Science.gov

Sample records for activity limitation days

  1. Rainy Day Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  2. VS411 Reduced Immune Activation and HIV-1 RNA Levels in 28 Days: Randomized Proof-of-Concept Study for AntiViral-HyperActivation Limiting Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lori, Franco; De Forni, Davide; Katabira, Elly; Baev, Denis; Maserati, Renato; Calarota, Sandra A.; Cahn, Pedro; Testori, Marco; Rakhmanova, Aza; Stevens, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Background A new class of antiretrovirals, AntiViral-HyperActivation Limiting Therapeutics (AV-HALTs), has been proposed as a disease-modifying therapy to both reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) RNA levels and the excessive immune activation now recognized as the major driver of not only the continual loss of CD4+ T cells and progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), but also of the emergence of both AIDS-defining and non-AIDS events that negatively impact upon morbidity and mortality despite successful (ie, fully suppressive) therapy. VS411, the first-in-class AV-HALT, combined low-dose, slow-release didanosine with low-dose hydroxycarbamide to accomplish both objectives with a favorable toxicity profile during short-term administration. Five dose combinations were administered as VS411 to test the AV-HALT Proof-of-Concept in HIV-1-infected subjects. Methods Multinational, double-blind, 28-day Phase 2a dose-ranging Proof-of-Concept study of antiviral activity, immunological parameters, safety, and genotypic resistance in 58 evaluable antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected adults. Randomization and allocation to study arms were carried out by a central computer system. Results were analyzed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, ANCOVA, and two-tailed paired t tests. Results VS411 was well-tolerated, produced significant reductions of HIV-1 RNA levels, increased CD4+ T cell counts, and led to significant, rapid, unprecedented reductions of immune activation markers after 28 days despite incomplete viral suppression and without inhibiting HIV-1-specific immune responses. The didanosine 200 mg/HC 900 mg once-daily formulation demonstrated the greatest antiviral efficacy (HIV-1 RNA: −1.47 log10 copies/mL; CD4+ T cell count: +135 cells/mm3) and fewest adverse events. Conclusions VS411 successfully established the Proof-of-Concept that AV-HALTs can combine antiviral efficacy with rapid, potentially beneficial reductions in the excessive immune system

  3. Overcoming Present-Day Powerplant Limitations Via Unconventional Engine Configurations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    an excellent chance of achieving Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition ( HCCI ), the holy grail of piston engine research. Most important, the...1 OVERCOMING PRESENT-DAY POWERPLANT LIMITATIONS VIA UNCONVENTIONAL ENGINE CONFIGURATIONS P.L. Meitner* Army Research Laboratory—Vehicle...development of three unconventional engine concepts - two intermittent combustion (IC) engines and one turbine engine (via SBIR (Small Business

  4. Rainy Day Fun: Rain-Inspired Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger, Annie Moretz

    1999-01-01

    Rainy days are opportunities to teach campers about weather and to plan activities around a rain theme. Indoor and outdoor science-based activities concerned with rain, water, or water conservation are suggested for specific age groups from ages 5-7 through 11-14. Campers can also develop ideas for activities using questions provided. (CDS)

  5. Physical Activity during the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Ward, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns that children are physically inactive, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention committee developed school-based implementation strategies centered on the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP), composed of the physical education program, physical activity during the school day, staff…

  6. Teaching Day-by-Day: A Cornucopia of Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Pre K-8, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article presents teacher's guide to daily activities for the month of November. The activities help PreK-12 educators to enhance student development. Topics for this month's activities include literacy, language, math, science, and healthy habits.

  7. Active Limiters For Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1990-01-01

    Active or "smart" electro-optical shutters proposed for protection of photodetectors, imaging devices, and other sensitive optical or optoelectronic elements. Responds rapidly and automatically to increase in illumination above prescribed level.

  8. Books Day by Day: Anniversaries, Anecdotes, and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohanian, Susan

    Celebrating centuries of the written word--from the works of Confucius, Shakespeare, and Ben Franklin to the adventures of Nancy Drew and Harry Potter--this book offers a literary smorgasbord of milestones, anecdotes, and quotes, along with smart, fun, practical activities for exploring and enjoying a wide range of literature. More than a calendar…

  9. Overcoming Present-Day Powerplant Limitations Via Unconventional Engine Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, Peter L.

    2006-01-01

    The Army Research Laboratory s Vehicle Technology Directorate is sponsoring the prototype development of three unconventional engine concepts - two intermittent combustion (IC) engines and one turbine engine (via SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) contracts). The IC concepts are the Nutating Engine and the Bonner Engine, and the turbine concept is the POWER Engine. Each of the three engines offers unique and greatly improved capabilities (which cannot be achieved by present-day powerplants), while offering significant reductions in size and weight. This paper presents brief descriptions of the physical characteristics of the three engines, and discusses their performance potentials, as well as their development status.

  10. 5 CFR 630.302 - Maximum annual leave accumulation-forty-five day limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-five day limitation. 630.302 Section 630.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT...—forty-five day limitation. (a) The effective date on which an employee (otherwise eligible thereunder... employee's accumulated and accrued annual leave is 30 days or less, he may carry forward the...

  11. 5 CFR 630.302 - Maximum annual leave accumulation-forty-five day limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-five day limitation. 630.302 Section 630.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT...—forty-five day limitation. (a) The effective date on which an employee (otherwise eligible thereunder... employee's accumulated and accrued annual leave is 30 days or less, he may carry forward the...

  12. 5 CFR 630.302 - Maximum annual leave accumulation-forty-five day limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-five day limitation. 630.302 Section 630.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT...—forty-five day limitation. (a) The effective date on which an employee (otherwise eligible thereunder... employee's accumulated and accrued annual leave is 30 days or less, he may carry forward the...

  13. 5 CFR 630.302 - Maximum annual leave accumulation-forty-five day limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-five day limitation. 630.302 Section 630.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT...—forty-five day limitation. (a) The effective date on which an employee (otherwise eligible thereunder... employee's accumulated and accrued annual leave is 30 days or less, he may carry forward the...

  14. Association between internalizing disorders and day-to-day activities of low energetic expenditure.

    PubMed

    Gosmann, Natan Pereira; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Schuch, Felipe; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Bosa, Vera Lucia; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to compare energetic expenditure in day-to-day activities among subjects with internalizing disorders (depression and anxiety), externalizing disorders (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder) and healthy children and adolescents without any psychiatric diagnosis. One hundred and five (n = 105) students from a community sample were evaluated throughout a structured psychiatric interview and categorized into three groups: internalizing (n = 54), externalizing (n = 12) and typically developing controls (TDC, n = 39). Energetic expenditure was evaluated using 3-day physical activity record. Subjects with internalizing disorders performed activities with lower energetic expenditure as compared to those with externalizing disorders and TDC. Participants with externalizing disorders had more energetic expenditure variability. Our study suggests that internalizing disorders are associated with activities of low energetic expenditure in day-to-day activities, extending previous findings with physical exercise. These findings may further contribute to the understanding of the associated morbidity previously described in patients with internalizing disorders.

  15. 28 CFR 5.801 - Activity beyond 10-day period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity beyond 10-day period. 5.801... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.801 Activity beyond 10-day period. A registrant who has within the 10-day period filed an amendment to his registration statement pursuant to a Notice...

  16. 28 CFR 5.801 - Activity beyond 10-day period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activity beyond 10-day period. 5.801... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.801 Activity beyond 10-day period. A registrant who has within the 10-day period filed an amendment to his registration statement pursuant to a Notice...

  17. 28 CFR 5.801 - Activity beyond 10-day period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activity beyond 10-day period. 5.801... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.801 Activity beyond 10-day period. A registrant who has within the 10-day period filed an amendment to his registration statement pursuant to a Notice...

  18. 28 CFR 5.801 - Activity beyond 10-day period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activity beyond 10-day period. 5.801... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.801 Activity beyond 10-day period. A registrant who has within the 10-day period filed an amendment to his registration statement pursuant to a Notice...

  19. 28 CFR 5.801 - Activity beyond 10-day period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activity beyond 10-day period. 5.801... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.801 Activity beyond 10-day period. A registrant who has within the 10-day period filed an amendment to his registration statement pursuant to a Notice...

  20. Correlates of School-Day Physical Activity in Preschool Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Peoples, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among sex, body mass index, motor skill competence (MSC), perceived physical competence (PPC), and school-day physical activity in preschool students (N = 34). Physical activity was assessed by steps accumulated during the school day, while MSC and PPC were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development--2nd…

  1. Children's Physical Activity in Day Care and Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Hakala, Liisa; Saros, Leila; Lehto, Satu; Kyhälä, Anna-Liisa; Valtonen, Juha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of physical activity (PA) in day care and preschool. The participants were 823 Finnish 1-7-year-old children from 50 day care centres and preschools. The research methods were systematic observation, evaluation of children's skills and interviews with children. Altogether 18,366 observations…

  2. Illinois State Bar Association Law Day Activities Guide. 2001 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Bar Association, Springfield.

    These law-related lessons and activities can facilitate participation in a Law Day program. Following an introduction, this activities guide is divided into these sections: "Tips for Teachers" ("What Can a Lawyer Add to the Classroom?"; "So You Have Been Asked to Speak to Kids about the Law"; "A Checklist for…

  3. Sorting Recycled Trash: An Activity for Earth Day 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.; Harris, Harold H.

    2007-01-01

    Middle or high school students celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2007 by participating in the activity to separate commingled recyclable trash to simulate sorting in a recycling center. Students would gain an appreciation for recyclable trash, after it is taken to a recycling center and learn about properties of recyclables.

  4. The Twist Limit for Bipolar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Gary, Allen

    2008-01-01

    We present new evidence that further supports the standard idea that active regions are emerged magnetic-flux-rope omega loops. When the axial magnetic twist of a cylindrical flux rope exceeds a critical amount, the flux rope becomes unstable to kinking, and the excess axial twist is converted into writhe twist by the kinking. This suggests that, if active regions are emerged omega loops, then (1) no active region should have magnetic twist much above the limit set by kinking, (2) active regions having twist near the limit should often arise from kinked omega loops, and (3) since active regions having large delta sunspots are outstandingly twisted, these arise from kinked omega loops and should have twist near the limit for kinking. From each of 36 vector magnetograms of bipolar active regions, we have measured (1) the total flux of the vertical field above 100 G, (2) the area covered by this flux, and (3) the net electric current that arches over the polarity inversion line. These three quantities yield an estimate of the axial magnetic twist in a simple model cylindrical flux rope that corresponds to the top of the active region s hypothetical omega loop prior to emergence. In all 36 cases, the estimated twist is below the critical limit for kinking. The 11 most twisted active regions (1) have estimated twist within a factor of approx.3 of the limit, and (2) include all of our 6 active regions having large delta sunspots. Thus, our observed twist limit for bipolar active regions is in good accord with active regions being emerged omega loops.

  5. A pragmatic approach to estimate the number of days in exceedance of PM10 limit value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Maxime; Malherbe, Laure; de Fouquet, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    European legislation on ambient air quality requests that Member States report the annual number of exceedances of short-term concentration regulatory thresholds for PM10 and delimit the concerned areas. Measurements at the monitoring stations do not allow to fully describe those areas. We present a methodology to estimate the number of exceedances of the daily limit value over a year, that can be extended to any similar issue. This methodology is applied to PM10 concentrations in France for which the daily limit value is 50 μg m-3, not to be exceeded more that 35 days. A probabilistic model is built using preliminary mapping of daily mean concentrations. First, daily atmospheric concentration fields are estimated at 1 km resolution by external drift kriging, combining surface monitoring observations and outputs from the CHIMERE chemistry transport model. Setting a conventional Gaussian hypothesis for the estimation error, the kriging variance is used to compute the probability of exceeding the daily limit value and to identify three areas: those where we can suppose as certain that the concentrations exceed or not the daily limit value and those where the situation is indeterminate because of the estimation uncertainty. Then, from the set of 365 daily mappings of the probability to exceed the daily limit value, the parameters of a translated Poisson distribution is fitted on the annual number of exceedances of the daily limit value at each grid cell, which enables to compute the probability for this number to exceed 35. The methodology is tested for three years (2007, 2009 and 2011) which present numerous exceedances of the daily limit concentration at some monitoring stations. A cross-validation analysis is carried out to check the efficiency of the methodology. The way to interpret probability maps is discussed. A comparison is made with simpler kriging approaches using indicator kriging of exceedances. Lastly, estimation of the population exposed to PM10

  6. Limits on same-day billing in Medicaid hinders integration of behavioral health into the medical home model.

    PubMed

    Roby, Dylan H; Jones, Erynne E

    2016-02-01

    The potential expansion of insurance coverage through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 can facilitate the reduction of access barriers and improved quality for behavioral health care. More than 5 million of the newly insured are expected to have mental health and substance use disorders. In addition, state and federal efforts to integrate behavioral and medical health needs through patient-centered medical home models and innovations in payment strategies provide an unprecedented opportunity to use federal financial support to improve not only access to care, but also improve quality through active care coordination, use of interdisciplinary teams, colocating services, and engaging in warm hand-offs between providers in the same setting. These potential advances are hindered in 24 different states because of Medicaid payment policy, with 7 explicitly limiting the ability to reimburse for physical health and behavioral health services on the same day for all providers. Without the ability for providers to be reimbursed for different services on the same day to improve behavioral and medical health care coordination, these states could be limited in their ability to improve care via patient-centered approaches and interdisciplinary team-based care that would involve physicians, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and other mental health professionals. Limits on same-day billing in Medicaid programs could impact up to 36.7 million people in 24 states, which is approximately 52.6% of all Medicaid enrollees.

  7. [Activity of various oxidases and transaminases in the rat liver in the readaptation period after hypokinesia up to 30 days].

    PubMed

    Potapov, P P

    1990-01-01

    The activity of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinic dehydrogenase in readaptation after 15-day hypokinesia was within normal limits, whereas following 30-day hypokinesia it was enhanced on days 11-15. Pyruvate dehydrogenase exhibited hyperactivity in the end of readaptation week 2 both in 15- and 30-day hypokinesia which resulted in rat liver hyperactivity of glutamate dehydrogenase and transaminases. Normal levels of the latter were recorded on readaptation day 12-19.

  8. Recovering activity and illusion: the nephrology day care unit.

    PubMed

    Remón Rodríguez, C; Quirós Ganga, P L; González-Outón, J; del Castillo Gámez, R; García Herrera, A L; Sánchez Márquez, M G

    2011-01-01

    Day Care Units are an alternative to hospital care that improves more efficiency. The Nephrology, by its technical characteristics, would be benefit greatly from further development of this care modality. The objectives of this study are to present the process we have developed the Nephrology Day Care Unit in the Puerto Real University Hospital (Cádiz, Spain). For this project we followed the Deming Management Method of Quality improvement, selecting opportunities, analyzing causes, select interventions, implement and monitor results. The intervention plan includes the following points: 1) Define the place of the Day Care Unit in the organization of our Clinical Department of Nephrology, 2) Define the Manual of organization, 3) Define the structural and equipment resources, 4) Define the Catalogue of services and procedures, 5) Standards of Care Processes. Protocols and Clinical Pathways; and 6) Information and Registration System. In the first 8 months we have been performed nearly 2000 procedures, which corresponds to an average of about 10 procedures per day, and essentially related to Hemodialysis in critical or acute patients, the Interventional Nephrology, the Clinical Nephrology and Peritoneal Dialysis. The development of the Nephrology Day Care Units can help to increase our autonomy, our presence in Hospitals, recover the progressive loss of clinical activity (diagnostic and therapeutic skills) in the past to the benefit of other Specialties. It also contributes to: Promote and develop the Diagnostic and Interventional Nephrology; improve the clinical management of patients with Primary Health Level, promote the Health Education and Investigation, collaborate in the Resources Management, and finally, to make more attractive and exciting our Specialty, both for nephrologists to training specialists.

  9. Day 4 activities in the MOCR during STS-5 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Day 4 activities in the mission operations control room (MOCR) during STS-5 mission. Scott Thomas, a freshman at Utah State University, watches the television monitor in front of him in the mission operations control room (MOCR) at JSC's mission control center. Astronaut Joseph P. Allen, STS-5 mission specialist, conducts an experiment - a study of convection in zero gravity - onboard the Columbia. The experiment is part of the student experiments program and was conceived by Thomas. Also at the payloads console with Thomas is Robert M. Kelso, of the Flight Operations Directorate. The stuffed mascot for the payloads team, a kangaroo, sits atop the payloads team console.

  10. Detection limit of fishing boats by the day night band (DNB) on VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, Ichio; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Park, John-geol; Mackin, Kenneth J.; Mittleman, John

    2016-09-01

    The detection limit of DNB was proposed as a function of the brightness temperature (BT) at 3.7 μm, where the transmittance of cloud could be observed as a change of surface temperature. The shortwave infrared band exhibited a wide distribution in BT more than the thermal infrared band for the same level of DNB radiance. The lights from surface were identified even under the full Moon condition with the proposed method, where clouds were reflecting the lunar lights. A different distribution of clouds for day to day and a change of the Moon phase with its elevation make this problem more complicated. But the approach of contrast based evaluation of surface lights and lunar reflected lights could be one solution to distinguish the lights from the surface. Currently, a validation is necessary in the future to confirm this algorithm and to validate the detected pixels to be fishing boats with the stable light sources. The time series data of fishing boats could be studied to analyze the region of fishing area relative to the distribution of sea surface temperature and/or chlorophyll-a.

  11. STS-101: Crew Activity Report / Flight Day 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary mission objective for STS-101 was to deliver supplies to the International Space Station, perform a space walk, and reboost the station from 230 statute miles to 250 statute miles. The commander of this mission was, James D. Haslsell. The crew was Scott J. Horowitz, the pilot, and mission specialists Mary Ellen Weber, Jeffrey N. Williams, James S. Voss, Susan J. Helms, and Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev. This videotape shows the activities of the fifth day of the mission. The day's activities started with the opening of the hatch to the space station. Helms and Usachev then opened the hatch to the station's Unity Connecting Module. The crew also placed ducting throughout the Zarya Control Module to improve air circulation and prevent problems with stale air. Helms and Usachev are shown replacing two of six batteries to be replaced in this mission in the Zarya module. The crew began moving supplies into the space station. There are several shots of the interior of the space station.

  12. Seven-day activity and self-report compared to a direct measure of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C B; Coffey, T; Berra, K; Iaffaldano, R; Casey, K; Haskell, W L

    1984-12-01

    To determine how well a seven-day interview-administered activity recall used in a large epidemiologic study at Stanford University reflected seven days of self-reported activity and directly measured physical activity, 30 white males, mean age 52 years, recorded daily physical activity for a week, and half of these wore an ambulatory solid-state minicomputer (Vitalog) which measures continuous heart rate and motion. Total hours of moderate, hard, and hard plus very hard activity were not significantly different for weekdays and weekends for self-report and recall and were significantly correlated. Total energy expenditure for subjects wearing the Vitalog averaged 38.5 +/- 6.7 kcal/kg/day compared to an average of 37.7 +/- 4.5 kcal/kg/day for recall or 39.6 +/- 7.2 kcal/kg/day for self-report. Conditioning activities are best remembered followed by home or leisure and job activities. Mean hours of sleep per week night were significantly greater reported by self-report than reported by recall, but the two were significantly correlated. It is concluded that a seven-day activity recall accurately reflects mean kcal/day expenditure, with conditioning activities being the best recalled. A self-report log used in conjunction with an interview-based seven-day recall might maximize accuracy of recall.

  13. Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Young Children in Full-Day Kindergarten: Comparing Traditional and Balanced Day Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare physical activity and sedentary time among young children whose schools adhere to traditional (i.e. three outdoor playtimes = 70 minutes) versus balanced day (i.e. two outdoor playtimes = ~55 minutes) schedules in Ontario full-day kindergarten classrooms. Design: The project was part of a larger, 2-year cross-sectional study.…

  14. STS-99 Crew Activities Report / Flight Day 09 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a specially modified radar system. This radar system produced unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's Surface. The mission was launched at 12:31 on February 11, 2000 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour, and led by Commander Kevin Kregel. The crew was Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie and Mission Specialists Janet L. Kavandi, Janice E. Voss, Mamoru Mohri from the National Space Development Agency (Japanese Space Agency), and Gerhard P. J. Thiele from DARA (German Space Agency). This tape shows the activities of the ninth day of the mission. The announcement of the decision to extend the SRTM for 9 hours is made to the crew. This means that almost all (i.e., 99.9 %) of the target area of the Earth will be imaged, at least once. Some shots of the 200 foot long mast where the outboard antennas are located are shown. Mamoru Mohri is shown changing a data tape, while he explains the rationale for recording rather than transmitting the data. Gerhard Thiele speaks to the German press. At the end of this tape are images generated from the SRTM. There are views of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai and west Maui, Hawaii; Dallas, Texas; Salalah, Oman; and Tasmania, Australia. Animations showing the topography around Hokkaido, Japan and Brazil are also shown.

  15. Active limited-angle tomographic phase microscope.

    PubMed

    Kus, Arkadiusz; Krauze, Wojciech; Kujawinska, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an active, holographic tomography system, working with limited angle of projections, realized by optical-only, diffraction-based beam steering. The system created for this purpose is a Mach–Zehnder interferometer modified to serve as a digital holographic microscope with a high numerical aperture illumination module and a spatial light modulator (SLM). Such a solution is fast and robust. Apart from providing an elegant solution to viewing angle shifting, it also adds new capabilities of the holographic microscope system. SLM, being an active optical element, allows wavefront correction in order to improve measurement accuracy. Integrated phase data captured with different illumination scenarios within a highly limited angular range are processed by a new tomographic reconstruction algorithm based on the compressed sensing technique: total variation minimization, which is applied here to reconstruct nonpiecewise constant samples. Finally, the accuracy of full measurement and the proposed processing path is tested for a calibrated three-dimensional micro-object as well as a biological object--C2C12 myoblast cell.

  16. Active limited-angle tomographic phase microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuś, Arkadiusz; Krauze, Wojciech; Kujawińska, Małgorzata

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate an active, holographic tomography system, working with limited angle of projections, realized by optical-only, diffraction-based beam steering. The system created for this purpose is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer modified to serve as a digital holographic microscope with a high numerical aperture illumination module and a spatial light modulator (SLM). Such a solution is fast and robust. Apart from providing an elegant solution to viewing angle shifting, it also adds new capabilities of the holographic microscope system. SLM, being an active optical element, allows wavefront correction in order to improve measurement accuracy. Integrated phase data captured with different illumination scenarios within a highly limited angular range are processed by a new tomographic reconstruction algorithm based on the compressed sensing technique: total variation minimization, which is applied here to reconstruct nonpiecewise constant samples. Finally, the accuracy of full measurement and the proposed processing path is tested for a calibrated three-dimensional micro-object as well as a biological object-C2C12 myoblast cell.

  17. Cholecystokinin-8 activates myenteric neurons in 21- and 35-day old but not 4- and 14-day old rats.

    PubMed

    Washington, Martha C; Murry, Candace R; Raboin, Shannon J; Roberson, Allison E; Mansour, Mahmoud M; Williams, Carol S; Sayegh, Ayman I

    2011-02-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) activates the myenteric neurons of adult rats. The goal of this work is to determine the ontogeny of this activation by CCK-8 in the myenteric plexus of the duodenum (2cm immediately following the pyloric sphincter aborally) and compare it with that of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) - which occurs in 1-day old pups. Despite the existence of both of the CCK receptors, CCK(1) and CCK(2), in 4, 14, 21 and 35 day old rats, CCK-8 (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40μg/kg, i.p.) increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI, a marker for neuronal activation) in the myenteric neurons of 21- and 35-day old rats but in the DVC of all age groups. As such, this belated activation of myenteric neurons by CCK-8 compared to the DVC may reflect a delayed role for these neurons in CCK-related functions.

  18. Present Day Activity of South Polar Gullies on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raack, J.; Reiss, D.; Ruesch, O.; Hiesinger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Here we report on clearly identified seasonal changes of gullies observed within the last two martian years (MY) on slopes of a south polar pit, which is located in a filled crater (diameter ~54 km) north of Sisyphi Cavi at ~68.5°S and ~1.5°E. Using new high-resolution imaging (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, HiRISE), temperature (Thermal Emission Spectrometer, TES) and spectral data (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, CRISM; Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité, OMEGA), we analyzed the exact timing of changes of gullies and detect the possible medium (CO2, H2O or dry) and mechanism which initiate present day gully activity. Two locations in the study region with clear modifications of gullies were identified in MY 29 between LS 226° and LS 247° and between LS 209° and LS 247°. In MY 30 changes occur in both locations between LS 218° and LS 249°. Modifications are the formation of a new small apron and new deposits within the channel, both associated with the deposition of dark material. Erosion in gully alcoves or channels was not observed. TES data show temperatures between ~180 and ~240 K within the period of gully modifications. Maximum temperatures in the region rise up to ~285 K between LS ~270° and ~310°. Spectral data show a CO2-cover of the study region until LS 227°. CO2-ice free surface are spectrally observed for the first time at LS 249°. H2O was not spectrally detected in the study region and a mixture of CO2 and H2O as presented in [1] cannot be clearly detected. Unfortunately, there are no spectral data available between LS 227° and 249°. Modifications of gullies imply seasonal volatile activity. The activity can be narrowed down to occur between LS 226° and 247° at mean temperatures between ~180 and ~240 K. This is in the range of temperatures where CO2 sublimates back into the atmosphere. Based on the temperature range, the most likely candidate for the observed new

  19. Responses of the lower thermospheric temperature to the 9 day and 13.5 day oscillations of recurrent geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guoying; Wang, Wenbin; Xu, Jiyao; Yue, Jia; Burns, Alan G.; Lei, Jiuhou; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Rusell, James M.

    2014-06-01

    Responses of the lower thermospheric temperature to the 9 day and 13.5 day oscillations of recurrent geomagnetic activity and solar EUV radiation have been investigated using neutral temperature data observed by the TIMED/SABER (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) instrument and numerical experiments by the NCAR-TIME-GCM (National Center for Atmospheric Research-thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere electrodynamics-general circulation model). The TIMED/SABER data analyzed were for the period from 2002 to 2007 during the declining phase of solar cycle 23. The observations show that the zonal mean temperature in the lower thermosphere oscillated with periods of near 9 and 13.5 days in the height range of 100-120 km. These oscillations were more strongly correlated with the recurrent geomagnetic activity than with the solar EUV variability of the same periods. The 9 day and 13.5 day oscillations of lower thermospheric temperature had greater amplitudes at high latitudes than at low latitudes; they also had larger amplitudes at higher altitudes, and the oscillations could penetrate down to ~105 km, depending on the strength of the recurrent geomagnetic activity for a particular time period. The data further show that the periodic responses of the lower thermospheric temperature to recurrent geomagnetic activity were different in the two hemispheres. In addition, numerical experiments have been carried out using the NCAR-TIME-GCM to investigate the causal relationship between the temperature oscillations and the geomagnetic activity and solar EUV variations of the same periods. Model simulations showed the same periodic oscillations as those seen in the observations when the real geomagnetic activity index, Kp, was used to drive the model. These numerical results show that recurrent geomagnetic activity is the main cause of the 9 day and 13.5 day variations in the lower thermosphere

  20. Psychometric properties of the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall questionnaire in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Soundy, Andy; Taylor, Adrian; Faulkner, Guy; Rowlands, Ann

    2007-12-01

    Few self-report measures of physical activity have been validated in individuals with severe mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a 7-day recall measure (7DR: [Blair, S. N. (1984). How to assess exercise habits and physical fitness. In J. D. Matarazzo, N. E. Miller, & S. M. Weiss, (Eds.), Behavioural health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 424-447). New York: Wiley.]) through comparison with RT3 triaxial accelerometry data. Fourteen individuals took part in the study. Validity was considered by Kendall's tau correlation and (Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical-methods for assessing agreement between 2 methods of clinical measurement. Lancet, 1(8476), 307-310) limits of agreement and test-retest reliability was measured by ICC. The only significant correlation between measures was total energy expenditure (tau = 0.43). The 7-DR over reported moderate physical activity by 16.9 +/- 52.3 min/day, but under reported vigorous physical activity by -10.4 +/- 24.3 min/day. Test retest ICC was significant for all outcome measures. Overall, the 7-DR was reliable but exhibited questionable validity. The use of self-report questionnaires such as the 7-DR may inaccurately estimate the levels of physical activity in this population, and may not be sensitive to monitoring intervention-related changes in physical activity.

