstimulation to sites in the FEF before saccades to targets presented without distractors. The stimulation was subthreshold for evoking saccades and the temporal structure of the stimulation train resembled the activity recorded for curved saccades. The resulting movements curved toward the location coded by the stimulation site. These results support the idea that saccade curvature results from incomplete suppression of distractor-related activity during target selection.

  3. Measurement error of self-reported physical activity levels in New York City: assessment and correction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010-2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors.

  4. Comparison of TOPEX/Poseidon Sea Level and Linear Model Results forced by Various Wind Products for the Tropical Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackert, Eric C.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare TOPEX/Posaidon (T/P) sea level with sea level results from linear ocean model experiments forced by several different wind products for the tropical Pacific. During the period of this study (October 1992 - October 1995), available wind products include satellite winds from the ERS-1 scatterometer product of [HALP 97] and the passive microwave analysis of SSMI winds produced using the variational analysis method (VAM) of [ATLA 91]. In addition, atmospheric GCM winds from the NCEP reanalysis [KALN 96], ECMWF analysis [ECMW94], and the Goddard EOS-1 (GEOS-1) reanalysis experiment [SCHU 93] are available for comparison. The observed ship wind analysis of FSU [STRI 92] is also included in this study. The linear model of [CANE 84] is used as a transfer function to test the quality of each of these wind products for the tropical Pacific. The various wind products are judged by comparing the wind-forced model sea level results against the T/P sea level anomalies. Correlation and RMS difference maps show how well each wind product does in reproducing the T/P sea level signal. These results are summarized in a table showing area average correlations and RMS differences. The large-scale low-frequency temporal signal is reproduced by all of the wind products, However, significant differences exist in both amplitude and phase on regional scales. In general, the model results forced by satellite winds do a better job reproducing the T/P signal (i.e. have a higher average correlation and lower RMS difference) than the results forced by atmospheric model winds.

  5. Effects of physical activity and training programs on plasma homocysteine levels: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    e Silva, Alexandre de Souza; da Mota, Maria Paula Gonçalves

    2014-08-01

    Homocysteine is an amino acid produced in the liver that, when present in high concentrations, is thought to contribute to plaque formation and, consequently, increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, daily physical activity and training programs may contribute to controlling atherosclerosis. Given that physical exercise induces changes in protein and amino acid metabolism, it is important to understand whether homocysteine levels are also affected by exercise and to determine possible underlying mechanisms. Moreover, regarding the possible characteristics of different training programs (intensity, duration, repetition, volume), it becomes prudent to determine which types of exercise reduce homocysteine levels. To these ends, a systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of daily physical activity and different training programs on homocysteine levels. EndNote(®) was used to locate articles on the PubMed database from 2002 to 2013 with the keyword combinations "physical activity and homocysteine", "training and homocysteine", and/or "exercise and homocysteine". After 34 studies were identified, correlative and comparative studies of homocysteine levels revealed lower levels in patients engaged in greater quantities of daily physical activity. Regarding the acute effects of exercise, all studies reported increased homocysteine levels. Concerning intervention studies with training programs, aerobic training programs used different methods and analyses that complicate making any conclusion, though resistance training programs induced decreased homocysteine levels. In conclusion, this review suggests that greater daily physical activity is associated with lower homocysteine levels and that exercise programs could positively affect homocysteine control.

  6. Baseline Results from Hawaii's Nā Mikiniiki Project: A Physical Activity Intervention Tailored to Multiethnic Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The Nā Mikimiki (“the active ones”) Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2–12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008–2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian–American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The Nā Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

  7. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population.

  8. Correlates of objectively measured overweight/obesity and physical activity in Kenyan school children: results from ISCOLE-Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight/obesity and inadequate physical activity burden Western countries, and now, pose a growing threat to the health of children in low and middle income countries. Behavioural transitions toward more sedentary lifestyles coupled with increased consumption of high calorie foods has resulted in rising proportions of overweight/obesity and decreasing levels of physical activity in school-aged children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to investigate factors associated with overweight/obesity and physical activity in Kenyan children aged 9 to 11 years. Methods Body composition and physical activity measures of participating children were accomplished by anthropometric assessment, accelerometry, and administration of questionnaires related to diet and lifestyle, and the school and neighbourhood environments. Data collection was conducted in the city of Nairobi as part of a larger International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and Environment. Results A total of 563 participants (46.5% boys, 53.5% girls) were included in the analyses. Of these, 3.7% were underweight, 14.4% were overweight, and 6.4% were obese based on WHO cut-points. Mean daily sedentary time was 398 minutes, time spent in light physical activity was 463 minutes, and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 36 minutes based on activity cut-points developed by Treuth et al. Only 12.6% of participating children were meeting the recommendation of ≥ 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and 45.7% of participants used active transportation to/from school. Increasing parental education level, total annual household income, and attending a private rather than public school were associated positively with being overweight/obese and negatively with meeting physical activity guidelines. Conclusions This study provided the evidence for an existing prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity in Nairobi

  9. Disruption of the transthyretin gene results in mice with depressed levels of plasma retinol and thyroid hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Episkopou, V; Maeda, S; Nishiguchi, S; Shimada, K; Gaitanaris, G A; Gottesman, M E; Robertson, E J

    1993-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is thought to play a major role in vitamin A metabolism and thyroid hormone transport in mammals. To investigate the physiological role of the TTR protein in development of the embryo and in the adult, we used gene targeting techniques to generate a null mutation at the mouse ttr locus. The resultant mutant animals are phenotypically normal, viable, and fertile. However, levels of serum retinol, retinol-binding protein, and thyroid hormone are significantly depressed in the mutant animals. These observations demonstrate that the TTR protein maintains normal levels of these metabolites in the circulating plasma. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8384721

  10. A comparison of assessment methods of hand activity and force for use in calculating the ACGIH(R) hand activity level (HAL) TLV(R).

