Jacob, Eufemia; Miaskowski, Christine; Savedra, Marilyn; Beyer, Judith E; Treadwell, Marsha; Styles, Lori
As part of a larger study that examined pain experience, pain management, and pain outcomes among children with sickle cell disease, functional status (sleep, food intake, and activity levels) was examined during hospitalization for acute painful episodes. Children were asked to rate the amount of pain they experienced as well as the amount of time they slept, the amount of food they ate, and the amount of activity they had everyday. Children reported high levels of pain, which showed only a small decrease throughout hospitalization, and had disrupted sleep and wake patterns, decreased food intake, and decreased activity levels. Nurses need to routinely monitor functional status during acute painful episodes so that strategies to promote adequate sleep, food intake, and activity may be incorporated to minimize long-term negative outcomes in children with sickle cell disease.
Kato, Takafumi; Masuda, Yuji; Miyano, Keiji; Higashiyama, Makoto; Yano, Hiroyuki; Haque, Tahsinul; Sato, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Atsushi
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of the association between cardiac activity and the electromyographic (EMG) level of the antagonistic jaw muscles during chewing and NREM sleep in guinea pigs after systemic clonidine injections. Ten animals were prepared for chronic experiments to monitor sleep, cardiac activity and EMG activity of jaw-closing masseter (MAS) and jaw-opening anterior belly of digastric (ADG) muscles. The recordings were made for ten hours with the injections of saline or clonidine (10 μg/kg, i.p.). Integrated EMG activity of the two muscles and mean heart rate (mHR) were calculated for every 10-s epoch. During the two hours after clonidine injection, the duration of REM sleep and mHR were significantly reduced. During chewing, the high EMG activity level of the two muscles and the activity ratio between the two muscles were not modified although mHR was decreased. During NREM sleep, after clonidine injection, the low EMG activity level at baseline was further decreased by 20-30% in parallel to a decrease of mHR although the heterogeneity of the activity ratio remained unaltered. The results suggest that the maintenance of the activity level for the antagonistic jaw muscles are regulated by the distinct physiological mechanisms reflecting the behavioral states during conscious chewing and unconscious NREM sleep.
Yoshida, Y; Fujiki, N; Nakajima, T; Ripley, B; Matsumura, H; Yoneda, H; Mignot, E; Nishino, S
Hypocretins/orexins are neuropeptides implicated in sleep regulation and the sleep disorder narcolepsy. In order to examine how hypocretin activity fluctuates across 24 h with respect to the sleep-wake cycle, we measured changes in extracellular hypocretin-1 levels in the lateral hypothalamus and medial thalamus of freely moving rats with simultaneous sleep recordings. Hypocretin levels exhibited a robust diurnal fluctuation; levels slowly increased during the dark period (active phase), and decreased during the light period (rest phase). Levels were not correlated with the amount of wake or sleep in each period. Although an acute 4-h light-shift did not alter hypocretin levels, 6-h sleep deprivation significantly increased hypocretin release during the forced-wake period. Hypocretin activity is, thus, likely to build up during wakefulness and decline with the occurrence of sleep. These findings, together with the fact that a difficulty in maintaining wakefulness during the daytime is one of the primary symptoms of hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy, suggest that hypocretin activity may be critical in opposing sleep propensity during periods of prolonged wakefulness.
Vogt, Lena Johanna; Gärtner, Simone; Hannich, Hans Joachim; Steveling, Antje; Lerch, Markus M.
Background Among health care personnel working regular hours or rotating shifts can affect parameters of general health and nutrition. We have investigated physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic activity and stress levels in health care workers from both groups. Methods We prospectively recruited 46 volunteer participants from the workforce of a University Medical Department of which 23 worked in rotating shifts (all nursing) and 21 non-shift regular hours (10 nursing, 13 clerical staff). All were investigated over 7 days by multisensory accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia® armband) and kept a detailed food diary. Physical activity and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured in metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Quality of sleep was assessed as Pittsburgh Sleeping Quality Index and stress load using the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress questionnaire (TICS). Results No significant differences were found for overall physical activity, steps per minute, time of exceeding the 3 METs level or sleep quality. A significant difference for physical activity during working hours was found between shift-workers vs. non-shift-workers (p<0.01) and for shift-working nurses (median = 2.1 METs SE = 0.1) vs. non-shift-working clerical personnel (median = 1.5 METs SE = 0.07, p<0.05). Non-shift-working nurses had a significantly lower REE than the other groups (p<0.05). The proportion of fat in the diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the office worker group (median = 42% SE = 1.2) whereas shift-working nurses consumed significantly more carbohydrates (median = 46% SE = 1.4) than clerical staff (median = 41% SE = 1.7). Stress assessment by TICS confirmed a significantly higher level of social overload in the shift working group (p<0.05). Conclusion In this prospective cohort study shift-working had no influence on overall physical activity. Lower physical activity during working hours appears to be compensated for during off-hours. Differences in nutritional
Irwin, Michael R.; Wang, Minge; Ribeiro, Denise; Cho, Hyong Jin; Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Martinez-Maza, Otoniel; Cole, Steve
Background Accumulating evidence suggests that sleep disturbance is associated with inflammation and related disorders including cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to test the effects of sleep loss on activation of nuclear factor (NF) -κB, a transcription factor that serves a critical role in the inflammatory signaling cascade. Methods In 14 healthy adults (7 females; 7 males), peripheral blood mononuclear cell NF-κB was repeatedly assessed, along with enumeration of lymphocyte subpopulations, in the morning after baseline sleep, partial sleep deprivation (awake from 23:00 h to 03:00 h), and recovery sleep. Results In the morning after a night of sleep loss, mononuclear cell NF-κB activation was significantly greater compared with morning levels following uninterrupted baseline or recovery sleep, in which the response was found in females but not in males. Conclusions These results identify NF-κB activation as a molecular pathway by which sleep disturbance may influence leukocyte inflammatory gene expression and the risk of inflammation-related disease. PMID:18561896
Turek, Michal; Besseling, Judith; Spies, Jan-Philipp; König, Sabine; Bringmann, Henrik
Sleep is an essential behavioral state. It is induced by conserved sleep-active neurons that express GABA. However, little is known about how sleep neuron function is determined and how sleep neurons change physiology and behavior systemically. Here, we investigated sleep in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is induced by the single sleep-active neuron RIS. We found that the transcription factor LIM-6, which specifies GABAergic function, in parallel determines sleep neuron function through the expression of APTF-1, which specifies the expression of FLP-11 neuropeptides. Surprisingly FLP-11, and not GABA, is the major component that determines the sleep-promoting function of RIS. FLP-11 is constantly expressed in RIS. At sleep onset RIS depolarizes and releases FLP-11 to induce a systemic sleep state.
Turek, Michal; Besseling, Judith; Spies, Jan-Philipp; König, Sabine; Bringmann, Henrik
Sleep is an essential behavioral state. It is induced by conserved sleep-active neurons that express GABA. However, little is known about how sleep neuron function is determined and how sleep neurons change physiology and behavior systemically. Here, we investigated sleep in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is induced by the single sleep-active neuron RIS. We found that the transcription factor LIM-6, which specifies GABAergic function, in parallel determines sleep neuron function through the expression of APTF-1, which specifies the expression of FLP-11 neuropeptides. Surprisingly FLP-11, and not GABA, is the major component that determines the sleep-promoting function of RIS. FLP-11 is constantly expressed in RIS. At sleep onset RIS depolarizes and releases FLP-11 to induce a systemic sleep state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12499.001 PMID:26949257
McKinney, Scott M.; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Solet, Jo M.; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M.
The neural correlates of the wake-sleep continuum remain incompletely understood, limiting the development of adaptive drug delivery systems for promoting sleep maintenance. The most useful measure for resolving early positions along this continuum is the alpha oscillation, an 8–13 Hz electroencephalographic rhythm prominent over posterior scalp locations. The brain activation signature of wakefulness, alpha expression discloses immediate levels of alertness and dissipates in concert with fading awareness as sleep begins. This brain activity pattern, however, is largely ignored once sleep begins. Here we show that the intensity of spectral power in the alpha band actually continues to disclose instantaneous responsiveness to noise—a measure of sleep depth—throughout a night of sleep. By systematically challenging sleep with realistic and varied acoustic disruption, we found that sleepers exhibited markedly greater sensitivity to sounds during moments of elevated alpha expression. This result demonstrates that alpha power is not a binary marker of the transition between sleep and wakefulness, but carries rich information about immediate sleep stability. Further, it shows that an empirical and ecologically relevant form of sleep depth is revealed in real-time by EEG spectral content in the alpha band, a measure that affords prediction on the order of minutes. This signal, which transcends the boundaries of classical sleep stages, could potentially be used for real-time feedback to novel, adaptive drug delivery systems for inducing sleep. PMID:21408616
Garms-Homolovà, Vjenka; Flick, Uwe; Röhnsch, Gundula
Sleep disorders are symptoms of many diseases. Persons suffering from multiple morbidities are affected most. We investigated the relationship between sleep and activities using assessment data of 2577 German nursing home residents. In total, 37.3 percent were affected by insomnia, 29.6 percent by non-restful sleep. We used SEM to analyze the relationship between sleep disorders and activities. Residents with sleep problems exhibited low levels of activities and social engagement and high levels of communication impairment and interpersonal conflicts. They received less activation than persons without sleep disorders. We found significant evidence that sleep disturbances and lack of activities influence each other negatively.
López-Sobaler, Ana M.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M.
The aim of the present study was to analyze the association of socioeconomic (SES) and lifestyle factors, with the conditions of overweight (OW), general (OB) and abdominal obesity (AO) in Spanish adults. A representative sample of 1655 Spanish adults (18 to 65 years) from the ANIBES Study was investigated. Collected data included measured anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference), demographic and SES data (region and habitant population size, educational level, family income, unemployment rate), physical activity (PA) and other lifestyle factors (sleeping time and frequency of viewing television). OW, OB and AO were determined in each participant. Being male, older than 40 years, and watching television more frequently were associated with higher risk of OB and AO, whereas those with a higher level of education, smokers, and more time in sleeping and in vigorous PA, but not in moderate-vigorous PA, were associated with a lower risk. Living in the Atlantic region and stating no answer to the question regarding family income were also associated with lower risk of AO. Strategies for preventing and reducing OB and AO should consider improving sleeping habits and PA. They should also pay more attention to the most vulnerable groups such as those less educated. PMID:28033380
Urmersbach, Birk; Besseling, Judith; Spies, Jan-Philipp; Bringmann, Henrik
Longitudinal analyses are crucial for understanding long-term processes such as development and behavioral rhythms. For a complete understanding of such processes, both organism-level observations as well as single-cell observations are necessary. Sleep is an example for a long-term process that is under developmental control. This behavioral state is induced by conserved sleep-active neurons, but little is known about how sleep neurons control the physiology of an animal systemically. In the nematode C. elegans, sleep induction crucially requires the single RIS interneuron to actively induce a developmentally regulated sleep behavior. Here, we used RIS-induced sleep as an example of how longitudinal analyses can be automated. We developed methods to analyze both behavior and neural activity in larva across the sleep-wake cycle. To image behavior, we used an improved DIC contrast to extract the head and detect the nose. To image neural activity, we used GCaMP3 expression in a small number of neurons including RIS combined with a neuron discrimination algorithm. Thus, we present a comprehensive platform for automatically analyzing behavior and neural activity in C. elegans exemplified by using RIS-induced sleep during C. elegans development.
Dias Abdo Agamme, Ana Luiza; Aguilar Calegare, Bruno Frederico; Fernandes, Leandro; Costa, Alicia; Lagos, Patricia; Torterolo, Pablo; D'Almeida, Vânia
Neurons that utilize melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) as neuromodulator are located in the lateral hypothalamus and incerto-hypothalamic area. These neurons project throughout the central nervous system and play a role in sleep regulation. With the hypothesis that the MCHergic system function would be modified by the time of the day as well as by disruptions of the sleep-wake cycle, we quantified in rats the concentration of MCH in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the expression of the MCH precursor (Pmch) gene in the hypothalamus, and the expression of the MCH receptor 1 (Mchr1) gene in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. These analyses were performed during paradoxical sleep deprivation (by a modified multiple platform technique), paradoxical sleep rebound and chronic sleep restriction, both at the end of the active (dark) phase (lights were turned on at Zeitgeber time zero, ZT0) and during the inactive (light) phase (ZT8). We observed that in control condition (waking and sleep ad libitum), Mchr1 gene expression was larger at ZT8 (when sleep predominates) than at ZT0, both in frontal cortex and hippocampus. In addition, compared to control, disturbances of the sleep-wake cycle produced the following effects: paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 and 120 h reduced the expression of Mchr1 gene in frontal cortex at ZT0. Sleep rebound that followed 96 h of paradoxical sleep deprivation increased the MCH concentration in the CSF also at ZT0. Twenty-one days of sleep restriction produced a significant increment in MCH CSF levels at ZT8. Finally, sleep disruptions unveiled day/night differences in MCH CSF levels and in Pmch gene expression that were not observed in control (undisturbed) conditions. In conclusion, the time of the day and sleep disruptions produced subtle modifications in the physiology of the MCHergic system.
Oliveira, Marcelo Tomás de; Bittencourt, Sandra Teixeira; Marcon, Karina; Destro, Samia; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo
This study evaluated the association of level of anxiety in children with and without sleep bruxism (SB). The study was performed with 84 six- to eigth-years-old children, divided into two groups: with bruxism (BG) and without bruxism (CG). Following the criteria purposed by American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) to determine SB, the presence of tooth wear has been verified through clinical examinations, and the parents have answered a questionnaire about their children's behavior and habits. Additionally, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) was applied to parents of the selected patients. Data analysis revealed a statistical significant difference between the groups (Student's t-test, p = 0.0136). Based on the results, anxiety assessment revealed that children with bruxism have reached higher levels in the STAIC scale than the non-bruxism group. Therefore, it indicates a direct relationship between the presence of anxiety disorder and the onset of bruxism in children.
Brissette, S; Montplaisir, J; Godbout, R; Lavoisier, P
Polysomnographic recordings were obtained in 10 subjects (5 men and 5 women) for three conditions: following masturbation with orgasm, following masturbation without orgasm, and after reading neutral material. The analysis of several sleep parameters did not reveal any effect of masturbation on sleep. These results suggest that physiological changes that occur during masturbation, with or without orgasm, have no major effect on sleep organization. Other factors associated with sexual activity and potentially responsible for sleepiness after orgasm are discussed, and further strategies to study the interrelationship of sexual activity and sleep are proposed.
Hutchison, Isabel C; Rathore, Shailendra
While non-REM (NREM) sleep has been strongly implicated in the reactivation and consolidation of memory traces, the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep remains unclear. A growing body of research on humans and animals provide behavioral evidence for a role of REM sleep in the strengthening and modulation of emotional memories. Theta activity-which describes low frequency oscillations in the local field potential within the hippocampus, amygdala and neocortex-is a prominent feature of both wake and REM sleep in humans and rodents. Theta coherence between the hippocampus and amygdala drives large-scale pontine-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves, the density of which predicts increases in plasticity-related gene expression. This could potentially facilitate the processing of emotional memory traces within the hippocampus during REM sleep. Further, the timing of hippocampal activity in relation to theta phase is vital in determining subsequent potentiation of neuronal activity. This could allow the emotionally modulated strengthening of novel and gradual weakening of consolidated hippocampal memory traces during REM sleep. Hippocampal theta activity is also correlated with REM sleep levels of achetylcholine - which is thought to reduce hippocampal inputs in the neocortex. The additional low levels of noradrenaline during REM sleep, which facilitate feedback within the neocortex, could allow the integration of novel memory traces previously consolidated during NREM sleep. We therefore propose that REM sleep mediates the prioritized processing of emotional memories within the hippocampus, the integration of previously consolidated memory traces within the neocortex, as well as the disengagement of consolidated neocortical memory traces from the hippocampus.
Vitale, Jacopo A; Roveda, Eliana; Montaruli, Angela; Galasso, Letizia; Weydahl, Andi; Caumo, Andrea; Carandente, Franca
Several studies have shown the differences among chronotypes in the circadian rhythm of different physiological variables. Individuals show variation in their preference for the daily timing of activity; additionally, there is an association between chronotype and sleep duration/sleep complaints. Few studies have investigated sleep quality during the week days and weekends in relation to the circadian typology using self-assessment questionnaires or actigraphy. The purpose of this study was to use actigraphy to assess the relationship between the three chronotypes and the circadian rhythm of activity levels and to determine whether sleep parameters respond differently with respect to time (weekdays versus the weekend) in Morning-types (M-types), Neither-types (N-types) and Evening-types (E-types). The morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ) was administered to 502 college students to determine their chronotypes. Fifty subjects (16 M-types, 15 N-types and 19 E-types) were recruited to undergo a 7-days monitoring period with an actigraph (Actiwacth® actometers, CNT, Cambridge, UK) to evaluate their sleep parameters and the circadian rhythm of their activity levels. To compare the amplitude and the acrophase among the three chronotypes, we used a one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. To compare the Midline Estimating Statistic of Rhythm (MESOR) among the three chronotypes, we used a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test followed by pairwise comparisons that were performed using Dunn's procedure with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The analysis of each sleep parameter was conducted using the mixed ANOVA procedure. The results showed that the chronotype was influenced by sex (χ(2) with p = 0.011) and the photoperiod at birth (χ(2) with p < 0.05). Though the MESOR and amplitude of the activity levels were not different among the three chronotypes, the acrophases compared by the ANOVA post-hoc test were significantly
Hutchison, Isabel C.; Rathore, Shailendra
While non-REM (NREM) sleep has been strongly implicated in the reactivation and consolidation of memory traces, the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep remains unclear. A growing body of research on humans and animals provide behavioral evidence for a role of REM sleep in the strengthening and modulation of emotional memories. Theta activity—which describes low frequency oscillations in the local field potential within the hippocampus, amygdala and neocortex—is a prominent feature of both wake and REM sleep in humans and rodents. Theta coherence between the hippocampus and amygdala drives large-scale pontine-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves, the density of which predicts increases in plasticity-related gene expression. This could potentially facilitate the processing of emotional memory traces within the hippocampus during REM sleep. Further, the timing of hippocampal activity in relation to theta phase is vital in determining subsequent potentiation of neuronal activity. This could allow the emotionally modulated strengthening of novel and gradual weakening of consolidated hippocampal memory traces during REM sleep. Hippocampal theta activity is also correlated with REM sleep levels of achetylcholine - which is thought to reduce hippocampal inputs in the neocortex. The additional low levels of noradrenaline during REM sleep, which facilitate feedback within the neocortex, could allow the integration of novel memory traces previously consolidated during NREM sleep. We therefore propose that REM sleep mediates the prioritized processing of emotional memories within the hippocampus, the integration of previously consolidated memory traces within the neocortex, as well as the disengagement of consolidated neocortical memory traces from the hippocampus. PMID:26483709
Orban, Pierre; Rauchs, Géraldine; Balteau, Evelyne; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Peigneux, Philippe
Sleep promotes the integration of recently acquired spatial memories into cerebral networks for the long term. In this study, we examined how sleep deprivation hinders this consolidation process. Using functional MRI, we mapped regional cerebral activity during place-finding navigation in a virtual town, immediately after learning and 3 days later, in subjects either allowed regular sleep (RS) or totally sleep-deprived (TSD) on the first posttraining night. At immediate and delayed retrieval, place-finding navigation elicited increased brain activity in an extended hippocampo-neocortical network in both RS and TSD subjects. Behavioral performance was equivalent between groups. However, striatal navigation-related activity increased more at delayed retrieval in RS than in TSD subjects. Furthermore, correlations between striatal response and behavioral performance, as well as functional connectivity between the striatum and the hippocampus, were modulated by posttraining sleep. These data suggest that brain activity is restructured during sleep in such a way that navigation in the virtual environment, initially related to a hippocampus-dependent spatial strategy, becomes progressively contingent in part on a response-based strategy mediated by the striatum. Both neural strategies eventually relate to equivalent performance levels, indicating that covert reorganization of brain patterns underlying navigation after sleep is not necessarily accompanied by overt changes in behavior.
Franco-Pérez, Javier; Ballesteros-Zebadúa, Paola; Fernández-Figueroa, Edith A; Ruiz-Olmedo, Isabel; Reyes-Grajeda, Pablo; Paz, Carlos
Gap junctional communication is mainly mediated by connexin36 and connexin43 in neurons and astrocytes, respectively. It has been suggested that connexin36 allows electrical coupling between neurons whereas connexin43 participates in several process including release of ATP. It was recently reported that blockage of gap junctional communication mediated by connexin36 can disrupt the sleep architecture of the rat. However, there is no experimental approach about effects of sleep deprivation on connexins expression. Therefore, we examined in adult male Wistar rats whether protein levels of connexin36 and connexin43 change in pons, hypothalamus, and frontal cortex after 24 h of total sleep deprivation and 4 h of sleep recovery. Western blot revealed that total sleep deprivation significantly decreases the levels of connexin36 in the hypothalamus and this decrease maintains after sleep recovery. Meanwhile, connexin43 is not altered by total sleep deprivation but interestingly the sleep recovery period induces an increase of this connexin. These results suggest that electrical coupling between hypothalamic neurons could be altered by sleep deprivation and that sleep recovery drives changes in connexin43 expression probably as a mechanism related to ATP release and energy regulation during sleep.
Holfeld, Brett; Ruthig, Joelle C
The relationship between sleep quality and physical activity is bidirectional, yet prior research on older adults has mainly focused on investigating whether increasing levels of physical activity leads to improvements in sleep quality. The current longitudinal study examined both directional relationships by assessing sleep quality and physical activity twice over a two-year period among 426 community-dwelling older adults (ages 61-100). A cross-lagged panel analysis that included age, gender, perceived stress, functional ability, and severity of chronic health conditions as covariates, revealed that better initial sleep quality predicted higher levels of later physical activity beyond the effects of prior physical activity; whereas initial physical activity did not predict later sleep quality after accounting for prior sleep quality. These findings highlight sleep quality as an important contributor to a physically active lifestyle among older adults.
... is REM sleep? What is the effect of sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? ... is REM sleep? What is the effect of sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? ...
Wachob, David; Lorenzi, David G
Sleep-related problems are often documented in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examined physical activity as a variable that might influence sleep quality in children with ASD. Ten children, ages 9-16 years, were asked to wear accelerometer devices for 7 days in order to track objective measures of activity and sleep quality. Parents of the children also completed the Child's Sleep Habits Questionnaire and maintained a daily sleep log while their child wore the device. This study demonstrated that though over half of the children were identified as having at least one sleep-related problem, their activity levels were significantly related to their sleep patterns. Specifically, the more physically active children had overall higher sleep quality.
Pejovic, Slobodanka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Basta, Maria; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Zoumakis, Emanuel; Vgontzas, Angeliki; Bixler, Edward O.; Chrousos, George P.
Summary Short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system in healthy, young adults has been shown to be associated with decreased leptin levels, impaired insulin sensitivity and increased hunger and appetite. To assess the effects of one night of sleep loss in a less stressful environment on hunger, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol, and blood pressure/heart rate and whether a 2-hour mid-afternoon nap reverses the changes associated with sleep loss, 21 young healthy individuals (10 men, 11 women) participated in a 7-day sleep deprivation experiment (4 consecutive nights followed by a night of sleep loss and 2 recovery nights). Half of the subjects were randomly assigned to take a mid-afternoon nap (1400–1600) the day following the night of total sleep loss. Serial 24-hour blood sampling and hunger scales were completed on the fourth (pre-deprivation) and sixth day (post-deprivation). Leptin levels were significantly increased after one night of total sleep loss, whereas adiponectin, cortisol levels, blood pressure/heart rate, and hunger were not affected. Daytime napping did not influence the effects of sleep loss on leptin, adiponectin or hunger. Acute sleep loss, in a less stressful environment, influences leptin levels in an opposite manner from that of short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system. It appears that sleep loss associated with activation of the stress system but not sleep loss per se may lead to increased hunger and appetite and hormonal changes which ultimately may lead to increased consumption of “comfort” food and obesity. PMID:20545838
Pejovic, Slobodanka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Basta, Maria; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Zoumakis, Emmanuel; Vgontzas, Angeliki; Bixler, Edward O; Chrousos, George P
Short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system in healthy, young adults has been shown to be associated with decreased leptin levels, impaired insulin sensitivity, and increased hunger and appetite. To assess the effects of one night of sleep loss in a less stressful environment on hunger, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol and blood pressure/heart rate, and whether a 2-h mid-afternoon nap reverses the changes associated with sleep loss, 21 young healthy individuals (10 men, 11 women) participated in a 7-day sleep deprivation experiment (four consecutive nights followed by one night of sleep loss and two recovery nights). Half of the subjects were randomly assigned to take a mid-afternoon nap (14:00-16:00 hours) the day following the night of total sleep loss. Serial 24-h blood sampling and hunger scales were completed on the fourth (predeprivation) and sixth day (postdeprivation). Leptin levels were significantly increased after one night of total sleep loss, whereas adiponectin, cortisol levels, blood pressure/heart rate, and hunger were not affected. Daytime napping did not influence the effects of sleep loss on leptin, adiponectin, or hunger. Acute sleep loss, in a less stressful environment, influences leptin levels in an opposite manner from that of short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system. It appears that sleep loss associated with activation of the stress system but not sleep loss per se may lead to increased hunger and appetite and hormonal changes, which ultimately may lead to increased consumption of 'comfort' food and obesity.
Zielinski, M R; Kim, Y; Karpova, S A; Winston, S; McCarley, R W; Strecker, R E; Gerashchenko, D
Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) delta power (~0.5-4 Hz), also known as slow wave activity (SWA), is typically enhanced after acute sleep deprivation (SD) but not after chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Recently, sleep-active cortical neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were identified and associated with enhanced SWA after short acute bouts of SD (i.e., 6h). However, the relationship between cortical nNOS neuronal activity and SWA during CSR is unknown. We compared the activity of cortical neurons expressing nNOS (via c-Fos and nNOS immuno-reactivity, respectively) and sleep in rats in three conditions: (1) after 18-h of acute SD; (2) after five consecutive days of sleep restriction (SR) (18-h SD per day with 6h ad libitum sleep opportunity per day); (3) and time-of-day matched ad libitum sleep controls. Cortical nNOS neuronal activity was enhanced during sleep after both 18-h SD and 5 days of SR treatments compared to control treatments. SWA and NREM sleep delta energy (the product of NREM sleep duration and SWA) were positively correlated with enhanced cortical nNOS neuronal activity after 18-h SD but not 5days of SR. That neurons expressing nNOS were active after longer amounts of acute SD (18h vs. 6h reported in the literature) and were correlated with SWA further suggest that these cells might regulate SWA. However, since these neurons were active after CSR when SWA was not enhanced, these findings suggest that mechanisms downstream of their activation are altered during CSR.
Watson, Nathaniel F.; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Turkheimer, Eric
Study Objectives: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Methods: Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. Results: The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = −0.080, P < 0.001). Every 1 SD in Singh Index was associated with a ∼4.5 min change in sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b0E = −0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P < 0.05). Residual variance components unique to sleep duration were significant for both A (b0Au = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P < 0.001) and E (b0Eu = 0.934; SE = 0.013; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Area-level deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to
Kredlow, M Alexandra; Capozzoli, Michelle C; Hearon, Bridget A; Calkins, Amanda W; Otto, Michael W
A significant body of research has investigated the effects of physical activity on sleep, yet this research has not been systematically aggregated in over a decade. As a result, the magnitude and moderators of these effects are unclear. This meta-analytical review examines the effects of acute and regular exercise on sleep, incorporating a range of outcome and moderator variables. PubMed and PsycINFO were used to identify 66 studies for inclusion in the analysis that were published through May 2013. Analyses reveal that acute exercise has small beneficial effects on total sleep time, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, stage 1 sleep, and slow wave sleep, a moderate beneficial effect on wake time after sleep onset, and a small effect on rapid eye movement sleep. Regular exercise has small beneficial effects on total sleep time and sleep efficiency, small-to-medium beneficial effects on sleep onset latency, and moderate beneficial effects on sleep quality. Effects were moderated by sex, age, baseline physical activity level of participants, as well as exercise type, time of day, duration, and adherence. Significant moderation was not found for exercise intensity, aerobic/anaerobic classification, or publication date. Results were discussed with regards to future avenues of research and clinical application to the treatment of insomnia.
Hanlon, Erin C.; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel; Stuhr, Kara L.; Doncheck, Elizabeth; de Wit, Harriet; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Van Cauter, Eve
Study Objectives: Increasing evidence from laboratory and epidemiologic studies indicates that insufficient sleep may be a risk factor for obesity. Sleep curtailment results in stimulation of hunger and food intake that exceeds the energy cost of extended wakefulness, suggesting the involvement of reward mechanisms. The current study tested the hypothesis that sleep restriction is associated with activation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system, a key component of hedonic pathways involved in modulating appetite and food intake. Methods: In a randomized crossover study comparing 4 nights of normal (8.5 h) versus restricted sleep (4.5 h) in healthy young adults, we examined the 24-h profiles of circulating concentrations of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and its structural analog 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG). We concomitantly assessed hunger, appetite, and food intake under controlled conditions. Results: A robust daily variation of 2-AG concentrations with a nadir around the middle of the sleep/overnight fast, followed by a continuous increase culminating in the early afternoon, was evident under both sleep conditions but sleep restriction resulted in an amplification of this rhythm with delayed and extended maximum values. Concentrations of 2-OG followed a similar pattern, but with a lesser amplitude. When sleep deprived, participants reported increases in hunger and appetite concomitant with the afternoon elevation of 2-AG concentrations, and were less able to inhibit intake of palatable snacks. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that activation of the eCB system may be involved in excessive food intake in a state of sleep debt and contribute to the increased risk of obesity associated with insufficient sleep. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 495. Citation: Hanlon EC, Tasali E, Leproult R, Stuhr KL, Doncheck E, de Wit H, Hillard CJ, Van Cauter E. Sleep restriction enhances the daily rhythm of circulating levels of
Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric; Liu, Meng; Blanco-Centurion, Carlos; Shiromani, Priyattam J.
Neurons containing the neuropeptide hypocretin (orexin) are localized only in the lateral hypothalamus from where they innervate multiple regions implicated in arousal, including the basal forebrain. HCRT activation of downstream arousal neurons is likely to stimulate release of endogenous factors. One such factor is adenosine (AD), which in the basal forebrain increases with waking and decreases with sleep, and is hypothesized to regulate the waxing and waning of sleep drive. Does loss of HCRT neurons affect AD levels in the basal forebrain? Is the increased sleep that accompanies HCRT loss a consequence of higher AD levels in the basal forebrain? In the present study, we investigate these questions by lesioning the HCRT neurons (hypocretin-2-saporin) and measuring sleep and extracellular levels of AD in the basal forebrain. In separate groups of rats, the neurotoxin HCRT2-SAP or saline were administered locally to the lateral hypothalamus and 80 days later AD and sleep were assessed. Rats given the neurotoxin had a 94% loss of the HCRT neurons. These rats awake less at night, and had more REM sleep, which is consistent with a HCRT hypofunction. These rats also had more sleep after brief periods of sleep deprivation. However, in the lesioned rats, AD levels did not increase with 6h sleep deprivation, whereas such an increase in AD occurred in rats without lesion of the HCRT neurons. These findings indicate that AD levels do not increase with waking in rats with a HCRT lesion, and that the increased sleep in these rats occurs independently of AD levels in the basal forebrain. PMID:18783368
Hirotsu, Camila; Rydlewski, Mariana; Araújo, Mariana Silva; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy
Up to 80% of people develop a cutaneous condition closely connected to their exposure to stressful life events. Psoriasis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory skin disorder with multifactorial etiology, including genetic background, environmental factors, and immune system disturbances with a strong cytokine component. Moreover, psoriasis is variably associated with sleep disturbance and sleep deprivation. This study evaluated the influence of sleep loss in the context of an animal model of psoriasis by measuring cytokine and stress-related hormone levels. Male adult Balb/C mice with or without psoriasis were subjected to 48 h of selective paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD). Sleep deprivation potentiated the activities of kallikrein-5 and kallikrein-7 in the skin of psoriatic groups. Also, mice with psoriasis had significant increases in specific pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12) and decreases in the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) after PSD, which were normalized after 48 h of sleep rebound. Linear regression showed that IL-2, IL-6 and IL-12 levels predicted 66% of corticosterone levels, which were selectively increased in psoriasis mice subject to PSD. Kallikrein-5 was also correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines, explaining 58% of IL-6 and IL-12 variability. These data suggest that sleep deprivation plays an important role in the exacerbation of psoriasis through modulation of the immune system in the epidermal barrier. Thus, sleep loss should be considered a risk factor for the development of psoriasis. PMID:23226485
Liu, Jianghong; Liu, Xianchen; Pak, Victoria; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Chonghuai; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Dinges, David
Study Objectives: Little is known about the effect of lead exposure on children's sleep. This study examined the association between blood lead levels (BLL) and sleep problems in a longitudinal study of children. Setting: Four community-based elementary schools in Jintan City, China. Participants: 1,419 Chinese children. Measurement and Results: BLL were measured when children were aged 3–5 y, and sleep was assessed at ages 9–13 y. Sleep was assessed by both parents' report, using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and children's report, using an adolescent sleep questionnaire. A total of 665 children with complete data on BLL and sleep at both ages were included in the current study. Mean age of the sample at BLL assessment was 4.74 y (standard deviation [SD] = 0.89) and at sleep assessment was 11.05 y (SD = 0.88). Mean BLL was 6.26 μg/dL (SD = 2.54). There were significant positive correlations between BLL and 3 CSHQ subscales: Sleep onset delay (r = 0.113, P < 0.01), sleep duration (r = 0.139, P < 0.001), and night waking (r = 0.089, P < 0.05). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (26.1% versus 9.0%, P < 0.001) and use of sleeping pills (6.5% versus 1.8%, P = 0.03) were more prevalent in children BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL than in those children BLL < 10.0 μg/dL. After adjusting for demographics, BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL was significantly associated with increased risk for insomnia symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–3.95) and EDS (OR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.27–6.61). Conclusion: The findings indicate that elevated blood lead levels in early childhood are associated with increased risk for sleep problems and excessive daytime sleepiness in later childhood. Citation: Liu J, Liu X, Pak V, Wang Y, Yan C, Pinto-Martin J, Dinges D. Early blood lead levels and sleep disturbance in preadolescence. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1869–1874. PMID:26194570
Pagel, James F; Kwiatkowski, Carol F
The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.
Long, Xi; Arends, Johan B.; Aarts, Ronald M.; Haakma, Reinder; Fonseca, Pedro; Rolink, Jérôme
Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by electroencephalographic (EEG) mean frequency and the cardiac parameters included heart rate, standard deviation of heartbeat intervals, and their low- and high-frequency spectral powers. Using a cross-correlation analysis, we found that the cardiac variations during wake-sleep and NREM sleep transitions preceded the EEG changes by 1-3 min but this was not the case for REM sleep transitions. These important findings can be further used to predict the onset and ending of some sleep stages in an early manner.
Chouvarda, I; Rosso, V; Mendez, M O; Bianchi, A M; Parrino, L; Grassi, A; Terzano, M; Cerutti, S
The present study quantitatively analyzes the EEG characteristics during activations (Act) that occur during NREM sleep, and constitute elements of sleep microstructure (i.e. the Cyclic Alternating Pattern). The fractal dimension (FD) and the sample entropy (SampEn) measures were used to study the different sleep stages and the Act that build up the sleep structure. Polysomnographic recordings from 10 good sleepers were analyzed. The complexity indexes of the Act were compared with the non-activation (NAct) periods during non-REM sleep. In addition, complexity measures among the different Act subtypes (A1, A2 and A3) were analyzed. A3 presented a quite similar complexity independently of the sleep stage, while A1 and A2 showed higher complexity in light sleep than during deep sleep. The current results suggest that Act present a hierarchic complexity between subtypes A3 (higher), A2 (intermediate) and A1 (lower) in all sleep stages.
Trinder, J; Kleiman, J; Carrington, M; Smith, S; Breen, S; Tan, N; Kim, Y
While there is a developing understanding of the influence of sleep on cardiovascular autonomic activity in humans, there remain unresolved issues. In particular, the effect of time within the sleep period, independent of sleep stage, has not been investigated. Further, the influence of sleep on central sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is uncertain because results using the major method applicable to humans, the low frequency (LF) component of heart rate variability (HRV), have been contradictory, and because the method itself is open to criticism. Sleep and cardiac activity were measured in 14 young healthy subjects on three nights. Data was analysed in 2-min epochs. All epochs meeting specified criteria were identified, beginning 2 h before, until 7 h after, sleep onset. Epoch values were allocated to 30-min bins and during sleep were also classified into stage 2, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The measures of cardiac activity were heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), high frequency (HF) and LF components of HRV and pre-ejection period (PEP). During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep autonomic balance shifted from sympathetic to parasympathetic dominance, although this appeared to be more because of a shift in parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. Autonomic balance during REM was in general similar to wakefulness. For BP and the HF and LF components the change occurred abruptly at sleep onset and was then constant over time within each stage of sleep, indicating that any change in autonomic balance over the sleep period is a consequence of the changing distribution of sleep stages. Two variables, HR and PEP, did show time effects reflecting a circadian influence over HR and perhaps time asleep affecting PEP. While both the LF component and PEP showed changes consistent with reduced sympathetic tone during sleep, their pattern of change over time differed.
Wang, Bei; Wang, Xingyu; Zhang, Tao; Nakamura, Masatoshi
An automatic sleep level estimation method was developed for monitoring and regulation of day time nap sleep. The recorded nap data is separated into continuous 5-second segments. Features are extracted from EEGs, EOGs and EMG. A parameter of sleep level is defined which is estimated based on the conditional probability of sleep stages. An exponential smoothing method is applied for the estimated sleep level. There were totally 12 healthy subjects, with an averaged age of 22 yeas old, participated into the experimental work. Comparing with sleep stage determination, the presented sleep level estimation method showed better performance for nap sleep interpretation. Real time monitoring and regulation of nap is realizable based on the developed technique.
Vanini, Giancarlo; Wathen, Bradley L.; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A.
Studies using drugs that increase or decrease GABAergic transmission suggest that GABA in the pontine reticular formation (PRF) promotes wakefulness and inhibits rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Cholinergic transmission in the PRF promotes REM sleep, and levels of endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) in the PRF are significantly greater during REM sleep than during wakefulness or non-REM (NREM) sleep. No previous studies have determined whether levels of endogenous GABA in the PRF vary as a function of sleep and wakefulness. This study tested the hypothesis that GABA levels in cat PRF are greatest during wakefulness and lowest during REM sleep. Extracellular GABA levels were measured during wakefulness, NREM sleep, REM sleep, and the REM sleep-like state (REMNeo) caused by microinjecting neostigmine into the PRF. GABA levels varied significantly as a function of sleep and wakefulness, and decreased significantly below waking levels during REM sleep (−42%) and REMNeo (−63%). The decrease in GABA levels during NREM sleep (22% below waking levels) was not statistically significant. Compared to NREM sleep, GABA levels decreased significantly during REM sleep (−27%) and REMNeo (−52%). Comparisons of REM sleep and REMNeo revealed no differences in GABA levels or cortical EEG power. GABA levels did not vary significantly as a function of dialysis site within the PRF. The inverse relationship between changes in PRF levels of GABA and ACh during REM sleep indicates that low GABAergic tone combined with high cholinergic tone in the PRF contributes to the generation of REM sleep. PMID:21325533
Whitehurst, Lauren N.; McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Duggan, Katherine A.; Mednick, Sara C.
Throughout history, psychologists and philosophers have proposed that good sleep benefits memory, yet current studies focusing on the relationship between traditionally reported sleep features (e.g., minutes in sleep stages) and changes in memory performance show contradictory findings. This discrepancy suggests that there are events occurring during sleep that have not yet been considered. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) shows strong variation across sleep stages. Also, increases in ANS activity during waking, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), have been correlated with memory improvement. However, the role of ANS in sleep-dependent memory consolidation has never been examined. Here, we examined whether changes in cardiac ANS activity (HRV) during a daytime nap were related to performance on two memory conditions (Primed and Repeated) and a nonmemory control condition on the Remote Associates Test. In line with prior studies, we found sleep-dependent improvement in the Primed condition compared with the Quiet Wake control condition. Using regression analyses, we compared the proportion of variance in performance associated with traditionally reported sleep features (model 1) vs. sleep features and HRV during sleep (model 2). For both the Primed and Repeated conditions, model 2 (sleep + HRV) predicted performance significantly better (73% and 58% of variance explained, respectively) compared with model 1 (sleep only, 46% and 26% of variance explained, respectively). These findings present the first evidence, to our knowledge, that ANS activity may be one potential mechanism driving sleep-dependent plasticity. PMID:27298366
Sahu, Surajit; Ray, Koushik; Yogendra Kumar, M S; Gupta, Shilpa; Kauser, Hina; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mishra, Kshipra; Panjwani, Usha
The present study was performed to investigate the effects of Valeriana wallichi (VW) aqueous root extract on sleep-wake profile and level of brain monoamines on Sprague-Dawley rats. Electrodes and transmitters were implanted to record EEG and EMG in freely moving condition and the changes were recorded telemetrically after oral administration of VW in the doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Sleep latency was decreased and duration of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was increased in a dose dependent manner. A significant decrease of sleep latency and duration of wakefulness were observed with VW at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. Duration of NREM sleep as well as duration of total sleep was increased significantly after treatment with VW at the doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. VW also increased EEG slow wave activity during NREM sleep at the doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. Level of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-HT) and hydroxy indole acetic acid (HIAA) were measured in frontal cortex and brain stem after VW treatment at the dose of 200mg/kg. NE and 5HT level were decreased significantly in both frontal cortex and brain stem. DA and HIAA level significantly decreased only in cortex. DOPAC level was not changed in any brain region studied. In conclusion it can be said that VW water extract has a sleep quality improving effect which may be dependent upon levels of monoamines in cortex and brainstem.
Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Schabus, Manuel; Desseilles, Martin; Albouy, Geneviève; Boly, Mélanie; Darsaud, Annabelle; Gais, Steffen; Rauchs, Géraldine; Sterpenich, Virginie; Vandewalle, Gilles; Carrier, Julie; Moonen, Gustave; Balteau, Evelyne; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, André; Phillips, Christophe; Maquet, Pierre
Slow wave sleep (SWS) is associated with spontaneous brain oscillations that are thought to participate in sleep homeostasis and to support the processing of information related to the experiences of the previous awake period. At the cellular level, during SWS, a slow oscillation (<1 Hz) synchronizes firing patterns in large neuronal populations and is reflected on electroencephalography (EEG) recordings as large-amplitude, low-frequency waves. By using simultaneous EEG and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we characterized the transient changes in brain activity consistently associated with slow waves (>140 microV) and delta waves (75-140 microV) during SWS in 14 non-sleep-deprived normal human volunteers. Significant increases in activity were associated with these waves in several cortical areas, including the inferior frontal, medial prefrontal, precuneus, and posterior cingulate areas. Compared with baseline activity, slow waves are associated with significant activity in the parahippocampal gyrus, cerebellum, and brainstem, whereas delta waves are related to frontal responses. No decrease in activity was observed. This study demonstrates that SWS is not a state of brain quiescence, but rather is an active state during which brain activity is consistently synchronized to the slow oscillation in specific cerebral regions. The partial overlap between the response pattern related to SWS waves and the waking default mode network is consistent with the fascinating hypothesis that brain responses synchronized by the slow oscillation restore microwake-like activity patterns that facilitate neuronal interactions.
Watanabe, Takamitsu; Kan, Shigeyuki; Koike, Takahiko; Misaki, Masaya; Konishi, Seiki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Miyahsita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki
Brain activity dynamically changes even during sleep. A line of neuroimaging studies has reported changes in functional connectivity and regional activity across different sleep stages such as slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, it remains unclear whether and how the large-scale network activity of human brains changes within a given sleep stage. Here, we investigated modulation of network activity within sleep stages by applying the pairwise maximum entropy model to brain activity obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging from sleeping healthy subjects. We found that the brain activity of individual brain regions and functional interactions between pairs of regions significantly increased in the default-mode network during SWS and decreased during REM sleep. In contrast, the network activity of the fronto-parietal and sensory-motor networks showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, in the three networks, the amount of the activity changes throughout REM sleep was negatively correlated with that throughout SWS. The present findings suggest that the brain activity is dynamically modulated even in a sleep stage and that the pattern of modulation depends on the type of the large-scale brain networks.
García Suquia, Angela; Alonso-Fernández, Alberto; de la Peña, Mónica; Romero, David; Piérola, Javier; Carrera, Miguel; Barceló, Antonia; Soriano, Joan B; Arque, Meritxell; Fernández-Capitán, Carmen; Lorenzo, Alicia; García-Río, Francisco
Obstructive sleep apnoea is a risk factor for pulmonary embolism. Elevated D-dimer levels and other biomarkers are associated with recurrent pulmonary embolism. The objectives were to compare the frequency of elevated D-dimer levels (>500 ng·mL(-1)) and further coagulation biomarkers after oral anticoagulation withdrawal in pulmonary embolism patients, with and without obstructive sleep apnoea, including two control groups without pulmonary embolism.We performed home respiratory polygraphy. We also measured basic biochemical profile and haemogram, and coagulation biomarkers (D-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1+2, thrombin-antithrombin complex, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and soluble P-selectin).64 (74.4%) of the pulmonary embolism cases and 41 (46.11%) of the controls without pulmonary embolism had obstructive sleep apnoea. Plasmatic D-dimer was higher in PE patients with OSA than in those without obstructive sleep apnoea. D-dimer levels were significantly correlated with apnoea-hypopnoea index, and nocturnal hypoxia. There were more patients with high D-dimer after stopping anticoagulants in those with pulmonary embolism and obstructive sleep apnoea compared with PE without obstructive sleep apnoea (35.4% versus 19.0%, p=0.003). Apnoea-hypopnoea index was independently associated with high D-dimer.Pulmonary embolism patients with obstructive sleep apnoea had higher rates of elevated D-dimer levels after anticoagulation discontinuation for pulmonary embolism than in patients without obstructive sleep apnoea and, therefore, higher procoagulant state that might increase the risk of pulmonary embolism recurrence.
Tang, Xiangdong; Yang, Linghui; Sanford, Larry D
We examined individual differences in sleep and motor activity across 2 consecutive days in rats. EEG and motor activity were recorded via telemetry in Wistar rats (n=29) for 48h under well-habituated conditions. Rats were grouped based on sleep amounts and stability across days (short [SS, n=7], intermediate [IS, n=15] and long [LS, n=7] sleep) and comparisons were conducted to determine group differences for measures of sleep and motor activity. We found that correlations across recording days were significant for all selected sleep measures and motor activity counts. Rankings for 24h total sleep time and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) were SS
Oka, Yasunori; Suzuki, Shuhei; Inoue, Yuich
Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and their impact on sleep/wake patterns were assessed in 509 elementary school children (6-12 years of age; 252 males and 257 females). Television viewing, playing video games, and surfing the Internet had negative impact on sleep/wake parameters. Moreover, presence of a television set or video game in the child's bedroom increased their activity before bedtime. Time to return home later than 8 p.m. from after-school activity also had a negative impact on sleep/wake patterns. Health care practitioners should be aware of the potential negative impact of television, video games, and the Internet before bedtime, and also the possibility that late after-school activity can disturb sleep/wake patterns.
Kadoya, Manabu; Koyama, Sachie; Morimoto, Akiko; Miyoshi, Akio; Kakutani, Miki; Hamamoto, Kae; Kurajoh, Masafumi; Shoji, Takuhito; Moriwaki, Yuji; Koshiba, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Inaba, Masaaki; Namba, Mitsuyoshi; Koyama, Hidenori
Macro thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been reported to be associated with seasonality and regulated by changes in day length in rodents, different from free TSH. In the present study, we investigated structural differences between macro TSH and free TSH levels in human serum, as well as the association of macro TSH with sleep quality. We enrolled 314 patients registered in the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis (HSCAA) study. Sleep quality shown by actigraphy, sleep physical activity, and percent sleep in all and TSH closely matched subjects were significantly associated with high macro TSH levels. Macro and free TSH were similarly increased following thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation, while circadian changes associated with those were distinct. To further analyze the structure of macro TSH, serum samples were separated by gel filtration chromatography. Although treatment with glycosidase did not affect morbidity, the macro TSH fraction had a markedly low affinity to the Con A column as compared with free TSH, indicating a distinct glycosylation structure. In conclusion, an increase in serum macro TSH is associated with low sleep quality and regulated in a manner distinct from free TSH, potentially due to an altered glycosylation structure.
Kamphuis, Jeanine; Lancel, Marike; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Meerlo, Peter
Sleep is considered to be a recovery process of prior wakefulness. Not only duration of the waking period affects sleep architecture and sleep EEG, the quality of wakefulness is also highly important. Studies in rats have shown that social defeat stress, in which experimental animals are attacked and defeated by a dominant conspecific, is followed by an acute increase in NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA). However, it is not known whether this effect is specific for the stress of social defeat or a result of the conflict per se. In the present experiment, we examined how sleep is affected in both the winners and losers of a social conflict. Sleep-wake patterns and sleep EEG were recorded in male wild-type Groningen rats that were subjected to 1h of social conflict in the middle of the light phase. All animals were confronted with a conspecific of similar aggression level and the conflict took place in a neutral arena where both individuals had an equal chance to either win or lose the conflict. NREM sleep SWA was significantly increased after the social conflict compared to baseline values and a gentle stimulation control condition. REM sleep was significantly suppressed in the first hours after the conflict. Winners and losers did not differ significantly in NREM sleep time, NREM sleep SWA and REM sleep time immediately after the conflict. Losers tended to have slightly more NREM sleep later in the recovery period. This study shows that in rats a social conflict with an unpredictable outcome has quantitatively and qualitatively largely similar acute effects on subsequent sleep in winners and losers.
A one-week sleep monitoring by logs and actigraphs in preteens during summer camp was conducted. Campers aged 11-16 attended a two-week day camp that focused on the learning about science. Nine campers agreed to monitor their sleep and have their patterns explained (anonymously) to other campers during the expert lecture by the author. The aim of the study was to identify the sleep quality in an adolescent group. All nine of the sleep logs and actigraphs denoted severe sleep deprivation. The findings from the logs and actigraphs denoted sever sleep deprivation. The expert lecturer provided basic information about sleep per the science designation of the day camp. A follow up session provided strategies to address sleep deprivation.
Gast, Heidemarie; Müller, Andreas; Lopez, Martin; Meier, Daniel; Huber, Reto; Dechent, Frieder; Prinz, Marco; Emmenegger, Yann; Franken, Paul; Birchler, Thomas; Fontana, Adriano
The T-cell derived cytokine CD40 ligand is overexpressed in patients with autoimmune diseases. Through activation of its receptor, CD40 ligand leads to a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 (TNFR1) dependent impairment of locomotor activity in mice. Here we report that this effect is explained through a promotion of sleep, which was specific to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep while REM sleep was suppressed. The increase in NREM sleep was accompanied by a decrease in EEG delta power during NREM sleep and by a decrease in the expression of transcripts in the cerebral cortex known to be associated with homeostatic sleep drive, such as Homer1a, Early growth response 2, Neuronal pentraxin 2, and Fos-like antigen 2. The effect of CD40 activation was mimicked by peripheral TNF injection and prevented by the TNF blocker etanercept. Our study indicates that sleep-wake dysregulation in autoimmune diseases may result from CD40 induced TNF:TNFR1 mediated alterations of molecular pathways, which regulate sleep-wake behavior.
Abrusán, György; Yant, Stephen R; Szilágyi, András; Marsh, Joseph A; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Barabás, Orsolya; Ivics, Zoltán
Transposases are important tools in genome engineering, and there is considerable interest in engineering more efficient ones. Here, we seek to understand the factors determining their activity using the Sleeping Beauty transposase. Recent work suggests that protein coevolutionary information can be used to classify groups of physically connected, coevolving residues into elements called "sectors", which have proven useful for understanding the folding, allosteric interactions, and enzymatic activity of proteins. Using extensive mutagenesis data, protein modeling and analysis of folding energies, we show that (i) The Sleeping Beauty transposase contains two sectors, which span across conserved domains, and are enriched in DNA-binding residues, indicating that the DNA binding and endonuclease functions of the transposase coevolve; (ii) Sector residues are highly sensitive to mutations, and most mutations of these residues strongly reduce transposition rate; (iii) Mutations with a strong effect on free energy of folding in the DDE domain of the transposase significantly reduce transposition rate. (iv) Mutations that influence DNA and protein-protein interactions generally reduce transposition rate, although most hyperactive mutants are also located on the protein surface, including residues with protein-protein interactions. This suggests that hyperactivity results from the modification of protein interactions, rather than the stabilization of protein fold.
Abrusán, György; Yant, Stephen R.; Szilágyi, András; Marsh, Joseph A.; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Barabás, Orsolya; Ivics, Zoltán
Transposases are important tools in genome engineering, and there is considerable interest in engineering more efficient ones. Here we seek to understand the factors determining their activity using the Sleeping Beauty transposase. Recent work suggests that protein co-evolutionary information can be used to classify groups of physically connected, co-evolving residues into elements called ‘sectors’, which have proven useful for understanding the folding, allosteric interactions, and enzymatic activity of proteins. Using extensive mutagenesis data, protein modeling and analysis of folding energies, we show that 1) The Sleeping Beauty transposase contains two sectors, which span across conserved domains, and are enriched in DNA-binding residues, indicating that the DNA binding and endonuclease functions of the transposase coevolve; 2) Sector residues are highly sensitive to mutations, and most mutations of these residues strongly reduce transposition rate; 3) Mutations with a strong effect on free energy of folding in the DDE domain of the transposase significantly reduce transposition rate. 4) Mutations that influence DNA and protein-protein interactions generally reduce transposition rate, although most hyperactive mutants are also located on the protein surface, including residues with protein-protein interactions. This suggests that hyperactivity results from the modification of protein interactions, rather than the stabilization of protein fold. PMID:27401040
Ritmala-Castren, Marita; Virtanen, Irina; Leivo, Sanna; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
This study aimed to describe the quality of sleep of non-intubated patients and the night-time nursing care activities in an intensive care unit. The study also aimed to evaluate the effect of nursing care activities on the quality of sleep. An overnight polysomnography was performed in 21 alert, non-intubated, non-sedated adult patients, and all nursing care activities that involved touching the patient were documented by the bedside nurse. The median (interquartile range) amount of sleep was 387 (170, 486) minutes. The portion of deep non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep varied from 0% to 42% and REM sleep from 0% to 65%. The frequency of arousals and awakenings varied from two to 73 per hour. The median amount of nursing care activities was 0.6/h. Every tenth activity presumably awakened the patient. Patients who had more care activities had more light N1 sleep, less light N2 sleep, and less deep sleep. Nursing care was often performed while patients were awake. However, only 31% of the intervals between nursing care activities were over 90 min. More attention should be paid to better clustering of care activities.
Atkinson, Greg; Davenne, Damien
Although sleep and exercise may seem to be mediated by completely different physiological mechanisms, there is growing evidence for clinically important relationships between these two behaviors. It is known that passive body heating facilitates the nocturnal sleep of healthy elderly people with insomnia. This finding supports the hypothesis that changes in body temperature trigger somnogenic brain areas to initiate sleep. Nevertheless, little is known about how the core and distal thermoregulatory responses to exercise fit into this hypothesis. Such knowledge could also help in reducing sleep problems associated with nocturnal shiftwork. It is difficult to incorporate physical activity into a shiftworker's lifestyle, since it is already disrupted in terms of family commitments and eating habits. A multi-research strategy is needed to identify what the optimal amounts and timing of physical activity are for reducing shiftwork-related sleep problems. The relationships between sleep, exercise and diet are also important, given the recently reported associations between short sleep length and obesity. The cardiovascular safety of exercise timing should also be considered, since recent data suggest that the reactivity of blood pressure to a change in general physical activity is highest during the morning. This time is associated with an increased risk in general of a sudden cardiac event, but more research work is needed to separate the influences of light, posture and exercise per se on the haemodynamic responses to sleep and physical activity following sleep taken at night and during the day as a nap. PMID:17067643
Quantitative differences among EMG activities of muscles innervated by subpopulations of hypoglossal and upper spinal motoneurons during non-REM sleep - REM sleep transitions: a window on neural processes in the sleeping brain.
Rukhadze, I; Kamani, H; Kubin, L
In the rat, a species widely used to study the neural mechanisms of sleep and motor control, lingual electromyographic activity (EMG) is minimal during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep and then phasic twitches gradually increase after the onset of REM sleep. To better characterize the central neural processes underlying this pattern, we quantified EMG of muscles innervated by distinct subpopulations of hypoglossal motoneurons and nuchal (N) EMG during transitions from non-REM sleep to REM sleep. In 8 chronically instrumented rats, we recorded cortical EEG, EMG at sites near the base of the tongue where genioglossal and intrinsic muscle fibers predominate (GG-I), EMG of the geniohyoid (GH) muscle, and N EMG. Sleep-wake states were identified and EMGs quantified relative to their mean levels in wakefulness in successive 10 s epochs. During non-REM sleep, the average EMG levels differed among the three muscles, with the order being N>GH>GG-I. During REM sleep, due to different magnitudes of phasic twitches, the order was reversed to GG-I>GH>N. GG-I and GH exhibited a gradual increase of twitching that peaked at 70-120 s after the onset of REM sleep and then declined if the REM sleep episode lasted longer. We propose that a common phasic excitatory generator impinges on motoneuron pools that innervate different muscles, but twitching magnitudes are different due to different levels of tonic motoneuronal hyperpolarization. We also propose that REM sleep episodes of average durations are terminated by intense activity of the central generator of phasic events, whereas long REM sleep episodes end as a result of a gradual waning of the tonic disfacilitatory and inhibitory processes.
Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli
Background Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Methods Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. Results The Australians’ sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians’ sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Conclusions Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives. PMID:24282197
Choi, Jae Joon; Oh, Eun-Hye; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Chung, Youn Bok; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan
This research was designed to identify whether Gastrodiae Rhizoma ethanol extract (GREE) enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep via γ-aminobutyric acid- (GABA-) ergic systems and modulated sleep architectures in animals. GREE (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited locomotor activity in mice, in a dose-dependent manner. GREE not only prolonged total sleep time, but also reduced sleep latency time in pentobarbital (42 mg/kg)-treated mice. Subhypnotic pentobarbital (28 mg/kg, i.p.) also increased the number of total sleeping animals in concomitant administration of GREE. GREE (100 mg/kg) alone reduced the count of sleep-wake cycles in electroencephalogram. Furthermore, GREE increased total sleep time and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. From the in vitro experiments, GREE increased intracellular chloride level in primary cultured cerebellar granule cells. Protein expressions of glutamine acid decarboxylase (GAD) and GABAA receptors subtypes by western blot were increased. Therefore, our study suggested that GREE enhances pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors and increased REM via the activation of GABAA-ergic transmission in rodents. PMID:25614750
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe
We investigated the associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity and body weight among Canadian adults, and tested whether trouble sleeping and physical activity moderated the relationship between work/life stress and body weight, and whether work/life stress and physical activity moderated the relationship between trouble sleeping and body weight. Data on 13,926 Canadian adults aged 20years and older were derived from the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, household income, marital status and job insecurity, self-perceived work and life stress and trouble sleeping were associated with a higher BMI. The associations of work and life stress with higher BMI were independent of trouble sleeping and physical activity in addition to other covariates, while that of trouble sleeping and higher BMI was independent of work and life stress. Results further indicated that trouble sleeping among inactive participants was related to a higher BMI; however, this relationship was almost null for adults who self-reported being physically active for about 8h/week. These findings suggest that work and life stress are both associated with excess weight in adults, regardless of physical activity level, while the link of trouble sleeping with BMI varies by physical activity level. Future research is necessary to determine whether reducing work and life stress and improving sleep habits would benefit the prevention of weight gain and obesity.
Gujar, Ninad; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Hu, Peter; Walker, Matthew P
The sleep-deprived brain has principally been characterized by examining dysfunction during cognitive task performance. However, far less attention has been afforded the possibility that sleep deprivation may be as, if not more, accurately characterized on the basis of abnormal resting-state brain activity. Here we report that one night of sleep deprivation significantly disrupts the canonical signature of task-related deactivation, resulting in a double dissociation within anterior as well as posterior midline regions of the default network. Indeed, deactivation within these regions alone discriminated sleep-deprived from sleep-control subjects with a 93% degree of sensitivity and 92% specificity. In addition, the relative balance of deactivation within these default nodes significantly correlated with the amount of prior sleep in the control group (and not extended time awake in the deprivation group). Therefore, the stability and the balance of task-related deactivation in key default-mode regions may be dependent on prior sleep, such that a lack thereof disrupts this signature pattern of brain activity, findings that may offer explanatory insights into conditions associated with sleep loss at both a clinical as well as societal level.
Shimizu, Hideyuki; Shimoda, Masami; Yamaguchi, Terumi; Seong, Ki-Hyeon; Okamura, Tomoo; Ishii, Shunsuke
Stress-activated protein kinases such as p38 regulate the activity of transcription factor ATF-2. However, the physiological role of ATF-2, especially in the brain, is unknown. Here, we found that Drosophila melanogaster ATF-2 (dATF-2) is expressed in large ventral lateral neurons (l-LN(v)s) and also, to a much lesser extent, in small ventral lateral neurons, the pacemaker neurons. Only l-LN(v)s were stained with the antibody that specifically recognizes phosphorylated dATF-2, suggesting that dATF-2 is activated specifically in l-LN(v)s. The knockdown of dATF-2 in pacemaker neurons using RNA interference decreased sleep time, whereas the ectopic expression of dATF-2 increased sleep time. dATF-2 knockdown decreased the length of sleep bouts but not the number of bouts. The ATF-2 level also affected the sleep rebound after sleep deprivation and the arousal threshold. dATF-2 negatively regulated locomotor activity, although it did not affect the circadian locomotor rhythm. The degree of dATF-2 phosphorylation was greater in the morning than at night and was enhanced by forced locomotion via the dp38 pathway. Thus, dATF-2 is activated by the locomotor while it increases sleep, suggesting a role for dATF-2 as a regulator to connect sleep with locomotion.
Ioannides, Andreas A; Kostopoulos, George K; Liu, Lichan; Fenwick, Peter B C
All sleep stages contain epochs with high-amplitude electrophysiological phasic events, alternating with quieter "core periods." High-amplitude and core state properties cannot be disentangled with PET and fMRI. Here from high temporal resolution magnetoencephalography data, regional changes in neuronal activity were extracted during core periods in different frequency bands for each sleep stage and waking. We found that gamma-band activity increases in precuneus during light sleep (stages 1/2) and in the left dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (L-DMPFC) during deep sleep (stages 3/4). The L-DMPFC activated area expands laterally during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, into a volume of about 5 cm(3) bounded by regions attributed to Theory of Mind (ToM) and default systems, both involved in introspection. Gamma band activity in this area was higher during REM sleep than other sleep stages and active wakefulness. There is a tantalizing correspondence between increased wide-band activity (dominated by low frequencies) in early non-REM (NREM) sleep stages and increases in gamma-band activity in late NREM and REM periods that we attribute to a lateral disinhibition mechanism. The results provide a description of regional electrophysiological changes in awake state, light and deep sleep, and REM sleep. These changes are most pronounced in the L-DMPFC and the other areas around the dorsal midline that are close to, but do not overlap with areas of the default and ToM systems, suggesting that the DMPFC, particularly in the left hemisphere, plays an important role in late NREM stages, in REM and possibly in dreaming.
Fraigne, Jimmy J.; Orem, John M.
Objectives: In this study, we quantified the profiles of phasic activity in respiratory muscles (diaphragm, genioglossus and external intercostal) and non-respiratory muscles (neck and extensor digitorum) across REM sleep. We hypothesized that if there is a unique pontine structure that controls all REM sleep phasic events, the profiles of the phasic twitches of different muscle groups should be identical. Furthermore, we described how respiratory parameters (e.g., frequency, amplitude, and effort) vary across REM sleep to determine if phasic processes affect breathing. Methods: Electrodes were implanted in Wistar rats to record brain activity and muscle activity of neck, extensor digitorum, diaphragm, external intercostal, and genioglossal muscles. Ten rats were studied to obtain 313 REM periods over 73 recording days. Data were analyzed offline and REM sleep activity profiles were built for each muscle. In 6 animals, respiratory frequency, effort, amplitude, and inspiratory peak were also analyzed during 192 REM sleep periods. Results: Respiratory muscle phasic activity increased in the second part of the REM period. For example, genioglossal activity increased in the second part of the REM period by 63.8% compared to the average level during NREM sleep. This profile was consistent between animals and REM periods (η2 = 0.58). This increased activity seen in respiratory muscles appeared as irregular bursts and trains of activity that could affect rythmo-genesis. Indeed, the increased integrated activity seen in the second part of the REM period in the diaphragm was associated with an increase in the number (28.3%) and amplitude (30%) of breaths. Non-respiratory muscle phasic activity in REM sleep did not have a profile like the phasic activity of respiratory muscles. Time in REM sleep did not have an effect on nuchal activity (P = 0.59). Conclusion: We conclude that the concept of a common pontine center controlling all REM phasic events is not supported by our
Wilhelm, Ines; Metzkow-Meszaros, Maila; Knapp, Susanne; Born, Jan
In striking contrast to adults, in children sleep following training a motor task did not induce the expected (offline) gain in motor skill performance in previous studies. Children normally perform at distinctly lower levels than adults. Moreover, evidence in adults suggests that sleep dependent offline gains in skill essentially depend on the…
Yachida, W; Castrillon, E E; Baad-Hansen, L; Jensen, R; Arima, T; Tomonaga, A; Ohata, N; Svensson, P
This study compared the jaw-muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep in patients with craniofacial pain (n = 63) or no painful conditions (n = 52) and between patients with tension-type headache (TTH: n = 30) and healthy control individuals (n = 30). All participants used a portable single-channel EMG device (Medotech A/S) for four nights. There was no significant difference in EMG activity between craniofacial pain (24.5 ± 17.9 events/hr) and no painful conditions (19.7 ± 14.5), or between TTH (20.8 ± 15.0) and healthy control individuals (15.2 ± 11.6, p >.050). There were positive correlations between EMG activity and number of painful muscles (r = 0.188; p = 0.044), characteristic pain intensity (r = 0.187; p = 0.046), McGill Pain Questionnaire (r = 0.251; p = 0.008), and depression scores (r = 0.291; p = 0.002). Patients with painful conditions had significantly higher night-to-night variability compared with pain-free individuals (p < 0.050). This short-term observational study suggests that there are no major differences between patients with different craniofacial pain conditions and pain-free individuals in terms of jaw-muscle EMG activity recorded with a single-channel EMG device during sleep. However, some associations may exist between the level of EMG activity and various parameters of craniofacial pain. Longitudinal studies are warranted to further explore the relationship between sleep bruxism and craniofacial pain.
Ikawa, Yasuha; Mochizuki, Ayako; Katayama, Keisuke; Kato, Takafumi; Ikeda, Minako; Abe, Yuka; Nakamura, Shiro; Nakayama, Kiyomi; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Inoue, Tomio
In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram on sleep/wake cycles and masseter (jaw-closing) muscle electromyogram (EMG) activity over a 24-h period. From the dark to the light period, the times of wakefulness decreased, while those of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep increased. Citalopram did not induce major alterations in the temporal changes of sleep-wake distributions, except for leading to a decrease in the time of NREM sleep during the light period and an increase in the durations of REM sleep episodes. Moreover, citalopram did not modify mean masseter EMG activity during any of the vigilance states and did not affect the temporal changes related to the shifts between dark/light periods. However, citalopram increased the time engaged in masseter EMG activation during NREM sleep in the second and the first halves of the dark and light periods, respectively. These results suggest that chronic citalopram treatment does not affect the temporal changes of sleep-wake distributions, but has a limited facilitatory influence that fails to increase the number of epochs of high levels of masseter muscle activation.
Roy, Sandip; Krueger, James M; Rector, David M; Wan, Yan
We develop and characterize a dynamical network model for activity-dependent sleep regulation. Specifically, in accordance with the activity-dependent theory for sleep, we view organism sleep as emerging from the local sleep states of functional units known as cortical columns; these local sleep states evolve through integration of local activity inputs, loose couplings with neighboring cortical columns, and global regulation (e.g. by the circadian clock). We model these cortical columns as coupled or networked activity-integrators that transition between sleep and waking states based on thresholds on the total activity. The model dynamics for three canonical experiments (which we have studied both through simulation and system-theoretic analysis) match with experimentally observed characteristics of the cortical-column network. Most notably, assuming connectedness of the network graph, our model predicts the recovery of the columns to a synchronized state upon temporary overstimulation of a single column and/or randomization of the initial sleep and activity-integration states. In analogy with other models for networked oscillators, our model also predicts the possibility for such phenomena as mode-locking.
Hanlon, Erin C.; Faraguna, Ugo; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara
Study Objective: The best characterized marker of sleep homeostasis is the amount of slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5–4 Hz) during NREM sleep. SWA increases as a function of previous waking time and declines during sleep, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have suggested that SWA homeostasis is linked to synaptic potentiation associated with learning during wakefulness. Indeed, studies in rodents and humans found that SWA increases after manipulations that presumably enhance synaptic strength, but the evidence remains indirect. Here we trained rats in skilled reaching, a task known to elicit long-term potentiation in the trained motor cortex, and immediately after learning measured SWA and cortical protein levels of c-fos and Arc, 2 activity-dependent genes involved in motor learning. Design: Intracortical local field potential recordings and training on reaching task. Setting: Basic sleep research laboratory. Patients or Participants: Long Evans adult male rats. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: SWA increased post-training in the trained cortex (the frontal cortex contralateral to the limb used to learn the task), with smaller or no increase in other cortical areas. This increase was reversible within 1 hour, specific to NREM sleep, and positively correlated with changes in performance during the prior training session, suggesting that it reflects plasticity and not just motor activity. Fos and Arc levels were higher in the trained relative to untrained motor cortex immediately after training, but this asymmetry was no longer present after 1 hour of sleep. Conclusion: Learning to reach specifically affects gene expression in the trained motor cortex and, in the same area, increases sleep need as measured by a local change in SWA. Citation: Hanlon EC; Faraguna U; Vyazovskiy VV; Tononi G; Cirelli C. Effects of skilled training on sleep slow wave activity and cortical gene expression in the rat. SLEEP 2009;32(6):719-729. PMID:19544747
Greco, Mary-Ann; Fuller, Patrick; Jhou, Thomas C; Martin-Schild, S; Zadina, James E; Hu, Zhian; Shiromani, Priyattam; Lu, Jun
Although opioids are known to influence sleep-wake regulation, the neuroanatomic substrate(s) mediating these effects remain unresolved. We hypothesized that the influence of opiates on sleep may be mediated, at least in part, by the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), a key cell group for producing behavioral sleep. By combining in situ hybridization for kappa and mu receptor mRNA with immunostaining of Fos expressed by VLPO cells during sleep we show that > 85% of sleep-active VLPO neurons contain mRNA for either or both opioid receptor. Microinfusions of a kappa receptor agonist into the VLPO region increased NREM sleep by 51% during the subjective night, whereas a mu receptor agonist increased wakefulness by 60% during the subjective day. The sleep- and wake- promoting effects of the kappa and mu agonists were blocked by prior administration of their respective antagonist. Combining retrograde tracing from the VLPO with immunohistochemistry for dynorphin (Dyn, the endogenous kappa receptor agonist) or endomorphin 1 (EM1, the endogenous mu receptor agonist) we show that the central lateral parabrachial subnucleus (PBcl) provides Dyn inputs to the VLPO, whereas hypothalamic histaminergic neurons provide EM1 inputs to the VLPO. In summary, results from the present study suggest that central opioid inputs to the VLPO may play a role in sleep-wake regulation and that the VLPO likely mediates the hypnotic response to high levels of opioid analgesics. PMID:18840417
Takahashi, H; Masaki, C; Makino, M; Yoshida, M; Mukaibo, T; Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Hosokawa, R
To treat sleep bruxism (SB), symptomatic therapy using stabilisation splints (SS) is frequently used. However, their effects on psychological stress and sleep quality have not yet been examined fully. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of SS use on psychological stress and sleep quality. The subjects (11 men, 12 women) were healthy volunteers. A crossover design was used. Sleep measurements were performed for three consecutive days or longer without (baseline) or with an SS or palatal splint (PS), and data for the final day were evaluated. We measured masseter muscle activity during sleep using portable electromyography to evaluate SB. Furthermore, to compare psychological stress before and after sleep, assessments were made based on STAI-JYZ and the measurement of salivary chromogranin A. To compare each parameter among the three groups (baseline, SS and PS), Friedman's and Dunn's tests were used. From the results of the baseline measurements, eight subjects were identified as high group and 15 as low group. Among the high group, a marked decrease in the number of bruxism events per hour and an increase in the difference in the total STAI Y-1 scores were observed in the SS group compared with those at baseline (P < 0·05). No significant difference was observed in sleep stages. SS use may be effective in reducing the number of SB events, while it may increase psychological stress levels, and SS use did not apparently influence sleep stages.
Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Oka, Koichiro; Hiraki, Koji; Morio, Yuji; Kasahara, Yusuke; Takeichi, Naoya; Tsukamoto, Takae; Osada, Naohiko; Omiya, Kazuto; Makuuchi, Haruo
To determine self-reported sleep quality-related differences in physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and target values of PA for high-quality sleep in chronic heart failure (CHF) outpatients, 149 CHF outpatients (mean age 58 years) were divided into two groups by sleep-quality level determined via self-reported questionnaire: shallow sleep (SS) group (n = 77) and deep sleep (DS) group (n = 72). Steps were assessed by electronic pedometer, HRQOL was assessed with the Short Form 36 (SF-36) survey, and data were compared between groups. PA resulting in high-quality sleep was determined by receiver-operating characteristics curves. All SF-36 subscale scores except that of bodily pain were significantly decreased in the SS versus DS group. A cutoff value of 5723.6 steps/day and 156.4 Kcal/day for 1 week were determined as target values for PA. Sleep quality may affect PA and HRQOL, and attaining target values of PA may improve sleep quality and HRQOL of CHF outpatients. Patents relevant to heart failure are also discussed in this article.
Bushey, Daniel; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara
Sleep in Drosophila shares many features with mammalian sleep, but it remains unknown whether spontaneous and evoked activity of individual neurons change with the sleep/wake cycle in flies as they do in mammals. Here we used calcium imaging to assess how the Kenyon cells in the fly mushroom bodies change their activity and reactivity to stimuli during sleep, wake, and after short or long sleep deprivation. As before, sleep was defined as a period of immobility of >5 min associated with a reduced behavioral response to a stimulus. We found that calcium levels in Kenyon cells decline when flies fall asleep and increase when they wake up. Moreover, calcium transients in response to two different stimuli are larger in awake flies than in sleeping flies. The activity of Kenyon cells is also affected by sleep/wake history: in awake flies, more cells are spontaneously active and responding to stimuli if the last several hours (5-8 h) before imaging were spent awake rather than asleep. By contrast, long wake (≥29 h) reduces both baseline and evoked neural activity and decreases the ability of neurons to respond consistently to the same repeated stimulus. The latter finding may underlie some of the negative effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance and is consistent with the occurrence of local sleep during wake as described in behaving rats. Thus, calcium imaging uncovers new similarities between fly and mammalian sleep: fly neurons are more active and reactive in wake than in sleep, and their activity tracks sleep/wake history.
Background Disruption of rhythms in activity and rest occur in many diseases, and provide an important indicator of healthy physiology and behaviour. However, outside the field of sleep and circadian rhythm research, these rhythmic processes are rarely measured due to the requirement for specialised resources and expertise. Until recently, the primary approach to measuring activity in laboratory rodents has been based on voluntary running wheel activity. By contrast, measuring sleep requires the use of electroencephalography (EEG), which involves invasive surgical procedures and time-consuming data analysis. Methods Here we describe a simple, non-invasive system to measure home cage activity in mice based upon passive infrared (PIR) motion sensors. Careful calibration of this system will allow users to simultaneously assess sleep status in mice. The use of open-source tools and simple sensors keeps the cost and the size of data-files down, in order to increase ease of use and uptake. Results In addition to providing accurate data on circadian activity parameters, here we show that extended immobility of >40 seconds provides a reliable indicator of sleep, correlating well with EEG-defined sleep (Pearson’s r >0.95, 4 mice). Conclusions Whilst any detailed analysis of sleep patterns in mice will require EEG, behaviourally-defined sleep provides a valuable non-invasive means of simultaneously phenotyping both circadian rhythms and sleep. Whilst previous approaches have relied upon analysis of video data, here we show that simple motion sensors provide a cheap and effective alternative, enabling real-time analysis and longitudinal studies extending over weeks or even months. The data files produced are small, enabling easy deposition and sharing. We have named this system COMPASS - Continuous Open Mouse Phenotyping of Activity and Sleep Status. This simple approach is of particular value in phenotyping screens as well as providing an ideal tool to assess activity
John, Joshi; Ramanathan, Lalini; Siegel, Jerome M
The histamine-containing posterior hypothalamic region (PH-TMN) plays a key role in sleep-wake regulation. We investigated rapid changes in glutamate release in the PH-TMN across the sleep-wake cycle with a glutamate biosensor that allows the measurement of glutamate levels at 1- to 4-s resolution. In the PH-TMN, glutamate levels increased in active waking (AW) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared with quiet waking and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. There was a rapid (0.6 +/- 1.8 s) and progressive increase in glutamate levels at REM sleep onset. A reduction in glutamate levels consistently preceded the offset of REM sleep by 8 +/- 3 s. Short-duration sleep deprivation resulted in a progressive increase in glutamate levels in the PH-TMN, perifornical-lateral hypothalamus (PF-LH), and cortex. We found that in the PF-LH, glutamate levels took a longer time to return to basal values compared with the time it took for glutamate levels to increase to peak values during AW onset. This is in contrast to other regions we studied in which the return to baseline values after AW was quicker than their rise with waking onset. In summary, we demonstrated an increase in glutamate levels in the PH-TMN with REM/AW onset and a drop in glutamate levels before the offset of REM. High temporal resolution measurement of glutamate levels reveals dynamic changes in release linked to the initiation and termination of REM sleep.
Frauscher, Birgit; Iranzo, Alex; Högl, Birgit; Casanova-Molla, Jordi; Salamero, Manel; Gschliesser, Viola; Tolosa, Eduardo; Poewe, Werner; Santamaria, Joan
Study Objectives: The aim of our study was to determine which muscle or combination of muscles (either axial or limb muscles, lower or upper limb muscles, or proximal or distal limb muscles) provides the highest rates of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phasic electromyographic (EMG) activity seen in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Setting: Two university hospital sleep disorders centers. Participants: Seventeen patients with idiopathic RBD (n = 8) and RBD secondary to Parkinson disease (n = 9). Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements and Results: Patients underwent polysomnography, including EMG recording of 13 different muscles. Phasic EMG activity in REM sleep was quantified for each muscle separately. A mean of 1459.6 ± 613.8 three-second REM sleep mini-epochs were scored per patient. Mean percentages of phasic EMG activity were mentalis (42 ± 19), flexor digitorum superficialis (29 ± 13), extensor digitorum brevis (23 ± 12), abductor pollicis brevis (22 ± 11), sternocleidomastoid (22 ± 12), deltoid (19 ± 11), biceps brachii (19 ± 11), gastrocnemius (18 ± 9), tibialis anterior (right, 17 ± 12; left, 16 ± 10), rectus femoris (left, 11 ± 6; right, 9 ± 6), and thoraco-lumbar paraspinal muscles (6 ± 5). The mentalis muscle provided significantly higher rates of excessive phasic EMG activity than all other muscles but only detected 55% of all the mini-epochs with phasic EMG activity. Simultaneous recording of the mentalis, flexor digitorum superficialis, and extensor digitorum brevis muscles detected 82% of all mini-epochs containing phasic EMG activity. This combination provided higher rates of EMG activity than any other 3-muscle combination. Excessive phasic EMG activity was more frequent in distal than in proximal muscles, both in upper and lower limbs. Conclusion: Simultaneous recording of the mentalis, flexor digitorum superficialis, and extensor digitorum brevis muscles provided the highest rates of REM sleep phasic EMG
El Helou, Janine; Bélanger-Nelson, Erika; Freyburger, Marlène; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Curie, Thomas; La Spada, Francesco; Gaudreault, Pierre-Olivier; Beaumont, Éric; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric; Frank, Marcos G.; Franken, Paul; Mongrain, Valérie
Maintaining wakefulness is associated with a progressive increase in the need for sleep. This phenomenon has been linked to changes in synaptic function. The synaptic adhesion molecule Neuroligin-1 (NLG1) controls the activity and synaptic localization of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, which activity is impaired by prolonged wakefulness. We here highlight that this pathway may underlie both the adverse effects of sleep loss on cognition and the subsequent changes in cortical synchrony. We found that the expression of specific Nlg1 transcript variants is changed by sleep deprivation in three mouse strains. These observations were associated with strain-specific changes in synaptic NLG1 protein content. Importantly, we showed that Nlg1 knockout mice are not able to sustain wakefulness and spend more time in nonrapid eye movement sleep than wild-type mice. These changes occurred with modifications in waking quality as exemplified by low theta/alpha activity during wakefulness and poor preference for social novelty, as well as altered delta synchrony during sleep. Finally, we identified a transcriptional pathway that could underlie the sleep/wake-dependent changes in Nlg1 expression and that involves clock transcription factors. We thus suggest that NLG1 is an element that contributes to the coupling of neuronal activity to sleep/wake regulation. PMID:23716671
Tan, Xiao; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Shu Mei; Mikkola, Tuija M; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Wiklund, Petri; Cong, Fengyu; Saarinen, Antti; Tarkka, Ina; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether body fat distribution, physical activity levels and dietary intakes are associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea among overweight middle-aged men. Participants were 211 Finnish men aged 30-65 years. Among the 163 overweight or obese participants, 40 had insomnia only, 23 had obstructive sleep apnea only, 24 had comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea and 76 were without sleep disorder. The remaining 48 participants had normal weight without sleep disorder. Fat mass, levels of physical activity and diet were assessed by dual-energy X-ray densitometry, physical activity questionnaire and 3-day food diary, respectively. Among the overweight participants, we found that: (i) groups with sleep disorders had higher fat mass in trunk and android regions than the group without sleep disorder (P = 0.048-0.004); (ii) the insomnia-only group showed a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (436.9 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.009) and higher intake of saturated fatty acids (14.8 versus 12.7 E%, P = 0.011) than the group without sleep disorder; and (iii) the comorbid group had a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (344.4 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.007) and lower folate intake (118.9 versus 152.1 μg, P = 0.002) than the group without sleep disorder, which were independent of body mass index. The results suggest that central obesity is associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, low levels of leisure-time physical activity and poor dietary intakes are related to insomnia or comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea among overweight men.
Beveridge, Claire; Knutson, Kristen; Spampinato, Lisa; Flores, Andrea; Meltzer, David O.; Van Cauter, Eve; Arora, Vineet M.
OBJECTIVES To assess objectively measured daytime physical activity and sleep duration and efficiency in hospitalized older adults and explore associations with demographic characteristics and disease severity. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING University of Chicago Medical Center general medicine wards. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling inpatients aged 50 and older (N = 120) MEASUREMENTS Physical activity and sleep were measured using wrist accelerometers. Information on Charlson Comorbidity Index and length of stay was collected from charts. Random-effects linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between in-hospital sleep and physical activity. RESULTS From March 2010 to May 2013, 120 participants wore wrist actigraphy monitors for at least 2 nights and 1 intervening day. Median activity level over the waking period was 77 counts/min (interquartile range 51–121 counts/min), an activity level that approximately corresponds to sitting while watching television (65 counts/min). Mean sleep duration the night before the activity interval was 289 ± 157 minutes, and mean sleep efficiency the night before the activity interval was 65.2 ± 26.9%. Mean activity counts/min were lowest for the oldest participants (oldest quartile 62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 50–75; youngest quartile 121, 95% CI = 98–145, trend test P < .001) and those with highest Charlson Comorbidity Index (highest tertile 71, 95% CI = 60–83; lowest tertile 125, 95% CI = 104–147, trend test P = .01). Controlling for severity of illness and demographic characteristics, activity declined by 3 counts/min (95% CI = −5.65 to −0.43, P = .02) for each additional hour of inpatient sleep. CONCLUSION Older, sicker adults are less physically active during hospitalization. In contrast to studies in the community, inpatients who slept more were not more active. This may highlight that need for sleep is greater in the hospital than in the community. PMID:26131982
El Shayeb, Mohamed; Topfer, Leigh-Ann; Stafinski, Tania; Pawluk, Lawrence; Menon, Devidas
Background: Greater awareness of sleep-disordered breathing and rising obesity rates have fueled demand for sleep studies. Sleep testing using level 3 portable devices may expedite diagnosis and reduce the costs associated with level 1 in-laboratory polysomnography. We sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of level 3 testing compared with level 1 testing and to identify the appropriate patient population for each test. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies of level 3 versus level 1 sleep tests in adults with suspected sleep-disordered breathing. We searched 3 research databases and grey literature sources for studies that reported on diagnostic accuracy parameters or disease management after diagnosis. Two reviewers screened the search results, selected potentially relevant studies and extracted data. We used a bivariate mixed-effects binary regression model to estimate summary diagnostic accuracy parameters. Results: We included 59 studies involving a total of 5026 evaluable patients (mostly patients suspected of having obstructive sleep apnea). Of these, 19 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was high, ranging between 0.85 and 0.99 across different levels of disease severity. Summary sensitivity ranged between 0.79 and 0.97, and summary specificity ranged between 0.60 and 0.93 across different apnea–hypopnea cut-offs. We saw no significant difference in the clinical management parameters between patients who underwent either test to receive their diagnosis. Interpretation: Level 3 portable devices showed good diagnostic performance compared with level 1 sleep tests in adult patients with a high pretest probability of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and no unstable comorbidities. For patients suspected of having other types of sleep-disordered breathing or sleep disorders not related to breathing, level 1 testing remains the
Guo, Fang; Yu, Junwei; Jung, Hyung Jae; Abruzzi, Katharine C.; Luo, Weifei; Griffith, Leslie C.; Rosbash, Michael
SUMMARY Little is known about the ability of Drosophila circadian neurons to promote sleep. We show here with optogenetic manipulations and video recording that a subset of dorsal clock neurons (DN1s) are potent sleep-promoting cells, releasing glutamate to directly inhibit key pacemaker neurons. These pacemakers promote morning arousal by activating these same DN1s, implying that there is a late-day feedback circuit to drive siesta and nighttime sleep. To address more plastic aspects of the sleep program, we used a novel calcium assay to monitor and compared the real-time DN1 activity of freely behaving males and females. It revealed a dramatic sexual dimorphism, which parallels the well-known difference in daytime sleep. DN1 activity is also enhanced by elevated temperature, consistent with its known effect on sleep. These new approaches indicate that the DN1s have a major impact on the fly sleep-wake profile and integrate environmental information with the circadian molecular program. PMID:27479324
Zhou, Junhong; Liu, Dongdong; Li, Xin; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing
In this study, we hypothesized that steady pink noise is able to change the complexity of brain activities into a characteristic level and it might have significant effect on improving sleep stability. First, we carried out the brain synchronization test in which electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of 6 subjects were recorded. The whole experiment procedure was divided into 5 blocks in the alternative feeding process of 10-min quiet and 10-min noise. After the complexity analysis of fractal dimension, we found that the complexity of the EEG signals decreased with the introduction of the pink noise exposure, showing the brain waves tended to synchronize with the pink noise induction to reach a low level. For the sleep quality experiment, 40 subjects were recruited the group of nocturnal sleep experiment and 10 participants were chosen for nap test. Each subjects slept for two consecutive experimental periods, of which one is pink noise exposed and the other is quiet. For both nocturnal sleep and nap tests, the results in the noise exposure group showed significant enhancement in the percentage of stable sleep time compared to the control group based on the analysis of electrocardiography (ECG) signal with cardiopulmonary coupling approach. This study demonstrates that steady pink noise has significant effect on reducing brain wave complexity and inducing more stable sleep time to improve sleep quality of individuals.
Krueger, James M.; Huang, Yanhua; Rector, David M.; Buysse, Daniel J.
We posit a bottom-up sleep regulatory paradigm in which state changes are initiated within small networks as a consequence of local cell activity. Bottom-up regulatory mechanisms are prevalent throughout nature, occurring in vastly different systems and levels of organization. Synchronization of state without top-down regulation is a fundamental property of large collections of small semi-autonomous entities. We posit that such synchronization mechanisms are sufficient and necessary for whole organism sleep onset. Within brain we posit that small networks of highly interconnected neurons and glia, e.g. cortical columns, are semi-autonomous units oscillating between sleep-like and wake-like states. We review evidence showing that cells, small networks, and regional areas of brain share sleep-like properties with whole animal sleep. A testable hypothesis focused on how sleep is initiated within local networks is presented. We posit that the release of cell activity-dependent molecules, such as ATP and nitric oxide, into the extracellular space initiates state changes within the local networks where they are produced. We review mechanisms of ATP induction of sleep regulatory substances (SRS) and their actions on receptor trafficking. Finally, we provide an example of how such local metabolic and state changes provide mechanistic explanations for clinical conditions such as insomnia. PMID:23651209
Krueger, James M; Huang, Yanhua H; Rector, David M; Buysse, Daniel J
We posit a bottom-up sleep-regulatory paradigm in which state changes are initiated within small networks as a consequence of local cell activity. Bottom-up regulatory mechanisms are prevalent throughout nature, occurring in vastly different systems and levels of organization. Synchronization of state without top-down regulation is a fundamental property of large collections of small semi-autonomous entities. We posit that such synchronization mechanisms are sufficient and necessary for whole-organism sleep onset. Within the brain we posit that small networks of highly interconnected neurons and glia, for example cortical columns, are semi-autonomous units oscillating between sleep-like and wake-like states. We review evidence showing that cells, small networks and regional areas of the brain share sleep-like properties with whole-animal sleep. A testable hypothesis focused on how sleep is initiated within local networks is presented. We posit that the release of cell activity-dependent molecules, such as ATP and nitric oxide, into the extracellular space initiates state changes within the local networks where they are produced. We review mechanisms of ATP induction of sleep-regulatory substances and their actions on receptor trafficking. Finally, we provide an example of how such local metabolic and state changes provide mechanistic explanations for clinical conditions, such as insomnia.
Wimmer, Ralf D; Astori, Simone; Bond, Chris T; Rovó, Zita; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Adelman, John P; Franken, Paul; Lüthi, Anita
Sleep spindles are synchronized 11-15 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations predominant during nonrapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS). Rhythmic bursting in the reticular thalamic nucleus (nRt), arising from interplay between Ca(v)3.3-type Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+)-dependent small-conductance-type 2 (SK2) K(+) channels, underlies spindle generation. Correlative evidence indicates that spindles contribute to memory consolidation and protection against environmental noise in human NREMS. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism through which spindle power is selectively extended and we probed the actions of intensified spindling in the naturally sleeping mouse. Using electrophysiological recordings in acute brain slices from SK2 channel-overexpressing (SK2-OE) mice, we found that nRt bursting was potentiated and thalamic circuit oscillations were prolonged. Moreover, nRt cells showed greater resilience to transit from burst to tonic discharge in response to gradual depolarization, mimicking transitions out of NREMS. Compared with wild-type littermates, chronic EEG recordings of SK2-OE mice contained less fragmented NREMS, while the NREMS EEG power spectrum was conserved. Furthermore, EEG spindle activity was prolonged at NREMS exit. Finally, when exposed to white noise, SK2-OE mice needed stronger stimuli to arouse. Increased nRt bursting thus strengthens spindles and improves sleep quality through mechanisms independent of EEG slow waves (<4 Hz), suggesting SK2 signaling as a new potential therapeutic target for sleep disorders and for neuropsychiatric diseases accompanied by weakened sleep spindles.
Wimmer, Ralf D.; Astori, Simone; Bond, Chris T.; Rovó, Zita; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Adelman, John P.; Franken, Paul; Lüthi, Anita
Sleep spindles are synchronized 11–15 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations predominant during non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS). Rhythmic bursting in the reticular thalamic nucleus (nRt), arising from interplay between Cav3.3-type Ca2+ channels and Ca2+-dependent small-conductance-type 2 (SK2) K+ channels, underlies spindle generation. Correlative evidence indicates that spindles contribute to memory consolidation and protection against environmental noise in human NREMS. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism through which spindle power is selectively extended and we probed the actions of intensified spindling in the naturally sleeping mouse. Using electrophysiological recordings in acute brain slices from SK2 channel-over-expressing (SK2-OE) mice, we found that nRt bursting was potentiated and thalamic circuit oscillations were prolonged. Moreover, nRt cells showed greater resilience to transit from burst to tonic discharge in response to gradual depolarization, mimicking transitions out of NREMS. Compared to wild-type littermates, chronic EEG recordings of SK2-OE mice contained less fragmented NREMS, while the NREMS EEG power spectrum was conserved. Furthermore, EEG spindle activity was prolonged at NREMS exit. Finally, when exposed to white noise, SK2-OE mice needed stronger stimuli to arouse. Increased nRt bursting thus strengthens spindles and improves sleep quality through mechanisms independent of EEG slow-waves (< 4 Hz), suggesting SK2 signaling as a new potential therapeutic target for sleep disorders and for neuropsychiatric diseases accompanied by weakened sleep spindles. PMID:23035101
Dement, W. C.; Barchas, J. D.
An attempt was made to obtain information relevant to assessing the need to sleep and make up for lost sleep. Physiological and behavioral parameters were used as measuring parameters. Sleep deprivation in a restricted environment, derivation of data relevant to determining sleepiness from EEG, and the development of the Sanford Sleepiness Scale were discussed.
Qiu, M-H; Chen, M C; Lu, J
The neural substrate of sleep homeostasis is unclear, but both cortical and subcortical structures are thought to be involved in sleep regulation. To test whether prior neuronal activity in the cortex or in subcortical regions drives sleep rebound, we systemically administered atropine (100mg/kg) to rats, producing a dissociated state with slow-wave cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) but waking behavior (e.g. locomotion). Atropine injections during the light period produced 6h of slow-wave cortical EEG but also subcortical arousal. Afterward, rats showed a significant increase in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, compared to the same period on a baseline day. Consistent with the behavioral and cortical EEG state produced by systemic atropine, c-Fos expression was low in the cortex but high in multiple subcortical arousal systems. These data suggest that subcortical arousal and behavior are sufficient to drive sleep homeostasis, while a sleep-like pattern of cortical activity is not sufficient to satisfy sleep homeostasis.
Fuligni, Andrew J; Arruda, Erin H; Krull, Jennifer L; Gonzales, Nancy A
To inform public health recommendations for adolescent sleep, the amounts of sleep associated with the highest levels of academic achievement and mental health were examined. The degree to which daily variability in sleep duration represents an underappreciated but functionally significant sleep behavior also was tested. A total of 421 adolescents (Mage = 15.03 years) with Mexican-American backgrounds reported nightly sleep times for 2 weeks; approximately 80% repeated the same protocol 1 year later. Multilevel modeling indicated that the amount of sleep associated with the lowest levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms was more than 1 hr greater than the amount associated with the highest levels of academic performance. Greater daily variability in sleep duration predicted greater symptomatology and mixed academic outcomes.
Keskin, Ahmet; Ünalacak, Murat; Bilge, Uğur; Yildiz, Pinar; Güler, Seda; Selçuk, Engin Burak; Bilgin, Muzaffer
Background: Studies have reported the presence of sleep disorders in approximately 50–70% of diabetic patients, and these may contribute to poor glycemic control, diabetic neuropathy, and overnight hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of sleep disorders in diabetic patients, and to investigate possible relationships between scores of these sleep disorders and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and diabetic parameters (fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], and lipid levels). Methods: We used the Berlin questionnaire (BQ) for OSAS, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to determine the frequency of sleep disorders and their possible relationships with fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and lipid levels. Results: The study included 585 type 2 diabetic patients admitted to family medicine clinics between October and December 2014. Sleep, sleep quality, and sleep scores were used as the dependent variables in the analysis. The ESS scores showed that 54.40% of patients experienced excessive daytime sleepiness, and according to the PSQI, 64.30% experienced poor-quality sleep. The BQ results indicated that 50.20% of patients were at high-risk of OSAS. HbA1c levels correlated significantly with the ESS and PSQI results (r = 0.23, P < 0.001 and r = 0.14, P = 0.001, respectively), and were significantly higher in those with high-risk of OSAS as defined by the BQ (P < 0.001). These results showed that HbA1c levels were related to sleep disorders. Conclusions: Sleep disorders are common in diabetic patients and negatively affect the control of diabetes. Conversely, poor diabetes control is an important factor disturbing sleep quality. Addressing sleep disturbances in patients who have difficulty controlling their blood glucose has dual benefits: Preventing diabetic complications caused by sleep disturbance and improving diabetes control. PMID:26668142
Gvilia, Irma; Suntsova, Natalia; Kumar, Sunil; McGinty, Dennis; Szymusiak, Ronald
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is implicated in sleep and arousal regulation. Exogenous CRF causes sleep suppression that is associated with activation of at least two important arousal systems: pontine noradrenergic and hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons. It is not known whether CRF also impacts sleep-promoting neuronal systems. We hypothesized that CRF-mediated changes in wake and sleep involve decreased activity of hypothalamic sleep-regulatory neurons localized in the preoptic area. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of CRF on sleep-wake measures and c-Fos expression in GABAergic neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) and ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) in different experimental conditions. Administration of CRF (0.1 nmol) during baseline rest phase led to delayed sleep onset and decreases in total amount and mean duration of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Administration of CRF during acute sleep deprivation (SD) resulted in suppression of recovery sleep and decreased c-Fos expression in MnPN/VLPO GABAergic neurons. Compared with vehicle controls, intracerebroventricular CRF potentiated disturbances of both NREM and REM sleep in rats exposed to a species-specific psychological stressor, the dirty cage of a male conspecific. The number of MnPN/VLPO GABAergic neurons expressing c-Fos was reduced in the CRF-treated group of dirty cage-exposed rats. These findings confirm the involvement of CRF in wake-sleep cycle regulation and suggest that increased CRF signaling in the brain 1) negatively affects homeostatic responses to sleep loss, 2) exacerbates stress-induced disturbances of sleep, and 3) suppresses the activity of sleep-regulatory neurons of the MnPN and VLPO.
Cajochen, C.; Foy, R.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A. (Principal Investigator)
The effect of sleep deprivation (40 h) on topographic and temporal aspects of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sleep was investigated by all night spectral analysis in six young volunteers. The sleep-deprivation-induced increase of EEG power density in the delta and theta frequencies (1-7 Hz) during nonREM sleep, assessed along the antero-posterior axis (midline: Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz), was significantly larger in the more frontal derivations (Fz, Cz) than in the more parietal derivations (Pz, Oz). This frequency-specific frontal predominance was already present in the first 30 min of recovery sleep, and dissipated in the course of the 8-h sleep episode. The data demonstrate that the enhancement of slow wave EEG activity during sleep following extended wakefulness is most pronounced in frontal cortical areas.
Chen, Zhe; Grosmark, Andres D.; Penagos, Hector; Wilson, Matthew A.
Pyramidal neurons in the rodent hippocampus exhibit spatial tuning during spatial navigation, and they are reactivated in specific temporal order during sharp-wave ripples observed in quiet wakefulness or slow wave sleep. However, analyzing representations of sleep-associated hippocampal ensemble spike activity remains a great challenge. In contrast to wake, during sleep there is a complete absence of animal behavior, and the ensemble spike activity is sparse (low occurrence) and fragmental in time. To examine important issues encountered in sleep data analysis, we constructed synthetic sleep-like hippocampal spike data (short epochs, sparse and sporadic firing, compressed timescale) for detailed investigations. Based upon two Bayesian population-decoding methods (one receptive field-based, and the other not), we systematically investigated their representation power and detection reliability. Notably, the receptive-field-free decoding method was found to be well-tuned for hippocampal ensemble spike data in slow wave sleep (SWS), even in the absence of prior behavioral measure or ground truth. Our results showed that in addition to the sample length, bin size, and firing rate, number of active hippocampal pyramidal neurons are critical for reliable representation of the space as well as for detection of spatiotemporal reactivated patterns in SWS or quiet wakefulness.
Chen, Zhe; Grosmark, Andres D.; Penagos, Hector; Wilson, Matthew A.
Pyramidal neurons in the rodent hippocampus exhibit spatial tuning during spatial navigation, and they are reactivated in specific temporal order during sharp-wave ripples observed in quiet wakefulness or slow wave sleep. However, analyzing representations of sleep-associated hippocampal ensemble spike activity remains a great challenge. In contrast to wake, during sleep there is a complete absence of animal behavior, and the ensemble spike activity is sparse (low occurrence) and fragmental in time. To examine important issues encountered in sleep data analysis, we constructed synthetic sleep-like hippocampal spike data (short epochs, sparse and sporadic firing, compressed timescale) for detailed investigations. Based upon two Bayesian population-decoding methods (one receptive field-based, and the other not), we systematically investigated their representation power and detection reliability. Notably, the receptive-field-free decoding method was found to be well-tuned for hippocampal ensemble spike data in slow wave sleep (SWS), even in the absence of prior behavioral measure or ground truth. Our results showed that in addition to the sample length, bin size, and firing rate, number of active hippocampal pyramidal neurons are critical for reliable representation of the space as well as for detection of spatiotemporal reactivated patterns in SWS or quiet wakefulness. PMID:27573200
Mirmiran, M; Corner, M
Spontaneous action potentials were recorded at 1 mm depth (layer IV/V) in the occipital cortex of free moving rats between 8 and 60 days of postnatal age. Neuronal firing rates during quiet sleep (QS) increased sharply around day 11-12, parallel with an increase in the amplitude of EEG slow waves. The QS discharge pattern at all ages consisted of intermittent action potentials interspersed with short bursts. Active sleep (AS) from day 11-12 was characterized by longer lasting and more frequent bursts, and by a 2-3 X higher mean neuronal discharge rate than during QS. A peculiarity in 12-day-old rats was the presence of large fluctuations in overall firing rate continuously throughout sleep. Clomipramine completely abolished AS (for several hours) at all ages studied, during which time the cortical firing rates during sleep remained at (or lower than) the QS level prior to drug injection.
Van Dort, Christa J; Zachs, Daniel P; Kenny, Jonathan D; Zheng, Shu; Goldblum, Rebecca R; Gelwan, Noah A; Ramos, Daniel M; Nolan, Michael A; Wang, Karen; Weng, Feng-Ju; Lin, Yingxi; Wilson, Matthew A; Brown, Emery N
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is an important component of the natural sleep/wake cycle, yet the mechanisms that regulate REM sleep remain incompletely understood. Cholinergic neurons in the mesopontine tegmentum have been implicated in REM sleep regulation, but lesions of this area have had varying effects on REM sleep. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the role of cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) and laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) in REM sleep generation. Selective optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in the PPT or LDT during non-REM (NREM) sleep increased the number of REM sleep episodes and did not change REM sleep episode duration. Activation of cholinergic neurons in the PPT or LDT during NREM sleep was sufficient to induce REM sleep.
Parekh, Parth J; Oldfield Iv, Edward C; Challapallisri, Vaishnavi; Ware, J Catsby; Johnson, David A
Sleep dysfunction is a highly prevalent condition that has long been implicated in accelerating disease states characterized by having an inflammatory component such as systemic lupus erythematosus, HIV, and multiple sclerosis. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, debilitating disease that is characterized by waxing and waning symptoms, which are a direct result of increased circulating inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have demonstrated sleep dysfunction and the disruption of the circadian rhythm to result in an upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Not only does this pose a potential trigger for disease flares but also an increased risk of malignancy in this subset of patients. This begs to question whether or not there is a therapeutic role of sleep cycle and circadian rhythm optimization in the prevention of IBD flares. Further research is needed to clarify the role of sleep dysfunction and alterations of the circadian rhythm in modifying disease activity and also in reducing the risk of malignancy in patients suffering from IBD.
Grundy, Anne; Sanchez, Maria; Richardson, Harriet; Tranmer, Joan; Borugian, Marilyn; Graham, Charles H; Aronson, Kristan J
Long-term, night shiftwork has been identified as a potential carcinogenic risk factor. It is hypothesized that increased light at night exposure during shiftwork reduces melatonin production, which is associated with increased cancer risk. Sleep duration has been hypothesized to influence both melatonin levels and cancer risk, and it has been suggested that sleep duration could be used as a proxy for melatonin production. Finally, physical activity has been shown to reduce cancer risk, and laboratory studies indicate it may influence melatonin levels. A cross-sectional study of light exposure, sleep duration, physical activity, and melatonin levels was conducted among 61 female rotating shift nurses (work schedule: two 12 h days, two 12 h nights, five days off). Light intensity was measured using a light-intensity data logger, and sleep duration and physical activity were self-reported in a study diary and questionnaire. Melatonin concentrations were measured from urine and saliva samples. The characteristics of nurses working day and night shifts were similar. Light intensity was significantly higher during sleep for those working at night (p< 0.0001), while urinary melatonin levels following sleep were significantly higher among those working days (p = 0.0003). Mean sleep duration for nurses working during the day (8.27 h) was significantly longer than for those working at night (4.78 h, p< 0.0001). An inverse association (p = 0.002) between light exposure and urinary melatonin levels was observed; however, this was not significant when stratified by shift group. There was no significant correlation between sleep duration and melatonin, and no consistent relationship between physical activity and melatonin. Analysis of salivary melatonin levels indicated that the circadian rhythms of night workers were not altered, meaning peak melatonin production occurred at night. This study indicates that two nights of rotating shift work may not change the timing of
Irwin, Michael R; Carrillo, Carmen; Olmstead, Richard
Sleep disturbance is associated with inflammation and related disorders including cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. Given sex differences in the prevalence of inflammatory disorders with stronger associations in females, this study was undertaken to test the effects of sleep loss on cellular mechanisms that contribute to proinflammatory cytokine activity. In 26 healthy adults (11 females; 15 males), monocyte intracellular proinflammatory cytokine production was repeatedly assessed at 08:00, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00, and 23:00h during a baseline period and after partial sleep deprivation (awake from 23:00 to 3.00h). In the morning after a night of sleep loss, monocyte production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) differentially changed between the two sexes. Whereas both females and males showed a marked increase in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated production of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the morning immediately after PSD, production of these cytokines during the early- and late evening was increased in the females as compared to decreases in the males. Sleep loss induces a functional alteration of monocyte proinflammatory cytokine responses with females showing greater cellular immune activation as compared to changes in males. These results have implications for understanding the role of sleep disturbance in the differential risk profile for inflammatory disorders between the sexes.
Irwin, Michael R.; Carrillo, Carmen; Olmstead, Richard
Sleep disturbance is associated with inflammation and related disorders including cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. Given sex differences in the prevalence of inflammatory disorders with stronger associations in females, this study was undertaken to test the effects of sleep loss on cellular mechanisms that contribute to proinflammatory cytokine activity. In 26 healthy adults (11 females; 15 males), monocyte intracellular proinflammatory cytokine production was repeatedly assessed at 08:00, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00, and 23:00 h during a baseline period and after partial sleep deprivation (awake from 11 PM to 3 AM). In the morning after a night of sleep loss, monocyte production of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor- α differentially changed between the two sexes. Whereas both females and males showed a marked increase in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the morning immediately after PSD, production of these cytokines during the early- and late evening was increased in the females as compared to decreases in the males. Sleep loss induces a functional alteration of monocyte proinflammatory cytokine responses with females showing greater cellular immune activation as compared to changes in males. These results have implications for understanding the role of sleep disturbance in the differential risk profile for inflammatory disorders between the sexes. PMID:19520155
King, Bradley R; Saucier, Philippe; Albouy, Genevieve; Fogel, Stuart M; Rumpf, Jost-Julian; Klann, Juliane; Buccino, Giovanni; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Classen, Joseph; Karni, Avi; Doyon, Julien
Older adults exhibit deficits in motor memory consolidation; however, little is known about the cerebral correlates of this impairment. We thus employed fMRI to investigate the neural substrates underlying motor sequence memory consolidation, and the modulatory influence of post-learning sleep, in healthy older adults. Participants were trained on a motor sequence and retested following an 8-h interval including wake or diurnal sleep as well as a 22-h interval including a night of sleep. Results demonstrated that a post-learning nap improved offline consolidation across same- and next-day retests. This enhanced consolidation was reflected by increased activity in the putamen and the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, regions that have previously been implicated in sleep-dependent neural plasticity in young adults. Moreover, for the first time in older adults, the neural substrates subserving initial motor learning, including the putamen, cerebellum, and parietal cortex, were shown to forecast subsequent consolidation depending on whether a post-learning nap was afforded. Specifically, sufficient activation in a motor-related network appears to be necessary to trigger sleep-facilitated consolidation in older adults. Our findings not only demonstrate that post-learning sleep can enhance motor memory consolidation in older adults, but also provide the system-level neural correlates of this beneficial effect.
Shimada, Mieko; Seki, Hiroyuki; Samejima, Michikazu; Hayase, Mako; Shirai, Fumie
In preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, the sympathetic nerves are activated, leading to disrupted sleep. Melatonin, which transmits information to regulate the sleep-wake rhythm and other such biorhythms, has been implicated in insulin resistance, antioxidant behaviors, and metabolic syndrome. In addition, its reduced secretion increases the risk of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the features of melatonin secretion, sleep quality, and sleep-wake rhythms in pregnant women with complications. Fifty-eight pregnant women with pregnancy complications (hypertensive or glucose metabolic disorders) and 40 healthy pregnant women completed questionnaires, including sleep logs and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), during the second to third trimesters. Their salivary melatonin levels were also measured. Pregnant women with complications had significantly lower morning (p < 0.001), daytime (p < 0.01), evening (p < 0.001), night (p < 0.01), daily mean (p < 0.001), peak (p < 0.001), and bottom (p < 0.01) melatonin values than healthy pregnant women. Pregnant women with complications also had significantly smaller melatonin amplitudes than healthy pregnant women (p < 0.001). Among pregnant women with complications, the duration (p < 0.05) and frequency (p < 0.01) of wake after sleep-onset were significantly greater in the poor sleep group than in the favorable sleep group which was divided by PSQI cutoff value. Pregnant women with hypertensive or glucose metabolic disorder complications had smaller circadian variation in salivary melatonin secretion, and their values were lower throughout the day than healthy pregnant women.
Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Dematteis, Maurice; Joosten, Ruud N J M A; Eggels, Leslie; Sandberg, Hans; Schirris, Mischa; Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Van Someren, Eus J W
The function of sleep in physiology, behaviour and cognition has become a primary focus of neuroscience. Its study inevitably includes experimental sleep deprivation designs. However, concerns exist regarding confounds like stress, increased locomotor activity levels, and decreased motivation to perform operant tasks induced by the methods employed. We here propose a novel procedure for sleep deprivation in rats and evaluate how it affects sleep, corticosterone concentration profiles, locomotor activity levels, and motivation to perform an operant task. Before, during and after 12h of total sleep deprivation by means of gradually increasing the rotation variability and the speed of a novel automated, two-compartment sleep deprivation device, sleep-wake states were assessed by electroencephalography (n=21), brain extracellular corticosterone concentrations using microdialysis (n=11), locomotor activity by infrared measurements (n=8), and operant performance using a fixed-interval-fixed-ratio task (n=16). Sleep was effectively prevented during the procedure; rats on average slept less than 1% of the time (0.8±0.2%, mean±standard error). Brain corticosterone concentrations were mildly increased during the procedure, but did not exceed normal peak concentrations. Locomotor activity was not only increased during the procedure, but also did not exceed the peak levels found during undisturbed wakefulness. Food restriction to 12 g/rat/day prevented sleep deprivation from reducing the motivation to perform an operant task. This novel procedure can be applied to sleep deprive rats in a highly effective way, while keeping corticosterone and locomotor activity within the normal range.
Borbély, Alexander A; Rusterholz, Thomas; Achermann, Peter
Motor activity recording by a wrist-worn device is a common method to monitor the rest-activity cycle. The first author wore an actimeter continuously for more than three decades, starting in 1982 at the age of 43.5 years. Until November 2006 analysis was performed on a 15-min time base, and subsequently on a 2-min time base. The timing of night-time sleep was determined from the cessation and re-occurrence of daytime-level activity. Sleep duration declined from an initial 6.8 to 6 h in 2004. The declining trend was reversed upon retirement, whereas the variance of sleep duration declined throughout the recording period. Before retirement, a dominant 7-day rhythm of sleep duration as well as an annual periodicity was revealed by spectral analysis. These variations were attenuated or vanished during the years after retirement. We demonstrate the feasibility of continuous long-term motor activity recordings to study age-related variations of the rest-activity cycle. Here we show that the embeddedness in a professional environment imparts a temporal structure to sleep duration.
Kadoya, Manabu; Koyama, Sachie; Morimoto, Akiko; Miyoshi, Akio; Kakutani, Miki; Hamamoto, Kae; Kurajoh, Masafumi; Shoji, Takuhito; Moriwaki, Yuji; Koshiba, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Inaba, Masaaki; Namba, Mitsuyoshi; Koyama, Hidenori
Macro thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been reported to be associated with seasonality and regulated by changes in day length in rodents, different from free TSH. In the present study, we investigated structural differences between macro TSH and free TSH levels in human serum, as well as the association of macro TSH with sleep quality. We enrolled 314 patients registered in the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis (HSCAA) study. Sleep quality shown by actigraphy, sleep physical activity, and percent sleep in all and TSH closely matched subjects were significantly associated with high macro TSH levels. Macro and free TSH were similarly increased following thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation, while circadian changes associated with those were distinct. To further analyze the structure of macro TSH, serum samples were separated by gel filtration chromatography. Although treatment with glycosidase did not affect morbidity, the macro TSH fraction had a markedly low affinity to the Con A column as compared with free TSH, indicating a distinct glycosylation structure. In conclusion, an increase in serum macro TSH is associated with low sleep quality and regulated in a manner distinct from free TSH, potentially due to an altered glycosylation structure. PMID:28287185
Rantanen, Ville; Kronholm, Erkki; Surakka, Ida; van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.; Lehto, Maili; Matikainen, Sampsa; Ripatti, Samuli; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Salomaa, Veikko; Jauhiainen, Matti; Alenius, Harri; Paunio, Tiina; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja
Epidemiological studies have shown that short or insufficient sleep is associated with increased risk for metabolic diseases and mortality. To elucidate mechanisms behind this connection, we aimed to identify genes and pathways affected by experimentally induced, partial sleep restriction and to verify their connection to insufficient sleep at population level. The experimental design simulated sleep restriction during a working week: sleep of healthy men (N = 9) was restricted to 4 h/night for five nights. The control subjects (N = 4) spent 8 h/night in bed. Leukocyte RNA expression was analyzed at baseline, after sleep restriction, and after recovery using whole genome microarrays complemented with pathway and transcription factor analysis. Expression levels of the ten most up-regulated and ten most down-regulated transcripts were correlated with subjective assessment of insufficient sleep in a population cohort (N = 472). Experimental sleep restriction altered the expression of 117 genes. Eight of the 25 most up-regulated transcripts were related to immune function. Accordingly, fifteen of the 25 most up-regulated Gene Ontology pathways were also related to immune function, including those for B cell activation, interleukin 8 production, and NF-κB signaling (P<0.005). Of the ten most up-regulated genes, expression of STX16 correlated negatively with self-reported insufficient sleep in a population sample, while three other genes showed tendency for positive correlation. Of the ten most down-regulated genes, TBX21 and LGR6 correlated negatively and TGFBR3 positively with insufficient sleep. Partial sleep restriction affects the regulation of signaling pathways related to the immune system. Some of these changes appear to be long-lasting and may at least partly explain how prolonged sleep restriction can contribute to inflammation-associated pathological states, such as cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:24194869
Chasens, Eileen R.; Korytkowski, Mary; Sereika, Susan M.; Burke, Lora E.; Drumheller, Oliver J.; Strollo, Patrick J.