  1. STS-102 Crew Activity Report/Flight Day 11 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On this 11th day of the STS-102 mission, Discovery Mission Specialist Andrew Thomas and Expedition 1 Commander Bill Shepherd are seen closing the hatch of the Leonardo Module. External shots show the Leonardo Module undocking from the International Space Station (ISS) and being moved via robotic arm into the payload bay of Discovery.

  2. Watch the Weather: Activities for All Kinds of Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Offers activities to expand children's knowledge and thinking about weather. Includes basic weather vocabulary. Arranges activities by type of weather (bright and clear, windy, or harsh and cold) and by type of involvement (intellectual, movement and health, social, or art and creativity). Activities are matched to age levels. (DLH)

  3. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to describe a quantitative framework for determining how energy limits microbial activity, biomass and, ultimately, biogeochemical processes. Although this model can be applied to any environment, its utility is demonstrated in marine sediments, which are an attractive test habitat because they encompass a broad spectrum of energy levels, varying amounts of biomass and are ubiquitous. The potential number of active microbial cells in Arkonas Basin (Baltic Sea) sediments are estimated as a function of depth by quantifying the amount of energy that is available to them and the rate at which it is supplied: power. The amount of power supplied per cubic centimeter of sediment is determined by calculating the Gibbs energy of fermentation and sulfate reduction in combination with the rate of particulate organic carbon, POC, degradation. The Reactive Continuum Model (Boudreau and Ruddick, 1991), RCM, is used to determine the rate at which POC is made available for microbial consumption. The RCM represents POC as containing a range of different types of organic compounds whose ability to be consumed by microorganisms varies as a function of the age of the sediment and on the distribution of compound types that were initially deposited. The sediment age model and RCM parameters determined by (Mogollon et al., 2012) are used. The power available for fermentation and sulfate reduction coupled to H2 and acetate oxidation varies from 10-8 W cm-3 at the sediment water interface to between 10-11 - 10-12 W cm-3 at 3.5 meters below the seafloor, mbsf. Using values of maintenance powers for each of these catabolic activities taken from the literature, the total number of active cells in these sediments similarly decreases from just less than 108 cell cm-3 at the SWI to 4.6 x 104 cells cm-3 at 3.5 mbsf. The number of moles of POC decreases from 2.6 x 10-5 to 9.5 x 10-6, also becoming more recalcitrant with depth. Boudreau, B. P. and Ruddick, B. R

  4. Elucidating satisfaction with physical activity: an examination of the day-to-day associations between experiences with physical activity and satisfaction during physical activity initiation.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Austin S; Baldwin, Scott A; Loehr, Valerie G; Kangas, Julie L; Frierson, Georita M

    2013-01-01

    Satisfaction with physical activity is known to be an important factor in physical activity maintenance, but the factors that influence satisfaction are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate how ongoing experiences with recently initiated physical activity are associated with satisfaction. Participants (n = 116) included insufficiently active volunteers who initiated a self-directed physical activity regimen and completed daily diaries about their experiences for 28 days. We used multilevel models to examine the associations between experiences with physical activity and satisfaction. Significant between-person effects demonstrated that people reporting higher average levels of positive experiences and lower levels of thinking about the negative aspects of exercise were more likely to report higher levels of satisfaction (ps < .05). Positive experiences and perceived progress toward goals had significant within-person effects (ps < .01), suggesting that day-to-day fluctuations in these experiences were associated with changes in satisfaction. These findings elucidate a process through which people may determine their satisfaction with physical activity.

  5. STS-93 Flight Day 1 Highlights and Crew Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On this first day of the STS-93 Columbia mission, the flight crew, Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Cady Coleman, Steve Hawley and Michael Tognini deployed the Chandra X-Ray Observatory into space. This was done after a full night of work and preparation. Chandra will study the invisible, and often violent mysteries of x-ray astronomy. Commander Collins maneuvered Columbia to a safe distance away from the telescope as an internal timer counted down to the first of a two-phase ignition of the Inertial Upper Stage. After switching to internal battery power until its solar rays are deployed, the telescope reaches an oval orbit one-third the distance to the Moon to conduct its astronomical observations. Since Chandra is safely on its way and the major objective of their mission is successfully completed, the astronauts end their long day and begin an eight hour sleep period.

  6. STS-100 Crew Activity Report: Flight Day 8 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-100 Endeavour mission, Mission Specialists Chris Hadfield and Scott Parazynski are seen preparing for and performing their spacewalks as they check the connections between the Destiny Laboratory Module and the Canadian Robotic Arm, remove an early communications antenna from the Unity Module, and confirm power connections for the Canadian Robotic Arm. Commander Kent Rominger is seen during a workout on Endeavour's ergometer.

  7. Effect of time of day on bird activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    Breeding season activity, based on detections recorded on more than a million 3. minute Breeding Bird Survey stops, reaches a peak for most species during the hour centered at sunrise or in the following hour. Activity of most species then declines gradually as the morning progresses. When large samples are considered, activity patterns for a given species are quite constant from year to year; but each species has its own characteristic pattern and there is much similarity among members of the same genus. Activity reaches a low point in midday, and may almost cease in some habitats (e. g. deserts); but in deciduous forests, activity of many species continues at a reduced rate. By reducing walking rate or lengthening listening periods, productive censusing of many species could be extended into midday. Winter activity is even more strongly oriented toward the early morning.

  8. Civic Engagement for Older Adults With Functional Limitations: Piloting an Intervention for Adult Day Health Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly; Anderson, Keith A.; Spinks, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Past research has demonstrated the importance of civic engagement for older adults, yet previous studies have not focused specifically on the potential benefits of civic engagement for older adults with functional limitations. This pilot study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote civic…

  9. STS-97 Crew Activity Report/Flight Day 11 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-97 mission, Commander Brent W. Jett, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Joseph R. Tanner, Carlos I. Noriega, and Marc Garneau remain docked with the International Space Station (ISS) on board the Endeavour Orbiter. Jett and Bloomfield are seen performing a check of the shuttle flight controls in preparation for tomorrow's landing. Jett, Noriega, and Tanner answer questions about the mission and the goals fulfilled. Footage shows the Earth at night as the camera on Endeavour sweeps the Mediterranean coastline, outlined by city lights, showing Spanish/French border, the French Riviera, the Alps, Italy, Switzerland, and the German/Austrian border.

  10. MOCR activity during Day 4 of STS-3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Major General J.A. Abrahamson, right, talks to JSC Director Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., (seated left) and Space Shuttle Program Manager Glynn S. Lunney on the back row of consoles in the mission operations control room (MOCR) in the Johnson Space Center mission control center. The reflection behind the men is a window for the MOCR viewing room (28772,28775); Abrahamson, second right, talks to JSC's Aaron Cohen, right, as Kraft (seated left) and Lunney listen in mission control (28773); Flight controller J.E. Connor monitors a television transmission from the Space Shuttle Columbia during day 4 of the STS-3 mission. Conner is seated at his INCO console (28774).

  11. Fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis on magnetically-active days. [statistical correlation to magnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchenko, V. I.

    1974-01-01

    On magnetically-active days, activation of fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis is observed. The increase in fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis begins on the day of the onset of a magnetic storm, reaching a maximum in 24 hours. Activation is higher on days with magnetic storms with a sudden onset and a C index of 1.5-2.0.

  12. STS-99 Flight Day 04 Highlights and Crew Activities Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a specially modified radar system. This radar system produced unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's Surface. The mission was launched at 12:31 on February 11, 2000 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. and led by Commander Kevin Kregel. The crew was Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie and Mission Specialists Janet L. Kavandi, Janice E. Voss, Mamoru Mohri from the National Space Development Agency (Japanese Space Agency), and Gerhard P. J. Thiele from DARA (German Space Agency).On the fourth day of the mission the blue team's Dominic Gorie led off the day's tape with a brief memorial to Charles Schultz, as he spoke of some of the vessels that were named for characters in Peanuts, and called to mind the Silver Snoopy, one of the highest awards NASA bestows. Janice Voss answered a couple of questions sent over the internet about a problem with a small thruster on the end of the 200 foot long mast. Mamoru Mohri talks about the EarthKam. Gerhard Thiele and Janet Kavandi describe the process of achieving the digital map of the entire world. At the end of the videotape some of the recently released views from the SRTM are shown. These include shots of the South Island of New Zealand.

  13. 78 FR 41716 - Hours of Service; Limited 90-Day Waiver From the 30-Minute Rest Break Requirement for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... beginning of this notice. Long-Range Weather Forecasts The FMCSA reviewed information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service (NOAA). The NOAA posts long-range... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 395 Hours of Service; Limited 90-Day Waiver...

  14. 24 CFR 58.22 - Limitations on activities pending clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) if the activity or project would have an adverse environmental impact or limit the choice of... and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES General Policy: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.22 Limitations on activities...

  15. STS-93 Flight Day 4 Highlights and Crew Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The five astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia began their fourth flight day preparing to make additional celestial observations through the shuttle's windows and continue work with a variety of instruments. Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Steve Hawley and Michael Tognini set up an exercise treadmill and the Treadmill Vibration Information System (TVIS) which measures vibrations and changes in microgravity levels caused by on-orbit workouts. Astronomer Hawley again made observations of Venus, Jupiter and the Moon with the Southwest Ultraviolet Imaging System (SWUIS) as Commander Eileen Collins and Pilot Jeff Ashby put the shuttle in the proper orientation for his observations. Tognini and Coleman checked the bioprocessing experiments, and harvested mouse-ear cress plants as part of the Plant Growth in Microgravity experiment. Collins and Ashby once again fired the shuttle's engines so that the sensors of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite were able to collect ultraviolet, infrared and visible light data. Columbia was orbiting at an altitude of 182 statute miles with all of its systems in excellent condition.

  16. STS-99 Crew Activities Report/Flight Day 1 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage shows the crew, Commander Kevin R. Kregel, Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie, and Mission Specialists Janet L. Kavandi, Janice E. Voss, Mamoru Mohri and Gerhard P.J. Thiele, seated in the dining room with the traditional cake. The crew is seen performing various pre-launch activities including suit-up, walk out to the Astro-van, and strap-in into the vehicle. Also seen are the retractions of the orbiter access arm and the gaseous oxygen mint hood, main engine start, booster ignition, liftoff, and separation of the solid rocket boosters. The Red Team (first of the dual shift crew) includes Kregel, Kavandi, and Thiele, who are shown conducting jet thruster firings, activating radar instruments, and deploying the boom (mass).

  17. STS-99 Flight Day Highlights 03 and Crew Activities Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage shows the STS-99's Blue Team Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie, and Mission Specialist Mamoru Mohri speaking with Dr. Bob Ballard and fielding questions from Fox News Network. During the interviews Janet E. Voss oversees the mapping activities. The Blue Team is also seen speaking with the Launch Control Center (LCC) troubleshooting a problem with a small nitrogen thruster mounted at the tip of the radar's outboard antenna.

  18. Accelerometry-Derived Physical Activity of First through Third Grade Children during the Segmented School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Crimarco, Anthony; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Webster, Collin A.; Burns, Ryan D.; Hannon, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools should provide children 30 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity (MVPA). Determining school day segments that contribute to children's MVPA can inform school-based activity promotion. The purpose of this paper was to identify the proportion of children accumulating 30 minutes/day of school-based MVPA, and to…

  19. Accelerometer steps/day translation of moderate-to-vigorous activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) guidelines are typically communicated in terms of duration, frequency, and intensity, e.g., 30 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on at least 5 days/week. Step counters can be used to collect objective PA expressed as steps/day; howeverc the associat...

  20. Prediction limits of mobile phone activity modelling

    PubMed Central

    Grauwin, Sebastian; Kallus, Zsófia; Gódor, István; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Ratti, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to their widespread usage, mobile devices have become one of the main sensors of human behaviour and digital traces left behind can be used as a proxy to study urban environments. Exploring the nature of the spatio-temporal patterns of mobile phone activity could thus be a crucial step towards understanding the full spectrum of human activities. Using 10 months of mobile phone records from Greater London resolved in both space and time, we investigate the regularity of human telecommunication activity on urban scales. We evaluate several options for decomposing activity timelines into typical and residual patterns, accounting for the strong periodic and seasonal components. We carry out our analysis on various spatial scales, showing that regularity increases as we look at aggregated activity in larger spatial units with more activity in them. We examine the statistical properties of the residuals and show that it can be explained by noise and specific outliers. Also, we look at sources of deviations from the general trends, which we find to be explainable based on knowledge of the city structure and places of attractions. We show examples how some of the outliers can be related to external factors such as specific social events. PMID:28386443

  1. Geomagnetic activity during the previous day is correlated with increased consumption of sucrose during subsequent days: is increased geomagnetic activity aversive?

    PubMed

    Galic, M A; Persinger, M A

    2004-06-01

    In five separate blocks over a period of several months for 33 female rats the amount of geomagnetic activity during the day before ad libitum access to 10% sucrose or water was positively correlated with the volume of sucrose consumed per 24-hr. period. The strength of the correlation (.62 to .77) declined over the subsequent 10 days from between .12 to -.18 and resembled an extinction curve. In a subsequent experiment four rats exposed to 5 nT to 8 nT, 0.5-Hz magnetic fields that ceased for 30 min. once every 4 hr. for 4 days consumed 11% more sucrose than the four rats exposed to no field. We suggest that the initial consumption of 10% sucrose may have been reinforced because it diminished the aversive physiological effects associated with the increased geomagnetic activity. However, over the subsequent days, as geomagnetic activity decreased or habituation occurred, negative reinforcement did not maintain this behavior.

  2. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  3. Aurora Activities Observed by SNPP VIIRS Day-Night Band during St. Patrick's Day, 2015 G4 Level Geomagnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. C.; Shao, X.; Cao, C.; Zhang, B.; Fung, S. F.; Sharma, S.

    2015-12-01

    A G4 level (severe) geomagnetic storm occurred on March 17 (St. Patrick's Day), 2015 and it is among the strongest geomagnetic storms of the current solar cycle (Solar Cycle 24). The storm is identified as due to the Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) which erupted on March 15 from Region 2297 of solar surface. During this event, the geomagnetic storm index Dst reached -223 nT and the geomagnetic aurora electrojet (AE) index increased and reached as high as >2200 nT with large amplitude fluctuations. Aurora occurred in both hemispheres. Ground auroral sightings were reported from Michigan to Alaska and as far south as southern Colorado. The Day Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi-NPP represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities. The DNB senses radiance that can span 7 orders of magnitude in one panchromatic (0.5-0.9 μm) reflective solar band and provides imagery of clouds and other Earth features over illumination levels ranging from full sunlight to quarter moon. In this paper, DNB observations of aurora activities during the St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm are analyzed. Aurora are observed to evolve with salient features by DNB for orbital pass on the night side (~local time 1:30am) in both hemispheres. The radiance data from DNB observation are collected at the night sides of southern and northern hemispheres and geo-located onto geomagnetic local time (MLT) coordinates. Regions of aurora during each orbital pass are identified through image processing by contouring radiance values and excluding regions with stray light near day-night terminator. The evolution of aurora are characterized with time series of the poleward and low latitude boundary of aurora, their latitude-span and area, peak radiance and total light emission of the aurora region in DNB observation. These characteristic parameters are correlated with solar wind and geomagnetic index parameters.

  4. On Day-to-Day Variability of Global Lightning Activity as Quantified from Background Schumann Resonance Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtak, V. C.; Williams, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    final stage from the estimated positions and relative activities of the modeled "chimneys" using SR power spectra at the stations with the most reliable calibrations. Additional stabilization in the procedure has been achieved by exploiting the Le Come/Goltzman inversion algorithm that uses the empirically estimated statistical characteristics of the input parameters. When applied to electric and/or magnetic observations collected simultaneously in January 2009 from six ELF stations in Poland (Belsk), Japan (Moshiri), Hungary (Nagycenk), USA (Rhode Island), India (Shillong), and Antarctica (Syowa), the inversion procedure reveals a general repeatability of diurnal lightning scenarios with variations of "chimney" centroid locations by a few megameters, while the estimated regional activity has been found to vary from day to day by up to several tens of percent. A combined empirical-theoretical analysis of the collected data aimed at selecting the most reliably calibrated ELF stations is presently in progress. All the effort is being made to transform the relative lightning activity into absolute units by the time of this meeting. The authors are greatly thankful to all the experimentalists who generously provided their observations and related information for this study.

  5. Detection limit for activation measurements in ultralow background sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trache, Livius; Chesneanu, D.; Margineanu, R.; Pantelica, A.; Ghita, D. G.; Burducea, I.; Straticiuc, M.; Tang, X. D.

    2014-09-01

    We used 12C +13C fusion at the beam energies E = 6, 7 and 8 MeV to determine the sensitivity and the limits of activation method measurements in ultralow background sites. A 13C beam of 0.5 μA from the 3 MV Tandem accelerator of the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH impinged on thick graphite targets. After about 24 hrs of irradiation targets were measured in two different laboratories: one with a heavy shielded Ge detector in the institute (at the surface) and one located underground in the microBequerel laboratory, in the salt mine of Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The 1369- and 2754 keV peaks from 24Na deactivation were clearly observed in the γ-ray spectra obtained for acquisitions lasting a few hours, or a few days. Determination of the detection limit in evaluating the cross sections for the target irradiated at Ec . m = 3 MeV indicates the fact that it is possible to measure gamma spectrum in underground laboratory down to Ec . m = 2 . 6 MeV. Cleaning the spectra with beta-gamma coincidences and increasing beam intensity 20 times will take as further down. The measurements are motivated by the study of the 12 C +12 C reaction at astrophysical energies.

  6. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  11. Variation in the ability of a long day followed by a short day photoperiod signal to initiate reproductive activity in ewes at different times of the year.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, T; Donovan, A; Roche, J F; O'Callaghan, D

    1997-01-01

    Three experiments examined the importance of the time and duration of exposure to a long day followed by a short day photoperiod signal in initiating reproductive activity in ewes. In Expt 1, ewes were maintained on short days (8.5 h light:15.5 h dark) from 21 December interrupted with either 105 long days (18 h light:6 h dark; LD) from 9 February or 35 LD from 9 February, 16 March or 20 April. Exposure to long days followed by short days advanced the onset of reproductive activity in comparison to control ewes maintained on simulated natural photoperiod. Exposure to long days for 105 days delayed the onset of reproductive activity (August 2 +/- 3 days; P < 0.05) compared with 35 days beginning on the same date (July 13 +/- 5 days). The interval from the end of the long day signal to the onset of reproductive activity was shorter (P < 0.001) however, after 105 LD than after 35 LD. In Expt 2, control ewes were moved from natural photoperiod to simulated natural photoperiod on 1 November and subsequently exposed to short days from 21 December. Four other groups were also exposed to this basic photoperiodic signal sequence but it was interrupted with either 70 LD from 16 November, or 35 LD from 16 November, 21 December or 20 April. More ewes (P < 0.05) initiated reproductive activity after exposure to 70 LD from 16 November and 35 LD from 21 December or 20 April compared with control ewes maintained on short days or ewes given 35 LD from 16 November. The interval from the end of long days to the onset of reproductive activity was less (P < 0.01) in ewes given 70 LD than in ewes given 35 LD. In Expt 3, ewes on natural photoperiod were given either 90 LD from 21 September, 35 LD from 21 September, 26 October, 30 November, 4 January or 8 February followed by short days. The majority of ewes that received long followed by short days after the winter solstice resumed reproductive activity. However, all photoperiod signals given between the autumn equinox and the winter

  12. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  13. Human performance profiles for planetary analog extra-vehicular activities: 120 day and 30 day analog missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarmer, Tiffany M.

    Understanding performance factors for future planetary missions is critical for ensuring safe and successful planetary extra-vehicular activities (EVAs). The goal of this study was to gain operational knowledge of analog EVAs and develop biometric profiles for specific EVA types. Data was collected for a 120 and 30 day analog planetary exploration simulation focusing on EVA type, pre and post EVA conditions, and performance ratings. From this five main types of EVAs were performed: maintenance, science, survey/exploratory, public relations, and emergency. Each EVA type has unique characteristics and performance ratings showing specific factors in chronological components, environmental conditions, and EVA systems that have an impact on performance. Pre and post biometrics were collected to heart rate, blood pressure, and SpO2. Additional data about issues and specific EVA difficulties provide some EVA trends illustrating how tasks and suit comfort can negatively affect performance ratings. Performance decreases were noted for 1st quarter and 3rd quarter EVAs, survey/exploratory type EVAs, and EVAs requiring increased fine and gross motor function. Stress during the simulation is typically higher before the EVA and decreases once the crew has returned to the habitat. Stress also decreases as the simulation nears the end with the 3rd and 4th quarters showing a decrease in stress levels. Operational components and studies have numerous variable and components that effect overall performance, by increasing the knowledge available we may be able to better prepare future crews for the extreme environments and exploration of another planet.

  14. Staff and Student Experiences of Dialogue Days, a Student Engagement Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asghar, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a descriptive phenomenological exploration of the lived experience of dialogue days, a student engagement activity, from the perspectives of staff and students. I suggest that dialogue days enhance the relational and emotional aspects of learning with the potential to impact on future student engagement and…

  15. Cortisol Response to Physical Activity in African American Toddlers Attending Full-Time Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Sarah J.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gladden, L. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American toddlers' cortisol response to acute physical play activity within a full-time subsidized day care environment. Saliva samples were taken from participants (N = 22, ages 26-45.5 months) before and after physical play and control play conditions at the same time of day. Actiheart[TM]monitors…

  16. 78 FR 38996 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life... days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and... is to advance understanding of the dynamic relationship between the environment, psychosocial...

  17. Determining Daily Physical Activity Levels of Youth with Developmental Disabilities: Days of Monitoring Required?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Yeun; Yun, Joonkoo

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way…

  18. Independence and Elaboration Day: Activities to Enhance Student Reading in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Larry; Smith, Frederick

    1981-01-01

    Describes an activity approach (Independence and Elaboration Day, I & E Day) which is intended to help high school social studies students become independent readers and learners by reading social studies material other than textbooks. Suggested materials include newspapers, minutes of political and legislative meetings, and magazines. (DB)

  19. The Association between Physical Activity During the Day and Long-Term Memory Stability

    PubMed Central

    Pontifex, Matthew B.; Gwizdala, Kathryn L.; Parks, Andrew C.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite positive associations between chronic physical activity and memory; we have little understanding of how best to incorporate physical activity during the day to facilitate the consolidation of information into memory, nor even how time spent physically active during the day relates to memory processes. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relation between physical activity during the day and long-term memory. Ninety-two young adults learned a list of paired-associate items and were tested on the items after a 12-hour interval during which heart rate was recorded continuously. Although the percentage of time spent active during the day was unrelated to memory, two critical physical activity periods were identified as relating to the maintenance of long-term memory. Engaging in physical activity during the period 1 to 2-hours following the encoding of information was observed to be detrimental to the maintenance of information in long-term memory. In contrast, physical activity during the period 1-hour prior to memory retrieval was associated with superior memory performance, likely due to enhanced retrieval processing. These findings provide initial evidence to suggest that long-term memory may be enhanced by more carefully attending to the relative timing of physical activity incorporated during the day. PMID:27909312

  20. Night-time neuronal activation of Cluster N in a day- and night-migrating songbird.

    PubMed

    Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Liedvogel, Miriam; Jarvis, Erich D; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2010-08-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in a night-migratory songbird requires that Cluster N, a cluster of forebrain regions, is functional. Cluster N, which receives input from the eyes via the thalamofugal pathway, shows high neuronal activity in night-migrants performing magnetic compass-guided behaviour at night, whereas no activation is observed during the day, and covering up the birds' eyes strongly reduces neuronal activation. These findings suggest that Cluster N processes light-dependent magnetic compass information in night-migrating songbirds. The aim of this study was to test if Cluster N is active during daytime migration. We used behavioural molecular mapping based on ZENK activation to investigate if Cluster N is active in the meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis), a day- and night-migratory species. We found that Cluster N of meadow pipits shows high neuronal activity under dim-light at night, but not under full room-light conditions during the day. These data suggest that, in day- and night-migratory meadow pipits, the light-dependent magnetic compass, which requires an active Cluster N, may only be used during night-time, whereas another magnetosensory mechanism and/or other reference system(s), like the sun or polarized light, may be used as primary orientation cues during the day.

  1. Night-time neuronal activation of Cluster N in a day- and night-migrating songbird

    PubMed Central

    Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Liedvogel, Miriam; Jarvis, Erich D; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in a night-migratory songbird requires that Cluster N, a cluster of forebrain regions, is functional. Cluster N, which receives input from the eyes via the thalamofugal pathway, shows high neuronal activity in night-migrants performing magnetic compass-guided behaviour at night, whereas no activation is observed during the day, and covering up the birds’ eyes strongly reduces neuronal activation. These findings suggest that Cluster N processes light-dependent magnetic compass information in night-migrating songbirds. The aim of this study was to test if Cluster N is active during daytime migration. We used behavioural molecular mapping based on ZENK activation to investigate if Cluster N is active in the meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis), a day- and night-migratory species. We found that Cluster N of meadow pipits shows high neuronal activity under dim-light at night, but not under full room-light conditions during the day. These data suggest that, in day- and night-migratory meadow pipits, the light-dependent magnetic compass, which requires an active Cluster N, may only be used during night-time, whereas another magnetosensory mechanism and/or other reference system(s), like the sun or polarized light, may be used as primary orientation cues during the day. PMID:20618826

  2. Determining daily physical activity levels of youth with developmental disabilities: days of monitoring required?

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Yeun; Yun, Joonkoo

    2009-07-01

    This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way ANOVAs were employed to estimate sources of variability across W, WK, and W and WK combined (WWK) for each device. Primary sources of variability were the person and the person by day interaction for both devices. Using a pedometer, four, six, and eight days of measurements were required to determine typical PA levels of the participants during W, WK, and WWK, respectively, Using one accelerometer, four days of measurements were estimated across all days.