    PubMed

    Wurzelbacher, Steve; Burt, Susan; Crombie, Ken; Ramsey, Jessica; Luo, Lian; Allee, Steve; Jin, Yan

    2010-07-01

    This article compares several methods that were used for determining hand activity level and force in a large prospective ergonomics study. The first goal of this analysis was to determine the degree of correlation between hand activity/ force ratings using different assessment methods. The second goal was to determine if the hand activity/force methods were functionally equivalent for the purpose of calculating the ACGIH(R) hand activity level (HAL) threshold limit value (TLV(R)). A final goal was to investigate reasons for potential differences between methods. More than 700 task analyses were conducted on 484 workers at three study locations. Hand activity was assessed by two methods, including a trained observer on site using a 10-point visual analog scale for hand activity level and by offsite video analysis of the same task to calculate the frequency of exertions and the work/recovery ratio. Hand force was assessed by two on-site methods: ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) using a modified Borg CR-10 scale by a trained observer and RPE by the worker performing the task. The two methods for assessing hand activity level were correlated (Spearman rank = 0.49) and produced main TLV result categories (below Action Limit, Action Limit, TLV) with percent of exact agreement ranging from 71 to 91% and weighted Kappa ranging from 0.61 to 0.75. The two RPE methods for assessing hand force were correlated (Spearman rank ranging from 0.47 to 0.69) and produced TLVs with percent of exact agreement ranging from 64 to 83% and weighted Kappa ranging from 0.52 to 0.62. Differences between methods may be explained by a number of task and subject variables that were significantly associated with higher levels of hand activity and force. In summary, this study found substantial agreement between two methods for assessing hand activity level and moderate agreement between two methods for assessing hand force.

  11. Gamma Spectra Resulting From the Annihilation of Positrons with Electrons in Single, Selected Core Levels of Cu, Ag and Au

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S; Eshed, A; Goktepeli, S; Sterne, P A; Koymen, A R; Chen, W C; Weiss, A H

    2005-07-25

    The {gamma}-ray energy spectra due to positron annihilation with the 3p core-level of Cu, the 4p core-level of Ag, and 5p core level of Au were obtained separately from the total annihilation spectrum by measuring the energies of {gamma}-rays time coincident with Auger electrons emitted as a result of filling the core-hole left by annihilation. The results of these measurements are compared to the total annihilation spectra and with LDA based theoretical calculations. A comparison of area normalized momentum distributions with the individual cores extracted from the Doppler measurements shows good qualitative agreement, however, in all three spectra, the calculated values of the momentum density appears to fall below the measured values as the momentum increases. The discrepancies between theory and experiment are well outside the statistical uncertainties of the experiment and become more pronounced with increasing Z going down the column from Cu to Ag to Au. The comparison with the experimental results clearly indicates that the calculations are not predicting the correct ratio of high momentum to low momentum spectral weight and suggest the need to improve the treatment of many body electron-positron correlation effects in annihilation as they pertain to core levels.

  12. Unexpected Levels of Biological Activity during the Polar Night Offer New Perspectives on a Warming Arctic.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jørgen; Daase, Malin; Renaud, Paul E; Ambrose, William G; Darnis, Gerald; Last, Kim S; Leu, Eva; Cohen, Jonathan H; Johnsen, Geir; Moline, Mark A; Cottier, Finlo; Varpe, Øystein; Shunatova, Natalia; Bałazy, Piotr; Morata, Nathalie; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Kosobokova, Ksenia; Hoppe, Clara J M; Węsławski, Jan Marcin; Kukliński, Piotr; Legeżyńska, Joanna; Nikishina, Daria; Cusa, Marine; Kędra, Monika; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Vogedes, Daniel; Camus, Lionel; Tran, Damien; Michaud, Emma; Gabrielsen, Tove M; Granovitch, Andrei; Gonchar, Anya; Krapp, Rupert; Callesen, Trine A

    2015-10-05

    The current understanding of Arctic ecosystems is deeply rooted in the classical view of a bottom-up controlled system with strong physical forcing and seasonality in primary-production regimes. Consequently, the Arctic polar night is commonly disregarded as a time of year when biological activities are reduced to a minimum due to a reduced food supply. Here, based upon a multidisciplinary ecosystem-scale study from the polar night at 79°N, we present an entirely different view. Instead of an ecosystem that has entered a resting state, we document a system with high activity levels and biological interactions across most trophic levels. In some habitats, biological diversity and presence of juvenile stages were elevated in winter months compared to the more productive and sunlit periods. Ultimately, our results suggest a different perspective regarding ecosystem function that will be of importance for future environmental management and decision making, especially at a time when Arctic regions are experiencing accelerated environmental change [1].

  13. Suppressed Neuronal Activity and Concurrent Arteriolar Vasoconstriction May Explain Negative Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Signal

    PubMed Central

    Devor, Anna; Tian, Peifang; Nishimura, Nozomi; Teng, Ivan C.; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Narayanan, S. N.; Ulbert, Istvan; Boas, David A.; Kleinfeld, David; Dale, Anders M.

    2009-01-01

    Synaptic transmission initiates a cascade of signal transduction events that couple neuronal activity to local changes in blood flow and oxygenation. Although a number of vasoactive molecules and specific cell types have been implicated, the transformation of stimulus-induced activation of neuronal circuits to hemodynamic changes is still unclear. We use somatosensory stimulation and a suite of in vivo imaging tools to study neurovascular coupling in rat primary somatosensory cortex. Our stimulus evoked a central region of net neuronal depolarization surrounded by net hyperpolarization. Hemodynamic measurements revealed that predominant depolarization corresponded to an increase in oxygenation, whereas predominant hyperpolarization corresponded to a decrease in oxygenation. On the microscopic level of single surface arterioles, the response was composed of a combination of dilatory and constrictive phases. Critically, the relative strength of vasoconstriction covaried with the relative strength of oxygenation decrease and neuronal hyperpolarization. These results suggest that a neuronal inhibition and concurrent arteriolar vasoconstriction correspond to a decrease in blood oxygenation, which would be consistent with a negative blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signal. PMID:17442830

  14. Measuring of low activity materials resulted from decommissioning of NPP`s in low-background chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Kornitski, A.S.; Kazakov, V.A.; Lysenko, V.V.