This study in participants with type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea evaluated changes in activity, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness after 4 weeks of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). This pilot study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Sleep apnea was quantified with an overnight sleep study. Sleep quality was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, vigor and fatigue with the Profiles of Mood States, subjective activity with the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, and objective activity with the Bodymedia SenseWear Armband™. Subjects were randomized to either continuous positive airway pressure (n=12) or a sham-devices (n=11). The intervention group had reduced apneas and hypopneas, daytime sleepiness and fatigue; they also had improved sleep quality, increased objective activity, and vigor. The study suggested that treatment of obstructive sleep apnea results in a modest improvement of activity in persons with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23976778
Tonetti, Lorenzo; Scher, Anat; Atun-Einy, Osnat; Samuel, Moran; Boreggiani, Michele; Natale, Vincenzo
A secondary analysis of longitudinal and cohort studies was carried out to quantitatively investigate the motor activity pattern, recorded through actigraphy, during the first six hours of nocturnal sleep. The first study was of longitudinal nature. Ten healthy participants (four females) were monitored three times, at baseline (T1) when they were infants (mean age 7.10 ± 0.32 months), at the first follow-up examination (T2) around 4 months later (mean age 11.20 ± 0.63 months) and at the second follow-up (T3) around three years later, when they were preschoolers (mean age 4.68 ± 0.14 years). At T1, T2 and T3 each participant wore the actigraph Basic Mini-Motionlogger (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc., Ardsley, NY, USA) over at least two consecutive nycthemeral cycles, with the aim to measure the mean hourly motor activity count. Seven- and 11-month-old infants had a higher level of motor activity over the night compared to preschoolers. Furthermore, motor activity increased as the night progressed, with a pronounced increment at both T1 and T2, while at T3 such an increase was less marked. The second study was cross-sectional and aimed to explore the motor activity pattern, using actigraphy, during the first six hours of nocturnal sleep in multiple-age healthy groups, from infancy to adulthood. We assigned participants to eight groups according to age: 20 (five females) aged around 10 months old (mean age 10.65 ± 0.67 months); 13 (nine females) aged around 4 years (mean age 4.38 ± 0.51 years); 21 (10 females) aged around 10 years (mean age 9.67 ± 0.91 years); 21 (nine females) aged around 20 years (mean age 19.33 ± 2.44 years); 20 (10 females) aged around 30 years (mean age 29.80 ± 1.99 years); 20 (15 females) aged around 40 years (mean age 40.70 ± 1.26 years); 20 (11 females) aged around 50 years (mean age 50.15 ± 2.80 years) and 20 (nine females) aged around 60 years (mean age 59.25 ± 3.23 years). The participants aged between 10 and 60 years wore the
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...
Bravo, R; Matito, S; Cubero, J; Paredes, S D; Franco, L; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C
Melatonin and serotonin rhythms, which exhibit a close association with the endogenous circadian component of sleep, are attenuated with increasing age. This decrease seems to be linked to sleep alterations in the elderly. Chrononutrition is a field of chronobiology that establishes the principle of consuming foodstuffs at times of the day when they are more useful for health, improving, therefore, biorhythms and physical performance. Our aim was to analyze whether the consumption of cereals enriched with tryptophan, the precursor of both serotonin and melatonin, may help in the reconsolidation of the sleep/wake cycle and counteract depression and anxiety in 35 middle-aged/elderly (aged 55-75 year) volunteers in a simple blind assay. Data were collected for 3 weeks according to the following schedule: The control week participants consumed standard cereals (22.5 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) at breakfast and dinner; for the treatment week, cereals enriched with a higher dose of tryptophan (60 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) were eaten at both breakfast and dinner; the posttreatment week volunteers consumed their usual diet. Each participant wore a wrist actimeter that logged activity during the whole experiment. Urine was collected to analyze melatonin and serotonin urinary metabolites and to measure total antioxidant capacity. The consumption of cereals containing the higher dose in tryptophan increased sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, immobile time, and decreased total nocturnal activity, sleep fragmentation index, and sleep latency. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, and urinary total antioxidant capacity also increased respectively after tryptophan-enriched cereal ingestion as well as improving anxiety and depression symptoms. Cereals enriched with tryptophan may be useful as a chrononutrition tool for alterations in the sleep/wake cycle due to age.
Miró, Elena; Cano, M Carmen; Espinosa-Fernández, Lourdes; Buela-Casal, Gualberto
This is the first study to analyze variations in time estimation during 60 h of sleep deprivation and the relation between time estimation performance and the activation measures of skin resistance level, body temperature, and Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) scores. Among 30 healthy participants 18 to 24 years of age, for a 10-s interval using the production method, we found a lengthening in time estimations that was modulated by circadian oscillations. No differences in gender were found in the time estimation task during sleep deprivation. The variations in time estimation correlated significantly with body temperature, skin resistance level, and SSS throughout the sleep deprivation period. When body temperature is elevated, indicating a high level of activation, the interval tends to be underestimated, and vice versa. When the skin resistance level or SSS is elevated (low activation), time estimation is lengthened, and vice versa. This lengthening is important because many everyday situations involve duration estimation under moderate to severe sleep loss. Actual or potential applications of this research include transportation systems, emergency response work, sporting activities, and industrial settings in which accuracy in anticipation or coincidence timing is important for safety or efficiency.
Chow, Ho Ming; Horovitz, Silvina G; Carr, Walter S; Picchioni, Dante; Coddington, Nate; Fukunaga, Masaki; Xu, Yisheng; Balkin, Thomas J; Duyn, Jeff H; Braun, Allen R
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep constitutes a distinct "third state" of consciousness, during which levels of brain activity are commensurate with wakefulness, but conscious awareness is radically transformed. To characterize the temporal and spatial features of this paradoxical state, we examined functional interactions between brain regions using fMRI resting-state connectivity methods. Supporting the view that the functional integrity of the default mode network (DMN) reflects "level of consciousness," we observed functional uncoupling of the DMN during deep sleep and recoupling during REM sleep (similar to wakefulness). However, unlike either deep sleep or wakefulness, REM was characterized by a more widespread, temporally dynamic interaction between two major brain systems: unimodal sensorimotor areas and the higher-order association cortices (including the DMN), which normally regulate their activity. During REM, these two systems become anticorrelated and fluctuate rhythmically, in reciprocally alternating multisecond epochs with a frequency ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 Hz. This unique spatiotemporal pattern suggests a model for REM sleep that may be consistent with its role in dream formation and memory consolidation.
Alakuijala, Anniina; Sarkanen, Tomi; Partinen, Markku
Study Objectives: We aimed to analyze nocturnal sleep characteristics of patients with narcolepsy type 1 (narcolepsy with cataplexy) measured by actigraphy in respect to cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels of the same patients. Methods: Actigraphy recording of 1−2 w and hypocretin-1 concentration analysis were done to thirty-six unmedicated patients, aged 7 to 63 y, 50% female. Twenty-six of them had hypocretin-1 levels under 30 pg/mL and the rest had levels of 31−79 pg/mL. Results: According to actigraphy, patients with very low hypocretin levels had statistically significantly longer sleep latency (P = 0.033) and more fragmented sleep, indicated by both the number of immobile phases of 1 min (P = 0.020) and movement + fragmentation index (P = 0.049). There were no statistically significant differences in the actual sleep time or circadian rhythm parameters measured by actigraphy. Conclusions: Actigraphy gives additional information about the stabilization of sleep in patients with narcolepsy type 1. Very low hypocretin levels associate with more wake intruding into sleep. Citation: Alakuijala A, Sarkanen T, Partinen M. Hypocretin-1 levels associate with fragmented sleep in patients with narcolepsy type 1. SLEEP 2016;39(5):1047–1050. PMID:26856902
Zorlu, Mehmet; Akkoyunlu, Muhammed Emin; Kilic, Elif; Karatoprak, Cumali; Cakirca, Mustafa; Yavuz, Erdinc; Ardic, Cuneyt; Camli, Ahmet Adil; Cikrikcioglu, Mehmetali; Kart, Levent
Background Vaspin and lipocalin-2 are less-known recent members of adipocytokine family. There are ongoing studies investigating the role of vaspin ve lipocalin-2 in metabolic syndrome (MS). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is independently associated with an increased prevalence of MS. We aimed to measure the levels of vaspin and lipocalin-2 which are secreted from adipocytes in patients with severe OSAS and examine the relationship between these two adipocytokines and OSAS. Methods The study consisted of two groups: severe OSAS patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of >30/h (OSAS group, 34 subjects) and age-matched healthy volunteers with a AHI <5/h (control group, 25 subjects) Serum levels of vaspin and lipocalin-2 in these two groups were compared. Results Serum levels of vaspin were significantly lower in OSAS group; patients with severe OSAS compared with control group; healthy volunteers (OSAS group: 0.69±0.5 vs. control group: 1.24±1.13; P=0.034). The difference between the two groups in terms of serum levels of lipocalin-2 has not reached statistical significance (OSAS group: 61.6±18.2 vs. control group: 68.5±20.1; P=0.17). Conclusions We found that serum vaspin levels were significantly lower in patients with severe OSAS compared with healthy controls. Lipocalin-2 levels were similar. The decrease in serum vaspin levels in severe OSAS patients may be important in diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. PMID:24976995
Song, Hong-Tao; Sun, Xin-Yang; Yang, Ting-Shu; Zhang, Li-Yi; Yang, Jia-Lin; Bai, Jing
This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health and explore the correlations between them in servicemen. A total of 149 out of the 207 Chinese servicemen were randomly selected to go through 24hour sleep deprivation, leaving the rest (58) as the control group, before and after which their blood samples were drawn for cortisol measurement. Following the procedure, all the participants were administered the Military Personnel Mental Disorder Prediction Scale, taking the military norm as baseline. The results revealed that the post-deprivation serum cortisol level was positively correlated with the factor score of mania in the sleep deprivation group (rSp=0.415, p<0.001). Sleep deprivation could significantly increase serum cortisol level and may affect mental health in servicemen. The increase of serum cortisol level is significantly related to mania disorder during sleep deprivation.
Abou-Khadra, Maha K; Kishk, Nirmeen A; Shaker, Olfat G; Hassan, Amr
We conducted the present study to assess melatonin secretion in a sample of children with migraine, to describe their sleep patterns and problems, and to examine the impact of sleep problems on migraine disability. The parents of 18 children with migraine completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire and Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Score in Arabic. The parents of 18 healthy controls also completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels were determined with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. There was no significant difference in urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin between the migraine and control groups (Z = -0.127, P = .889). There were no significant differences between groups in Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire subscales or total scores. There were significant correlations between bedtime resistance, parasomnias subscales, and migraine disability. Our findings indicate that nocturnal production of melatonin is not reduced in children with migraine, and sleep disturbances impact the degree of migraine disability.
Hashmi, Atif; Nere, Andrew; Tononi, Giulio
In a companion paper (1), we used computer simulations to show that a strategy of activity-dependent, on-line net synaptic potentiation during wake, followed by off-line synaptic depression during sleep, can provide a parsimonious account for several memory benefits of sleep at the systems level, including the consolidation of procedural and declarative memories, gist extraction, and integration of new with old memories. In this paper, we consider the theoretical benefits of this two-step process at the single-neuron level and employ the theoretical notion of Matching between brain and environment to measure how this process increases the ability of the neuron to capture regularities in the environment and model them internally. We show that down-selection during sleep is beneficial for increasing or restoring Matching after learning, after integrating new with old memories, and after forgetting irrelevant material. By contrast, alternative schemes, such as additional potentiation in wake, potentiation in sleep, or synaptic renormalization in wake, decrease Matching. We also argue that, by selecting appropriate loops through the brain that tie feedforward synapses with feedback ones in the same dendritic domain, different subsets of neurons can learn to specialize for different contingencies and form sequences of nested perception-action loops. By potentiating such loops when interacting with the environment in wake, and depressing them when disconnected from the environment in sleep, neurons can learn to match the long-term statistical structure of the environment while avoiding spurious modes of functioning and catastrophic interference. Finally, such a two-step process has the additional benefit of desaturating the neuron's ability to learn and of maintaining cellular homeostasis. Thus, sleep-dependent synaptic renormalization offers a parsimonious account for both cellular and systems level effects of sleep on learning and memory.
Moreira, Pedro; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Cordeiro, Tânia; Bessa, Mariana; Valente, Hugo; Barros, Renata; Teixeira, Vitor; Mitchell, Vanessa; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, André
Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables. PMID:20617022
Mohns, Ethan J; Blumberg, Mark S
We recently reported that the majority of hippocampal neurons in newborn rats increase their activity in association with myoclonic twitches, which are indicative of active sleep. Because spindle bursts in the developing somatosensory neocortex occur in response to sensory feedback from myoclonic twitching, we hypothesized that the state-dependent activity of the newborn hippocampus arises from sensory feedback that sequentially activates the neocortex and then hippocampus, constituting an early form of neocortical-hippocampal communication. Here, in unanesthetized 5- to 6-d-old rats, we test this hypothesis by recording simultaneously from forelimb and barrel regions of somatosensory neocortex and dorsal hippocampus during periods of spontaneous sleep and wakefulness and in response to peripheral stimulation. Myoclonic twitches were consistently followed by neocortical spindle bursts, which were in turn consistently followed by bursts of hippocampal unit activity; moreover, spindle burst power was positively correlated with hippocampal unit activity. In addition, exogenous stimulation consistently evoked this neocortical-to-hippocampal sequence of activation. Finally, parahippocampal lesions that disrupted functional connections between the neocortex and hippocampus effectively disrupted the transmission of both spontaneous and evoked neocortical activity to the hippocampus. These findings suggest that sleep-related motor activity contributes to the development of neocortical and hippocampal circuits and provides a foundation on which coordinated activity between these two forebrain structures develops.
Han, Bin; Zhu, Fu-Xiang; Shi, Chao; Wu, Heng-Lan; Gu, Xiao-Hong
Sleep disturbance is a frequent and serious complication of hemodialysis (HD). Low serum vitamin D levels have been associated with sleep quality in non-HD subjects. Our aim was to examine the possible association between serum vitamin D levels and the presence of sleep disturbance in HD patients. We recruited 141 HD patients at the HD center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University during 2014–2015. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were determined by the competitive protein-binding assay. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were recorded. Meanwhile, 117 healthy control subjects were also recruited and underwent measurement of 25(OH)D. Eighty-eight patients (62.4%) had sleep disturbance (PSQI scores ≥ 5). Patients with sleep disturbance showed lower levels of 25(OH)D as compared to those without sleep disturbance (85.6 ± 37.4 vs. 39.1 ± 29.1 nmol/L, p < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, serum levels of 25(OH)D (≤48.0 nmol/L) were independently associated with sleep disturbance in HD patients (OR 9.897, 95% CI 3.356–29.187, p < 0.001) after adjustment for possible variables. Our study demonstrates that low serum levels of vitamin D are independently associated with sleep disturbance in HD patients, but the finding needs to be confirmed in future experimental and clinical studies. PMID:28216568
Dworak, M; McCarley, R W; Kim, T; Basheer, R
Neuronal signaling consumes much of the brain energy, mainly through the restoration of the membrane potential (MP) by ATP-consuming ionic pumps. We have reported that, compared with waking, ATP levels increase during the initial hours of natural slow-wave sleep, a time with prominent electroencephalogram (EEG) delta oscillations (0.5-4.5 Hz). We have hypothesized that there is a delta oscillation-ATP increase coupling, since, during delta waves, neurons exhibit a prolonged hyperpolarizing phase followed by a very brief phase of action potentials. However, direct proof of this hypothesis is lacking, and rapid changes in EEG/neuronal activity preclude measurement in the naturally sleeping brain. Thus, to induce a uniform state with pure delta oscillations and one previously shown to be accompanied by a similar pattern of neuronal activity during delta waves as natural sleep, we used ketamine-xylazine treatment in rats. We here report that, with this treatment, the high-energy molecules ATP and ADP increased in frontal and cingulate cortices, basal forebrain, and hippocampus compared with spontaneous waking. Moreover, the degree of ATP increase positively and significantly correlated with the degree of EEG delta activity. Supporting the hypothesis of decreased ATP consumption during delta activity, the ATP-consuming Na+-K+-ATPase mRNA levels were significantly decreased, whereas the mRNAs for the ATP-producing cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunits COX III and COX IVa were unchanged. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis of a cortical delta oscillation-dependent reduction in ATP consumption, thus providing the brain with increased ATP availability, and likely occurring because of reduced Na+-K+-ATPase-related energy consumption.
Gais, Steffen; Rasch, Björn; Dahmen, Johannes C; Sara, Susan; Born, Jan
There is a long-standing assumption that low noradrenergic activity during sleep reflects mainly the low arousal during this brain state. Nevertheless, recent research has demonstrated that the locus coeruleus, which is the main source of cortical noradrenaline, displays discrete periods of intense firing during non-REM sleep, without any signs of awakening. This transient locus coeruleus activation during sleep seems to occur in response to preceding learning-related episodes. In the present study, we manipulate noradrenergic activity during sleep in humans with either the α2-autoreceptor agonist clonidine or the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine. We show that reducing noradrenergic activity during sleep, but not during wakefulness, impairs subsequent memory performance in an odor recognition task. Increasing noradrenergic availability during sleep, in contrast, enhances memory retention. We conclude that noradrenergic activity during non-REM sleep interacts with other sleep-related mechanisms to functionally contribute to off-line memory consolidation.
hydroxylase enzyme at the first step in the serotonin synthetic pathway is not saturated (Friedman et al, 1972). The availability of the amino acid...changes in rats after parachloro- phenylalanine (PCPA). Wyatt’s work (Wyatt et al, 1970) showing 1-tryptophan effects on sleep in subjects pretreated with...tryptophan hydroxylase in midbrain of the rat. Science 166: 1274-76. Brezinova, V., Loudon, J., and Oswald, I. 1972. Tryptophan and sleep. Lancet 2: 1086-87
Yoshida, Yuya; Suganuma, Takeshi; Takaba, Masayuki; Ono, Yasuhiro; Abe, Yuka; Yoshizawa, Shuichiro; Sakai, Takuro; Yoshizawa, Ayako; Nakamura, Hirotaka; Kawana, Fusae; Baba, Kazuyoshi
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism. A total of 35 university students and staff members participated in this study after providing informed consent. All participants were divided into either a sleep bruxism group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 14), based on the following clinical diagnostic criteria: (1) reports of tooth-grinding sounds for at least two nights a week during the preceding 6 months by their sleep partner; (2) presence of tooth attrition with exposed dentin; (3) reports of morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness; and (4) presence of masseter muscle hypertrophy. Video-polysomnography was performed in the sleep laboratory for two nights. Sleep bruxism episodes were measured using masseter electromyography, visually inspected and then categorized into phasic or tonic episodes. Phasic episodes were categorized further into episodes with or without grinding sounds as evaluated by audio signals. Sleep bruxism subjects with reported grinding sounds had a significantly higher total number of phasic episodes with grinding sounds than subjects without reported grinding sounds or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P < 0.05). Similarly, sleep bruxism subjects with tooth attrition exhibited significantly longer phasic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P < 0.05). Furthermore, sleep bruxism subjects with morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness exhibited significantly longer tonic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P < 0.05). These results suggest that each clinical sign and symptom of sleep bruxism represents different aspects of jaw motor activity during sleep.
Bilsky, Sarah A; Feldner, Matthew T; Knapp, Ashley A; Babson, Kimberly A; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W
Cigarette smoking during adolescence is linked to a number of sleep disturbances and has been consistently linked to sleep onset latency among adults. However, little research has examined factors that may influence the relation between cigarette smoking level and sleep onset latency among adolescents. One factor that may be particularly important in this regard is anxiety sensitivity (AS). The current study examined whether cigarette smoking level interacted with AS in its association with sleep onset latency among 94 adolescent (Mage = 15.72) cigarette smokers. As hypothesized, AS interacted with smoking level to relate to sleep onset latency, even after controlling for age and gender. This relation was specific to sleep onset latency as opposed to other types of sleep disturbances, and that adolescents who smoked at higher levels tended to go to sleep later and wake up later than adolescents who smoked at relatively lower levels.
Heitkemper, Margaret M; Han, Claire Jungyoun; Jarrett, Monica E; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Shulman, Robert J; Raftery, Daniel; Henderson, Wendy A; Cain, Kevin C
Poor sleep and stress are more frequently reported by women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) than by healthy control (HC) women. The pathophysiology linking poor sleep and stress to gastrointestinal symptoms remains poorly understood. We used a metabolomic approach to determine whether tryptophan (TRP) metabolites differ between women with and without IBS and whether the levels are associated with sleep indices and serum cortisol levels. This study sample included 38 women with IBS and 21 HCs. The women were studied in a sleep laboratory for three consecutive nights. On the third night of the study, a social stressor was introduced, then blood samples were drawn every 20 min and sleep indices were measured. Metabolites were determined by targeted liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in a sample collected 1 hr after the onset of sleep. The ratios of each metabolite to TRP were used for analyses. Correlations were controlled for age and oral contraceptive use. Melatonin/TRP levels were lower (p = .005) in the IBS-diarrhea group versus the IBS-constipation and HC groups, and kynurenine/TRP ratios tended to be lower (p = .067) in the total IBS and IBS-diarrhea groups compared to HCs. Associations within the HC group included melatonin/TRP with polysomnography-sleep efficiency (r = .61, p = .006) and weaker positive correlations with the other ratios for either sleep efficiency or percentage time in rapid eye movement sleep (r > .40, p = .025-.091). This study suggests that reductions in early nighttime melatonin/TRP levels may be related to altered sleep quality in IBS, particularly those with diarrhea.
Shepoval'nikov, A N; Tsitseroshin, M N; Gal'perina, E I; Rozhkov, V P; Kruchinina, O V; Zaĭtseva, L G; Panasevich, E A
Electropoligraphical study of the natural night sleep in 16 adults with the use of correlation, coherent, cluster and factor analysis were used to obtain new data describing the active nature of sleep, which is expressed especially in periods of falling asleep and the transition from one stage to another. It is shown that the process of falling asleep and deeper sleep is accompanied by intense reorganization of cortico-subcortical relations, which is reflected in the dynamics ofcrosscorrelation and coherent estimates of interrelations of biopotentials of the brain. The results of factor analysis of multichannel EEG heterogeneity of the transition process from wakefulness to sleep is manifested in significant changes of I, II and III factors weight during I(B) stage of sleep, which may reflect changes in the degree of contribution of the main integrative brain systems in the reorganization of its integral activity. A considerable increase in the I factor weight (reflecting the generalized modulatory brainstem effect on the cortex), along with a decrease in the balance of factors II and III (associated with organization of fronto-occipital and interhemispheric interactions) clearly indicates a special role of sleep synchronizing influences from the brain stem in the development of this initial stage. Reduction of EEG interhemispheric interrelations in the anterior and inferior frontal areas with the deepening of sleep may be indication of the reorganization of the frontal areas activity associated with the coordinated increasing of inactivation process in the cortex of both hemispheres. Degree of stability of the spatial structure of interregional interactions of different brain cortex areas (according to the analysis of average dispersion of crosscorrelation EEG relations) increases on falling asleep with the onset of stage I(A), but with the transition to the stage I(B) there is a significant increase of instability of values EEG crosscorrelation. With the
Kline, Christopher E
Exercise has long been associated with better sleep, and evidence is accumulating on the efficacy of exercise as a nonpharmacologic treatment option for disturbed sleep. Recent research, however, has noted that poor sleep may contribute to low physical activity levels, emphasizing a robust bidirectional relationship between exercise and sleep. This article will briefly review the evidence supporting the use of exercise as a nonpharmacologic treatment for sleep disturbance, outline future research that is needed to establish the viability of exercise as a behavioral sleep treatment, describe recent research that has emphasized the potential influence of poor sleep on daytime activity levels, and discuss whether improving sleep may facilitate adoption and/or better adherence to a physically active lifestyle. With poor sleep and physical inactivity each recognized as key public health priorities, additional research into the bidirectional relationship between exercise and sleep has significant implications for facilitating greater exercise adherence and improving sleep in society.
Tesler, Noemi; Gerstenberg, Miriam; Franscini, Maurizia; Jenni, Oskar G; Walitza, Susanne; Huber, Reto
Sleep slow wave activity (SWA), the major electrophysiological characteristic of deep sleep, mirrors both cortical restructuring and functioning. The incidence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) substantially rises during the vulnerable developmental phase of adolescence, where essential cortical restructuring is taking place. The goal of this study was to assess characteristics of SWA topography in adolescents with MDD, in order to assess abnormalities in both cortical restructuring and functioning on a local level. All night high-density EEG was recorded in 15 patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The actual symptom severity was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R). Topographical power maps were calculated based on the average SWA of the first non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep episode. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly more SWA in a cluster of frontal electrodes compared to controls. SWA over frontal brain regions correlated positively with the CDRS-R subscore "morbid thoughts". Self-reported sleep latency was significantly higher in depressed adolescents compared to controls whereas sleep architecture did not differ between the groups. Higher frontal SWA in depressed adolescents may represent a promising biomarker tracing cortical regions of intense use and/or restructuring.
Tesler, Noemi; Gerstenberg, Miriam; Franscini, Maurizia; Jenni, Oskar G.; Walitza, Susanne; Huber, Reto
Sleep slow wave activity (SWA), the major electrophysiological characteristic of deep sleep, mirrors both cortical restructuring and functioning. The incidence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) substantially rises during the vulnerable developmental phase of adolescence, where essential cortical restructuring is taking place. The goal of this study was to assess characteristics of SWA topography in adolescents with MDD, in order to assess abnormalities in both cortical restructuring and functioning on a local level. All night high-density EEG was recorded in 15 patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The actual symptom severity was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale—Revised (CDRS-R). Topographical power maps were calculated based on the average SWA of the first non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep episode. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly more SWA in a cluster of frontal electrodes compared to controls. SWA over frontal brain regions correlated positively with the CDRS-R subscore “morbid thoughts”. Self-reported sleep latency was significantly higher in depressed adolescents compared to controls whereas sleep architecture did not differ between the groups. Higher frontal SWA in depressed adolescents may represent a promising biomarker tracing cortical regions of intense use and/or restructuring. PMID:26870661
Pajcin, Maja; Banks, Siobhan; White, Jason M; Dorrian, Jill; Paech, Gemma M; Grant, Crystal; Johnson, Kayla; Tooley, Katie; Fidock, Justin; Kamimori, Gary H; Della Vedova, Chris B
During sleep deprivation, neurobehavioral functions requiring sustained levels of attention and alertness are significantly impaired. Discrepancies between subjective measures of sleepiness and objective performance during sustained operations have led to interest in physiological monitoring of operator performance. Alertness, vigilance, and arousal are modulated by the wake-promoting actions of the central noradrenergic system. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive peripheral measure of noradrenergic activity, but limited research has investigated the relationship between sAA and performance. In a laboratory-controlled environment, we investigated the relationship between sAA levels, subjective sleepiness, and performance during two days (50h) of total sleep deprivation. Beginning at 09:00, twelve healthy participants (5 females) aged 22.5±2.5years (mean±SD) provided saliva samples, recorded ratings of subjective sleepiness, completed a brief 3-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT-B) and performed a 40-min simulated driving task, at regular 3h intervals during wakefulness. Ratings of subjective sleepiness exhibited a constant linear increase (p<0.001) during sleep deprivation. In contrast, sAA levels showed a marked diurnal profile, with levels increasing during the day (p<0.001) and steadily declining in the evening and early-morning (p<0.001). PVT-B (mean reaction time and mean slowest 10% reaction time) and simulated driving performance (speed deviation and lane deviation) also exhibited diurnal profiles across the two days of sleep deprivation. Performance peaked in the afternoon (p<0.001) and then steadily worsened as wakefulness continued into the evening and early-morning (p<0.001). Further analysis revealed that higher sAA levels in the hour preceding each performance assessment were associated with better PVT-B and driving performance (p<0.001). These findings suggest that sAA measures may be suitable indicators of performance
Wirth, Michael D.; Jaggers, Jason R.; Dudgeon, Wesley D.; Hébert, James R.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.; Hand, Gregory A.
This study examined associations of sleep and minutes spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Cross-sectional analyses (n=45) focused on associations of inflammatory outcomes (i.e., CRP and IL-6) with actigraph-derived sleep duration, latency, and efficiency; bedtime; wake time; and wake-after-sleep-onset; as well as MVPA. Least square means for CRP and IL-6 by levels of sleep and MVPA were computed from general linear models. Individuals below the median of sleep duration, above the median for bedtime, and below the median of MVPA minutes had higher CRP or IL-6 levels. Generally, individuals with both low MVPA and poor sleep characteristics had higher inflammation levels than those with more MVPA and better sleep. Understanding the combined impact of multiple lifestyle/behavioral factors on inflammation could inform intervention strategies to reduce inflammation and therefore, chronic disease risk. PMID:25399034
Vincent, Grace E; Barnett, Lisa M; Lubans, David R; Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Ridgers, Nicola D
The directionality of the relationship between children's physical activity and sleep is unclear. This study examined the temporal and bidirectional associations between objectively measured physical activity, energy expenditure, and sleep in primary school-aged children. A subgroup of children (n = 65, aged 8-11 years) from the Fitness, Activity and Skills Testing Study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, had their sleep and physical activity assessed using the SenseWear Pro Armband for 8 consecutive days. Outcome measures included time spent in light-intensity physical activiy (LPA), moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), activity energy expenditure (AEE), time in bed, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency. Multilevel analyses were conducted using generalized linear latent mixed models to determine whether physical activity on 1 day was associated with sleep outcomes that night, and whether sleep during 1 night was associated with physical activity the following day. No significant associations were observed between time in bed, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency with LPA, MVPA, and AEE in either direction. This study found no temporal or bidirectional associations between objectively measured physical activity, AEE, and sleep. Future research is needed to understand other sleep dimensions that may impact on or be influenced by physical activity to provide potential intervention targets to improve these outcomes.
Berger, Ann M.; Farr, Lynne A.; Kuhn, Brett R.; Fischer, Patricia; Agrawal, Sangeeta
Fatigue is the most prevalent and distressing symptom experienced by patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer. Higher fatigue levels have been related to sleep maintenance problems and low daytime activity in patients who have received chemotherapy, but knowledge is sparse describing these relationships prior to chemotherapy. The Piper Integrated Fatigue Model© guided this study, which describes sleep/wake, activity/rest, circadian rhythms and fatigue, and how they inter-relate in women with Stage I, II or IIIA breast cancer during the 48 hours prior to the first adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. The present report describes these variables in 130 females, mean age = 51.4 years; the majority were married and employed. Subjective sleep was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and fatigue was measured by the Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS). Wrist actigraphy was used to objectively measure sleep/wake, activity/rest, and circadian rhythms. Mean PSQI score was 6.73 ±3.4, indicating poor sleep. Objective sleep/wake results were within limits of normal (WNL) established for healthy individuals, except for the number and length of night awakenings. Objective activity/rest results were WNL except for low mean daytime activity. Circadian rhythm mesor was 132.3(24.6) and amplitude was 97.2(22.8). Mean PFS score was 2.56 ±2.0, with 72% reporting mild fatigue. There were significant relationships between subjective and objective sleep, but no consistent patterns. Higher total and subscale fatigue scores were correlated with most components of poorer subjective sleep quality (r= 0.25 to 0.42, P = <0.005). PMID:17397701
Xu, Xin-Hong; Qu, Wei-Min; Bian, Min-Juan; Huang, Fang; Fei, Jian; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li
GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1) constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA and regulates GABAergic transmission in the brain. However, the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation remains elusive. In the current study, we characterized the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and responses to sleep deprivation in GAT1 knock-out (KO) mice. GAT1 KO mice exhibited dominant theta-activity and a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies across all vigilance stages. Under baseline conditions, spontaneous rapid eye movement (REM) sleep of KO mice was elevated both during the light and dark periods, and non-REM (NREM) sleep was reduced during the light period only. KO mice also showed more state transitions from NREM to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness, as well as more number of REM and NREM sleep bouts than WT mice. During the dark period, KO mice exhibited more REM sleep bouts only. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. However, slow wave activity, the intensity component of NREM sleep was briefly elevated in WT mice but remained completely unchanged in KO mice, compared with their respective baselines. These results indicate that GAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of REM sleep and homeostasis of NREM sleep. PMID:24155871
Xu, Xin-Hong; Qu, Wei-Min; Bian, Min-Juan; Huang, Fang; Fei, Jian; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li
GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1) constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA and regulates GABAergic transmission in the brain. However, the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation remains elusive. In the current study, we characterized the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and responses to sleep deprivation in GAT1 knock-out (KO) mice. GAT1 KO mice exhibited dominant theta-activity and a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies across all vigilance stages. Under baseline conditions, spontaneous rapid eye movement (REM) sleep of KO mice was elevated both during the light and dark periods, and non-REM (NREM) sleep was reduced during the light period only. KO mice also showed more state transitions from NREM to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness, as well as more number of REM and NREM sleep bouts than WT mice. During the dark period, KO mice exhibited more REM sleep bouts only. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. However, slow wave activity, the intensity component of NREM sleep was briefly elevated in WT mice but remained completely unchanged in KO mice, compared with their respective baselines. These results indicate that GAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of REM sleep and homeostasis of NREM sleep.
Horner, Richard L
Respiratory muscles with dual respiratory and non-respiratory functions (e.g. the pharyngeal and intercostal muscles) show greater suppression of activity in sleep than the diaphragm, a muscle almost entirely devoted to respiratory function. This sleep-related suppression of activity is most apparent in the tonic component of motor activity, which has functional implications of a more collapsible upper airspace in the case of pharyngeal muscles, and decreased functional residual capacity in the case of intercostal muscles. A major source of tonic drive to respiratory motoneurons originates from neurons intimately involved in states of brain arousal, i.e. neurons not classically involved in generating respiratory rhythm and pattern per se. The tonic drive to hypoglossal motoneurons, a respiratory motor pool with both respiratory and non-respiratory functions, is mediated principally by noradrenergic and glutamatergic inputs, these constituting the essential components of the wakefulness stimulus. These tonic excitatory drives are opposed by tonic inhibitory glycinergic and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) inputs that constrain the level of respiratory-related motor activity, with the balance determining net motor tone. In sleep, the excitatory inputs are withdrawn and GABA release into the brainstem is increased, thus decreasing respiratory motor tone and predisposing susceptible individuals to hypoventilation and obstructive sleep apnoea.
Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S; Kaiser, David J; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey
The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent's residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise.
Ventskovska, Olena; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Karpova, Nina N
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) regulates neuronal plasticity, slow wave activity and sleep homeostasis. Environmental stimuli control Bdnf expression through epigenetic mechanisms, but there are no data on epigenetic regulation of Bdnf by sleep or sleep deprivation. Here we investigated whether 5-methylcytosine (5mC) DNA modification at Bdnf promoters p1, p4 and p9 influences Bdnf1, Bdnf4 and Bdnf9a expression during the normal inactive phase or after sleep deprivation (SD) (3, 6 and 12 h, end-times being ZT3, ZT6 and ZT12) in rats in two brain areas involved in sleep regulation, the basal forebrain and cortex. We found a daytime variation in cortical Bdnf expression: Bdnf1 expression was highest at ZT6 and Bdnf4 lowest at ZT12. Such variation was not observed in the basal forebrain. Also Bdnf p1 and p9 methylation levels differed only in the cortex, while Bdnf p4 methylation did not vary in either area. Factorial analysis revealed that sleep deprivation significantly induced Bdnf1 and Bdnf4 with the similar pattern for Bdnf9a in both basal forebrain and cortex; 12 h of sleep deprivation decreased 5mC levels at the cortical Bdnf p4 and p9. Regression analysis between the 5mC promoter levels and the corresponding Bdnf transcript expression revealed significant negative correlations for the basal forebrain Bdnf1 and cortical Bdnf9a transcripts in only non-deprived rats, while these correlations were lost after sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that Bdnf transcription during the light phase of undisturbed sleep-wake cycle but not after SD is regulated at least partially by brain site-specific DNA methylation.
Roach, Gregory D; Petrilli, Renée M A; Dawson, Drew; Lamond, Nicole
Long-haul airline pilots often experience elevated levels of fatigue due to extended work hours and circadian misalignment of sleep and wake periods. During long-haul trips, pilots are typically given 1-3 d off between flights (i.e., layover) to recover from, and prepare for, duty. Anecdotally, some pilots prefer long layovers because it maximizes the time available for recovery and preparation, but others prefer short layovers because it minimizes both the length of the trip, and the degree to which the body clock changes from "home time" to the layover time zone. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of layover length on the sleep, subjective fatigue levels, and capacity to sustain attention of long-haul pilots. Participants were 19 male pilots (10 Captains, 9 First Officers) working for an international airline. Data were collected during an 11- or 12-d international trip. The trips involved (i) 4 d at home prior to the trip; (ii) an eastward flight of 13.5 h across seven time zones; (iii) a layover of either 39 h (i.e., short, n = 9) or 62 h (i.e., long, n = 10); (iv) a return westward flight of 14.3 h across seven time zones; and (v) 4 d off at home after the trip. Sleep was recorded using a self-report sleep diary and wrist activity monitor; subjective fatigue level was measured using the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Checklist; and sustained attention was assessed using the psychomotor vigilance task for a personal digital assistant (PalmPVT). Mixed-model regression analyses were used to determine the effects of layover length (short, long) on the amount of sleep that pilots obtained during the trip, and on the pilots' subjective fatigue levels and capacity to sustain attention. There was no main effect of layover length on ground-based sleep or in-flight sleep, but pilots who had a short layover at the midpoint of their trip had higher subjective fatigue levels and poorer sustained attention than pilots who had a long layover. The results of this study
Sun, Xinyang; Dai, Xuyan; Yang, Tingshu; Song, Hongtao; Yang, Jialin; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Liyi
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mental resilience on the changes of serum rennin, angiotensin, and cortisol level induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen. By random cluster sampling, a total of 160 servicemen, aged from 18 to 30, were selected to undergo 24-hour total sleep deprivation and administered the military personnel mental resilience scale after the deprivation procedure. The sleep deprivation procedure started at 8 a.m. on Day 8 and ended at 8 a.m. on Day 9 after 7 days of normal sleep for baseline preparation. Blood samples were drawn from the 160 participants at 8 a.m. respectively on Day 8 and Day 9 for hormonal measurements. All blood samples were analyzed using radioimmunoassay. As hypothesized, serum rennin, angiotensin II, and cortisol level of the participants after sleep deprivation were significantly higher than those before (P < 0.05). The changes of serum rennin and cortisol in the lower mental resilience subgroup were significantly greater (P < 0.05); problem-solving skill and willpower were the leading influence factors for the increases of serum rennin and cortisol respectively induced by sleep deprivation. We conclude that mental resilience plays a significant role in alleviating the changes of neurohormones level induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen.
Piosczyk, Hannah; Holz, Johannes; Feige, Bernd; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Weber, Friederike; Landmann, Nina; Kuhn, Marion; Frase, Lukas; Riemann, Dieter; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Nissen, Christoph
Studies suggest that the consolidation of newly acquired memories and underlying long-term synaptic plasticity might represent a major function of sleep. In a combined repeated-measures and parallel-group sleep laboratory study (active waking versus sleep, passive waking versus sleep), we provide evidence that brief periods of daytime sleep (42.1 ± 8.9 min of non-rapid eye movement sleep) in healthy adolescents (16 years old, all female), compared with equal periods of waking, promote the consolidation of declarative memory (word-pairs) in participants with high power in the electroencephalographic sleep spindle (sigma) frequency range. This observation supports the notion that sleep-specific brain activity when reaching a critical dose, beyond a mere reduction of interference, promotes synaptic plasticity in a hippocampal-neocortical network that underlies the consolidation of declarative memory.
Vyazovskiy, V V; Achermann, P; Borbély, A A; Tobler, I
A quantitative analysis of spindles and spindle-related EEG activity was performed in C57BL/6 mice. The hypothesis that spindles are involved in sleep regulatory mechanisms was tested by investigating their occurrence during 24 h and after 6 h sleep deprivation (SD; n = 7). In the frontal derivation distinct spindle events were characterized as EEG oscillations with a dominant frequency approximately at 11 Hz. Spindles were most prominent during NREM sleep and increased before NREM-REM sleep transitions. Whereas spindles increased concomitantly with slow wave activity (SWA, EEG power between 0.5 and 4.0 Hz) at the beginning of the NREM sleep episode, these measures showed an opposite evolution prior to the transition to REM sleep. The 24-h time course of spindles showed a maximum at the end of the 12-h light period, and was a mirror image of SWA in NREM sleep. After 6 h SD the spindles in NREM sleep were initially suppressed, and showed a delayed rebound. In contrast, spindles occurring immediately before the transition to REM sleep were enhanced during the first 2 h of recovery. The data suggest that spindles in NREM sleep may be involved in sleep maintenance, while spindles heralding the transition to REM sleep may be related to mechanisms of REM sleep initiation.
Kothari, Dhwani J; Davis, Mary C; Yeung, Ellen W; Tennen, Howard A
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition often resulting in functional impairments. Nonrestorative sleep is a prominent symptom of FM that is related to disability, but the day-to-day mechanisms relating the prior night's sleep quality to next-day reports of disability have not been examined. This study examined the within-day relations among early-morning reports of sleep quality last night, late-morning reports of pain and positive and negative affect, and end-of-day reports of activity interference. Specifically, we tested whether pain, positive affect, and negative affect mediated the association between sleep quality and subsequent activity interference. Data were drawn from electronic diary reports collected from 220 patients with FM for 21 consecutive days. The direct and mediated effects at the within-person level were estimated with multilevel structural equation modeling. Results showed that pain and positive affect mediated the relation between sleep quality and activity interference. Early-morning reports of poor sleep quality last night predicted elevated levels of pain and lower levels of positive affect at late-morning, which, in turn, predicted elevated end-of-day activity interference. Of note, positive affect was a stronger mediator than pain and negative affect was not a significant mediator. In summary, the findings identify 2 parallel mechanisms, pain and positive affect, through which the prior night's sleep quality predicts disability the next day in patients with FM. Furthermore, results highlight the potential utility of boosting positive affect after a poor night's sleep as one means of preserving daily function in FM.
Riedner, Brady A.; Goldstein, Michael R.; Plante, David T.; Rumble, Meredith E.; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M.
Study Objectives: To examine nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in insomnia using high-density electroencephalography (EEG). Methods: All-night sleep recordings with 256 channel high-density EEG were analyzed for 8 insomnia subjects (5 females) and 8 sex and age-matched controls without sleep complaints. Spectral analyses were conducted using unpaired t-tests and topographical differences between groups were assessed using statistical non-parametric mapping. Five minute segments of deep NREM sleep were further analyzed using sLORETA cortical source imaging. Results: The initial topographic analysis of all-night NREM sleep EEG revealed that insomnia subjects had more high-frequency EEG activity (> 16 Hz) compared to good sleeping controls and that the difference between groups was widespread across the scalp. In addition, the analysis also showed that there was a more circumscribed difference in theta (4–8 Hz) and alpha (8–12 Hz) power bands between groups. When deep NREM sleep (N3) was examined separately, the high-frequency difference between groups diminished, whereas the higher regional alpha activity in insomnia subjects persisted. Source imaging analysis demonstrated that sensory and sensorimotor cortical areas consistently exhibited elevated levels of alpha activity during deep NREM sleep in insomnia subjects relative to good sleeping controls. Conclusions: These results suggest that even during the deepest stage of sleep, sensory and sensorimotor areas in insomnia subjects may still be relatively active compared to control subjects and to the rest of the sleeping brain. Citation: Riedner BA, Goldstein MR, Plante DT, Rumble ME, Ferrarelli F, Tononi G, Benca RM. Regional patterns of elevated alpha and high-frequency electroencephalographic activity during nonrapid eye movement sleep in chronic insomnia: a pilot study. SLEEP 2016;39(4):801–812. PMID:26943465
Corsi-Cabrera, M; Rosales-Lagarde, A; del Río-Portilla, Y; Sifuentes-Ortega, R; Alcántara-Quintero, B
Given that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in executive functions and is deactivated and decoupled from posterior associative regions during REM sleep, that Gamma temporal coupling involved in information processing is enhanced during REM sleep, and that adult humans spend about 90 min of every 24h in REM sleep, it might be expected that REM sleep deprivation would modify Gamma temporal coupling and have a deteriorating effect on executive functions. We analyzed EEG Gamma activity and temporal coupling during implementation of a rule-guided task before and after REM sleep deprivation and its effect on verbal fluency, flexible thinking and selective attention. After two nights in the laboratory for adaptation, on the third night subjects (n=18) were randomly assigned to either selective REM sleep deprivation effectuated by awakening them at each REM sleep onset or, the same number of NREM sleep awakenings as a control for unspecific effects of sleep interruptions. Implementation of abstract rules to guide behavior required greater activation and synchronization of Gamma activity in the frontopolar regions after REM sleep reduction from 20.6% at baseline to just 3.93% of total sleep time. However, contrary to our hypothesis, both groups showed an overall improvement in executive task performance and no effect on their capacity to sustain selective attention. These results suggest that after one night of selective REM sleep deprivation executive functions can be compensated by increasing frontal activation and they still require the participation of supervisory control by frontopolar regions.
Ferrarelli, Fabio; Smith, Richard; Dentico, Daniela; Riedner, Brady A; Zennig, Corinna; Benca, Ruth M; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J; Tononi, Giulio
Over the past several years meditation practice has gained increasing attention as a non-pharmacological intervention to provide health related benefits, from promoting general wellness to alleviating the symptoms of a variety of medical conditions. However, the effects of meditation training on brain activity still need to be fully characterized. Sleep provides a unique approach to explore the meditation-related plastic changes in brain function. In this study we performed sleep high-density electroencephalographic (hdEEG) recordings in long-term meditators (LTM) of Buddhist meditation practices (approximately 8700 mean hours of life practice) and meditation naive individuals. We found that LTM had increased parietal-occipital EEG gamma power during NREM sleep. This increase was specific for the gamma range (25-40 Hz), was not related to the level of spontaneous arousal during NREM and was positively correlated with the length of lifetime daily meditation practice. Altogether, these findings indicate that meditation practice produces measurable changes in spontaneous brain activity, and suggest that EEG gamma activity during sleep represents a sensitive measure of the long-lasting, plastic effects of meditative training on brain function.
Ferrarelli, Fabio; Smith, Richard; Dentico, Daniela; Riedner, Brady A.; Zennig, Corinna; Benca, Ruth M.; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J.; Tononi, Giulio
Over the past several years meditation practice has gained increasing attention as a non-pharmacological intervention to provide health related benefits, from promoting general wellness to alleviating the symptoms of a variety of medical conditions. However, the effects of meditation training on brain activity still need to be fully characterized. Sleep provides a unique approach to explore the meditation-related plastic changes in brain function. In this study we performed sleep high-density electroencephalographic (hdEEG) recordings in long-term meditators (LTM) of Buddhist meditation practices (approximately 8700 mean hours of life practice) and meditation naive individuals. We found that LTM had increased parietal-occipital EEG gamma power during NREM sleep. This increase was specific for the gamma range (25–40 Hz), was not related to the level of spontaneous arousal during NREM and was positively correlated with the length of lifetime daily meditation practice. Altogether, these findings indicate that meditation practice produces measurable changes in spontaneous brain activity, and suggest that EEG gamma activity during sleep represents a sensitive measure of the long-lasting, plastic effects of meditative training on brain function. PMID:24015304
Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A
We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation.
Havekes, Robbert; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Tudor, Jennifer C; Ferri, Sarah L; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted
The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the hippocampus. Further, it is unclear which cell types are responsible for the memory impairments associated with sleep deprivation. Transgenic approaches lack the spatial resolution to manipulate specific signaling pathways selectively in the hippocampus, while pharmacological strategies are limited in terms of cell-type specificity. Therefore, we used a pharmacogenetic approach based on a virus-mediated expression of a Gαs-coupled Drosophila octopamine receptor selectively in mouse hippocampal excitatory neurons in vivo. With this approach, a systemic injection with the receptor ligand octopamine leads to increased cAMP levels in this specific set of hippocampal neurons. We assessed whether transiently increasing cAMP levels during sleep deprivation prevents memory consolidation deficits associated with sleep loss in an object-location task. Five hours of total sleep deprivation directly following training impaired the formation of object-location memories. Transiently increasing cAMP levels in hippocampal neurons during the course of sleep deprivation prevented these memory consolidation deficits. These findings demonstrate that attenuated cAMP signaling in hippocampal excitatory neurons is a critical component underlying the memory deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks associated with sleep deprivation.
Bruinenberg, Vibeke M.; Tudor, Jennifer C.; Ferri, Sarah L.; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter
The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the hippocampus. Further, it is unclear which cell types are responsible for the memory impairments associated with sleep deprivation. Transgenic approaches lack the spatial resolution to manipulate specific signaling pathways selectively in the hippocampus, while pharmacological strategies are limited in terms of cell-type specificity. Therefore, we used a pharmacogenetic approach based on a virus-mediated expression of a Gαs-coupled Drosophila octopamine receptor selectively in mouse hippocampal excitatory neurons in vivo. With this approach, a systemic injection with the receptor ligand octopamine leads to increased cAMP levels in this specific set of hippocampal neurons. We assessed whether transiently increasing cAMP levels during sleep deprivation prevents memory consolidation deficits associated with sleep loss in an object–location task. Five hours of total sleep deprivation directly following training impaired the formation of object–location memories. Transiently increasing cAMP levels in hippocampal neurons during the course of sleep deprivation prevented these memory consolidation deficits. These findings demonstrate that attenuated cAMP signaling in hippocampal excitatory neurons is a critical component underlying the memory deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks associated with sleep deprivation. PMID:25411499
Liguori, Claudio; Nuccetelli, Marzia; Izzi, Francesca; Sancesario, Giuseppe; Romigi, Andrea; Martorana, Alessandro; Amoroso, Chiara; Bernardini, Sergio; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Placidi, Fabio
The orexin system has been investigated in patients affected by mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) by measuring orexin-A concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and correlated to subjective and objective sleep parameters, quantified by questionnaires and polysomnography, respectively. Twenty drug-naïve patients with MCI due to AD were studied and compared with a population of 26 age and/or sex matched controls, divided into subgroups on the basis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score. Increased CSF-orexin levels were detected in patients with MCI due to AD in comparison with controls (p < 0.05). In particular, CSF-orexin concentrations were higher in MCI patients suffering from sleep complaints (PSQI ≥5, n = 10) compared with MCI patients with a regular sleep-wake cycle (PSQI <5, n = 10, p < 0.001) and compared with both control groups (with sleep complaints, PSQI ≥5, n = 11, p < 0.001; without sleep complaints, PSQI <5, n = 15, p < 0.001). Moreover, REM sleep was reduced in MCI patients compared with controls (p < 0.01), and had a negative correlation coupled with a reciprocal influence at the multiple regression analysis with CSF-orexin levels (R = -0.65; β = -8.90). REM sleep disruption and sleep fragmentation are related to higher CSF-orexin levels in patients with MCI due to AD, thus suggesting that the orexin system may be involved even in the earliest stages of AD, resulting in prolonged sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency, and REM sleep impairment.
Woo, Jae Hoon; Ha, Tae-Woo; Kang, Jae-Seon; Hong, Jin Tae
Angelicae Gigantis Radix (AGR, Angelica gigas) has been used for a long time as a traditional folk medicine in Korea and oriental countries. Decursinol angelate (DCA) is structurally isomeric decursin, one of the major components of AGR. This study was performed to confirm whether DCA augments pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors via the activation of GABAA-ergic systems in animals. Oral administration of DCA (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) markedly suppressed spontaneous locomotor activity. DCA also prolonged sleeping time, and decreased the sleep latency by pentobarbital (42 mg/kg), in a dose-dependent manner, similar to muscimol, both at the hypnotic (42 mg/kg) and sub-hypnotic (28 mg/kg) dosages. Especially, DCA increased the number of sleeping animals in the sub-hypnotic dosage. DCA (50 mg/kg, p.o.) itself modulated sleep architectures; DCA reduced the counts of sleep/wake cycles. At the same time, DCA increased total sleep time, but not non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In the molecular experiments. DCA (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 µg/ml) increased intracellular Cl- influx level in hypothalamic primary cultured neuronal cells of rats. In addition, DCA increased the protein expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65/67) and GABAA receptors subtypes. Taken together, these results suggest that DCA potentiates pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors through the activation of GABAA-ergic systems, and can be useful in the treatment of insomnia. PMID:28066138
Chen, Michael C; Chiang, Wei-Yin; Yugay, Tatiana; Patxot, Melissa; Özçivit, İpek Betül; Hu, Kun; Lu, Jun
The role of specific cortical regions in sleep-regulating circuits is unclear. The anterior insula (AI) has strong reciprocal connectivity with wake and sleep-promoting hypothalamic and brainstem regions, and we hypothesized that the AI regulates patterns of sleep and wakefulness. To test this hypothesis, we lesioned the AI in rats (n = 8) and compared sleep, wake, and activity regulation in these animals with nonlesioned controls (n = 8) with 24-h sleep recordings and chronic infrared activity monitoring. Compared to controls, animals with AI lesions had decreased wakefulness and increased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. AI-lesioned animals had shorter wake bouts, especially during the active dark phase. AI-lesioned animals also had more transitions from NREM to REM sleep, especially during the inactive light phase. Chronic infrared monitoring revealed that AI-lesioned animals also had a disturbed temporal organization of locomotor activity at multiple time scales with more random activity fluctuations from 4 to 12 h despite intact circadian rhythms. These results suggest that the AI regulates sleep and activity and contributes to the regulation of sleep and motor behavior rhythmicity across multiple time scales. Dysfunction of the AI may underlie changes in sleep-wake patterns in neurological diseases.
Hewart, Carol; Fethney, Loveday
There is much research concerning the psychological and physical effects of sleep deprivation on patients in healthcare systems, yet interrupted sleep on hospital wards at night remains a problem. Staff at Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Devon, wanted to identify the factors that prevent patients from sleeping well at night. Two audits were carried out, between April and August 2015, to assess noise and light levels on wards at night, and to engage nurses in ways of reducing these. A number of recommendations were made based on the audit findings, many of which have been put into practice.
Gay, Caryl L; Zak, Rochelle S; Lerdal, Anners; Pullinger, Clive R; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Lee, Kathryn A
Sleep disturbance has been associated with inflammation and cytokine activity, and we previously described genetic associations between cytokine polymorphisms and sleep maintenance and duration among adults with HIV/AIDS. Although sleep onset insomnia (SOI) is also a commonly reported sleep problem, associations between cytokine biomarkers and SOI have not been adequately studied. The purpose of this study was to describe SOI in relation to cytokine plasma concentrations and gene polymorphisms in a convenience sample of 307 adults (212 men, 72 women, and 23 transgender) living with HIV/AIDS. Based on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index item that asks the time it usually took to fall asleep in the past month, participants were categorized as either >30min to fall asleep (n=70, 23%) or 30min or less to fall asleep (n=237). Plasma cytokines were analyzed, and genotyping was conducted for 15 candidate genes involved in cytokine signaling: interferon-gamma (IFNG), IFNG receptor 1 (IFNGR1), interleukins (IL1R2, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL13, IL17A), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NFKB1 and NFKB2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA). Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated as potential covariates. After adjusting for genomic estimates of ancestry, self-reported race/ethnicity and viral load, SOI was associated with higher IL-13 plasma levels and with six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): IL1B rs1143642 and rs1143623, IL6 rs4719714, IL13 rs1295686, NFKB1 rs4648110, and TNFA rs2857602. In addition, the IL1B rs1143642 polymorphism was associated with plasma levels of IL-1β in adjusted analyses. This study strengthens the evidence for an association between inflammation and sleep disturbance, particularly self-report of habitual SOI. In this chronic illness population, the cytokine polymorphisms associated with SOI provide direction for future personalized medicine intervention research.
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a music therapy procedure (music listening paired with progressive muscle relaxation) on the reduction of anxiety and improvement of sleep patterns in abused women in shelters. Twenty-eight women residing in 2 domestic violence shelters in a Midwestern city met with the researcher on 5 consecutive days for half-hour sessions. A pretest-posttest design with control and experimental groups was used. The dependent variables included: stait anxiety measured by the STAI (Spielberger et al., 1983) before and after each music stimulus, sleep quality as measured by the PSQI (Buysse et al., 1989) on the first and last sessions, and levels of fatigue as measured by the Fatigue Scale (Lee, 1992) at waking time. The independent variable was a 20-minute recording of participant-selected music with a Progressive Muscle Relaxation script. Results indicated that music therapy constituted an effective method for reducing anxiety levels. Results also indicated a significant effect on sleep quality for the experimental group, but not for the control group. No significant relationships were found between anxiety levels and sleep quality, nor fatigue levels and sleep quality. These results seem promising in the light of domestic violence research, which has found that a greater amount of personal resources is a crucial aspect of abused women's recovery process. Reduction of anxiety and improvement of sleep quality can be considered as increased personal resources, and seem feasible through the use of music therapy.
Visniauskas, Bruna; Oliveira, Vitor; Carmona, Adriana K; D'Almeida, Vânia; de Melo, Robson L; Tufik, Sérgio; Chagas, Jair R
Proteases are essential either for the release of neuropeptides from active or inactive proteins or for their inactivation. Neuropeptides have a fundamental role in sleep-wake cycle regulation and their actions are also likely to be regulated by proteolytic processing. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrates, specific protease inhibitors and real-time PCR we demonstrate changes in angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) expression and proteolytic activity in the central nervous system in an animal model of paradoxical sleep deprivation during 96 h (PSD). Male rats were distributed into five groups (PSD, 24 h, 48 h and 96 h of sleep recovery after PSD and control). ACE activity and mRNA levels were measured in hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem, cerebral cortex and striatum tissue extracts. In the hypothalamus, the significant decrease in activity and mRNA levels, after PSD, was only totally reversed after 96 h of sleep recovery. In the brainstem and hippocampus, although significant, changes in mRNA do not parallel changes in ACE specific activity. Changes in ACE activity could affect angiotensin II generation, angiotensin 1-7, bradykinin and opioid peptides metabolism. ACE expression and activity modifications are likely related to some of the physiological changes (cardiovascular, stress, cognition, metabolism function, water and energy balance) observed during and after sleep deprivation.