  3. Is There an Association of Physical Activity with Brain Volume, Behavior, and Day-to-day Functioning? A Cross Sectional Design in Prodromal and Early Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, McKenzie; Downing, Nancy; Lourens, Spencer; Mills, James; Kim, Ji-in; Long, Jeffrey; Paulsen, Jane; PREDICT-HD Investigators and Coordinators of the Huntington Study Group

    2016-01-01

    Background: Huntington disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive motor, cognitive, and behavioral decline. Subtle changes in these domains are detectable up to 15 years before a definitive motor diagnosis is made. This period, called prodromal HD, provides an opportunity to examine lifestyle behaviors that may impact disease progression. Theoretical Framework: Physical activity relates to decreased rates of brain atrophy and improved cognitive and day-to-day functioning in Alzheimer disease and healthy aging populations. Previous research has yielded mixed results regarding the impact of physical activity on disease progression in HD and paid little attention to the prodromal phase. Methods: We conducted analyses of associations among current physical activity level, current and retrospective rate of change for hippocampus and striatum volume, and cognitive, motor, and day-to-day functioning variables. Participants were 48 gene-expanded cases with prodromal and early-diagnosed HD and 27 nongene-expanded control participants. Participants wore Fitbit Ultra activity monitors for three days and completed the self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Hippocampal and striatal white matter volumes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Cognitive tests included the Stroop Color and Word Test, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Motor function was assessed using the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale total motor score (TMS). Day-to-day functioning was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) version 2.0. Results: Higher Fitbit activity scores were significantly related to better scores on the SDMT and WHODAS in case participants but not in controls. Fitbit activity scores tracked better with TMS scores in the group as a whole, though the association did not reach statistical significance in the case participants. Higher Fitbit activity scores

  4. Create an Adventure Challenge: Using Recess Time to Supplement Physical Activity during the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGiacinto, Kacey Lynn; Jones, Emily

    2010-01-01

    NASPE recommends children ages 5-12 accumulate at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity each day of the week. With the growing occurrence of obesity in the United States, it is clear that too many of America's youth are not meeting the recommended amount of daily physical activity. Given that America's youth are having…

  5. Increasing Student Physical Activity during the School Day: Opportunities for the Physical Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Joan D.; Luebbers, Paul E.; Shane, Shawna D.

    2009-01-01

    America is facing an obesity epidemic--one that is difficult to ignore. In order to combat the nation's obesity crisis, it is imperative that schools find ways to increase the physical activity levels of students during the school day, as well as encourage additional activity outside of school. By teaching youth to incorporate physical activity…

  6. Allowable exposure limits for carbon dioxide during extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seter, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent was to review the research pertaining to human exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and to recommend allowable exposure limits for extravehicular activity (EVA). Respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems may be adversely affected by chronic low dose CO2 exposure. Ventilation was increased 15 percent with 1 percent CO2 and 50 percent with 2 percent CO2. Chronic exposure to less than 2 percent CO2 led to 20 day cycles of uncompensated and compensated respiratory acidosis. Acid-base changes were small. Histopathologic changes in guinea pig lungs have been noted with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. No changes were seen with exposure to 0.5 percent CO2. Cycling of bone calcium stores with associated changes in blood and urinary calcium levels occurs with long term CO2 exposure. Histologic changes in bone have been noted in guinea pigs exposed to 1 percent CO2. Renal calcification has been noted in guinea pigs with exposure to as low as 0.5 percent CO2. An increase in gastric acidity was noted in subjects with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. Cardiovascular and neurologic function were largely unaffected. A decrease in the incidence of respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal disease was noted in submariners coincident with a decrease in ambient CO2 from 1.2 percent to 0.8-0.9 percent. Oxygen (O2) and CO2 stimulate respiration independently and cumulatively. The addition of CO2 to high dose O2 led to the faster onset of seizure activity in mice. Experiments evaluating the physiologic responses to intermittent, repetitive exposures to low dose CO2 and 100 percent O2 mixtures should be performed. A reduction in the current NASA standard for CO2 exposure during EVA of 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for nominal and 2 percent (15.2 mmHg) for heavy exertion to 0.5 percent (3.8 mmHg) for nominal and 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for heavy exertion may be prudent. At a minimum, the current NASA standard should not be liberalized.

  7. Loneliness in a day: Activity engagement, time alone, and experienced emotions

    PubMed Central

    Queen, Tara L.; Stawski, Robert S.; Ryan, Lindsay H.; Smith, Jacqui

    2014-01-01

    The experience of chronic loneliness has been associated with poorer physical health and well-being, including declines in cardiovascular health and higher levels of distressed affect. Given the long-term effects of loneliness on health and well-being, much research has focused on loneliness in older age. The purpose of the current study was to obtain a more detailed picture of the experience of loneliness in midlife and older adulthood by incorporating the context of a day’s activities. We use a modified day reconstruction task to examine the activities in which middle age and older adults engaged, the amount of time they spent alone, and the emotions experienced while engaging in a day’s activities. Lonely individuals did not participate in different daily activities or spend more time alone during the day; however, loneliness was associated with engaging in more activities alone than with others. In regards to emotional experiences, daily activities yield a different profile of positive emotional experiences for lonelier individuals. The social context of daily activities was an important factor in understanding the effects of loneliness on experienced negative emotions. The results of this study provide insight into the influence of loneliness on the structure of a day and context for understanding the emotional experiences of lonely older adults. PMID:24955998

  8. Factors limiting microbial activity in volcanic tuff at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T.L.; Kovacik, W.P.; Taylor, J.

    1996-09-01

    Samples of tuff aseptically collected from 10 locations in the Exploratory Shaft Facility at the site of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site were analyzed for microbiological populations, activities, and factors limiting microbial activity. Radiotracer assays ({sup 14}C-labeled organic substrate mineralization), direct microscopic counts, and plate counts were used. Radiolabeled substrates were glucose, acetate, and glutamate. Radiotracer experiments were carried out with and without moisture and inorganic nutrient amendments to determine factors limiting to microbial activities. Nearly all samples showed the presence of microorganisms with the potential to mineralize organic substrates. Addition of inorganic nutrients stimulated activities in a small number of samples. The presence of viable microbial communities within the tuff has implications for transport of contaminants.

  9. Intra-day variability of the stock market activity versus stationarity of the financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubiec, T.; Wiliński, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose a new approach to a well-known phenomena of intra-day activity pattern on the stock market. We suggest that seasonality of inter-transaction times has a more significant impact than intra-day pattern of volatility. Our aim is not to remove the intra-day pattern from the data but to describe its impact on autocorrelation function estimators. We obtain an exact, analytical formula relating estimators of the autocorrelation functions of non-stationary (seasonal) process to its stationary counterpart. Hence, we prove that the day seasonality of inter-transaction times extends the memory of the process. That is, autocorrelation of both, price returns and their absolute values, relaxation to zero is longer.

  10. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  11. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  12. Limits to differences in active and passive charges

    SciTech Connect

    Laemmerzahl, C.; Macias, A.; Mueller, H.

    2007-05-15

    We explore consequences of a hypothetical difference between active charges, which generate electric fields, and passive charges, which respond to them. A confrontation with experiments using atoms, molecules, or macroscopic matter yields limits on their fractional difference at levels down to 10{sup -21}, which at the same time corresponds to an experimental confirmation of Newton's third law.

  13. Evolution of impedance field telemetry after one day of activation in cochlear implant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-Mi; Chen, Hsing-Yi; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Changes in impedance between 24 hours and one month after cochlear implantation have never been explored due to the inability to switch on within one day. This study examined the effect of early activation (within 24 hours) on the evolution of electrode impedance with the aim of providing information on the tissue-to-electrode interface when electrical stimulation was commenced one day post implantation. Methods We performed a retrospective review at a single institution. Patients who received a Nucleus 24RECA implant system (Cochlear, Sydney, Australia) and underwent initial switch-on within 24 hours postoperatively were included. Impedance measurements were obtained intraoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Results A significant drop in impedance was noted 1 day after an initial activation within 24 hours followed by a significant rise in impedance in all channels until 1 week, after which the impedance behaved differently in different segments. Basal and mid-portion electrodes revealed a slight increase while apical electrodes showed a slight decrease in impedance from 1 week to 8 weeks postoperatively. Impedance was relatively stable 4 weeks after surgery. Conclusions This is the first study to report the evolution of impedance in all channels between initial mapping 1 day and 1 month after cochlear implantation. The underlying mechanism for the differences in behavior between different segments of the electrode may be associated with the combined effect of dynamics among the interplay of cell cover formation, electrical stimulation, and fibrotic reaction. PMID:28264044

  14. Intraseasonal Tropical Storm Activity Prediction with the NCEP CFSv2 45-day Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemm, J. K. E.; Long, L. N.

    2015-12-01

    Global predictability of intraseasonal tropical storm (TS) activity is assessed using the 1999-2012 CFSv2 45-day hindcast suite and real-time predictions for 2014-2015. Weekly TS activities in the CFSv2 45-day forecasts were determined using the TS detection and tracking method devised by Carmago and Zebiak (2002). The forecast periods are divided into weekly intervals for Week 1 through Week 4. The TS activities in those intervals are compared to the observed activities based on the NHC HURDAT and JTWC Best Track datasets.The CFSv2 45-day hindcast suite is made of forecast runs initialized at 00, 06, 12 and 18Z every day during the 1999 - 2012 period. For predictability evaluation, forecast TS activities are analyzed based on 20-member ensemble forecasts comprised of 45-day runs made during the most recent 5 days prior to the verification period. The forecast TS activities are evaluated in terms of the number of storms, genesis locations and storm tracks during the weekly periods. The CFSv2 forecasts are shown to have a fair level of skill in predicting the anomalous number of storms over most of the seven ocean basins during the 1999-2012 active seasons. The average temporal correlation score for Week 1 forecasts is between 0.50-0.52 in the Eastern and Western North Pacific, the South Indian and South Pacific basins, while correlations drop to around 0.20 for Week 4 forecasts. The forecast track is also examined using density distribution maps and false alarm statistics compiled using the hindcast analyses with Heidke Skill Scores peaking at around 0.35. Real-time weekly TS activity predictions began in December 2013 using the climatological TS forecast statistics to make the model bias corrections in terms of the storm counts, track distribution and removal of false alarm storms. This operational implementation provides an objective tool for the CPC's Global Tropical Hazards Outlooks. Verification and evaluation of the 2014 and 2015 seasons will be discussed.

  15. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  16. Growing up Active: A Study into Physical Activity in Long Day Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashmore, Aaron W.; Jones, Sandra C.

    2008-01-01

    The child care center is an ideal setting in which to implement strategies to promote physical activity and healthy weight, but there is a paucity of empirical evidence on factors that influence physical activity in these settings. The current study gathered initial qualitative data to explore these factors. Child care workers from five long day…

  17. The importance of physical activity and sleep for affect on stressful days: Two intensive longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. [Antibacterial activity of urine after administration of ofloxacin for 5 days].

    PubMed

    Drugeon, H; Veyries, M L; Levacher, M; Garnier, M; Aymard, G; Giroud, J P; Rouveix, B

    2000-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of ofloxacin was evaluated in urine over a period of 96 h after oral administration for 5 days of 200 mg twice a day in 12 healthy female volunteers. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of urines were studied for five strains of enterobacterias recovered from urinary infections: two strains of Escherichia Coli Nal-S and Nal-R, two strains of Proteus mirabilis Nal-S and Nal-R, and one strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae Nal-S. Mean urinary concentrations of ofloxacin were very high during the first 12 h following last intake. They were still above 7 mg/l till the 48th hour and above 1.6 mg/l till the 72nd hour. Bactericidal activity of urine was present for 72 h in respect of four strains studied at that time; urine was not bactericidal as regards E. coli Nal-R. After 5 days of oral treatment with ofloxacin (200 mg b.i.d.), urine retains a bactericidal activity for at least 72 h against bacterial strains of urinary tract infections.

  19. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  20. Chronotype predicts activity patterns in the neural underpinnings of the motor system during the day.

    PubMed

    Peres, Isabella; Vetter, Céline; Blautzik, Janusch; Reiser, Maximilian; Pöppel, Ernst; Meindl, Thomas; Roenneberg, Till; Gutyrchik, Evgeny

    2011-12-01

    Neuroimaging is increasingly used to study the motor system in vivo. Despite many reports of time-of-day influences on motor function at the behavioral level, little is known about these influences on neural motor networks and their activations recorded in neuroimaging. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the authors studied 15 healthy subjects (9 females; mean ± SD age: 23 ± 3 yrs) performing a self-paced finger-tapping task at different times of day (morning, midday, afternoon, and evening). Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal showed systematic differences across the day in task-related motor areas of the brain, specifically in the supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, and rolandic operculum (p(corr)< .0125). The authors found that these time-of-day-dependent hemodynamic modulations are associated with chronotype and not with homeostatic sleep pressure. These results show that consideration of time-of-day for the analysis of fMRI studies is imperative.

  1. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    PubMed

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL.

  2. Activity of the sympathoadrenal system in cosmonauts during 25-day space flight on station Mir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvetňanský, R.; Noskov, V. B.; Blazicek, P.; Gharib, C.; Popova, I. A.; Gauquelin, G.; Macho, L.; Guell, A.; Grigoriev, A. I.

    The activity of the sympathoadrenal system in cosmonauts was studied by measuring plasma and urinary catecholamines and their metabolites and conjugates. The appliance Plasma 02 was used for collecting, processing, and storing blood and urine samples from the cosmonauts during the course of a 25-day flight on board the station Mir. Plasma and urine concentrations of adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA), and dopamine (DA) as well as urinary levels of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), and plasma levels of catecholamine sulphates were determined before, during and after the space flight. Plasma NA levels were slightly elevated on day 9 and plasma A on day 20, whereas plasma DA levels were unchanged. However, most of the changes were within the normal range of control values. Sulphates of plasma catecholamines did not change during flight but they were significantly elevated after landing. Urinary levels of A, NA, DA, VMA, and HVA were comparable with preflight values but were elevated at the different intervals studied after landing. The results obtained suggest that in the short period of about 9 days of the cosmonaut's stay in space the sympathoadrenal system was slightly activated indicating a mild stressful influence of the initial period of flight. This short-term space flight compared to long-term flight did not as markedly activate the sympathoadrenal system during the process of re-adaptation to Earth's gravity after landing. Our data suggest that weightlessness is not a stressful factor activating the sympathoadrenal system but it sensitizes the responsiveness of this system during the re-adaptation period after space flight.

  3. Patterns of daily physical activity during school days in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mota, Jorge; Santos, Paula; Guerra, Sandra; Ribeiro, José C; Duarte, José A

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the weekday patterns of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in school children and adolescents and determine if there are periods of the day that are representative of their typical MVPA. The sample comprised 84 subjects (boys, n = 30; girls, n = 54), age 8-15 years old. Daily totals for the physical activity variables were calculated by summing the values from 13 hr of physical activity (PA) measurements (9:00-22:00), with 60-min time blocks comprising each day. The MVPA data values were categorized in four daily periods: morning (9:00-11:59), noon (12:00-14:59), late afternoon (15:00-17.59), and evening (18:00-21.59). Our data show that boys participated significantly more in MVPA than girls. Despite no clear patterns or differences among sex being found, girls showed higher percent of time engaged in MVPA during the morning and early afternoon periods (sum of two periods 51.0%), while boys' percent of time engaged in MVPA is higher at late afternoon and evening periods (sum of two periods 53.8%). The principal components analyses showed four distinct components that accounted for 67% of the variance, as follows: school hours (component 1); lunchtime and outside-school activities (component 2); morning time before school period (component 4); and period before bedtime (component 3) appear as distinct periods of the day. In conclusion, the present study shows that boys engaged more in MVPA than girls. Girls tend to be more active during school periods, while boys are more active after school.

  4. Urban Biodiversity, City-Dwellers and Conservation: How Does an Outdoor Activity Day Affect the Human-Nature Relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Jaillon, Alexandre; Piron, Armony; Julliard, Romain; Raymond, Richard; Simon, Laurent; Prévot-Julliard, Anne-Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Urban conservation education programs aim to increase knowledge and awareness towards biodiversity and to change attitudes and behaviour towards the environment. However, to date, few urban conservation education studies have evaluated to what extent these programs have managed to achieve their goals. In this study, we experimentally explored the influence of an urban conservation activity day on individual knowledge, awareness and actions towards biodiversity, in both the short and longer term. We organised three activity days in Paris (France), during which people were invited to participate in urban conservation efforts. Both quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interviews) methods were employed to investigate the influence of this short urban nature experience on the relationships that city-dwellers develop with nearby biodiversity. We found a strong positive correlation between the levels of participation and an immediate interest towards local urban biodiversity. In the longer term, however, although participants claimed to have gained more knowledge, local awareness and interest for species in their daily environment, they did not seem to extend this interest to participating in other related activities. These results highlight the complexity of validating the effectiveness of this type of education program for achieving conservation goals. Although such a short activity may only have a limited environmental impact, it nevertheless seems to increase people's knowledge, awareness, interest and concern. We therefore believe that when repeated locally, these short conservation education programs could enhance people's experience with nature in cities and achieve conservation goals more fully. PMID:22715403

  5. Urban biodiversity, city-dwellers and conservation: how does an outdoor activity day affect the human-nature relationship?

    PubMed

    Shwartz, Assaf; Cosquer, Alix; Jaillon, Alexandre; Piron, Armony; Julliard, Romain; Raymond, Richard; Simon, Laurent; Prévot-Julliard, Anne-Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Urban conservation education programs aim to increase knowledge and awareness towards biodiversity and to change attitudes and behaviour towards the environment. However, to date, few urban conservation education studies have evaluated to what extent these programs have managed to achieve their goals. In this study, we experimentally explored the influence of an urban conservation activity day on individual knowledge, awareness and actions towards biodiversity, in both the short and longer term.We organised three activity days in Paris (France), during which people were invited to participate in urban conservation efforts. Both quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interviews) methods were employed to investigate the influence of this short urban nature experience on the relationships that city-dwellers develop with nearby biodiversity. We found a strong positive correlation between the levels of participation and an immediate interest towards local urban biodiversity. In the longer term, however, although participants claimed to have gained more knowledge, local awareness and interest for species in their daily environment, they did not seem to extend this interest to participating in other related activities. These results highlight the complexity of validating the effectiveness of this type of education program for achieving conservation goals. Although such a short activity may only have a limited environmental impact, it nevertheless seems to increase people's knowledge, awareness, interest and concern. We therefore believe that when repeated locally, these short conservation education programs could enhance people's experience with nature in cities and achieve conservation goals more fully.

  6. Time of day effects on the regulation of food consumption after activation of health goals.

    PubMed

    Boland, Wendy Attaya; Connell, Paul M; Vallen, Beth

    2013-11-01

    Previous research has found that while self-regulation is a resource that can be depleted, enhanced motivation to do so can help people successfully self-regulate. The aim of this research was to determine whether activating health goals-either via laboratory priming techniques or via advertisements-can help people regulate food intake later in the day, when self-regulation resources are typically depleted. In two experimental studies, participants completed goal activation tasks in the morning or in the afternoon while they had a snack food (M&M's candies) available for consumption. In study 1, 121 participants viewed television shows with either healthy food ads, indulgent food ads, or non-food ads embedded within the program. In study 2, 149 participants completed a supraliminal but nonconscious goal priming exercise, in which they searched for health, indulgence, or control words in a puzzle. In both studies, activation of health goals led to decreased consumption of the snack food in the afternoon. In contrast, activation of health goals did not change consumption in the morning, when self-regulatory resources are typically high, due to replenishment after rest. These results suggest that activating health goals-either via classic laboratory goal-priming paradigms or via "real world primes," such as ads for healthy foods-helps people to overcome failures in curbing food consumption due to depleted self-regulatory resources later in the day.

  7. Cloud condensation nuclei activation of limited solubility organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff Hartz, Kara E.; Tischuk, Joshua E.; Chan, Man Nin; Chan, Chak K.; Donahue, Neil M.; Pandis, Spyros N.

    The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation of 19 organic species with water solubilities ( Csat) ranging from 10 -4 to 10 2 g solute 100 g -1 H 2O was measured. The organic particles were generated by nebulization of an aqueous or an alcohol solution. Use of alcohols as solvents enables the measurement of low solubility, non-volatile organic CCN activity and reduces the likelihood of residual water in the aerosol. The activation diameter of organic species with very low solubility in water ( Csat<0.3 g 100 g -1 H 2O) is in agreement with Köhler theory using the bulk solubility (limited solubility case) of the organic in water. Many species, including 2-acetylbenzoic acid, aspartic acid, azelaic acid, glutamic acid, homophthalic acid, phthalic acid, cis-pinonic acid, and salicylic acid are highly CCN active in spite of their low solubility (0.3 g 100 g -1 H 2O< Csat<1 g 100 g -1 H 2O), and activate almost as if completely water soluble. The CCN activity of most species is reduced, if the particles are produced using non-aqueous solvents. The existence of the particles in a metastable state at low RH can explain the observed enhancement in CCN activity beyond the levels suggested by their solubility.

  8. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  9. Children with Special Needs in Family Day Care Homes: A Handbook of Approaches and Activities for Family Day Care Home Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Brosse, Beatrice

    Practical information and sample teaching activities for child caregivers who work with young developmentally disabled children in family day care settings are provided in this manual. Each chapter shares a typical experience a caregiver may have with a particular child. Chapter 1 focuses on getting to know a new child, initial expectations, and…

  10. Limited activity monitoring in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Shic, Frederick; Bradshaw, Jessica; Klin, Ami; Scassellati, Brian; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2011-03-22

    This study used eye-tracking to examine how 20-month-old toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n=28), typical development (TD) (n=34), and non-autistic developmental delays (DD) (n=16) monitored the activities occurring in a context of an adult-child play interaction. Toddlers with ASD, in comparison to control groups, showed less attention to the activities of others and focused more on background objects (e.g., toys). In addition, while all groups spent the same time overall looking at people, toddlers with ASD looked less at people's heads and more at their bodies. In ASD, these patterns were associated with cognitive deficits and greater autism severity. These results suggest that the monitoring of the social activities of others is disrupted early in the developmental progression of autism, limiting future avenues for observational learning.

  11. Mechanisms of Physical Activity Limitation in Chronic Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Zakynthinos, George; Andrianopoulos, Vasileios

    2012-01-01

    In chronic lung diseases physical activity limitation is multifactorial involving respiratory, hemodynamic, and peripheral muscle abnormalities. The mechanisms of limitation discussed in this paper relate to (i) the imbalance between ventilatory capacity and demand, (ii) the imbalance between energy demand and supply to working respiratory and peripheral muscles, and (iii) the factors that induce peripheral muscle dysfunction. In practice, intolerable exertional symptoms (i.e., dyspnea) and/or leg discomfort are the main symptoms that limit physical performance in patients with chronic lung diseases. Furthermore, the reduced capacity for physical work and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle, in an attempt to avoid breathlessness upon physical exertion, cause profound muscle deconditioning which in turn leads to disability and loss of functional independence. Accordingly, physical inactivity is an important component of worsening the patients' quality of life and contributes importantly to poor prognosis. Identifying the factors which prevent a patient with lung disease to easily carry out activities of daily living provides a unique as well as important perspective for the choice of the appropriate therapeutic strategy. PMID:23365738

  12. Sympathetic Activation is Associated with Exercise Limitation in COPD.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Helge; Folle, Jan; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Herrmann, Peter; Heusser, Karsten; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Andreas, Stefan; Raupach, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Exercise intolerance, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and reduced daily activity are central in COPD patients and closely related to quality of life and prognosis. Studies assessing muscle exercise have revealed an increase in sympathetic outflow as a link to muscle hypoperfusion and exercise limitation. Our primary hypothesis was that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) correlates with exercise limitation in COPD. MSNA was evaluated at rest and during dynamic or static handgrip exercise. Additionally, we assessed heart rate, blood pressure, CO2 tension, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and breathing frequency. Ergospirometry was performed to evaluate exercise capacity. We assessed MSNA of 14 COPD patients and 8 controls. In patients, MSNA was negatively correlated with peak oxygen uptake (VO2% pred) (r = -0.597; p = 0.040). During dynamic or static handgrip exercise, patients exhibited a significant increase in MSNA, which was not observed in the control group. The increase in MSNA during dynamic handgrip was highly negatively correlated with peak exercise capacity in Watts (w) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2/kg) (r = -0.853; p = 0.002 and r = -0.881; p = 0.002, respectively). Our study reveals an association between increased MSNA and limited exercise capacity in patients with COPD. Furthermore, we found an increased sympathetic response to moderate physical exercise (handgrip), which may contribute to exercise intolerance in COPD.

  13. Numerical Simulation of a Solar Active Region. I: Bastille Day Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Alain; Charbonneau, Paul; Dubé, Caroline

    2012-06-01

    We present three-dimensional unsteady modeling and numerical simulations of a coronal active region, carried out within the compressible single-fluid MHD approximation. We focus on AR 9077 on 14 July 2000, and the triggering of the X5.7 GOES X-ray class "Bastille Day" flare. We simulate only the lower corona, although we include a virtual photosphere and chromosphere below. The boundary conditions at the base of this layer are set using temperature maps from line intensities and line-of-sight magnetograms (SOHO/MDI). From the latter, we generate vector magnetograms using the force-free approximation; these vector magnetograms are then used to produce the boundary condition on the velocity field using a minimum energy principle (Longcope, Astrophys. J. 612, 1181, 2004). The reconnection process is modeled through a dynamical hyper-resistivity which is activated when the current exceeds a critical value (Klimas et al., J. Geophys. Res. 109, 2218, 2004). Comparing the time series of X-ray fluxes recorded by GOES with modeled time series of various mean physical variables such as current density, Poynting energy flux, or radiative loss inside the active region, we can demonstrate that the model properly captures the evolution of an active region over a day and, in particular, is able to explain the initiation of the flare at the observed time.

  14. Resistance Training Priming Activity Improves Upper-Body Power Output in Rugby Players: Implications for Game Day Performance.

    PubMed

    Mason, Billy R J; Argus, Christos K; Norcott, Ben; Ball, Nick B

    2017-04-01

    Mason, BRJ, Argus, CK, Norcott, B, and Ball, NB. Resistance training priming activity improves upper-body power output in rugby players: implications for game day performance. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 913-920, 2017-"Priming" or preactivation strategies performed in the hours leading into competition have been suggested to improve game day performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effectiveness of a resistance training priming activity on eliciting changes in lower- and upper-body power output, along with perceptual measures. To assess these changes, 13 state-level rugby players (aged 18.5 ± 0.5 years) completed a test-retest protocol using a counterbalanced crossover design. Perceptual (readiness to perform questionnaire) and performance measures (20-kg countermovement jump [CMJ], 20-kg bench throw) were completed before either a control (rest) or priming activity (4 sets of 3 banded back squats and banded bench press). After a 1-hour and 45-minute recovery period, perceptual and performance measures were repeated. Readiness to perform showed no meaningful differences pre- and postintervention. Bench throw peak power (8.5 ± 5.8%, 90% confidence limit; p ≤ 0.05) improved after the priming activity when compared with the control trial. Countermovement jump peak power (3.4 ± 4.9%; p > 0.05) had a small decrease after the priming activity when compared with the control trial. Therefore, completing a priming activity 1 hour and 45 minutes before competition is recommended to improve upper-body power output. However, further research into lower-body priming protocols should be conducted before implementing a lower-body priming activity before competition.