    1993-12-31

    The decommissioning of power plants results in dismantled equipment of which some is not radioactive and could be used without restrictions. The IAEA has released recommendations for such materials useage. The definition of unrestricted useage is fulfiled by the organization of the radiation control procedure providing the principle of not exceeding the radioactive contamination level of this material set by criteria for unrestricted use. Gamma spectroscopic analysis must be performed on a great number of samples for which activity is less than or equal to background radiation. For this purpose, the low-background activity chambers can be utilized.

  15. Low levels of physical activity are associated with dysregulation of energy intake and fat mass gain over 1 year12

    PubMed Central

    Shook, Robin P; Hand, Gregory A; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hebert, James R; Paluch, Amanda E; Blundell, John E; Hill, James O; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that appetite may be dysregulated at low levels of activity, creating an energy imbalance that results in weight gain. Objective: The aim was to examine the relation between energy intake, physical activity, appetite, and weight gain during a 1-y follow-up period in a large sample of adults. Design: Participants included 421 individuals (mean ± SD age: 27.6 ± 3.8 y). Measurements included the following: energy intake with the use of interviewer-administered dietary recalls and calculated by using changes in body composition and energy expenditure, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with the use of an arm-based monitor, body composition with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and questionnaire-derived perceptions of dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and control of eating. Participants were grouped at baseline into quintiles of MVPA (min/d) by sex. Measurements were repeated every 3 mo for 1 y. Results: At baseline, an inverse relation existed between body weight and activity groups, with the least-active group (15.7 ± 9.9 min MVPA/d, 6062 ± 1778 steps/d) having the highest body weight (86.3 ± 13.2 kg) and the most-active group (174.5 ± 60.5 min MVPA/d, 10260 ± 3087 steps/d) having the lowest body weight (67.5 ± 11.0 kg). A positive relation was observed between calculated energy intake and activity group, except in the lowest quintile of activity. The lowest physical activity group reported higher levels of disinhibition (P = 0.07) and cravings for savory foods (P = 0.03) compared with the group with the highest level of physical activity. Over 1 y of follow-up, the lowest activity group gained the largest amount of fat mass (1.7 ± 0.3 kg) after adjustment for change in MVPA and baseline fat mass. The odds of gaining >3% of fat mass were between 1.8 and 3.8 times as high for individuals in the least-active group as for those in the middle activity group. Conclusions: These results suggest

  16. Taste-active compound levels in Korean native chicken meat: The effects of bird age and the cooking process.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yong, Hae In; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-08-01

    The effects of bird age and the cooking process on the levels of several taste-active compounds, including inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), glutamic acid, cysteine, reducing sugars, as well as oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), in the breast and leg meats from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken (KNC) strain (Woorimatdag) were investigated. KNC cocks were raised under similar standard conditions at a commercial chicken farm, and breast and leg meats from birds of various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk; 10 birds/age group) were obtained. After raw and cooked meat samples were prepared, they were analyzed for the aforementioned taste-active compounds. Compared to the leg meat, KNC breast meat had higher levels of IMP, arachidonic acid, and DHA, but lower levels of the other taste-active compounds (P < 0.05). KNC meat lost significant amounts of all the taste-active compounds, excluding oleic and linoleic acids, during the cooking process (P < 0.05). However, bird age only had a minor effect on the levels of these taste-active compounds. The results of this study provide useful information regarding the levels of taste-active compounds in KNC meat from birds of different ages, and their fate during the cooking process. This information could be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing native chicken meat.

  17. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in healthy older adults. Methods A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25), moderate (n=20), and physically active (n=35). Serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxy vitamin D) levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline), physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale) were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively. Results Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5%) compared to females (26.25%). Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale) were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores, and negatively with body mass index, lipid profile, fatigue scores (visual analog scale), and muscle fatigue biomarkers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D concentrations, physical activity, Ca, TAC, and demographic parameters explained

  18. Foraging rates of larval dragonfly colonists are positively related to habitat isolation: results from a landscape-level experiment.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Shannon J; Brodin, Tomas; Hammond, John

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence of intraspecific variation in dispersal behavior. Individual differences in dispersal behavior may be correlated with other traits that determine the impact individuals have on patches they colonize. We established habitat patches-artificial pools-across a landscape, and these pools were naturally colonized by dragonfly larvae. Larvae were collected from pools at different levels of isolation and held under common lab conditions for 5 months. We then compared larval foraging rates. Foraging rate was positively related to habitat isolation, and colonists from the most isolated artificial pools had significantly higher foraging rates than individuals from the least isolated pools. Our results indicate that spatial patterns in colonist behavior can develop across a landscape independent of species-level dispersal limitation. This finding suggests that studies of community structure across space should include an assessment of the distribution of phenotypes as well as species-level dispersal limitation patterns.

  19. Health status of cable splicers with low-level exposure to lead: results of a clinical survey

    SciTech Connect

    Fischbein, A.; Thornton, J.; Blumberg, W.E.

    1980-07-01

    The results of a cross-sectional clinical field survey of 90 telephone cable splicers are presented. Despite the rare occurrence of clinically overt lead poisoning among cable splicers, the observed prevalence of symptoms was 29% for lead-associated central nervous system symptoms and 21% for gastrointestinal symptoms. These two groups of symptoms were directly related to zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels but no relationship was found between them and blood lead concentrations. Only 5% of the workers had significantly elevated blood lead levels (> 40 ..mu..g/100 ml). Because of the intermittent lead exposure encountered in this trade, individuals were identified with normal blood lead levels associated with elevated zinc protoporphyrin concentrations, indicating the difference in biological significance between exposure-(blood lead) and biological-response tests (ZPP). Suggestion is made that both types of diagnostic tests be utilized in the medical surveillance of lead-exposed workers.

  20. Influence of mesophase activation conditions on the specific capacitance of the resulting carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, E.; Ruiz, V.; Santamaría, R.; Blanco, C.; Granda, M.; Menéndez, R.; Juarez-Galán, J. M.; Rodríguez-Reinoso, F.