Lai, Y-Y; Hsieh, K-C; Nguyen, D; Peever, J; Siegel, J M
There is no adequate animal model of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic leg movements disorder (PLMD), disorders affecting 10% of the population. Similarly, there is no model of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) that explains its symptoms and its link to Parkinsonism. We previously reported that the motor inhibitory system in the brainstem extends from the medulla to the ventral mesopontine junction (VMPJ). We now examine the effects of damage to the VMPJ in the cat. Based on the lesion sites and the changes in sleep pattern and behavior, we saw three distinct syndromes resulting from such lesions; the rostrolateral, rostromedial and caudal VMPJ syndromes. The change in sleep pattern was dependent on the lesion site, but was not significantly correlated with the number of dopaminergic neurons lost. An increase in wakefulness and a decrease in slow wave sleep (SWS) and REM sleep were seen in the rostrolateral VMPJ-lesioned animals. In contrast, the sleep pattern was not significantly changed in the rostromedial and caudal VMPJ-lesioned animals. All three groups of animals showed a significant increase in periodic and isolated leg movements in SWS and increased tonic muscle activity in REM sleep. Beyond these common symptoms, an increase in phasic motor activity in REM sleep, resembling that seen in human RBD, was found in the caudal VMPJ-lesioned animals. In contrast, the increase in motor activity in SWS in rostral VMPJ-lesioned animals is similar to that seen in human RLS/PLMD patients. The proximity of the VMPJ region to the substantia nigra suggests that the link between RLS/PLMD and Parkinsonism, as well as the progression from RBD to Parkinsonism may be mediated by the spread of damage from the regions identified here into the substantia nigra.
Ueno, S.; Iramina, K.
The present study focuses on magnetic fields of the brain activities during sleep, in particular on K-complexes, vertex waves, and sleep spindles in human subjects. We analyzed these waveforms based on both topographic EEG (electroencephalographic) maps and magnetic fields measurements, called MEGs (magnetoencephalograms). The components of magnetic fields perpendicular to the surface of the head were measured using a dc SQUID magnetometer with a second derivative gradiometer. In our computer simulation, the head is assumed to be a homogeneous spherical volume conductor, with electric sources of brain activity modeled as current dipoles. Comparison of computer simulations with the measured data, particularly the MEG, suggests that the source of K-complexes can be modeled by two current dipoles. A source for the vertex wave is modeled by a single current dipole which orients along the body axis out of the head. By again measuring the simultaneous MEG and EEG signals, it is possible to uniquely determine the orientation of this dipole, particularly when it is tilted slightly off-axis. In sleep stage 2, fast waves of magnetic fields consistently appeared, but EEG spindles appeared intermittently. The results suggest that there exist sources which are undetectable by electrical measurement but are detectable by magnetic-field measurement. Such source can be described by a pair of opposing dipoles of which directions are oppositely oriented.
LEMKE, Michael K.; APOSTOLOPOULOS, Yorghos; HEGE, Adam; WIDEMAN, Laurie; SÖNMEZ, Sevil
Long-haul truck drivers in the United States experience elevated cardiovascular health risks, possibly due to hypercholesterolemia. The current study has two objectives: 1) to generate a cholesterol profile for U.S. long-haul truck drivers; and 2) to determine the influence of work organization characteristics and sleep quality and duration on cholesterol levels of long-haul truck drivers. Survey and biometric data were collected from 262 long-haul truck drivers. Descriptive analyses were performed for demographic, work organization, sleep, and cholesterol measures. Linear regression and ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine for possible predictive relationships between demographic, work organization, and sleep variables, and cholesterol outcomes. The majority (66.4%) of drivers had a low HDL (<40 mg/dL), and nearly 42% of drivers had a high-risk total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio. Sleep quality was associated with HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol, and daily work hours were associated with LDL cholesterol. Workday sleep duration was associated with non-HDL cholesterol, and driving experience and sleep quality were associated with cholesterol ratio. Long-haul truck drivers have a high risk cholesterol profile, and sleep quality and work organization factors may induce these cholesterol outcomes. Targeted worksite health promotion programs are needed to curb these atherosclerotic risks. PMID:28049935
Lemke, Michael K; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hege, Adam; Wideman, Laurie; Sönmez, Sevil
Long-haul truck drivers in the United States experience elevated cardiovascular health risks, possibly due to hypercholesterolemia. The current study has two objectives: 1) to generate a cholesterol profile for U.S. long-haul truck drivers; and 2) to determine the influence of work organization characteristics and sleep quality and duration on cholesterol levels of long-haul truck drivers. Survey and biometric data were collected from 262 long-haul truck drivers. Descriptive analyses were performed for demographic, work organization, sleep, and cholesterol measures. Linear regression and ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine for possible predictive relationships between demographic, work organization, and sleep variables, and cholesterol outcomes. The majority (66.4%) of drivers had a low HDL (<40 mg/dL), and nearly 42% of drivers had a high-risk total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio. Sleep quality was associated with HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol, and daily work hours were associated with LDL cholesterol. Workday sleep duration was associated with non-HDL cholesterol, and driving experience and sleep quality were associated with cholesterol ratio. Long-haul truck drivers have a high risk cholesterol profile, and sleep quality and work organization factors may induce these cholesterol outcomes. Targeted worksite health promotion programs are needed to curb these atherosclerotic risks.
Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Peters, Jurriaan; Takeoka, Masanori; Rotenberg, Alexander; Prabhu, Sanjay; Gregas, Matt; Riviello, James J; Kothare, Sanjeev; Loddenkemper, Tobias
The study objective was to compare qualitatively the clinical features of patients with electrical status epilepticus in sleep with focal versus generalized sleep potentiated epileptiform activity. We enrolled patients 2 to 20 years of age, studied between 2001 and 2009, and with sleep potentiated epileptiform activity defined as an increase of epileptiform activity of 50% or more during non-rapid eye movement sleep compared with wakefulness. Eighty-five patients met the inclusion criteria, median age was 7.3 years, and 54 (63.5%) were boys. Sixty-seven (78.8%) patients had focal sleep potentiated epileptiform activity, whereas 18 (21.2%) had generalized sleep potentiated epileptiform activity. The 2 groups did not differ with respect to sex, age, presence of a structural brain abnormality, epilepsy, or other qualitative cognitive, motor, or behavioral problems. Our data suggest that there are no qualitative differences in the clinical features of patients with focal versus generalized sleep potentiated epileptiform activity.
Mijangos-Moreno, Stephanie; Poot-Aké, Alwin; Guzmán, Khalil; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Zaldívar-Rae, Jaime; Sarro-Ramírez, Andrea; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear protein that plays an essential role in diverse neurobiological processes. However, the role of PPARα on the sleep modulation is unknown. Here, rats treated with an intrahypothalamic injection of Wy14643 (10μg/1μL; PPARα agonist) enhanced wakefulness and decreased slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep whereas MK-886 (10μg/1μL; PPARα antagonist) promoted opposite effects. Moreover, Wy14643 increased dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and adenosine contents collected from nucleus accumbens. The levels of these neurochemicals were diminished after MK-886 treatment. The current findings suggest that PPARα may participate in the sleep and neurochemical modulation.
Van Cauter, Eve; Spiegel, Karine; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel
Reduced sleep duration and quality appear to be endemic in modern society. Curtailment of the bedtime period to minimum tolerability is thought to be efficient and harmless by many. It has been known for several decades that sleep is a major modulator of hormonal release, glucose regulation and cardiovascular function. In particular, slow wave sleep (SWS), thought to be the most restorative sleep stage, is associated with decreased heart rate, blood pressure, sympathetic nervous activity and cerebral glucose utilization, compared with wakefulness. During SWS, the anabolic growth hormone is released while the stress hormone cortisol is inhibited. In recent years, laboratory and epidemiologic evidence have converged to indicate that sleep loss may be a novel risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. The increased risk of obesity is possibly linked to the effect of sleep loss on hormones that play a major role in the central control of appetite and energy expenditure, such as leptin and ghrelin. Reduced leptin and increased ghrelin levels correlate with increases in subjective hunger when individuals are sleep restricted rather than well rested. Given the evidence, sleep curtailment appears to be an important, yet modifiable, risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity. The marked decrease in average sleep duration in the last 50 years coinciding with the increased prevalence of obesity, together with the observed adverse effects of recurrent partial sleep deprivation on metabolism and hormonal processes, may have important implications for public health. PMID:18929315
Van Cauter, Eve; Spiegel, Karine; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel
Reduced sleep duration and quality appear to be endemic in modern society. Curtailment of the bedtime period to minimum tolerability is thought to be efficient and harmless by many. It has been known for several decades that sleep is a major modulator of hormonal release, glucose regulation and cardiovascular function. In particular, slow wave sleep (SWS), thought to be the most restorative sleep stage, is associated with decreased heart rate, blood pressure, sympathetic nervous activity and cerebral glucose utilization, compared with wakefulness. During SWS, the anabolic growth hormone is released while the stress hormone cortisol is inhibited. In recent years, laboratory and epidemiologic evidence have converged to indicate that sleep loss may be a novel risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. The increased risk of obesity is possibly linked to the effect of sleep loss on hormones that play a major role in the central control of appetite and energy expenditure, such as leptin and ghrelin. Reduced leptin and increased ghrelin levels correlate with increases in subjective hunger when individuals are sleep restricted rather than well rested. Given the evidence, sleep curtailment appears to be an important, yet modifiable, risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity. The marked decrease in average sleep duration in the last 50 years coinciding with the increased prevalence of obesity, together with the observed adverse effects of recurrent partial sleep deprivation on metabolism and hormonal processes, may have important implications for public health.
Sherwood, Andrew; Routledge, Faye S.; Wohlgemuth, William K.; Hinderliter, Alan L.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.; Blumenthal, James A.
Background Blunted blood pressure dipping is an established predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Although blunted blood pressure dipping is more common in African Americans than whites, the factors contributing to this ethnic difference are not well understood. This study examined the relationships of blood pressure dipping to ethnicity, body mass index, sleep quality, and fall in sympathetic nervous system activity during the sleep-period. Methods On 3 occasions, 128 participants with untreated high clinic blood pressure (130–159/85–99 mmHg) underwent assessments of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, sleep quality (evaluated by sleep interview, self-report, actigraphy) and sleep-period fall in sympathetic activity (measured by waking/sleep urinary catecholamine excretion). Results Compared to whites (n=72), African Americans (n=56) exhibited higher sleep-period systolic (p=.01) and diastolic blood pressure (p<.001), blunted systolic blood pressure dipping (p=.01), greater body mass index (p=.049) and poorer sleep quality (p=.02). Systolic blood pressure dipping was correlated with body mass index (r=−0.32, p<.001), sleep quality (r=0.30, p<.001), and sleep-period fall in sympathetic activity (r=0.30, p<.001). Multiple regression analyses indicated that these 3 factors were independent determinants of sleep-period systolic blood pressure dipping; ethnic differences in dipping were attenuated when controlling for these factors. Conclusions Blunted blood pressure dipping was related to higher body mass index, poorer sleep quality, and a lesser decline in sleep-period sympathetic nervous system activity. Although African American ethnicity also was associated with blunted dipping compared to whites in unadjusted analyses, this ethnic difference was diminished when body mass index, sleep quality and sympathetic activity were taken into account. PMID:21633397
Cassaglia, Priscila A; Griffiths, Robert I; Walker, Adrian M
Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in neurons projecting to skeletal muscle blood vessels increases during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, substantially exceeding SNA of non-REM (NREM) sleep and quiet wakefulness (QW). Similar SNA increases to cerebral blood vessels may regulate the cerebral circulation in REM sleep, but this is unknown. We hypothesized that cerebral SNA increases during phasic REM sleep, constricting cerebral vessels as a protective mechanism against cerebral hyperperfusion during the large arterial pressure surges that characterize this sleep state. We tested this hypothesis using a newly developed model to continuously record SNA in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) before, during, and after arterial pressure surges occurring during REM in spontaneously sleeping lambs. Arterial pressure (AP), intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral vascular resistance [CVR = (AP - ICP)/CBF], and SNA from the SCG were recorded in lambs (n = 5) undergoing spontaneous sleep-wake cycles. In REM sleep, CBF was greatest (REM > QW = NREM, P < 0.05) and CVR was least (REM < QW = NREM, P < 0.05). SNA in the SCG did not change from QW to NREM sleep but increased during tonic REM sleep, with a further increase during phasic REM sleep (phasic REM > tonic REM > QW = NREM, P < 0.05). Coherent averaging revealed that SNA increases preceded AP surges in phasic REM sleep by 12 s (P < 0.05). We report the first recordings of cerebral SNA during natural sleep-wake cycles. SNA increases markedly during tonic REM sleep, and further in phasic REM sleep. As SNA increases precede AP surges, they may serve to protect the brain against potentially damaging intravascular pressure changes or hyperperfusion in REM sleep.
Sahin, Sevil; Ozdemir, Kevser; Unsal, Alaattin; Temiz, Nazen
Objective: To determine the mobile phone addiction level in university students, to examine several associated factors and to evaluate the relation between the addiction level and sleep quality. Methods: The study is a cross-sectional research conducted on the students of the Sakarya University between 01 November 2012 and 01 February 2013. The study group included 576 students. The Problematic Mobile Phone Use Scale was used for evaluating the mobile phone addiction level and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index for assessing the sleep quality. Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman’s Correlation Analysis were used for analyzing the data. Results: The study group consisted of 296 (51.4%) females and 208 (48.6%) males. The mean age was 20.83 ± 1.90 years (min:17, max:28). The addiction level was determined to be higher in the second-year students, those with poor family income, those with type A personality, those whose age for first mobile phone is 13 and below and those whose duration of daily mobile phone use is above 5 hours (p < 0.05 for each). The sleep quality worsens with increasing mobile phone addiction level (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The sleep quality worsens with increasing addiction level. It was concluded that referring the students with suspected addiction to advanced healthcare facilities, performing occasional scans for early diagnosis and informing the students about controlled mobile phone use would be useful. PMID:24353658
Storch, Corinna; Höhne, Arnold; Holsboer, Florian; Ohl, Frauke
Sleep-wake behaviour in mice is known to interact with various behavioural dimensions. Therefore, it is necessary to control for such dimensions when evaluating sleep in mice. The characterisation of sleep in rodents usually is based on EEG signals. Since this method demands the invasive implantation of electrodes, it cannot be integrated into general behavioural phenotyping procedures. Thus, non- or minimum-invasive methods are needed for the analysis of sleep-wake behaviour. Although physiological parameters, like for instance general locomotor activity, allow for the assessment of sleep-wake behaviour in mice, existing methods lack reliability especially in measuring stationary and three-dimensional activities. In this study, a small magnet was implanted subcutaneously near the neck muscles of mice and each movement of the magnet was registered via a sensor plate. For validation of the described method, the effects of sleep deprivation were evaluated by both the magnet and the EEG in parallel. Our results show that the data obtained via the subcutaneously implanted magnet represent a reliable and sensitive measurement of quantitative aspects of sleep-wake behaviour: spatial variation as well as stationary activities could be dissociated from sleep. Qualitative sleep characteristics were not detected. In summary, this minimum invasive method allows for the detection of quantitative alterations in sleep-wake behaviour in mice, thus, offering a useful, rapid pre-screen in animal sleep research.
Bader, Klaus; Schäfer, Valérie; Nissen, Lukas; Schenkel, Maya
The present study explores the relationship between childhood maltreatment experiences and spectral power in high-frequency EEG activity during sleep in a sample of adults experiencing primary insomnia. Forty-five nontreated patients with primary insomnia spent three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory, during which polysomnographic recordings were carried out. Nonrapid eye movement and rapid eye movement EEG data were analyzed using spectral analysis. In addition, each participant completed several self-report questionnaires assessing maltreatment in childhood and adolescence, current level of stress, and current depressivity. Insomnia patients with self-reported history of moderate to severe childhood maltreatment (MAL group; n = 25), as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, were compared with insomnia patients without such a history (non-MAL group; n = 20). The MAL group exhibited more absolute and relative beta 1 and beta 2 power in nonrapid eye movement sleep and more absolute beta 1 and beta 2 activity in rapid eye movement sleep than the non-MAL group. Contrary to hypothesis, no group differences were found in gamma frequency band. The results suggest an association between history of childhood maltreatment and increased beta EEG activity particularly during nonrapid eye movement sleep in adult insomnia, what may reflect heightened psychophysiologic arousal during sleep.
De Carli, Fabrizio; Proserpio, Paola; Morrone, Elisa; Sartori, Ivana; Ferrara, Michele; Gibbs, Steve Alex; De Gennaro, Luigi; Lo Russo, Giorgio
When dreaming during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, we can perform complex motor behaviors while remaining motionless. How the motor cortex behaves during this state remains unknown. Here, using intracerebral electrodes sampling the human motor cortex in pharmacoresistant epileptic patients, we report a pattern of electroencephalographic activation during REM sleep similar to that observed during the performance of a voluntary movement during wakefulness. This pattern is present during phasic REM sleep but not during tonic REM sleep, the latter resembling relaxed wakefulness. This finding may help clarify certain phenomenological aspects observed in REM sleep behavior disorder. Ann Neurol 2016;79:326–330 PMID:26575212
Onton, Julie A; Kang, Dae Y; Coleman, Todd P
Brain activity during sleep is a powerful marker of overall health, but sleep lab testing is prohibitively expensive and only indicated for major sleep disorders. This report demonstrates that mobile 2-channel in-home electroencephalogram (EEG) recording devices provided sufficient information to detect and visualize sleep EEG. Displaying whole-night sleep EEG in a spectral display allowed for quick assessment of general sleep stability, cycle lengths, stage lengths, dominant frequencies and other indices of sleep quality. By visualizing spectral data down to 0.1 Hz, a differentiation emerged between slow-wave sleep with dominant frequency between 0.1-1 Hz or 1-3 Hz, but rarely both. Thus, we present here the new designations, Hi and Lo Deep sleep, according to the frequency range with dominant power. Simultaneously recorded electrodermal activity (EDA) was primarily associated with Lo Deep and very rarely with Hi Deep or any other stage. Therefore, Hi and Lo Deep sleep appear to be physiologically distinct states that may serve unique functions during sleep. We developed an algorithm to classify five stages (Awake, Light, Hi Deep, Lo Deep and rapid eye movement (REM)) using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), model fitting with the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, and estimation of the most likely sleep state sequence by the Viterbi algorithm. The resulting automatically generated sleep hypnogram can help clinicians interpret the spectral display and help researchers computationally quantify sleep stages across participants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the feasibility of in-home sleep EEG collection, a rapid and informative sleep report format, and novel deep sleep designations accounting for spectral and physiological differences.
Onton, Julie A.; Kang, Dae Y.; Coleman, Todd P.
Brain activity during sleep is a powerful marker of overall health, but sleep lab testing is prohibitively expensive and only indicated for major sleep disorders. This report demonstrates that mobile 2-channel in-home electroencephalogram (EEG) recording devices provided sufficient information to detect and visualize sleep EEG. Displaying whole-night sleep EEG in a spectral display allowed for quick assessment of general sleep stability, cycle lengths, stage lengths, dominant frequencies and other indices of sleep quality. By visualizing spectral data down to 0.1 Hz, a differentiation emerged between slow-wave sleep with dominant frequency between 0.1–1 Hz or 1–3 Hz, but rarely both. Thus, we present here the new designations, Hi and Lo Deep sleep, according to the frequency range with dominant power. Simultaneously recorded electrodermal activity (EDA) was primarily associated with Lo Deep and very rarely with Hi Deep or any other stage. Therefore, Hi and Lo Deep sleep appear to be physiologically distinct states that may serve unique functions during sleep. We developed an algorithm to classify five stages (Awake, Light, Hi Deep, Lo Deep and rapid eye movement (REM)) using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), model fitting with the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, and estimation of the most likely sleep state sequence by the Viterbi algorithm. The resulting automatically generated sleep hypnogram can help clinicians interpret the spectral display and help researchers computationally quantify sleep stages across participants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the feasibility of in-home sleep EEG collection, a rapid and informative sleep report format, and novel deep sleep designations accounting for spectral and physiological differences. PMID:27965558
Madsen, P L; Vorstrup, S
A review of the current literature regarding sleep-induced changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate (CMR) is presented. Early investigations have led to the notion that dreamless sleep was characterized by global values of CBF and CMR practically at the level of wakefulness, while rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (dream sleep) was a state characterized by a dramatically increased level of CBF and possibly also of CMR. However, recent investigations firmly contradict this notion. Investigations on CBF and CMR performed during non-REM sleep, taking the effect of different levels of sleep into consideration, show that light sleep (stage II) is characterized by global levels of CBF and CMR only slightly reduced by 3-10% below the level associated with wakefulness, whereas CBF and CMR during deep sleep (stage III-IV) is dramatically reduced by 25-44%. Furthermore, recent data indicate that global levels of CBF and CMR are about the same during REM sleep as in wakefulness. On the regional level, deep sleep seems to be associated with a uniform decrease in regional CBF and CMR. Investigations concerning regional CBF and CMR during REM sleep are few but data from recent investigations seem to identify site-specific changes in regional CBF and CMR during REM sleep. CBF and CMR are reflections of cerebral synaptic activity and the magnitude of reduction in these variables associated with deep sleep indicates that overall cerebral synaptic activity is reduced to approximately one-half the level associated with wakefulness, while cerebral synaptic activity levels during REM sleep are similar to wakefulness. However, even though the new understanding of CBF and CMR during sleep provides significant and important information of the brain's mode of working during sleep, it does not at its current state identify the physiological processes involved in sleep or the physiological role of sleep.
Patel, Minal C; Shaikh, Wasim A; Singh, S K
Recently studies conducted in various parts of the world indicate short sleep duration as a novel risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes. However, ethnic differences exist in the etiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents. A randomized, non-experimental, cross-sectional study was done on the voluntary participants n = 332 Gujarati adolescent boys and girls of age group 13-20 years studying at the schools and colleges in the Anand district. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, body composition and blood glucose level. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one-year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1) Adequate sleep duration at night, ASDN (> or = 7 hrs) and 2) Inadequate sleep duration at night, ISDN (< 7 hrs) groups. One-way ANOVA and post hoc Tuky-Krammer test were used for finding significant differences (P < 0.05) between groups. No significant difference was found in all parameters of body composition and fasting blood glucose level between the ASDN group and ISDN group in both boys and girls. However, gender difference exists in the body composition and blood glucose level. The current study indicates that inadequate sleep duration at night (< 7 hrs) does not affect the blood glucose level of the Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 13-20 years.
Bennion, Kelly A; Payne, Jessica D; Kensinger, Elizabeth A
Research has investigated how sleep affects emotional memory and how emotion enhances visual processing, but these questions are typically asked by re-presenting an emotional stimulus at retrieval. For the first time, we investigate whether sleep affects neural activity during retrieval when the memory cue is a neutral context that was previously presented with either emotional or nonemotional content during encoding. Participants encoded scenes composed of a negative or neutral object on a neutral background either in the morning (preceding 12 hours awake; wake group) or evening (preceding 12 hours including a night of sleep; sleep group). At retrieval, participants viewed the backgrounds without their objects, distinguishing new backgrounds from those previously studied. Occipital activity was greater within the sleep group than the wake group specifically during the successful retrieval of neutral backgrounds that had been studied with negative (but not neutral) objects. Moreover, there was enhanced connectivity between the middle occipital gyrus and hippocampus following sleep. Within the sleep group, the percentage of REM sleep obtained correlated with activity in the middle occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus, and cuneus during the successful retrieval of neutral backgrounds previously paired with negative objects. These results confirm that emotion affects neural activity during retrieval even when the cues themselves are neutral, and demonstrate, for the first time, that this residual effect of emotion on visual activity is greater after sleep and may be maximized by REM sleep.
Smolen, Magdalena M.
This paper presents automatic analysis of some selected human electroencephalographic patterns during deep sleep using the Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm. The periodicity of deep sleep EEG patterns was observed by calculating autocorrelation functions of their percentage contributions. The study confirmed the increasing trend of amplitude-weighted average frequency of sleep spindles from frontal to posterior derivations. The dominant frequencies from the left and the right brain hemisphere were strongly correlated.
Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S.; Kaiser, David J.; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey
The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent’s residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise. PMID:27529260
Zhang, Quan; Wang, Dawei; Qin, Wen; Li, Qiong; Chen, Baoyuan; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui
Study Objectives: Structural and functional brain changes may contribute to neural dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the effect of OSA on resting-state brain activity has not been established. The objective of this study was to investigate alterations in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the common brain networks in patients with OSA and their relationships with changes in gray matter volume (GMV) in the corresponding brain regions. Designs: Resting-state functional and structural MRI data were acquired from patients with OSA and healthy controls. Seven brain networks were identified by independent component analysis. The rsFC in each network was compared between groups and the GMV of brain regions with significant differences in rsFC was also compared. Setting: University hospital. Patients and Participants: Twenty-four male patients with untreated OSA and 21 matched healthy controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: OSA specifically affected the cognitive and sensorimotor-related brain networks but not the visual and auditory networks. The medial prefrontal cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed decreased rsFC and GMV in patients with OSA, suggesting structural and functional deficits. The right DLPFC and left precentral gyrus showed decreased rsFC and unchanged GMV, suggesting a functional deficit. The right posterior cingulate cortex demonstrated increased rsFC and unchanged GMV, suggesting functional compensation. In patients with OSA, the rsFC of the right DLPFC was negatively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index. Conclusions: OSA specifically affects resting-state functional connectivity in cognitive and sensorimotor-related brain networks, which may be related to the impaired cognitive and motor functions in these patients. Citation: Zhang Q; Wang D; Qin W; Li Q; Chen B; Zhang Y; Yu C. Altered resting-state brain activity in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2013
Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi; Frey, Sylvia; Knoblauch, Vera; Cajochen, Christian
Dreaming pertains to both REM and NREM sleep. However, frequency and regional specific differences in EEG activity remains controversial. We investigated NREM and REM sleep EEG power density associated with and without dream recall in 17 young subjects during a 40-h multiple nap protocol under constant routine conditions. NREM sleep was associated with lower EEG power density for dream recall in the delta range, particularly in frontal derivations, and in the spindle range in centro-parietal derivations. REM sleep was associated with low frontal alpha activity and with high alpha and beta activity in occipital derivations. Our data indicate that specific EEG frequency- and topography changes underlie differences between dream recall and no recall after both NREM and REM sleep awakening. This dual NREM-REM sleep modulation holds strong implications for the mechanistic understanding of this complex ongoing cognitive process.
Abásolo, Daniel; Simons, Samantha; Morgado da Silva, Rita; Tononi, Giulio; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V
Understanding the dynamics of brain activity manifested in the EEG, local field potentials (LFP), and neuronal spiking is essential for explaining their underlying mechanisms and physiological significance. Much has been learned about sleep regulation using conventional EEG power spectrum, coherence, and period-amplitude analyses, which focus primarily on frequency and amplitude characteristics of the signals and on their spatio-temporal synchronicity. However, little is known about the effects of ongoing brain state or preceding sleep-wake history on the nonlinear dynamics of brain activity. Recent advances in developing novel mathematical approaches for investigating temporal structure of brain activity based on such measures, as Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC) can provide insights that go beyond those obtained with conventional techniques of signal analysis. Here, we used extensive data sets obtained in spontaneously awake and sleeping adult male laboratory rats, as well as during and after sleep deprivation, to perform a detailed analysis of cortical LFP and neuronal activity with LZC approach. We found that activated brain states-waking and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are characterized by higher LZC compared with non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Notably, LZC values derived from the LFP were especially low during early NREM sleep after sleep deprivation and toward the middle of individual NREM sleep episodes. We conclude that LZC is an important and yet largely unexplored measure with a high potential for investigating neurophysiological mechanisms of brain activity in health and disease.
Mcneil, Jessica; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Geneviève; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; Leblanc, Allana G; Borghese, Michael M; Chaput, Jean-Philippe
Cross-sectional associations between objectively-measured sleep duration, sleep efficiency and sleep timing with adiposity and physical activity were examined in a cohort of 567 children from Ottawa, Canada. Five-hundred and fifteen children (58.8% female; age: 10.0 ± 0.4 years) had valid sleep measurements and were included in the present analyses. Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep parameters were assessed over 7 days (actigraphy). Height, weight and waist circumference were measured according to standardized procedures. Percentage body fat was assessed using bioelectric impedance analysis. Light physical activity and sedentary time were greater in children with the shortest sleep durations (P < 0.0001), whereas children with the highest sleep efficiencies had lower light physical activity and more sedentary time across tertiles (P < 0.0001). In multivariable linear regression analyses, and after adjusting for a number of covariates, sleep efficiency was inversely related to all adiposity indices (P < 0.05). However, sleep duration and sleep timing were not associated with adiposity indices after controlling for covariates. Inverse associations were noted between sleep duration and light physical activity and sedentary time (P < 0.0001). Sleep efficiency (P < 0.0001), wake time and sleep timing midpoint (P < 0.05) were negatively associated with light physical activity, but positively associated with sedentary time. In conclusion, only sleep efficiency was independently correlated with adiposity in this sample of children. Participants with the shortest sleep durations or highest sleep efficiencies had greater sedentary time. More research is needed to develop better sleep recommendations in children that are based on objective measures of sleep duration, sleep efficiency and sleep timing alike.
A pilot survey was undertaken to elucidate sleep quality, as well as psycho-social and medical symptoms and mood, among people who had lived for many years in an area with high levels of road traffic noise during night hours and inhabitants of a quiet control area: 106 personal interviews were performed and specific questionnaires on sleep and mood answered by 63 persons during three consecutive days. It was found that both sleep quality and mood (social orientation, activity, wellbeing and extroversion) were depressed in the noisy area as compared with a control area. Symptoms of tiredness, headache and nervous stomach disorders were more frequent. A significant relationship between sensitivity to noise and sleep quality was also found. From this pilot study hypotheses may be formulated about a relationship between environmental noise and different psycho-social and medical symptoms. It is suggested that similar studies on a larger scale are performed to elucidate long-term effects of noise.
Mitra, Anish; Snyder, Abraham Z; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Laufs, Helmut; Raichle, Marcus E
Propagation of slow intrinsic brain activity has been widely observed in electrophysiogical studies of slow wave sleep (SWS). However, in human resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI), intrinsic activity has been understood predominantly in terms of zero-lag temporal synchrony (functional connectivity) within systems known as resting state networks (RSNs). Prior rs-fMRI studies have found that RSNs are generally preserved across wake and sleep. Here, we use a recently developed analysis technique to study propagation of infra-slow intrinsic blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in normal adults during wake and SWS. This analysis reveals marked changes in propagation patterns in SWS vs. wake. Broadly, ordered propagation is preserved within traditionally defined RSNs but lost between RSNs. Additionally, propagation between cerebral cortex and subcortical structures reverses directions, and intra-cortical propagation becomes reorganized, especially in visual and sensorimotor cortices. These findings show that propagated rs-fMRI activity informs theoretical accounts of the neural functions of sleep.
Middlemiss, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A; Goldberg, Wendy A; Nathans, Laura
This study examines change in the synchrony between mothers' and infants' physiology as 25 infants (11 males; 4 to 10 months of age) participate in a 5-day inpatient sleep training program in which they learn to self-settle through extinction of crying responses during the transition to sleep. The mothers' and infants' experience during the extinction protocol was "yoked" by the infants' behavioral signaling during the sleep transition period. Saliva was sampled for mothers and infants at initiation of infants' nighttime sleep and following infants' falling to sleep on two program days and later assayed for cortisol. As expected on the first day of the program, mothers' and infants' cortisol levels were positively associated at initiation of nighttime sleep following a day of shared activities. Also, when infants expressed distress in response to the sleep transition, mother and infant cortisol responses were again positively associated. On the third day of the program, however, results showed that infants' physiological and behavioral responses were dissociated. They no longer expressed behavioral distress during the sleep transition but their cortisol levels were elevated. Without the infants' distress cue, mothers' cortisol levels decreased. The dissociation between infants' behavioral and physiological responses resulted in asynchrony in mothers' and infants' cortisol levels. The findings are discussed in relation to understanding the determinants and implications of maternal-infant physiological synchrony in early childhood.
Fields, Alison J; Hoyt, Robert E; Linnville, Steven E; Moore, Jeffery L
This study explored whether physical activity and sleep, combined with the biomarker C-reactive protein, indexed positive health in older men. Many were former prisoners of war, with most remaining psychologically resilient and free of any psychiatric diagnoses. Activity and sleep were recorded through actigraphy in 120 veterans (86 resilient and 34 nonresilient) for 7 days. Resilient men had higher physical activity, significantly lower C-reactive protein levels, and 53 percent had lower cardiac-disease risk compared to nonresilient men. Sleep was adequate and not associated with C-reactive protein. Results suggest continued study is needed in actigraphy and C-reactive protein as means to index positive health.
Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi; Korbo, Lise; Friberg, Lars; Jennum, Poul
Study Objectives: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown that patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD) have an increased risk of developing an α-synucleinopathy in later life. Although abundant studies have shown that degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is associated with daytime motor function in Parkinson disease, only few studies have investigated the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. Methods: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients without RBD, and 10 healthy controls were included and assessed with (123)I-N-omega-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT) Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning (123I-FP-CIT SPECT), neurological examination, and polysomnography. Results: iRBD patients and PD patients with RBD had increased EMG-activity compared to healthy controls. 123I-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen-region was highest in controls, followed by iRBD patients, and lowest in PD patients. In iRBD patients, EMG-activity in the mentalis muscle was correlated to 123I-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD. Citation: Zoetmulder M, Nikolic M, Biernat H, Korbo L, Friberg L, Jennum P. Increased motor activity during rem sleep is linked with dopamine function in idiopathic REM sleep behavior
Harada, Yuka; Oga, Toru; Chin, Kazuo; Takegami, Misa; Takahashi, Ken-Ichi; Sumi, Kensuke; Nakamura, Takaya; Nakayama-Ashida, Yukiyo; Minami, Itsunari; Horita, Sachiko; Oka, Yasunori; Wakamura, Tomoko; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Mishima, Michiaki; Kadotani, Hiroshi
Obstructive sleep apnoea is common in patients with diabetes. Recently, it was reported that short sleep duration and sleepiness had deleterious effects on glucose metabolism. Thereafter, several reports showed relationships between glucose metabolism and obstructive sleep apnoea, sleep duration or sleepiness. But the interrelationships among those factors based on recent epidemiological data have not been examined. We analysed data on 275 male employees (age, 44±8years; body mass index, 23.9±3.1kg m(-2) ) who underwent a cross-sectional health examination in Japan. We measured fasting plasma glucose, sleep duration using a sleep diary and an actigraph for 7days, and respiratory disturbance index with a type 3 portable monitor for two nights. Fifty-four subjects (19.6%) had impaired glucose metabolism, with 21 having diabetes. Of those 21 (body mass index, 25.9±3.8kgm(-2) ), 17 (81.0%) had obstructive sleep apnoea (respiratory disturbance index≥5). Regarding the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea, 10, four and three had mild, moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnoea, respectively. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea was greater in those with than without diabetes (P=0.037). Multiple regression analyses showed that the respiratory disturbance index independently related to fasting plasma glucose only in the diabetic subjects. In patients with diabetes, after adjustment for age, waist circumference, etc. sleep fragmentation had a greater correlation with fasting plasma glucose than sleep duration, but without significance (P=0.10). Because the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea is extremely high in patients with diabetes, sufficient sleep duration with treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea, which ameliorates sleep fragmentation, might improve fasting plasma glucose.
Kitamura, Shingo; Katayose, Yasuko; Nakazaki, Kyoko; Motomura, Yuki; Oba, Kentaro; Katsunuma, Ruri; Terasawa, Yuri; Enomoto, Minori; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hida, Akiko; Mishima, Kazuo
In this study, we hypothesized that dynamics of sleep time obtained over consecutive days of extended sleep in a laboratory reflect an individual’s optimal sleep duration (OSD) and that the difference between OSD and habitual sleep duration (HSD) at home represents potential sleep debt (PSD). We found that OSD varies among individuals and PSD showed stronger correlation with subjective/objective sleepiness than actual sleep time, interacting with individual’s vulnerability of sleep loss. Furthermore, only 1 h of PSD takes four days to recover to their optimal level. Recovery from PSD was also associated with the improvement in glycometabolism, thyrotropic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Additionally, the increase (rebound) in total sleep time from HSD at the first extended sleep would be a simple indicator of PSD. These findings confirmed self-evaluating the degree of sleep debt at home as a useful clinical marker. To establish appropriate sleep habits, it is necessary to evaluate OSD, vulnerability to sleep loss, and sleep homeostasis characteristics on an individual basis. PMID:27775095
Kitamura, Shingo; Katayose, Yasuko; Nakazaki, Kyoko; Motomura, Yuki; Oba, Kentaro; Katsunuma, Ruri; Terasawa, Yuri; Enomoto, Minori; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hida, Akiko; Mishima, Kazuo
In this study, we hypothesized that dynamics of sleep time obtained over consecutive days of extended sleep in a laboratory reflect an individual's optimal sleep duration (OSD) and that the difference between OSD and habitual sleep duration (HSD) at home represents potential sleep debt (PSD). We found that OSD varies among individuals and PSD showed stronger correlation with subjective/objective sleepiness than actual sleep time, interacting with individual's vulnerability of sleep loss. Furthermore, only 1 h of PSD takes four days to recover to their optimal level. Recovery from PSD was also associated with the improvement in glycometabolism, thyrotropic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Additionally, the increase (rebound) in total sleep time from HSD at the first extended sleep would be a simple indicator of PSD. These findings confirmed self-evaluating the degree of sleep debt at home as a useful clinical marker. To establish appropriate sleep habits, it is necessary to evaluate OSD, vulnerability to sleep loss, and sleep homeostasis characteristics on an individual basis.
Rahangdale, Shilpa; Yeh, Susie Yim; Novack, Victor; Stevenson, Karen; Barnard, Marc R.; Furman, Mark I.; Frelinger, Andrew L.; Michelson, Alan D.; Malhotra, Atul
Objectives: Literature regarding platelet function in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has considerable limitations. Given the central role of platelets in atherothrombosis and the known cardiovascular risk of OSA, we hypothesized that OSA severity is predictive of platelet function, independent of known comorbidities. Design: Obese subjects, without comorbidities, underwent overnight, in-lab polysomnography. The following morning, 5 biomarkers of platelet activation were measured by whole-blood flow cytometry at baseline and in response to agonists (no stimulation, stimulation with 5 μM ADP agonist, and stimulation with 20 μM ADP agonist): platelet surface P-selectin, activated glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa, and GPIb receptor expression, platelet-monocyte aggregation (PMA) and platelet-neutrophil aggregation (PNA). Results: Of the 77 subjects, 47 were diagnosed with OSA (median apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] of 24.7 ± 28.1/h in subjects with OSA and 3.0 ± 3.9/h in subjects without OSA, p < 0.001). The groups were matched for body mass index, with a mean body mass index of 40.3 ± 9.6 kg/m2 in subjects with OSA and 38.9 ± 6.0 kg/m2 in subjects without OSA (p = 0.48). A comparison of time spent with an oxygen saturation of less than 90% showed that subjects who had 1 minute or more of desaturation time per hour of sleep had lower GPIb fluorescence in circulating platelets, as compared with those subjects who had less than 1 minute of desaturation time per hour of sleep; similar findings were observed following 5 μM and 20 μM of ADP stimulation, as compared with control vehicle, suggesting higher levels of circulating platelet activity. In multivariate analyses, only nocturnal hypoxemia and female sex predicted agonist response. Platelet surface P-selectin, platelet surface-activated GPIIb/IIIa, PMA, and PNA were not significantly correlated with markers of OSA. Conclusions: In obese patients with OSA, platelet activation is associated with greater levels of oxygen
Aytekin, Ebru; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Komut, Ece Akyol; Okur, Sibel Caglar; Burnaz, Ozer; Caglar, Nil Sayiner; Demiryontar, Dilay Yilmaz
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to assess the relationship between sleep disorder and pain, quality of life, and disability. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four patients were included in the study and classified as having mild, moderate, or severe obstructive sleep apnea. Chronic widespread pain, quality of life, and disability were evaluated. [Results] Forty-one patients (55.4%) had chronic widespread pain. Female patients had a higher incidence of chronic pain, and female patients with chronic pain had higher body mass indexes, pain levels, and disability scores than did male patients. Physical component scores of female patients with chronic pain were lower than those of male patients. No correlation was observed between the degree of sleep disorder and severity of pain, pain duration, disability, or quality of life in obstructive sleep apnea patients with pain. [Conclusion] This study showed a 55.4% prevalence of chronic widespread pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a greater risk of chronic pain in female than in male patients. Female patients with obstructive sleep apnea and chronic pain have higher pain and disability levels and a lower quality of life. PMID:26504332
de Oliveira, Ricardo A; Cunha, Geanne M A; Borges, Karla Daisy M; de Bruin, Gabriela S; dos Santos-Filho, Emídio A; Viana, Glauce S B; de Bruin, Veralice M S
Partial sleep deprivation is clinically associated with fatigue, depressive symptoms and reduced memory. Previously, it has been demonstrated that venlafaxine, an atypical antidepressant, increases the levels of noradrenaline and serotonin in rat hippocampus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of venlafaxine on depression, anxiety, locomotor activity and memory in a model of REM sleep (REMs) deprivation in rats. We have also studied the influence of venlafaxine on monoamine levels in the striatum. Six groups of animals (N=20 each) were treated with saline or venlafaxine (1 or 10 mg/kg) during 10 days, submitted or not to REMs deprivation and studied with the forced swimming test of Porsolt (STP), plus-maze, passive avoidance and open-field tests right after sleep deprivation. Animals were also studied for passive avoidance 24 h later (rebound period). Brain samples for monoamine measurements were collected either immediately after REMs deprivation or after 24 h. Both REMs deprivation and venlafaxine showed an antidepressant effect. An anxiolytic effect was also observed after REMs deprivation. Previous treatment with venlafaxine blocked the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of REMs deprivation. REMs deprivation alone and treatment with venlafaxine 10 mg/kg increased locomotor activity, and this effect was inhibited by venlafaxine in REMs deprived rats. Both venlafaxine treatment and REMs deprivation induced weight loss. Venlafaxine treatment, but not REMs deprivation, induced an increase in striatal dopamine (DA) levels. The combination of REMs deprivation and venlafaxine treatment was associated with an increase in serotonin turnover 24 h after rebound sleep. In this study, venlafaxine treatment hindered most behavioral effects of REMs deprivation and was associated with an interference on dopamine and serotonin systems in the striatum.
Wachob, David; Lorenzi, David G.
Sleep-related problems are often documented in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examined physical activity as a variable that might influence sleep quality in children with ASD. Ten children, ages 9-16 years, were asked to wear accelerometer devices for 7 days in order to track objective measures of activity and sleep…
Takahashi, K; Kayama, Y; Lin, J S; Sakai, K
Using extracellular single-unit recordings in nonanesthetized, head-restrained mice, we examined spontaneous and evoked discharges of noradrenaline-containing locus coeruleus (NA-LC) neurons across the sleep-waking cycle. The neurons were all characterized by triphasic broad action potentials. They discharged as either slow (<6 Hz) tonic, single spikes or phasic clusters of spikes specific to wakefulness (W), the discharge rate being highest during active waking and significantly lower during quiet waking. They remained totally silent during both slow-wave sleep (SWS) and paradoxical (or rapid eye movement (REM)) sleep. The phasic unit activity was related to abrupt activation of electromyographic activity occurring either spontaneously or elicited by alerting sensory stimuli. At the transition from waking to sleep, they ceased firing before the onset of cortical synchronization (deactivation), the first sign of electroencephalographic sleep, a significant decrease in firing rate preceding the onset of unit activity of sleep-specific neurons in the basal forebrain (BFB)/preoptic (POA) hypothalamus, as described previously [Takahashi K, Lin JS, Sakai K (2009) Neuroscience 161:269-292]. At the transition from SWS to waking, they fired before the onset of both cortical activation and a significant decrease in activity of sleep-specific neurons. These findings support the previous view that the NA-LC system is involved in both tonic and phasic processes of arousal, and further support our previous proposals that initiation of sleep is caused by decreased activity of waking-promoting neurons (disfacilitation) and that NA-LC neurons play an important role in the sleep/waking switch, that is from waking to sleep and from sleep to waking [Takahashi K, Lin JS, Sakai K (2009) Neuroscience 161:269-292].
Saletin, Jared M; Coon, William G; Carskadon, Mary A
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficits in motor learning and sleep. In healthy adults, overnight improvements in motor skills are associated with sleep spindle activity in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). This association is poorly characterized in children, particularly in pediatric ADHD. Polysomnographic sleep was monitored in 7 children with ADHD and 14 typically developing controls. All children were trained on a validated motor sequence task (MST) in the evening with retesting the following morning. Analyses focused on MST precision (speed-accuracy trade-off). NREM Stage 2 sleep EEG power spectral analyses focused on spindle-frequency EEG activity in the sigma (12-15 Hz) band. The ADHD group demonstrated a selective decrease in power within the sigma band. Evening MST precision was lower in ADHD, yet no difference in performance was observed following sleep. Moreover, ADHD status moderated the association between slow sleep spindle activity (12-13.5 Hz) and overnight improvement; spindle-frequency EEG activity was positively associated with performance improvements in children with ADHD but not in controls. These data highlight the importance of sleep in supporting next-day behavior in ADHD while indicating that differences in sleep neurophysiology may contribute to deficits in this population.
Turner, C; Belyavin, A J; Nicholson, A N
The duration of activity of modafinil was investigated in healthy male volunteers in two double-blind crossover studies. Mode of action was explored using a statistical model concerned with the relationship between total sleep duration and that of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Nocturnal sleep (23:00-07:00) followed by next-day performance (09:00-17:00) was studied in 12 subjects administered 100, 200, 300 mg modafinil and placebo, 0.5 h before bedtime. Performance overnight (19:00-08:45) followed by sleep (09:15-15:15) was studied in nine subjects administered 100, 200, 300, 400 mg modafinil, 300 mg caffeine and placebo at 22:15. Modafinil dose-dependently reduced sleep duration (nocturnal: 200 mg, p<0.05; 300 mg, p<0.001; morning: 300 and 400 mg, p<0.05) and REM sleep (nocturnal: 300 mg; morning: 400 mg; p<0.05). The statistical model revealed that reduced REM sleep was due to alerting activity, with no evidence of direct suppression of REM sleep, suggesting dopaminergic activity. Enhanced performance with modafinil during overnight work varied with dose (200 mg>100 mg; 300, 400 mg>200, 100 mg, caffeine). However, in the study of next-day performance, the enhancement was attenuated at the highest dose (300 mg) by the greater disturbance of prior sleep. These findings indicate that modafinil has a long duration of action, with alerting properties arising predominantly from dopaminergic activity.
Myllymäki, Tero; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Savolainen, Katri; Hokka, Laura; Jakonen, Riikka; Juuti, Tanja; Martinmäki, Kaisu; Kaartinen, Jukka; Kinnunen, Marja-Liisa; Rusko, Heikki
Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily load. Regular physical activity enhances overall sleep quality, but the effects of acute exercise on sleep are not well defined. In sleep hygiene recommendations, intensive exercising is not suggested within the last 3 h before bed time, but this recommendation has not been adequately tested experimentally. Therefore, the effects of vigorous late-night exercise on sleep were examined by measuring polysomnographic, actigraphic and subjective sleep quality, as well as cardiac autonomic activity. Eleven (seven men, four women) physically fit young adults (VO(2max) 54±8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) , age 26±3 years) were monitored in a sleep laboratory twice in a counterbalanced order: (1) after vigorous late-night exercise; and (2) after a control day without exercise. The incremental cycle ergometer exercise until voluntary exhaustion started at 21:00±00:28 hours, lasted for 35±3 min, and ended 2:13±00:19 hours before bed time. The proportion of non-rapid eye movement sleep was greater after the exercise day than the control day (P<0.01), while no differences were seen in actigraphic or subjective sleep quality. During the whole sleep, no differences were found in heart rate (HR) variability, whereas HR was higher after the exercise day than the control day (54±7 versus 51±7, P<0.01), and especially during the first three sleeping hours. The results indicate that vigorous late-night exercise does not disturb sleep quality. However, it may have effects on cardiac autonomic control of heart during the first sleeping hours.
Morrissey, Michael J; Duntley, S P; Anch, A M; Nonneman, R
The aim of this study is to identify a possible function of Active Sleep (AS), also known as Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM) in humans, as a protective state during early Central Nervous System (CNS) development. Previous research suggest pharmacological agents that inhibit high levels of neuronal activity in the CNS (e.g., benzodiazepines, ethanol, and anesthetics) precipitate massive CNS programmed cell death (PCD), in developing mammals. AS is characterized by high levels of CNS activity at levels comparable to waking. AS occupies up to 75% of the circadian cycle in developing mammals (rodents from postnatal days 1-14 days (p1-p14), and humans from prenatal month seven to postnatal year one). Many studies have implicated AS as having an active role in the normal development of the visual system and have documented myriad behavioral anomalies as a result of AS deprivation. Reduced adult brain mass has also been observed after AS deprivation in developing rats during this period, however, no study to date has documented this process as it occurs (i.e., the cellular mechanisms that result in behavioral anomalies or reduced adult brain mass). The purpose of this study is to begin documentation of this process by utilizing histological techniques that identify the PCD process, if it occurs, after acute and prolonged AS deprivation in rats from ages p7 to p14 (a time of active synaptogenesis). Our methodology includes utilization of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine, to deprive rat pups of AS at ages varying from p7 to p14. Pilot data from our laboratory has shown that an acute exposure to clonidine significantly reduces time spent in AS. The animals that were AS deprived also showed a statistically significant decrease in brain mass and have stained positively for PCD. If our hypotheses are correct, this research will have major implications with regard to determining the function(s) of REM sleep.
Corsi-Cabrera, María; Velasco, Francisco; Del Río-Portilla, Yolanda; Armony, Jorge L; Trejo-Martínez, David; Guevara, Miguel A; Velasco, Ana L
The amygdaloid complex plays a crucial role in processing emotional signals and in the formation of emotional memories. Neuroimaging studies have shown human amygdala activation during rapid eye movement sleep (REM). Stereotactically implanted electrodes for presurgical evaluation in epileptic patients provide a unique opportunity to directly record amygdala activity. The present study analysed amygdala activity associated with REM sleep eye movements on the millisecond scale. We propose that phasic activation associated with rapid eye movements may provide the amygdala with endogenous excitation during REM sleep. Standard polysomnography and stereo-electroencephalograph (SEEG) were recorded simultaneously during spontaneous sleep in the left amygdala of four patients. Time-frequency analysis and absolute power of gamma activity were obtained for 250 ms time windows preceding and following eye movement onset in REM sleep, and in spontaneous waking eye movements in the dark. Absolute power of the 44-48 Hz band increased significantly during the 250 ms time window after REM sleep rapid eye movements onset, but not during waking eye movements. Transient activation of the amygdala provides physiological support for the proposed participation of the amygdala in emotional expression, in the emotional content of dreams and for the reactivation and consolidation of emotional memories during REM sleep, as well as for next-day emotional regulation, and its possible role in the bidirectional interaction between REM sleep and such sleep disorders as nightmares, anxiety and post-traumatic sleep disorder. These results provide unique, direct evidence of increased activation of the human amygdala time-locked to REM sleep rapid eye movements.
Davis, Christopher J.; Bohnet, Stewart G.; Meyerson, Joseph M.; Krueger, James M.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (∼22 nucleotide) non-coding RNA strands that base pair with mRNA to degrade it or inhibit its translation. Because sleep and sleep loss induce changes in many mRNA species, we hypothesized that sleep loss would also affect miRNA levels in the brain. Rats were sleep-deprived for 8 h then decapitated; hippocampus, prefrontal and somatosensory cortices and hypothalamus tissues were harvested and frozen in liquid nitrogen. MiRNA was extracted and then characterized using microarrays. Several let-7 miRNA microarray results using hippocampus and prefrontal cortex samples were verified by PCR. From the array data it was determined that about fifty miRNA species were affected by sleep loss. For example, in the hippocampus of sleep-deprived rats, miRNA expression increased compared to cage control samples. In contrast, the majority of miRNA species in the somatosensory and prefrontal cortices decreased, while in the hypothalamus miRNA species were both up- and down-regulated after sleep deprivation. The number of miRNA species affected by sleep loss, their differential expression in separate brain structures and their predicted targets suggest that they have a role in site-specific sleep mechanisms. Current results are, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of the homeostatic process, sleep, altering brain miRNA levels. PMID:17597302
Basner, Mathias; Spaeth, Andrea M.; Dinges, David F.
Study Objectives: Chronic sleep restriction is prevalent in the U.S. population and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The primary reasons for reduced sleep are unknown. Using population data on time use, we sought to identify individual characteristics and behaviors associated with short sleep that could be targeted for intervention programs. Design: Analysis of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). Setting: Cross-sectional annual survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Participants: Representative cohort (N = 124,517) of Americans 15 years and older surveyed between 2003 and 2011. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Telephone survey of activities over 24 hours. Relative to all other waking activities, paid work time was the primary waking activity exchanged for sleep. Time spent traveling, which included commuting to/from work, and immediate pre- and post-sleep activities (socializing, grooming, watching TV) were also reciprocally related to sleep duration. With every hour that work or educational training started later in the morning, sleep time increased by approximately 20 minutes. Working multiple jobs was associated with the highest odds for sleeping ≤ 6 hours on weekdays (adjusted OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44; 1.81). Self-employed respondents were less likely to be short sleepers compared to private sector employees (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72; 0.95). Sociodemographic characteristics associated with paid work (age 25-64, male sex, high income, and employment per se) were consistently associated with short sleep. Conclusions: U.S. population time use survey findings suggest that interventions to increase sleep time should concentrate on delaying the morning start time of work and educational activities (or making them more flexible), increasing sleep opportunities, and shortening morning and evening commute times. Reducing the need for multiple jobs may increase sleep time, but economic disincentives from working fewer hours
Chaput, J-P; Leduc, G; Boyer, C; Bélanger, P; LeBlanc, A G; Borghese, M M; Tremblay, M S
Objective: To examine independent and combined associations among objectively measured movement/non-movement behaviors (moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), total sedentary time and sleep duration) and adiposity indicators in a sample of Canadian children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 507 children aged 9–11 years from Ottawa, Canada. Movement/non-movement behaviors were assessed using an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer over 7 days (24-h protocol). Outcomes included percentage body fat (bioelectrical impedance) and waist-to-height ratio. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, maturity offset, fast food consumption, annual household income and highest level of parental education, MVPA was inversely and sedentary time positively associated with adiposity indicators, whereas sleep duration was not. However, only MVPA remained significantly associated with adiposity indicators after additional adjustment for the other movement/non-movement behaviors. Combined associations using tertiles of the three movement/non-movement behaviors showed that higher levels of MVPA were associated with lower adiposity indicators, irrespective of total sedentary time and sleep duration. Conclusions: Higher levels of MVPA were associated with lower adiposity in this sample of children regardless of sedentary time and sleep duration. Although correlational in nature, these findings suggest that future efforts of obesity reduction should focus more on increasing MVPA than on reducing sedentary time or increasing sleep duration to maximize the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:24911633
Shibata, Shiori; Tsutou, Akimitsu; Shiotani, Hideyuki
The purpose of this study was to examine the correlations among objective sleep variables, sleep-wake cycle parameters, and daily physical activity in hemodialysis patients and controls. Twenty-four hemodialysis patients (HD group) were compared with a control group consisting of 24 healthy participants matched for age, height, and weight. Sleep variables (total sleep time [TST], sleep efficiency [SE], sleep latency [SL], and waking after sleep onset [WASO]), sleep-wake cycle parameters (the sleep-wake cycle period and the peak of sleep-wake cycle variance), and daily physical activity (steps per day) for each participant were assessed by objective methods for two weeks. While there was no difference in TST between the two groups, the HD group showed a significantly increased SL (HD: 0:29±0:20 vs control: 0:16±0:13, p < 0.05) and WASO (HD: 2:21±1:00 vs control: 1:35±0:41, p<0.05) and decreased SE (HD: 67.1±13.6% vs control: 77.5±9.7%, p<0.01) compared to the control group. There was no significant difference in sleep-wake cycle period between the HD and control groups. However, the peak of sleep-wake cycle variance in the HD group (0.050±0.028) was significantly lower (t = 2.49, p<0.05) than in the control group (0.068±0.019). The number of daily steps taken in the HD group (4,774± 2,845 steps) was also significantly lower than in the control group (8,696± 3,047). The peak of sleep-wake cycle variance was significantly correlated with SE (r = 0.532, p<0.01), SL (r = -0.501, p<0.01), and WASO (r = -0.436, p<0.01), whereas the number of steps showed a weak correlation only with WASO (r = -0.308, p<0.05) among the objective sleep parameters. Our results suggest that sleep quality in HD patients may be more effectively improved by maintaining the regular 24-hour sleep-wake cycle rather than by increasing the amount of daily physical activity, indicating that intervention such as measures to prevent napping during hemodialysis sessions may prove effective in
Vladutiu, Catherine J; Evenson, Kelly R; Borodulin, Katja; Deng, Yu; Dole, Nancy
Physical activity is associated with improved sleep quality and duration in the general population, but its effect on sleep in postpartum women is unknown. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between hours/week of self-reported domain-specific and overall moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep quality and duration at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of 530 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study. MVPA was not associated with sleep quality or duration at 3-months postpartum. At 12-months postpartum, a 1 h/week increase in recreational MVPA was associated with higher odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (odds ratio, OR 1.14; 95 % confidence interval, CI, 1.03-1.27) and a 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA was associated with lower odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI 0.88-0.99). A 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA (OR 1.08, 95 % CI 1.00-1.16) was associated with higher odds of long sleep duration and 1 h/week increases in indoor household (OR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.01-1.18) and overall MVPA (OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.07) were associated with higher odds of short (vs. normal) sleep duration. Comparing 3-months postpartum to 12-months postpartum, increased work MVPA was associated with good sleep quality (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.12-5.15) and increased indoor household MVPA was associated with short sleep duration (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.05-3.27) as measured at 12-months postpartum. Selected domains of MVPA and their longitudinal increases were associated with sleep quality and duration at 12-months postpartum. Additional research is needed to elucidate whether physical activity can improve postpartum sleep.
DeRoshia, Charles W.; Colletti, Laura C.; Mallis, Melissa M.
This study assessed human adaptation to a Mars sol by evaluating sleep metrics obtained by actigraphy and subjective responses in 22 participants, and circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity in 9 participants assigned to Mars Exploration Rover (MER) operational work schedules (24.65 hour days) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 2004. During MER operations, increased work shift durations and reduced sleep durations and time in bed were associated with the appearance of pronounced 12-hr (circasemidian) rhythms with reduced activity levels. Sleep duration, workload, and circadian rhythm stability have important implications for adaptability and maintenance of operational performance not only of MER operations personnel but also in space crews exposed to a Mars sol of 24.65 hours during future Mars missions.