  15. An investigation of commitment among participants in an extended day physical activity program.

    PubMed

    Schilling, T A

    2001-12-01

    This study examined underserved youth participants' perceptions of commitment to an extended day physical activity program using Hellison's (1995) responsibility model. Seven participants ranging in age from 12 to 15 years participated in the study. Two personal interviews and a focus group interview were used to obtain participants' perceptions ofprogram commitment. Results revealed that program organization, personal characteristics, development of interpersonal relationships, and the program environment influenced their program commitment. Participants described the nature of commitment in terms of program behavior, emotional involvement, and program history. While the type of activity was cited as a positive influence on program commitment, the specific activity could also serve as a barrier to program commitment. Implications for program development andfuture research are offered.

  16. On Postoperative Day Balloon Angioplasty for Salvage of Newly-Placed, Flow-Limiting Native Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Young; Yoo, Chang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report result and usefulness of immediate postoperative balloon angioplasty of de novo arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with limited flow just after creation. Materials and Methods: From January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2014, 1,270 patients received native AVF creations in a single vascular clinic. In twenty-four patients (1.9% of total AVF creation), immediate postoperative balloon angioplasty was performed because of limited flow on palpation (only pulsation or no thrill) just after AVF creation. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively; technical success (restoration of AVF flow)/clinical success (growing as functional AVF) rate, maturation time, primary patency rate and fistula survival outcome were analyzed during a mean 10.8 months of follow-up. Results: Technical/clinical success rate was 95.8% (23/24 cases); AVF flow was restored after balloon angioplasty, and all the flow-restorated AVFs grew as functional AVFs with mean±standard deviation, 4.5±1.5 weeks of maturation time. In seven (30.4%) patients, a secondary balloon angioplasty was needed to enhance maturation. The overall primary patency after immediate postoperative balloon angioplasty was 69.6% at 1 and 6 months and 59.0% at 12 months. There was 1 complication (operation site hematoma). Conclusion: Immediate postoperative balloon angioplasty for salvage of newly-placed, flow-limiting native AVF is a useful, effective and safe procedure. PMID:26217640

  17. Home-Type Activities at the Day Care Center. (Tipos De Actividades Del Hogar En El Centro De Cuidado Diario.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, May; Moberg, Patricia E.

    This paper argues that home activities comprise a valuable unplanned curriculum and that many of these activities can be transferred to the day care center. It is suggested that these activities foster a closer relationship between child and caregiver and bridge the gap between familiar home environment and novel day care setting. Home activities…

  18. Tidal, daily, and lunar-day activity cycles in the marine polychaete Nereis virens.

    PubMed

    Last, Kim S; Bailhache, Thierry; Kramer, Cas; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; Rosato, Ezio; Olive, Peter J W

    2009-02-01

    The burrow emergence activity of the wild caught ragworm Nereis virens Sars associated with food prospecting was investigated under various photoperiodic (LD) and simulated tidal cycles (STC) using a laboratory based actograph. Just over half (57%) of the animals under LD with STC displayed significant tidal (approximately 12.4 h) and/or lunar-day (approximately 24.8 h) activity patterns. Under constant light (LL) plus a STC, 25% of all animals were tidal, while one animal responded with a circadian (24.2 h) activity rhythm suggestive of cross-modal entrainment where the environmental stimulus of one period entrains rhythmic behavior of a different period. All peaks of activity under a STC, apart from that of the individual cross-modal entrainment case, coincided with the period of tank flooding. Under only LD without a STC, 49% of the animals showed nocturnal (approximately 24 h) activity. When animals were maintained under free-running LL conditions, 15% displayed significant rhythmicity with circatidal and circadian/circalunidian periodicities. Although activity cycles in N. virens at the population level are robust, at the individual level they are particularly labile, suggesting complex biological clock-control with multiple clock output pathways.

  19. Effects of 14 days of spaceflight and nine days of recovery on cell body size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, A.; Ohira, Y.; Roy, R. R.; Nagaoka, S.; Sekiguchi, C.; Hinds, W. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    The cross-sectional areas and succinate dehydrogenase activities of L5 dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats were determined after 14 days of spaceflight and after nine days of recovery. The mean and distribution of the cross-sectional areas were similar to age-matched, ground-based controls for both the spaceflight and for the spaceflight plus recovery groups. The mean succinate dehydrogenase activity was significantly lower in spaceflight compared to aged-matched control rats, whereas the mean succinate dehydrogenase activity was similar in age-matched control and spaceflight plus recovery rats. The mean succinate dehydrogenase activity of neurons with cross-sectional areas between 1000 and 2000 microns2 was lower (between 7 and 10%) in both the spaceflight and the spaceflight plus recovery groups compared to the appropriate control groups. The reduction in the oxidative capacity of a subpopulation of sensory neurons having relatively large cross-sectional areas immediately following spaceflight and the sustained depression for nine days after returning to 1 g suggest that the 0 g environment induced significant alterations in proprioceptive function.

  20. The time of day differently influences fatigue and locomotor activity: is body temperature a key factor?

    PubMed

    Machado, Frederico Sander Mansur; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between exercise capacity and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) during the oscillation of core body temperature (Tb) that occurs during the light/dark cycle. Wistar rats (n=11) were kept at an animal facility under a light/dark cycle of 14/10h at an ambient temperature of 23°C and water and food ad libitum. Initially, in order to characterize the daily oscillation in SLA and Tb of the rats, these parameters were continuously recorded for 24h using an implantable telemetric sensor (G2 E-Mitter). The animals were randomly assigned to two progressive exercise test protocols until fatigue during the beginning of light and dark-phases. Fatigue was defined as the moment rats could not keep pace with the treadmill. We assessed the time to fatigue, workload and Tb changes induced by exercise. Each test was separated by 3days. Our results showed that exercise capacity and heat storage were higher during the light-phase (p<0.05). In contrast, we observed that both SLA and Tb were higher during the dark-phase (p<0.01). Notably, the correlation analysis between the amount of SLA and the running capacity observed at each phase of the daily cycle revealed that, regardless of the time of the day, both types of locomotor physical activity have an important inherent component (r=0.864 and r=0.784, respectively, p<0.01) without a direct relationship between them. This finding provides further support for the existence of specific control mechanisms for each type of physical activity. In conclusion, our data indicate that the relationship between the body temperature and different types of physical activity might be affected by the light/dark cycle. These results mean that, although exercise performance and spontaneous locomotor activity are not directly associated, both are strongly influenced by daily cycles of light and dark.

  1. Non-Gaussian limit fluctuations in active swimmer suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Takashi; Aridome, Msato; Ayade, Heev; Zaid, Irwin; Mizuno, Daisuke

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the hydrodynamic fluctuations in suspensions of swimming microorganisms (Chlamydomonas) by observing the probe particles dispersed in the media. Short-term fluctuations of probe particles were superdiffusive and displayed heavily tailed non-Gaussian distributions. The analytical theory that explains the observed distribution was derived by summing the power-law-decaying hydrodynamic interactions from spatially distributed field sources (here, swimming microorganisms). The summing procedure, which we refer to as the physical limit operation, is applicable to a variety of physical fluctuations to which the classical central limiting theory does not apply. Extending the analytical formula to compare to experiments in active swimmer suspensions, we show that the non-Gaussian shape of the observed distribution obeys the analytic theory concomitantly with independently determined parameters such as the strength of force generations and the concentration of Chlamydomonas. Time evolution of the distributions collapsed to a single master curve, except for their extreme tails, for which our theory presents a qualitative explanation. Investigations thereof and the complete agreement with theoretical predictions revealed broad applicability of the formula to dispersions of active sources of fluctuations.

  2. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression.

    PubMed

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-05-03

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients.

  3. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  4. Compensation for Adolescents’ School Mental Load by Physical Activity on Weekend Days

    PubMed Central

    Kudláček, Michal; Frömel, Karel; Jakubec, Lukáš; Groffik, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Increasing mental load and inadequate stress management significantly affect the efficiency, success and safety of the educational/working process in adolescents. The objective of this study is to determine the extent that adolescents compensate for their school mental load by physical activity (PA) on weekend days and, thus, to contribute to the objective measurement of mental load in natural working conditions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2013 and April 2014. A set of different methods was employed—self-administered questionnaire (IPAQ-long questionnaire), objective measurements—pedometers, and accelerometers (ActiTrainers). They was distributed to 548 students from 17 high schools. Participants’ mental load was assessed based on the difference between PA intensity and/or physical inactivity and heart rate range. Results: The participants with the highest mental load during school lessons do not compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. Conclusions: Adolescents need to be encouraged to be aware of their subjective mental load and to intentionally compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. It is necessary to support the process of adopting habits by sufficient physical literacy of students, as well as teachers, and by changes in the school program. PMID:27005652

  5. Automated, long-range, night/day, active-SWIR face recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoff, Brian E.; Martin, Robert B.; Sluch, Mikhail; Kafka, Kristopher M.; Dolby, Andrew; Ice, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Covert, long-range, night/day identification of stationary human subjects using face recognition has been previously demonstrated using the active-SWIR Tactical Imager for Night/Day Extended-Range Surveillance (TINDERS) system. TINDERS uses an invisible, eye-safe, SWIR laser illuminator to produce high-quality facial imagery under conditions ranging from bright sunlight to total darkness. The recent addition of automation software to TINDERS has enabled the autonomous identification of moving subjects at distances greater than 100 m. Unlike typical cooperative, short range face recognition scenarios, where positive identification requires only a single face image, the SWIR wavelength, long distance, and uncontrolled conditions mean that positive identification requires fusing the face matching results from multiple captured images of a single subject. Automation software is required to initially detect a person, lock on and track the person as they move, and select video frames containing high-quality frontal face images for processing. Fusion algorithms are required to combine the matching results from multiple frames to produce a high-confidence match. These automation functions will be described, and results showing automated identification of moving subjects, night and day, at multiple distances will be presented.

  6. Influence of 14-day hind limb unloading on isolated muscle spindle activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue Hong; Fan, Xiao Li; Song, Xin Ai; Wu, Su Di; Ren, Jun Chan; Chen, Ming Xia

    2010-09-01

    During hind limb unloading (HU), the soleus is often in a shortened position and the natural physiological stimulus of muscle spindles is altered, such that muscle spindle activity also changes. Using isolated spindle conditions, the present study investigates the electrophysiological activity and ultrastructure of muscle spindles following HU. Results show that muscle spindle discharges fall into either of two main patterns, single spikes or spike clusters in shortened positions, with a steady frequency of 18-38 spikes/s (mean 29.08 +/- 2.45) in an extended position. Following 14-day HU, afferent discharge activity was significantly altered in soleus muscle spindles. Duration of individual spikes was significantly prolonged, from 0.54 +/- 0.05 ms for control rats to 1.53 +/- 0.25 ms for rats in the HU group. In a shortened position, regular rhythm afferent discharges were obviously depressed, and the majority of muscle spindles became silent, while in an extended position, the discharges remained continuous but with decreased frequency. Results also show that the ultrastructure of muscle spindles experience degenerative changes during HU. Altered muscle spindle afference could possibly modify the activity of motor neurons and further affect the activity of extrafusal fibers.

  7. Perception and Intention in Relation to Engineering: A Gendered Study Based on a One-Day Outreach Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina-Gaudo, Pilar; Baldassarri, S.; Villarroya-Gaudo, M.; Cerezo, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores both how male and female high school pupils (15-16 years old) perceive the engineering profession and their willingness to pursue a career in this area. A study was performed around a one-day outreach activity, Girls' Day, organized for the first time in Spain. During Girls' Day, students were exposed to specific activities…

  8. Human endothelial dihydrofolate reductase low activity limits vascular tetrahydrobiopterin recycling.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Jennifer; Rangel Filho, Artur; Sethumadhavan, Savitha; Celinska, Joanna; Widlansky, Michael; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette

    2013-10-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH₄) is required for NO synthesis and inhibition of superoxide release from endothelial NO synthase. Clinical trials using BH₄ to treat endothelial dysfunction have produced mixed results. Poor outcomes may be explained by the rapid systemic and cellular oxidation of BH₄. One of the oxidation products of BH₄, 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (7,8-BH₂), is recycled back to BH₄ by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). This enzyme is ubiquitously distributed and shows a wide range of activity depending on species-specific factors and cell type. Information about the kinetics and efficiency of BH4 recycling in human endothelial cells receiving BH₄ treatment is lacking. To characterize this reaction, we applied a novel multielectrode coulometric HPLC method that enabled the direct quantification of 7,8-BH₂ and BH₄, which is not possible with fluorescence-based methodologies. We found that basal untreated BH₄ and 7,8-BH₂ concentrations in human endothelial cells (ECs) are lower than in bovine and murine endothelioma cells. Treatment of human ECs with BH₄ transiently increased intracellular BH₄ while accumulating the more stable 7,8-BH₂. This was different from bovine or murine ECs, which resulted in preferential BH₄ increase. Using BH₄ diastereomers, 6S-BH₄ and 6R-BH₄, the narrow contribution of enzymatic DHFR recycling to total intracellular BH₄ was demonstrated. Reduction of 7,8-BH₂ to BH₄ occurs at very slow rates in cells and needs supraphysiological levels of 7,8-BH₂, indicating this reaction is kinetically limited. Activity assays verified that human DHFR has very low affinity for 7,8-BH₂ (DHF7,8-BH₂) and folic acid inhibits 7,8-BH₂ recycling. We conclude that low activity of endothelial DHFR is an important factor limiting the benefits of BH4 therapies, which may be further aggravated by folate supplements.

  9. Quality of GOCE accelerometer data and analysis with ionospheric dynamics during geomagnetically active days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinem Ince, Elmas; Fomichev, Victor; Floberghagen, Rune; Schlicht, Anja; Martynenko, Oleg; Pagiatakis, Spiros

    2016-07-01

    The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) was launched in March, 2009 and completed its mission with great success in November, 2011. GOCE data processing is challenging and not all the disturbances are removed from the gravitational field observations. The disturbances observed in GOCE Vyy gradients around magnetic poles are investigated by using external datasets. It is found that the amplitude of these disturbances increase during geomagnetically active days and can reach up to 5 times the expected noise level of the gradiometer. ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) and Wind satellites measured electric field and interplanetary magnetic field components have shown that the disturbances observed in the polar regions agree with the increased solar activity. Moreover, equivalent ionospheric currents computed along ascending satellite tracks over North America and Greenland have shown a noticeable correlation with the cross-track and vertical currents and the pointing flux (ExB) components in the satellite cross track direction. Lastly, Canadian Ionosphere and Atmosphere Model (C-IAM) electric field and neutral wind simulations have shown a strong correlation of the enhancement in the ionospheric dynamics during geomagnetically active days and disturbances measured by the GOCE accelerometers over high latitudes. This may be a result of imperfect instrumentation and in-flight calibration of the GOCE accelerometers for an increased geomagnetic activity or a real disturbance on the accelerometers. We use above listed external datasets to understand the causes of the disturbances observed in gravity gradients and reduce/ eliminate them by using response analyses in frequency domain. Based on our test transfer functions, improvement is possible in the quality of the gradients. Moreover, this research also confirms that the accelerometer measurements can be useful to understand the ionospheric dynamics and space weather forecasting.

  10. Present-Day Seasonal Gully Activity in a South Polar Pit (Sisyphi Cavi) on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raack, Jan; Reiss, Dennis; Appéré, Thomas; Vincendon, Mathieu; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Hiesinger, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal activity of gullies under current climatic conditions on Mars was observed by [1-7]. Dundas et al. [2] reviewed the present-day activity of classical gullies (including the gully presented in this work), dune gullies, and other mass wasting processes in the southern hemisphere on Mars. Recent polar gullies in Sisyphi Cavi were also analyzed by [8], who estimated ages of about 20 ka to 20 Ma for the gullies. In this study we focus on a single gully in Sisyphi Cavi, located in the south polar region at 1.44° E and 68.54° S. The gully occurs on the gullied equator-facing slope of an isolated polar pit within an infilled impact crater. Multi-temporal high-resolution image data analyses show new deposits at the terminus of the gully channel and on the gully apron within spring (after solar longitudes of 236°) of martian years (MY) 29 and 31. In MY 29 deposition of material shortens the channel by about 40 m; in MY 31 a new deposit at the western flank of the gully apron with approximately 300-600 m3 of material is visible [3]. Our morphological investigations show that the identified new deposits were formed by dark flows through the entire gully deposited on top of the apron between LS ~218° and ~226°. Thermal data show a temperature increase between solar longitudes (LS) ~218° and ~226°. Near-infrared spectral data show relatively constant band strengths of CO2 ice and H2O ice in this time range. After the formation of the dark flows (after LS ~226°), temperatures increase rapidly from ~180 K to >~270 K at LS ~250°. At this time, spectral data indicate that all volatiles on the surface sublimated. However, an earlier beginning of sublimation when the dark flows were observed (between LS ~218° and ~226°) is likely, due to the fact that the instruments can only show the last phase of sublimation (decrease of volatile band strengths) [3]. Spectral modeling shows that from winter to mid-spring, the surface of the studied area is covered by CO2 slab

  11. Comparing effects of active and passive restoration on the Middle Fork John Day River, NE Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, P. F.; Goslin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, cattle grazing has been eliminated on over 14 km of the upper Middle Fork John Day. Starting in 2008, active restoration (log structures with dug pools, woody vegetation planting, and modifications to increase channel-floodplain hydrologic connectivity) was implemented on nearly 6 km within the cattle exclosure length. Implementation of active and passive restoration strategies in the same and adjacent reaches allows comparison of these two approaches. We have been monitoring these reaches since 2008. Unexpectedly in response to grazing exclosure, a native sedge, Carex nudata (torrent sedge), has exploded in population. C. nudata grows in the active channel, anchoring itself tightly to the gravel-cobble river bed with a dense root network. As a result, C. nudata has changed erosion and sedimentation patterns including bank erosion, channel bed scour, and island formation. We present data on fish cover increases due to C. nudata and log structures, and on channel complexity before and after restoration. Both active and passive restorations are increasing channel complexity and juvenile fish cover, although in different ways. Fish cover provided by active and passive restoration are similar in area but different in depth and position, with C. nudata fish cover generally shallower and partly mid-channel. Residual pool depth is larger in log structure pools than in C. nudata scour pools, but C. nudata pools are more numerous in some reaches. By producing frequent, small scour features and small islands, it can be argued that C. nudata is increasing hydraulic complexity more than the large, meander-bend pools at log structures, but this is hard to quantify. C. nudata has also stabilized active bars, perhaps changing the bedload sediment budget. Positive habitat benefits of active restoration appear to be greater in the short term, but over the long term (20 years or more) effects of C. nudata may be comparable or greater.

  12. Circadian Activators Are Expressed Days before They Initiate Clock Function in Late Pacemaker Neurons from Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianxin; Mahesh, Guruswamy; Houl, Jerry H; Hardin, Paul E

    2015-06-03

    Circadian pacemaker neurons in the Drosophila brain control daily rhythms in locomotor activity. These pacemaker neurons can be subdivided into early or late groups depending on whether rhythms in period (per) and timeless (tim) expression are initiated at the first instar (L1) larval stage or during metamorphosis, respectively. Because CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) heterodimers initiate circadian oscillator function by activating per and tim transcription, a Clk-GFP transgene was used to mark when late pacemaker neurons begin to develop. We were surprised to see that CLK-GFP was already expressed in four of five clusters of late pacemaker neurons during the third instar (L3) larval stage. CLK-GFP is only detected in postmitotic neurons from L3 larvae, suggesting that these four late pacemaker neuron clusters are formed before the L3 larval stage. A GFP-cyc transgene was used to show that CYC, like CLK, is also expressed exclusively in pacemaker neurons from L3 larval brains, demonstrating that CLK-CYC is not sufficient to activate per and tim in late pacemaker neurons at the L3 larval stage. These results suggest that most late pacemaker neurons develop days before novel factors activate circadian oscillator function during metamorphosis.

  13. 77 FR 15003 - Passive Activity Losses and Credits Limited; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... definition of an ``interest in a limited partnership as a limited partner'' for purposes of determining.... These proposed regulations affect individuals who are partners in partnerships. DATES: The...

  14. Limits of state activity in the interstate water market

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    In an effort to ensure future water supplies, many western states are becoming participants in the market for water. As market participants, states gain a proprietary interest in their water resources which more effectively secures their right to the water than mere regulation or claims of ownership under the public trust doctrine. As the author points out, however, the constitution imposes numerous limitations on state water market activity. The privileges and immunities clause, the commerce clause, the property clause, as well as the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment, all influence the manner in which states may behave. Most significantly, the author explains, these clauses prevent states from using their power as water market participants as a disguise for economic protectionism.

  15. Water Activity Limits the Hygroscopic Growth Factor of Organic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, L. I.; Cabrera, J. A.; Golden, D.; Tabazadeh, A.

    2007-12-01

    In this work we study the hygroscopic behavior of organic aerosols, which has important implications for Earth's climate. The hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) is defined as the ratio of the diameter of a spherical particle when it is exposed to dry conditions to that at humid conditions. We present a new formulation to express the HGF of an aerosol particle as a function of water activity (aw) in the aqueous phase. This new formulation matches reported HGFs for common inorganic salts and water-miscible organic particles that are known to deliquesce into aqueous drops at high relative humidities (RH). Many studies use tandem differential mobility analyzers (TDMA) to determine the HGF of organic aerosols. For example, Brooks et al. used a TDMA to measure a HGF of 1.2 for 2 μm phthalic acid (PA) particles at 90% RH (aw= 0.9). However, water activity limits the growth of a particle that can be attributed to water uptake. We have assembled a vapor pressure apparatus to measure aw of aqueous solutions at room temperature. Measured water activities for PA, used in our growth formulation, yield a HGF of ~ 1.0005 for 2 μm PA particles at 90% RH. Comparing our results against Brooks et al. suggests that TDMA experiments may grossly overestimate the HGF of PA particles since water activity limits this growth to below 1.0005. Alternatively, we suggest that the adsorption of a negligible mass of water by a highly porous PA particle can lead to an apparent growth in particle size by changing its morphology. Other studies also use TDMAs to measure HGFs of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). HGFs reported for SOAs are very similar to PA, suggesting that the observed growth may be due to morphological changes in particle size rather than water uptake as commonly assumed. We built a smog chamber where an organic precursor, such as d-limonene, reacts with nitrogen oxides under UV radiation to produce SOAs. We compare the HGFs for SOAs obtained with our method to those obtained with

  16. 20 CFR 404.1321 - Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1321 - Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1321 - Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1321 - Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1321 - Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity with Hip Accelerometry among U.S. Older Adults: How Many Days Are Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Dale, William; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Waite, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Accelerometers are increasingly used in research. Four to 7 days of monitoring is preferred to estimate average activity but may be burdensome for older adults. We aimed to investigate: 1) 7-day accelerometry protocol adherence, 2) demographic predictors of adherence, 3) day of the week effect, and 4) average activity calculated from 7 versus fewer days among older adults. Methods We used the 2003–2006 older adult hip accelerometry data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) sample. We determined proportions with 1–7 valid (10–20 hours) wear days and identified wear day correlates using ordinal logistic regression. We determined the day of week effect on 5 accelerometry measures (counts per minute, CPM; % sedentary behavior; % light-lifestyle activity; % moderate-vigorous activity, MVPA; total activity counts) using multivariate linear regression and compared averages estimated over 2 or 3 versus 7 days using correlations, linear regression, and Bland-Altman plots. Results Among 2,208 participants aged 65+, 85% of participants had ≥2 and 44% had 7 valid wear days. Increasing age (p = 0.01) and non-white race (p < 0.001) were associated with fewer days. Daily CPM, % MVPA, and total daily activity counts were similar Monday through Saturday, but significantly lower on Sundays (p < 0.001). Daily % sedentary behavior and % light-lifestyle activity were significantly different on Saturdays (p = 0.04–0.045) and Sundays (p < 0.001) compared to weekdays. Among participants with 7 valid days, 2 or 3 day averages were highly correlated with 7 day averages for all 5 accelerometry measures (2 versus 7 days: r = 0.90–0.93, 3 versus 7 days: r = 0.94–0.96). Conclusions Protocols of 2–3 days, adjusting for Sundays (average CPM, % moderate-vigorous activity, and average total daily activity counts) or weekends (% sedentary behavior and % light-lifestyle activity), give reliable estimates of older adult activity. PMID:28081249

  2. The "wind of 120 days" and dust storm activity over the Sistan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, O.; Zawar-Reza, P.; Sturman, A.

    2014-06-01

    Mesoscale features play a critical role in creating the strong "wind of 120 days" common in eastern Iran and western Afghanistan. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model is used with the available observations to investigate the "wind of 120 days", dust storm activity over the Sistan Basin, and major sources of dust influencing Iran. The winds are strong from mid-May to mid-September when a persistent high-pressure system over the high mountains of the Hindu Kush in northern Afghanistan, combined with a summertime thermal low over desert lands of eastern Iran and western Afghanistan, produce a strong pressure gradient. The winds become accelerated by the channeling effect of the surrounding orography. A northerly low level jet (LLJ) along the Iran-Afghanistan border has a peak at 300-500 m and is strongest in July with the nighttime monthly averaged wind speed of 20 m s- 1, and extends across a broad latitudinal area along the Iran-Afghanistan border. The strong near-surface wind speed along with the LLJ results in substantial dust emission from the Sistan Basin and subsequent long-range meridional transport. Dried Hamoun Lake in the Sistan Basin contains large amounts of erodible sediment that is required for dust entrainment. The LLJ is persistent throughout the night, but is weakened during the day. A pronounced diurnal cycle in the near-surface wind speed has been identified with a peak in the mid-morning in association with momentum transfer from the jet level down to the surface as the daytime mixed layer evolves.

  3. Engaging Youth in Climate Change Issues with Family Science Day Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Corinne E.; Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua J.