    Mesophase pitch AR24 was directly activated with KOH using different proportions of the activating agent and activation temperatures, to study the effect on the textural characteristics of the resultant activated carbons and how these characteristics influence their behaviour as electrodes in supercapacitors. The textural properties of the activated carbons were studied by gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry. The results indicate that all the carbons produced were mainly microporous, with pore size around 1 nm. The behaviour of these carbons as electrodes in supercapacitors was studied from galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. The specific capacitance values obtained were very high, reaching 400 and 200 F g -1 at low and high current densities respectively, for the sample activated with (5:1) KOH to mesophase ratio. Nevertheless, the reasons for this high capacitance values cannot be explained only on the basis of the textural characteristics of the activated carbons, as the results indicated that other factors might be also playing a significant role in their electrochemical behaviour.

  1. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level III (Grades (5-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  2. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level II (Grades (3-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  3. Young Scientists Explore an Encyclopedia of Energy Activities. Book 8--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of energy. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  4. Increases in c-Yes expression level and activity promote motility but not proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Jane; Hodgkinson, Cassandra; Hogg, Alison; Dive, Caroline; Welman, Arkadiusz

    2007-09-01

    Increases in the levels and/or activity of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases c-Src and c-Yes are often associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. The physiological consequences of increased c-Yes activity during the early and late stages of tumorigenesis, in addition to the degree of redundancy between c-Yes and c-Src in colorectal cancer cells, remain elusive. To study the consequences of increases in c-Yes levels and activity in later stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, we developed human colorectal cancer cell lines in which c-Yes levels and activity can be inducibly increased by a tightly controlled expression of wild-type c-Yes or by constitutively active mutants of c-Yes, c-YesY537F, and c-Yes Delta t6aa. c-Yes induction resulted in increased cell motility but did not promote proliferation either in vitro or in vivo. These results suggest that in later stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, elevations in c-Yes levels/activity may promote cancer spread and metastasis rather than tumor growth.

  5. Field Lysimeter Investigations - test results: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program: Test results for fiscal years 1994-1995

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rodgers, R.D.; Hilton, L.D.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (1) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (2) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (3) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (4) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Results of the final 2 (10 total) years of data acquisition from operation of the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental equipment is described and results of waste form characterization using tests recommended by the NRC`s {open_quotes}Technical Position on Waste Form{close_quotes} are presented. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period. At the end of the tenth year, the experiment was closed down. Examination of soil and waste forms is planned to be conducted next and will be reported later.

  6. Routine Vaccination Coverage in Northern Nigeria: Results from 40 District-Level Cluster Surveys, 2014-2015

    PubMed Central

    Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U.; Adegoke, Oluwasegun J.; Scobie, Heather M.; Uba, Belinda V.; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Ruiz, Alicia; Elmousaad, Hashim; Ohuabunwo, Chima J.; Mustafa, Mahmud; Nguku, Patrick; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Vertefeuille, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite recent success towards controlling poliovirus transmission, Nigeria has struggled to achieve uniformly high routine vaccination coverage. A lack of reliable vaccination coverage data at the operational level makes it challenging to target program improvement. To reliably estimate vaccination coverage, we conducted district-level vaccine coverage surveys using a pre-existing infrastructure of polio technical staff in northern Nigeria. Methods Household-level cluster surveys were conducted in 40 polio high risk districts of Nigeria during 2014–2015. Global positioning system technology and intensive supervision by a pool of qualified technical staff were used to ensure high survey quality. Vaccination status of children aged 12–23 months was documented based on vaccination card or caretaker’s recall. District-level coverage estimates were calculated using survey methods. Results Data from 7,815 children across 40 districts were analyzed. District-level coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine (DPT3) ranged widely from 1–63%, with all districts having DPT3 coverage below the target of 80%. Median coverage across all districts for each of eight vaccine doses (1 Bacille Calmette-Guérin dose, 3 DPT doses, 3 oral poliovirus vaccine doses, and 1 measles vaccine dose) was <50%. DPT3 coverage by survey was substantially lower (range: 28%–139%) than the 2013 administrative coverage reported among children aged <12 months. Common reported reasons for non-vaccination included lack of knowledge about vaccines and vaccination services (50%) and factors related to access to routine immunization services (15%). Conclusions Survey results highlighted vaccine coverage gaps that were systematically underestimated by administrative reporting across 40 polio high risk districts in northern Nigeria. Given the limitations of administrative coverage data, our approach to conducting quality district-level coverage surveys and

  7. Laboratory evaluation of the Level TROLL 100 manufactured by In-Situ Inc.: results of pressure and temperature tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carnley, Mark V.; Fulford, Janice M.; Brooks, Myron H.

    2013-01-01

    The Level TROLL 100 manufactured by In-Situ Inc. was evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) for conformance to the manufacturer’s accuracy specifications for measuring pressure throughout the device’s operating temperature range. The Level TROLL 100 is a submersible, sealed, water-level sensing device with an operating pressure range equivalent to 0 to 30 feet of water over a temperature range of −20 to 50 degrees Celsius (°C). The device met the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications for pressure within its temperature-compensated operating range of 0 to 50 °C. The device’s accuracy specifications did not meet established USGS requirements for primary water-stage sensors used in the operation of streamgages, but the Level TROLL 100 may be suitable for other hydrologic data-collection applications. As a note, the Level TROLL 100 is not designed to meet USGS accuracy requirements. Manufacturer accuracy specifications were evaluated, and the procedures followed and the results obtained are described in this report. USGS accuracy requirements are routinely examined and reported when instruments are evaluated at the HIF.