Hurdiel, Rémy; Watier, Timothée; Honn, Kimberly; Pezé, Thierry; Zunquin, Gautier; Theunynck, Denis
Lack of sleep is known to negatively affect adolescent's health and the links between regular physical activity and sleep are unclear.This pilot study investigated whether the regular practice of physical activities among sedentary female students would improve their sleep. Nineteen female students, identified as sedentary and having poor subjective sleep quality were assigned in two groups to a 12-week university physical activities programme in accordance with the recommendations of World Health Organisation (N = 10) or to a control condition (N = 9). Sleep was assessed with actigraphy before and after the study and with the Pittsburg Sleep Quality 15 Index (PSQI) at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. The intensity of physical activities was controlled by heart rate monitor. The analysis showed that sleep quality in the physical activities group improved, with the mean ± SD PSQI score decreasing from 9.1 ± 1.7 to 4.8 ± 2.0. Despite some limitations, these pilot data indicate that a physical activities programme is feasible to implement in students, and that participation in such a programme improves sleep in 18- 24 -year-old female adolescents. Further potential benefits remain to be investigated in follow-up research.
Crowley, T. J.; Halberg, F.; Kripke, D. F.; Pegram, G. V.
Investigation of circadian rhythms in a number of variables related to sleep, EEG, temperature, and motor activity in rhesus monkeys on an LD 12:12 schedule. Circadian rhythms were found to appear in each of 15 variables investigated. Statistical procedures assessed the variables for evidence of common regulation in these aspects of their circadian rhythms: acrophase (timing), amplitude (extent of change), and level (24-hr mean value). Patterns appearing in the data suggested that the circadian rhythms of certain variables are regulated in common. The circadian modulation of activity in the beta and sigma frequency bands of the EEG was correlated with statistical significance in acrophase, level, and amplitude. The delta frequency band appeared to be under circadian rhythm regulation distinct from that of the other bands. The circadian rhythm of REM stage sleep was like that of beta activity in level and amplitude. The data indicate that REM stage may share some common regulation of circadian timing with both stage 3-4 sleep and with temperature. Generally, however, the circadian rhythm of temperature appeared to bear little relation to the circadian rhythms of motor activity, EEG, or sleep.
Megirian, D; Pollard, M J; Sherrey, J H
1. Sleep-waking states of chronically implanted rats were identified polygraphically while recording the integrated electromyogram (e.m.g.) of extrinsic (scalenus medius and levator costae) and intrinsic (external and internal interosseous intercostal and parasternal) muscles of the thoracic cage. Rats breathed air, air enriched in CO2 (5%) or air deficient in O2 (10% O2 in N2) and were free to adopt any desired posture. 2. In non-rapid eye movement (non-r.e.m.) sleep, the scalenus medius and intercostal muscles of the cephalic spaces were always inspiratory; intercostal muscles of the mid-thoracic spaces were commonly expiratory while the more caudal ones were only occasionally expiratory. Expiratory activity, when present in quiet wakefulness, extended for a variable period of time into non-r.e.m. sleep and always disappeared in r.e.m. sleep regardless of the ribcage muscle under study. 3. Inspiratory activity, when present in non-r.e.m. sleep, was unaffected, partially attenuated or abolished at entry into r.e.m. sleep. The peak integrated e.m.g. activity of ribcage muscles was measured as a function of posture, gas mixture breathed and ribcage site: (a) the greater the degree of curled-up posture, the greater the respiratory activity of scalenus medius, an effect augmented by CO2 but depressed by hypoxia, and (b) the more caudally placed ribcage muscles exhibited respiratory activity which was essentially unaffected by posture and gas mixture inspired. 4. The presence or absence of tonic activity in ribcage respiratory muscles during non-r.e.m. sleep was unrelated to posture. When tonic activity was present, it always disappeared in r.e.m. sleep. When expiratory activity was present in non-r.e.m. sleep, it too always disappeared in r.e.m. sleep. Inspiratory activity present in non-r.e.m. sleep was variably affected at entry into r.e.m. sleep; it was unchanged, partially attenuated or abolished. 5. It is concluded that thoracic cage muscles exhibit marked
Schoen, Tobias; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Leuppi, Joerg D; Miedinger, David; Werthmüller, Ursina; Estis, Joel; Todd, John; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David
Objective Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a risk factor for vascular disease and other adverse outcomes. These associations may be at least partly due to early endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated endothelial dysfunction (ED). Therefore, we assessed the relationships between subclinical sleep apnoea and plasma levels of ET-1. Methods We performed a population-based study among 1255 young and healthy adults aged 25–41 years. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes or a body mass index >35 kg/m2 were exclusion criteria. Plasma levels of ET-1 were measured using a high-sensitivity, single-molecule counting technology. The relationships between subclinical sleep apnoea (OSA indices: respiratory event index (REI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), mean night-time blood oxygen saturation (SpO2)) and ET-1 levels were assessed by multivariable linear regression analysis. Results Median age of the cohort was 35 years. Median ET-1 levels were 2.9 (IQR 2.4–3.6) and 2.5 pg/mL (IQR 2.1–3.0) among patients with (n=105; 8%) and without subclinical sleep apnoea (REI 5–14), respectively. After multivariable adjustment, subclinical sleep apnoea remained significantly associated with plasma levels of ET-1 (β=0.13 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.20) p=0.0002 for a REI 5–14; β=0.10 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.16) p=0.003 for an ODI≥5). Every 1% decrease in mean night-time SpO2 increased ET-1 levels by 0.1 pg/mL, an association that remained significant after multivariable adjustment (β=0.02 (95% CI 0.003 to 0.033) p=0.02). Conclusions In this study of young and healthy adults, we found that participants with subclinical sleep apnoea had elevated plasma ET-1 levels, an association that was due to night-time hypoxaemia. Our results suggest that ED may already be an important consequence of subclinical sleep apnoea.
Boly, Mélanie; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Schabus, Manuel; Laureys, Steven; Doyon, Julien; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Maquet, Pierre; Benali, Habib
Consciousness is reduced during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep due to changes in brain function that are still poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that impaired consciousness during NREM sleep is associated with an increased modularity of brain activity. Cerebral connectivity was quantified in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging times series acquired in 13 healthy volunteers during wakefulness and NREM sleep. The analysis revealed a modification of the hierarchical organization of large-scale networks into smaller independent modules during NREM sleep, independently from EEG markers of the slow oscillation. Such modifications in brain connectivity, possibly driven by sleep ultraslow oscillations, could hinder the brain's ability to integrate information and account for decreased consciousness during NREM sleep.
Held, Claudio M; Causa, Leonardo; Estévez, Pablo; Pérez, Claudio; Garrido, Marcelo; Algarín, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio
An automated system for sleep spindles detection within EEG background activity, combining two different approaches, is presented. The first approach applies detection criteria on the sigma-band filtered EEG signal, including fuzzy thresholds. The second approach mimics an expert's procedure. A sleep spindle detection is validated if both approaches agree. The method was applied on a testing set, consisting of continuous sleep recordings of two patients, totaling 1132 epochs (pages). A total of 803 sleep spindles events were marked by the experts. Results showed an 87.7% agreement between the detection system and the medical experts.
Van Deun, D; Verhaert, V; Willemen, T; Wuyts, J; Verbraecken, J; Exadaktylos, V; Haex, B; Vander Sloten, J
Proper body support plays an import role in the recuperation of our body during sleep. Therefore, this study uses an automatically adapting bedding system that optimises spinal alignment throughout the night by altering the stiffness of eight comfort zones. The aim is to investigate the influence of such a dynamic sleep environment on objective and subjective sleep parameters. The bedding system contains 165 sensors that measure mattress indentation. It also includes eight actuators that control the comfort zones. Based on the measured mattress indentation, body movements and posture changes are detected. Control of spinal alignment is established by fitting personalized human models in the measured indentation. A total of 11 normal sleepers participated in this study. Sleep experiments were performed in a sleep laboratory where subjects slept three nights: a first night for adaptation, a reference night and an active support night (in counterbalanced order). Polysomnographic measurements were recorded during the nights, combined with questionnaires aiming at assessing subjective information. Subjective information on sleep quality, daytime quality and perceived number of awakenings shows significant improvements during the active support (ACS) night. Objective results showed a trend towards increased slow wave sleep. On the other hand, it was noticed that % N1-sleep was significantly increased during ACS night, while % N2-sleep was significantly decreased. No prolonged N1 periods were found during or immediately after steering.
Irwin, Michael R.; Witarama, Tuff; Caudill, Marissa; Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb
Sleep disturbance and short sleep duration are associated with inflammation and related disorders including cardiovascular disease, arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and certain cancers. This study was undertaken to test the effects of experimental sleep loss on spontaneous cellular inflammation and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family proteins, which together promote an inflammatory microenvironment. In 24 healthy adults (16 females; 8 males), spontaneous production of IL-6 and TNF in monocytes and spontaneous intranuclear expression of activated STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), monocyte-, and lymphocyte populations were measured in the morning after uninterrupted baseline sleep, partial sleep deprivation (PSD, sleep period from 3 a.m. to 7 a.m.), and recovery sleep. Relative to baseline, spontaneous monocytic expression of IL-6 and TNF-α was significantly greater after PSD (P<0.02) and after recovery sleep (P<0.01). Relative to baseline, spontaneous monocytic expression of activated STAT 1 and STAT 5 was significantly greater after recovery sleep (P<0.007P<0.02, respectively) but not STAT 3 (P=0.09). No changes in STAT1, STAT3, or STAT5 were found in lymphocyte populations. Sleep loss induces activation of spontaneous cellular innate immunity and of STAT family proteins, which together map the dynamics of sleep loss on the molecular signaling pathways that regulate inflammatory and other immune responses. Treatments that target short sleep duration have the potential to constrain inflammation and reduce the risk for inflammatory disorders and some cancers in humans. PMID:25451613
Booth, John N; Bromley, Lindsay E; Darukhanavala, Amy P; Whitmore, Harry R; Imperial, Jacqueline G; Penev, Pamen D
Adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes have high metabolic morbidity, which is exacerbated by physical inactivity. Self-reported sleep <6 h/day is associated with increased incidence of obesity and diabetes, which may be mediated in part by sleep-loss-related reduction in physical activity. We examined the relationship between habitual sleep curtailment and physical activity in adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight young urban adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes (27 F/21 M; mean (s.d.) age 26 (4) years; BMI 23.8 (2.5) kg/m(2)) each completed 13 (2) days of sleep and physical activity monitoring by wrist actigraphy and waist accelerometry while following their usual lifestyle at home. Laboratory polysomnography was used to screen for sleep disorders. The primary outcome of the study was the comparison of total daily activity counts between participants with habitual sleep <6 vs. ≥6 h/night. Secondary measures included daily time spent sedentary and in light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity. Short sleepers had no sleep abnormalities and showed signs of increased sleep pressure consistent with a behavioral pattern of habitual sleep curtailment. Compared to participants who slept ≥6 h/night, short sleepers had 27% fewer daily activity counts (P = 0.042), spent less time in moderate-plus-vigorous physical activity (-43 min/day; P = 0.010), and remained more sedentary (+69 min/day; P = 0.026). Our results indicate that young urban adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes who habitually curtail their sleep have less daily physical activity and more sedentary living, which may enhance their metabolic risk.
Mehta, Rachna; Khanday, Mudasir Ahmad; Mallick, Birendra Nath
Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) serves house-keeping function of the brain and its loss affects several pathophysiological processes. Relative levels of neurotransmitters including orexin A (Orx-A) in various parts of the brain in health and diseases are among the key factors for modulation of behaviors, including REMS. The level of neurotransmitter in an area in the brain directly depends on number of projecting neurons and their firing rates. The locus coeruleus (LC), the site of REM-OFF neurons, receives densest, while the pedunculo-pontine area (PPT), the site of REM-ON neurons receives lesser projections from the Orx-ergic neurons. Further, the Orx-ergic neurons are active during waking and silent during REMS and NREMS. Therefore, the level of Orx-A in discrete regions of the brain is likely to be different during normal and altered states, which in turn is likely to be responsible for altered behaviors in health and diseases, including in relation to REMS. Therefore, in the present study, we estimated Orx-A level in LC, cortex, posterior hypothalamus (PH), hippocampus, and PPT after 96 h REMSD, in post-deprivation recovered rats and in control rats. This is the first report of estimation of Orx-A in different brain regions after prolonged REMSD. It was observed that after REMSD the Orx-A level increased significantly in LC, cortex and PH which returned to normal level after recovery; however, the level did not change in the hippocampus and PPT. The Orx-A induced modulation of REMS could be secondary to increased waking.
Carroll, Judith E.; Carrillo, Carmen; Olmstead, Richard; Witarama, Tuff; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Yokomizo, Megumi; Seeman, Teresa E.; Irwin, Michael R.
Objectives: Sleep disturbance and aging are associated with increases in inflammation, as well as increased risk of infectious disease. However, there is limited understanding of the role of sleep loss on age-related differences in immune responses. This study examines the effects of sleep deprivation on toll-like receptor activation of monocytic inflammation in younger compared to older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Community-dwelling adults (n = 70) who were categorized as younger (25–39 y old, n = 21) and older (60–84 y old, n = 49) participants, underwent a sleep laboratory-based experimental partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol including adaptation, an uninterrupted night of sleep, sleep deprivation (sleep restricted to 03:00–07:00), and recovery. Measurement and Results: Blood samples were obtained each morning to measure toll-like receptor-4 activation of monocyte intracellular production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Partial sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in the production of IL-6 and/or TNF-α that persisted after a night of recovery sleep (F(2,121.2) = 3.8, P < 0.05). Age moderated the effects of sleep loss, such that younger adults had an increase in inflammatory cytokine production that was not present in older adults (F(2,121.2) = 4.0, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Older adults exhibit reduced toll-like receptor 4 stimulated cellular inflammation that, unlike in younger adults, is not activated after a night of partial sleep loss. Whereas sleep loss increases cellular inflammation in younger adults and may contribute to inflammatory disorders, blunted toll-like receptor activation in older adults may increase the risk of infectious disease seen with aging. Citation: Carroll JE, Carrillo C, Olmstead R, Witarama T, Breen EC, Yokomizo M, Seeman TE, Irwin MR. Sleep deprivation and divergent toll-like receptor-4 activation of cellular inflammation in aging. SLEEP
Fuligni, Andrew J.; Hardway, Christina
The daily diary method was used to examine the daily dynamics of adolescent sleep time, activities, and psychological well-being among an ethnically diverse sample of over 750 adolescents approximately 14-15 years of age. Studying and stressful demands during the day were modestly but consistently associated with less sleep that evening. Receiving…
Lopez, Jorge; Hoffmann, Robert; Armitage, Roseanne
Objective: Sleep disturbances are common in major depressive disorder (MDD), although polysomnographic (PSG) abnormalities are more prevalent in adults than in children and adolescents with MDD. Sleep spindle activity (SPA) is associated with neuroplasticity mechanisms during brain maturation and is more abundant in childhood and adolescence than…
Gais, Steffen; Rasch, Bjorn; Dahmen, Johannes C.; Sara, Susan; Born, Jan
There is a long-standing assumption that low noradrenergic activity during sleep reflects mainly the low arousal during this brain state. Nevertheless, recent research has demonstrated that the locus coeruleus, which is the main source of cortical noradrenaline, displays discrete periods of intense firing during non-REM sleep, without any signs of…
Buchmann, Andreas; Ringli, Maya; Kurth, Salomé; Schaerer, Margot; Geiger, Anja; Jenni, Oskar G; Huber, Reto
Deep (slow wave) sleep shows extensive maturational changes from childhood through adolescence, which is reflected in a decrease of sleep depth measured as the activity of electroencephalographic (EEG) slow waves. This decrease in sleep depth is paralleled by massive synaptic remodeling during adolescence as observed in anatomical studies, which supports the notion that adolescence represents a sensitive period for cortical maturation. To assess the relationship between slow-wave activity (SWA) and cortical maturation, we acquired sleep EEG and magnetic resonance imaging data in children and adolescents between 8 and 19 years. We observed a tight relationship between sleep SWA and a variety of indexes of cortical maturation derived from magnetic resonance (MR) images. Specifically, gray matter volumes in regions correlating positively with the activity of slow waves largely overlapped with brain areas exhibiting an age-dependent decrease in gray matter. The positive relationship between SWA and cortical gray matter was present also for power in other frequency ranges (theta, alpha, sigma, and beta) and other vigilance states (theta during rapid eye movement sleep). Our findings indicate a strong relationship between sleep EEG activity and cortical maturation. We propose that in particular, sleep SWA represents a good marker for structural changes in neuronal networks reflecting cortical maturation during adolescence.
Renouard, Leslie; Billwiller, Francesca; Ogawa, Keiko; Clément, Olivier; Camargo, Nutabi; Abdelkarim, Mouaadh; Gay, Nadine; Scoté-Blachon, Céline; Touré, Rouguy; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Ravassard, Pascal; Salvert, Denise; Peyron, Christelle; Claustrat, Bruno; Léger, Lucienne; Salin, Paul; Malleret, Gael; Fort, Patrice; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé
Evidence in humans suggests that limbic cortices are more active during rapid eye movement (REM or paradoxical) sleep than during waking, a phenomenon fitting with the presence of vivid dreaming during this state. In that context, it seemed essential to determine which populations of cortical neurons are activated during REM sleep. Our aim in the present study is to fill this gap by combining gene expression analysis, functional neuroanatomy, and neurochemical lesions in rats. We find in rats that, during REM sleep hypersomnia compared to control and REM sleep deprivation, the dentate gyrus, claustrum, cortical amygdaloid nucleus, and medial entorhinal and retrosplenial cortices are the only cortical structures containing neurons with an increased expression of Bdnf, FOS, and ARC, known markers of activation and/or synaptic plasticity. Further, the dentate gyrus is the only cortical structure containing more FOS-labeled neurons during REM sleep hypersomnia than during waking. Combining FOS staining, retrograde labeling, and neurochemical lesion, we then provide evidence that FOS overexpression occurring in the cortex during REM sleep hypersomnia is due to projections from the supramammillary nucleus and the claustrum. Our results strongly suggest that only a subset of cortical and hippocampal neurons are activated and display plasticity during REM sleep by means of ascending projections from the claustrum and the supramammillary nucleus. Our results pave the way for future studies to identify the function of REM sleep with regard to dreaming and emotional memory processing. PMID:26601158
Ladesich, James B.; Pottala, James V.; Romaker, Ann; Harris, William S.
Background: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a major component of neural tissues, and supplementation with fish oils improves autonomic tone and reduces risk for CVD. A link between low DHA status and less mature sleep patterns was observed in newborns. Methods: We investigated the relations between red blood cell (RBC) levels of DHA and OSA severity in 350 sequential patients undergoing sleep studies. Severity categories were defined as none/mild, moderate, and severe, based on apnea hypopnea index (AHI) scores of 0 to 14, 15 to 34, and > 34, respectively. Results: After controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, BMI, alcohol intake, fish intake, and omega-3 supplementation, RBC DHA was inversely related with OSA severity. For each 1-SD increase in DHA levels, a patient was about 50% less likely to be classified with severe OSA. The odds ratios (95% CI) were 0.47 (0.28 to 0.80) and 0.55 (0.31 to 0.99) for being in the severe group versus the none/mild or moderate groups, respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that disordered membrane fatty acid patterns may play a causal role in OSA and that the assessment of RBC DHA levels might help in the diagnosis of OSA. The effects of DHA supplementation on OSA should be explored. Citation: Ladesich JB; Pottala JV; Romaker A; Harris WS. Membrane level of omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid is associated with severity of obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(4):391-396. PMID:21897776
Frandsen, Rune; Nikolic, Miki; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Kempfner, Lykke; Jennum, Poul
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and REM sleep without atonia. Atonia is evaluated on the basis of visual criteria, but there is a need for more objective, quantitative measurements. We aimed to define and optimize a method for establishing baseline and all other parameters in automatic quantifying submental motor activity during REM sleep. We analysed the electromyographic activity of the submental muscle in polysomnographs of 29 patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), 29 controls and 43 Parkinson's (PD) patients. Six adjustable parameters for motor activity were defined. Motor activity was detected and quantified automatically. The optimal parameters for separating RBD patients from controls were investigated by identifying the greatest area under the receiver operating curve from a total of 648 possible combinations. The optimal parameters were validated on PD patients. Automatic baseline estimation improved characterization of atonia during REM sleep, as it eliminates inter/intra-observer variability and can be standardized across diagnostic centres. We found an optimized method for quantifying motor activity during REM sleep. The method was stable and can be used to differentiate RBD from controls and to quantify motor activity during REM sleep in patients with neurodegeneration. No control had more than 30% of REM sleep with increased motor activity; patients with known RBD had as low activity as 4.5%. We developed and applied a sensitive, quantitative, automatic algorithm to evaluate loss of atonia in RBD patients.
Cox, Julia; Pinto, Lucas; Dan, Yang
The dorsal pons has long been implicated in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, but the underlying circuit mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using cell-type-specific microendoscopic Ca(2+) imaging in and near the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, we found that many glutamatergic neurons are maximally active during REM sleep (REM-max), while the majority of GABAergic neurons are maximally active during wakefulness (wake-max). Furthermore, the activity of glutamatergic neurons exhibits a medio-lateral spatial gradient, with medially located neurons more selectively active during REM sleep.
Basner, Mathias; Fomberstein, Kenneth M.; Razavi, Farid M.; Banks, Siobhan; William, Jeffrey H.; Rosa, Roger R.; Dinges, David F.
Study Objectives: To gain some insight into how various behavioral (lifestyle) factors influence sleep duration, by investigation of the relationship of sleep time to waking activities using the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). Design: Cross-sectional data from ATUS, an annual telephone survey of a population sample of US citizens who are interviewed regarding how they spent their time during a 24-hour period between 04:00 on the previous day and 04:00 on the interview day. Participants: Data were pooled from the 2003, 2004, and 2005 ATUS databases involving N=47,731 respondents older than 14 years of age. Interventions: N/A Results: Adjusted multiple linear regression models showed that the largest reciprocal relationship to sleep was found for work time, followed by travel time, which included commute time. Only shorter than average sleepers (<7.5 h) spent more time socializing, relaxing, and engaging in leisure activities, while both short (<5.5 h) and long sleepers (≥8.5 h) watched more TV than the average sleeper. The extent to which sleep time was exchanged for waking activities was also shown to depend on age and gender. Sleep time was minimal while work time was maximal in the age group 45–54 yr, and sleep time increased both with lower and higher age. Conclusions: Work time, travel time, and time for socializing, relaxing, and leisure are the primary activities reciprocally related to sleep time among Americans. These activities may be confounding the frequently observed association between short and long sleep on one hand and morbidity and mortality on the other hand and should be controlled for in future studies. Citation: Basner M; Fomberstein KM; Razavi FM; Banks S; William JH; Rosa RR; Dinges DF. American time use survey: sleep time and its relationship to waking activities. SLEEP 2007;30(9):1085-1095. PMID:17910380
Maes, J; Verbraecken, J; Willemen, M; De Volder, I; van Gastel, A; Michiels, N; Verbeek, I; Vandekerckhove, M; Wuyts, J; Haex, B; Willemen, T; Exadaktylos, V; Bulckaert, A; Cluydts, R
Misperception of Sleep Onset Latency, often found in Primary Insomnia, has been cited to be influenced by hyperarousal, reflected in EEG- and ECG-related indices. The aim of this retrospective study was to examine the association between Central Nervous System (i.e. EEG) and Autonomic Nervous System activity in the Sleep Onset Period and the first NREM sleep cycle in Primary Insomnia (n=17) and healthy controls (n=11). Furthermore, the study examined the influence of elevated EEG and Autonomic Nervous System activity on Stage2 sleep-protective mechanisms (K-complexes and sleep spindles). Confirming previous findings, the Primary Insomnia-group overestimated Sleep Onset Latency and this overestimation was correlated with elevated EEG activity. A higher amount of beta EEG activity during the Sleep Onset Period was correlated with the appearance of K-complexes immediately followed by a sleep spindle in the Primary Insomnia-group. This can be interpreted as an extra attempt to protect sleep continuity or as a failure of the sleep-protective role of the K-complex by fast EEG frequencies following within one second. The strong association found between K-alpha (K-complex within one second followed by 8-12 Hz EEG activity) in Stage2 sleep and a lower parasympathetic Autonomic Nervous System dominance (less high frequency HR) in Slow-wave sleep, further assumes a state of hyperarousal continuing through sleep in Primary Insomnia.
Nakagawa, Machiko; Ohta, Hidenobu; Nagaoki, Yuko; Shimabukuro, Rinshu; Asaka, Yoko; Takahashi, Noriko; Nakazawa, Takayo; Kaneshi, Yousuke; Morioka, Keita; Oishi, Yoshihisa; Azami, Yuriko; Ikeuchi, Mari; Takahashi, Mari; Hirata, Michio; Ozawa, Miwa; Cho, Kazutoshi; Kusakawa, Isao; Yoda, Hitoshi
Previous studies have demonstrated that afternoon naps can have a negative effect on subsequent nighttime sleep in children. These studies have mainly been based on sleep questionnaires completed by parents. To investigate the effect of napping on such aspects of sleep quality, we performed a study in which child activity and sleep levels were recorded using actigraphy. The parents were asked to attach actigraphy units to their child’s waist by an adjustable elastic belt and complete a sleep diary for 7 consecutive days. 50 healthy young toddlers of approximately 1.5 years of age were recruited. There was a significant negative correlation between nap duration and both nighttime sleep duration and sleep onset time, suggesting that long nap sleep induces short nighttime sleep duration and late sleep onset time. We also found a significant negative correlation between nap timing and nighttime sleep duration and also a significant positive correlation between nap timing and sleep onset time, suggesting that naps in the late afternoon also lead to short nighttime sleep duration and late sleep onset. Our findings suggest that duration-controlled naps starting early in the afternoon can induce a longer nighttime sleep in full-term infants of approximately 1.5 years of age. PMID:27277329
Nakagawa, Machiko; Ohta, Hidenobu; Nagaoki, Yuko; Shimabukuro, Rinshu; Asaka, Yoko; Takahashi, Noriko; Nakazawa, Takayo; Kaneshi, Yousuke; Morioka, Keita; Oishi, Yoshihisa; Azami, Yuriko; Ikeuchi, Mari; Takahashi, Mari; Hirata, Michio; Ozawa, Miwa; Cho, Kazutoshi; Kusakawa, Isao; Yoda, Hitoshi
Previous studies have demonstrated that afternoon naps can have a negative effect on subsequent nighttime sleep in children. These studies have mainly been based on sleep questionnaires completed by parents. To investigate the effect of napping on such aspects of sleep quality, we performed a study in which child activity and sleep levels were recorded using actigraphy. The parents were asked to attach actigraphy units to their child's waist by an adjustable elastic belt and complete a sleep diary for 7 consecutive days. 50 healthy young toddlers of approximately 1.5 years of age were recruited. There was a significant negative correlation between nap duration and both nighttime sleep duration and sleep onset time, suggesting that long nap sleep induces short nighttime sleep duration and late sleep onset time. We also found a significant negative correlation between nap timing and nighttime sleep duration and also a significant positive correlation between nap timing and sleep onset time, suggesting that naps in the late afternoon also lead to short nighttime sleep duration and late sleep onset. Our findings suggest that duration-controlled naps starting early in the afternoon can induce a longer nighttime sleep in full-term infants of approximately 1.5 years of age.
Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Urade, Yoshihiro
Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint which occurs due to difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining it. Most of currently available drugs for insomnia develop dependency and/or adverse effects. Hence natural therapies could be an alternative choice of treatment for insomnia. The root or whole plant extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been used to induce sleep in Indian system of traditional home medicine, Ayurveda. However, its active somnogenic components remain unidentified. We investigated the effect of various components of Ashwagandha leaf on sleep regulation by oral administration in mice. We found that the alcoholic extract that contained high amount of active withanolides was ineffective to induce sleep in mice. However, the water extract which contain triethylene glycol as a major component induced significant amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep with slight change in rapid eye movement sleep. Commercially available triethylene glycol also increased non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice in a dose-dependent (10–30 mg/mouse) manner. These results clearly demonstrated that triethylene glycol is an active sleep-inducing component of Ashwagandha leaves and could potentially be useful for insomnia therapy. PMID:28207892
Kaushik, Mahesh K; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Urade, Yoshihiro
Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint which occurs due to difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining it. Most of currently available drugs for insomnia develop dependency and/or adverse effects. Hence natural therapies could be an alternative choice of treatment for insomnia. The root or whole plant extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been used to induce sleep in Indian system of traditional home medicine, Ayurveda. However, its active somnogenic components remain unidentified. We investigated the effect of various components of Ashwagandha leaf on sleep regulation by oral administration in mice. We found that the alcoholic extract that contained high amount of active withanolides was ineffective to induce sleep in mice. However, the water extract which contain triethylene glycol as a major component induced significant amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep with slight change in rapid eye movement sleep. Commercially available triethylene glycol also increased non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice in a dose-dependent (10-30 mg/mouse) manner. These results clearly demonstrated that triethylene glycol is an active sleep-inducing component of Ashwagandha leaves and could potentially be useful for insomnia therapy.
Jackson, Melinda L; Hughes, Matthew E; Croft, Rodney J; Howard, Mark E; Crewther, David; Kennedy, Gerard A; Owens, Katherine; Pierce, Rob J; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Johnston, Patrick
Sleep loss, widespread in today's society and associated with a number of clinical conditions, has a detrimental effect on a variety of cognitive domains including attention. This study examined the sequelae of sleep deprivation upon BOLD fMRI activation during divided attention. Twelve healthy males completed two randomized sessions; one after 27 h of sleep deprivation and one after a normal night of sleep. During each session, BOLD fMRI was measured while subjects completed a cross-modal divided attention task (visual and auditory). After normal sleep, increased BOLD activation was observed bilaterally in the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobe during divided attention performance. Subjects reported feeling significantly more sleepy in the sleep deprivation session, and there was a trend towards poorer divided attention task performance. Sleep deprivation led to a down regulation of activation in the left superior frontal gyrus, possibly reflecting an attenuation of top-down control mechanisms on the attentional system. These findings have implications for understanding the neural correlates of divided attention and the neurofunctional changes that occur in individuals who are sleep deprived.
Poe, Gina R.; Walsh, Christine M.; Bjorness, Theresa E.
Mechanism is at the heart of understanding, and this chapter addresses underlying brain mechanisms and pathways of cognition and the impact of sleep on these processes, especially those serving learning and memory. This chapter reviews the current understanding of the relationship between sleep/waking states and cognition from the perspective afforded by basic neurophysiological investigations. The extensive overlap between sleep mechanisms and the neurophysiology of learning and memory processes provide a foundation for theories of a functional link between the sleep and learning systems. Each of the sleep states, with its attendant alterations in neurophysiology, is associated with facilitation of important functional learning and memory processes. For rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, salient features such as PGO waves, theta synchrony, increased acetylcholine, reduced levels of monoamines and, within the neuron, increased transcription of plasticity-related genes, cumulatively allow for freely occurring bidirectional plasticity (long-term potentiation (LTP) and its reversal, depotentiation). Thus, REM sleep provides a novel neural environment in which the synaptic remodeling essential to learning and cognition can occur, at least within the hippocampal complex. During nonREM sleep Stage 2 spindles, the cessation and subsequent strong bursting of noradrenergic cells and coincident reactivation of hippocampal and cortical targets would also increase synaptic plasticity, allowing targeted bidirectional plasticity in the neocortex as well. In delta nonREM sleep, orderly neuronal reactivation events in phase with slow wave delta activity, together with high protein synthesis levels, would facilitate the events that convert early LTP to long lasting LTP. Conversely, delta sleep does not activate immediate early genes associated with de novo LTP. This nonREM sleep-unique genetic environment combined with low acetylcholine levels may serve to reduce the strength of
Poe, Gina R; Walsh, Christine M; Bjorness, Theresa E
Mechanism is at the heart of understanding, and this chapter addresses underlying brain mechanisms and pathways of cognition and the impact of sleep on these processes, especially those serving learning and memory. This chapter reviews the current understanding of the relationship between sleep/waking states and cognition from the perspective afforded by basic neurophysiological investigations. The extensive overlap between sleep mechanisms and the neurophysiology of learning and memory processes provide a foundation for theories of a functional link between the sleep and learning systems. Each of the sleep states, with its attendant alterations in neurophysiology, is associated with facilitation of important functional learning and memory processes. For rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, salient features such as PGO waves, theta synchrony, increased acetylcholine, reduced levels of monoamines and, within the neuron, increased transcription of plasticity-related genes, cumulatively allow for freely occurring bidirectional plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and its reversal, depotentiation. Thus, REM sleep provides a novel neural environment in which the synaptic remodelling essential to learning and cognition can occur, at least within the hippocampal complex. During non-REM sleep Stage 2 spindles, the cessation and subsequent strong bursting of noradrenergic cells and coincident reactivation of hippocampal and cortical targets would also increase synaptic plasticity, allowing targeted bidirectional plasticity in the neocortex as well. In delta non-REM sleep, orderly neuronal reactivation events in phase with slow wave delta activity, together with high protein synthesis levels, would facilitate the events that convert early LTP to long-lasting LTP. Conversely, delta sleep does not activate immediate early genes associated with de novo LTP. This non-REM sleep-unique genetic environment combined with low acetylcholine levels may serve to reduce the strength of
Chen, Audrey; Chiu, Cindy N.; Mosser, Eric A.; Kahn, Sohini; Spence, Rory
The hypothalamus plays an important role in regulating sleep, but few hypothalamic sleep-promoting signaling pathways have been identified. Here we demonstrate a role for the neuropeptide QRFP (also known as P518 and 26RFa) and its receptors in regulating sleep in zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate. We show that QRFP is expressed in ∼10 hypothalamic neurons in zebrafish larvae, which project to the hypothalamus, hindbrain, and spinal cord, including regions that express the two zebrafish QRFP receptor paralogs. We find that the overexpression of QRFP inhibits locomotor activity during the day, whereas mutation of qrfp or its receptors results in increased locomotor activity and decreased sleep during the day. Despite the restriction of these phenotypes to the day, the circadian clock does not regulate qrfp expression, and entrained circadian rhythms are not required for QRFP-induced rest. Instead, we find that QRFP overexpression decreases locomotor activity largely in a light-specific manner. Our results suggest that QRFP signaling plays an important role in promoting sleep and may underlie some aspects of hypothalamic sleep control. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The hypothalamus is thought to play a key role in regulating sleep in vertebrate animals, but few sleep-promoting signaling pathways that function in the hypothalamus have been identified. Here we use the zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate, to functionally and anatomically characterize the neuropeptide QRFP. We show that QRFP is exclusively expressed in a small number of neurons in the larval zebrafish hypothalamus that project widely in the brain. We also show that QRFP overexpression reduces locomotor activity, whereas animals that lack QRFP signaling are more active and sleep less. These results suggest that QRFP signaling participates in the hypothalamic regulation of sleep. PMID:26865608
Grace, Kevin P; Liu, Hattie; Horner, Richard L
Serotonin type 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor-responsive neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTn) become maximally active immediately before and during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. A prevailing model of REM sleep generation indicates that activation of such neurons contributes significantly to the generation of REM sleep, and if correct then inactivation of such neurons ought to suppress REM sleep. We test this hypothesis using bilateral microperfusion of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 10 μm) into the PPTn; this tool has been shown to selectively silence REM sleep-active PPTn neurons while the activity of wake/REM sleep-active PPTn neurons is unaffected. Contrary to the prevailing model, bilateral microperfusion of 8-OH-DPAT into the PPTn (n = 23 rats) significantly increased REM sleep both as a percentage of the total recording time and sleep time, compared with both within-animal vehicle controls and between-animal time-controls. This increased REM sleep resulted from an increased frequency of REM sleep bouts but not their duration, indicating an effect on mechanisms of REM sleep initiation but not maintenance. Furthermore, an increased proportion of the REM sleep bouts stemmed from periods of low REM sleep drive quantified electrographically. Targeted suppression of 5-HT(1A) receptor-responsive PPTn neurons also increased respiratory rate and respiratory-related genioglossus activity, and increased the frequency and amplitude of the sporadic genioglossus activations occurring during REM sleep. These data indicate that 5-HT(1A) receptor-responsive PPTn neurons normally function to restrain REM sleep by elevating the drive threshold for REM sleep induction, and restrain the expression of respiratory rate and motor activities.
Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Yi, Pei-Lu; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chang, Fang-Chia
Electroacupuncture (EA) possesses various therapeutic effects, including alleviation of pain, reduction of inflammation and improvement of sleep disturbance. The mechanisms of EA on sleep improvement, however, remain to be determined. It has been stated in ancient Chinese literature that the Anmian (EX17) acupoint is one of the trigger points that alleviates insomnia. We previously demonstrated that EA stimulation of Anmian acupoints in rats during the dark period enhances non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which involves the induction of cholinergic activity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In addition to cholinergic activation of the NTS, activation of the endogenous opioidergic system may also be a mechanism by which acupuncture affects sleep. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the involvement of the NTS opioidergic system in EA-induced alterations in sleep. Our present results indicate that EA of Anmian acupoints increased NREM sleep, but not rapid eye movement sleep, during the dark period in rats. This enhancement in NREM sleep was dose-dependently blocked by microinjection of opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine, into the NTS; administrations of δ-receptor antagonist, natrindole, and the κ-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine, however, did not affect EA-induced alterations in sleep. Furthermore, β-endorphin was significantly increased in both the brainstem and hippocampus after the EA stimuli, an effect blocked by administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine into the NTS. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of EA-induced NREM sleep enhancement may be mediated, in part, by cholinergic activation, stimulation of the opiodergic neurons to increase the concentrations of β-endorphin and the involvement of the μ-opioid receptors. PMID:19729491
Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Yi, Pei-Lu; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chang, Fang-Chia
Electroacupuncture (EA) possesses various therapeutic effects, including alleviation of pain, reduction of inflammation and improvement of sleep disturbance. The mechanisms of EA on sleep improvement, however, remain to be determined. It has been stated in ancient Chinese literature that the Anmian (EX17) acupoint is one of the trigger points that alleviates insomnia. We previously demonstrated that EA stimulation of Anmian acupoints in rats during the dark period enhances non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which involves the induction of cholinergic activity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In addition to cholinergic activation of the NTS, activation of the endogenous opioidergic system may also be a mechanism by which acupuncture affects sleep. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the involvement of the NTS opioidergic system in EA-induced alterations in sleep. Our present results indicate that EA of Anmian acupoints increased NREM sleep, but not rapid eye movement sleep, during the dark period in rats. This enhancement in NREM sleep was dose-dependently blocked by microinjection of opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine, into the NTS; administrations of δ-receptor antagonist, natrindole, and the κ-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine, however, did not affect EA-induced alterations in sleep. Furthermore, β-endorphin was significantly increased in both the brainstem and hippocampus after the EA stimuli, an effect blocked by administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine into the NTS. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of EA-induced NREM sleep enhancement may be mediated, in part, by cholinergic activation, stimulation of the opiodergic neurons to increase the concentrations of β-endorphin and the involvement of the μ-opioid receptors.
Cai, Zong-Yan; Wen-Chyuan Chen, Kenny; Wen, Huei-Jhen
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of regular moderate- to high-intensity step aerobics training on the melatonin levels and sleep quality of sleep-impaired postmenopausal women (PMW). PMW with poor sleep (having a score over 5 in the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index [PSQI]) were divided into a training group (TG, n = 10) and an age-, height-, weight-, and PSQI score-matched control group (CG, n = 9). The participants in the TG performed 40-45 minutes of step aerobics exercise 3 times per week for 10 weeks at an intensity of 75-85% of the heart rate reserve, whereas the participants in the CG maintained their regular lifestyle. The fasting blood was analyzed, and the PSQI questionnaire and aerobic fitness test were administered before and after the 10-week program. The results revealed that for the participants in the TG, the PSQI score significantly decreased (TG from 9.40 ± 0.81 to 7.40 ± 0.43; CG from 7.56 ± 0.34 to 7.78 ± 0.68; between-group difference = 2.22, p ≤ 0.05) and the melatonin levels significantly increased (TG from 12.08 ± 4.20 to 44.42 ± 7.03 pg·ml; CG from 11.81 ± 2.03 to 5.5 ± 1.39 pg·ml, between-group difference = 38.65, p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, a 10-week moderate- to high-intensity step aerobics training program can improve sleep quality and increase the melatonin levels in sleep-impaired PMW. Therefore, regular moderate- to high-intensity step aerobics training is recommended for sleep-impaired PMW.
Mirmiran, M; van de Poll, N E; Corner, M A; van Oyen, H G; Bour, H L
In an attempt to study the possible role of active sleep in brain development, male rats were injected twice daily with chlorimipramine, a potent monoamine reuptake blocker, from 1 week to 3 weeks of postnatal age. AS was reduced to less than 10% of total sleep time, the level found in mature rats. Most of the AS reduction was compensated for by quiet sleep but a slight increase in wakefulness also occurred, owing to brief interruptions of sleep at times when AS was expected. In adulthood, the AS-deprived rats showed a higher percentage of AS than did the controls, due to an increase in frequency and duration of AS epochs. Moreover, many of the epochs contained abnormally frequent and strong jerky body movements and rapid-eye-movements, reminiscent of neonatal AS patterns. In addition, the amplitude of hippocampal theta waves during AS was greater than in control rats. The chlorimipramine-treated rats also showed behavioral abnormalities in later life. On the open field test exploratory behavior was much reduced, while increased rearing and defecation occurred. Masculine sexual performance was severely deficient, primarily due to the low level of intromissions and ejaculations. Experimental animals performed less efficiently than controls on a temporal learning task (differential reinforcement of low response rate) and responded more rapidly on a spatial task (left-right alternation learning). These results demonstrate that early interference with the functioning of monoaminergic systems can have long-lasting physiological and behavioral consequences. Furthermore, they are consistent with the hypothesis that AS is an important factor in normal brain development.
Perchance to dream? Primordial motor activity patterns in vertebrates from fish to mammals: their prenatal origin, postnatal persistence during sleep, and pathological reemergence during REM sleep behavior disorder.
Corner, Michael A; Schenck, Carlos H
An overview is presented of the literature dealing with sleep-like motility and concomitant neuronal activity patterns throughout the life cycle in vertebrates, ectothermic as well as endothermic. Spontaneous, periodically modulated, neurogenic bursts of non-purposive movements are a universal feature of larval and prenatal behavior, which in endothermic animals (i.e. birds and mammals) continue to occur periodically throughout life. Since the entire body musculature is involved in ever-shifting combinations, it is proposed that these spontaneously active periods be designated as 'rapid-BODY-movement' (RBM) sleep. The term 'rapid-EYE-movement (REM) sleep', characterized by attenuated muscle contractions and reduced tonus, can then be reserved for sleep at later stages of development. Mature stages of development in which sustained muscle atonia is combined with 'paradoxical arousal' of cortical neuronal firing patterns indisputably represent the evolutionarily most recent aspect of REM sleep, but more research with ectothermic vertebrates, such as fish, amphibians and reptiles, is needed before it can be concluded (as many prematurely have) that RBM is absent in these species. Evidence suggests a link between RBM sleep in early development and the clinical condition known as 'REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD)', which is characterized by the resurgence of periodic bouts of quasi-fetal motility that closely resemble RBM sleep. Early developmental neuromotor risk factors for RBD in humans also point to a relationship between RBM sleep and RBD.
Gorfine, Tali; Zisapel, Nava
Sleep propensity increases sharply at night. Some evidence implicates the pineal hormone melatonin in this process. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain activation during a visual search task was examined at 22:00 h (when endogenous melatonin levels normally increase). The relationships between brain activation, endogenous melatonin (measured in saliva), and self-reported fatigue were assessed. Finally, the effects of exogenous melatonin administered at 22:00 h were studied in a double blind, placebo-controlled crossover manner. We show that brain activation patterns as well as the response to exogenous melatonin significantly differ at night from those seen in afternoon hours. Thus, activation in the rostro-medial and lateral aspects of the occipital cortex and the thalamus diminished at 22:00 h. Activation in the right parietal cortex increased at night and correlated with individual fatigue levels, whereas exogenous melatonin given at 22:00 h reduced activation in this area. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, an area considered to reflect homeostatic sleep debt, demonstrated increased activation at 22:00 h. Surprisingly, this increase correlated with endogenous melatonin. These results demonstrate and partially differentiate circadian effects (whether mediated by melatonin or not) and homeostatic sleep debt modulation of human brain activity associated with everyday fatigue at night.
Fondell, Elinor; Axelsson, John; Franck, Kristina; Ploner, Alexander; Lekander, Mats; Bälter, Katarina; Gaines, Hans
Short sleep duration increases the risk of several diseases, possibly involving compromised immune function. However, most previous studies are based on experimentally induced sleep deprivation, and only a few have studied natural variations in sleep duration. Thus our aim was to study how natural variations in sleep duration affect immune function. In total, 36 healthy men and women, aged 20-54, donated blood; 29 on three consecutive mornings, and seven on one morning. Each morning, participants self-reported sleep duration the night prior to blood draw. General sleep patterns, physical activity and stress were also assessed. A flow-cytometric assay was used to measure natural killer cell activity (NKCA), T cell function (in response to PHA, influenza, and SEA+B), and B cell function (in response to PWM) per volume whole blood. Short sleep duration prior to blood draw (<7 h) was associated with 49% higher PHA-induced T cell function (95% CI 7/109%) and 30% lower NKCA compared with normal prior sleep (7-9 h) (95% CI -46/-8%). In addition, high perceived stress was associated with 39% higher PHA-induced T cell function (95% CI 0/94%). High general physical activity was associated with 47% increased numbers of B cells and 28% increased numbers of T cells, but not with immune function. Our results suggest strong relationships between short sleep duration and T- and NK-cell functions. The stability of the findings as well as the clinical consequences of the link between short sleep and immune function should be explored in future studies.
Greever, Cory J; Ahmadi, Matthew; Sirard, John; Alhassan, Sofiya
Insufficient sleep is associated with higher risk of poor health outcomes in low socioeconomic status (SES) urban elementary age girls. Decreased physical activity (PA) and increased screen time may be associated with poor sleep. This study examined if PA and screen time are associated with sleep in girls from a low SES urban community. Baseline data from 7 to 12 year-old girls (n = 55) from two interventions conducted in Springfield, MA between 2012 and 2015 were used. PA was measured via accelerometry for seven days. Screen time and sleep were assessed via validated questionnaires. Sleep was also assessed via accelerometry in a subsample of girls (n = 24) for 7 days. Associations among PA, screen time, and sleep were analyzed using multiple linear regression. More minutes of screen time per day (p = 0.01, r(2) = 0.35, r(2) adjusted = 0.23) was associated with worse sleep quality (β = 0.50, p = 0.02). There were negative correlations between PA and the number of awakenings per night (r = - 0.45, p = 0.04) and between counts per minute and sleep fragmentation (r = - 0.65, p = 0.002) assessed by accelerometer. In this population, increased screen time was associated with worse sleep quality and decreased PA was correlated with more awakenings per night and higher sleep fragmentation. These findings suggest that screen time and PA may be modifiable risk factors for interventions seeking to improve sleep in this population.
Mrdalj, Jelena; Pallesen, Ståle; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Murison, Robert; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Grønli, Janne
Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult EEG power after postnatal maternal separation in rats. Furthermore, in the same animals, we investigated how EEG power and sleep architecture were affected after exposure to a chronic mild stress protocol. During postnatal day 2-14 male rats were exposed to either long maternal separation (180 min) or brief maternal separation (10 min). Long maternally separated offspring showed a sleep-wake nonspecific reduction in adult EEG power at the frontal EEG derivation compared to the brief maternally separated group. The quality of slow wave sleep differed as the long maternally separated group showed lower delta power in the frontal-frontal EEG and a slower reduction of the sleep pressure. Exposure to chronic mild stress led to a lower EEG power in both groups. Chronic exposure to mild stressors affected sleep differently in the two groups of maternal separation. Long maternally separated offspring showed more total sleep time, more episodes of rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement episodes ending in rapid eye movement sleep compared to brief maternal separation. Chronic stress affected similarly other sleep parameters and flattened the sleep homeostasis curves in all offspring. The results confirm that early environmental conditions modulate the brain functioning in a long-lasting way.
Lopez, Jorge; Hoffmann, Robert; Armitage, Roseanne
Objective Sleep disturbances are common in major depressive disorder (MDD), although polysomnographic (PSG) abnormalities are more prevalent in adults than in children and adolescents with MDD. Sleep spindle activity (SPA) is associated with neuroplasticity mechanisms during brain maturation and is more abundant in childhood and adolescence than in adulthood, and as such, may be a more sensitive measure of sleep alteration than PSG in early-onset depression. This study investigated SPA changes related to early-onset MDD, comparing those already ill and those at high-risk for MDD to healthy non-depressed controls. Method The study included 63 participants (8-15 year-olds): 21 currently depressed, 21 at high-risk for MDD based on positive family history of MDD, and 21 healthy controls with no personal or family history of psychiatric illness. All participants maintained a regular sleep/wake schedule for 5 days, followed by 2 nights in the lab. SPA was analyzed in Stage 2 of non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep. Results SPA differed significantly between groups, particularly in the late part of the night (F2,62=7.3 p=0.001). Although, the difference was greatest between MDD and healthy controls, both the MDD (p=0.0004) and at high-risk groups (p=0.02) had significantly lower SPA compared to healthy controls. SPA deficit was more prominent in females than males (F5,62=5.19 p=0.005). Conclusions Low SPA characterizes youths with MDD and those at high-risk, particularly among girls, suggesting that early-onset depression and risk for the illness are associated with decreased neuroplasticity. PMID:20732629
Ciavarra, Richard P; Lundberg, Patric; Machida, Mayumi; Ambrozewicz, Marta A; Wellman, Laurie L; Breving, Kimberly; Steel, Christina; Sanford, Larry D
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is rapidly and persistently suppressed during vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) encephalitis in C57Bl/6J (B6) mice. REM sleep suppression was associated with a complex global brain chemokine/cytokine response with bimodal kinetics although regionally distinct cytokine profiles were readily identified. Cytokine mRNA was translated either immediately or suppressed until the pathogen was cleared from the CNS. Innate signaling pathway (TLRs, RIG-I) activation occurred rapidly and sequentially prior to VSV neuroinvasion suggesting that antiviral states are quickly established in the CNS in advance of viral pathogen penetration. Il1β suppressed REM sleep mimicking aspects of VSV-induced sleep alterations whereas some robustly induced chemokines may be protective of REM. Thus, multiple brain chemokines may mediate sleep across VSV encephalitis via differential somnogenic effects.
Batool-Anwar, Salma; Goodwin, James L.; Drescher, Amy A.; Baldwin, Carol M.; Simon, Richard D.; Smith, Terry W.; Quan, Stuart F.
Study Objectives: Patients with severe OSA consume greater amounts of cholesterol, protein, and fat as well as have greater caloric expenditure. However, it is not known whether their activity levels or diet change after treatment with CPAP. To investigate this issue, serial assessments of activity and dietary intake were performed in the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES); a 6-month randomized controlled study of CPAP vs. sham CPAP on neurocognitive outcomes. Methods: Subjects were recruited into APPLES at 5 sites through clinic encounters or public advertisement. After undergoing a diagnostic polysomnogram, subjects were randomized to CPAP or sham if their AHI was ≥ 10. Adherence was assessed using data cards from the devices. At the Tucson and Walla Walla sites, subjects were asked to complete validated activity and food frequency questionnaires at baseline and their 4-month visit. Results: Activity and diet data were available at baseline and after 4 months treatment with CPAP or sham in up to 231 subjects (117 CPAP, 114 Sham). Mean age, AHI, BMI, and Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) for this cohort were 55 ± 13 [SD] years, 44 ± 27 /h, 33 ± 7.8 kg/m2, and 10 ± 4, respectively. The participants lacking activity and diet data were younger, had lower AHI and arousal index, and had better sleep efficiency (p < 0.05). The BMI was higher among women in both CPAP and Sham groups. However, compared to women, men had higher AHI only in the CPAP group (50 vs. 34). Similarly, the arousal index was higher among men in CPAP group. Level of adherence defined as hours of device usage per night at 4 months was significantly higher among men in CPAP group (4.0 ± 2.9 vs. 2.6 ± 2.6). No changes in consumption of total calories, protein, carbohydrate or fat were noted after 4 months. Except for a modest increase in recreational activity in women (268 ± 85 vs. 170 ± 47 calories, p < 0.05), there also were no changes in activity patterns. Conclusion
Ortega, Francisco B; Chillón, Palma; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Delgado, Manuel; Albers, Ulrike; Alvarez-Granda, Jesús L; Marcos, Ascensión; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J
We aimed to describe the sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents and to examine the relationships of sleep duration and morning tiredness with participation in leisure-time physical-sporting activities (LT-PA) and television (TV) watching. Sleep duration, morning tiredness, participation in LT-PA and time spent on watching TV were reported by 2,179 (1,139 females) Spanish adolescents (AVENA study). Data were analyzed by binary logistic regression. One-fifth of the adolescents reported insufficient night sleep (<8 h) on school days. The review of the literature (30 studies) showed that the Spanish adolescents sleep as long as adolescents from central Europe, and longer than those from other Mediterranean countries, South Africa, Asia and North America. Insufficient sleep duration doubled the odds of excessive TV watching (≥3 h/day) in males, regardless of morning tiredness (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.42-3.27). Morning tiredness reduced the odds of participating in any LT-PA in both males and females (0.49, 0.34-0.70 and 0.49, 0.35-0.69, respectively), and increased the odds of excessive TV watching in females, regardless of sleep duration (2.49, 1.64-3.79). We conclude that non-participation in LT-PA is associated with morning tiredness in male and female adolescents, while excessive TV watching is more associated with short sleep or morning tiredness depending on gender.
Neuzeret, Pierre-Charles; Sakai, Kazuya; Gormand, Frédéric; Petitjean, Thierry; Buda, Colette; Sastre, Jean-Pierre; Parrot, Sandrine; Guidon, Gérard; Lin, Jian-Sheng
The decrease in genioglossus (GG) muscle activity during sleep, especially rapid eye movement (REM) or paradoxical sleep, can lead to airway occlusion and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The hypoglossal nucleus innervating the GG muscle is under the control of serotonergic, noradrenergic and histaminergic neurons that cease firing during paradoxical sleep. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect on GG muscle activity during different wake-sleep states of the microdialysis application of serotonin, histamine (HA) or noradrenaline (NE) to the hypoglossal nucleus in freely moving cats. Six adult cats were implanted with electroencephalogram, electro-oculogram and neck electromyogram electrodes to record wake-sleep states and with GG muscle and diaphragm electrodes to record respiratory muscle activity. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the hypoglossal nucleus for monoamine application. Changes in GG muscle activity were assessed by power spectrum analysis. In the baseline conditions, tonic GG muscle activity decreased progressively and significantly from wakefulness to slow-wave sleep and even further during slow-wave sleep with ponto-geniculo-occipital waves and paradoxical sleep. Application of serotonin or HA significantly increased GG muscle activity during the wake-sleep states when compared with controls. By contrast, NE had no excitatory effect. Our results indicate that both serotonin and HA have a potent excitatory action on GG muscle activity, suggesting multiple aminergic control of upper airway muscle activity during the wake-sleep cycle. These data might help in the development of pharmacological approaches for the treatment of OSA.
Brown, Marishka K; Chan, May T; Zimmerman, John E; Pack, Allan I; Jackson, Nicholas E; Naidoo, Nirinjini
Alterations in the quality, quantity, and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response. The effectiveness of the adaptive unfolded protein response is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of X-box binding protein 1 and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α, in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged or sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep or sleep debt discharge.
van der Helm, Els; Yao, Justin; Dutt, Shubir; Rao, Vikram; Saletin, Jared M.; Walker, Matthew P.
Summary Clinical evidence suggests a potentially causal interaction between sleep and affective brain function; nearly all mood disorders display co-occurring sleep abnormalities, commonly involving rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep [1–4]. Building on this clinical evidence, recent neurobiological frameworks have hypothesized a benefit of REM sleep in palliatively decreasing next-day brain reactivity to recent waking emotional experiences [5, 6]. Specifically, the marked suppression of central adrenergic neurotransmitters during REM (commonly implicated in arousal and stress), coupled with activation in amygdala-hippocampal networks that encode salient events, is proposed to (re)process and de-potentiate previous affective experiences, decreasing their emotional intensity . In contrast, the failure of such adrenergic reduction during REM sleep has been described in anxiety disorders, indexed by persistent high-frequency electroencephalographic (EEG) activity (>30Hz) [7–10]; a candidate factor contributing to hyper-arousal and exaggerated amygdala reactivity [3, 11–13]. Despite these neurobiological frameworks, and their predictions, the proposed benefit of REM sleep physiology in de-potentiating neural and behavioral responsivity to prior emotional events remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that REM sleep physiology is associated with an overnight dissipation of amygdala activity in response to previous emotional experiences, altering functional-connectivity and reducing next-day subjective emotionality. PMID:22119526
Pfeiffenberger, Cory; Lear, Bridget C; Keegan, Kevin P; Allada, Ravi
Adult behavioral assays have been used with great success in Drosophila melanogaster to identify circadian rhythm genes. In particular, the locomotor activity assay can identify altered behavior patterns over the course of several days in small populations, or even individual flies. Sleep is a highly conserved behavior that is required for optimal performance and, in many cases, life of an organism. Drosophila demonstrate a behavioral state that shows traits consistent with sleep: periods of relative behavioral immobility that coincide with an increased arousal threshold after ~5 min of inactivity, regulated by circadian and homeostatic mechanisms. However, because flies do not produce brain waves recordable by electroencephalography, sleep researchers use behavior-based paradigms to infer when a fly is asleep, as opposed to awake but immobile. Data on Drosophila activity can be collected using an automated monitoring system to provide insight into sleep duration, consolidation, and latency, as well as sleep deprivation and rebound. This protocol details the use of Counting Macro, an Excel-based program, to process data created with the Drosophila Activity Monitoring (DAM) System from TriKinetics for sleep analyses. Specifically, it details the steps necessary to convert the raw data created by the DAM System into sleep duration and consolidation data, broken down into the light (L), dark (D), light:dark cycling (LD), and constant darkness (DD) phases of a behavior experiment.