    2016-04-01

    Dickinson State University organizes four Family Science Day events each fall during the months of September, October, November, and December. Activities are geared toward elementary-aged children to increase student engagement in the sciences. Offered on Saturday afternoons, each event focuses on a different science-related theme. Families can attend these events free of charge, and the kids participate in a large variety of hands-on activities that center around the event's theme. This year, the November event focused on climate change, including an emphasis on the roles soil plays in the climate system. The timing of this topic was carefully chosen. 2015 has been declared the International Year of Soil by the United Nations, and the Soil Science Society of America theme for the month of November was Soils and Climate. This public outreach event was an amazing opportunity to help the youth in our community learn about climate change in a fun, interactive environment. Climate changes in the past, present, and future were emphasized. Activities including the Farming Game, painting with soils, taking Jello "cores", creating a cloud in a jar, and making a glacier in a bag helped children learn how science is a process of discovery that allows them to better understand the world they live in. In addition to the hands-on activities, a planetarium show focused on climate change was also offered during the event, surrounding the kids and their parents in a fully immersive, 360-degree show that allowed them to personally observe phenomena that are otherwise difficult to visualize. All of the activities at the Family Science Day event were staffed by university students, and this proved to be a very valuable experience for them as well. Some of the students who helped are majoring in a science field, and for them, the experience taught public communication. They learned to break complicated concepts down into simpler terms that young kids could understand. Education

  4. Increased Brain Activation for Dual Tasking with 70-Days Head-Down Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Peng; Koppelmans, Vincent; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; De Dios, Yiri E.; Gadd, Nichole E.; Wood, Scott J.; Riascos, Roy; Kofman, Igor S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2016-01-01

    Head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) has been used as a spaceflight analog to simulate the effects of microgravity exposure on human physiology, sensorimotor function, and cognition on Earth. Previous studies have reported that concurrent performance of motor and cognitive tasks can be impaired during space missions. Understanding the consequences of HDBR for neural control of dual tasking may possibly provide insight into neural efficiency during spaceflight. In the current study, we evaluated how dual task performance and the underlying brain activation changed as a function of HDBR. Eighteen healthy men participated in this study. They remained continuously in the 6° head-down tilt position for 70 days. Functional MRI for bimanual finger tapping was acquired during both single task and dual task conditions, and repeated at 7 time points pre-, during- and post-HDBR. Another 12 healthy males participated as controls who did not undergo HDBR. A widely distributed network involving the frontal, parietal, cingulate, temporal, and occipital cortices exhibited increased activation for dual tasking and increased activation differences between dual and single task conditions during HDBR relative to pre- or post-HDBR. This HDBR-related brain activation increase for dual tasking implies that more neurocognitive control is needed for dual task execution during HDBR compared to pre- and post-HDBR. We observed a positive correlation between pre-to-post HDBR changes in dual-task cost of reaction time and pre-to-post HDBR change in dual-task cost of brain activation in several cerebral and cerebellar regions. These findings could be predictive of changes in dual task processing during spaceflight. PMID:27601982

  5. Endothelial human dihydrofolate reductase low activity limits vascular tetrahydrobiopterin recycling

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jennifer; Filho, Artur Rangel; Sethumadhavan, Savitha; Celinska, Joanna; Widlansky, Michael; Vásquez-Vivar, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is required for NO synthesis and inhibition of superoxide release from eNOS. Clinical trials using BH4 to treat endothelial dysfunction have produced mixed results. Poor outcomes may be explained by the rapid systemic and cellular oxidation of BH4. One of the oxidation products of BH4, 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (7,8-BH2), is recycled back to BH4 by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). This enzyme is ubiquitously distributed and shows a wide range of activity depending on species-specific factors and cell type. Information about the kinetics and efficiency of BH4 recycling in human endothelial cells receiving BH4 treatment is lacking. To characterize this reaction, we applied a novel multi-electrode coulometric HPLC method that enabled the direct quantification of 7,8-BH2 and BH4 which is not possible with fluorescent-based methodologies. We found that basal untreated BH4 and 7,8-BH2 concentrations in human ECs is lower than bovine and murine endothelioma cells. Treatment of human ECs with BH4 transiently increased intracellular BH4 while accumulating the more stable 7,8-BH2. This was different from bovine or murine ECs that resulted in preferential BH4 increase. Using BH4 diastereomers, 6S-BH4 and 6R-BH4, the narrow contribution of enzymatic DHFR recycling to total intracellular BH4 was demonstrated. Reduction of 7,8-BH2 to BH4 occurs at very slow rates in cells and needs supra-physiological levels of 7,8-BH2, indicating this reaction is kinetically limited. Activity assays verified that hDHFR has very low affinity for 7,8-BH2 (DHF7,8-BH2) and folic acid inhibits 7,8-BH2 recycling. We conclude that low activity of endothelial DHFR is an important factor limiting the benefits of BH4 therapies which may be further aggravated by folate supplements. PMID:23707606

  6. Day By Day in English: An ESL-SEDAC Daily Living Skills Resource Activities Guide. Final Edition and Resource Activities Packet, Final Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The guide provides daily living experiences built around topics of interest to limited English speaking students in special education programs. Units are organized around eight themes: (1) at school; (2) living at home; (3) community, communication, and travel; (4) clothing and seasons; (5) shopping and food; (6) health, hygiene, and safety; (7)…

  7. Activities in the MOCR last day after the landing of the STS-5 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Activities in the mission operations control room (MOCR) during the last day after the landing of the STS-5 mission. The former and present director of JSC share congratulations at the successful landing of the STS-5 mission. The two men are former Director Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., left, and Gerald D. Griffin, present director. Most of the men to serve the STS-5 mission as flight directors are in the background (39787); Director Griffin applauds the successful completion of the STS-5 mission near the Flight Director's console in the mission operations control room (MOCR) at JSC's mission control center. Personnel from the spacecraft communicators console, flight operations directorate and other stations in the MOCR are seen celebrating in the background (39788); Spacecraft communicators (CAPCOM) in the MOCR view landing of the Columbia on a large screen. Seated at the CAPCOM console is Astronaut Robert L. Stewart. Astronaut Roy D. Bridges is standing (39789).

  8. Physical Activity and Falls in Older Men: The Critical Role of Mobility Limitations

    PubMed Central

    JEFFERIS, BARBARA J.; MEROM, DAFNA; SARTINI, CLAUDIO; WANNAMETHEE, S. GOYA; ASH, SARAH; LENNON, LUCY T.; ILIFFE, STEVE; KENDRICK, DENISE; WHINCUP, PETER H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Physical activity (PA) has many health benefits but may increase falls risk among older adults. We study how objectively measured habitual daily PA is related to falls by exploring the modifying effect of mobility limitations and the mediating roles of fitness and lower-limb strength. Methods One thousand six hundred fifty-five (53%) of 3137 surviving participants (men age 71–91 yr) in an ongoing UK-population-based cohort study wore an ActiGraph GT3x accelerometer over the hip for 1 wk in 2010–2012 to measure PA (exposure) and reported demographic and health status, including mobility limitations. One year later, 825 men reported falls history (outcome). Results Seven hundred of 825 men had ≥600 min·d−1 of accelerometer wear for ≥3 d. Nineteen percent (n = 128) reported falls 1 yr later. Associations between PA and falls differed by presence of mobility limitations. Among 66% (n = 471) of men without mobility limitations, number of falls increased incrementally (for every 30 min of moderate to vigorous PA [MVPA]: incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–2.03, adjusted for falls risk factors). Step count was not related to number of falls below 9000 steps per day but was related to number of falls ≥9000 steps per day (for every additional 1000 steps per day: IRR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.16–2.18). Among 33% (n = 229) of men with mobility limitations, falls risk declined with increasing activity (for every 1000 steps per day: IRR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70–0.91; for every 30 min of MVPA: IRR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42–0.89; for every additional 30 min of sedentary behavior ≥600 min·d−1: IRR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.07–1.40). Conclusions Interventions to promote MVPA in older men should incorporate falls prevention strategies. Among adults with mobility limitations, trials should investigate whether increasing MVPA levels can reduce falls risk. PMID:25668406

  9. A New Calibrated Sunspot Group Series Since 1749: Statistics of Active Day Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Lockwood, M.; Mursula, K.; Owens, M.; Solanki, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    Although sunspot-number series have existed since the mid-nineteenth century, they are still the subject of intense debate, with the largest uncertainty being related to the "calibration" of the visual acuity of individual observers in the past. A daisy-chain regression method is usually applied to inter-calibrate the observers, which may lead to significant bias and error accumulation. Here we present a novel method for calibrating the visual acuity of the key observers to the reference data set of Royal Greenwich Observatory sunspot groups for the period 1900 - 1976, using the statistics of the active-day fraction. For each observer we independently evaluate their observational thresholds [SS] defined such that the observer is assumed to miss all of the groups with an area smaller than SS and report all the groups larger than SS. Next, using a Monte-Carlo method, we construct a correction matrix for each observer from the reference data set. The correction matrices are significantly non-linear and cannot be approximated by a linear regression or proportionality. We emphasize that corrections based on a linear proportionality between annually averaged data lead to serious biases and distortions of the data. The correction matrices are applied to the original sunspot-group records reported by the observers for each day, and finally the composite corrected series is produced for the period since 1748. The corrected series is provided as supplementary material in electronic form and displays secular minima around 1800 (Dalton Minimum) and 1900 (Gleissberg Minimum), as well as the Modern Grand Maximum of activity in the second half of the twentieth century. The uniqueness of the grand maximum is confirmed for the last 250 years. We show that the adoption of a linear relationship between the data of Wolf and Wolfer results in grossly inflated group numbers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in some reconstructions.

  10. Neutron activation analysis detection limits using {sup 252}Cf sources

    SciTech Connect

    DiPrete, D.P.; Sigg, R.A.

    2000-07-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) developed a neutron activation analysis (NAA) facility several decades ago using low-flux {sup 252}Cf neutron sources. Through this time, the facility has addressed areas of applied interest in managing the Savannah River Site (SRS). Some applications are unique because of the site's operating history and its chemical-processing facilities. Because sensitivity needs for many applications are not severe, they can be accomplished using an {approximately}6-mg {sup 252}Cf NAA facility. The SRTC {sup 252}Cf facility continues to support applied research programs at SRTC as well as other SRS programs for environmental and waste management customers. Samples analyzed by NAA include organic compounds, metal alloys, sediments, site process solutions, and many other materials. Numerous radiochemical analyses also rely on the facility for production of short-lived tracers, yielding by activation of carriers and small-scale isotope production for separation methods testing. These applications are more fully reviewed in Ref. 1. Although the flux [{approximately}2 x 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s] is low relative to reactor facilities, more than 40 elements can be detected at low and sub-part-per-million levels. Detection limits provided by the facility are adequate for many analytical projects. Other multielement analysis methods, particularly inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, can now provide sensitivities on dissolved samples that are often better than those available by NAA using low-flux isotopic sources. Because NAA allows analysis of bulk samples, (a) it is a more cost-effective choice when its sensitivity is adequate than methods that require digestion and (b) it eliminates uncertainties that can be introduced by digestion processes.

  11. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy.

  12. Limited recovery of soil microbial activity after transient exposure to gasoline vapors.

    PubMed

    Modrzyński, Jakub J; Christensen, Jan H; Mayer, Philipp; Brandt, Kristian K

    2016-09-01

    During gasoline spills complex mixtures of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released to terrestrial environments. Gasoline VOCs exert baseline toxicity (narcosis) and may thus broadly affect soil biota. We assessed the functional resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery of microbial functions) in soil microbial communities transiently exposed to gasoline vapors by passive dosing via headspace for 40 days followed by a recovery phase of 84 days. Chemical exposure was characterized with GC-MS, whereas microbial activity was monitored as soil respiration (CO2 release) and soil bacterial growth ([(3)H]leucine incorporation). Microbial activity was strongly stimulated and inhibited at low and high exposure levels, respectively. Microbial growth efficiency decreased with increasing exposure, but rebounded during the recovery phase for low-dose treatments. Although benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) concentrations decreased by 83-97% during the recovery phase, microbial activity in high-dose treatments did not recover and numbers of viable bacteria were 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than in control soil. Re-inoculation with active soil microorganisms failed to restore microbial activity indicating residual soil toxicity, which could not be attributed to BTEX, but rather to mixture toxicity of more persistent gasoline constituents or degradation products. Our results indicate a limited potential for functional recovery of soil microbial communities after transient exposure to high, but environmentally relevant, levels of gasoline VOCs which therefore may compromise ecosystem services provided by microorganisms even after extensive soil VOC dissipation.

  13. Short communication: Reference limits for blood analytes in Holstein late-pregnant heifers and dry cows: Effects of parity, days relative to calving, and season.

    PubMed

    Brscic, M; Cozzi, G; Lora, I; Stefani, A L; Contiero, B; Ravarotto, L; Gottardo, F

    2015-11-01

    Reference limits for metabolic profiles in Holstein late-pregnant heifers and dry cows were determined considering the effects of parity, days relative to calving, and season. Blood samples were collected from 104 pregnant heifers and 186 dry cows (68 primiparous and 118 pluriparous) from 60 to 10 d before the expected calving date in 31 dairy farms in northeastern Italy. Sampling was performed during summer (182 samples) and the following winter (108 samples). All the animals were judged as clinically healthy at a veterinary visit before sampling. Outliers were removed from data of each blood analyte, and variables that were not normally distributed were log transformed. A mixed model was used to test the fixed effects of parity (late-pregnant heifers, primiparous or pluriparous dry cows), class of days relative to calving (60-41 d, 40-21 d, 20-10 d), season (summer or winter), and the interactions between parity and class of days relative to calving and between parity and season, with farm as random effect. Single general reference limits and 95% confidence intervals were generated for analytes that did not vary according to fixed effects. Whenever a fixed effect included in the model significantly affected a given analyte, specific reference limits and 95% confidence intervals were generated for each of its levels. Albumin, urea, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine kinase, conjugated bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, chloride, zinc, copper, and iron concentrations were not influenced by any of the fixed effects. Total protein, globulins, creatinine, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and sodium plasma concentrations were affected by parity. The class of days relative to calving had a significant effect on the concentrations of total protein, globulins, fatty acids, cholesterol, total bilirubin, and sodium. Season affected plasma concentrations of

  14. Impaired voluntary neuromuscular activation limits muscle power in mobility-limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Age-related alterations of neuromuscular activation may contribute to deficits in muscle power and mobility function. This study assesses whether impaired activation of the agonist quadriceps and antagonist hamstrings, including amplitude- and velocity-dependent characteristics of activa...

  15. Materials characterization activities for %E2%80%9CTake Our Sons&Daughters to Work Day%E2%80%9D 2013.

    SciTech Connect

    Mowry, Curtis Dale; Pimentel, Adam S.; Sparks, Elizabeth Schares; Hanlon, Brittany Paula

    2013-09-01

    We created interactive demonstration activities for Take Our Daughters&Sons to Work Day (TODSTWD) 2013 in order to promote general interest in chemistry and also generate awareness of the type of work our laboratories can perform. %E2%80%9CCurious about Mars Rover Curiosity?%E2%80%9D performed an elemental analysis on rocks brought to our lab using the same technique utilized on the planet Mars by the NASA robotic explorer Curiosity. %E2%80%9CFood is Chemistry?%E2%80%9D utilized a mass spectrometer to measure, in seconds, each participant's breath in order to identify the food item consumed for the activity. A total of over 130 children participated in these activities over a 3 hour block, and feedback was positive. This document reports the materials (including handouts), experimental procedures, and lessons learned so that future demonstrations can benefit from the baseline work performed. We also present example results used to prepare the Food activity and example results collected during the Curiosity demo.

  16. VARIABILITY IN THE PREWEANLING ONTOGENY OF MOTOR ACTIVITY IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF DEVICE, TEST DAY, AND RAT SUPPLIER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current developmental neurotoxicity testing guidelines include evaluation of preweanling motor activity in rats. The ontogeny of activity levels as well as within-session habituation may be measured by repeatedly testing subjects at specific days of age. Activity levels are i...

  17. First year physical activity findings from turn up the HEAT (Healthy Eating and Activity Time) in summer day camps

    PubMed Central

    Brazendale, Keith; Chandler, Jessica L.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Moore, Justin B.; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Beets, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Summer day camps (SDCs) serve 14 million children yearly in the U.S. and aim to provide participating children with 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study evaluated an intervention designed to increase the percent of children meeting this MVPA guideline. Design Two-group, pre-post quasi-experimental. Setting/Participants Twenty SDCs serving 1,830 children aged 5–12 years were assigned to MVPA intervention (n = 10) or healthy eating attention control (n = 10). Intervention The STEPs (Strategies to Enhance Practice) intervention is a capacity-building approach grounded in the Theory of Expanded, Extended and Enhanced Opportunities. Camp leaders and staff receive training to expand (e.g., introduction of activity breaks/active field trips), extend (e.g., schedule minimum of 3 hours/day for PA opportunities), and enhance (e.g., maximize MVPA children accumulate during schedule activity) activity opportunities. Camps in the comparison condition received support for improving the types of foods/beverages served. Main outcome measures Percent of children accumulating the 60min/d MVPA guideline at baseline (summer 2015) and post-test (summer 2016) measured via wrist-accelerometry. Results Multilevel logistic regression conducted fall 2016 indicated boys and girls attending intervention SDCs were 2.04 (95CI = 1.10,3.78) and 3.84 (95CI = 2.02,7.33) times more likely to meet the 60min/d guideline compared to boys and girls attending control SDCs, respectively. This corresponded to increases of +10.6% (78–89%) and +12.6% (69–82%) in the percentage of boys and girls meeting the guideline in intervention SDCs, respectively. Boys in comparison SDCs increased by +1.6% (81–83%) and girls decreased by -5.5% (76–71%). Process data indicated intervention SDCs successfully extended and enhanced PA opportunities, but were unable to expand PA opportunities, compared to control SDCs. Conclusions Although substantial proportions of

  18. Older Adults with Diabetes and Osteoarthritis and Their Spouses: Effects of Activity Limitations, Marital Happiness, and Social Contacts on Partners' Daily Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Susanne Olsen; Yorgason, Jeremy B.

    2009-01-01

    Using daily diary data from 28 later life couples where one spouse had diabetes and osteoarthritis, we examined crossover effects of target spouses' daily activity limitations and their partners' daily mood. On days when target spouses' daily activity limitations were higher than average, partners' positive mood decreased and negative mood…

  19. MOCR activity during Day One of the STS-2 mission scrub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) activity during Day One of the STS-2 mission scrub. Photos include Astronaut Robert L. Crippen, STS-1 pilot, talking with Edgar L. harkelroad of NASA headquarters launch and landing systems group at the NASA-Headquarters console in Mission Control Center while awaiting final word on launch reschedule (39400); Johnson Space Center Director Dr. Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., far left, discusses launch delay with flight controllers on the first row of consoles in mission operations control room for STS-2 (39401); Dr. Hans Mark, Deputy Adminstrator for the NASA, listens to audio feed from the Kennedy Space Center for the latest information on the status of STS-2. Also pictured are John B. MacLeod of the Operational Planning Office in the Space Shuttle Program Office and Arnold D. Aldrich, Manager of the Orbiter Avionics Systems Office for JSC (39402); Flight Director Neil D. Hutchinson is pictured at his console in Mission Control just prior to an Officia

  20. Shift workers have similar leisure-time physical activity levels as day workers but are more sedentary at work.

    PubMed

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Gupta, Nidhi; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-03-01

    Objective Physical inactivity has been hypothesized as an underlying factor for the association between shift work and adverse health outcomes. We compared leisure-time and occupational physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Methods We identified 612 day workers, 139 night shift workers and 61 non-night shift workers aged 18-65 years (54% men) in two Danish studies: the New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD) and the Danish Physical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto) between 2011-2013. Sedentary behavior, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. Physical activity was expressed as percentage of leisure and work time spent in each activity. Linear regression analyses were used to test differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Results No differences in leisure-time sedentary behavior and physical activity were observed between day and shift workers (P>0.05). Non-night shift workers spent 7.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.3-12.1) more time in occupational sedentary behavior than day workers and 5.9% (95% CI -10.1- -1.7) and 1.9% (95% CI -3.7- -0.2) less time in occupational light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. Compared to day workers, night shift workers spent 4.3% (95% CI 2.4-6.1) more time at work in uninterrupted sedentary periods of ≥30 minutes. Conclusions Shift workers had similar leisure-time physical activity patterns as day workers, but were more sedentary at work. Future research should elucidate whether occupational physical inactivity and sedentary behavior contributes to shift work-related adverse health effects.

  1. Measuring Physical Activity with Pedometers in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Reactivity and Number of Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa; Van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen

    2012-01-01

    The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate valid average weekly step counts and reactivity was investigated for older adults with intellectual disability. Participants (N = 268) with borderline to severe intellectual disability ages 50 years and older were instructed to wear a pedometer for 14 days. The outcome measure…

  2. [Validity of the 24-h previous day physical activity recall (PDPAR-24) in Spanish adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cancela, José María; Lago, Joaquín; Ouviña, Lara; Ayán, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: El control del nivel de práctica de actividad física que realizan los adolescentes, de sus factores determinantes y susceptibilidad al cambio resulta indispensable para intervenir sobre la epidemia de obesidad que afecta a la sociedad española. Sin embargo, el número de cuestionarios validados para valorar la actividad física en adolescentes españoles es escaso. Objetivos: Evaluar la validez del cuestionario24hPrevious Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR-24) cuando es aplicado a la población de adolescentes españoles. Método: Participaron en este estudio estudiantes de 14-15 años de dos centros de educación secundaria del norte de Galicia. Como criterio objetivo de la actividad física realizada se utilizó el registro proporcionado por el acelerómetro Actigraph GT3X.Se monitorizó a los sujetos durante un día por medio del acelerómetro y al día siguiente se administró el cuestionario de auto-informe. Resultados: Un total de 79 alumnos (15.16 ± 0.81 años, 39% mujeres) finalizaron el estudio. Se observan correlaciones positivas estadísticamente significativas de tamaño medio a grande en ambos sexos (r=0.50-0.98), para la actividad física ligera y moderada. Las correlaciones observadas son más elevadas a medida que aumenta la intensidad de la actividad física realizada. Conclusiones: El cuestionario de auto-informe PDPAR-24 puede ser considerado como una herramienta válida a la hora de valorar el nivel de actividad física en adolescentes españoles.

  3. Large-Scale Activity in the Bastille Day 2000 Solar Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, I. M.; Grechnev, V. V.

    2005-06-01

    considered dimming manifestations in all four EIT pass bands of 171, 195, 284, and 304 Å as well as the light curves of the main dimmings including several later images at 195 Å. Our analysis shows that the major cause of the dimmings was density depletion that reached up to 30% in this event. The picture of dimmings implies that the CME in the Bastille Day event was an octopus-like bundle of some magnetic ropes, with the ‘arms’ being connected to several active regions disposed over almost the whole visible solar surface.

  4. Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days: educational activities on pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Squassina, Alessio; Severino, Giovanni; Grech, Godfrey; Fenech, Anthony; Borg, Joseph; Patrinos, George P

    2012-04-01

    The Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days are high-profile international educational scientific meetings discussing pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. Here, we provide an overview of the scientific lectures and the topics discussed during the 4th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day, held in Cagliari, Italy, on 7 October 2011, and the 5th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day, that was held in Msida, Malta, on 3 December 2011. The scientific programs of both events included scientific and company lectures on pharmacogenomics, bioinformatics and personalized medicine by local and international speakers from Europe and the USA.

  5. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  6. A First-Day "Realia" Activity: "Was ist in dem Umschlag?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornstad, Jennifer I.

    2004-01-01

    The first day of class is in many ways the most important one of the term. Students come into the classroom alert to everything around them, eager to piece together clues that will answer their ill-defined yet urgent question: "What is this course going to be like?" What teachers say and do on the first day of class is crucial, creating a first…

  7. LIMITED-USE CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING FOR EPA SUPERFUND ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because contractor field personnel complained about the poor durability and fit of limited-use chemical protective clothing (CPC) most commonly used at hazardous waste site operations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a study to • characterize use of CPC...

  8. 76 FR 72875 - Passive Activity Losses and Credits Limited

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... are partners in partnerships. DATES: Written or electronic comments and requests for a public hearing... partnership as a limited partner shall be treated as an interest with respect to which a taxpayer materially... partner in the partnership at all times during the partnership's taxable year ending with or within...

  9. Bion M1. Peculiarities of life activities of microbes in 30-day spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis; Morozova, Julia; Voeikova, Tatiana; Tyaglov, Boris; Novikova, Liudmila; Krestyanova, Irina; Emelyanova, Lydia

    The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of space flight factors ( SFF) to microorganism strains , exposed inside unmanned spacecraft Bion M-1 during the 30- day space flight. Objectives of the work - the study of the influence of the SFF exchange chromosomal DNA in crosses microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces; the level of spontaneous phage induction of lysogenic strains fS31 from Streptomyces lividans 66 and Streptomyces coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) on the biosynthesis of the antibiotic tylosin strain of Streptomyces fradiae; survival electrogenic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR- 1 is used in the microbial fuel cell As a result of this work it was found that the SFF affect the exchange of chromosomal DNA by crossing strains of Streptomyces. Was detected polarity crossing , expressed in an advantageous contribution chromosome fragment of one of the parent strains in recombinant offspring. This fact may indicate a more prolonged exposure of cells in microgravity and , as a consequence, the transfer of longer fragments of chromosomal DNA This feature is the transfer of genetic material in microgravity could lead to wider dissemination and horizontal transfer of chromosomal and plasmid DNA of symbiotic microflora astronauts and other strains present in the spacecraft. It was shown no effect on the frequency of recombination PCF and the level of mutation model reversion of auxotrophic markers to prototrophy It was demonstrated that PCF increase the level of induction of cell actinophage fS31 lysogenic strain of S. lividans 66, but did not affect the level of induction of this phage cells S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). It is shown that the lower the level of synthesis PCF antibiotic aktinorodina (actinorhodin) in lysogenic strain S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). 66 Strains of S. lividans and S. coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) can be used as a biosensor for studying the effect on microorganisms PCF It is shown that the effect of the PCF reduces synthesis of tylosin and desmicosyn S. fradiae at

  10. Capitol Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman visits with Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour during NASA Day at the Capitol activities on Feb. 19. During the visit, Goldman presented the governor with a model of the J-2X rocket engine currently in development. Stennis engineers did early component testing for the new engine.

  11. Positive affect and pain: mediators of the within-day relation linking sleep quality to activity interference in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Dhwani J; Davis, Mary C; Yeung, Ellen W; Tennen, Howard A

    2015-03-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition often resulting in functional impairments. Nonrestorative sleep is a prominent symptom of FM that is related to disability, but the day-to-day mechanisms relating the prior night's sleep quality to next-day reports of disability have not been examined. This study examined the within-day relations among early-morning reports of sleep quality last night, late-morning reports of pain and positive and negative affect, and end-of-day reports of activity interference. Specifically, we tested whether pain, positive affect, and negative affect mediated the association between sleep quality and subsequent activity interference. Data were drawn from electronic diary reports collected from 220 patients with FM for 21 consecutive days. The direct and mediated effects at the within-person level were estimated with multilevel structural equation modeling. Results showed that pain and positive affect mediated the relation between sleep quality and activity interference. Early-morning reports of poor sleep quality last night predicted elevated levels of pain and lower levels of positive affect at late-morning, which, in turn, predicted elevated end-of-day activity interference. Of note, positive affect was a stronger mediator than pain and negative affect was not a significant mediator. In summary, the findings identify 2 parallel mechanisms, pain and positive affect, through which the prior night's sleep quality predicts disability the next day in patients with FM. Furthermore, results highlight the potential utility of boosting positive affect after a poor night's sleep as one means of preserving daily function in FM.