  8. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, Sara; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Spissu, Nicoletta; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Canello, Sergio; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Fiore, Filippo; Cocco, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Biological aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage and decreased endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. The production of oxidants by normal metabolism damages proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, which may contribute to cognitive impairment. In this study 36 dogs were randomly divided into four groups and fed croquettes of different compositions for 6 months. We monitored derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels in dogs' plasma samples as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels at the beginning and at the end of the dietary regime. Our results showed that a dietary regime, enriched with antioxidants, induced a significant decrease of plasma levels of dROMs (p < 0.005) and a significant increase in BDNF serum levels (p < 0.005) after six months. Thus, we hypothesized a possible role of the diet in modulating pro- and antioxidant species as well as BDNF levels in plasma and serum, respectively. In conclusion the proposed diet enriched with antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs. PMID:26464952

  9. The Devon Active Villages Evaluation (DAVE) trial of a community-level physical activity intervention in rural south-west England: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of adults are not meeting the guidelines for physical activity despite activity being linked with numerous improvements to long-term health. In light of this, researchers have called for more community-level interventions. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a community-level physical activity intervention increased the activity levels of rural communities. Methods 128 rural villages (clusters) were randomised to receive the intervention in one of four time periods between April 2011 and December 2012. The Devon Active Villages intervention provided villages with 12 weeks of physical activity opportunities for all age groups, including at least three different types of activities per village. Each village received an individually tailored intervention, incorporating a local needs-led approach. Support was provided for a further 12 months following the intervention. The evaluation study used a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial design. All 128 villages were measured at each of five data collection periods using a postal survey. The primary outcome of interest was the proportion of adults reporting sufficient physical activity to meet internationally recognised guidelines. Minutes spent in moderate-and-vigorous activity per week was analysed as a secondary outcome. To compare between intervention and control modes, random effects linear regression and marginal logistic regression models were implemented for continuous and binary outcomes respectively. Results 10,412 adults (4693 intervention, 5719 control) completed the postal survey (response rate 32.2%). The intervention did not increase the odds of adults meeting the physical activity guideline (adjusted OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.17; P = 0.80), although there was weak evidence of an increase in minutes of moderate-and-vigorous-intensity activity per week (adjusted mean difference = 171, 95% CI: -16 to 358; P = 0.07). The

  10. Post-Knowledge of Results Delay: Effects of Interpolated Activity on Learning and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Carol; McCullagh, Penny

    1987-01-01

    Experimental evidence strongly supports the assumption that knowledge of results (KR) is necessary for learning to occur. This study compares the effects of KR or no-KR with the effects of an interpolated verbal activity on learning and performance of a timed motor task. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  11. Physical Education Lesson Content and Teacher Style and Elementary Students' Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Johnson, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity levels among American children are increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to a lack of regular physical activity (PA). Physical education (PE) is one way to facilitate student PA. The overarching PA goal for physical educators is 50% PA for students. Self-determination theory suggests that PA levels in PE and a variety of other…

  12. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  13. Effectiveness of the Sport Education Fitness Model on Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…

  14. MMP-9 Serum Levels in Schizophrenic Patients during Treatment Augmentation with Sarcosine (Results of the PULSAR Study)

    PubMed Central

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Kałużyńska, Olga; Szyburska, Justyna; Wysokiński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Find changes in matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) levels during augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine and a relationship between schizophrenia symptoms severity and initial level of MMP-9. Method: Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms participated in a six-month prospective RCT (randomized controlled trial). The patients received two grams of sarcosine (n = 28) or placebo (n = 30) daily. At the beginning, after six weeks and after six months MMP-9 levels were measured. Severity of symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Results: MMP-9 serum levels were stable after six weeks and six months in both groups. We noted improvement in negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score in sarcosine group compared to placebo; however, there was no correlations between serum MMP-9 concentrations and PANSS scores in all assessments. Initial serum MMP-9 concentrations cannot be used as an improvement predictor acquired during sarcosine augmentation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that either MMP-9 is not involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent mechanism of sarcosine action in terms of clinical parameters or sarcosine induced changes in peripheral MMP-9 concentrations cannot be detected in blood assessments. PMID:27409603

  15. Researchers' choice of the number and range of levels in experiments affects the resultant variance-accounted-for effect size.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kensuke; Hoshino, Takahiro

    2016-08-08

    In psychology, the reporting of variance-accounted-for effect size indices has been recommended and widely accepted through the movement away from null hypothesis significance testing. However, most researchers have paid insufficient attention to the fact that effect sizes depend on the choice of the number of levels and their ranges in experiments. Moreover, the functional form of how and how much this choice affects the resultant effect size has not thus far been studied. We show that the relationship between the population effect size and number and range of levels is given as an explicit function under reasonable assumptions. Counterintuitively, it is found that researchers may affect the resultant effect size to be either double or half simply by suitably choosing the number of levels and their ranges. Through a simulation study, we confirm that this relation also applies to sample effect size indices in much the same way. Therefore, the variance-accounted-for effect size would be substantially affected by the basic research design such as the number of levels. Simple cross-study comparisons and a meta-analysis of variance-accounted-for effect sizes would generally be irrational unless differences in research designs are explicitly considered.

  16. Bacteriophages of wastewater foaming-associated filamentous Gordonia reduce host levels in raw activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Gill, Jason J; Young, Ry; Summer, Elizabeth J

    2015-09-09

    Filamentous bacteria are a normal and necessary component of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process, but the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria results in foaming and bulking associated disruptions. Bacteriophages, or phages, were investigated for their potential to reduce the titer of foaming bacteria in a mixed-microbial activated sludge matrix. Foaming-associated filamentous bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a commercial wastewater treatment plan and identified as Gordonia species by 16S rDNA sequencing. Four representative phages were isolated that target G. malaquae and two un-named Gordonia species isolates. Electron microscopy revealed the phages to be siphophages with long tails. Three of the phages--GordTnk2, Gmala1, and GordDuk1--had very similar ~76 kb genomes, with >93% DNA identity. These genomes shared limited synteny with Rhodococcus equi phage ReqiDocB7 and Gordonia phage GTE7. In contrast, the genome of phage Gsput1 was smaller (43 kb) and was not similar enough to any known phage to be placed within an established phage type. Application of these four phages at MOIs of 5-15 significantly reduced Gordonia host levels in a wastewater sludge model by approximately 10-fold as compared to non-phage treated reactors. Phage control was observed for nine days after treatment.