Xie, C I; Lin, R C; Antony, V; Lumeng, L; Li, T K; Mai, K; Liu, C; Wang, Q D; Zhao, Z H; Wang, G F
The extract from an edible vine, Pueraria lebata, has been reported to be efficacious in lessening alcohol intoxication. In this study, we have tested the efficacy of one of the major components, daidzin, from this plant extract. When ethanol (40% solution, 3 g/kg body weight) was given to fasted rats intragastrically, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) peaked at 30 min after alcohol ingestion and reached 1.77 +/- 0.14 mg/ml (mean values +/- SD, n = 6). If daidzin (30 mg/kg) was mixed with the ethanol solution and given to animals intragastrically, BAC was found to peak at 90 min after alcohol ingestion and reached only 1.20 +/- 0.30 mg/ml (n = 6) (p < 0.05 vs. controls). The ability of daidzin to delay and decrease peak BAC level after ethanol ingestion was also observed in fed animals. In both fasted and fed rats given alcohol without daidzin, BAC quickly declined after reaching its peak at 30 min. By contrast, BAC levels receded more slowly if daidzin was also fed to the animals. Daidzin showed a chronic effect. Rats fed daidzin for 7 days before ethanol challenge, but not on the day of challenge, also produced lower and later peak BAC levels. Interestingly, daidzin, whether fed to rats only once or chronically for 7 days, did not significantly alter activities of either alcohol dehydrogenase or mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase in the liver. Further experiments demonstrated that daidzin shortened sleep time for rats receiving ethanol intragastrically (7 g/kg) but not intraperitoneally (2 g/kg). To test whether daidzin delayed stomach-emptying, [14C]polyethylene glycol was mixed with ethanol and fed to rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Schwarz, Peter B; Mir, Saba; Peever, John H
Noradrenergic neurotransmission in the brainstem is closely coupled to changes in muscle activity across the sleep-wake cycle, and noradrenaline is considered to be a key excitatory neuromodulator that reinforces the arousal-related stimulus on motoneurons to drive movement. However, it is unknown if α-1 noradrenoceptor activation increases motoneuron responsiveness to excitatory glutamate (AMPA) receptor-mediated inputs during natural behaviour. We studied the effects of noradrenaline on AMPA receptor-mediated motor activity at the motoneuron level in freely behaving rats, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, a period during which both AMPA receptor-triggered muscle twitches and periods of muscle quiescence in which AMPA drive is silent are exhibited. Male rats were subjected to electromyography and electroencephalography recording to monitor sleep and waking behaviour. The implantation of a cannula into the trigeminal motor nucleus of the brainstem allowed us to perfuse noradrenergic and glutamatergic drugs by reverse microdialysis, and thus to use masseter muscle activity as an index of motoneuronal output. We found that endogenous excitation of both α-1 noradrenoceptor and AMPA receptors during waking are coupled to motor activity; however, REM sleep exhibits an absence of endogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor activity. Importantly, exogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor stimulation cannot reverse the muscle twitch suppression induced by AMPA receptor blockade and nor can it elevate muscle activity during quiet REM, a phase when endogenous AMPA receptor activity is subthreshold. We conclude that the presence of an endogenous glutamatergic drive is necessary for noradrenaline to trigger muscle activity at the level of the motoneuron in an animal behaving naturally.
Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Faraguna, Ugo; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio
In humans, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep slow waves occur not only spontaneously but can also be induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Here we investigated whether slow waves can also be induced by intracortical electrical stimulation during sleep in rats. Intracortical local field potential (LFP) recordings were obtained from several cortical locations while the frontal or the parietal area was stimulated intracortically with brief (0.1 ms) electrical pulses. Recordings were performed in early sleep (1st 2-3 h after light onset) and late sleep (6-8 h after light onset). The stimuli reliably triggered LFP potentials that were visually indistinguishable from naturally occurring slow waves. The induced slow waves shared the following features with spontaneous slow waves: they were followed by spindling activity in the same frequency range ( approximately 15 Hz) as spontaneously occurring sleep spindles; they propagated through the neocortex from the area of the stimulation; and compared with late sleep, waves triggered during early sleep were larger, had steeper slopes and fewer multipeaks. Peristimulus background spontaneous activity had a profound influence on the amplitude of the induced slow waves: they were virtually absent if the stimulus was delivered immediately after the spontaneous slow wave. These results show that in the rat a volley of electrical activity that is sufficiently strong to excite and recruit a large cortical neuronal population is capable of inducing slow waves during natural sleep.
Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Sekine, Michikazu; Kumari, Meena; Chandola, Tarani; Marmot, Michael; Kagamimori, Sadanobu
Sleep disturbance as a pervasive health problem can directly affect the physical and psychological well-being of individuals. Factors that positively relate to sleep quality can therefore improve healthy functioning. We examined whether leisure time activities are associated with sleep quality in two culturally different samples of civil servants. In this cross-sectional study we evaluated 1,682 Japanese, in Toyama prefecture (T) city, and 6,914 British civil servants from the Whitehall II study undertaken in London. The Japanese version of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI-J) was used in T city and Jenkins' sleep problem scale was used in the Whitehall II study. Setting a validated cut-off point of 5.5 for the PSQI-J global score and the upper tertile point for the Jenkins' sleep problem scale, we conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the association between leisure time activities and sleep quality. In both populations, those who participated in voluntary activities in clubs or organizations were significantly less likely to have poor sleep quality with Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of 0.73 (95%CI; 0.56-0.97) and 0.85 (95%CI; 0.76-0.95) in Japanese and British civil servants, respectively. Similar findings were apparent for visiting friends and relatives (ORs 0.60 (95%CI; 0.46-0.80) and 0.71 (95%CI; 0.56-0.90) for Japanese and British subjects, respectively). Our findings suggest that engagement in social leisure activities is associated with better sleep quality and consequently better general well-being.
Miró, E; Cano-Lozano, M C; Buela-Casal, G
The present study analyses the variations of the skin resistance level (SRL) during 48 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) and its relationship to body temperature, self-informed sleepiness in the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), and reaction time (RT). All of the variables were evaluated every 2 h except for the SSS, which was evaluated every hour. A total of 30 healthy subjects (15 men and 15 women) from 18 to 24 years old participated in the experiment. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with TSD days and time-of-day as factors showed a substantial increase of SRL, SSS, and RT, and a decrease in body temperature marked by strong circadian oscillations. The interaction between day by time-of-day was only significant for RT. Furthermore, Pearson's correlations showed that the increase of SRL is associated to the decrease in temperature (mean r=-0.511), the increase of SSS (mean r=0.509), and the deterioration of RT (mean r=0.425). The results support previous TSD reports and demonstrate the sensitivity of SRL to TSD. The non-invasive character of SRL, its simplicity, and its relationships with other activation parameters, widely validated by previous literature, convert SRL into an interesting and useful measure in this field.
Lindemann, Christoph; Ahlbeck, Joachim; Bitzenhofer, Sebastian H.; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L.
Spindle oscillations have been described during early brain development and in the adult brain. Besides similarities in temporal patterns and involved brain areas, neonatal spindle bursts (NSBs) and adult sleep spindles (ASSs) show differences in their occurrence, spatial distribution, and underlying mechanisms. While NSBs have been proposed to coordinate the refinement of the maturating neuronal network, ASSs are associated with the implementation of acquired information within existing networks. Along with these functional differences, separate synaptic plasticity mechanisms seem to be recruited. Here, we review the generation of spindle oscillations in the developing and adult brain and discuss possible implications of their differences for synaptic plasticity. The first part of the review is dedicated to the generation and function of ASSs with a particular focus on their role in healthy and impaired neuronal networks. The second part overviews the present knowledge of spindle activity during development and the ability of NSBs to organize immature circuits. Studies linking abnormal maturation of brain wiring with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders highlight the importance to better elucidate neonatal plasticity rules in future research. PMID:27293903
Corsi-Cabrera, María; Figueredo-Rodríguez, Pedro; del Río-Portilla, Yolanda; Sánchez-Romero, Jorge; Galán, Lídice; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge
Introduction: Cognitive and brain hyperactivation have been associated with trouble falling asleep and sleep misperception in patients with primary insomnia (PI). Activation and synchronization/temporal coupling in frontal and frontoparietal regions involved in executive control and endogenous attention might be implicated in these symptoms. Methods: Standard polysomnography (PSG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) were recorded in 10 unmedicated young patients (age 19-34 yr) with PI with no other sleep/medical condition, and in 10 matched control subjects. Absolute power, temporal coupling, and topographic source distribution (variable resolution electromagnetic tomography or VARETA) were obtained for all time spent in waking, Stage 1 and Stage 2 of the wake-sleep transition period (WSTP), and the first 3 consecutive min of N3. Subjective sleep quality and continuity were evaluated. Results: In comparison with control subjects, patients with PI exhibited significantly higher frontal beta power and current density, and beta and gamma frontoparietal temporal coupling during waking and Stage 1. Conclusion: These findings suggest that frontal deactivation and disengagement of brain regions involved in executive control, attention, and self-awareness are impaired in patients with PI. The persistence of this activated and coherent network during the wake-sleep transition period (WSTP) may contribute to a better understanding of underlying mechanisms involved in difficulty in falling asleep, in sleep misperception, and in the lighter, poorer, and nonrefreshing sleep experienced by some patients with PI. Citation: Corsi-Cabrera M; Figueredo-Roríguez P; del Río-Portilla Y; Sánchez-Romero J; Galán L; Bosch-Bayard J. Enhanced frontoparietal synchronized activation during the wake-sleep transition in patients with primary insomnia. SLEEP 2012;35(4):501-511. PMID:22467988
Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W
Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that these animals exhibited an increase in phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity during post-training REM sleep, which was absent in the 43% of animals that failed to retain fear extinction memory. The results of this study provide evidence that brainstem activation, specifically potentiation of phasic P-wave activity, during post-training REM sleep is critical for consolidation of fear extinction memory. The results of this study also suggest that, contrary to the popular hypothesis of sleep and memory, increased sleep after training alone does not guarantee consolidation and/or retention of fear extinction memory. Rather, the potentiation of specific sleep-dependent physiological events may be a more accurate predictor for successful consolidation of fear extinction memory. Identification of this unique mechanism will significantly improve our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the sleep-dependent regulation of emotional memory. Additionally, this discovery may also initiate development of a new, more targeted treatment method for clinical disorders of fear and anxiety in humans that is more efficacious than existing methods such as exposure therapy that incorporate only fear extinction.
Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W .
Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that these animals exhibited an increase in phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity during post-training REM sleep, which was absent in the 43% of animals that failed to retain fear extinction memory. The results of this study provide evidence that brainstem activation, specifically potentiation of phasic P-wave activity, during post-training REM sleep is critical for consolidation of fear extinction memory. The results of this study also suggest that, contrary to the popular hypothesis of sleep and memory, increased sleep after training alone does not guarantee consolidation and/or retention of fear extinction memory. Rather, the potentiation of specific sleep-dependent physiological events may be a more accurate predictor for successful consolidation of fear extinction memory. Identification of this unique mechanism will significantly improve our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the sleep-dependent regulation of emotional memory. Additionally, this discovery may also initiate development of a new, more targeted treatment method for clinical disorders of fear and anxiety in humans that is more efficacious than existing methods such as exposure therapy that incorporate only fear extinction. PMID:23467372
Lin, Fang Ju; Pierce, Michael M; Sehgal, Amita; Wu, Tianyi; Skipper, Daniel C; Chabba, Radhika
Caffeine and taurine are two major neuromodulators present in large quantities in many popular energy drinks. We investigated their effects on sleep-wake control in constant darkness using the fruit fly Drosophila as a model system. It has been shown that caffeine, as the most widely used psychostimulant, can boost arousal through the dopamine pathway in the mushroom bodies of flies. Taurine is a GABA receptor agonist, which is inhibitory to neuronal firing. We show here that flies receiving a low dose of caffeine (0.01%) increase locomotor activity by 25%, and decrease total sleep by 15%. Treatment with taurine at 0.1% to 1.5% reduces locomotor activity by 28% to 86%, and shifts it from diurnal to nocturnal. At 0.75%, taurine also increases total sleep by 50%. Our results show that taurine increases sleep, while caffeine, as previously reported, attenuates sleep. Flies treated with both caffeine and taurine exhibit two differential effects which depend upon the ratio of taurine to caffeine. A high taurine:caffeine ratio promotes sleep, while a low ratio of taurine:caffeine inhibits sleep to a greater extent than the equivalent amount of caffeine alone. This intriguing enhancement of caffeine action by low doses of taurine may account for the presence of both compounds in energy-promoting drinks such as Red Bull® and Monster®.
Alvarenga, Tathiana Aparecida; Tufik, Sergio; Pires, Gabriel Natan; Andersen, Monica Levy
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the paired consequences of food restriction and paradoxical sleep deprivation on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats. METHOD: Food restriction began at weaning, with 6 g of food being provided per day, which was subsequently increased by 1 g per week until reaching 15 g per day by the eighth week. At adulthood, both rats subjected to food restriction and those fed ad libitum were exposed to paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 h or were maintained in their home-cage groups. RESULTS: Animals subjected to food restriction exhibited a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein levels compared to animals that were given free access to food. After the paradoxical sleep deprivation period, the food-restricted animals demonstrated reduced concentrations of high-density lipoprotein relative to their respective controls, although the values for the food-restricted animals after sleep deprivation were still higher than those for the ad libitum group. The concentration of low-density lipoproteins was significantly increased in sleep-deprived animals fed the ad libitum diet. The levels of triglycerides, very low-density lipoproteins, and glucose in food-restricted animals were each decreased compared to both ad libitum groups. CONCLUSION: These results may help to illustrate the mechanisms underlying the relationship between sleep curtailment and metabolism and may suggest that, regardless of sleep deprivation, dietary restriction can minimize alterations in parameters related to cardiovascular risk. PMID:22522763
Mikulovic, Jacques; Dieu, Olivier; Fardy, Paul S; Bui-Xuan, Gilles; Vanhelst, Jérémy
The aim was to explore the relationship between sleep habits and overweight/obesity, physical activity and sedentary behaviors in French adults with intellectual disabilities. This observational study was conducted on 570 French adults with intellectual deficiency. Sleep habits were analyzed and related to anthropometric measures, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. The study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants completed the questionnaire during an interview with the principal investigator. Sleep timing behavior was classified into 4 sleep patterns: Early-bed/Early-rise, Early-bed/Late-rise, Late-bed/Late-rise, and Late-bed/Early-rise. Of 570 eligible participants, 61 were excluded because of missing data on age, weight or height. The number of participants identified in each of the four sleep patterns was as follows: Early-bed/Early-rise, N = 119 (23%), Early-bed/Late-rise, N = 171 (34%), Late-bed/Early-rise, N = 100 (20%), Late-bed/Late-rise N = 119 (23%). Participants who wake up earlier are more active than those who rise late (p < 0.02). Participants who slept later spent more time in sedentary activities than those in the Early rise groups (p < 0.01). The number of obese/overweight participants was also higher in Late-bed/Late rise group. Sleep behavior was associated with overweight/obesity, physical activity and sedentary behavior in adults with intellectual deficiency, independently the sleep duration. Implementing intervention or promotion programs on sleep behaviors should be considered in order to meet the objectives of promoting health on anthropometric characteristics and increased physical activity among these disabled adults.
Long, Xi; Haakma, Reinder; Leufkens, Tim R M; Fonseca, Pedro; Aarts, Ronald M
Autonomic cardiorespiratory activity changes across sleep stages. However, it is unknown to what extent it is affected by between- and within-subject variability during sleep. As it is hypothesized that the variability is caused by differences in subject demographics (age, gender, and body mass index), time, and physiology, we quantified these effects and investigated how they limit reliable cardiorespiratory-based sleep staging. Six representative parameters obtained from 165 overnight heartbeat and respiration recordings were analyzed. Multilevel models were used to evaluate the effects evoked by differences in sleep stages, demographics, time, and physiology between and within subjects. Results show that the between- and within-subject effects were found to be significant for each parameter. When adjusted by sleep stages, the effects in physiology between and within subjects explained more than 80% of total variance but the time and demographic effects explained less. If these effects are corrected, profound improvements in sleep staging can be observed. These results indicate that the differences in subject demographics, time, and physiology present significant effects on cardiorespiratory activity during sleep. The primary effects come from the physiological variability between and within subjects, markedly limiting the sleep staging performance. Efforts to diminish these effects will be the main challenge.
Hoffmann, Kerstin; Coolen, Alex; Schlumbohm, Christina; Meerlo, Peter; Fuchs, Eberhard
Initial studies in the day active marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) indicate that the sleep-wake cycle of these non-human primates resembles that of humans and therefore conceivably represent an appropriate model for human sleep. The methods currently employed for sleep studies in marmosets are limited. The objective of this study was to employ and validate the use of specific remote monitoring system technologies that enable accurate long-term recordings of sleep-wake rhythms and the closely related rhythms of core body temperature (CBT) and locomotor activity in unrestrained group-housed marmosets. Additionally, a pilot sleep deprivation (SD) study was performed to test the recording systems in an applied experimental setup. Our results show that marmosets typically exhibit a monophasic sleep pattern with cyclical alternations between NREM and REM sleep. CBT displays a pronounced daily rhythm and locomotor activity is primarily restricted to the light phase. SD caused an immediate increase in NREM sleep time and EEG slow-wave activity as well as a delayed REM sleep rebound that did not fully compensate for REM sleep that had been lost during SD. In conclusion, the combination of two innovative technical approaches allows for simultaneous measurements of CBT, sleep cycles and activity in multiple subjects. The employment of these systems represents a significant refinement in terms of animal welfare and will enable many future applications and longitudinal studies of circadian rhythms in marmosets.
Kwon, Yeong Ok; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan
It has been known that RA, one of major constituents of Perilla frutescens which has been used as a traditional folk remedy for sedation in oriental countries, shows the anxiolytic-like and sedative effects. This study was performed to know whether RA may enhance pentobarbital-induced sleep through γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A-ergic systems in rodents. RA (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the locomotor activity in mice. RA decreased sleep latency and increased the total sleep time in pentobarbital (42 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced sleeping mice. RA also increased sleeping time and number of falling sleep mice after treatment with sub-hypnotic pentobarbital (28 mg/kg, i.p.). In electroencephalogram (EEG) recording, RA (2.0 mg/kg) not only decreased the counts of sleep/wake cycles and REM sleep, but also increased the total and NREM sleep in rats. The power density of NREM sleep showed the increase in δ-waves and the decrease in α-waves. On the other hand, RA (0.1, 1.0 and 10 μg/ml) increased intracellular Cl− influx in the primary cultured hypothalamic cells of rats. RA (p.o.) increased the protein expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65/67) and GABAA receptors subunits except β1 subunit. In conclusion, RA augmented pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors through GABAA-ergic transmission. Thus, it is suggested that RA may be useful for the treatment of insomnia. PMID:27469144
Luik, Annemarie I; Direk, Neşe; Zuurbier, Lisette A; Hofman, Albert; Van Someren, Eus J W; Tiemeier, Henning
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important role in sleep. Nevertheless, the association of sleep and its 24-h organization with negative feedback control of the HPA axis has received limited attention in population-based studies. We explored this association in 493 middle-aged persons of the Rotterdam Study, a large population-based study (mean age 56 years, standard deviation: 5.3 years; 57% female). The negative feedback of the HPA axis was measured as the change in morning saliva cortisol after the intake of 0.25mg dexamethasone the night before. Actigraphy allowed us to measure the stability and fragmentation of the activity rhythm and to estimate total sleep time, sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset. A sleep diary kept during the week of actigraphy was used to assess self-reported total sleep time, sleep onset latency, number of awakenings and perceived sleep quality. In our study, enhanced negative feedback of the HPA axis was found in association with unstable activity rhythms (B=0.106, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.002; 0.210), total sleep time (B=0.108, 95%CI: 0.001; 0.215) and poor subjective sleep quality (B=0.107, 95%CI: 0.009; 0.206) after multivariate adjustment. These results indicated that the 24-h organization, duration and experience of sleep are all associated with the negative feedback control of the HPA axis.
Gundel, A; Parisi, R A; Strobel, R; Weihrauch, M R
An experiment was conducted to study sleep quality and sleep architecture in volunteers living in a closed system under elevated ambient CO2 levels of 0.7% and 1.2%. In a closed system, human life is possible only if the CO2 level is permanently adjusted. For the Russian space station MIR, for example, the CO2 levels of the present study are actual upper limits for the adjustment. Sleep architecture was found to be altered in astronauts on the orbiting MIR station. Sleep quantity and quality were reduced. The latency to the first REM sleep was shorter in space and slow wave sleep was redistributed from the first to the second sleep cycle. The elevated CO2 concentration in the atmosphere on MIR may be one of the reasons for those observations regarding sleep in space. Thus, this experiment was also conducted in order to clarify the interpretation of data obtained from astronauts on MIR. In this study sleep polygraphies could be recorded in 4 subjects who lived for 23 d under 0.7% and then for the same period of time under 1.2% CO2. Findings suggest that these levels of ambient CO2 do not reduce sleep quality. Sleep architecture, however, was slightly changed and showed that the amount of slow wave sleep increased with the duration of the exposure to CO2. But it can be excluded that findings on MIR were caused by elevated CO2-levels.
Izumi, Suelem; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando F.; Carneiro, Gláucia; Togeiro, Sônia M.; Tufik, Sérgio; Zanella, Maria T.
Study Objectives: This study examined insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) production and its association with the metabolic syndrome (MS) in men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: In total, 47 overweight and obese men who had been referred for suspected OSA underwent polysomnography and were classified based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) into three groups: no OSA, < 5 events/h (n = 11); mild OSA, ≥ 5 to < 15 events/h (n = 8); and moderate-severe OSA, ≥ 15 events/h (n = 28). The assessment of the somatotropic axis function included IGF-1 measurement. MS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. Results: IGF-1 level in the moderate-severe OSA group was lower than in the no-OSA group (156.8 ± 54.3 μg/L versus 225.5 ± 80.5 μg/L; p = 0.013). IGF-1 level was negatively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference (WC), AHI, and sleep duration with oxygen (O2) saturation < 90% and positively correlated with the average and minimum O2 saturation (p = 0.027). In a multivariable linear regression, considering WC and minimum O2 saturation as independent variables, only the minimum O2 saturation was a predictor of low IGF-1 levels. The proportions of patients with MS were different between the three groups (18.2% in no OSA; 25% in mild OSA, and 57.1% in moderate-severe OSA; p = 0.047). Furthermore, in the lowest tertile of IGF-1 value, 66.7% of patients were affected by MS (p = 0.049). Hemoglobin (Hb)A1c correlated negatively with the minimum O2 saturation and IGF-1 levels. However, in multivariable linear regression only IGF-1 levels were a predictor of HbA1c levels. Conclusion: The occurrence of OSA is associated with a reduction in IGF-1 levels. IGF-1 alterations in OSA also seem to be associated with a higher prevalence of MS. Citation: Izumi S, Ribeiro-Filho FF, Carneiro G, Togeiro SM, Tufik S, Zanella MT. IGF-1 levels are inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin
Introduction Despite recent advances in anti-inflammatory therapy, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients continue to rate pain as a priority. The etiology of RA pain is likely multifactorial, including both inflammatory and non-inflammatory components. In this study, we examine the association between disease activity, sleep, psychiatric distress and pain sensitivity in RA. Methods Fifty-nine female RA patients completed questionnaires and underwent pressure pain threshold testing to assess hyperalgesia/allodynia at joint and non-joint sites. Blood samples were taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP). The association between disease activity, sleep problems, psychiatric distress and pain threshold was assessed using Pearson/Spearman correlations and multivariable linear regression. Disease activity levels, sleep problems and psychiatric distress were compared between RA patients with fibromyalgia and RA patients without fibromyalgia. Results In unadjusted analyses, CRP was not correlated with pain threshold, but tender joint count was inversely correlated with pain threshold at all sites (P ≤ 0.004). Sleep problems were associated with low pain threshold at all sites (P ≤ 0.0008). Psychiatric distress was associated with low pain threshold at the wrist and thumbnail (P ≤ 0.006). In multivariable linear regression models, CRP was inversely associated with wrist pain threshold (P = 0.003). Sleep problems were inversely associated with pain threshold at all sites (P ≤ 0.01), but psychiatric distress was not. Despite differences in pain threshold, CRP levels and sleep problems between RA patients with fibromyalgia and those without fibromyalgia, associations between these variables did not change when patients with fibromyalgia were excluded. Conclusions Multivariable models are essential in analyses of pain. Among RA patients, inflammation is associated with heightened pain sensitivity at joints. In contrast, poor sleep is associated with diffuse pain
Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Guzmán, Khalil; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria; Salas-Crisóstomo, Mireille; Jiménez-Moreno, Ramsés; Arias-Carrión, Oscar
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that has been suggested as a modulator of several physiological functions. The PPARα recognizes as an endogenous ligand the anorexic lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA) which displays wake-inducing properties. Despite that recent evidence indicates that activation of PPARα by synthetic agonists such as Wy14643 enhances waking as well as the extracellular contents of wake-related neurotransmitters, the role of PPARα in sleep recovery after prolonged waking has not been fully described. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize if PPARα regulates sleep rebound after total sleep deprivation (TSD). We report that after 6h of TSD activation of PPARα by pharmacological systemic administration of OEA (10, 20 or 30mg/Kg, i.p.) promoted alertness by blocking the sleep rebound after TSD. Besides, wake-linked compounds such as dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, or adenosine collected from nucleus accumbens were enhanced after TSD in OEA-treated animals. These sleep and neurochemical results were mimicked after injection of PPARα agonist Wy14643 (10, 20, 30mg/Kg, i.p.). However, similar findings from the sham of vehicle groups were observed if PPARα antagonist MK-886 was administered to rats (10, 20, 30mg/Kg, i.p.). Our results strengthened the hypothesis that PPARα might modulate sleep and neurochemical homeostasis after sleep deprivation.
Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Moum, Torbjorn; Engdahl, Bo
The objective of the present survey was to study self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise with respect to nighttime equivalent noise level (L(p,A,eq,night)) and maximum noise level (L(p,A,max)). A sample of 1349 people in and around Oslo in Norway exposed to railway noise was studied in a cross-sectional survey to obtain data on sleep disturbances, sleep problems due to noise, and personal characteristics including noise sensitivity. Individual noise exposure levels were determined outside of the bedroom facade, the most-exposed facade, and inside the respondents' bedrooms. The exposure-response relationships were analyzed by using logistic regression models, controlling for possible modifying factors including the number of noise events (train pass-by frequency). L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) were significantly correlated, and the proportion of reported noise-induced sleep problems increased as both L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) increased. Noise sensitivity, type of bedroom window, and pass-by frequency were significant factors affecting noise-induced sleep disturbances, in addition to the noise exposure level. Because about half of the study population did not use a bedroom at the most-exposed side of the house, the exposure-response curve obtained by using noise levels for the most-exposed facade underestimated noise-induced sleep disturbance for those who actually have their bedroom at the most-exposed facade.
Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Léger, Damien
Sleep and exercise influence each other through complex, bilateral interactions that involve multiple physiological and psychological pathways. Physical activity is usually considered as beneficial in aiding sleep although this link may be subject to multiple moderating factors such as sex, age, fitness level, sleep quality and the characteristics of the exercise (intensity, duration, time of day, environment). It is therefore vital to improve knowledge in fundamental physiology in order to understand the benefits of exercise on the quantity and quality of sleep in healthy subjects and patients. Conversely, sleep disturbances could also impair a person's cognitive performance or their capacity for exercise and increase the risk of exercise-induced injuries either during extreme and/or prolonged exercise or during team sports. This review aims to describe the reciprocal fundamental physiological effects linking sleep and exercise in order to improve the pertinent use of exercise in sleep medicine and prevent sleep disorders in sportsmen.
BOZKURT, Hakan; NEYAL, Abdurrahman; GEYİK, Sırma; TAYSI, Seyithan; ANARAT, Rüksan; BULUT, Mesut; NEYAL, Ayşe Münife
Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders. In the present study, we assessed the nitrite level, which is an indirect indicator of nitric oxide (NO), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI), which may be associated with endotel dysfunction. We investigated the difference between the groups and the relationship among the severity of comorbid conditions. Methods This study was conducted in 39 OSA patients confirmed by polysomnography and 40 healthy subjects (controls). The OSA group consisted of 10 women and 29 men and the control group consisted of 20 women and 20 men. Polysomnographic revealed mild OSA in two, moderate in 7 and severe in 30 cases. We measured plasma TAS, TOS and nitrite levels from venous blood. The OSI value was obtained by dividing the TOS and TAS values. Values were compared with the control group and between patient groups. Results A high body mass index (BMI), cardiovasculer diseases (CVD) and the use of medication for co-morbid diseases were more prevalent in the OSA group (p=.001, p=.029 and p=.006, respectively). The median plasma TOS level and OSI in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OUA) group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p=.001 and p=.001, respectively). The plasma median nitrite level and TAS did not show any significant difference between the OSA and the control groups. None of the parameters revealed a significant difference between severe and moderate OSA cases. Conclusion Our findings in the present study revealed that the oxidant–antioxidant balance shifted toward the oxidant side in OSA cases; however, the NO level did not change. These findings together may point out that some molecules other than NO may have a role in the pathophysiology of endothelial dysfunction and also in the disturbed oxidant–antioxidant balance in OSA.
During a sleep study the sleep cycles and stages of sleep are monitored. Electrodes are placed to monitor continuous recordings of brain waves, electrical activity of muscles, eye movement, respiratory ...
... begins with a sleep stage called non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. During this stage, your brain waves, ... your brain activity picks up again, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep begins. Most dreaming occurs during REM ...
Fencl, V.; Koski, G.; Pappenheimer, J. R.
1. Intraventricular infusion in the rat of 0·1 ml. cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) from sleep-deprived goats increases the duration of sleep (measured by e.e.g.) and decreases locomotor activity (measured photo-electrically) for at least 6 hr subsequent to the infusion. Subarachnoid infusions are ineffective. 2. C.s.f. from control and sleep-deprived goats was fractionated by ultrafiltration through molecular sieves. The sleep-promoting Factor S is found in the low molecular weight fraction (mol. wt. < 500) of c.s.f. from sleep-deprived but not from control goats. 3. The concentration of Factor S in c.s.f. increases progressively during the first 48 hr of sleep deprivation. 4. The sleep promoting effects of Factor S cannot be duplicated by serotonin, 4-OH-butyrate, butyrolactone, GABA (γ-amino butyric acid), glutamic acid or 3′,5′-cyclic AMP when these substances are added to control fluids in concentrations up to 10 times greater than those found in normal c.s.f. 5. Intraventricular or subarchnoid infusion in the rat of 0·1 ml. proteinfree c.s.f. containing molecules in the mol. wt. range of 500-10,000 at 10-30 × normal concentration causes hyperactivity which persists for several days and nights following the infusion. The excitatory material, probably a peptide, is present in c.s.f. from both control and sleep-deprived goats. 6. The properties of Factor S suggest that it may play a role in the normal regulation of sleep and wakefulness. PMID:4327693
Al-Disi, Dara; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Khanam, Latifa; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Al-Saif, Mohammad; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George
Understanding the interplay between sleep duration and quality, diet and hormones of obesity may help design effective lifestyle intervention strategies. Here we studied such associations in lean and obese teen-aged Saudi girls. In this cross-sectional observational study, 126 girls (62 lean and 64 obese) aged 14 -18 years (16.5 ± 1.5) were evaluated. A general questionnaire, which included sleep and diet questions, was obtained and anthropometric measurements and overnight fasting blood samples for determination of glucose, lipid profile and serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin and ghrelin were collected. Subjects that slept < 5 hours/day had a higher percent of carbohydrate intake (p = 0.04) than those who slept > 7 hours/day. Adiponectin levels were higher in the lean than the obese group and increased in proportion to hours of sleep. Ghrelin had an inverse association with subjective sleep duration (p = 0.04), while resistin levels were directly proportional to it. Thus, the duration and quality of sleep influenced diet composition and the circulating levels of adipocytokines and ghrelin in adolescent girls. Long and uninterrupted sleep was associated with a better diet and a more favorable hormonal profile.
Sabir, Meriem; Gaudreault, Pierre-Olivier; Freyburger, Marlène; Massart, Renaud; Blanchet-Cohen, Alexis; Jaber, Manar; Gosselin, Nadia; Mongrain, Valérie
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mild TBI (mTBI), is importantly associated with vigilance and sleep complaints. Because sleep is required for learning, plasticity and recovery, we here evaluated the bidirectional relationship between mTBI and sleep with two specific objectives: (1) Test that mTBI rapidly impairs sleep-wake architecture and the dynamics of the electrophysiological marker of sleep homeostasis (i.e., non-rapid eye movement sleep delta (1-4Hz) activity); (2) evaluate the impact of sleep loss following mTBI on the expression of plasticity markers that have been linked to sleep homeostasis and on genome-wide gene expression. A closed-head injury model was used to perform a 48h electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording in mice submitted to mTBI or Sham surgery. mTBI was found to immediately decrease the capacity to sustain long bouts of wakefulness as well as the amplitude of the time course of ECoG delta activity during wakefulness. Significant changes in ECoG spectral activity during wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep were observed mainly on the second recorded day. A second experiment was performed to measure gene expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus after a mTBI followed either by two consecutive days of 6h sleep deprivation (SD) or of undisturbed behavior (quantitative PCR and next-generation sequencing). mTBI modified the expression of genes involved in immunity, inflammation and glial function (e.g., chemokines, glial markers) and SD changed that of genes linked to circadian rhythms, synaptic activity/neuronal plasticity, neuroprotection and cell death and survival. SD appeared to affect gene expression in the cerebral cortex more importantly after mTBI than Sham surgery including that of the astrocytic marker Gfap, which was proposed as a marker of clinical outcome after TBI. Interestingly, SD impacted the hippocampal expression of the plasticity elements Arc and EfnA3 only after mTBI. Overall, our
Hartescu, Iuliana; Morgan, Kevin; Stevinson, Clare D
While high levels of activity and exercise training have been associated with improvements in sleep quality, minimum levels of activity likely to improve sleep outcomes have not been explored. A two-armed parallel randomized controlled trial (N=41; 30 females) was designed to assess whether increasing physical activity to the level recommended in public health guidelines can improve sleep quality among inactive adults meeting research diagnostic criteria for insomnia. The intervention consisted of a monitored program of ≥150 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, for 6 months. The principal end-point was the Insomnia Severity Index at 6 months post-baseline. Secondary outcomes included measures of mood, fatigue and daytime sleepiness. Activity and light exposure were monitored throughout the trial using accelerometry and actigraphy. At 6 months post-baseline, the physical activity group showed significantly reduced insomnia symptom severity (F(8,26) = 5.16, P = 0.03), with an average reduction of four points on the Insomnia Severity Index; and significantly reduced depression and anxiety scores (F(6,28) = 5.61, P = 0.02; and F(6,28) = 4.41, P = 0.05, respectively). All of the changes were independent of daily light exposure. Daytime fatigue showed no significant effect of the intervention (F(8,26) = 1.84, P = 0.18). Adherence and retention were high. Internationally recommended minimum levels of physical activity improve daytime and night-time symptoms of chronic insomnia independent of daily light exposure levels.
Tseilikman, Vadim E; Kozochkin, Denis A; Manukhina, Eugenia B; Downey, H Fred; Tseilikman, Olga B; Misharina, Maria E; Nikitina, Anna A; Komelkova, Maria V; Lapshin, Maxim S; Kondashevskaya, Marina V; Lazuko, Svetlana S; Kusina, Oxana V; Sahabutdinov, Marat V
The present study is focused on the relationship between monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and hepatic content of cytochrome P450 (CYP), which reflects the status of microsomal oxidation. For vital integrative evaluation of hepatic microsomal oxidation in rats, the hexobarbital sleep test was used, and content of CYP was measured in hepatic microsomes. Rats with short hexobarbital sleep time (SHST) had higher content of microsomal CYP than rats with long hexobarbital sleep time (LHST). Whole brain MAO-A and MAO-B activities, serotonin and carbonylated protein levels were higher in SHST than in LHST rats. MAO-A and MAO-B activities were higher in brain cortex of SHST rats; MAO-A activity was higher only in hypothalamus and medulla of LHST. The same brain regions of LHST rats had higher concentrations of carbonylated proteins and lipid peroxidation products than in SHST rats. MAO activity was correlated with microsomal oxidation phenotype. Rats with higher hepatic content of CYP had higher activities of MAO-A and MAO-B in the brain and higher plasma serotonin levels than rats with lower microsomal oxidation. In conclusion, data obtained in this study showed a correlation between MAO activity and microsomal oxidation phenotype.
Sprecher, Kate E.; Ferrarelli, Fabio
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness with a worldwide prevalence of approximately 1 %. Although the clinical features of the disorder were described over one hundred years ago, its neurobiology is still largely elusive despite several decades of research. Schizophrenia is associated with marked sleep disturbances and memory impairment. Above and beyond altered sleep architecture, sleep rhythms including slow waves and spindles are disrupted in schizophrenia. In the healthy brain, these rhythms reflect and participate in plastic processes during sleep. This chapter discusses evidence that schizophrenia patients exhibit dysfunction of sleep-mediated plasticity on a behavioral, cellular, and molecular level and offers suggestions on how the study of sleeping brain activity can shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disorder. PMID:25608723
Konofal, E; Lecendreux, M; Bouvard, M P; Mouren-Simeoni, M C
Sleep disturbances can lead to symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. In the present study, we compared the sleep patterns of 30 children with ADHD, with those of 19 controls matched for age (5-10 years) and sex. Sleep patterns were recorded during one night, using polysomnography (PSG) and a video system in the sleep laboratory. Both ADHD children and controls were medication free and showed no clinical signs of sleep and alertness problems. An infrared camera was used to record all types of movement, which were scored and analyzed using specific software (Observer(R) 3.0; Noldus International, The Netherlands). No significant differences in sleep variables were found between ADHD children and controls. Polysomnography data showed no significant difference between the two groups. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder children moved more often than controls (upper limbs, P < 0.04; lower limbs, P < 0.03; all types, P < 0.003). The duration of movements was significantly longer in ADHD children (upper limbs, P < 0.03; all types, P < 0.02). The results of the video analysis were consistent with previous findings that ADHD children have higher levels of nocturnal activity than controls. This activity concerned mostly upper and lower limb movements. Futher studies are required to determine why noctural activity does not affect sleep continuity in a more significant way and whether it should be treated specifically.
Ursavas, Ahmet; Ilcol, Yesim Ozarda; Nalci, Nazan; Karadag, Mehmet; Ege, Ercument
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among plasma leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin levels, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). METHODS: Fifty-five consecutive newly diagnosed OSAS patients and 15 age-matched nonapneic controls were enrolled in this study. After sleep study between 8:00 AM and 9:00 AM on the morning, venous blood was obtained in the fasting state to measure ghrelin and adipokines. RESULTS: Serum ghrelin levels of OSAS group were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the control group. No significant difference was noted in the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin in OSAS group when compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between ghrelin and apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) (r = 0.237, P < 0.05) or the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) (r = 0.28, P < 0.05). There was also a significant positive correlation between leptin and body mass index (r = 0.592, P < 0.0001). No significant correlation was observed between leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and any polysomnographic parameters. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that serum ghrelin levels were higher in OSAS patients than those of control group and correlated with AHI and ESS. Further studies are needed to clarify the complex relation among OSAS, obesity, adipokines, and ghrelin. PMID:20835311
8217 - .-.-. .- *.. - .. . return to sleep of patients taking the sedative-hypnotic may reduce consolidation time ( Roehrs et al. 1983). In the recently completed study mentioned...Oswald, I., French, C., Adam, K. and Gilham, J. Benzodiazeplne hypnotics remain effective for 24 weeks. Br. Ned. J., 1982. 284:860-3. Roehrs , T, Zorck, F
Morairty, Stephen R; Dittrich, Lars; Pasumarthi, Ravi K; Valladao, Daniel; Heiss, Jaime E; Gerashchenko, Dmitry; Kilduff, Thomas S
Although the neural circuitry underlying homeostatic sleep regulation is little understood, cortical neurons immunoreactive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1) have been proposed to be involved in this physiological process. By systematically manipulating the durations of sleep deprivation and subsequent recovery sleep, we show that activation of cortical nNOS/NK1 neurons is directly related to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep time, NREM bout duration, and EEG δ power during NREM sleep, an index of preexisting homeostatic sleep drive. Conversely, nNOS knockout mice show reduced NREM sleep time, shorter NREM bouts, and decreased power in the low δ range during NREM sleep, despite constitutively elevated sleep drive. Cortical NK1 neurons are still activated in response to sleep deprivation in these mice but, in the absence of nNOS, they are unable to up-regulate NREM δ power appropriately. These findings support the hypothesis that cortical nNOS/NK1 neurons translate homeostatic sleep drive into up-regulation of NREM δ power through an NO-dependent mechanism.
Krueger, James M; Rector, David M; Roy, Sandip; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Belenky, Gregory; Panksepp, Jaak
Sleep is vital to cognitive performance, productivity, health and well-being. Earlier theories of sleep presumed that sleep occurred at the level of the whole organism and that sleep was governed by central control mechanisms. However, evidence now indicates that sleep might be regulated at a more local level within the brain: it seems to be a fundamental property of neuronal networks and is dependent on prior activity within each network. Such local network sleep might be initiated by metabolically driven changes in the production of sleep-regulatory substances. We discuss a mathematical model which illustrates that the sleep-like states of individual cortical columns can be synchronized through humoral and electrical connections, and that whole organism sleep occurs as an emergent property of local network interactions. PMID:18985047
Chennaoui, Mounir; Bougard, Clément; Drogou, Catherine; Langrume, Christophe; Miller, Christian; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Vergnoux, Frédéric
The aim of this study was to evaluate stress markers, mood states, and sleep indicators in high-level swimmers during a major 7-days competition according to the outcomes. Nine swimmers [six men and three women (age: 22 ± 2 and 22 ± 4 years, respectively)] were examined. Before (PRE) and after (POST) each race (series, semi-finals, and finals), salivary concentrations of cortisol, α-amylase (sAA), and chromogranin-A (CgA) were determined. Mood states were assessed by the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire completed before and after the 7-days, and self-reported sleep diaries were completed daily. In the “failure” group, cortisol and sAA significantly increased between PRE-POST measurements (p < 0.05), while sCgA was not changed. Significant overall decrease of cortisol (-52.6%) and increase of sAA (+68.7%) was shown in the “failure group.” In this group, fatigue, confusion and depression scores, and sleep duration before the finals increased. The results in the “success” group show tendencies for increased cortisol and sCgA concentrations in response to competition, while sAA was not changed. Cortisol levels before the semi-finals and finals and sCgA levels before the finals were positively correlated to the fatigue score in the “failure” group only (r = 0.89). sAA levels before and after the semi-finals were negatively correlated to sleep duration measured in the subsequent night (r = −0.90). In conclusion, the stress of the competition could trigger a negative mood profile and sleep disturbance which correspond to different responses of biomarkers related to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, cortisol, sAA, and CgA. PMID:27014092
Rosenberger, Mary E.; Buman, Matthew P.; Haskell, William L.; McConnell, Michael V.; Carstensen, Laura L.
Getting enough sleep, exercising and limiting sedentary activities can greatly contribute to disease prevention and overall health and longevity. Measuring the full 24-hour activity cycle - sleep, sedentary behavior (SED), light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) - may now be feasible using small wearable devices. PURPOSE This study compares nine devices for accuracy in 24-hour activity measurement. METHODS Adults (N=40, 47% male) wore nine devices for 24-hours: Actigraph GT3X+, activPAL, Fitbit One, GENEactiv, Jawbone Up, LUMOback, Nike Fuelband, Omron pedometer, and Z-Machine. Comparisons (to standards) were made for total sleep time (Z-machine), time spent in SED (activPAL), LPA (GT3x+), MVPA (GT3x+), and steps (Omron). Analysis included mean absolute percent error, equivalence testing, and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS Error rates ranged from 8.1–16.9% for sleep; 9.5–65.8% for SED; 19.7–28.0% for LPA; 51.8–92% for MVPA; and 14.1–29.9% for steps. Equivalence testing indicated only two comparisons were significantly equivalent to standards: the LUMOback for sedentary behavior and the GT3X+ for sleep. Bland-Altman plots indicated GT3X+ had the closest measurement for sleep, LUMOback for sedentary behavior, GENEactiv for LPA, Fitbit for MVPA and GT3X+ for steps. CONCLUSIONS Currently, no device accurately captures activity data across the entire 24-hour day, but the future of activity measurement should aim for accurate 24-hour measurement as a goal. Researchers should continue to select measurement devices based on their primary outcomes of interest. PMID:26484953
Paradoxical (REM) sleep deprivation in mice using the small-platforms-over-water method: polysomnographic analyses and melanin-concentrating hormone and hypocretin/orexin neuronal activation before, during and after deprivation.
Arthaud, Sebastien; Varin, Christophe; Gay, Nadine; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Chauveau, Frederic; Fort, Patrice; Luppi, Pierre-Herve; Peyron, Christelle
Studying paradoxical sleep homeostasis requires the specific and efficient deprivation of paradoxical sleep and the evaluation of the subsequent recovery period. With this aim, the small-platforms-over-water technique has been used extensively in rats, but only rare studies were conducted in mice, with no sleep data reported during deprivation. Mice are used increasingly with the emergence of transgenic mice and technologies such as optogenetics, raising the need for a reliable method to manipulate paradoxical sleep. To fulfil this need, we refined this deprivation method and analysed vigilance states thoroughly during the entire protocol. We also studied activation of hypocretin/orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone neurones using Fos immunohistochemistry to verify whether mechanisms regulating paradoxical sleep in mice are similar to those in rats. We showed that 48 h of deprivation was highly efficient, with a residual amount of paradoxical sleep of only 2.2%. Slow wave sleep and wake quantities were similar to baseline, except during the first 4 h of deprivation, where slow wave sleep was strongly reduced. After deprivation, we observed a 124% increase in paradoxical sleep quantities during the first hour of rebound. In addition, 34% of hypocretin/orexin neurones were activated during deprivation, whereas melanin-concentrated hormone neurones were activated only during paradoxical sleep rebound. Corticosterone level showed a twofold increase after deprivation and returned to baseline level after 4 h of recovery. In summary, a fairly selective deprivation and a significant rebound of paradoxical sleep can be obtained in mice using the small-platforms-over-water method. As in rats, rebound is accompanied by a selective activation of melanin-concentrating hormone neurones.
Nédélec, Mathieu; Halson, Shona; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset; Ahmaidi, Said; Dupont, Gregory
In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep (e.g., playing night matches interspersed with 3 days; performing activities demanding high levels of concentration close to bedtime; use of products containing caffeine or alcohol in the period preceding bedtime; regular daytime napping throughout the week; variable wake-up times or bedtime), potentially leading to sleep deprivation. We outline simple, practical, and pharmaceutical-free sleep strategies that are coordinated to the constraints of elite soccer in order to promote sleep. Sleep deprivation is best alleviated by sleep extension; however, sleep hygiene strategies (i.e., consistent sleep pattern, appropriate napping, and active daytime behaviors) can be utilized to promote restorative sleep. Light has a profound impact on sleep, and sleep hygiene strategies that support the natural environmental light-dark cycle (i.e., red-light treatment prior to sleep, dawn-simulation therapy prior to waking) and prevent cycle disruption (i.e., filtering short wavelengths prior to sleep) may be beneficial to elite soccer players. Under conditions of inordinate stress, techniques such as brainwave entrainment and meditation are promising sleep-promoting strategies, but future studies are required to ascertain the applicability of these techniques to elite soccer players. Consuming high-electrolyte fluids such as milk, high-glycemic index carbohydrates, some forms of protein immediately prior to sleep, as well as tart cherry juice concentrate and tryptophan may promote rehydration, substrate stores replenishment, muscle-damage repair and/or restorative sleep. The influence of cold water immersion performed close to bedtime on subsequent sleep is still debated. Conversely, the potential detrimental effects of sleeping medication must be recognized. Sleep initiation is influenced by numerous factors, reinforcing the need for future research to identify such
Raphael, Karen G.; Janal, Malvin N.; Sirois, David A.; Dubrovsky, Boris; Wigren, Pia E.; Klausner, Jack J.; Krieger, Ana C.; Lavigne, Gilles J.
Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n=124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n=46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artifacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non SB-event periods was significantly higher (p<.01) for women with myofascial TMD (median=3.31 μV and mean=4.98 μV) than for control women (median=2.83 μV and mean=3.88 μV) with median activity in 72% of cases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0–10 numerical scale) on post sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. PMID:24237356
Stadelmann, Katrin; Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Yvonne; Tarokh, Leila; Ulrich, Silvia; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E.; Achermann, Peter
Study Objectives 1) To investigate the impact of acetazolamide, a drug commonly prescribed for altitude sickness, on cortical oscillations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). 2) To examine alterations in the sleep EEG after short-term discontinuation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Design Data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized cross-over design studies were analyzed. Setting Polysomnographic recordings in sleep laboratory at 490 m and at moderate altitudes in the Swiss Alps: 1630 or 1860 m and 2590 m. Patients Study 1: 39 OSAS patients. Study 2: 41 OSAS patients. Interventions Study 1: OSAS patients withdrawn from treatment with CPAP. Study 2: OSAS patients treated with autoCPAP. Treatment with acetazolamide (500–750 mg) or placebo at moderate altitudes. Measurements and Results An evening dose of 500 mg acetazolamide reduced slow-wave activity (SWA; approximately 10%) and increased spindle activity (approximately 10%) during non-REM sleep. In addition, alpha activity during wake after lights out was increased. An evening dose of 250 mg did not affect these cortical oscillations. Discontinuation of CPAP therapy revealed a reduction in SWA (5–10%) and increase in beta activity (approximately 25%). Conclusions The higher evening dose of 500 mg acetazolamide showed the “spectral fingerprint” of Benzodiazepines, while 250 mg acetazolamide had no impact on cortical oscillations. However, both doses had beneficial effects on oxygen saturation and sleep quality. PMID:24710341
Archontogeorgis, Kostas; Nena, Evangelia; Tsigalou, Christina; Voulgaris, Athanasios; Xanthoudaki, Maria; Froudarakis, Marios
Background. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with systemic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Cystatin C (Cyst C) is a novel biomarker of both latent renal damage and cardiovascular disease. Aim of the study was to measure serum levels of Cyst C, as well as IL-8 and CRP, in otherwise healthy OSAS patients. Methods. 84 individuals examined with polysomnography for OSAS symptoms without known comorbidities were prospectively recruited. Results. According to apnea hypopnea index (AHI) subjects were divided in two groups: OSAS group (AHI > 5/hour, n = 64) and controls (AHI < 5/hour, n = 20), which were age- and BMI-matched. Cyst C levels were higher in OSAS patients versus controls (1176.13 ± 351.33 versus 938.60 ± 245.83 ng/mL, resp.; p = 0.017) while serum IL-8 and CRP levels did not differ significantly. Positive correlation was found between Cyst C levels and respiratory disturbance index (RDI) (r = 0.240, p = 0.039) and percentage of time with oxygen saturation <90% (r = 0.290, p = 0.02) and negative correlation was found between Cyst C levels and average oxygen saturation during sleep (r = −0.291, p = 0.012). After adjustment for age and BMI, RDI was the only independent predictor of Cyst C levels (β = 0.256, p = 0.039). Conclusion. Cyst C serum levels are increased in OSAS patients without comorbidities, suggesting an increased renal and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27843647
Paudel, Misti L; Taylor, Brent C; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Cummings, Steven R; Ensrud, Kristine E
An association between increased risk of mortality and disruptions in rest/activity circadian rhythms (RAR) has been shown among adults with dementia and with metastatic colorectal cancer. However, the association among a more general population of older adults has not been studied. Our study population consisted of 2964 men aged > or = 67 yrs of age enrolled in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) Study. Rest/activity patterns were measured with wrist actigraphy. RAR parameters were computed and expressed as quintiles, and included acrophase (time of peak activity level), amplitude (peak-to-nadir difference), mesor (middle of the peak), pseudo F-value (overall circadian rhythmicity), beta (steepness), and alpha (peak-to-trough width). After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, men in the lowest quintile of pseudo F-value had a 57% higher mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.03-2.39) than men in the highest quintile. This association was even stronger with increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVD) (HR = 2.32, 95% CI, 1.04-5.22). Additionally, men in the lowest quintile of acrophase had a 2.8-fold higher rate of CVD-related mortality (HR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.29-6.24). There was no evidence of independent associations with amplitude, mesor, alpha, beta, and mortality risk. Older men with less robust RAR and earlier acrophase timing have modestly higher all-cause and CVD-related mortality rates. Further research should examine potential biological mechanisms underlying this association.
Lahti, Tuuli A; Leppämäki, Sami; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo
Background The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of transition out of and into daylight saving time on the rest-activity cycles and sleep. Rest-activity cycles of nine healthy participants aged 20 to 40 years were measured around transitions out of and into daylight saving time on fall 2005 and spring 2006 respectively. Rest-activity cycles were measured using wrist-worn accelerometers. The participants filled in the Morningness-Eveningness and Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaires before starting the study and kept a sleep diary during the study. Results Fall transition was more disturbing for the more morning type and spring transition for the more evening type of persons. Individuals having a higher global seasonality score suffered more from the transitions. Conclusion Transitions out of and into daylight saving time enhanced night-time restlessness and thereby compromised the quality of sleep. PMID:18269740
Xu, Chun-Yan; Li, Da-Ju; Wu, Chun-Ling; Lou, Han-Jian; Jiang, Hong-Wei
Context: Inflammation plays a critical role in the development and progression of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) activation is involved in the pathophysiology of inflammatory process-related disorders. Objective: This study aims to investigate whether serum soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) levels are associated with the presence and severity of OSA. Materials and Methods: A total of 137 OSA patients and 78 controls were recruited in this study. Serum sLOX-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The severity of OSA was assessed by the apnea–hypopnea index (AHI). Results: OSA patients had significantly higher serum sLOX-1 levels compared with controls. Serum sLOX-1 levels elevated with the increment of OSA severity. sLOX-1 was the independent predictor of OSA. Serum sLOX-1 levels were significantly correlated with AHI and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. Conclusions: Serum sLOX-1 levels were independently correlated with the presence and severity of OSA. These findings revealed that sLOX-1 might function as a potential biomarker for monitoring the development and progression of OSA. PMID:25825846
This paper evaluates, in both the theoretical and practical frameworks, the value of the application of the current criteria for the scoring of leg movement activity during sleep, recorded in clinical and research settings, for the study of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and other conditions. Recently, new parameters have been introduced to better describe the time structure of leg movement activity during sleep. The periodicity index, the distribution of inter-movement intervals, and the hourly distribution of periodic leg movements during sleep have emerged as valuable descriptors. Therefore, the additional value provided by the new methods is discussed with a glance at the rationale behind these new approaches. It is concluded that these new methods have proven to be able to provide new insights into the phenomenon of leg movement activity during sleep. In particular, the classical periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) index does not seem to be sufficiently specific for the diagnosis and clinical significance of RLS. The specificity of PLMS for the diagnosis of RLS can be significantly increased by considering these additional parameters. The same parameters also allow a more detailed analysis of several aspects of RLS and PLMS that were impossible to perform before on the basis of the simple PLMS index alone.
Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David; Ma, Yilong; Zuo, Chuantao
Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been evaluated using Parkinson's disease-related metabolic network. It is unknown whether this disorder is itself associated with a unique metabolic network. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed in 21 patients (age 65.0±5.6 years) with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects (age 62.5±7.5 years) to identify a disease-related pattern and examine its evolution in 21 hemi-parkinsonian patients (age 62.6±5.0 years) and 16 moderate parkinsonian patients (age 56.9±12.2 years). We identified a rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-related metabolic network characterized by increased activity in pons, thalamus, medial frontal and sensorimotor areas, hippocampus, supramarginal and inferior temporal gyri, and posterior cerebellum, with decreased activity in occipital and superior temporal regions. Compared to the healthy control subjects, network expressions were elevated (P<0.0001) in the patients with this disorder and in the parkinsonian cohorts but decreased with disease progression. Parkinson's disease-related network activity was also elevated (P<0.0001) in the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder but lower than in the hemi-parkinsonian cohort. Abnormal metabolic networks may provide markers of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder to identify those at higher risk to develop neurodegenerative parkinsonism.
Churchill, L.; Rector, D.M.; Yasuda, K.; Fix, C.; Rojas, M.J.; Yasuda, T.; Krueger, J.M.
Cortical surface evoked potentials (SEPs) are larger during sleep and characterize a sleep-like state in cortical columns. Since tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) may be involved in sleep regulation and is produced as a consequence of waking activity, we tested the hypothesis that direct application of TNF to the cortex will induce a sleep-like state within cortical columns and enhance SEP amplitudes. We found that microinjection of TNF onto the surface of the somatosensory cortex enhanced whisker stimulation-induced SEP amplitude relative to a control heat-inactivated TNF microinjection. We also determined if whisker stimulation enhanced endogenous TNF expression. TNF immunoreactivity (IR) was visualized after 2 h of bilateral deflection of a single whisker bilaterally. The number of TNF-IR cells increased in layers II–IV of the activated somatosensory barrel column. In two separate studies, unilateral deflection of multiple whiskers for 2 h increased the number of TNF-IR cells in layers II–V in columns that also exhibited enhanced Fos-IR. TNF-IR also colocalized with NeuN-IR suggesting that TNF expression was in neurons. Collectively these data are consistent with the hypotheses that TNF is produced in response to neural activity and in turn enhances the probability of a local sleep-like state as determined by increases in SEP amplitudes. PMID:18694809
Albouy, Geneviève; King, Bradley R.; Schmidt, Christina; Desseilles, Martin; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Balteau, Evelyne; Phillips, Christophe; Degueldre, Christian; Orban, Pierre; Benali, Habib; Peigneux, Philippe; Luxen, André; Karni, Avi; Doyon, Julien; Maquet, Pierre; Korman, Maria
Motor memory consolidation is characterized, in part, by a sleep-facilitated decrease in susceptibility to subsequent interfering experiences. Surprisingly, the cerebral substrates supporting this phenomenon have never been examined. We used fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of the influence of sleep on interference to motor memory consolidation. Healthy young adults were trained on a sequential motor task, and subsequently practiced a second competing sequence after an interval including diurnal sleep or wakefulness. Participants were then retested on the initial sequence 8 h and 24 h (including nocturnal sleep) after training. Results demonstrated that a post-training nap significantly protected memory against interference at 8 h and modulated the link between cerebral activity and behavior, such that a smaller post-interference decrease in cortico-striatal activity was associated with better performance. Interestingly, the protective effect of a nap was only transitory, as both groups performed similarly at 24 h. Activity in cortico-striatal areas that was disrupted during the day, presumably due to interference and accentuated in the absence of a nap, was restored overnight. Altogether, our findings offer the first evidence that cortico-striatal areas play a critical role in the transient sleep-facilitated reduction in motor memory vulnerability and in the overnight restoration of previously degraded memories. PMID:27725727
Albouy, Geneviève; King, Bradley R; Schmidt, Christina; Desseilles, Martin; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Balteau, Evelyne; Phillips, Christophe; Degueldre, Christian; Orban, Pierre; Benali, Habib; Peigneux, Philippe; Luxen, André; Karni, Avi; Doyon, Julien; Maquet, Pierre; Korman, Maria
Motor memory consolidation is characterized, in part, by a sleep-facilitated decrease in susceptibility to subsequent interfering experiences. Surprisingly, the cerebral substrates supporting this phenomenon have never been examined. We used fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of the influence of sleep on interference to motor memory consolidation. Healthy young adults were trained on a sequential motor task, and subsequently practiced a second competing sequence after an interval including diurnal sleep or wakefulness. Participants were then retested on the initial sequence 8 h and 24 h (including nocturnal sleep) after training. Results demonstrated that a post-training nap significantly protected memory against interference at 8 h and modulated the link between cerebral activity and behavior, such that a smaller post-interference decrease in cortico-striatal activity was associated with better performance. Interestingly, the protective effect of a nap was only transitory, as both groups performed similarly at 24 h. Activity in cortico-striatal areas that was disrupted during the day, presumably due to interference and accentuated in the absence of a nap, was restored overnight. Altogether, our findings offer the first evidence that cortico-striatal areas play a critical role in the transient sleep-facilitated reduction in motor memory vulnerability and in the overnight restoration of previously degraded memories.