  12. Ninety-day waiting period limitation and technical amendments to certain health coverage requirements under the Affordable Care Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-02-24

    These final regulations implement the 90-day waiting period limitation under section 2708 of the Public Health Service Act, as added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act), as amended, and incorporated into the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Internal Revenue Code. These regulations also finalize amendments to existing regulations to conform to Affordable Care Act provisions. Specifically, these rules amend regulations implementing existing provisions such as some of the portability provisions added by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) because those provisions of the HIPAA regulations have become superseded or require amendment as a result of the market reform protections added by the Affordable Care Act.

  13. Upper limit set for level of lightning activity on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1990-02-01

    Because optically thick cloud and haze layers prevent lightning detection at optical wavelength on Titan, a search was conducted for lightning-radiated signals (spherics) at radio wavelengths using the planetary radioastronomy instrument aboard Voyager 1. Given the maximum ionosphere density of about 3000/cu cm, lightning spherics should be detectable above an observing frequency of 500 kHz. Since no evidence for spherics is found, an upper limit to the total energy per flash in Titan lightning of about 10 to the 6th J, or about 1000 times weaker than that of typical terrestrial lightning, is inferred.

  14. Staying engaged during the week: the effect of off-job activities on next day work engagement.

    PubMed

    ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L; Bakker, Arnold B

    2012-10-01

    Although studies on employee recovery accumulate at a stunning pace, the commonly used theory (Effort-Recovery model) that explains how recovery occurs has not been explicitly tested. We aimed to unravel the recovery process by examining whether off-job activities enhance next morning vigor to the extent that they enable employees to relax and detach from work. In addition, we investigated whether adequate recovery also helps employees to work with more enthusiasm and vigor on the next workday. On five consecutive days, a total of 74 employees (356 data points) reported the hours they spent on various off-job activities, their feelings of psychological detachment, and feelings of relaxation before going to sleep. Feelings of vigor were reported on the next morning, and day-levels of work engagement were reported after work. As predicted, leisure activities (social, low-effort, and physical activities) increased next morning vigor through enhanced psychological detachment and relaxation. High-duty off-job activities (work and household tasks) reduced vigor because these activities diminished psychological detachment and relaxation. Moreover, off-job activities significantly affected next day work engagement. Our results support the assumption that recovery occurs when employees engage in off-job activities that allow for relaxation and psychological detachment. The findings also underscore the significance of recovery after work: Adequate recovery not only enhances vigor in the morning, but also helps employees to stay engaged during the next workday.

  15. Day Services for People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: An Analysis of Thematically Organized Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the recent ideas to emerge in the Netherlands for improving the quality of activities provided for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities is to organize these activities thematically. Among the expected effects was that more activities with a greater variety would be provided and more attention would be offered to each…

  16. High School Students' Participation in Music Activities beyond the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the music activities that high school band students are involved in and how these activities might lead to lifelong music participation. Specific research questions were the following: (a) In what activities are high school band students involved? (b) What are high school band directors…

  17. Activity Limitations among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lollar, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Developmental disabilities are a heterogeneous group of chronic conditions that may result in substantial activity limitations. The type and number of limitations may vary by impairment characteristics. Economic and social constraints may impact activity limitations beyond those attributable to their impairment. Using the International…

  18. A Krebs Cycle Component Limits Caspase Activation Rate through Mitochondrial Surface Restriction of CRL Activation.

    PubMed

    Aram, Lior; Braun, Tslil; Braverman, Carmel; Kaplan, Yosef; Ravid, Liat; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Arama, Eli

    2016-04-04

    How cells avoid excessive caspase activity and unwanted cell death during apoptotic caspase-mediated removal of large cellular structures is poorly understood. We investigate caspase-mediated extrusion of spermatid cytoplasmic contents in Drosophila during spermatid individualization. We show that a Krebs cycle component, the ATP-specific form of the succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit (A-Sβ), binds to and activates the Cullin-3-based ubiquitin ligase (CRL3) complex required for caspase activation in spermatids. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that this interaction occurs on the mitochondrial surface, thereby limiting the source of CRL3 complex activation to the vicinity of this organelle and reducing the potential rate of caspase activation by at least 60%. Domain swapping between A-Sβ and the GTP-specific SCSβ (G-Sβ), which functions redundantly in the Krebs cycle, show that the metabolic and structural roles of A-Sβ in spermatids can be uncoupled, highlighting a moonlighting function of this Krebs cycle component in CRL activation.

  19. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid limits astrocyte activation and scar formation after spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaing, Zin Z.; Milman, Brian D.; Vanscoy, Jennifer E.; Seidlits, Stephanie K.; Grill, Raymond J.; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2011-08-01

    A major hurdle for regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the ability of axons to penetrate and grow through the scar tissue. After SCI, inflammatory cells, astrocytes and meningeal cells all play a role in developing the glial scar. In addition, degradation of native high molecular weight (MW) hyaluronic acid (HA), a component of the extracellular matrix, has been shown to induce activation and proliferation of astrocytes. However, it is not known if the degradation of native HA actually enhances glial scar formation. We hypothesize that the presence of high MW HA (HA with limited degradation) after SCI will decrease glial scarring. Here, we demonstrate that high MW HA decreases cell proliferation and reduces chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) production in cultured neonatal and adult astrocytes. In addition, stiffness-matched high MW HA hydrogels crosslinked to resist degradation were implanted in a rat model of spinal dorsal hemisection injury. The numbers of immune cells (macrophages and microglia) detected at the lesion site in animals with HA hydrogel implants were significantly reduced at acute time points (one, three and ten days post-injury). Lesioned animals with HA implants also exhibited significantly lower CSPG expression at ten days post-injury. At nine weeks post-injury, animals with HA hydrogel implants exhibited a significantly decreased astrocytic response, but did not have significantly altered CSPG expression. Combined, these data suggest that high MW HA, when stabilized against degradation, mitigates astrocyte activation in vitro and in vivo. The presence of HA implants was also associated with a significant decrease in CSPG deposition at ten days after SCI. Therefore, HA-based hydrogel systems hold great potential for minimizing undesired scarring as part of future repair strategies after SCI.

  20. The Limits of Federal Activism in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergari, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the federal role in education policy has entailed increasing activism in matters traditionally controlled by states and school districts. However, the expanding federal role has not resulted in a zero sum game for states and localities. Focusing on the policy-implementation process, this article examines recent state and local…

  1. Multi-day activity scheduling reactions to planned activities and future events in a dynamic model of activity-travel behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijland, Linda; Arentze, Theo; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Modeling multi-day planning has received scarce attention in activity-based transport demand modeling so far. However, new dynamic activity-based approaches are being developed at the current moment. The frequency and inflexibility of planned activities and events in activity schedules of individuals indicate the importance of incorporating those pre-planned activities in the new generation of dynamic travel demand models. Elaborating and combining previous work on event-driven activity generation, the aim of this paper is to develop and illustrate an extension of a need-based model of activity generation that takes into account possible influences of pre-planned activities and events. This paper describes the theory and shows the results of simulations of the extension. The simulation was conducted for six different activities, and the parameter values used were consistent with an earlier estimation study. The results show that the model works well and that the influences of the parameters are consistent, logical, and have clear interpretations. These findings offer further evidence of face and construct validity to the suggested modeling approach.

  2. Brazing of the Tore Supra actively cooled Phase III Limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.E.; Walker, C.A.; Lutz, T.J.; Hosking, F.M.; McGrath, R.T.

    1993-12-31

    The head of the water-cooled Tore Supra Phase 3 Limiter is a bank of 14 round OFHC copper tubes, curved to fit the plasma radius, onto which several hundred pyrolytic graphite (PG) tiles and a lesser number of carbon fiber composite tiles are brazed. The small allowable tolerances for fitting the tiles to the tubes and mating of compound curvatures made the brazing and fabrication extremely challenging. The paper describes the fabrication process with emphasis on the procedure for brazing. In the fixturing for vacuum furnace brazing, the tiles were each independently clamped to the tube with an elaborate set of window frame clamps. Braze quality was evaluated with transient heating tests. Some rebrazing was necessary.

  3. Seasonal Variation of American Indian Children's School-Day Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusseau, Timothy A.; Kulinna, Pamela H.; Kloeppel, Tiffany; Ferry, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To examine the pedometer steps taken during the school-day by American Indian children during all four seasons. Material and methods: Participants included third-sixth grade children (n = 157) aged 9.6 plus or minus 1.07 (boys) and 9.7 plus or minus 1.2 (girls) attending school from one Southwestern US American Indian community.…

  4. Funny things happen at the Grange: introducing comedy activities in day services to older people with dementia--innovative practice.

    PubMed

    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish

    2013-11-01

    This paper shares outcomes from the evaluation of a community project where comedy activities were introduced into a day centre for older people with dementia as a result of a partnership between the day centre, a local university and a specialist comedy provider. Four workshops were provided using improvisatory activities and comedy, as a medium to engage older people in reflecting on aspects of their care environment. The main output resulted in a 30 minute 'mockumentary' of the 'Her Majesty the Queen' visiting the day centre, in the form of a digital reusable learning object to be used by social work and mental health professionals. The evaluation demonstrated some additional outcomes for those involved and highlighted the benefits of laughter and fun in promoting a positive climate.

  5. Endocannabinoids Control Platelet Activation and Limit Aggregate Formation under Flow

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Valentina; Koekman, Arnold C.; Weeterings, Cees; Roest, Mark; de Groot, Philip G.; Herczenik, Eszter; Maas, Coen

    2014-01-01

    Background The endocannabinoid system has previously been implicated in the regulation of neurons and inflammatory cells. Additionally, it has been reported that endocannabinoid receptors are present on circulating platelets, but there has been conflicting evidence on their contribution to platelet function. Objectives Our aim was to examine the role of endocannabinoids in platelet function in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Results We studied the effects of the well-characterized endogenous endocannabinoid anandamide on platelet aggregation in suspension, α-granule release, calcium mobilization, Syk phosphorylation, as well as platelet spreading and aggregate formation under flow. Anandamide inhibits platelet aggregation and α-granule release by collagen, collagen-derived peptide CRP-XL, ADP, arachidonic acid and thromboxane A2 analogue U46619. However, activation via thrombin receptor PAR-1 stays largely unaffected. Calcium mobilization is significantly impaired when platelets are stimulated with collagen or CRP-XL, but remains normal in the presence of the other agonists. In line with this finding, we found that anandamide prevents collagen-induced Syk phosphorylation. Furthermore, anandamide-treated platelets exhibit reduced spreading on immobilized fibrinogen, have a decreased capacity for binding fibrinogen in solution and show perturbed platelet aggregate formation under flow over collagen. Finally, we investigated the influence of Cannabis sativa consumption by human volunteers on platelet activation. Similar to our in vitro findings with anandamide, ex vivo collagen-induced platelet aggregation and aggregate formation on immobilized collagen under flow were impaired in whole blood of donors that had consumed Cannabis sativa. Conclusions Endocannabinoid receptor agonists reduce platelet activation and aggregate formation both in vitro and ex vivo after Cannabis sativa consumption. Further elucidation of this novel regulatory mechanism for platelet function

  6. Monitoring Project CANAL Training Activities: Parent Day Workshops for 70 Project CANAL Schools (April 18 through July 3, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Mary E.; Kurtz, Norman R.

    An evaluation was done to assess the participation of parents from the 70 Creating a New Approach to Learning Project (Project CANAL) schools in Project CANAL training activities. Project CANAL offered workshops for parents during the months of April and July 1991. The parent day workshops were to provide parents of participating schools with data…

  7. Directly Observed Physical Activity and Fundamental Motor Skills in Four-Year-Old Children in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivonen, S.; Sääkslahti, A. K.; Mehtälä, A.; Villberg, J. J.; Soini, A.; Poskiparta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), its location, social interactions and fundamental motor skills (FMS) were investigated in four-year-old Finnish children in day care. Six skills in the stability, locomotor and manipulative domains were assessed in 53 children (24 boys, 29 girls, normal anthropometry) with the APM-Inventory manual for assessing children's…

  8. Parental Influence and the Attraction to Physical Activity for Youths Who Are Visually Impaired at a Residential-Day School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Stefan; Farnsworth, Charles; Babkes-Stellino, Megan; Perrett, Jamis

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated social influences on the attraction to physical activity and perceptions of physical competence among youths with visual impairments. The study was a qualitative case study of a residential-day school in a western state. Eight youths (5 boys and 3 girls) aged 10-18 were interviewed. The participants were chosen…

  9. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of fruits, veget...

  10. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form collects information on the child's activities at the day care center over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into three time periods over the 48-monitoring interval. The Food Survey collects information on the frequency and types of frui...

  11. What is the age for the fastest ultra-marathon performance in time-limited races from 6 h to 10 days?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Valeri, Fabio; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggested that the age of peak ultra-marathon performance seemed to increase with increasing race distance. The present study investigated the age of peak ultra-marathon performance for runners competing in time-limited ultra-marathons held from 6 to 240 h (i.e. 10 days) during 1975-2013. Age and running performance in 20,238 (21%) female and 76,888 (79%) male finishes (6,863 women and 24,725 men, 22 and 78%, respectively) were analysed using mixed-effects regression analyses. The annual number of finishes increased for both women and men in all races. About one half of the finishers completed at least one race and the other half completed more than one race. Most of the finishes were achieved in the fourth decade of life. The age of the best ultra-marathon performance increased with increasing race duration, also when only one or at least five successful finishes were considered. The lowest age of peak ultra-marathon performance was in 6 h (33.7 years, 95% CI 32.5-34.9 years) and the highest in 48 h (46.8 years, 95% CI 46.1-47.5). With increasing number of finishes, the athletes improved performance. Across years, performance decreased, the age of peak performance increased, and the age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased with increasing number of finishes. In summary, the age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased and performance decreased in time-limited ultra-marathons. The age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased with increasing race duration and with increasing number of finishes. These athletes improved race performance with increasing number of finishes.

  12. Present-day impact cratering rate and contemporary gully activity on Mars.

    PubMed

    Malin, Michael C; Edgett, Kenneth S; Posiolova, Liliya V; McColley, Shawn M; Dobrea, Eldar Z Noe

    2006-12-08

    The Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera has acquired data that establish the present-day impact cratering rate and document new deposits formed by downslope movement of material in mid-latitude gullies on Mars. Twenty impacts created craters 2 to 150 meters in diameter within an area of 21.5 x 10(6) square kilometers between May 1999 and March 2006. The values predicted by models that scale the lunar cratering rate to Mars are close to the observed rate, implying that surfaces devoid of craters are truly young and that as yet unrecognized processes of denudation must be operating. The new gully deposits, formed since August 1999, are light toned and exhibit attributes expected from emplacement aided by a fluid with the properties of liquid water: relatively long, extended, digitate distal and marginal branches, diversion around obstacles, and low relief. The observations suggest that liquid water flowed on the surface of Mars during the past decade.

  13. Effect of structured physical activity on respiratory outcomes in sedentary elderly adults with mobility limitations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of structured physical activity on respiratory outcomes in community dwelling elderly adults with mobility limitations. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized trial of physical activity vs health education, with respiratory variables prespecified as tertiary outcomes over...

  14. Physical Activity Pattern of Prepubescent Filipino School Children during School Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Consuelo B.; Grimmer-Somers, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about pre-pubescent Filipino children's involvement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). There are international guidelines regarding required levels of MVPA for healthy children. Methods: This study describes participation of 11- to 12-year-olds in randomly selected public and private schools in San Juan,…

  15. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  16. Baby Days: Activities, Ideas, and Games for Enjoying Daily Life with a Child under Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Barbara

    Noting the difficulty that many parents have finding activities to fit the busy life, budget, and energy levels of the average parent and the attention span and abilities of the typical infant and toddler, this book is designed as a reference book for parents and others looking for ways to entertain, educate, and enjoy a young child during the…

  17. Physical Activity Opportunities during the School Day: Classroom Teachers' Perceptions of Using Activity Breaks in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Jaimie; Kulinna, Pamela; Cothran, Donetta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore classroom teachers' perceptions of incorporating physical activity breaks into their classroom and to determine specific features of preferred activity breaks. These perceptions are considered within the conceptual framework of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Twelve elementary and…

  18. 49 CFR 173.425 - Table of activity limits-excepted quantities and articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... follows: Table 4—Activity Limits for Limited Quantities, Instruments, and Articles Nature of contents... limits 1 Solids: Special form 10−2 A1 A1 10−3 A1 Normal form 10−2 A2 A2 10−3 A2 Liquids: Tritiated...

  19. Protein synthesis required for long-term memory is induced by PKC activation on days before associative learning.

    PubMed

    Alkon, Daniel L; Epstein, Herman; Kuzirian, Alan; Bennett, M Catherine; Nelson, Thomas J

    2005-11-08

    Protein synthesis has long been known to be required for associative learning to consolidate into long-term memory. Here we demonstrate that PKC isozyme activation on days before training can induce the synthesis of proteins necessary and sufficient for subsequent long-term memory consolidation. Bryostatin (Bryo), a macrolide lactone with efficacy in subnanomolar concentrations and a potential therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease, is a potent activator of PKC, some of whose isozymes undergo prolonged activation after associative learning. Under normal conditions, two training events with paired visual and vestibular stimuli cause short-term memory of the mollusc Hermissenda that lasts approximately 7 min. However, after 4-h exposures to Bryo (0.25 ng/ml) on two preceding days, the same two training events produced long-term conditioning that lasted >1 week and that was not blocked by anisomycin (1 mug/ml). Anisomycin, however, eliminated long-term memory lasting at least 1 week after nine training events. Both the nine training events alone and two Bryo exposures plus two training event regimens caused comparably increased levels of the PKC alpha-isozyme substrate calexcitin in identified type B neurons and enhanced PKC activity in the membrane fractions. Furthermore, Bryo increased overall protein synthesis in cultured mammalian neurons by up to 60% for >3 days. The specific PKC antagonist Ro-32-0432 blocked much of this Bryo-induced protein synthesis as well as the Bryo-induced enhancement of the behavioral conditioning. Thus, Bryo-induced PKC activation produces those proteins necessary and sufficient for long-term memory on days in advance of the training events themselves.

  20. Present-day biogeochemical activities of anaerobic bacteria and their relevance to future exobiological investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    If the primordial atmosphere was reducing, then the first microbial ecosystem was probably composed of anaerobic bacteria. However, despite the presence of an oxygen-rich atmosphere, anaerobic habitats are important, commonplace components of the Earth's present biosphere. The geochemical activities displayed by these anaerobes impact the global cycling of certain elements (e.g., C, N, S, Fe, Mn, etc.). Methane provides an obvious example of how human-enhanced activities on a global scale can influence the content of a "radiative" (i.e., infrared absorbing) trace gas in the atmosphere. Methane can be oxidized by anaerobic bacteria, but this does not appear to support their growth. Acetylene, however, does support such growth. This may form the basis for future exobiological investigations of the atmospheres of anoxic, hydrocarbon-rich planets like Jupiter and Saturn, as well as the latter's satellite Titan. ?? 1989.

  1. Everyday science & science every day: Science-related talk & activities across settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Heather

    To understand the development of science-related thinking, acting, and learning in middle childhood, I studied youth in schools, homes, and other neighborhood settings over a three-year period. The research goal was to analyze how multiple everyday experiences influence children's participation in science-related practices and their thinking about science and scientists. Ethnographic and interaction analysis methodologies were to study the cognition and social interactions of the children as they participated in activities with peers, family, and teachers (n=128). Interviews and participant self-documentation protocols elucidated the participants' understandings of science. An Everyday Expertise (Bell et al., 2006) theoretical framework was employed to study the development of science understandings on three analytical planes: individual learner, social groups, and societal/community resources. Findings came from a cross-case analysis of urban science learners and from two within-case analyses of girls' science-related practices as they transitioned from elementary to middle school. Results included: (1) children participated actively in science across settings---including in their homes as well as in schools, (2) children's interests in science were not always aligned to the school science content, pedagogy, or school structures for participation, yet children found ways to engage with science despite these differences through crafting multiple pathways into science, (3) urban parents were active supporters of STEM-related learning environments through brokering access to social and material resources, (4) the youth often found science in their daily activities that formal education did not make use of, and (5) children's involvement with science-related practices can be developed into design principles to reach youth in culturally relevant ways.

  2. Circadian photosensitive phase and photoperiodic control of testis activity in the mink, a short-day mammal

    SciTech Connect

    Boissin-Agasse, L.; Boissin, J.; Ortavant, R.

    1982-02-01

    Evidence of a circadian photosensitive phase in male mink, whose annual reproductive cycle is characterized by the recrudescence of testicular development in autumn, was based on the study of testicular response after interrupting the dark period by light breaks offered at various times. In this mammal, the experimental short days 4L:20D and 8L:16D stimulated testicular growth. Short photoperiods, including a main light period of 3.5 h and an additional 0.5 h light break 7.5 h after the beginning of the main photoperiod, were as effective as 8L:16D in stimulating testicular development. On the other hand, when a 0.5 h light break occurred 11.5 or 15.5 h after the beginning of the main photoperiod, the same inhibiting effect on testicular activity was obtained as for long photoperiods. However, when 0.5 h light breaks were given 19.5 after the beginning of the main light period, some minks recognized, as, the onset of the shorter of the two light periods offered. Thus our results proved the existence of a special phase in the day cycle in which light inhibited testicular development in the mink which appears to be a short-day animal. One explanation of the difference between long-day and short-day animals would be the following: if for long-day animals exposure to light during the photosensitive phase led to gonadostimulation, in short-day mammals, like mink, it exerted an inhibiting influence on testicular growth.

  3. The 27 day solar rotational effect on mesospheric nighttime OH and O3 observations induced by geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytterer, T.; Santee, M. L.; Sinnhuber, M.; Wang, S.

    2015-09-01

    Observations performed by the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder instrument on board the Aura satellite from 2004 to 2009 (2004 to 2014) were used to investigate the 27 day solar rotational cycle in mesospheric OH (O3) and the physical connection to geomagnetic activity. Data analysis was focused on nighttime measurements at geomagnetic latitudes connected to the outer radiation belts (55°N/S-75°N/S). The applied superposed epoch analysis reveals a distinct 27 day solar rotational signal in OH and O3 during winter in both hemispheres at altitudes >70 km. The OH response is positive and in-phase with the respective geomagnetic activity signal, lasting for 1-2 days. In contrast, the O3 feedback is negative, delayed by 1 day, and is present up to 4 days afterward. Largest OH (O3) peaks are found at ~75 km, exceeding the 95% significance level and the measurement noise of <2% (<0.5%), while reaching variations of +14% (-7%) with respect to their corresponding background. OH at 75 km is observed to respond to particle precipitation only after a certain threshold of geomagnetic activity is exceeded, depending on the respective OH background. The relation between OH and O3 at 75 km in both hemispheres is found to be nonlinear. In particular, OH has a strong impact on O3 for relatively weak geomagnetic disturbances and accompanying small absolute OH variations (<0.04 ppb). In contrast, catalytic O3 depletion is seen to slow down for stronger geomagnetic variations and OH anomalies (0.04-0.13 ppb), revealing small variations around -0.11 ppm.

  4. The 27 day solar rotational effect on mesospheric nighttime OH and O3 observations induced by geomagnetic activity.

    PubMed

    Fytterer, T; Santee, M L; Sinnhuber, M; Wang, S

    2015-09-01

    Observations performed by the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder instrument on board the Aura satellite from 2004 to 2009 (2004 to 2014) were used to investigate the 27 day solar rotational cycle in mesospheric OH (O3) and the physical connection to geomagnetic activity. Data analysis was focused on nighttime measurements at geomagnetic latitudes connected to the outer radiation belts (55°N/S-75°N/S). The applied superposed epoch analysis reveals a distinct 27 day solar rotational signal in OH and O3 during winter in both hemispheres at altitudes >70 km. The OH response is positive and in-phase with the respective geomagnetic activity signal, lasting for 1-2 days. In contrast, the O3 feedback is negative, delayed by 1 day, and is present up to 4 days afterward. Largest OH (O3) peaks are found at ~75 km, exceeding the 95% significance level and the measurement noise of <2% (<0.5%), while reaching variations of +14% (-7%) with respect to their corresponding background. OH at 75 km is observed to respond to particle precipitation only after a certain threshold of geomagnetic activity is exceeded, depending on the respective OH background. The relation between OH and O3 at 75 km in both hemispheres is found to be nonlinear. In particular, OH has a strong impact on O3 for relatively weak geomagnetic disturbances and accompanying small absolute OH variations (<0.04 ppb). In contrast, catalytic O3 depletion is seen to slow down for stronger geomagnetic variations and OH anomalies (0.04-0.13 ppb), revealing small variations around -0.11 ppm.

  5. A summary of present-day gully formation and activity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniega, Serina; Hansen, Candice; McEwen, Alfred; Dundas, Colin; Byrne, Shane

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, gully activity has been carefully monitored on a range of slopes, including dune slopes [1-3] and crater walls [2-4]. Within the southern mid-latitudes, substantial changes in gully morphology have been observed. On dune slopes, observed activity includes major incision (forming a new channel or expanding an existing channel), changes in channel sinuosity, expansion of alcoves, and deposition of an extensive new apron. On rockier slopes, observed activity has cut new channel segments and small terraces, abandoned other channels, and deposited boulder-rich lobate features. Many of these morphologies have been treated as indicative of fluvial processes. However, long-term monitoring campaigns with High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) data [2-5] of almost 500 gully locations, have shown that the timing of this current activity is generally correlated with the presence of seasonal frost [1-5]. Moreover, the distribution of seasonal frost on slopes is similar to the orientation distribution of gullies [3,6]. Most seasonal frost is CO2, and this is likely the main cause of current activity. Recent modeling has shown that CO2 sublimation from within the regolith pores would be sufficient to create the types of geomorphology seen within martian gullies [7]. Water frost may be involved in some small-scale activity [5]. Liquid water is unlikely to be relevant, because the abundance of water frost is generally low [8] and melting is difficult. An additional current focus is on the north polar sand sea, where "gullies" (generally lacking a channel) have been observed to form on dune slopes over seasonal and annual timescales. There, we aim to differentiate between either a general aeolian [8] or seasonal frost driver [9,10] for the formation process. For these features, formation timing estimates are often less constrained because HiRISE images are not acquired during fall and winter, due to the polar hood and darkness. Thus, analysis of

  6. A Hands-On Activity Incorporating the Threefold Representation on Limiting Reactant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonza´lez-Sa´nchez, Ange´lica M.; Ortiz-Nieves, Edgardo L.; Medina, Zuleikra

    2014-01-01

    Many students share the common belief that the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction is the reactant in the smallest quantity of material. To help students overcome this difficulty a hands-on activity for the limiting reactant concept was developed. The activity incorporates the three levels of representation (macroscopic, submicroscopic, and…

  7. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-3T - Private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Private activity bond limit (temporary). 1.103(n)-3T Section 1.103(n)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....103(n)-3T Private activity bond limit (temporary). Q-1: What is the “State ceiling”? A-1: In...