  17. Bacteriophages of wastewater foaming-associated filamentous Gordonia reduce host levels in raw activated sludge

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei; Gill, Jason J.; Young, Ry; Summer, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous bacteria are a normal and necessary component of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process, but the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria results in foaming and bulking associated disruptions. Bacteriophages, or phages, were investigated for their potential to reduce the titer of foaming bacteria in a mixed-microbial activated sludge matrix. Foaming-associated filamentous bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a commercial wastewater treatment plan and identified as Gordonia species by 16S rDNA sequencing. Four representative phages were isolated that target G. malaquae and two un-named Gordonia species isolates. Electron microscopy revealed the phages to be siphophages with long tails. Three of the phages - GordTnk2, Gmala1, and GordDuk1 - had very similar ~76 kb genomes, with >93% DNA identity. These genomes shared limited synteny with Rhodococcus equi phage ReqiDocB7 and Gordonia phage GTE7. In contrast, the genome of phage Gsput1 was smaller (43 kb) and was not similar enough to any known phage to be placed within an established phage type. Application of these four phages at MOIs of 5–15 significantly reduced Gordonia host levels in a wastewater sludge model by approximately 10-fold as compared to non-phage treated reactors. Phage control was observed for nine days after treatment. PMID:26349678

  18. High levels of nocturnal activity in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a video analysis.

    PubMed

    Konofal, E; Lecendreux, M; Bouvard, M P; Mouren-Simeoni, M C

    2001-04-01

    Sleep disturbances can lead to symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. In the present study, we compared the sleep patterns of 30 children with ADHD, with those of 19 controls matched for age (5-10 years) and sex. Sleep patterns were recorded during one night, using polysomnography (PSG) and a video system in the sleep laboratory. Both ADHD children and controls were medication free and showed no clinical signs of sleep and alertness problems. An infrared camera was used to record all types of movement, which were scored and analyzed using specific software (Observer(R) 3.0; Noldus International, The Netherlands). No significant differences in sleep variables were found between ADHD children and controls. Polysomnography data showed no significant difference between the two groups. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder children moved more often than controls (upper limbs, P < 0.04; lower limbs, P < 0.03; all types, P < 0.003). The duration of movements was significantly longer in ADHD children (upper limbs, P < 0.03; all types, P < 0.02). The results of the video analysis were consistent with previous findings that ADHD children have higher levels of nocturnal activity than controls. This activity concerned mostly upper and lower limb movements. Futher studies are required to determine why noctural activity does not affect sleep continuity in a more significant way and whether it should be treated specifically.

  19. Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Uğur, F A; Turhan, S; Sahan, H; Sahan, M; Gören, E; Gezer, F; Yeğingil, Z

    2013-01-01

    The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1).

  20. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, John A; Jongbloed, Age W; Verstegen, Martin W A

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may prevent interprandial feelings of hunger and, consequently, increased activity. Catheterized sows (n = 10) were fed twice daily (0700 and 1900 h) 900 g of a diet with either a low (L-sows) or a high level of fermentable dietary fiber (H-sows; sugarbeet pulp). Blood samples, taken between feeding times, were analyzed for glucose and insulin levels (basal and area under the curve) and stability of levels (variance and sum of absolute differences between levels in consecutive samples). The main focus was on samples taken after the postprandial peak. Behavior was videotaped for analysis of postures and posture changes. Basal glucose and insulin levels did not differ between treatments. H-sows had more stable levels than L-sows. Interprandial levels of H-sows were higher than or equal to basal levels. L-sows showed a decline in glucose below basal levels at 1400 h (P < 0.05). Before 1400 h, no difference in the frequency of posture changes was observed between treatments. After 1400 h, the frequency of posture changes increased more in L-sows than in H-sows. We concluded that sugarbeet pulp as a source of fermentable dietary fiber stabilizes glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in limited-fed sows several hours after feeding. This may indicate a prolonged feeling of satiety.

  1. [Effect of fertilization levels on soil microorganism amount and soil enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Ling; Du, Jun-Bo; Xu, Fu-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

    2013-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Shangluo pharmaceutical base in Shaanxi province to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in different fertilization levels on Platycodon grandiflorum soil microorganism and activities of soil enzyme, using three-factor D-saturation optimal design with random block design. The results showed that N0P2K2, N2P2K0, N3P1K3 and N3P3K1 increased the amount of bacteria in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 144.34%, 39.25%, 37.17%, 53.58%, respectively. The amount of bacteria in 2040 cm of soil of N3P1K3 increased by 163.77%, N0P0K3 increased the amount of soil actinomycetes significantly by 192.11%, while other treatments had no significant effect. N2P0K2 and N3P1K3 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0, increased by 35.27% and 92.21%, respectively. N3P0K0 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 20-40 cm of soil by 165.35%, while other treatments had no significant effect. All treatments decrease soil catalase activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil except for N2P0K2, and while N2P2K0 and NPK increased catalase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil. Fertilization regime increased invertase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil, and decreased phosphatase activity inordinately in 0-20 cm of soil, while increased phosphatase activity in 2040 cm of soil other than N1P3K3. N3P0K0, N0P0K3, N2P0K2, N2P2K0 and NPK increased soil urease activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 18.22%, 14.87%,17.84%, 27.88%, 24.54%, respectively. Fertilization regime increased soil urease activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil other than N0P2K2.

  2. Level of and motivation for extracurricular activity are associated with academic performance in the veterinary curriculum.

    PubMed

    Jones, Meredyth L; Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; White, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to determine the number of school-sanctioned extracurricular opportunities available to veterinary students and characterize the policies of school administrations toward extracurricular involvement and academic standing. Further, we sought to describe the level of extracurricular involvement of veterinary students, determine the association between extracurricular activity involvement and academic performance, and determine the motivation for extracurricular involvement of veterinary students. Survey data were obtained from 18 associate deans of colleges of veterinary medicine regarding the number of extracurricular student organizations within their school and administrative recommendations regarding student involvement. Another survey was administered and responded to by 665 veterinary students enrolled in curricular years 1-3 at Kansas State University and Texas A&M University regarding their extracurricular involvement. Associate deans of 11 schools responded that they make formal or informal recommendations to students about extracurricular activities, workload, and academic priority (61.1%). In a multivariate model, students who participated two times per week or more had a significantly higher overall grade point average (GPA) than students participating once per week (p<.0500). Students for whom the primary reason for participation was networking or social enhancement had a significantly lower overall GPA than students for whom the primary reason was gaining new knowledge and skills (p<.0500). These results indicate that student extracurricular involvement is a consideration for administrators when counseling students in academic difficulty. Moderate levels of extracurricular involvement can contribute to the academic success of students, but students should temper their level of involvement based upon their own motivations.