Meredith-Jones, Kim; Williams, Sheila; Galland, Barbara; Kennedy, Gavin; Taylor, Rachael
Although accelerometers can assess sleep and activity over 24 h, sleep data must be removed before physical activity and sedentary time can be examined appropriately. We compared the effect of 6 different sleep-scoring rules on physical activity and sedentary time. Activity and sleep were obtained by accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X) over 7 days in 291 children (51.3% overweight or obese) aged 4-8.9 years. Three methods removed sleep using individualised time filters and two methods applied standard time filters to remove sleep each day (9 pm-6 am, 12 am-6 am). The final method did not remove sleep but simply defined non-wear as at least 60 min of consecutive zeros over the 24-h period. Different methods of removing sleep from 24-h data markedly affect estimates of sedentary time, yielding values ranging from 556 to 1145 min/day. Estimates of non-wear time (33-193 min), wear time (736-1337 min) and counts per minute (384-658) also showed considerable variation. By contrast, estimates of moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) were similar, varying by less than 1 min/day. Different scoring methods to remove sleep from 24-h accelerometry data do not affect measures of MVPA, whereas estimates of counts per minute and sedentary time depend considerably on which technique is used.
Proença, Mariana B; Dombrowski, Patrícia A; Da Cunha, Claudio; Fischer, Luana; Ferraz, Anete C; Lima, Marcelo M S
Currently, several studies addresses the novel link between sleep and dopaminergic neurotransmission, focusing most closely on the mechanisms by which Parkinson's disease (PD) and sleep may be intertwined. Therefore, variations in the activity of afferents during the sleep cycles, either at the level of DA cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and/or substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) or at the level of dopamine (DA) terminals in limbic areas may impact functions such as memory. Accordingly, we performed striatal and hippocampal neurochemical quantifications of DA, serotonin (5-HT) and metabolites of rats intraperitoneally treated with haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg) or piribedil (8 mg/kg) and submitted to REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) and sleep rebound (REB). Also, we evaluated the effects of REMSD on motor and cognitive parameters and SNpc c-Fos neuronal immunoreactivity. The results indicated that DA release was strongly enhanced by piribedil in the REMSD group. In opposite, haloperidol prevented that alteration. A c-Fos activation characteristic of REMSD was affected in a synergic manner by piribedil, indicating a strong positive correlation between striatal DA levels and nigral c-Fos activation. Hence, we suggest that memory process is severely impacted by both D2 blockade and REMSD and was even more by its combination. Conversely, the activation of D2 receptor counteracted such memory impairment. Therefore, the present evidence reinforce that the D2 receptor is a key player in the SNpc neuronal activation mediated by REMSD, as a consequence these changes may have direct impact for cognitive and sleep abnormalities found in patients with PD. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Synaptic Basis of Neurodegenerative Disorders'.
Kong, Il Gyu; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Choi, Hyo Geun
Abstract Low physical activity, long leisure sitting time, and short sleep time are risk factors for obesity, but the association with study sitting time is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between these factors and obesity. We analyzed the association between physical activity, study sitting time, leisure sitting time, and sleep time and subject weight (underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese), using data from a large population-based survey, the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Data from 53,769 participants were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, region of residence, economic level, smoking, stress level, physical activity, sitting time for study, sitting time for leisure, and sleep time were adjusted as the confounders. Low physical activity (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] = 1.03, 1.12) and long leisure sitting time (AORs = 1.15, 1.32) were positively associated with overweight and obese. Low physical activity (AOR = 1.33) and long leisure sitting time (AOR = 1.12) were also associated with underweight. Study sitting time was negatively associated with underweight (AOR = 0.86) but was unrelated to overweight (AOR = 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91–1.03) and obese (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.84–1.04). Sleep time (<6 hours; ≥6 hours, <7 hours; ≥7 hours, <8 hours) was adversely associated with underweight (AORs = 0.67, 0.79, and 0.88) but positively associated with overweight (AORs = 1.19, 1.17, and 1.08) and obese (AORs = 1.33, 1.36, and 1.30) in a dose–response relationship. In adolescents, increasing physical activity, decreasing leisure sitting time, and obtaining sufficient sleep would be beneficial in maintaining a healthy weight. However, study sitting time was not associated with overweight or obese. PMID:26554807
Silvani, Alessandro; Lo Martire, Viviana; Salvadè, Agnese; Bastianini, Stefano; Ferri, Raffaele; Berteotti, Chiara; Baracchi, Francesca; Pace, Marta; Bassetti, Claudio L; Zoccoli, Giovanna; Manconi, Mauro
The validation of rodent models for restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom disease) and periodic limb movements during sleep requires knowledge of physiological limb motor activity during sleep in rodents. This study aimed to determine the physiological time structure of tibialis anterior activity during sleep in mice and rats, and compare it with that of healthy humans. Wild-type mice (n = 9) and rats (n = 8) were instrumented with electrodes for recording the electroencephalogram and electromyogram of neck muscles and both tibialis anterior muscles. Healthy human subjects (31 ± 1 years, n = 21) underwent overnight polysomnography. An algorithm for automatic scoring of tibialis anterior electromyogram events of mice and rats during non-rapid eye movement sleep was developed and validated. Visual scoring assisted by this algorithm had inter-rater sensitivity of 92-95% and false-positive rates of 13-19% in mice and rats. The distribution of the time intervals between consecutive tibialis anterior electromyogram events during non-rapid eye movement sleep had a single peak extending up to 10 s in mice, rats and human subjects. The tibialis anterior electromyogram events separated by intervals <10 s mainly occurred in series of two-three events, their occurrence rate in humans being lower than in mice and similar to that in rats. In conclusion, this study proposes reliable rules for scoring tibialis anterior electromyogram events during non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice and rats, demonstrating that their physiological time structure is similar to that of healthy young human subjects. These results strengthen the basis for translational rodent models of periodic limb movements during sleep and restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease.
Ready, Rebecca E; Marquez, David X; Akerstedt, Anna
Older adults may have superior emotion regulation skills than younger adults and the authors suggest that as emotion regulation capacities increase with age, emotions may be less swayed by external events or even by internal traits. The current retrospective and prospective study further tested this hypothesis by determining if the emotions of younger adults were more reactive to two behaviors (i.e., physical activity, sleep) than for older adults. Results supported predictions. Specifically, retrospective self-reports and prospective diary data about physical activity and sleep exhibited stronger associations with emotion for younger than older persons. Implications for emotional well-being across the life span are discussed.
Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J; Adams, David J; Leung, Hing Y
Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition.
Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G.; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J.; Adams, David J.; Leung, Hing Y.
Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition. PMID:27357679
Sartorius, Tina; Ketterer, Caroline; Kullmann, Stephanie; Balzer, Michelle; Rotermund, Carola; Binder, Sonja; Hallschmid, Manfred; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Somoza, Veronika; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M
Fat and physical inactivity are the most evident factors in the pathogenesis of obesity, and fat quality seems to play a crucial role for measures of glucose homeostasis. However, the impact of dietary fat quality on brain function, behavior, and sleep is basically unknown. In this study, mice were fed a diet supplemented with either monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and their impact on glucose homeostasis, locomotion, brain activity, and sleep behavior was evaluated. MUFAs and SFAs led to a significant increase in fat mass but only feeding of SFAs was accompanied by glucose intolerance in mice. Radiotelemetry revealed a significant decrease in cortical activity in SFA-mice whereas MUFAs even improved activity. SFAs decreased wakefulness and increased non-rapid eye movement sleep. An intracerebroventricular application of insulin promoted locomotor activity in MUFA-fed mice, whereas SFA-mice were resistant. In humans, SFA-enriched diet led to a decrease in hippocampal and cortical activity determined by functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Together, dietary intake of MUFAs promoted insulin action in the brain with its beneficial effects for cortical activity, locomotion, and sleep, whereas a comparable intake of SFAs acted as a negative modulator of brain activity in mice and humans.
Monk, Timothy H.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Schlarb, Janet E.; Beach, Scott R.
A telephone survey of 1166 community resident seniors (658 male, 508 female, age between 65 and 97 years, mean 74.8 years) was undertaken, which included among other components telephone versions of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Sleep Timing Questionnaire (STQ). The median PSQI score was 5 and the median ESS score 6, suggesting that neither sleep problems, nor daytime sleepiness problems, were particularly prevalent in this sample of seniors. The STQ indicated that the habitual timing of the sleep episode appeared to be within the usual 11 pm to 7:30 am range, with about 7.5 hours of actual sleep within that interval being reported. There was, however, a sizable minority who broke this pattern, with 25% of the sample reporting less than 6.7 hours of sleep, and problems with nocturnal sleep and daytime sleepiness. PMID:25045283
Monk, Timothy H; Buysse, Daniel J; Schlarb, Janet E; Beach, Scott R
A telephone survey of 1166 community resident seniors (658 male, 508 female, age between 65 and 97 years, mean 74.8 years) was undertaken, which included among other components telephone versions of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Sleep Timing Questionnaire (STQ). The median PSQI score was 5 and the median ESS score 6, suggesting that neither sleep problems, nor daytime sleepiness problems, were particularly prevalent in this sample of seniors. The STQ indicated that the habitual timing of the sleep episode appeared to be within the usual 11 pm to 7:30 am range, with about 7.5 hours of actual sleep within that interval being reported. There was, however, a sizable minority who broke this pattern, with 25% of the sample reporting less than 6.7 hours of sleep, and problems with nocturnal sleep and daytime sleepiness.
The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...
Shuttle astronauts typically sleep only 6 to 6.5 hours per day while in orbit. This sleep loss is related to recurrent sleep cycle shifting--due to mission-dependent orbital mechanics and mission duration requirements-- and associated circadian displacement of sleep, the operational demands of space flight, noise and space motion sickness. Such sleep schedules are known to produce poor subjective sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, reduced attention, negative mood, slower reaction times, and impaired daytime alertness. Countermeasures to allow crew members to obtain an adequate amount of sleep and maintain adequate levels of neurobehavioral performance are being developed and investigated. However, it is necessary to develop methods that allow effective and attainable in-flight monitoring of vigilance to evaluate the effectiveness of these countermeasures and to detect and predict online critical decrements in alertness/performance. There is growing evidence to indicate that sleep loss and associated decrements in neurobehavioral function are reflected in the spectral composition of the electroencephalogram (EEG) during wakefulness as well as in the incidence of slow eye movements recorded by the electro-oculogram (EOG). Further-more, our preliminary data indicated that these changes in the EEG during wakefulness are more pronounced when subjects are in a supine posture, which mimics some of the physiologic effects of microgravity. Therefore, we evaluate the following hypotheses: (1) that during a 40-hour period of wakefulness (i.e., one night of total sleep deprivation) neurobehavioral function deteriorates, the incidence of slow eye-movements and EEG power density in the theta frequencies increases especially in frontal areas of the brain; (2) that the sleep deprivation induced deterioration of neurobehavioral function and changes in the incidence of slow eye movements and the spectral composition of the EEG are more pronounced when subjects are in a supine
Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Daqing; Connelly, Kay; Zhou, Xingshe; Ni, Hongbo
As people age, their health typically declines, resulting in difficulty in performing daily activities. Sleep-related problems are common issues with older adults, including shifts in circadian rhythms. A detection method is proposed to identify progressive changes in sleeping activity using a three-step process: partitioning, mining, and measuring. Specifically, the original spatiotemporal representation of each sleeping activity instance was first transformed into a sequence of equal-sized segments, or symbols, via a partitioning process. A data-mining-based algorithm was proposed to find symbols that are not present in all instances of a sleeping activity. Finally, a measuring process was responsible for evaluating the changes in these symbols. Experimental evaluation conducted on a group of datasets of older adults showed that the proposed method is able to identify progressive changes in sleeping activity.
Lange, Tanja; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Bollinger, Thomas; Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan
Sleep regulates immune functions. We asked whether sleep can influence immunological memory formation. Twenty-seven healthy men were vaccinated against hepatitis A three times, at weeks 0, 8, and 16 with conditions of sleep versus wakefulness in the following night. Sleep was recorded polysomnographically, and hormone levels were assessed throughout the night. Vaccination-induced Th cell and Ab responses were repeatedly monitored for 1 y. Compared with the wake condition, sleep after vaccination doubled the frequency of Ag-specific Th cells and increased the fraction of Th1 cytokine-producing cells in this population. Moreover, sleep markedly increased Ag-specific IgG1. The effects were followed up for 1 y and were associated with high sleep slow-wave activity during the postvaccination night as well as with accompanying levels of immunoregulatory hormones (i.e., increased growth hormone and prolactin but decreased cortisol release). Our findings provide novel evidence that sleep promotes human Th1 immune responses, implicating a critical role for slow-wave sleep in this process. The proinflammatory milieu induced during this sleep stage apparently acts as adjuvant that facilitates the transfer of antigenic information from APCs to Ag-specific Th cells. Like the nervous system, the immune system takes advantage of the offline conditions during sleep to foster adaptive immune responses resulting in improved immunological memory.
Holz, Johannes; Piosczyk, Hannah; Feige, Bernd; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Baglioni, Chiara; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph
Previous studies suggest that sleep-specific brain activity patterns such as sleep spindles and electroencephalographic slow-wave activity contribute to the consolidation of novel memories. The generation of both sleep spindles and slow-wave activity relies on synchronized oscillations in a thalamo-cortical network that might be implicated in synaptic strengthening (spindles) and downscaling (slow-wave activity) during sleep. This study further examined the association between electroencephalographic power during non-rapid eye movement sleep in the spindle (sigma, 12-16 Hz) and slow-wave frequency range (0.1-3.5 Hz) and overnight memory consolidation in 20 healthy subjects (10 men, 27.1 ± 4.6 years). We found that both electroencephalographic sigma power and slow-wave activity were positively correlated with the pre-post-sleep consolidation of declarative (word list) and procedural (mirror-tracing) memories. These results, although only correlative in nature, are consistent with the view that processes of synaptic strengthening (sleep spindles) and synaptic downscaling (slow-wave activity) might act in concert to promote synaptic plasticity and the consolidation of both declarative and procedural memories during sleep.
Yamasaki, Akira; Kawasaki, Yuji; Takeda, Kenichi; Harada, Tomoya; Fukushima, Takehito; Takata, Miki; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Nishimura, Koichi; Shimizu, Eiji
Background Sleep disturbance is commonly observed in patients with asthma, especially in those with poorly controlled asthma. Evaluating sleep quality to achieve good control of asthma is important since nocturnal asthmatic symptoms such as cough, wheezing, and chest tightness may disturb sleep. Actigraphy is an objective, ambulatory monitoring method for tracking a patient’s sleep and wake activities and for assessing sleep quality, as reflected by total sleep time, sleep efficiency, duration of awakening after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency. Patients and methods Fifty patients with asthma were enrolled in this study. Sleep quality was assessed employing wristwatch-type actigraphy (Actiwatch 2). The level of asthma control was assessed by the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and asthma-related quality of life was assessed by the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The parameters for sleep quality were compared using ACQ scores, AQLQ scores, and pulmonary function test results. Results The total sleep time was 387.2 minutes, WASO was 55.8 minutes, sleep efficiency was 87.01%, sleep onset latency was 8.17 minutes, and the average ACQ was 0.36. Neither sleep efficiency nor WASO correlated with respiratory functions, ACQ scores, or AQLQ scores. Conclusion Sleep-related parameters assessed by actigraphy in well-controlled asthma do not correlate with pulmonary functions, the asthma control level, or daytime quality of life. Sleep quality should be evaluated independently when asthma is well-controlled. PMID:25419157
Santos, Patrícia Dos; Targa, Adriano D S; Noseda, Ana Carolina D; Rodrigues, Lais S; Fagotti, Juliane; Lima, Marcelo M S
Several efforts have been made to understand the involvement of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep for cognitive processes. Consolidation or retention of recognition memories is severely disrupted by REM sleep deprivation (REMSD). In this regard, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) and other brainstem nuclei, such as pontine nucleus (Pn) and oculomotor nucleus (OCM), appear to be candidates to take part in this REM sleep circuitry with potential involvement in cognition. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate a possible association between the performance of Wistar rats in a declarative memory and PPT, Pn, and OCM activities after different periods of REMSD. We examined c-Fos and choline acetyltransferase (ChaT) expressions as indicators of neuronal activity as well as a familiarity-based memory test. The animals were distributed in groups: control, REMSD, and sleep rebound (REB). At the end of the different REMSD (24, 48, 72, and 96 h) and REB (24 h) time points, the rats were immediately tested in the object recognition test and then the brains were collected. Results indicated that OCM neurons presented an increased activity, due to ChaT-labeling associated with REMSD that negatively correlated (r = -0.32) with the cognitive performance. This suggests the existence of a cholinergic compensatory mechanism within the OCM during REMSD. We also showed that 24 h of REMSD impacted similarly in memory, compared to longer periods of REMSD. These data extend the notion that REM sleep is influenced by areas other than PPT, i.e., Pn and OCM, which could be key players in both sleep processes and cognition.
Frauscher, Birgit; von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Ferrari-Marinho, Taissa; Avoli, Massimo; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean
Epileptic discharges in focal epilepsy are frequently activated during non-rapid eye movement sleep. Sleep slow waves are present during this stage and have been shown to include a deactivated ('down', hyperpolarized) and an activated state ('up', depolarized). The 'up' state enhances physiological rhythms, and we hypothesize that sleep slow waves and particularly the 'up' state are the specific components of non-rapid eye movement sleep that mediate the activation of epileptic activity. We investigated eight patients with pharmaco-resistant focal epilepsies who underwent combined scalp-intracerebral electroencephalography for diagnostic evaluation. We analysed 259 frontal electroencephalographic channels, and manually marked 442 epileptic spikes and 8487 high frequency oscillations during high amplitude widespread slow waves, and during matched control segments with low amplitude widespread slow waves, non-widespread slow waves or no slow waves selected during the same sleep stages (total duration of slow wave and control segments: 49 min each). During the slow waves, spikes and high frequency oscillations were more frequent than during control segments (79% of spikes during slow waves and 65% of high frequency oscillations, both P ∼ 0). The spike and high frequency oscillation density also increased for higher amplitude slow waves. We compared the density of spikes and high frequency oscillations between the 'up' and 'down' states. Spike and high frequency oscillation density was highest during the transition from the 'up' to the 'down' state. Interestingly, high frequency oscillations in channels with normal activity expressed a different peak at the transition from the 'down' to the 'up' state. These results show that the apparent activation of epileptic discharges by non-rapid eye movement sleep is not a state-dependent phenomenon but is predominantly associated with specific events, the high amplitude widespread slow waves that are frequent, but not
performance levels. ... ’.I •.5 PROJECT SUMMARY This research studied changes in event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in sleep -deprived subjects over...sleepiness involves monitoring ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) activity . EEG activity changes with wakefulness, drowsiness and sleep and investigators...rapid-eye- movement ( NREM ) sleep , the amplitude of certain components of the ERPs (P1 and N2) increased while the amplitude of other compone’nts (Ni
Pose, Inés; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H.; Morales, Francisco R.
The rostral ventro-medial medullary reticular formation is a complex structure that is involved with a variety of motor functions. It contains glycinergic neurons that are activated during active (REM) sleep (AS); these neurons appear to be responsible for the postsynaptic inhibition of motoneurons that occurs during this state. We have reported that neurons in this same region contain nitric oxide (NO) synthase and that they innervate brainstem motor pools. In the present study we examined the c-fos expression of these neurons after carbachol-induced active sleep (C-AS). Three control and four experimental cats were employed to identify c-fos expressing nitrergic neurons using immunocytochemical techniques to detect the Fos protein together with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or NADPH-diaphorase activity. The classical neurotransmitter content of the nitrergic cells in this region was examined through the combination of immunocytochemical techniques for the detection of glutamate, glycine, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxilase (TH) or GABA together with nNOS. During C-AS, there was a 1074% increase in the number of nitrergic neurons that expressed c-fos. These neurons did not contain glycine, ChAT, TH or GABA, but a subpopulation (15%) of them displayed glutamate-like immunoreactivity. Therefore, some of these neurons contain both an excitatory neurotransmitter (glutamate) and an excitatory neuromodulator (NO); the neurotransmitter content of the rest of them remains to be determined. Because some of the nitrergic neurons innervate brainstem motoneurons it is possible that they participate in the generation of tonic and excitatory phasic motor events that occur during AS. We also suggest that these nitrergic neurons may be involved in autonomic regulation during this state. In addition, because NO has trophic effects on target neurons, the present findings represent the first, albeit indirect, evidence for a possible trophic function of
Cooke, Brian K.; Cooke, Erinn O.; Sharfstein, Steven S.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the workload inventory of on-call psychiatry residents and to evaluate which activities were associated with reductions in on-call sleep. Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted, following 20 psychiatry residents at a 231-bed psychiatry hospital, from July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2009.…
Laurson, Kelly R.; Lee, Joey A.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Eisenmann, Joey C.
Aim. To examine the simultaneous influence of physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations on the odds of childhood obesity (including overweight). Methods. Physical activity was assessed via pedometer and screen time, and sleep duration were assessed via survey in a cross sectional sample of 674 children (aged 7–12 years) from two Midwestern communities in the fall of 2005. Participants were cross tabulated into four groups depending on how many recommendations were being met (0, 1, 2, or all 3). Linear and logistic regression were used to examine the influence of physical activity, screen time and sleep duration on obesity and interactions among the three variables. Results. Children achieving all three recommendations simultaneously (9.2% of total sample) were the least likely to be obese. Approximately 16% of boys and 9% of girls achieving all recommendations were overweight or obese compared to 53% of boys and 42.5% of girls not achieving any. Conclusions. The odds of obesity increased in a graded manner for each recommendation which was not met. Meeting all three recommendations appears to have a protective effect against obesity. Continued efforts are warranted to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors that include meeting physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations concurrently. PMID:24734210
Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta
We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record
Hirotsu, Camila; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy
Poor sleep quality due to sleep disorders and sleep loss is highly prevalent in the modern society. Underlying mechanisms show that stress is involved in the relationship between sleep and metabolism through hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activation. Sleep deprivation and sleep disorders are associated with maladaptive changes in the HPA axis, leading to neuroendocrine dysregulation. Excess of glucocorticoids increase glucose and insulin and decrease adiponectin levels. Thus, this review provides overall view of the relationship between sleep, stress, and metabolism from basic physiology to pathological conditions, highlighting effective treatments for metabolic disturbances. PMID:26779321
Galvão, Milene de Oliveira Lara; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Kawakami, Suzi Emiko; Tufik, Sergio; Suchecki, Deborah
A large body of evidence has shown that prolonged paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) results in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and in loss of body weight despite an apparent increase of food intake, reflecting increased energy expenditure. The flowerpot technique for PSD is an efficient paradigm for investigating the relationships among metabolic regulation and stress response. The purpose of the present study was to examine the mechanisms involved in the effects of 96 h of PSD on metabolism regulation, feeding behaviour and stress response by studying corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and orexin (ORX) immunoreactivity in specific hypothalamic nuclei. Once-daily assessments of body weight, twice-daily measurements of (spillage-corrected) food intake, and once-daily determinations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone were made throughout PSD or at corresponding times in control rats (CTL). Immunoreactivity for CRH in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and for ORX in the hypothalamic lateral area was evaluated at the end of the experimental period. PSD resulted in increased diurnal, but not nocturnal, food intake, producing no significant changes in global food intake. PSD augmented the immunoreactivity for CRH and plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels, characterizing activation of the HPA axis. PSD also markedly increased the ORX immunoreactivity. The average plasma level of corticosterone correlated negatively with body weight gain throughout PSD. These results indicate that augmented ORX and CRH immunoreactivity in specific hypothalamic nuclei may underlie some of the metabolic changes consistently described in PSD.
Panoutsopoulos, Athanasios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Kostopoulos, Konstantinos; Seretis, Charalampos; Koufogiorga, Eleni; Protogerou, Athanasios; Trakada, Georgia; Kostopoulos, Charalampos; Zakopoulos, Nikolaos; Nikolopoulos, Ioannis
Summary Background Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective method for treating obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and alleviating symptoms. Improved sleep quality with effective CPAP therapy might also contribute to attenuated systemic inflammation and improved endothelial function, with subsequent reduction of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 3-month CPAP therapy on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in patients with OSAS. Material/Methods Our study group consisted of 38 male patients with no prior history of cardiovascular disease. Twenty patients with an Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) ≥15 were assigned to receive CPAP treatment and 18 subjects with an AHI<5 were included in the control group. Six patients failed to comply with the CPAP treatment. Measurement of FMD and blood analysis was performed at baseline and 3 months after CPAP therapy. Results Baseline FMD values were negatively correlated with age, BMI, AHI, DSI,% of time <90% Sa02, and CRP (p<0.05). Plasma CRP values were positively correlated with BMI, AHI, DSI and% of time <90% Sa02 (p<0.05). In the group of patients who complied with the CPAP treatment, there was a significant increase in the FMD values (9.18±0.55 vs. 6.27±0.50) and a decrease in the levels of CRP (0.67±0.15 vs. 0.84±0.18) (p<0.05). Conclusions Appropriate CPAP therapy improved both CRP and FMD values, suggesting its potentially beneficial role in reducing cardiovascular risk in OSAS patients. PMID:23197238
Qian, Xiaoshun; Yin, Tong; Li, Tianzhi; Kang, Chunyan; Guo, Ruibiao; Sun, Baojun; Liu, Changting
Hypertension induced by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may be multifactorial in origin, and systemic inflammation is one of the major factors. However, OSA patients do not always have the identical probability with hypertension even in patients with the same history and degree of OSA. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of inflammation and insulin resistance in two groups of patients who had the same degree as well as the same long history of OSA, but with/without hypertension. OSA patients (Apnea Hyponea Index, AHI ≥ 40/h, n = 70) were examined by polysomnography and blood analysis for the measurements of fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin (FINS), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), peptide C,TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10. Patients with hypertension (n = 40) had higher level of LDL-C and lower HDL-C levels than patients without hypertension. Almost half (16/40) of OSA patients with hypertension had family history of hypertension. Moreover in OSA patients with hypertension, the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP were higher, but IL-10 was lower than those without hypertension. FINS, peptide C, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-islet were also higher in OSA patients with hypertension. OSA patients with hypertension have higher level of inflammation and insulin resistance. Systemic inflammation and insulin resistance are both important factors for the development of hypertension in OSA patients.
Labree, Wim; van de Mheen, Dike; Rutten, Frans; Rodenburg, Gerda; Koopmans, Gerrit; Foets, Marleen
A cross-sectional survey was performed to examine to what degree differences in overweight and obesity between native Dutch and migrant primary school children could be explained by differences in physical activity, dietary intake, and sleep duration among these children. Subjects (n=1943) were primary school children around the age of 8-9 years old and their primary caregivers: native Dutch children (n=1546), Turkish children (n=93), Moroccan children (n=66), other non-western children (n=105), and other western children (n=133). Multivariate regressions and logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between migrant status, child's behavior, and BMI or prevalence of overweight, including obesity (logistic). Main explanatory variables were physical activity, dietary intake, and sleep duration. We controlled for age, sex, parental educational level, and parental BMI. Although sleep duration, dietary intake of fruit, and dietary intake of energy-dense snacks were associated with BMI, ethnic differences in sleep duration and dietary intake did not have a large impact on ethnic differences in overweight and obesity among children from migrant and native origin. It is suggested that future preventive strategies to reduce overweight and obesity, in general, consider the role of sleep duration. Also, cross-cultural variation in preparation of food among specific migrant groups, focusing on fat, sugar, and salt, deserves more attention. In order to examine which other variables may clarify ethnic differences in overweight and obesity, future research is needed.
Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Maia, José A.R.
Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1) describe profiles of children’s lifestyle behaviours; (2) identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3) estimate combined effects of individual/socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR) = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74–10.41), and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98–4.72) were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43–0.84). Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05). PMID:26043034
Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Chaves, Raquel N; Champagne, Catherine M; Barreira, Tiago V; Maia, José A R
Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1) describe profiles of children's lifestyle behaviours; (2) identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3) estimate combined effects of individual/ socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR) = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74-10.41), and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98-4.72) were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43-0.84). Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05).
Lin, Wen-Hsu; Yi, Chin-Chun
Although sleep has been linked to activities in various domains of life, one under-studied link is the relationship between unhealthy sleep practices and conduct problems among adolescents. The present study investigates the influence of adolescents' unhealthy sleep practices-short sleep (e.g., less than 6 h a day), inconsistent sleep schedule (e.g., social jetlag), and sleep problems-on conduct problems (e.g., substance use, fighting, and skipping class). In addition, this study examines unhealthy sleep practices in relationship to adolescent emotional well-being, defiant attitudes, and academic performance, as well as these three domains as possible mediators of the longitudinal association between sleep practices and conduct problems. Three waves of the Taiwan Youth Project (n = 2,472) were used in this study. At the first time-point examined in this study, youth (51% male) were aged 13-17 (M = 13.3). The results indicated that all three measures of unhealthy sleep practices were related to conduct problems, such that short sleep, greater social jetlag, and more serious sleep problems were concurrently associated with greater conduct problems. In addition, short sleep and sleep problems predicted conduct problems one year later. Furthermore, these three unhealthy sleep practices were differently related to poor academic performance, low levels of emotional well-being, and defiant attitudes, and some significant indirect effects on later conduct problems through these three attributes were found. Cultural differences and suggestions for prevention are discussed.
Opstad, P K; Oktedalen, O; Aakvaag, A; Fonnum, F; Lund, P K
Plasma renin activity (PRA), serum aldosterone and the serum and urinary levels of sodium and potassium have been investigated in 24 young men participating in a 5-day military training course with heavy continuous physical exercise, energy and sleep deprivation. The subjects were divided into three groups. Group 1 did not get any extra sleep or food, group 2 were compensated for the energy deficiency, and group 3 slept 3 h each night. The basic diet given to all the subjects was about 5,000 kJ and 2 g NaCl X 24 h-1 X cadet-1. The high calorie diet contained approximately 25,000-35,000 kJ and 20 g of NaCl X 24 h-1 X cadet-1. The study showed that serum aldosterone and PRA were extremely activated during such prolonged physical strain combined with lack of food and salt, whereas sleep deprivation did not seem to have any large influence. Only small variations were found in the serum levels of sodium and potassium and the urinary level of potassium during the course, whereas a decrease was seen in urinary sodium concentration. The fairly good correlations between the decrease in urinary sodium levels and the increase in PRA (r = 0.7) and further between PRA and serum aldosterone (r = 0.8) during the course indicate that there is a causal connection between the decrease in urinary sodium excretion and the increase in PRA and serum aldosterone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Crowley, Olga; Kachnowski, Stan
Objectives The Personal Health Management Study (PHMS) is an assessment of the effect of a voluntary employee-facing health initiative using a commercially-available wearable device implemented among 565 employees of Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The results of the initiative on physical activity (measured as steps) and sleep is reported. Methods This was a 12-month, prospective, single-cohort intervention study using a wearable activity-measuring device tracking steps and sleep (entire study period) and a system of health-promoting incentives (first nine months of study period). The findings from the first nine study months are reported. Results The mixed model repeated measures approach was used to analyze the data. There was no significant difference in steps between the first month (7915.6 mean steps per person per day) and the last month (7853.4 mean steps per person per day) of the intervention. However, there was a seasonal decline in steps during the intervention period from fall to winter, followed by an increase in steps from winter to spring. In contrast, sleep tended to increase steadily throughout the study period, and the number of hours slept during the last month (7.52 mean hours per person per day) of the intervention was significantly greater than the number of hours slept during the first month (7.16 mean hours per person per day). Conclusions The impact of the initiative on physical activity and sleep differed over the period of time studied. While physical activity did not change between the first and last month of the intervention, the number of hours slept per night increased significantly. Although seasonal changes and study-device habituation may explain the pattern of change in physical activity, further evaluation is required to clarify the reasons underlying the difference in the impact of the initiative on the dynamics of steps and sleep. PMID:27882272
Lovering, Andrew T; Fraigne, Jimmy J; Dunin-Barkowski, Witali L; Vidruk, Edward H; Orem, John M
Intact unanesthetized cats hyperventilate in response to hypocapnic hypoxia in both wakefulness and sleep. This hyperventilation is caused by increases in diaphragmatic activity during inspiration and expiration. In this study, we recorded 120 medullary respiratory neurons during sleep in hypoxia. Our goal was to understand how these neurons change their activity to increase breathing efforts and frequency in response to hypoxia. We found that the response of medullary respiratory neurons to hypoxia was variable. While the activity of a small majority of inspiratory (58%) and expiratory (56%) neurons was increased in response to hypoxia, the activity of a small majority of preinspiratory (57%) neurons was decreased. Cells that were more active in hypoxia had discharge rates that averaged 183% (inspiratory decrementing), 154% (inspiratory augmenting), 155% (inspiratory), 230% (expiratory decrementing), 191% (expiratory augmenting), and 136% (expiratory) of the rates in normoxia. The response to hypoxia was similar in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) and REM sleep. Additionally, changes in the profile of activity were observed in all cell types examined. These changes included advanced, prolonged, and abbreviated patterns of activity in response to hypoxia; for example, some inspiratory neurons prolonged their discharge into expiration during the postinspiratory period in hypoxia but not in normoxia. Although changes in activity of the inspiratory neurons could account for the increased breathing efforts and activity of the diaphragm observed during hypoxia, the mechanisms responsible for the change in respiratory rate were not revealed by our data.
Mikhail, Cyril; Vaucher, Angélique; Jimenez, Sonia; Tafti, Mehdi
Wakefulness is accompanied by experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and an increase in activity-regulated gene transcription. Wake-induced genes are certainly markers of neuronal activity and may also directly regulate the duration of and need for sleep. We stimulated murine cortical cultures with the neuromodulatory signals that are known to control wakefulness in the brain and found that norepinephrine alone or a mixture of these neuromodulators induced activity-regulated gene transcription. Pharmacological inhibition of the various signaling pathways involved in the regulation of gene expression indicated that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is the principal one mediating the effects of waking neuromodulators on gene expression. In mice, ERK phosphorylation in the cortex increased and decreased with wakefulness and sleep. Whole-body or cortical neuron-specific deletion of Erk1 or Erk2 significantly increased the duration of wakefulness in mice, and pharmacological inhibition of ERK phosphorylation decreased sleep duration and increased the duration of wakefulness bouts. Thus, this signaling pathway, which is highly conserved from Drosophila to mammals, is a key pathway that links waking experience-induced neuronal gene expression to sleep duration and quality.
Mackenzie, Michael; Roberts, Sarah; Crato, Ines; Ehlers, Diane; McAuley, Edward
Background A considerable portion of daily thought is spent in mind wandering. This behavior has been related to positive (eg, future planning, problem solving) and negative (eg, unhappiness, impaired cognitive performance) outcomes. Objective Based on previous research suggesting future-oriented (ie, prospective) mind wandering may support autobiographical planning and self-regulation, this study examined associations between hourly mind wandering and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and the impact of affect and daily sleep on these relations. Methods College-aged adults (N=33) participated in a mobile phone-delivered ecological momentary assessment study for 1 week. Sixteen hourly prompts assessing mind wandering and affect were delivered daily via participants’ mobile phones. Perceived sleep quality and duration was assessed during the first prompt each day, and participants wore an ActiGraph accelerometer during waking hours throughout the study week. Results Study findings suggest present-moment mind wandering was positively associated with future MVPA (P=.03), and this relationship was moderated by affective state (P=.04). Moreover, excessive sleep the previous evening was related to less MVPA across the following day (P=.007). Further, mind wandering was positively related to activity only among those who did not oversleep (P=.007). Conclusions Together, these results have implications for multiple health behavior interventions targeting physical activity, affect, and sleep. Researchers may also build on this work by studying these relationships in the context of other important behaviors and psychosocial factors (eg, tobacco use, depression, loneliness). PMID:27580673
van de Wouw, Ellen; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Echteld, Michael A
Little is known about sleep in older adults with intellectual disability (ID). Aim of this study was to investigate sleep and its associated factors, and to estimate the prevalence of sleep problems in this population. This study was part of the healthy aging and intellectual disabilities study. Sleep was assessed using the Actiwatch, a watch-like device that measures sleep and wakefulness based on movement activity. Participants (n=551) wore the Actiwatch at least seven days and nights continuously. Variables of interest were time in bed (TIB), sleep onset latency, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency and get-up time latency. Multivariate analyses were used to investigate factors associated with these sleep parameters. Provisional definitions were drafted to estimate the prevalence of sleep problems. Mean TIB was 630 min. Longer TIB was independently associated with higher age, more severe level of ID, living at a central facility, wheelchair dependence, female gender and depressive symptoms (adjusted R(2)=.358, F-change=8.302, p<.001). The prevalence of sleep problems was 23.9% settling problem, 63.1% night waking problem, 20.9% short sleep time, 9.3% early waking problem. 72% of the participants had at least one problem, 12.3% had three or more sleep problems. Older adults with ID lie in bed very long, and the prevalence of sleep problems is high. Further research should focus on causality of the relationships found in this study, and effects of sleep problems on health and well-being in this population.
Haack, Monika; Lee, Erin; Cohen, Daniel; Mullington, Janet M.
Insufficient duration of sleep is a highly prevalent behavioral pattern in society that has been shown to cause an increase in spontaneous pain and sensitivity to noxious stimuli. Prostaglandins (PG), in particular PGE2, are key mediators of inflammation and pain, and we investigated whether PGE2 is a potential mediator in sleep-loss induced changes in nociceptive processing. Twenty-four participants (7 females, age 35. 17.1yrs) stayed for 7 days in the Clinical Research Center. After two baseline days, participants were randomly assigned to either three days of 88 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD, N=15) or 8 hours of sleep per night (N=9), followed by a night of recovery sleep. Participants rated the intensity of various pain-related symptoms every two hours across waking periods on computerized visual analog scales. PGE2 was measured in 24h-urine collections during baseline and third sleep deprivation day. Spontaneous pain, including headache, muscle pain, stomach pain, generalized body pain, and physical discomfort significantly increased by 5 to 14 units on a 100-unit scale during TSD, compared to the sleep condition. Urinary PGE2 metabolite significantly increased by about 30% in TSD over sleep condition. TSD-induced increase in spontaneous pain, in particular headache and muscle pain, was significantly correlated with increase in PGE2 metabolite. Activation of the PGE2 system appears to be a potential mediator of increased spontaneous pain in response to insufficient sleep. PMID:19560866
Baker, Fiona C.; Colrain, Ian M; Trinder, John
Objective Severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common, distressing disorder in women that manifests during the premenstrual (late-luteal) phase of the ovulatory menstrual cycle. There is some evidence that altered autonomic function may be an important component of PMS but few studies have used heart rate variability (HRV), as a sensitive marker of autonomic activity, in severe PMS and findings are conflicting. Methods We investigated HRV during sleep, a state relatively free of external disruptions, in nine women with severe PMS and twelve controls. Results The normal-to-normal (NN) RR-interval was shorter during the sleep period in women with PMS than in controls in both the follicular and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN), a measure of total variability in the inter-beat interval, was lower during the sleep period in the late-luteal phase than in the follicular phase in women with PMS. The square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (rMSSD), a measure reflecting high frequency activity, showed a similar pattern. High frequency power, a marker of parasympathetic activity, was lower during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) and REM sleep in the late-luteal phase than in the follicular phase in women with severe PMS. Controls had a shorter NN-interval, but similar HRV measures, in the late-luteal phase compared with the follicular phase. Conclusion These results suggest that women with severe PMS have decreased parasympathetic activity during sleep in association with their premenstrual symptoms compared to when they are symptom-free. PMID:18582607
Czisch, Michael; Wehrle, Renate; Harsay, Helga A.; Wetter, Thomas C.; Holsboer, Florian; Sämann, Philipp G.; Drummond, Sean P. A.
Sleep loss affects attention by reducing levels of arousal and alertness. The neural mechanisms underlying the compensatory efforts of the brain to maintain attention and performance after sleep deprivation (SD) are not fully understood. Previous neuroimaging studies of SD have not been able to separate the effects of reduced arousal from the effects of SD on cerebral responses to cognitive challenges. Here, we used a simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach to study the effects of 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Specifically, we focused on changes in selective attention processes as induced by an active acoustic oddball task, with the ability to isolate runs with objective EEG signs of high (SDalert) or reduced (SDsleepy) vigilance. In the SDalert condition, oddball task-related activity appears to be sustained by compensatory co-activation of insular regions, but task-negative activity in the right posterior node of the default mode network is altered following TSD. In the SDsleepy condition, oddball task-positive activity was massively impaired, but task-negative activation was showing levels comparable with the control condition after a well-rested night. Our results suggest that loss of strict negative correlation between oddball task-positive and task-negative activation reflects the effects of TSD, while the actual state of vigilance during task performance can affects either task-related or task-negative activity, depending on the exact vigilance level. PMID:22557992
Argyropoulos, Spilios V; Hicks, Jane A; Nash, John R; Bell, Caroline J; Rich, Anne S; Nutt, David J; Wilson, Sue
It has been suggested that increase in delta sleep ratio (DSR), a marker for the relative distribution of slow wave activity (SWA) over night time, is associated with clinical response to antidepressant treatment. We examined this index and its relationship to rapid eye movement (REM) suppression before and during long-term treatment with nefazodone, which does not suppress REM sleep, and paroxetine which does. The effect of serotonin (5-HT(2A)) receptor blockade on the evolution of SWA during treatment was also investigated. In a double-blind, randomised, parallel group, 8-week study in 29 depressed patients, sleep electroencephalograms were performed at home at baseline, on night 3 and 10, and at 8 weeks of treatment with either paroxetine or nefazodone. SWA was automatically analysed and a modified DSR (mDSR) was derived, being the ratio of amount of SWA in the first 90 min of sleep to that in the second plus third 90-min periods. At baseline, the pattern of SWA over night time was similar to other reports of depressed patients. mDSR improved over the course of treatment; there was no difference between remitters and non-remitters but there was a significant drug effect and a significant drug x time effect with paroxetine patients having a much higher mDSR after treatment, regardless of clinical status. SWA and REM during antidepressant treatment appear to be interdependent and neither of them alone is likely to predict response to treatment. Higher mDSR did not predict therapeutic response. 5-HT(2A) blockade by nefazodone does not increase SWA above normal levels.
Mutlu, Murad; Vuralkan, Erkan; Akin, Istemihan; Firat, Hikmet; Ardic, Sadik; Akaydin, Sevgi; Miser, Ece
The aim of the current study was to compare the changes in polysomnographic indices and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), cystatin C, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were treated surgically via a uvulopalatal flap (UPF) technique. Twenty-five patients (14 men, 11 women), average age 46.2 ± 9.3 years, who underwent UPF surgery were included in this study. Serum biochemical analyses and polysomnographic examinations were performed before and 6 months after the surgery. Pre- and postoperative values of apnea hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and minimum oxygen concentrations, as well as serum levels of CRP, cystatin C, TNF-α, and ICAM-1 were compared. Comparison of variables before and after UPF surgery demonstrated that AHI (p = 0.001), ODI (p < 0.001) and oxygen saturation (p < 0.001) were significantly improved. In addition, serum levels of CRP (p = 0.036), cystatin C (p = 0.005), TNF-α (p < 0.001), and ICAM-1 (p < 0.001) were significantly reduced 6 months after surgery. Our results suggest that UPF is an effective surgical method that alleviates the severity of OSA. Moreover, it may have the potential to prevent the development of atherosclerosis by attenuating the inflammatory process induced by activation of inflammatory mediators such as CRP, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and cystatin C.
Wu, Anna H.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Wang, Renwei; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.
We previously reported an inverse association between sleep duration and breast cancer risk in the prospective, population-based Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS) cohort (Wu et al., Carcinogenesis 2008;29:1244–8). Sleep duration was significantly positively associated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) levels determined in a spot urine, but aMT6s levels in breast cancer cases were lacking (Wu et al., Carcinogenesis 2008;29:1244–8). We updated the sleep duration–breast cancer association with 14 years of follow-up of 34,028 women in the SCHS. In a nested case–control study conducted within the SCHS, randomly timed, prediagnostic urinary aMT6s concentrations were compared between 248 incident breast cancer and 743 individually matched cohort controls. Three female controls were individually matched to each case on age at baseline interview (within 3 years), dialect group, menopausal status, date of baseline interview (within 2 years), date of urine sample collection (within 6 months) and timing of urine collection during the day (within 1 hr). Cox proportional hazards and conditional regression models with appropriate adjustment for confounders were used to examine the sleep– and aMT6s–breast cancer relationships. Breast cancer risk was not significantly associated with sleep duration; adjusted odds ratio (OR) for 9+ vs. ≤6 hr is 0.89 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5 0.64–1.22]. Prediagnostic aMT6s levels did not differ between breast cancer cases and matched controls; adjusted OR for highest versus lowest quartiles is 1.00 (95% CI 5 0.64-1.54). We conclude that sleep duration is not significantly associated with breast cancer risk reduction. Melatonin levels derived from randomly timed spot urine are unrelated to breast cancer. Randomly timed, spot urine-derived melatonin levels are noninformative as surrogates of nocturnal melatonin production. PMID:22644618
Martins, Andressa Juliane; Vasconcelos, Suleima Pedroza; Skene, Debra Jean; Lowden, Arne; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta
Physical activity has been recommended as a strategy for improving sleep. Nevertheless, physical effort at work might not be not the ideal type of activity to promote sleep quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of type of job (low vs. high physical effort) and life-style on sleep of workers from an Amazonian Extractivist Reserve, Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 148 low physical activity (factory workers) and 340 high physical activity (rubber tappers) was conducted between September and November 2011. The workers filled out questionnaires collecting data on demographics (sex, age, occupation, marital status and children), health (reported morbidities, sleep disturbances, musculoskeletal pain and body mass index) and life-style (smoking, alcohol use and practice of leisure-time physical activity). Logistic regression models were applied with the presence of sleep disturbances as the primary outcome variable. The prevalence of sleep disturbances among factory workers and rubber tappers was 15.5% and 27.9%, respectively. The following independent variables of the analysis were selected based on a univariate model (p<0.20): sex, age, marital status, work type, smoking, morbidities and musculoskeletal pain. The predictors for sleep disturbances were type of job (high physical effort); sex (female); age (>40 years), and having musculoskeletal pain (≥5 symptoms). Rubber tapper work, owing to greater physical effort, pain and musculoskeletal fatigue, was associated with sleep disturbances. Being female and older than 40 years were also predictors of poor sleep. In short, these findings suggest that demanding physical exertion at work may not improve sleep quality.
Muller, Lyle; Piantoni, Giovanni; Koller, Dominik; Cash, Sydney S; Halgren, Eric; Sejnowski, Terrence J
During sleep, the thalamus generates a characteristic pattern of transient, 11-15 Hz sleep spindle oscillations, which synchronize the cortex through large-scale thalamocortical loops. Spindles have been increasingly demonstrated to be critical for sleep-dependent consolidation of memory, but the specific neural mechanism for this process remains unclear. We show here that cortical spindles are spatiotemporally organized into circular wave-like patterns, organizing neuronal activity over tens of milliseconds, within the timescale for storing memories in large-scale networks across the cortex via spike-time dependent plasticity. These circular patterns repeat over hours of sleep with millisecond temporal precision, allowing reinforcement of the activity patterns through hundreds of reverberations. These results provide a novel mechanistic account for how global sleep oscillations and synaptic plasticity could strengthen networks distributed across the cortex to store coherent and integrated memories.
Muller, Lyle; Piantoni, Giovanni; Koller, Dominik; Cash, Sydney S; Halgren, Eric; Sejnowski, Terrence J
During sleep, the thalamus generates a characteristic pattern of transient, 11-15 Hz sleep spindle oscillations, which synchronize the cortex through large-scale thalamocortical loops. Spindles have been increasingly demonstrated to be critical for sleep-dependent consolidation of memory, but the specific neural mechanism for this process remains unclear. We show here that cortical spindles are spatiotemporally organized into circular wave-like patterns, organizing neuronal activity over tens of milliseconds, within the timescale for storing memories in large-scale networks across the cortex via spike-time dependent plasticity. These circular patterns repeat over hours of sleep with millisecond temporal precision, allowing reinforcement of the activity patterns through hundreds of reverberations. These results provide a novel mechanistic account for how global sleep oscillations and synaptic plasticity could strengthen networks distributed across the cortex to store coherent and integrated memories. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17267.001 PMID:27855061
Del Rio-Bermudez, Carlos; Sokoloff, Greta
Sensory feedback from sleep-related myoclonic twitches is thought to drive activity-dependent development in spinal cord and brain. However, little is known about the neural pathways involved in the generation of twitches early in development. The red nucleus (RN), source of the rubrospinal tract, has been implicated in the production of phasic motor activity during active sleep in adults. Here we hypothesized that the RN is also a major source of motor output for twitching in early infancy, a period when twitching is an especially abundant motor behavior. We recorded extracellular neural activity in the RN during sleep and wakefulness in 1-week-old unanesthetized rats. Neurons in the RN fired phasically before twitching and wake movements of the contralateral forelimb. A subpopulation of neurons in the RN exhibited a significant peak of activity after forelimb movement onset, suggesting reafferent sensory processing. Consistent with this observation, manual stimulation of the forelimb evoked RN responses. Unilateral inactivation of the RN using a mixture comprising GABAA, GABAB, and glycine receptor agonists caused an immediate and temporary increase in motor activity followed by a marked and prolonged decrease in twitching and wake movements. Altogether, these data support a causal role for the RN in infant motor behavior. Furthermore, they indicate that twitching, which is characterized by discrete motor output and reafferent input, provides an opportunity for sensorimotor integration and activity-dependent development of topography within the newborn RN. PMID:26019345
Del Rio-Bermudez, Carlos; Sokoloff, Greta; Blumberg, Mark S
Sensory feedback from sleep-related myoclonic twitches is thought to drive activity-dependent development in spinal cord and brain. However, little is known about the neural pathways involved in the generation of twitches early in development. The red nucleus (RN), source of the rubrospinal tract, has been implicated in the production of phasic motor activity during active sleep in adults. Here we hypothesized that the RN is also a major source of motor output for twitching in early infancy, a period when twitching is an especially abundant motor behavior. We recorded extracellular neural activity in the RN during sleep and wakefulness in 1-week-old unanesthetized rats. Neurons in the RN fired phasically before twitching and wake movements of the contralateral forelimb. A subpopulation of neurons in the RN exhibited a significant peak of activity after forelimb movement onset, suggesting reafferent sensory processing. Consistent with this observation, manual stimulation of the forelimb evoked RN responses. Unilateral inactivation of the RN using a mixture comprising GABAA, GABAB, and glycine receptor agonists caused an immediate and temporary increase in motor activity followed by a marked and prolonged decrease in twitching and wake movements. Altogether, these data support a causal role for the RN in infant motor behavior. Furthermore, they indicate that twitching, which is characterized by discrete motor output and reafferent input, provides an opportunity for sensorimotor integration and activity-dependent development of topography within the newborn RN.
Usami, Kiyohide; Matsumoto, Riki; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Hitomi, Takefumi; Shimotake, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Matsuhashi, Masao; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio
Sleep-induced changes in human brain connectivity/excitability and their physiologic basis remain unclear, especially in the frontal lobe. We investigated sleep-induced connectivity and excitability changes in 11 patients who underwent chronic implantation of subdural electrodes for epilepsy surgery. Single-pulse electrical stimuli were directly injected to a part of the cortices, and cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs) and CCEP-related high-gamma activities (HGA: 100-200 Hz) were recorded from adjacent and remote cortices as proxies of effective connectivity and induced neuronal activity, respectively. HGA power during the initial CCEP component (N1) correlated with the N1 size itself across all states investigated. The degree of cortical connectivity and excitability changed during sleep depending on sleep stage, approximately showing dichotomy of awake vs. non-rapid eye movement (REM) [NREM] sleep. On the other hand, REM sleep partly had properties of both awake and NREM sleep, placing itself in the intermediate state between them. Compared with the awake state, single-pulse stimulation especially during NREM sleep induced increased connectivity (N1 size) and neuronal excitability (HGA increase at N1), which was immediately followed by intense inhibition (HGA decrease). The HGA decrease was temporally followed by the N2 peak (the second CCEP component), and then by HGA re-increase during sleep across all lobes. This HGA rebound or re-increase of neuronal synchrony was largest in the frontal lobe compared with the other lobes. These properties of sleep-induced changes of the cortex may be related to unconsciousness during sleep and frequent nocturnal seizures in frontal lobe epilepsy.
Delessert, Alexandre; Espa, Fabrice; Rossetti, Andrea; Lavigne, Gilles; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphael
Background: During sleep, sudden drops in pulse wave amplitude (PWA) measured by pulse oximetry are commonly associated with simultaneous arousals and are thought to result from autonomic vasoconstriction. In the present study, we determine whether PWA drops were associated with changes in cortical activity as determined by EEG spectral analysis. Methods: A 20% decrease in PWA was chosen as a minimum for a drop. A total of 1085 PWA drops from 10 consecutive sleep recordings were analyzed. EEG spectral analysis was performed over 5 consecutive epochs of 5 seconds: 2 before, 1 during, and 2 after the PWA drop. EEG spectral analysis was performed over delta, theta, alpha, sigma, and beta frequency bands. Within each frequency band, power density was compared across the five 5-sec epochs. Presence or absence of visually scored EEG arousals were adjudicated by an investigator blinded to the PWA signal and considered associated with PWA drop if concomitant. Results: A significant increase in EEG power density in all EEG frequency bands was found during PWA drops (P < 0.001) compared to before and after drop. Even in the absence of visually scored arousals, PWA drops were associated with a significant increase in EEG power density (P < 0.001) in most frequency bands. Conclusions: Drops in PWA are associated with a significant increase in EEG power density, suggesting that these events can be used as a surrogate for changes in cortical activity during sleep. This approach may prove of value in scoring respiratory events on limited-channel (type III) portable monitors. Citation: Delessert A; Espa F; Rossetti A; Lavigne G; Tafti M; Heinzer R. Pulse wave amplitude drops during sleep are reliable surrogate markers of changes in cortical activity. SLEEP 2010;33(12):1687-1692. PMID:21120131
Kadoya, Manabu; Koyama, Hidenori; Kurajoh, Masafumi; Naka, Mariko; Miyoshi, Akio; Kanzaki, Akinori; Kakutani, Miki; Shoji, Takuhito; Moriwaki, Yuji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Inaba, Masaaki; Namba, Mitsuyoshi
Background Sleep quality and awake physical activity are important behavioral factors involved in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, potentially through nocturnal blood pressure (BP) changes. However, the impacts of quantitatively measured sleep quality and awake physical activity on BP fluctuation, and their relationships with several candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension are not well elucidated. Methods This cross-sectional study included 303 patients registered in the HSCAA study. Measurements included quantitatively determined sleep quality parameters and awake physical activity obtained by actigraph, nocturnal systolic BP (SBP) fall [100 × (1- sleep SBP/awake SBP ratio)], apnea hypopnea index, urinary sodium and cortisol secretion, plasma aldosterone concentration and renin activity, insulin resistance index, parameters of heart rate variability (HRV), and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Results Simple regression analysis showed that time awake after sleep onset (r = -0.150), a parameter of sleep quality, and awake physical activity (r = 0.164) were significantly correlated with nocturnal SBP fall. Among those, time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.179) and awake physical activity (β = 0.190) were significantly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP fall in multiple regression analysis. In a subgroup of patients without taking anti-hypertensive medications, both time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.336) and awake physical activity (β = 0.489) were more strongly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP falls. Conclusion Sleep quality and awake physical activity were found to be significantly associated with nocturnal SBP fall, and that relationship was not necessarily confounded by candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension. PMID:27166822
... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...
Curcio, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele; De Gennaro, Luigi
At a time when several studies have highlighted the relationship between sleep, learning and memory processes, an in-depth analysis of the effects of sleep deprivation on student learning ability and academic performance would appear to be essential. Most studies have been naturalistic correlative investigations, where sleep schedules were correlated with school and academic achievement. Nonetheless, some authors were able to actively manipulate sleep in order to observe neurocognitive and behavioral consequences, such as learning, memory capacity and school performance. The findings strongly suggest that: (a) students of different education levels (from school to university) are chronically sleep deprived or suffer from poor sleep quality and consequent daytime sleepiness; (b) sleep quality and quantity are closely related to student learning capacity and academic performance; (c) sleep loss is frequently associated with poor declarative and procedural learning in students; (d) studies in which sleep was actively restricted or optimized showed, respectively, a worsening and an improvement in neurocognitive and academic performance. These results may been related to the specific involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in vulnerability to sleep loss. Most methodological limitations are discussed and some future research goals are suggested.