  8. Learning Needs and Activity Limitations of Elderly Japanese with Physical Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hori, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Mizuho

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 364 Japanese adults over 60 with physical disabilities found that 87% have learning needs in the areas of health care, communication, and leisure activities. Instrumental/social learning ranked higher among those with serious activity limitations. Expressive/communicative learning was more important for those with moderate limitations.…

  9. Aboveground activity rhythm in Arctic black-capped marmot ( Marmota camtschatica bungei Katschenko 1901) under polar day conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Youri; Ramousse, Raymond; Le Berre, Michel; Vassiliev, Vladimir; Solomonov, Nikita

    2001-04-01

    Daily aboveground activity of wild black-capped marmots of Yakutia ( Marmota camtschatica bungei) was recorded under 'polar day' conditions at 71°56' N and 127°19' E (north of the Polar Circle). From the beginning of May until the end of August, the sun was permanently above or close to the horizon. However under this condition of continuous lighting, the aboveground activity of these arctic hibernating mammals was periodic. Onset and end of activity showed marked changes throughout the seasons. Activity time increased strongly from hibernation emergence until the end of July and then decreased slowly until onset of hibernation. Below daily mean temperatures of 5 °C, activity started when the sun was 35° above the horizon, and ended when it dropped below 28°. When daily mean temperatures were above 5 °C, activity onset was synchronised with a solar altitude around 17-18° and activity ended at 10°. Activity onset was more precise relative to the solar altitude than the end of activity. This may be explained by late feeding bouts, following a midday thermal stress. In absence of rapid natural light-dark (LD) transitions that occur at civil twilight, our results suggest that the activity pattern of black-capped marmots may be synchronised by the light cycle through the solar altitude and ambient temperature.

  10. The Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q): reliability and validity against doubly labeled water and 7-day activity diaries.

    PubMed

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Neilson, Heather K; Kopciuk, Karen A; Khandwala, Farah; Liu, Andrew; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Bryant, Heather E; Lau, David C W; Robson, Paula J

    2014-08-15

    We determined measurement properties of the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q), which was designed to estimate past-month activity energy expenditure (AEE). STAR-Q validity and reliability were assessed in 102 adults in Alberta, Canada (2009-2011), who completed 14-day doubly labeled water (DLW) protocols, 7-day activity diaries on day 15, and the STAR-Q on day 14 and again at 3 and 6 months. Three-month reliability was substantial for total energy expenditure (TEE) and AEE (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.73, respectively), while 6-month reliability was moderate. STAR-Q-derived TEE and AEE were moderately correlated with DLW estimates (Spearman's ρs of 0.53 and 0.40, respectively; P < 0.001), and on average, the STAR-Q overestimated TEE and AEE (median differences were 367 kcal/day and 293 kcal/day, respectively). Body mass index-, age-, sex-, and season-adjusted concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.36) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.32) for STAR-Q-derived versus DLW-derived TEE and AEE, respectively. Agreement between the diaries and STAR-Q (metabolic equivalent-hours/day) was strongest for occupational sedentary time (adjusted CCC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.85) and overall strenuous activity (adjusted CCC = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.76). The STAR-Q demonstrated substantial validity for estimating occupational sedentary time and strenuous activity and fair validity for ranking individuals by AEE.

  11. Dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions counteract decreases in locomotor activity in male Syrian hamsters transferred from long to short day lengths.

    PubMed

    Jarjisian, Stephan G; Butler, Matthew P; Paul, Matthew J; Place, Ned J; Prendergast, Brian J; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Zucker, Irving

    2015-02-01

    The dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) of the hypothalamus has been implicated in seasonal control of reproduction. Syrian hamsters with DMN lesions, unlike control hamsters, do not undergo testicular regression after transfer from a long day length (14 h of light per day; LD) to a short day length (8 h of light per day; SD). SDs also markedly reduce hamster locomotor activity (LMA). To assess whether the DMN is a component of the neural circuitry that mediates seasonal variation in LMA, neurologically intact males (controls) and hamsters that had sustained lesions of the DMN (DMNx) were housed in an LD or SD photoperiod for 26 weeks. DMNx that prevented testicular regression counteracted decreases in LMA during 8 to10 weeks of SD treatment; steroid-independent effects of SDs did not override high levels of LMA in DMNx males. As in previous studies, testosterone (T) restoration increased LMA in LD but not SD castrated control males. In the present study, T also failed to increase LMA in SD-DMNx hamsters. The DMN is not necessary to maintain decreased responsiveness of locomotor activity systems to T in SDs, which presumably is mediated by other central nervous system androgen target tissues. Finally, DMNx did not interfere with the spontaneous increase in LMA exhibited by photorefractory hamsters after 26 weeks of SD treatment. We propose that DMN is an essential part of the substrate that mediates seasonal decreases in LMA as day length decreases but is not required to sustain decreased SD responsiveness to T or for development of refractoriness to SDs.

  12. Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Lesions Counteract Decreases in Locomotor Activity in Male Syrian Hamsters Transferred from Long to Short Day Lengths

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Matthew J.; Place, Ned J.; Prendergast, Brian J.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.; Zucker, Irving

    2015-01-01

    The dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) of the hypothalamus has been implicated in seasonal control of reproduction. Syrian hamsters with DMN lesions, unlike control hamsters, do not undergo testicular regression after transfer from a long day length (14 h of light per day; LD) to a short day length (8 h of light per day; SD). SDs also markedly reduce hamster locomotor activity (LMA). To assess whether the DMN is a component of the neural circuitry that mediates seasonal variation in LMA, neurologically intact males (controls) and hamsters that had sustained lesions of the DMN (DMNx) were housed in an LD or SD photoperiod for 26 weeks. DMNx that prevented testicular regression counteracted decreases in LMA during 8 to10 weeks of SD treatment; steroid-independent effects of SDs did not override high levels of LMA in DMNx males. As in previous studies, testosterone (T) restoration increased LMA in LD but not SD castrated control males. In the present study, T also failed to increase LMA in SD-DMNx hamsters. The DMN is not necessary to maintain decreased responsiveness of locomotor activity systems to T in SDs, which presumably is mediated by other central nervous system androgen target tissues. Finally, DMNx did not interfere with the spontaneous increase in LMA exhibited by photorefractory hamsters after 26 weeks of SD treatment. We propose that DMN is an essential part of the substrate that mediates seasonal decreases in LMA as day length decreases but is not required to sustain decreased SD responsiveness to T or for development of refractoriness to SDs. PMID:25512303

  13. Investigating Within-day and Longitudinal Effects of Maternal Stress on Children's Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition: Protocol for the MATCH Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunton, Genevieve F.; Liao, Yue; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam; Huh, Jimi; Gruenewald, Tara; Margolin, Gayla; Koprowski, Carol; Tate, Eleanor; Intille, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendency to overlook momentary etiologic processes occurring within each day. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the MATCH (Mothers And Their Children's Health) study, a longitudinal investigation using novel real-time data capture strategies to examine within-day associations of maternal stress with children's physical activity and dietary intake, and how these effects contribute to children's obesity risk. In the MATCH study, 200 mothers and their 8 to 12 year-old children are participating in 6 semi-annual assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, measures for mother-child dyads include: (a) real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported daily psychosocial stressors (e.g., work at a job, family demands), feeling stressed, perceived stress, parenting practices, dietary intake, and physical activity with time and location stamps; (b) diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, accelerometer-monitored physical activity, and 24-hour dietary recalls; (c) retrospective questionnaires of sociodemographic, cultural, family, and neighborhood covariates; and (d) height, weight, and waist circumference. Putative within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's dietary intake, physical activity, and body composition will be tested through multilevel modeling and latent growth curve models, respectively. The results will inform interventions that help mothers reduce the negative effects of stress on weight-related parenting practices and children's obesity risk. PMID:25987483

  14. Investigating within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's physical activity, dietary intake, and body composition: Protocol for the MATCH study.

    PubMed

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Liao, Yue; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam M; Huh, Jimi; Gruenewald, Tara; Margolin, Gayla; Koprowski, Carol; Tate, Eleanor; Intille, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendency to overlook momentary etiologic processes occurring within each day. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the MATCH (Mothers And Their Children's Health) study, a longitudinal investigation using novel real-time data capture strategies to examine within-day associations of maternal stress with children's physical activity and dietary intake, and how these effects contribute to children's obesity risk. In the MATCH study, 200 mothers and their 8 to 12 year-old children are participating in 6 semi-annual assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, measures for mother-child dyads include: (a) real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported daily psychosocial stressors (e.g., work at a job, family demands), feeling stressed, perceived stress, parenting practices, dietary intake, and physical activity with time and location stamps; (b) diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, accelerometer-monitored physical activity, and 24-hour dietary recalls; (c) retrospective questionnaires of sociodemographic, cultural, family, and neighborhood covariates; and (d) height, weight, and waist circumference. Putative within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's dietary intake, physical activity, and body composition will be tested through multilevel modeling and latent growth curve models, respectively. The results will inform interventions that help mothers reduce the negative effects of stress on weight-related parenting practices and children's obesity risk.

  15. Schoolwide Literacy Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polder, Darlene D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes 10 "literacy day" activities that one California elementary school has used successfully schoolwide, typically one such day per month, to make reading fun and purposeful, while developing a sense of community. Includes: spread-a-quilt day; teacher exchange day; turn off the TV; Dr. Seuss day; community readers; schoolwide…

  16. Optimisation of enzymatic production of sulforaphane in broccoli sprouts and their total antioxidant activity at different growth and storage days.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ming; Xu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Hao; Liu, Yu; Pan, Siyi

    2017-01-01

    Sulforaphane, a type of isothiocyanate hydrolysed from glucosinolate, is a powerful anticancer compound naturally found in food especially in broccoli sprouts. Despite the function of sulforaphane has been extensively studied in recent years, little attention has been given to methods that can maximize the production of this compound in broccoli sprouts. The present study optimised the enzymolysis conditions for sulforaphane production in broccoli sprouts using response surface methodology. The maximum sulforaphane production (246.95 μg/g DW) was achieved using a solid-liquid ratio of 1:30, hydrolysis time of 1.5 h, ascorbic acid content of 3.95 mg/g DW sample, and temperature of 65 °C. The highest sulforaphane content in broccoli sprouts were 233.80 μg/g DW in 5-day-old sprouts and 1555.95 μg/g DW at day 4 of storage. The highest antioxidant activities were 37.22 U/min/g DW in 3-day-old sprouts and 35.08 U/min/g DW on 4th day of storage.

  17. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1986 : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center

    1987-02-01

    This report summarizes activities in 1986 to determine the significance of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. Salmonids were the single most important food item (by weight) for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) at McNary tailrace during all sampling periods and at John Day forebay during July. Salmonids accounted for 23.7% of the diet of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in July 1986, which was higher than in previous years (although the sample size examined was low). Salmonids contributed little to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) diet but comprised about 25% of the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Composition of prey taxa in beach seine catches in July 1986 was similar to previous years with chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), and sand roller (Percopsis transmontana) dominating the catch.

  18. The Complex Association between Religious Activities and Functional Limitations in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hybels, Celia F.; Blazer, Dan G.; George, Linda K.; Koenig, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To examine the longitudinal associations between 3 dimensions of religious involvement--religious attendance, use of religious media, and private religious activities--and 3 domains of functional status--limitations in basic activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and mobility in…

  19. Effects of a Competency-Based Professional Development Training on Children's Physical Activity and Staff Physical Activity Promotion in Summer Day Camps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Webster, Collin A.; Moore, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The YMCA of the USA serves more than nine million youth in its summer day camping programs nationwide. In spring 2011, the YMCA of Columbia, SC, with support from the University of South Carolina, adopted a competency-based staff-level training approach in an attempt to align staff behaviors with the YMCA of the USA new physical activity standards…

  20. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active ]region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main ]sequence path bordering the free ]energy ]limit line in (flux content, free ]energy proxy) phase space. Here we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic ]shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of order 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core ]field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  1. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  2. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

  3. Genotypic and environmental variation in barley limit dextrinase activity and its relation to malt quality*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu-dong; Yang, Juan; Zhang, Guo-ping

    2006-01-01

    Variation in the limit dextrinase activity of barley malt, and the relationships between limit dextrinase activity and malt quality parameters were investigated using eight cultivars grown at seven diverse locations in China for two successive years. Limit dextrinase activity varied with genotype and location, with the levels ranging from 0.245 U/g to 0.980 U/g. The results showed that the variation in limit dextrinase activity was more attributable to the environment (location and year) than to the genotype. The response of limit dextrinase activity to the environment differed markedly among cultivars, and was reflected by large difference in coefficient of variation of cultivars across diverse locations. Regression analysis showed that limit dextrinase activity was negatively correlated with malt viscosity (r=−0.52, P<0.01), positively correlated with Kolbach index (r=0.38, P<0.01) and malt extract (r=0.30, P<0.05), but had no significant correlation with malt protein content and diastatic power. PMID:16615169

  4. The 4-Day School Week. The Informed Educator Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donis-Keller, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This "Informed Educator" examines the use of a 4-day school week as a way to reduce expenses while using limited resources most effectively. Discussion focuses on various models of 4-day week schedules, what to do during the fifth day, and how 4-day school weeks affect extracurricular activities. Detailed discussion of financial savings, student…

  5. Bone structure and quality preserved by active versus passive muscle exercise in 21 days tail-suspended rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lian-wen; Fan, Yu-bo

    2012-07-01

    Humans in Space suffer from microgravity-induced attenuated bone strength that needs to be addressed by on-orbit exercise countermeasures. However, exercise prescriptions so far did not adequately counteract the bone loss of astronauts in spaceflight because even active muscle contractions were converted to passive mode during voluntary bouts. We tested our hypothesis in unloaded rat hind limb following twenty-one days of tail-suspension (TS) combined with exercise using a hind limb stepper device designed by our group. Female Sprague Dawley rats (250g b.wt.) were divided into four groups (n=5, each): TS-only (hind limb unloading), TS plus passive mode exercise (TSP) induced by mechanically-forced passive hind limb lifting, TS plus active mode exercise (TSA) entrained by plantar electrostimulation, and control (CON) group. Standard measures of bone (e.g., mineral density, trabecular microstructure, biomechanics and ash weight) were monitored. Results provided that the attenuated properties of unloaded hind limb bone in TS-rats were more effectively supported by active mode than by passive mode motions. We here propose a modified exercise regimen combined with spontaneous muscle contractions thereby considering the biodynamic demands of both muscle and bone during resistive-load exercise in microgravity. Keywords: rat, BMD, DXA, passive exercise, active exercise, bone loss, tail suspension, spaceflight analogue, exercise countermeasure.

  6. Lifestyle and risk of premature sexual activity in a high school population of Seventh-Day Adventists: Valuegenesis 1989.

    PubMed

    Weinbender, M L; Rossignol, A M

    1996-01-01

    In the past 20 years, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including AIDS, and the physical, psychological, and economic difficulties associated with unwanted pregnancy have increased steadily among American adolescents. The objective of this study was to evaluate Adventist lifestyle as a modification of popular American culture which reduces the risk of early sexual activity in adolescents and thus also reduces the risk for both STDs and teen pregnancy. The study was based on 8,321 respondents to a questionnaire concerning specific behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes among Seventh-Day Adventist youth attending 58 high schools in North American. Analysis of the data demonstrated that a wide variety of behaviors were associated with premature sexual activity, including previously reported high-risk behaviors such as drug or alcohol use. In addition, several behaviors that are discouraged within Adventist culture, such as going to a movie theater or participating in competitive sports, also were associated with early sexual activity. It is hypothesized that these latter behaviors may predict the emergence of other high-risk behaviors, such as early sexual activity, in both Adventist and popular cultures, and thus may be "transition-marking behaviors" as described by Jessor and Jessor (1975).

  7. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…

  8. Effects of changing shift schedules from a full-day to a half-day shift before a night shift on physical activities and sleep patterns of single nurses and married nurses with children.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Misuzu; Akamatsu, Yasuhiro; Furui, Hikari; Tomita, Teruyuki; Watanabe, Takemasa; Kobayashi, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the effects of changing shift schedules from a full-day to a half-day before a night shift, 12 single nurses and 18 married nurses with children that engaged in night shift work in a Japanese hospital were investigated. Subjects worked 2 different shift patterns consisting of a night shift after a half-day shift (HF-N) and a night shift after a day shift (D-N). Physical activity levels were recorded with a physical activity volume meter to measure sleep/wake time more precisely without restricting subjects' activities. The duration of sleep before a night shift of married nurses was significantly shorter than that of single nurses for both shift schedules. Changing shift from the D-N to the HF-N increased the duration of sleep before a night shift for both groups, and made wake-up time earlier for single nurses only. Repeated ANCOVA of the series of physical activities showed significant differences with shift (p < 0.01) and marriage (p < 0.01) for variances, and age (p < 0.05) for a covariance. The paired t-test to compare the effects of changing shift patterns in each subject group and ANCOVA for examining the hourly activity differences between single and married nurses showed that the effects of a change in shift schedules seemed to have less effect on married nurses than single nurses. These differences might due to the differences of their family/home responsibilities.

  9. Mortality Caused by Bath Exposure of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Larvae to Nervous Necrosis Virus Is Limited to the Fourth Day Postfertilization

    PubMed Central

    Morick, Danny; Faigenbaum, Or; Smirnov, Margarita; Fellig, Yakov; Inbal, Adi

    2015-01-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is a member of the Betanodavirus genus that causes fatal diseases in over 40 species of fish worldwide. Mortality among NNV-infected fish larvae is almost 100%. In order to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the susceptibility of fish larvae to NNV, we exposed zebrafish larvae to NNV by bath immersion at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days postfertilization (dpf). Here, we demonstrate that developing zebrafish embryos are resistant to NNV at 2 dpf due to the protection afforded by the egg chorion and, to a lesser extent, by the perivitelline fluid. The zebrafish larvae succumbed to NNV infection during a narrow time window around the 4th dpf, while 6- and 8-day-old larvae were much less sensitive, with mortalities of 24% and 28%, respectively. PMID:25746990

  10. Physical Limitations, Walkability, Perceived Environmental Facilitators and Physical Activity of Older Adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2017-03-22

    The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75-90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week (n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators (p < 0.001) and higher physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p < 0.001), but not step counts. Perceived environmental facilitators only predicted self-reported physical activity at follow-up. To conclude, high walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity.

  11. The Transcription Activity of Gis1 Is Negatively Modulated by Proteasome-mediated Limited Proteolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nianshu; Oliver, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    The transcriptional response to environmental changes has to be prompt but appropriate. Previously, it has been shown that the Gis1 transcription factor is responsible for regulating the expression of postdiauxic shift genes in response to nutrient starvation, and this transcription regulation is dependent upon the Rim15 kinase. Here we demonstrate that the activity of Gis1 is negatively modulated by proteasome-mediated limited proteolysis. Limited degradation of Gis1 by the proteasome leads to the production of smaller variants, which have weaker transcription activities than the full-length protein. The coiled-coil domain, absent from the smaller variants, is part of the second transcription activation domain in Gis1 and is essential for both the limited proteolysis of Gis1 and its full activity. Endogenous Gis1 and its variants, regardless of their transcription capabilities, activate transcription in a Rim15-dependent manner. However, when the full-length Gis1 accumulates in cells due to overexpression or inhibition of the proteasome function, transcription activation by Gis1 is no longer solely controlled by Rim15. Together, these data strongly indicate that the function of the limited degradation is to ensure that Gis1-dependent transcription is strictly regulated by the Rim15 kinase. Furthermore, we have revealed that the kinase activity of Rim15 is essential for this regulation. PMID:20022953

  12. Physical Limitations, Walkability, Perceived Environmental Facilitators and Physical Activity of Older Adults in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E.; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75–90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week (n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators (p < 0.001) and higher physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p < 0.001), but not step counts. Perceived environmental facilitators only predicted self-reported physical activity at follow-up. To conclude, high walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity. PMID:28327543

  13. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1985: Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Douglas E.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center

    1986-10-01

    This report summarizes activities in 1985 to determine the extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. To estimate consumption of juvenile salmonids we used the composition of the natural diet of predators and in the laboratory determined rate of gastric evacuation by predators. Salmonids were the single most important food item for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) at McNary tailrace during all sampling periods and at John Day forebay during July. Salmonids accounted for 11.6% of the diet of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1985 which was about twice that found in previous years. Salmonids contributed little to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) diet but comprised about 25% of the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Composition of prey taxa in beach seine catches in 1985 was similar to 1983 and 1984 with chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), northern squawfish, largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), and sand roller (Percopsis transmontana) dominating the catch at main channel stations and crappies (Pomoxis spp.) and largescale sucker dominating at backwater stations. Preliminary results of beach seine efficiency studies suggest that seine efficiency varied significantly among prey species and between substrate types in 1985. Results of digestion rate experiments indicate that gastric evacuation in northern squawfish can be predicted using water temperature, prey weight, predator weight and time. 19 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Obesity in children and adolescents with chronic pain: Associations with pain and activity limitations

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anna C.; Samuelson, Bethany; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is associated with functional disability in adults with chronic pain, but less is known about obesity among youth with chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to 1) identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents receiving treatment for chronic pain, and 2) examine associations between Body Mass Index (BMI), pain intensity, and activity limitations in this population. Methods Data was obtained from records of 118 patients, ages 8 to 18, seen in a multidisciplinary pediatric pain clinic. Information about age, gender, pain problem, duration and severity, medical diagnoses, medications, height and weight were collected from medical records and intake questionnaires. The CDC’s pediatric BMI calculator was used to obtain percentile and category (underweight, healthy weight, overweight, obese). Children and parents completed the Child Activity Limitations Interview-21 (CALI-21), a self-report measure of activity limitations. Results A significantly higher rate of overweight and obesity was observed among youth with chronic pain compared to a normative sample. BMI percentile was predictive of concurrent limitations in vigorous activities, according to parent report. Discussion BMI percentile and weight status may contribute to activity limitations among children and adolescents with chronic pain. Weight status is an important factor to consider in the context of treatment of chronic pain and disability in children and adolescents. PMID:20664337

  15. Impact of the Yakutat indentor corner on present-day tectonics and fault activity in SE Alaska - SW Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotti, S.; Marechal, A.; Ritz, J. F.; Ferry, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present an active tectonic model of the SE Alaska - SW Yukon region based principally on the integration of recent GPS velocity data and new fault-slip rates derived from geomorphology. In this region, the Yakutat collision results in complex tectonics with patterns of strain localization and strain partitioning that strongly vary across the various mountain ranges and active faults. We propose that deformation and fault activity in the St. Elias and Chugach Mountains are primarily controlled by the eastern syntaxis of the Yakutat collision, which produces a semi-radial tectonic pattern: Velocities, principal horizontal shortening rates, and maximum horizontal stress orientations rotate by 60 - 80 ° around the syntaxis, from roughly parallel to the relative Pacific - North America motion at the front of the collision to roughly orthogonal southeast of the syntaxis. The interaction between this strain pattern and major inherited tectonic structures inland of the collision zone (i.e., Denali and Duke River Faults) results in various reactivation modes of these structures. Specifically, the Denali Fault shows a very pronounced lateral variations of activity from ~12 mm/a of dextral slip rate in its central section to ~1 mm/a of mostly shortening slip rate along its southern section. This marked change of activity is associated with a possible relay system where the Duke River and Totschunda Faults accommodate a major part (8 - 12 mm/a) of the inland strain transfer directly in front of the syntaxis. This new tectonic model retains some questions, in particular regarding the mechanisms of deformation and strain transfer (1) from the syntaxis to the Duke River - Totschunda system and (2) at the junction between Totschunda and Denali Faults. Numerical models of present-day deformation may help address these issues and provide information about relative strength of the various crustal and inherited fault elements of this system.

  16. Fewer active motors per vesicle may explain slowed vesicle transport in chick motoneurons after three days in vitro.

    PubMed

    Macosko, Jed C; Newbern, Jason M; Rockford, Jean; Chisena, Ernest N; Brown, Charlotte M; Holzwarth, George M; Milligan, Carol E

    2008-05-23

    Vesicle transport in cultured chick motoneurons was studied over a period of 3 days using motion-enhanced differential interference contrast (MEDIC) microscopy, an improved version of video-enhanced DIC. After 3 days in vitro (DIV), the average vesicle velocity was about 30% less than after 1 DIV. In observations at 1, 2 and 3 DIV, larger vesicles moved more slowly than small vesicles, and retrograde vesicles were larger than anterograde vesicles. The number of retrograde vesicles increased relative to anterograde vesicles after 3 DIV, but this fact alone could not explain the decrease in velocity, since the slowing of vesicle transport in maturing motoneurons was observed independently for both anterograde and retrograde vesicles. In order to better understand the slowing trend, the distance vs. time trajectories of individual vesicles were examined at a frame rate of 8.3/s. Qualitatively, these trajectories consisted of short (1-2 s) segments of constant velocity, and the changes in velocity between segments were abrupt (<0.2 s). The trajectories were therefore fit to a series of connected straight lines. Surprisingly, the slopes of theses lines, i.e. the vesicle velocities, were often found to be multiples of ~0.6 mum/s. The velocity histogram showed multiple peaks, which, when fit with Gaussians using a least squares minimization, yielded an average spacing of 0.57 mum/s (taken as the slope of a fit to peak position vs. peak number, R(2)=0.994). We propose that the abrupt velocity changes occur when 1 or 2 motors suddenly begin or cease actively participating in vesicle transport. Under this hypothesis, the decrease in average vesicle velocity observed for maturing motoneurons is due to a decrease in the average number of active motors per vesicle.

  17. Joint effect of phosphorus limitation and temperature on alkaline phosphatase activity and somatic growth in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Wojewodzic, Marcin W; Kyle, Marcia; Elser, James J; Hessen, Dag O; Andersen, Tom

    2011-04-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a potential biomarker for phosphorus (P) limitation in zooplankton. However, knowledge about regulation of AP in this group is limited. In a laboratory acclimation experiment, we investigated changes in body AP concentration for Daphnia magna kept for 6 days at 10, 15, 20 and 25 °C and fed algae with 10 different molar C:P ratios (95-660). In the same experiment, we also assessed somatic growth of the animals since phosphorus acquisition is linked to growth processes. Overall, non-linear but significant relationships of AP activity with C:P ratio were observed, but there was a stronger impact of temperature on AP activity than of P limitation. Animals from the lowest temperature treatment had higher normalized AP activity, which suggests the operation of biochemical temperature compensation mechanisms. Body AP activity increased by a factor of 1.67 for every 10 °C decrease in temperature. These results demonstrate that temperature strongly influences AP expression. Therefore, using AP as a P limitation marker in zooplankton needs to consider possible confounding effects of temperature. Both temperature and diet affected somatic growth. The temperature effect on somatic growth, expressed as the Q (10) value, responded non-linearly with C:P, with Q(10) ranging between 1.9 for lowest food C:P ratio and 1.4 for the most P-deficient food. The significant interaction between those two variables highlights the importance of studying temperature-dependent changes of growth responses to food quality.

  18. Low limit of Mn 2+-activated cathodoluminescence of calcite: state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, Dirk; Neuser, Rolf D.; Richter, Detlev K.