  3. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  4. The Effect of Gambling Activities on Happiness Levels of Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…

  5. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  6. Applying Active Learning at the Graduate Level: Merger Issues at Newco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Bruce K.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that active learning can benefit students in public relations and integrated communication courses at the graduate level. Describes how three active learning approaches--research and field work, student accountabilities for learning, and student reflection and reflexive exercises--were used in a graduate class project to help a Fortune 50…

  7. The Physical Activity Levels of Preschool-Aged Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the physical activity levels of preschool-aged children (aged 2-6 years). Thirty-nine primary studies (published 1986-2007) representing a total of 10,316 participants (5236 male and 5080 female), from seven countries are described and the physical activity behaviors of this population are considered in…

  8. Activity Level, Organization, and Social-Emotional Behaviors in Post-Institutionalized Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlec, Mary Beth; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2002-01-01

    Compared activity and behaviors of 36- to 82-month-olds adopted from Romanian orphanages and with varying lengths of institutionalization (more than 6 months or less than 2 months) with those of age- and gender-matched American-born control groups. Found that each Romanian group exhibited more problems in activity level, organization, and…

  9. Reinforcing Constructivist Teaching in Advanced Level Biochemistry through the Introduction of Case-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartfield, Perry J.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…

  10. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  11. Feasibility and Effects of Short Activity Breaks for Increasing Preschool-Age Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…

  12. Copper (II) Adsorption by Activated Carbons from Pecan Shells: Effect of Oxygen Level During Activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural by-products represent a considerable quantity of harvested commodity crops. The use of by-products as precursors for the production of widely used adsorbents, such as activated carbons, may impart a value-added component of the overall biomass harvested. Our objective in this paper is...

  13. Metal Ion Adsorption by Activated Carbons Made from Pecan Shells: Effect of Oxygen Level During Activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural by-products represent a considerable quantity of harvested commodity crops. The use of by-products as precursors for the production of widely used adsorbents, such as activated carbons, may impart a value-added component of the overall biomass harvested. Our objective in this presenta...

  14. Serum Vitamin D Level and Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity: Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jin; Liu, Jian; Davies, Michael L.; Chen, Weiqian

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence from epidemiological studies concerning the relationship between serum vitamin D concentrations and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is inconsistent. This meta-analysis is aimed at determining the magnitude of the correlation between this common autoimmune disease and vitamin D, an important nutrient known to dampen adaptive immune responses. Methods Through multiple search strategies, relevant literature was identified and evaluated for quality before May 16 2015. Data extracted from eligible studies was synthesized to calculate pooled correlation coefficient (r), mean difference (MD) and odds ratio (OR). The Venice criteria were applied to assess the credibility of the evidence for each statistically significant association. Results A total of 24 reports involving 3489 patients were selected for analysis. RA patients had lower vitamin D levels than healthy controls (MD:-16.52 nmol/L, 95% confidence intervals [CI]:-18.85 to -14.19 nmol/L). There existed a negative relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level and disease activity index, e.g. 25OHD vs. Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28): r = -0.13, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.09; 25OHD vs. C-reactive protein: r = -0.12, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.00. Additionally, latitude-stratified subgroup analysis yielded a relatively stronger negative correlation between 25OHD and DAS28 in low-latitude areas. This inverse relationship also appeared more significant in developing countries than in developed countries. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion RA patients had lower vitamin D values than healthy controls. There was a negative association between serum vitamin D and RA disease activity. However, more strictly controlled studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:26751969

  15. High-intensity activity profiles of elite soccer players at different performance levels.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul S; Di Mascio, Michele; Peart, Dan; Olsen, Peter; Sheldon, Bill

    2010-09-01

    The aims of the study were to (a) determine the high-intensity activity patterns of soccer players at different performance levels and playing positions, (b) investigate temporary and end game fatigue in elite domestic and international soccer matches, and (c) quantify acceleration and maximal running speed profiles of elite soccer players. Elite domestic (n = 100) and international (n = 10) soccer players were analyzed using a multicamera computerized tracking system. No differences were found for high-intensity running distance (2,520 +/- 678 vs. 2,745 +/- 332 m), mean recovery time (67 +/- 15 vs. 71 +/- 26 seconds), or maximal running speed (7.76 +/- 0.31 vs. 7.66 +/- 0.34 mxs-1). The distance covered in high-intensity running irrespective of playing level was 18% lower (p < 0.05) in the last than in the first 15-minute period of the game (391 +/- 117 vs. 478 +/- 141 m). The decline in high-intensity running immediately after the most intense 5-minute period was similar between international (222 +/- 33 vs. 109 +/- 37 m or 51% decline) and elite domestic (243 +/- 81 vs. 114 +/- 51 m or 53% decline) players. Wide midfielders, central midfielders, fullbacks, and attackers covered a greater (p < 0.01) distance in high-intensity running than central defenders (3,243 +/- 625, 2,949 +/- 435, 2,806 +/- 408, 2,618 +/- 745 vs. 2,034 +/- 284 m). Results demonstrate that high-intensity running is reduced during various periods of elite soccer matches, and high-intensity activity profiles and fatigue patterns are similar between international and elite domestic players but vary markedly between playing positions. These data provide valuable information to the fitness coach regarding the high-intensity active profile of elite soccer players that could be used to develop soccer-specific training drills.