Lee, Hyun-Ah; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Moon, Joung-Ho; Lee, Taek; Kim, Min-Gwan; In, Hoh
Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of data obtained from a wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Charge HR) to medical research. This was performed by comparing the wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Charge HR) with actigraphy (Actiwatch 2) for sleep evaluation and circadian rest-activity rhythm measurement. Methods Sixteen healthy young adults (female participants, 62.5%; mean age, 22.8 years) wore the Fitbit Charge HR and the Actiwatch 2 on the same wrist; a sleep log was recorded over a 14-day period. We compared the sleep variables and circadian rest-activity rhythm measures with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and Spearman's correlations. Results The periods and acrophases of the circadian rest-activity rhythms and the sleep start times did not differ and correlated significantly between the Fitbit Charge HR and the Actiwatch 2. The Fitbit Charge HR tended to overestimate the sleep durations compared with the Actiwatch 2. However, the sleep durations showed high correlation between the two devices for all days. Conclusion We found that the Fitbit Charge HR showed high accuracy in sleep evaluation and circadian rest-activity rhythm measurement when compared with actigraphy for healthy young adults. The results suggest that the Fitbit Charge HR could be applicable on medical research as an alternative tool to actigraphy for sleep evaluation and measurement of the circadian rest-activity rhythm. PMID:28326116
Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. Conclusion The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning. PMID:27390520
Zeng, Tao; Mott, Christopher; Mollicone, Daniel; Sanford, Larry D
The current standard for monitoring sleep in rats requires labor intensive surgical procedures and the implantation of chronic electrodes which have the potential to impact behavior and sleep. With the goal of developing a non-invasive method to determine sleep and wakefulness, we constructed a non-contact monitoring system to measure movement and respiratory activity using signals acquired with pulse Doppler radar and from digitized video analysis. A set of 23 frequency and time-domain features were derived from these signals and were calculated in 10s epochs. Based on these features, a classification method for automated scoring of wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) and REM in rats was developed using a support vector machine (SVM). We then assessed the utility of the automated scoring system in discriminating wakefulness and sleep by comparing the results to standard scoring of wakefulness and sleep based on concurrently recorded EEG and EMG. Agreement between SVM automated scoring based on selected features and visual scores based on EEG and EMG were approximately 91% for wakefulness, 84% for NREM and 70% for REM. The results indicate that automated scoring based on non-invasively acquired movement and respiratory activity will be useful for studies requiring discrimination of wakefulness and sleep. However, additional information or signals will be needed to improve discrimination of NREM and REM episodes within sleep.
Allegrini, Paolo; Paradisi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Laurino, Marco; Piarulli, Andrea; Gemignani, Angelo
Criticality reportedly describes brain dynamics. The main critical feature is the presence of scale-free neural avalanches, whose auto-organization is determined by a critical branching ratio of neural-excitation spreading. Other features, directly associated to second-order phase transitions, are: (i) scale-free-network topology of functional connectivity, stemming from suprathreshold pairwise correlations, superimposable, in waking brain activity, with that of ferromagnets at Curie temperature; (ii) temporal long-range memory associated to renewal intermittency driven by abrupt fluctuations in the order parameters, detectable in human brain via spatially distributed phase or amplitude changes in EEG activity. Herein we study intermittent events, extracted from 29 night EEG recordings, including presleep wakefulness and all phases of sleep, where different levels of mentation and consciousness are present. We show that while critical avalanching is unchanged, at least qualitatively, intermittency and functional connectivity, present during conscious phases (wakefulness and REM sleep), break down during both shallow and deep non-REM sleep. We provide a theory for fragmentation-induced intermittency breakdown and suggest that the main difference between conscious and unconscious states resides in the backwards causation, namely on the constraints that the emerging properties at large scale induce to the lower scales. In particular, while in conscious states this backwards causation induces a critical slowing down, preserving spatiotemporal correlations, in dreamless sleep we see a self-organized maintenance of moduli working in parallel. Critical avalanches are still present, and establish transient auto-organization, whose enhanced fluctuations are able to trigger sleep-protecting mechanisms that reinstate parallel activity. The plausible role of critical avalanches in dreamless sleep is to provide a rapid recovery of consciousness, if stimuli are highly arousing.
Allegrini, Paolo; Paradisi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Laurino, Marco; Piarulli, Andrea; Gemignani, Angelo
Criticality reportedly describes brain dynamics. The main critical feature is the presence of scale-free neural avalanches, whose auto-organization is determined by a critical branching ratio of neural-excitation spreading. Other features, directly associated to second-order phase transitions, are: (i) scale-free-network topology of functional connectivity, stemming from suprathreshold pairwise correlations, superimposable, in waking brain activity, with that of ferromagnets at Curie temperature; (ii) temporal long-range memory associated to renewal intermittency driven by abrupt fluctuations in the order parameters, detectable in human brain via spatially distributed phase or amplitude changes in EEG activity. Herein we study intermittent events, extracted from 29 night EEG recordings, including presleep wakefulness and all phases of sleep, where different levels of mentation and consciousness are present. We show that while critical avalanching is unchanged, at least qualitatively, intermittency and functional connectivity, present during conscious phases (wakefulness and REM sleep), break down during both shallow and deep non-REM sleep. We provide a theory for fragmentation-induced intermittency breakdown and suggest that the main difference between conscious and unconscious states resides in the backwards causation, namely on the constraints that the emerging properties at large scale induce to the lower scales. In particular, while in conscious states this backwards causation induces a critical slowing down, preserving spatiotemporal correlations, in dreamless sleep we see a self-organized maintenance of moduli working in parallel. Critical avalanches are still present, and establish transient auto-organization, whose enhanced fluctuations are able to trigger sleep-protecting mechanisms that reinstate parallel activity. The plausible role of critical avalanches in dreamless sleep is to provide a rapid recovery of consciousness, if stimuli are highly arousing
Allegrini, Paolo; Paradisi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Laurino, Marco; Piarulli, Andrea; Gemignani, Angelo
Criticality reportedly describes brain dynamics. The main critical feature is the presence of scale-free neural avalanches, whose auto-organization is determined by a critical branching ratio of neural-excitation spreading. Other features, directly associated to second-order phase transitions, are: (i) scale-free-network topology of functional connectivity, stemming from suprathreshold pairwise correlations, superimposable, in waking brain activity, with that of ferromagnets at Curie temperature; (ii) temporal long-range memory associated to renewal intermittency driven by abrupt fluctuations in the order parameters, detectable in human brain via spatially distributed phase or amplitude changes in EEG activity. Herein we study intermittent events, extracted from 29 night EEG recordings, including presleep wakefulness and all phases of sleep, where different levels of mentation and consciousness are present. We show that while critical avalanching is unchanged, at least qualitatively, intermittency and functional connectivity, present during conscious phases (wakefulness and REM sleep), break down during both shallow and deep non-REM sleep. We provide a theory for fragmentation-induced intermittency breakdown and suggest that the main difference between conscious and unconscious states resides in the backwards causation, namely on the constraints that the emerging properties at large scale induce to the lower scales. In particular, while in conscious states this backwards causation induces a critical slowing down, preserving spatiotemporal correlations, in dreamless sleep we see a self-organized maintenance of moduli working in parallel. Critical avalanches are still present, and establish transient auto-organization, whose enhanced fluctuations are able to trigger sleep-protecting mechanisms that reinstate parallel activity. The plausible role of critical avalanches in dreamless sleep is to provide a rapid recovery of consciousness, if stimuli are highly arousing.
Buman, Matthew P.; Hekler, Eric B.; Bliwise, Donald L.; King, Abby C.
Regular exercise can improve sleep quality, but for whom and by what means this occurs remain unclear. We examined moderators and mediators of objective sleep improvements in a 12-month randomized controlled trial among initially underactive midlife and older adults reporting mild/moderate sleep complaints. Participants (N=66, 67% women, 55–79 years) were randomized to moderate-intensity exercise or health education control. Putative moderators were gender, age, and baseline physical function, self-reported global sleep quality, and physical activity levels. Putative mediators were changes in BMI, depressive symptoms, and physical function at 6 months. Objective sleep outcomes measured by in-home PSG were percent time in Stage 1 sleep, percent time in Stage 2 sleep, and number of awakenings during the first third of sleep at 12 months. Baseline physical function and sleep quality moderated changes in Stage 1 sleep; individuals with higher initial physical function (p=0.01) and poorer sleep quality (p=0.03) had greater improvements. Baseline physical activity level moderated changes in Stage 2 sleep (p=0.04) and number of awakenings (p=0.01); more sedentary individuals had greater improvements. Decreased depressive symptoms (CI:−1.57 to −0.02) mediated change in Stage 1 sleep. Decreased depressive symptoms (CI: −0.75 to −0.01), decreased BMI (CI:−1.08 to −0.06), and increased physical function (CI:0.01 to 0.72) mediated change in number of awakenings. In conclusion, initially less active individuals with higher initial physical function and poorer sleep quality improved the most. Affective, functional, and metabolic mediators specific to different parameters of sleep architecture were suggested. Collectively, the results indicate strategies to more efficiently treat poor sleep through exercise in older adults. PMID:21688915
sleep experienced by the human brain : rapid eye movement ( REM ) and non-rapid eye movement ( NREM ). Each type of sleep ...serves a different purpose and is broken down by observable changes in behavior. NREM sleep is divided into four gradually deeper sleep stages and REM ... sleep has a single sleep period. According to Miller et al. (2007), adequate amounts of both REM and NREM sleep are needed for optimal
This chapter reviews studies relating biological and mental activity during sleep and discusses how sleep affects waking behavior. The research shows that sleep and waking behaviors—-both physiological and cognitive--are more directly related than previously imagined....
Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.; Sehgal, Amita
Study Objectives: Sleep rebound—the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation—is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. Methods: To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. Results: We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the
Kim, Seon Chill; Lee, Myoung Hee; Jang, Chel; Kwon, Jung Won; Park, Joo Wan
[Purpose] This study examined whether the alpha rhythm sleep alters the EEG activity and response time in the attention and concentration tasks. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 30 healthy university students, who were randomly and equally divided into two groups, the experimental and control groups. They were treated using the Happy-sleep device or a sham device, respectively. All participants had a one-week training period. Before and after training sessions, a behavioral task test was performed and EEG alpha waves were measured to confirm the effectiveness of training on cognitive function. [Results] In terms of the behavioral task test, reaction time (RT) variations in the experimental group were significantly larger than in the control group for the attention item. Changes in the EEG alpha power in the experimental group were also significantly larger than those of the control group. [Conclusions] These findings suggest that sleep induced using the Happy-sleep device modestly enhances the ability to pay attention and focus during academic learning. PMID:24409009
Wilhelm, Ines; Groch, Sabine; Preiss, Andrea; Walitza, Susanne; Huber, Reto
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric diseases typically emerging during childhood and adolescence. Biological vulnerabilities such as a protracted maturation of prefrontal cortex functioning together with heightened reactivity of the limbic system leading to increased emotional reactivity are discussed as factors contributing to the emergence and maintenance of SAD. Sleep slow wave activity (SWA, 0.75-4.5 Hz) and sleep spindle activity (9-16 Hz) reflect processes of brain maturation and emotion regulation. We used high-density electroencephalography to characterize sleep SWA and spindle activity and their relationship to emotional reactivity in children and adolescents suffering from SAD and healthy controls (HC). Subjectively rated arousal was assessed using an emotional picture-word association task. SWA did not differ between socially anxious and healthy participants. We found a widespread reduction in fast spindle activity (13-16 Hz) in SAD patients compared to HC. SAD patients rated negative stimuli to be more arousing and these arousal ratings were negatively correlated with fast spindle activity. These results suggest electrophysiological alterations that are evident at an early stage of psychopathology and that are closely linked to one core symptom of anxiety disorders such as increased emotional reactivity. The role of disturbed GABAergic neurotransmission is discussed as an underlying factor.
Barthó, Péter; Slézia, Andrea; Mátyás, Ferenc; Faradzs-Zade, Lejla; Ulbert, István; Harris, Kenneth D; Acsády, László
Sleep spindles are major transient oscillations of the mammalian brain. Spindles are generated in the thalamus; however, what determines their duration is presently unclear. Here, we measured somatic activity of excitatory thalamocortical (TC) cells together with axonal activity of reciprocally coupled inhibitory reticular thalamic cells (nRTs) and quantified cycle-by-cycle alterations in their firing in vivo. We found that spindles with different durations were paralleled by distinct nRT activity, and nRT firing sharply dropped before the termination of all spindles. Both initial nRT and TC activity was correlated with spindle length, but nRT correlation was more robust. Analysis of spindles evoked by optogenetic activation of nRT showed that spindle probability, but not spindle length, was determined by the strength of the light stimulus. Our data indicate that during natural sleep a dynamically fluctuating thalamocortical network controls the duration of sleep spindles via the major inhibitory element of the circuits, the nRT.
Smyk, Magdalena K; Coenen, Anton M L; Lewandowski, Marian H; van Luijtelaar, Gilles
The rhythms of spontaneously occurring seizures (spike-wave discharges, SWD) and motor activity, as well as the relationship between SWD and sleep-wake states were investigated in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. In order to establish whether SWD are controlled by external (Zeitgebers) or by endogenous factors such as circadian influences or the state of vigilance, the study was performed in entrained and constant dim light conditions. EEG and motor activity were recorded in the 12:12 light-dark cycle and in constant dim light conditions. Circadian rhythmicity was found both for motor activity and the occurrence of SWD in conditions of entrainment. In constant dim light conditions also circadian rhythms emerged, however, the change in circadian parameters was opposite for the rhythm of SWD and motor activity. SWD were preceded mostly by passive wakefulness and by slow-wave sleep in both experimental conditions. It can be concluded that the rhythm of SWD seems to be generated and controlled by an endogenous mechanism distinct from that which controls the rhythm of motor activity. The relationship between SWD and sleep-wake states preceding their occurrences appeared to be unchanged, suggesting that the mechanism of generation of SWD is independent of the circadian timing system.
Urbano, Francisco J.; D’Onofrio, Stasia M.; Luster, Brennon R.; Beck, Paige B.; Hyde, James Robert; Bisagno, Veronica; Garcia-Rill, Edgar
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a major component of the reticular activating system (RAS) that regulates waking and REM sleep, states of high-frequency EEG activity. Recently, we described the presence of high threshold, voltage-dependent N- and P/Q-type calcium channels in RAS nuclei that subserve gamma band oscillations in the mesopontine PPN, intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD). Cortical gamma band activity participates in sensory perception, problem solving, and memory. Rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as in the cortex, gamma band activity in the RAS may participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. That is, the RAS may play an early permissive role in volition. Our latest results suggest that (1) the manifestation of gamma band activity during waking may employ a separate intracellular pathway compared to that during REM sleep, (2) neuronal calcium sensor (NCS-1) protein, which is over expressed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, modulates gamma band oscillations in the PPN in a concentration-dependent manner, (3) leptin, which undergoes resistance in obesity resulting in sleep dysregulation, decreases sodium currents in PPN neurons, accounting for its normal attenuation of waking, and (4) following our discovery of electrical coupling in the RAS, we hypothesize that there are cell clusters within the PPN that may act in concert. These results provide novel information on the mechanisms controlling high-frequency activity related to waking and REM sleep by elements of the RAS. PMID:25368599
Urbano, Francisco J; D'Onofrio, Stasia M; Luster, Brennon R; Beck, Paige B; Hyde, James Robert; Bisagno, Veronica; Garcia-Rill, Edgar
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a major component of the reticular activating system (RAS) that regulates waking and REM sleep, states of high-frequency EEG activity. Recently, we described the presence of high threshold, voltage-dependent N- and P/Q-type calcium channels in RAS nuclei that subserve gamma band oscillations in the mesopontine PPN, intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD). Cortical gamma band activity participates in sensory perception, problem solving, and memory. Rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as in the cortex, gamma band activity in the RAS may participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. That is, the RAS may play an early permissive role in volition. Our latest results suggest that (1) the manifestation of gamma band activity during waking may employ a separate intracellular pathway compared to that during REM sleep, (2) neuronal calcium sensor (NCS-1) protein, which is over expressed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, modulates gamma band oscillations in the PPN in a concentration-dependent manner, (3) leptin, which undergoes resistance in obesity resulting in sleep dysregulation, decreases sodium currents in PPN neurons, accounting for its normal attenuation of waking, and (4) following our discovery of electrical coupling in the RAS, we hypothesize that there are cell clusters within the PPN that may act in concert. These results provide novel information on the mechanisms controlling high-frequency activity related to waking and REM sleep by elements of the RAS.
Lipschitz, David L; Kuhn, Renee; Kinney, Anita Y; Grewen, Karen; Donaldson, Gary W; Nakamura, Yoshio
Cancer survivors experience high levels of distress, associated with a host of negative psychological states, including anxiety, depression, and fear of recurrence, which often lead to sleep problems and reduction in quality of life (QOL) and well-being. As a neuropeptide hormone associated with affiliation, calmness, and well-being, oxytocin may be a useful biological measure of changes in health outcomes in cancer survivors. In this exploratory study, which comprised a subset of participants from a larger study, we evaluated (a) the feasibility and reliability of salivary oxytocin (sOT) levels in cancer survivors and (b) the effects of 2 sleep-focused mind-body interventions, mind-body bridging (MBB) and mindfulness meditation (MM), compared with a sleep hygiene education (SHE) control, on changes in sOT levels in 30 cancer survivors with self-reported sleep disturbance. Interventions were conducted in 3 sessions, once per week for 3 weeks. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, postintervention (~1 week after the last session), and at the 2-month follow-up. In this cancer survivor group, we found that intra-individual sOT levels were fairly stable across the 3 time points, of about 3 months' duration, and mean baseline sOT levels did not differ between females and males and were not correlated with age. Correlations between baseline sOT and self-report measures were weak; however, several of these relationships were in the predicted direction, in which sOT levels were negatively associated with sleep problems and depression and positively associated with cancer-related QOL and well-being. Regarding intervention effects on sOT, baseline-subtracted sOT levels were significantly larger at postintervention in the MBB group as compared with those in SHE. In this sample of cancer survivors assessed for sOT, at postintervention, greater reductions in sleep problems were noted for MBB and MM compared with that of SHE, and increases in mindfulness and self
Pereira, José Carlos; Andersen, Mônica Levy
Sleep deprivation is a stressful condition, as the subject experiences feelings of inadequate well-being and exhibits impairments in his/her functioning. However, in some circumstances sleep deprivation may be crucial for survival of the individual. Most likely, complex neural circuits and hormones play a role in allowing sleep deprivation to occur. For instance, thyroid hormone activity sharply increases when an individual is in a state of sleep deprivation. We believe that this increase is central to sleep deprivation physiology. During sleep deprivation, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis initially increases as a consequence of increased release of thyroid stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Subsequently, as sleep deprivation continues, the sympathetic nervous system is recruited through its anatomical connection with the thyroid gland. While thyroid stimulating hormone levels markedly increase during sleep deprivation, it has been suggested that these increases are secondary to sleep deprivation. However, there is little evidence to support this assumption. We believe that the physiology of the thyroid axis during sleep deprivation and the actions of the effector hormone thyroid hormone suggest that thyroid hormone inhibits sleep and not the contrary. To our knowledge, few studies have addressed the possible neural functions that enable sleep deprivation. In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that an augmentation in the thyroid hormone axis is central to a subject's ability to curtail sleep.
Schulz, R; Schmidt, D; Blum, A; Lopes-Ribeiro, X; Lucke, C; Mayer, K; Olschewski, H; Seeger, W; Grimminger, F
BACKGROUND—Reduced endothelium dependent vasodilation has been reported in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) but direct measurements of the most potent naturally occurring vasodilator, nitric oxide (NO) or its derivatives (nitrate and nitrite, NOx), have not yet been performed in these patients. METHODS—In 21 patients with OSA of mean (SE) age 54 (2) years, body mass index (BMI) 30.9 (1.1) kg/m2, and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) 37 (4)/h, NOx levels were measured in peripheral venous blood samples by chemiluminescence. Blood samples were obtained before and after two nights of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and after 5.5 (1.5) months of follow up. Thirteen age matched, healthy volunteers and 18 patients without OSA but with a similar spectrum of comorbidity served as controls (control groups 1 and 2). RESULTS—Before CPAP NOx levels were 21.7 (1.5) µM in patients with OSA compared with 42.6 (2.2) µM and 36.7 (1.7) µM in control groups 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.01 for each comparison). NOx concentrations increased to 32.1 (2.7) µM after two nights of CPAP and remained constant at 32.9 (2.3) µM at follow up (p<0.01 compared with levels before CPAP). CONCLUSIONS—Plasma NOx levels are reduced in OSA and can be increased by short and long term CPAP therapy. Although the precise mechanism underlying this observation remains to be clarified, it may have important implications for the development of cardiovascular disease in patients with OSA and for the life saving effect of CPAP. PMID:11083891
Copinschi, Georges; Leproult, Rachel; Spiegel, Karine
Both reduction in total sleep duration with slow-wave sleep (SWS) largely preserved and alterations of sleep quality (especially marked reduction of SWS) with preservation of total sleep duration are associated with insulin resistance without compensatory increase in insulin secretion, resulting in impaired glucose tolerance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. When performed under rigorously controlled conditions of energy intake and physical activity, sleep restriction is also associated with a decrease in circulating levels of leptin (an anorexigenic hormone) and an increase in circulating levels of ghrelin (an orexigenic hormone), hunger and appetite. Furthermore, sleep restriction is also associated with a stimulation of brain regions sensitive to food stimuli, indicating that sleep loss may lead to obesity through the selection of high-calorie food. There is also evidence that sleep restriction could provide a permissive environment for the activation of genes that promote obesity. Indeed, the heritability of body mass index is increased in short sleepers. Thus, chronic sleep curtailment, which is on the rise in modern society, including in children, is likely to contribute to the current epidemics of type 2 diabetes and obesity.
Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Liu, Lianqi; Rissling, Michelle; Natarajan, Loki; Neikrug, Ariel B; Palmer, Barton W; Mills, Paul J; Parker, Barbara A; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Maglione, Jeanne
Purpose Sleep disturbance, fatigue and depression are common complaints in patients with cancer, and often contribute to worse quality of life (QoL). Circadian activity rhythms (CARs) are often disrupted in cancer patients. These symptoms worsen during treatment, but less is known about their long-term trajectory. Methods Sixty-eight women with stage I-III breast cancer (BC) scheduled to receive ≥4 cycles of chemotherapy, and age-, ethnicity- and education-matched normal, cancer-free controls (NC) participated. Sleep was measured with actigraphy (nocturnal total sleep time [nocturnal TST] and daytime total nap time [NAPTIME]) and with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); fatigue with the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF); depression with the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D). CARs were derived from actigraphy. Several measures of QoL were administered. Data were collected at three time points: before (Baseline), end of cycle 4 (Cycle-4), and one year post-chemotherapy (1-Year). Results Compared to NC, BC had longer NAPTIME, worse sleep quality, more fatigue, more depressive symptoms, more disrupted CARs and worse QoL at Baseline (all p’s<0.05). At Cycle-4, BC showed worse sleep, increased fatigue, more depressive symptoms, and more disrupted CARs compared to their own Baseline levels and to NC (all p’s<0.05). By 1-year, BC’s fatigue, depressive symptoms and QoL returned to Baseline levels but were still worse than those of NC, while NAPTIME and CARs did not differ from NC’s. Conclusion Additional research is needed to determine if beginning treatment of these symptoms before the start of chemotherapy will minimize symptom severity over time. PMID:24733634
Suchecki, D; Antunes, J; Tufik, S
Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) induces increased energy expenditure in rats, insofar as rats eat more but loose weight throughout the deprivation period. In the present study, rats were offered water, saccharin or sucrose to drink during the deprivation period, since it has been proposed that carbohydrates reduce the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. Rats were submitted to the flower pot technique for 96 h. During the PSD period, they were weighed daily and food and fluid intake was assessed twice a day. At the end of the PSD period, rats were killed and plasma concentrations of glucose, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone were assayed. Compared to their control counterparts, all paradoxical sleep-deprived rats consumed more food, but lost weight. Paradoxical sleep-deprived rats given sucrose drank more than their control counterparts (especially in the light phase of the light/dark cycle). Paradoxical sleep-deprived rats showed increased food intake during all periods throughout the experiment, with peak intake during the dark phase and nadir during the light phase of the light/dark cycle. All paradoxical sleep-deprived rats showed lower glucose plasma levels than control rats and increased relative adrenal weight. However, when given saccharin or sucrose, paradoxical sleep-deprived rats showed lower concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone than their water-provided counterparts, indicating that palatable fluids were capable of lowering HPA axis activation produced by PSD. The fact that PSD induced energy imbalance regardless of the relative attenuation of the HPA axis activity produced by saccharin or sucrose suggests that the HPA axis may play only a secondary role in this phenomenon, and that other mechanisms may account for this effect. The data also suggest that supply of palatable fluids can be an additional modification to reduce the stress of the flower pot method.
Hunter, Sharon K; Corral, Nereida; Ponicsan, Heather; Ross, Randal G
This study assessed reliability of auditory sensory gating in young infants from 1-4 months of age using a paired-click paradigm in which auditory 'clicks' were presented at an interstimulus interval of 500 ms. Evoked potential component P1 was measured during periods of active sleep on two different occasions. Amplitudes, latencies, and ratio of the evoked potentials to each of the auditory clicks were compared. Significant reliability was found in the response ratio, response latency to the first stimulus, and response amplitude to the second stimulus, with a trend toward significance for response latency to the second stimulus and response amplitude to the first stimulus. The results suggest that auditory sensory gating can be reliably measured during active sleep in young infants and might be a useful tool in the study of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Saremi, Mahnaz; Grenèche, Jérôme; Bonnefond, Anne; Rohmer, Odile; Eschenlauer, Arnaud; Tassi, Patricia
Due to undisputable effects of noise on sleep structure, especially in terms of sleep fragmentation, the expected development of railway transportation in the next few years might represent a potential risk factor for people living alongside the rail tracks. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different types of train (freight, automotive, passenger) on arousal from sleep and to determine any differential impact as a function of sound level and age. Twenty young (16 women, 4 men; 25.8 years+/-2.6) and 18 middle-aged (15 women, 3 men; 52.2 years+/-2.5) healthy subjects participated in three whole-night polysomnographic recordings including one control night (35 dBA), and two noisy nights with equivalent noise levels of 40 or 50 dB(A), respectively. Arousal responsiveness increased with sound level. It was the highest in S2 and the lowest in REM sleep. Micro-arousals (3-10 s) occurred at a rate of 25-30%, irrespective of the type of train. Awakenings (>10 s) were produced more frequently by freight train than by automotive and passenger trains. Normal age-related changes in sleep were observed, but they were not aggravated by railway noise, thus questioning whether older persons are less sensitive to noise during sleep. These evidences led to the conclusion that microscopic detection of sleep fragmentation may provide advantageous information on sleep disturbances caused by environmental noises.
Cousins, James N; El-Deredy, Wael; Parkes, Laura M; Hennies, Nora; Lewis, Penelope A
Sleep plays a role in memory consolidation. This is demonstrated by improved performance and neural plasticity underlying that improvement after sleep. Targeted memory reactivation (TMR) allows the manipulation of sleep-dependent consolidation through intentionally biasing the replay of specific memories in sleep, but the underlying neural basis of these altered memories remains unclear. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show a change in the neural representation of a motor memory after targeted reactivation in slow-wave sleep (SWS). Participants learned two serial reaction time task (SRTT) sequences associated with different auditory tones (high or low pitch). During subsequent SWS, one sequence was reactivated by replaying the associated tones. Participants were retested on both sequences the following day during fMRI. As predicted, they showed faster reaction times for the cued sequence after targeted memory reactivation. Furthermore, increased activity in bilateral caudate nucleus and hippocampus for the cued relative to uncued sequence was associated with time in SWS, while increased cerebellar and cortical motor activity was related to time in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Functional connectivity between the caudate nucleus and hippocampus was also increased after targeted memory reactivation. These findings suggest that the offline performance gains associated with memory reactivation are supported by altered functional activity in key cognitive and motor networks, and that this consolidation is differentially mediated by both REM sleep and SWS.
Owens, Judith A; Weiss, Miriam R
Insufficient sleep poses an important and complicated set of health risks in the adolescent population. Not only is deficient sleep (defined as both sleep duration inadequate to meet sleep needs and sleep timing misaligned with the body's circadian rhythms) at epidemic levels in this population, but the contributing factors are both complex and numerous and there are a myriad of negative physical and mental health, safety and performance consequences. Causes of inadequate sleep identified in this population include internal biological processes such as the normal shift (delay) in circadian rhythm that occurs in association with puberty and a developmentally-based slowing of the "sleep drive", and external factors including extracurricular activities, excessive homework load, evening use of electronic media, caffeine intake and early school start times. Consequences range from inattentiveness, reduction in executive functioning and poor academic performance to increased risk of obesity and cardio-metabolic dysfunction, mood disturbances which include increased suicidal ideation, a higher risk of engaging in health risk behaviors such as alcohol and substance use, and increased rates of car crashes, occupational injuries and sports-related injuries. In response to these concerns, a number of promising measures have been proposed to reduce the burden of adolescent sleep loss, including healthy sleep education for students and families, and later school start times to allow adolescents to obtain sufficient and appropriately-timed sleep.
Shearer, W. T.; Reuben, J. M.; Mullington, J. M.; Price, N. J.; Lee, B. N.; Smith, E. O.; Szuba, M. P.; Van Dongen, H. P.; Dinges, D. F.
BACKGROUND: The extent to which sleep loss may predispose astronauts to a state of altered immunity during extended space travel prompts evaluation with ground-based models. OBJECTIVE: We sought to measure plasma levels of selected cytokines and their receptors, including the putative sleep-regulation proteins soluble TNF-alpha receptor (sTNF-alpha R) I and IL-6, in human subjects undergoing 2 types of sleep deprivation during environmental confinement with performance demands. METHODS: Healthy adult men (n = 42) were randomized to schedules that varied in severity of sleep loss: 4 days (88 hours) of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) involving two 2-hour naps per day or 4 days of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Plasma samples were obtained every 6 hours across 5 days and analyzed by using enzyme-linked immunoassays for sTNF-alpha RI, sTNF-alpha RII, IL-6, soluble IL-2 receptor, IL-10, and TNF-alpha. RESULTS: Interactions between the effects of time and sleep deprivation level were detected for sTNF-alpha RI and IL-6 but not for sTNF-alpha RII, soluble IL-2 receptor, IL-10, and TNF-alpha. Relative to the PSD condition, subjects in the TSD condition had elevated plasma levels of sTNF-alpha RI on day 2 (P =.04), day 3 (P =.01), and across days 2 to 4 of sleep loss (P =.01) and elevated levels of IL-6 on day 4 (P =.04). CONCLUSIONS: Total sleep loss produced significant increases in plasma levels of sTNF-alpha RI and IL-6, messengers that connect the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. These changes appeared to reflect elevations of the homeostatic drive for sleep because they occurred in TSD but not PSD, suggesting that naps may serve as the basis for a countermeasures approach to prolonged spaceflight.
Tsunematsu, Tomomi; Ueno, Takafumi; Tabuchi, Sawako; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Tanaka, Kenji F.; Hasuwa, Hidetoshi; Kilduff, Thomas S.; Terao, Akira
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide produced in neurons sparsely distributed in the lateral hypothalamic area. Recent studies have reported that MCH neurons are active during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, but their physiological role in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness is not fully understood. To determine the physiological role of MCH neurons, newly developed transgenic mouse strains that enable manipulation of the activity and fate of MCH neurons in vivo were generated using the recently developed knockin-mediated enhanced gene expression by improved tetracycline-controlled gene induction system. The activity of these cells was controlled by optogenetics by expressing channelrhodopsin2 (E123T/T159C) or archaerhodopsin-T in MCH neurons. Acute optogenetic activation of MCH neurons at 10 Hz induced transitions from non-REM (NREM) to REM sleep and increased REM sleep time in conjunction with decreased NREM sleep. Activation of MCH neurons while mice were in NREM sleep induced REM sleep, but activation during wakefulness was ineffective. Acute optogenetic silencing of MCH neurons using archaerhodopsin-T had no effect on any vigilance states. Temporally controlled ablation of MCH neurons by cell-specific expression of diphtheria toxin A increased wakefulness and decreased NREM sleep duration without affecting REM sleep. Together, these results indicate that acute activation of MCH neurons is sufficient, but not necessary, to trigger the transition from NREM to REM sleep and that MCH neurons also play a role in the initiation and maintenance of NREM sleep. PMID:24828644
Gubin, D G; Weinert, D; Rybina, S V; Danilova, L A; Solovieva, S V; Durov, A M; Prokopiev, N Y; Ushakov, P A
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of endogenous and exogenous factors for the expression of the daily rhythms of body temperature (BT), blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). One hundred and seventy-three young adults (YA), 17-24 years old (y.o.), of both genders were studied under a modified constant-routine (CR) protocol for 26 h. Participants were assigned randomly to groups with different lighting regimens: CR-LD, n = 77, lights (>400 l×) on from 09:00 to 17:00 h and off (<10 l×) from 17:00 to 09:00 next morning; CR-LL, n = 81, lights on (>400 l×) during the whole experimental session; CR-DD, n = 15, constant dim light (<10 l×) during the whole experiment. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP, HR and BT were measured every 2 h. For comparison, the results of the former studies performed under conditions of regular life with an activity period from 07:00 to 23:00 h and sleep from 23:00 till 07:00 h (Control) were reanalyzed. Seven-day Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) records from 27 YA (16-38 y.o.) and BT self-measurement data from 70 YA (17-30 y.o.) taken on ≥ 3 successive days at 08:00, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00, 23:00 and 03:00 were available. The obtained daily patterns were different between Control and CR-DD groups, due to effects of activity, sleep and light. The comparison of Control and CR-LD groups allowed the effects of sleep and activity to be estimated since the lighting conditions were similar. The activity level substantially elevated SBP, but not DBP. Sleep, on the other hand, lowered the nighttime DBP, but has no effect on SBP. HR was affected both by activity and sleep. In accordance with previous studies, these results confirm that the steep BP increase in the morning is not driven by the circadian clock, but rather by sympathoadrenal factors related to awakening and corresponding anticipatory mechanisms. The effect on BT was not significant. To investigate the impact of light during the former
Holst, Sebastian C; Valomon, Amandine; Landolt, Hans-Peter
Research spanning (genetically engineered) animal models, healthy volunteers, and sleep-disordered patients has identified the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, hypocretin, melatonin, glutamate, acetylcholine, γ-amino-butyric acid, and adenosine as important players in the regulation and maintenance of sleep-wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and the sleep-wake continuum. Dysregulation of these neurochemical systems leads to sleep-wake disorders. Most currently available pharmacological treatments are symptomatic rather than causal, and their beneficial and adverse effects are often variable and in part genetically determined. To evaluate opportunities for evidence-based personalized medicine with present and future sleep-wake therapeutics, we review here the impact of known genetic variants affecting exposure of and sensitivity to drugs targeting the neurochemistry of sleep-wake regulation and the pathophysiology of sleep-wake disturbances. Many functional polymorphisms modify drug response phenotypes relevant for sleep. To corroborate the importance of these and newly identified variants for personalized sleep-wake therapy, human sleep pharmacogenetics should be complemented with pharmacogenomic investigations, research about sleep-wake-dependent pharmacological actions, and studies in mice lacking specific genes. These strategies, together with future knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms affecting sleep-wake physiology and treatment outcomes, may lead to potent and safe novel therapies for the increasing number of sleep-disordered patients (e.g., in aged populations).
Vatthauer, Karlyn E; Craggs, Jason G; Robinson, Michael E; Staud, Roland; Berry, Richard B; Perlstein, William M; McCrae, Christina S
Patients with chronic pain exhibit altered default mode network (DMN) activity. This preliminary project questioned whether comorbid disease states are associated with further brain alterations. Thirteen women with fibromyalgia (FM) only and 26 women with fibromyalgia with comorbid chronic insomnia (FMI) underwent a single night of ambulatory polysomnography and completed a sleep diary each morning for 14 days prior to performing a neuroimaging protocol. Novel imaging analyses were utilized to identify regions associated with significantly disordered sleep that were more active in task-negative periods than task-oriented periods in participants with FMI, when compared to participants with FM. It was hypothesized that core DMN areas (ie, cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobule, medial prefrontal cortex, medial temporal cortex, precuneus) would exhibit increased activity during task-negative periods. Analyses revealed that significantly disordered sleep significantly contributed to group differences in the right cingulate gyrus, left lentiform nucleus, left anterior cingulate, left superior gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, right caudate, and the left inferior parietal lobules. Results suggest that FMI may alter some brain areas of the DMN, above and beyond FM. However, future work will need to investigate these results further by controlling for chronic insomnia only before conclusions can be made regarding the effect of FMI comorbidity on the DMN. PMID:26648751
Smith, Maia P; Standl, Marie; Schulz, Holger; Heinrich, Joachim
Lunar periodicity in human biology and behaviour, particularly sleep, has been reported. However, estimated relationships vary in direction (more or less sleep with full moon) if they exist at all, and studies tend to be so small that there is potential for confounding by weekly or monthly cycles. Lunar variation in physical activity has been posited as a driver of this relationship, but is likewise not well studied. We explore the association between lunar cycle, sleep and physical activity in a population-based sample of 1411 Germans age 14-17 years (46% male). Physical activity (daily minutes moderate-to-vigorous activity) was objectively assessed by accelerometry for a total of 8832 days between 2011 and 2014. At the same time, time in bed (h) and subjective sleep quality (1-6) were diaried each morning. In models corrected for confounding, we found that lunar phase was not significantly associated with physical activity, subjective sleep quality or time in bed in either sex, regardless of season. Observed relationships varied randomly in direction between models, suggesting artefact. Thus, this large, objectively-measured and well-controlled population of adolescents displayed no lunar periodicity in objective physical activity, subjective sleep quality or time in bed.
Levere, T. E.; Davis, N.
The present research was concerned with whether or not a 15 dB(A) reduction in overall noise level would lessen the sleep disturbing properties of jet aircraft flyover noise and, if less disturbing, whether this would be subjectively appreciated by the sleeping individual. The results indicate that a reduction of 15 dB (A) does result in less sleep disruption but only during sleep characterized by fast-wave electroencephalographic activity. During sleep characterized by slow-wave electroencephalographic activity, such a reduction in the sleep-disturbing properties of jet aircraft noise has little effect. Moreover, even when effective during fast-wave sleep, the decreased arousal produced by the lower noise levels is not subjectively appreciated by the individual in terms of his estimate of the quality of his night's sleep. Thus, reducing the overall noise level of jet aircraft flyovers by some 15 dB(A), is, at best, minimally beneficial to sleep.
Chauvette, Sylvain; Volgushev, Maxim
Slow-wave sleep is characterized by spontaneous alternations of activity and silence in corticothalamic networks, but the causes of transition from silence to activity remain unknown. We investigated local mechanisms underlying initiation of activity, using simultaneous multisite field potential, multiunit recordings, and intracellular recordings from 2 to 4 nearby neurons in naturally sleeping or anesthetized cats. We demonstrate that activity may start in any neuron or recording location, with tens of milliseconds delay in other cells and sites. Typically, however, activity originated at deep locations, then involved some superficial cells, but appeared later in the middle of the cortex. Neuronal firing was also found to begin, after the onset of active states, at depths that correspond to cortical layer V. These results support the hypothesis that switch from silence to activity is mediated by spontaneous synaptic events, whereby any neuron may become active first. Due to probabilistic nature of activity onset, the large pyramidal cells from deep cortical layers, which are equipped with the most numerous synaptic inputs and large projection fields, are best suited for switching the whole network into active state. PMID:20200108
Zhang, Tao; Wang, Peng; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Li, Weiqin; Leng, Junhong; Li, Nan; Zhang, Shuang; Qi, Lu; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin; Hu, Gang
We investigated the association of physical activity, TV watching time, sleeping time with the risks of obesity and hyperglycemia among 1263 offspring aged 1–5 years of mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) in a cross-sectional study. Logistic regression models were used to obtain the odd ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) of childhood obesity and hyperglycemia associated with different levels of indoor activity, outdoor activity, TV watching, and sleeping time. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of obesity based on different levels of TV watching time (0, <1.0, and ≥1.0 hour/day) were 1.00, 1.21 (95% CI 0.72–2.05), and 2.20 (95% CI 1.33–3.63) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia based on different levels of indoor activity (<5.0, 5.0–6.9, and ≥7.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.74 (95% CI 0.45–1.21), and 0.49 (95% CI 0.28–0.84) (Ptrend = 0.034), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia associated with different levels of sleeping time (<11.0, 11.0–11.9, and ≥12.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.67 (95% CI 0.42–1.05), and 0.39 (95% CI 0.23–0.67) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The present study indicated a positive association of TV watching with the risk of obesity, and an inverse association of either indoor activity or sleeping time with the risk of hyperglycemia among offspring born to GDM mothers in Tianjin, China. PMID:28120866
Zhang, Tao; Wang, Peng; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Li, Weiqin; Leng, Junhong; Li, Nan; Zhang, Shuang; Qi, Lu; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin; Hu, Gang
We investigated the association of physical activity, TV watching time, sleeping time with the risks of obesity and hyperglycemia among 1263 offspring aged 1–5 years of mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) in a cross-sectional study. Logistic regression models were used to obtain the odd ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) of childhood obesity and hyperglycemia associated with different levels of indoor activity, outdoor activity, TV watching, and sleeping time. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of obesity based on different levels of TV watching time (0, <1.0, and ≥1.0 hour/day) were 1.00, 1.21 (95% CI 0.72–2.05), and 2.20 (95% CI 1.33–3.63) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia based on different levels of indoor activity (<5.0, 5.0–6.9, and ≥7.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.74 (95% CI 0.45–1.21), and 0.49 (95% CI 0.28–0.84) (Ptrend = 0.034), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia associated with different levels of sleeping time (<11.0, 11.0–11.9, and ≥12.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.67 (95% CI 0.42–1.05), and 0.39 (95% CI 0.23–0.67) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The present study indicated a positive association of TV watching with the risk of obesity, and an inverse association of either indoor activity or sleeping time with the risk of hyperglycemia among offspring born to GDM mothers in Tianjin, China.
Cori, Jennifer M; Nicholas, Christian L; Baptista, Shaira; Huynh, Ivan; Rochford, Peter D; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Trinder, John A; Jordan, Amy S
Arousals from sleep are thought to predispose to obstructive sleep apnea by causing hyperventilation and hypocapnia, which reduce airway dilator muscle activity on the return to sleep. However, prior studies of auditory arousals have not resulted in reduced genioglossus muscle activity [GG-electromyogram (EMG)], potentially because airway resistance prior to arousal was low, leading to a small ventilatory response to arousal and minimal hypocapnia. Thus we aimed to increase the ventilatory response to arousal by resistive loading prior to auditory arousal and determine whether reduced GG-EMG occurred on the return to sleep. Eighteen healthy young men and women were recruited. Subjects were instrumented with a nasal mask with a pneumotachograph, an epiglottic pressure catheter, and intramuscular GG-EMG electrodes. Mask CO(2) levels were monitored. Three- to 15-s arousals from sleep were induced with auditory tones after resting breathing (No-Load) or inspiratory-resistive loading (Load; average 8.4 cmH(2)O·l(-1)·s(-1)). Peak minute ventilation following arousal was greater after Load than No-Load (mean ± SE; 8.0 ± 0.6 vs. 7.4 ± 0.6 l/min, respectively). However, the nadir end tidal partial pressure of CO(2) did not differ between Load conditions (43.1 ± 0.6 and 42.8 ± 0.5 mmHg, respectively), and no period of reduced GG activity occurred following the return to sleep (GG-EMG baseline, minimum after Load and No-Load = 2.9 ± 1.2%, 3.1 ± 1.3%, and 3.0 ± 1.3% max, respectively). These findings indicate that the hyperventilation, which occurs following tone-induced arousal, is appropriate for the prevailing level of respiratory drive, because loading did not induce marked hypocapnia or lower GG muscle activity on the return to sleep. Whether similar findings occur following obstructive events in patients remains to be determined.
Benington, Joel H; Frank, Marcos G
The hypothesis that sleep promotes learning and memory has long been a subject of active investigation. This hypothesis implies that sleep must facilitate synaptic plasticity in some way, and recent studies have provided evidence for such a function. Our knowledge of both the cellular neurophysiology of sleep states and of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity has expanded considerably in recent years. In this article, we review findings in these areas and discuss possible mechanisms whereby the neurophysiological processes characteristic of sleep states may serve to facilitate synaptic plasticity. We address this issue first on the cellular level, considering how activation of T-type Ca(2+) channels in nonREM sleep may promote either long-term depression or long-term potentiation, as well as how cellular events of REM sleep may influence these processes. We then consider how synchronization of neuronal activity in thalamocortical and hippocampal-neocortical networks in nonREM sleep and REM sleep could promote differential strengthening of synapses according to the degree to which activity in one neuron is synchronized with activity in other neurons in the network. Rather than advocating one specific cellular hypothesis, we have intentionally taken a broad approach, describing a range of possible mechanisms whereby sleep may facilitate synaptic plasticity on the cellular and/or network levels. We have also provided a general review of evidence for and against the hypothesis that sleep does indeed facilitate learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity.
... sleep cycle has stages, from light drowsiness to deep sleep. During the stage called rapid eye movement ( ... REM sleep. Sleepwalking (somnambulism) most often occurs during deep, non-REM sleep (called N3 sleep) early in ...
Chen, Michael C; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Guo, Chun-Ni; Chang, Catie; Fuller, Patrick M; Lu, Jun
Discrete populations of neurons at multiple levels of the brainstem control rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and the accompanying loss of postural muscle tone, or atonia. The specific contributions of these brainstem cell populations to REM sleep control remains incompletely understood. Here we show in rats that viral vector-based lesions of the ventromedial medulla at a level rostral to the inferior olive (pSOM) produced violent myoclonic twitches and abnormal electromyographic spikes, but not complete loss of tonic atonia, during REM sleep. Motor tone during non-REM (NREM) sleep was unaffected in these same animals. Acute chemogenetic activation of pSOM neurons in rats robustly and selectively suppressed REM sleep but not NREM sleep. Similar lesions targeting the more rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) did not affect sleep or atonia, while chemogenetic stimulation of the RVM produced wakefulness and reduced sleep. Finally, selective activation of vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) pSOM neurons in mice produced complete suppression of REM sleep whereas their loss increased EMG spikes during REM sleep. These results reveal a key contribution of the pSOM and specifically the VGAT+ neurons in this region in REM sleep and motor control.
Sánchez Fernández, I.; Takeoka, M.; Tas, E.; Peters, J.M.; Prabhu, S.P.; Stannard, K.M.; Gregas, M.; Eksioglu, Y.; Rotenberg, A.; Riviello, J.J.; Kothare, S.V.
Objective: To compare the prevalence and type of early developmental lesions in patients with a clinical presentation consistent with electrical status epilepticus in sleep either with or without prominent sleep-potentiated epileptiform activity (PSPEA). Methods: We performed a case-control study and enrolled patients with 1) clinical features consistent with electrical status epilepticus in sleep, 2) ≥1 brain MRI scan, and 3) ≥1 overnight EEG recording. We quantified epileptiform activity using spike percentage, the percentage of 1-second bins in the EEG tracing containing at least 1 spike. PSPEA was present when spike percentage during non-REM sleep was ≥50% than spike percentage during wakefulness. Results: One hundred patients with PSPEA (cases) and 47 patients without PSPEA (controls) met the inclusion criteria during a 14-year period. Both groups were comparable in terms of clinical and epidemiologic features. Early developmental lesions were more frequent in cases (48% vs 19.2%, p = 0.002). Thalamic lesions were more frequent in cases (14% vs 2.1%, p = 0.037). The main types of early developmental lesions found in cases were vascular lesions (14%), periventricular leukomalacia (9%), and malformation of cortical development (5%). Vascular lesions were the only type of early developmental lesions that were more frequent in cases (14% vs 0%, p = 0.005). Conclusions: Patients with PSPEA have a higher frequency of early developmental lesions and thalamic lesions than a comparable population of patients without PSPEA. Vascular lesions were the type of early developmental lesions most related to PSPEA. PMID:22539569
Kaitin, K I
To test the hypothesis that sleep produced by thalidomide, unlike that of pentobarbital, is associated with increased neuronal activity in the preoptic area (POA), the spontaneous activity of 96 POA neurons was recorded in chronically prepared cats during alert wakefulness (W), deep slow-wave sleep (SWS), and REM sleep in a drug-free preparation and after administration of thalidomide (4 mg/kg) and pentobarbital (4 or 8 mg/kg). Thalidomide, unlike pentobarbital, at a dose that significantly increased the amount of SWS, failed to depress neuronal activity in the POA compared to drug-free controls. Mean discharge rates during thalidomide treatment were similar to drug-free rates. In contrast, rates during low-dose pentobarbital treatment were significantly less than those of drug-free and thalidomide-treated animals. Rates during high-dose pentobarbital treatment were significantly less than those in all other groups. Thalidomide, compared with the other groups, in addition to increasing the amount of SWS, significantly increased the total amount of REM sleep as well as REM sleep as a percent of total sleep, but did not produce ataxia or behavioral excitement. These results do not confirm the initial hypothesis, but suggest that hypnotic drugs that do not depress neuronal activity in the POA may be devoid of some of the unwanted side effects often associated with the more commonly prescribed hypnotic medications.
Torterolo, Pablo; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H.
The principal site that generates both REM sleep and wakefulness is located in the mesopontine reticular formation, whereas non-REM sleep (NREM) is primarily dependent upon the functioning of neurons that are located in the preoptic region of the hypothalamus. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether the occurrence of NREM might also depend on the activity of mesopontine structures, as has been shown for wakefulness and REM sleep. Adult cats were maintained in one of the following states: quiet wakefulness (QW), alert wakefulness (AW), NREM, or REM sleep induced by microinjections of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis (REM-carbachol). Subsequently, they were euthanized and single labeling immunohistochemical studies were undertaken to determine state-dependent patterns of neuronal activity in the brainstem based upon the expression of the protein Fos. In addition, double labeling immunohistochemical studies were carried out to detect neurons that expressed Fos as well as choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase or GABA. During NREM, only a few Fos immunoreactive cells were present in different regions of the brainstem; however, a discrete cluster of Fos+ neurons was observed in the caudolateral peribrachial region (CLPB). The number of the Fos+ neurons in the CLPB during NREM was significantly greater (67.9 ± 10.9, P < 0.0001) compared to QW (8.0 ± 6.7), AW (5.2 ± 4.2) or REM-carbachol (8.0 ± 4.7). In addition, there was a positive correlation (R = 0.93) between the time the animals spent in NREM and the number of Fos+ neurons in the CLPB. Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the CLPB were neither cholinergic nor catecholaminergic; however about 50% of these neurons were GABAergic. We conclude that a group of GABAergic and unidentified neurons in the CLPB are active during NREM and likely involved in the control of this behavioral state. These data open new avenues for the study of NREM, as well as for the explorations of
Torterolo, P; Sampogna, S; Chase, M H
The principal site that generates both rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and wakefulness is located in the mesopontine reticular formation, whereas non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is primarily dependent upon the functioning of neurons that are located in the preoptic region of the hypothalamus. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether the occurrence of NREM might also depend on the activity of mesopontine structures, as has been shown for wakefulness and REM sleep. Adult cats were maintained in one of the following states: quiet wakefulness (QW), alert wakefulness (AW), NREM, or REM sleep induced by microinjections of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis (REM-carbachol). Subsequently, they were euthanized and single-labeling immunohistochemical studies were undertaken to determine state-dependent patterns of neuronal activity in the brainstem based upon the expression of the protein Fos. In addition, double-labeling immunohistochemical studies were carried out to detect neurons that expressed Fos as well as choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, or GABA. During NREM, only a few Fos-immunoreactive cells were present in different regions of the brainstem; however, a discrete cluster of Fos+ neurons was observed in the caudolateral parabrachial region (CLPB). The number of Fos+ neurons in the CLPB during NREM was significantly greater (67.9±10.9, P<0.0001) compared with QW (8.0±6.7), AW (5.2±4.2), or REM-carbachol (8.0±4.7). In addition, there was a positive correlation (R=0.93) between the time the animals spent in NREM and the number of Fos+ neurons in the CLPB. Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the CLPB were neither cholinergic nor catecholaminergic; however, about 50% of these neurons were GABAergic. We conclude that a group of GABAergic and unidentified neurons in the CLPB are active during NREM and likely involved in the control of this behavioral state. These data open new avenues for the study of NREM, as well as for the
Dissel, Stephane; Seugnet, Laurent; Thimgan, Matthew S.; Silverman, Neal; Angadi, Veena; Thacher, Pamela V.; Burnham, Melissa M.; Shaw, Paul J.
Individuals frequently find themselves confronted with a variety of challenges that threaten their wellbeing. While some individuals face these challenges efficiently and thrive (resilient) others are unable to cope and may suffer persistent consequences (vulnerable). Resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption may contribute to the vulnerability to individuals exposed to challenging conditions. With that in mind we exploited individual differences in a fly’s ability to form short-term memory (STM) following 3 different types of sleep disruption to identify the underlying genes. Our analysis showed that in each category of flies examined, there are individuals that form STM in the face of sleep loss (resilient) while other individuals show dramatic declines in cognitive behavior (vulnerable). Molecular genetic studies revealed that Antimicrobial Peptides, factors important for innate immunity, were candidates for conferring resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Specifically, Metchnikowin (Mtk), drosocin (dro) and Attacin (Att) transcript levels seemed to be differentially increased by sleep deprivation in glia (Mtk), neurons (dro) or primarily in the head fat body (Att). Follow-up genetic studies confirmed that expressing Mtk in glia but not neurons, and expressing dro in neurons but not glia, disrupted memory while modulating sleep in opposite directions. These data indicate that various factors within glia or neurons can contribute to individual differences in resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation. PMID:25451614
Schwartz, George; Amor, Leila Ben; Grizenko, Natalie; Lageix, Philippe; Baron, Chantal; Boivin, Diane B.; Joober, Ridha
Objective: Sleep disturbances appear as a comorbid condition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of activity levels during sleep and therapeutic response to methylphenidate (MPH). Method: Nightly sleep actigraphic recordings during a double-blind, placebo-controlled,…
Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A
Sleep and epilepsy are two well recognized conditions that interact with each other in a complex bi-directional way. Some types of epilepsies have increased activity during sleep disturbing it; while sleep deprivation aggravates epilepsy due to decreased seizure threshold. Epilepsy can deteriorate the sleep-related disorders and at the same time; the parasomnias can worsen the epilepsy. The secretion of sleep-related hormones can also be affected by the occurrence of seizures and supplementation of epileptic patients with some of these sleep-related hormones may have a beneficial role in controlling epilepsy. PMID:25254184
Perrault, Rosemarie; Carrier, Julie; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio
Sleepwalkers have been shown to have an unusually high number of arousals from slow wave sleep and lower slow wave activity (SWA) power during the night than controls. Because sleep deprivation increases the frequency of slow wave sleep (SWS) arousals in sleepwalkers, it may also affect the expression of the homeostatic process to a greater extent than shown previously. We thus investigated SWA power as well as slow wave oscillation (SWO) density in 10 sleepwalkers and nine controls at baseline and following 38 h of sleep deprivation. There was a significant increase in SWA during participants' recovery sleep, especially during their second non-rapid eye movement (NREM) period. SWO density was similarly increased during recovery sleep's first two NREM periods. A fronto-central gradient in SWA and SWO was also present on both nights. However, no group differences were noted on any of the 2 nights on SWA or SWO. This unexpected result may be related to the heterogeneity of sleepwalkers as a population, as well as our small sample size. SWA pressure after extended sleep deprivation may also result in a ceiling effect in both sleepwalkers and controls.
Shepoval'nikov, A N; Gal'perina, E I; Kruchinina, O V
This study presents data on some phasic EEG phenomena regulary recorded during sleep - wakefulness cycle and heterogeneity of EEG sleep stages forming consecutive human sleep macrocycles. These short-term EEG changes quite often tend to periodization, especially during initial sleep-stages and transitive states (sleep microcycles). An attempt was made to reveal EEG microstructures in sleep - wakefulness cycle on the basis of 7 clusters reflecting changes in the biopotential field of the brain represented in n-dimensional factorial space. It was found that most sleep stages were presented by 3-4 clusters, but some sleep periods (such as B (Loomis, 1937) and IREM) showed more homogeneous structure. It was suggested that the heterogeneity of the EEG spatial organization within sleep stages reflect the dynamics of neurophysiological processes underlying reparative and homeostatic sleep functions.
Brylowski, A; Levitan, L; LaBerge, S
A single subject, a proficient lucid dreamer experienced with signaling the onset of lucidity (reflective consciousness of dreaming) by means of voluntary eye movements, spent 4 nonconsecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. The subject reported becoming lucid and signaling in 8 of the 18 rapid-eye movement (REM) periods recorded. Ten lucid dream reports were verified by polygraphic examination of signals, providing a total of 12.5 min of signal-verified lucid REM. H-Reflex amplitude was recorded every 5 s, along with continuous recording of electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram, electrocardiogram, finger pulse, and respiration. Significant findings included greater mean H-reflex suppression during lucid REM sleep than during nonlucid REM and correlations of H-reflex suppression with increased eye movement density, heart rate, and respiration rate. These results support previous studies reporting that lucid REM is not, as might be supposed, a state closer to awakening than ordinary, or nonlucid, REM; rather, lucid dreaming occurs during unequivocal REM sleep and is characteristically associated with phasic REM activation.
Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Schabus, Manuel; Desseilles, Martin; Sterpenich, Virginie; Bonjean, Maxime; Maquet, Pierre
Functional brain imaging has been used in humans to noninvasively investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the generation of sleep stages. On the one hand, REM sleep has been associated with the activation of the pons, thalamus, limbic areas, and temporo-occipital cortices, and the deactivation of prefrontal areas, in line with theories of REM sleep generation and dreaming properties. On the other hand, during non-REM (NREM) sleep, decreases in brain activity have been consistently found in the brainstem, thalamus, and in several cortical areas including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), in agreement with a homeostatic need for brain energy recovery. Benefiting from a better temporal resolution, more recent studies have characterized the brain activations related to phasic events within specific sleep stages. In particular, they have demonstrated that NREM sleep oscillations (spindles and slow waves) are indeed associated with increases in brain activity in specific subcortical and cortical areas involved in the generation or modulation of these waves. These data highlight that, even during NREM sleep, brain activity is increased, yet regionally specific and transient. Besides refining the understanding of sleep mechanisms, functional brain imaging has also advanced the description of the functional properties of sleep. For instance, it has been shown that the