  16. Sea Level Changes and Active Tectonics of the Guerrero Coast, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Cundy, A. B.; Sedor, M.; Kostoglodov, V.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding the interaction between sea-level changes and tectonic activity during the Holocene is essential in determining long-term tectonic deformation rates and in identifying prehistorical earthquake events along active margins. The Guerrero coast extends along the active Pacific margin of southwest Mexico and parallels the trench where the Cocos Plate subducts beneath the North American Plate. The last major earthquakes occurred in Guerrero in 1899, 1907, 1909, 1911, and 1957, but none have occurred since the major 1911 (Ms=7.6) earthquake in the northwest segment of the Guerrero seismic gap. The Guerrero gap is currently considered to be matured for a severe earthquake of estimated Mw= 8.1 to 8.4. We present preliminary results of geomorphic field surveying, sediment coring, and geochemical and microfaunal analyses of cored sediments on the Guerrero coast. The Coyuca lagoon strip of the Guerrero coast consists of long barrier beaches, behind which extends a lagoon, beach ridges, extensive swamps, mangrove swamps, salt pans, floodplains, alluvial plains, fluvial terraces, and abandoned meanders. Abandoned meanders and fluvial terraces indicate that the Coyuca River has migrated to the southeast. This migration, and changes in hill elevations near the coast, suggest a southeast tilting of this coastal segment. The morphology of the Guerrero coast has no evidence of long-term coastal uplift. This is consistent with short- term tide gauge measurements (1953-1999) and GPS data (1992-2000) indicative of subsidence rates of ~3 mm/yr (Kostoglodov et al., 2001) in this area. Five cores up to 5.5 m depth were taken nearby the Mitla, Coyuca, Tres Palos and Tecomate lagoons. Core stratigraphies show clear sequences of interbedded peats and clays, interspersed with sand units. The peat-clay sequences are similar to those observed along active margins elsewhere, and indicate fluctuations between marine and brackish/freshwater conditions. Two cores included sediments

  17. Electrocardiograhic findings resulting in inappropriate cardiac catheterization laboratory activation for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Shariq; McCrary, Justin; Wayne, Lori; Gratton, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background Prompt reperfusion has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with a goal of culprit vessel patency in <90 minutes. This requires a coordinated approach between the emergency medical services (EMS), emergency department (ED) and interventional cardiology. The urgency of this process can contribute to inappropriate cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) activations. Objectives One of the major determinants of inappropriate activations has been misinterpretation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in the patient with acute chest pain. Methods We report the ECG findings for all CCL activations over an 18-month period after the inception of a STEMI program at our institution. Results There were a total of 139 activations with 77 having a STEMI diagnosis confirmed and 62 activations where there was no STEMI. The inappropriate activations resulted from a combination of atypical symptoms and misinterpretation of the ECG (45% due to anterior ST-segment elevation) on patient presentation. The electrocardiographic abnormalities were particularly problematic in African-Americans with left ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusions In this single-center, prospective observational study, nearly half of the inappropriate STEMI activations were due to the misinterpretation of anterior ST-segment elevation and this finding was commonly seen in African-Americans with left ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:25009790

  18. Muscle metaboreflex activation during dynamic exercise evokes epinephrine release resulting in β2-mediated vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasdeep; Spranger, Marty D; Hammond, Robert L; Krishnan, Abhinav C; Alvarez, Alberto; Augustyniak, Robert A; O'Leary, Donal S

    2015-03-01

    Muscle metaboreflex-induced increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during submaximal dynamic exercise are mediated principally by increases in cardiac output. To what extent, if any, the peripheral vasculature contributes to this rise in MAP is debatable. In several studies, we observed that in response to muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA; induced by partial hindlimb ischemia) a small but significant increase in vascular conductance occurred within the nonischemic areas (calculated as cardiac output minus hindlimb blood flow and termed nonischemic vascular conductance; NIVC). We hypothesized that these increases in NIVC may stem from a metaboreflex-induced release of epinephrine, resulting in β2-mediated dilation. We measured NIVC and arterial plasma epinephrine levels in chronically instrumented dogs during rest, mild exercise (3.2 km/h), and MMA before and after β-blockade (propranolol; 2 mg/kg), α1-blockade (prazosin; 50 μg/kg), and α1 + β-blockade. Both epinephrine and NIVC increased significantly from exercise to MMA: 81.9 ± 18.6 to 141.3 ± 22.8 pg/ml and 33.8 ± 1.5 to 37.6 ± 1.6 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively. These metaboreflex-induced increases in NIVC were abolished after β-blockade (27.6 ± 1.8 to 27.5 ± 1.7 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1)) and potentiated after α1-blockade (36.6 ± 2.0 to 49.7 ± 2.9 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1)), while α1 + β-blockade also abolished any vasodilation (33.7 ± 2.9 to 30.4 ± 1.9 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1)). We conclude that MMA during mild dynamic exercise induces epinephrine release causing β2-mediated vasodilation.

  19. Commercial/Industrial Activities Program: The Effect of Program Implementation at the Command Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    R,177 468 COMMERCIAL /INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM THE EFFECT OF 1/1 PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION AT THE COMMAND LEVEL(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL...OLUTION 1ESI Chs,; o NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California rMl , MA. 0 3 1987 ,, THESIS V E COMMERCIAL /INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM: THE...block number) ED GROUP SUB-GROUP Commercial Activities; L Effective Implementation 9 ,BS’RAC’ (Continue on reverie if necessary ard ident, fy by block

  20. Effect of season and high ambient temperature on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    McLellan, Michelle L; McLellan, Bruce N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence daily and annual activity patterns of a species provides insights to challenges facing individuals, particularly when climate shifts, and thus is important in conservation. Using GPS collars with dual-axis motion sensors that recorded the number of switches every 5 minutes we tested the hypotheses: 1. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) increase daily activity levels and active bout lengths when they forage on berries, the major high-energy food in this ecosystem, and 2. Grizzly bears become less active and more nocturnal when ambient temperature exceeds 20°C. We found support for hypothesis 1 with both male and female bears being active from 0.7 to 2.8 h longer in the berry season than in other seasons. Our prediction under hypothesis 2 was not supported. When bears foraged on berries on a dry, open mountainside, there was no relationship between daily maximum temperature (which varied from 20.4 to 40.1°C) and the total amount of time bears were active, and no difference in activity<