    1998-02-01

    In the literature, the lower limit for Mn 2+-activated cathodoluminescence (CL) of calcite is variously reputed to over a very wide range of values above 10 ppm Mn. Our spectroscopic investigations of the CL response in natural calcite reveal that below 10 ppm manganese content Mn 2+-activation is also present. Using the Quantitative High Resolution Spectral analysis of CL (QHRS-CL) an activation by Mn 2+ in the range of 700 ppb is proved, which cannot be determined visually. So, if not quenched, the minimum Mn 2+ content for Mn 2+-activation is one atom in the irradiated calcite crystal lattice volume. As the intrinsic (background blue) luminescence is used to determine non-altered biogenic calcite, the limit of Mn 2+-activation plays an important role in the interpretation of diagenetic processes. Our results of spectroscopic analyses require a revision of current opinions about the diagenesis of calcite as revealed by CL investigation.

  19. Nutrient Limitation Dynamics of a Coastal Cape Cod Pond: Seasonal Trends in Alkaline Phosphatase Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-13

    106C: 16N: 1P) and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) were utilized in tandem as nutrient deficiency indicators (NDIs) for phytoplankton . The study...nutrient enrichment incubation re-affirmed the use of APA as a robust indicator of phosphate limitation in phytoplankton . APA data indicate that the system...nutrient deficiency indicators (NDIs) for phytoplankton . The study objective was to evaluate the limiting nutrient status of the pond throughout the

  20. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tallner, Alexander; Waschbisch, Anne; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients. PMID:26147422

  1. Limitations of Endovascular Treatment with Stent-Grafts for Active Mycotic Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Masaki; Kato, Noriyuki; Hirano, Tadanori; Shimono, Takatsugu; Yasuda, Fuyuhiko; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi; Yada, Isao; Takeda, Kan

    2002-06-15

    An 81-year-old woman with ruptured mycotic thoracic aortic aneurysm was treated with endovascular placement of stent-grafts fabricated from expanded polytetrafluoroethylene and Z-stents. Although exclusion of the aneurysm was achieved at the end of the procedure, a type I endoleak developed on the following day.Despite emergent surgical resection of the aneurysm and extra-anatomical reconstruction, the patient died 2 days later. Stent-graft repair may not be a suitable method for the treatment of ruptured mycotic aneurysm in the presence of active infection.

  2. Psychometric Evaluation of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale in Adults with Functional Limitations.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment is an important construct for understanding physical activity participation, and it has not been examined in adults with functional limitations. This secondary analysis reported the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in a convenience sample of 40 adults with functional limitations. The participants completed the PACES, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) prior to beginning a 12-week feasibility dance intervention study. Results indicated reliability as Cronbach's alpha was .95 and mean inter-item correlation was .52. To further support reliability, homogeneity of the instrument was evaluated using item-to-total scale correlations. Homogeneity was supported as all items had corrected item-to-total correlations greater than .30. For validity, the PACES was significantly related to only the Physical Function component of the LLFDI (r = .38, p = .02), but not the CES-D. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 3-factor structure that accounted for 73.76% of the variance. This feasibility intervention dance study represented the first attempt to examine the psychometric properties of the PACES in adults with functional limitations. The findings demonstrate support for the scale's reliability and validity among adults with functional limitations. Results are informative as further psychometric testing of the PACES is recommended using randomized clinical trials with larger sample sizes. Enjoyment for physical activity is an important construct for understanding physical activity participation in adults with functional limitations.

  3. Influence of Time-of-Day on Maximal Exercise Capacity Is Related to Daily Thermal Balance but Not to Induced Neuronal Activity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Frederico S. M.; Fóscolo, Daniela R. C.; Poletini, Maristela O.; Coimbra, Cândido C.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the daily fluctuations of internal body temperature (Tb) and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) interact with the thermal and neuronal adjustments induced by high-intensity aerobic exercise until fatigue. The body temperature and SLA of adult Wistar rats (n = 23) were continuously recorded by telemetry for 48 h. Then, the rats were subjected to a protocol of graded exercise until fatigue or rest on the treadmill during light and dark-phases. Tb, tail skin temperature and ambient temperature during each experimental session were recorded. At the end of the last experimental session, the animals were anaesthetized; the brains were perfused and removed for immunohistochemical analysis of c-fos neuronal activation. The daily rhythms of SLA and Tb were strongly correlated (r = 0.88 and p < 0.001), and this was followed by a daily oscillation in both the ratio and the correlation index between these variables (p < 0.001). Exercise capacity was associated with a lower resting Tb (p < 0.01) and was higher in the light-phase (p < 0.001), resulting in an increased capacity to accumulate heat during exercise (p < 0.01). Independent of time-of-day, high intensity exercise strongly activated the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the supra-optic nucleus (SON) and the locus coeruleus (LC) (p < 0.001) but not the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Taken together, our results points toward a role of the circadian system in a basal activity control of the thermoregulatory system as an important component for the onset of physical activities. In fact, rather than directly limiting the adjustments induced by exercise the present study brings new evidence that the effect of time-of-day on exercise performance occurs at the threshold level for each thermoregulatory system effector activity. This assumption is based on the observed resilience of the central clock to high-intensity exercise and the similarities in exercise

  4. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  5. CEMI Days

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    CEMI Days are an important channel of engagement between DOE and the manufacturing industry to identify challenges and opportunities for increasing U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. CEMI Days that are held at manufacturing companies’ facilities can include tours of R&D operations or other points of interest determined by the host company.

  6. Compliance of physical activity guidelines by chilean low-income children: difference between school and weekend days and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Lorena; Cano, Marcelo; Orellana, Yasna; Kain, Juliana

    2015-05-01

    The main objectives of this study were to compare in 6-9 y Chilean low-income children, daily minutes of moderate/ vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and compliance of the guideline of 60 min of daily MVPA on weekdays versus weekends, by sex and nutritional status (NS). The sample included 250 children (139 boys). Weight and height were measured; MVPA was assessed with NL1000 pedometers during 7 days. The sample was categorized into normal-weight (N) and overweight (OW) according to BMI z score (WHO reference 2007). Comparisons between weekdays and weekends included: a) MVPA by sex, using t-test b) MVPA of N and OW by sex, using ANOVA c) Compliance of guideline by sex and NS, using test of proportions. 66% of the children were OW, accumulating significantly more MVPA on weekdays, 50.5 min versus 40.3; boys more than girls; this result was similar by NS, except for N girls who spent similarly on weekdays as on weekends. Only 33 % boys and 15% girls (p= 0.03) and 17 and 9% (p=0.058) met the guideline on weekdays and weekends respectively, similarly by NS. A very small proportion of children met the MVPA guideline; adopting an active lifestyle is key, considering their high overweight prevalence.

  7. Conceptualization and nursing implications of self-imposed activity limitation among community-dwelling elders.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guifang; Phillips, Linda R

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to explore, from a theoretical perspective, explanations for why some community-dwelling elders self-impose activity limitations (SIALs); to develop an integrated explanation for SIAL from a nursing perspective; and to identify some clinical implications of relevance to public health nursing practice. Activity limitation is an important risk factor for functional decline, morbidity, and mortality among community-dwelling elders. Many studies have focused on disease and environmental influences on activity limitations. The intrinsic processes associated with voluntary or SIAL in old age among otherwise physically and mentally capable elders are poorly understood and little studied. The conceptualization of SIAL provides nurses with an understanding of an understudied aging phenomenon and helps nurses understand how elders see activities related to their life priorities. The conceptual framework will facilitate future qualitative and quantitative study of SIAL, assist nurses in the development of a new gerontological nursing theory, and design of interventions for elders with activity limitations. Public health nurses with a better understanding of SIAL may be able to help elders improve or maintain their independence.

  8. Can We Forecast 1-Month Span Aftershock Activity from the First Day Data after the Main Shock?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omi, T.; Ogata, Y.; Hirata, Y.; Aihara, K.

    2014-12-01

    A large earthquake triggers persistent aftershock activity in and near the focal region. Thus, intermediate term forecasting of aftershocks at its earlier stage is important for mitigating seismic risks. A main difficulty for the early forecasting is the substantial incompleteness of early aftershock data. To deal with such incomplete data, we have developed a statistical model of the incomplete data, enabling us to obtain the immediate estimate of the forecasting models from incomplete data [1, 2]. Another difficulty for the intermediate term forecasting is that we have to determine the parameter values of the forecasting models with high accuracy, because even a small bias in the parameter values can lead to a significant bias of the forecasting in intermediate term. However such accurate estimation is quite difficult at the early stage, especially using the early and incomplete data. Here we present a Bayesian forecasting method by using the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model. The Bayesian forecasting considers not only the best parameter values such as the maximum likelihood estimates or maximum a posteriori estimates but also the estimation uncertainty of the parameter values. By analyzing aftershock sequences in Japan, we show the forecasting performances of the intermediate-term aftershocks can be significantly improved by considering the estimation uncertainty of the ETAS model [3]. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of the modeling of the magnitude frequency distribution of detected aftershocks within a day span on the forecasting of large aftershocks. [1] T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata and K. Aihara, "Forecasting large aftershocks within one day after the main shock", Scientific Reports 3, 2218 (2013). [2] T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata and K. Aihara, "Estimating the ETAS model from an early aftershock sequence", Geophysical Research Letters 41, 850 (2014). [3] T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata and K. Aihara, "Intermediate-term forecasting of aftershocks

  9. Effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on immediate and subsequent three-day food intake and energy expenditure in active and inactive men.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of an acute bout of low-intensity cycling on food intake and energy expenditure over four days. Thirty healthy, active (n=15) and inactive (n=15) men completed two conditions (exercise and control), in a randomised crossover fashion. The exercise experimental day involved cycling for one hour at an intensity equivalent to 50% of maximum oxygen uptake and two hours of rest. The control condition comprised three hours of rest. Participants arrived at the laboratory fasted overnight; breakfast was standardised and an ad libitum pasta lunch was consumed on each experimental day. Participants kept a food diary and wore an Actiheart to estimate energy intake and expenditure for the remainder of the experimental days and over the subsequent 3 days. Ad libitum lunch energy intake did not differ between conditions (p=0.32, d=0.18) or groups (p=0.43, d=0.27). Energy intake in the active group was greater on the exercise experimental day than on the control experimental day (mean difference=2070 kJ; 95% CI 397 to 3743 kJ, p=0.024, d=0.56) while in the inactive group it was increased on only the third day after exercise (mean difference=2225 kJ; 95% CI 414 to 4036 kJ, p=0.024, d=0.80). There was only a group effect (p=0.032, d=0.89) for free-living energy expenditure, indicating that active participants expended more energy than inactive over this period. Acute low-intensity exercise did not affect energy intake at the meal immediately after exercise, but induces an acute (within the experimental day) and delayed (third day after the experimental day) increase in energy intake in active and inactive participants, respectively with no compensatory changes to daily energy expenditure. These results suggest that active individuals compensate for an acute exercise-induced energy deficit quicker than inactive individuals.

  10. 49 CFR 173.431 - Activity limits for Type A and Type B packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activity limits for Type A and Type B packages. 173.431 Section 173.431 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS...

  11. 10 CFR 52.91 - Authorization to conduct limited work authorization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... determination required by 10 CFR 50.10(e), and the Director of New Reactors or the Director of Nuclear Reactor... activities. 52.91 Section 52.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.91 Authorization to conduct limited...

  12. 10 CFR 52.91 - Authorization to conduct limited work authorization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... determination required by 10 CFR 50.10(e), and the Director of New Reactors or the Director of Nuclear Reactor... activities. 52.91 Section 52.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.91 Authorization to conduct limited...

  13. 78 FR 56859 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Limited Production Activity, Honeywell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 75--Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Limited Production Activity, Honeywell Aerospace, Inc. (Aircraft Engines, Systems and Components), Phoenix and Tempe, Arizona On May 3, 2013, the City of Phoenix, grantee of FTZ 75, submitted a notification of...

  14. 10 CFR 52.91 - Authorization to conduct limited work authorization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... determination required by 10 CFR 50.10(e), and the Director of New Reactors or the Director of Nuclear Reactor... activities. 52.91 Section 52.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.91 Authorization to conduct limited...

  15. 10 CFR 52.91 - Authorization to conduct limited work authorization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... determination required by 10 CFR 50.10(e), and the Director of New Reactors or the Director of Nuclear Reactor... activities. 52.91 Section 52.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.91 Authorization to conduct limited...

  16. 10 CFR 52.91 - Authorization to conduct limited work authorization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... determination required by 10 CFR 50.10(e), and the Director of New Reactors or the Director of Nuclear Reactor... activities. 52.91 Section 52.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.91 Authorization to conduct limited...

  17. [Measurement and characteristics of pain after episiotomy and its relationship with the activity limitations].

    PubMed

    Beleza, Ana Carolina Sartorato; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge; Sousa, Ligia de; Nakano, Ana Márcia Spanó

    2012-01-01

    This is a descriptive study, involving fifty women after vaginal delivery with episiotomy. The study aimed to measure and to characterize the perineal pain in primiparae who have had a natural childbirth with episiotomy and to verify the activities limited by the perineal pain. For evaluation of perineal pain, a Numeric Scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire were used, as well as another questionnaire to analyze the activities limited. In the Numeric Scale, the median of perineal pain referred were five. The sensory and subjective evaluation categories were the most selected in the McGill questionnaire. The perineal pain was characterized as pulsing, pulling, hot, stinging, hurting, annoying, troublesome, tight and tense. The most limited activities were sitting, laying down (onto the bed), and walking. In conclusion, it was possible to verify the presence of perineal pain between women in the postpartum period caused by episiotomy and identify the activities of sitting, lying down and walking were limited for this symptom.

  18. A Systematic Review of Measures of Activity Limitation for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Adrienne; Robin, Jonathan; Morris, Meg E.; Graham, H. Kerr; Baker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review critically appraises the literature on the psychometric properties and clinical utility of evaluative activity limitation outcome measures used for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The search strategy yielded 29 articles for eight outcome measures that met the inclusion criteria for the review. The Gross Motor Function…

  19. High energy runaway electron transport deduced from photonuclear activation of the PLT limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.W.; Stavely, J.M. Jr.; Strachan, J.D.

    1981-07-01

    In large tokamaks, runaway electrons may be accelerated up to energies over 20 MeV by the toroidal electric field. When these particles leave the plasma, they impact the material limiters and emit bremsstrahlung hard x-rays. This bremsstrahlung may cause photonuclear reactions in the limiter, leaving radioisotopes behind. Both the amount of activation and its spatial distribution on the limiter provide information on the confinement of high energy electrons. The stainless steel poloidal ring limiter from the Princeton Large Torus has been analyzed and six observable photonuclear reactions with energy thresholds have been found for the reactions varying from 8 to 23 MeV. The amount of activation from each reaction determines the average number of runaway electrons above each activation threshold energy. The inferred runaway electron population decreases exponentially with energy as exp (-E/3.2 MeV) implying an energetic runaway electron confinement time of 50 to 80 msec. The poloidal variation of the activation can be described by a 0.02 cm scrape-off layer step size which implies about a 90 msec confinement time.

  20. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-3T - Private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... City Q in any prior year made a carryforward election for the pollution control facility, (v) The... containing constitutional home rule cities. Q-2: What is the private activity bond limit for a State agency... create an issuing authority empowered to issue obligations to provide pollution control facilities...

  1. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-3T - Private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... City Q in any prior year made a carryforward election for the pollution control facility, (v) The... containing constitutional home rule cities. Q-2: What is the private activity bond limit for a State agency... create an issuing authority empowered to issue obligations to provide pollution control facilities...

  2. Career Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's 2013 Career Days was a joint collaboration between NASA Langley and the Newport News Shipbuilding where 600 high school students from Virginia took on two design challenges -- designing a ca...

  3. Evidence that calcineurin is rate-limiting for primary human lymphocyte activation.

    PubMed Central

    Batiuk, T D; Kung, L; Halloran, P F

    1997-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CsA) is both a clinical immunosuppressive drug and a probe to dissect intracellular signaling pathways. In vitro, CsA inhibits lymphocyte gene activation by inhibiting the phosphatase activity of calcineurin (CN). In clinical use, CsA treatment inhibits 50-75% of CN activity in circulating leukocytes. We modeled this degree of CN inhibition in primary human leukocytes in vitro in order to study the effect of partial CN inhibition on the downstream signaling events that lead to gene activation. In CsA-treated leukocytes stimulated by calcium ionophore, the degree of reduction in CN activity was accompanied by a similar degree of inhibition of each event tested: dephosphorylation of nuclear factor of activated T cell proteins, nuclear DNA binding, activation of a transfected reporter gene construct, IFN-gamma and IL-2 mRNA accumulation, and IFN-gamma production. Furthermore, the degree of CN inhibition was reflected by a similar degree of reduction in lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma production in the allogeneic mixed lymphocyte cultures. These data support the conclusion that CN activity is rate-limiting for the activation of primary human T lymphocytes. Thus, the reduction of CN activity observed in CsA-treated patients is accompanied by a similar degree of reduction in lymphocyte gene activation, and accounts for the immunosuppression observed. PMID:9312192

  4. Self-efficacy: Implications for Physical Activity, Function, and Functional Limitations in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Edward; Szabo, Amanda; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.

    2013-01-01

    Attenuating the physical decline and increases in disability associated with the aging process is an important public health priority. Evidence suggests that regular physical activity participation improves functional performance, such as walking, standing balance, flexibility, and getting up out of a chair, and also plays an important role in the disablement process by providing a protective effect against functional limitations. Whether these effects are direct or indirect has yet to be reliably established. In this review, the authors take the perspective that such relationships are indirect and operate through self-efficacy expectations. They first provide an introduction to social cognitive theory followed by an overview of self-efficacy's reciprocal relationship with physical activity. They then consider the literature that documents the effects of physical activity on functional performance and functional limitations in older adults and the extent to which self-efficacy might mediate these relationships. Furthermore, they also present evidence that suggests that self-efficacy plays a pivotal role in a model in which the protective effects conferred by physical activity on functional limitations operate through functional performance. The article concludes with a brief section making recommendations for the development of strategies within physical activity and rehabilitative programs for maximizing the major sources of efficacy information. PMID:24353482

  5. A complicated story of frost and wind: Present-day gully activity within the north polar erg, Mar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniega, Serina; Hansen, Candice; Allen, Amanda; Grisby, Nathan; Li, Zheyu Joey

    2016-10-01

    Analyses of high-resolution observations have shown that the dunes within the martian north polar erg (AKA Olympia Undae) are currently very active on seasonal and yearly timescales, with 20-60% of the dunes within five polar dune fields undergoing the formation of alcove-apron features each Mars year. Previous studies have hypothesized formation mechanisms, based on observations of when new alcove and alcove-apron features form within an individual field through one Mars year. However, results are ill-constrained (and thus different hypotheses have been proposed) as the polar hood and winter night mean very few images are taken during the actual period of activity. In this study, we mitigate this limitation by examining several fields over several Mars years -- thus bringing aggregated results as well as detailed correlation checks against environmental conditions and seasonal processes to bear on the problem. From this, we propose a new process that appears consistent with all observations: (1) small alcoves form along the dune brink in the autumn (under the polar hood) due to instabilities induced by the night-formation and morning-sublimation of frost. As autumn progresses, the seasonal frost layer builds over the altered dune slope. (2) In the early spring, sublimation activity is concentrated and/or enhanced over these alcoves, causing further erosion and the formation of larger alcove-apron features. From the planform dimensions of the newly formed alcoves, we can estimate the volume of sand moved down the dune slope during one period of activity and estimate the aeolian sediment flux by looking at how quickly the alcoves are erased. We find that, over a Mars year, the amount of material moved via alcove-apron activity and via the wind are both comparable to aeolian sand flux estimates over dunes within lower-latitude regions of Mars. Thus it appears that the formation of alcoves-aprons is a significant mechanism for dune advancement and evolution within the

  6. Recognizing a limitation of the TBLC-activated peroxide system on low-temperature cotton bleaching.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhua; Wang, Lun; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Jingjing; Sun, Chang; Xu, Changhai

    2016-04-20

    In this study, cotton was bleached at low temperatures with an activated peroxide system which was established by incorporating a bleach activator, namely, N-[4-(triethylammoniomethyl)benzoyl]caprolactam chloride (TBCC) into an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Experimental results showed that the bleaching performance was unexpectedly diminished as the TBCC concentration was increased over the range of 25-100g/L. Kinetic adsorption experiment indicated that this was most likely ascribed to the adsorptive interactions of TBCC and the in situ-generated compounds with cotton fibers. Such a limitation was especially fatal to cold pad-batch bleaching process of cotton in which a high TBCC concentration was often required. The results of this study may stimulate further research to avoid or overcome the limitation of the TBCC-activated peroxide system on low-temperature cotton bleaching.

  7. Glycerol enhances fungal germination at the water-activity limit for life.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Andrew; Hamill, Philip G; Medina, Ángel; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Timson, David J; Magan, Naresh; Leong, Su-Lin L; Hallsworth, John E

    2017-03-01

    For the most-extreme fungal xerophiles, metabolic activity and cell division typically halts between 0.700 and 0.640 water activity (approximately 70.0-64.0% relative humidity). Here, we investigate whether glycerol can enhance xerophile germination under acute water-activity regimes, using an experimental system which represents the biophysical limit of Earth's biosphere. Spores from a variety of species, including Aspergillus penicillioides, Eurotium halophilicum, Xerochrysium xerophilum (formerly Chrysosporium xerophilum) and Xeromyces bisporus, were produced by cultures growing on media supplemented with glycerol (and contained up to 189 mg glycerol g dry spores(-1) ). The ability of these spores to germinate, and the kinetics of germination, were then determined on a range of media designed to recreate stresses experienced in microbial habitats or anthropogenic systems (with water-activities from 0.765 to 0.575). For A. penicillioides, Eurotium amstelodami, E. halophilicum, X. xerophilum and X. bisporus, germination occurred at lower water-activities than previously recorded (0.640, 0.685, 0.651, 0.664 and 0.637 respectively). In addition, the kinetics of germination at low water-activities were substantially faster than those reported previously. Extrapolations indicated theoretical water-activity minima below these values; as low as 0.570 for A. penicillioides and X. bisporus. Glycerol is present at high concentrations (up to molar levels) in many types of microbial habitat. We discuss the likely role of glycerol in expanding the water-activity limit for microbial cell function in relation to temporal constraints and location of the microbial cell or habitat. The findings reported here have also critical implications for understanding the extremes of Earth's biosphere; for understanding the potency of disease-causing microorganisms; and in biotechnologies that operate at the limits of microbial function.

  8. Glycerol enhances fungal germination at the water‐activity limit for life

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Andrew; Hamill, Philip G.; Medina, Ángel; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Timson, David J.; Magan, Naresh; Leong, Su‐Lin L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary For the most‐extreme fungal xerophiles, metabolic activity and cell division typically halts between 0.700 and 0.640 water activity (approximately 70.0–64.0% relative humidity). Here, we investigate whether glycerol can enhance xerophile germination under acute water‐activity regimes, using an experimental system which represents the biophysical limit of Earth's biosphere. Spores from a variety of species, including Aspergillus penicillioides, Eurotium halophilicum, Xerochrysium xerophilum (formerly Chrysosporium xerophilum) and Xeromyces bisporus, were produced by cultures growing on media supplemented with glycerol (and contained up to 189 mg glycerol g dry spores−1). The ability of these spores to germinate, and the kinetics of germination, were then determined on a range of media designed to recreate stresses experienced in microbial habitats or anthropogenic systems (with water‐activities from 0.765 to 0.575). For A. penicillioides, Eurotium amstelodami, E. halophilicum, X. xerophilum and X. bisporus, germination occurred at lower water‐activities than previously recorded (0.640, 0.685, 0.651, 0.664 and 0.637 respectively). In addition, the kinetics of germination at low water‐activities were substantially faster than those reported previously. Extrapolations indicated theoretical water‐activity minima below these values; as low as 0.570 for A. penicillioides and X. bisporus. Glycerol is present at high concentrations (up to molar levels) in many types of microbial habitat. We discuss the likely role of glycerol in expanding the water‐activity limit for microbial cell function in relation to temporal constraints and location of the microbial cell or habitat. The findings reported here have also critical implications for understanding the extremes of Earth's biosphere; for understanding the potency of disease‐causing microorganisms; and in biotechnologies that operate at the limits of microbial function. PMID:27631633

  9. Hard magnetohydrodynamic limit in 1/3 sawtooth like activity in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Varela, J.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ohdachi, S.; Narushima, Y.

    2014-03-15

    The optimization of LHD discharges in inward-shifted configurations with 1/3 sawtooth like activity is an open issue. These relaxation events limit the LHD performance driving a periodic plasma deconfinement. The aim of this study is to analyze the 1/3 sawtooth like activity in plasmas with different stability properties to foreseen the best operation conditions and minimize its undesired effects. We summarize the results of several MHD simulations for plasmas with Lundquist numbers between 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} in the slow reconnection regime, studying the equilibria properties during the onset of a chain of 1/3 sawtooth like events. The research conclusions point out that the hard MHD limit can be reached in the inner plasma region after the onset of a strong 1/3 resonant sawtooth like event and trigger a plasma collapse. The collapse can be avoided if the system remains in the soft MHD limit, namely, in a regime with a pressure gradient and a magnetic turbulence below the critical values to drive the soft-hard MHD transition. In the soft MHD limit the system relaxations are the non resonant 1/3 sawtooth like events or a weak version of the 1/3 resonant sawtooth like events. A system relaxation in the soft MHD regime drives a minor plasma deconfinement that does not limit the LHD performance if the event periodicity is not very high.

  10. Limit cycle analysis of active disturbance rejection control system with two nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Chen, Ken

    2014-07-01

    Introduction of nonlinearities to active disturbance rejection control algorithm might have high control efficiency in some situations, but makes the systems with complex nonlinearity. Limit cycle is a typical phenomenon that can be observed in the nonlinear systems, usually causing failure or danger of the systems. This paper approaches the problem of the existence of limit cycles of a second-order fast tool servo system using active disturbance rejection control algorithm with two fal nonlinearities. A frequency domain approach is presented by using describing function technique and transfer function representation to characterize the nonlinear system. The derivations of the describing functions for fal nonlinearities and treatment of two nonlinearities connected in series are given to facilitate the limit cycles analysis. The effects of the parameters of both the nonlinearity and the controller on the limit cycles are presented, indicating that the limit cycles caused by the nonlinearities can be easily suppressed if the parameters are chosen carefully. Simulations in the time domain are performed to assess the prediction accuracy based on the describing function.

  11. Radiometric Quantification of Aurora Activities during Severe Geomagnetic Storms from SNPP VIIRS Day-Night Band Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Cao, C.; Liu, T. C.; Zhang, B.; Fung, S. F.; Sharma, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Two severe geomagnetic storms of level G4 occurred so far in 2015. These are among the strongest geomagnetic storms of the current solar cycle (Solar Cycle 24). Both reached G4-Severe level (Kp = 8) on March 17, 2015 and on June 22, 2015, respectively. The March 17 geomagnetic storm is identified as due to the Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) which erupted on March 15 from Region 2297 of solar surface. Combined effects of three CMEs produced on June 18, 19 and 21 caused G4-Severe geomagnetic storm on June 22, 2015. During these geomagnetic storms, solar wind interacts with the Earth's magnetic field and causes temporary disturbances of the Earth's magnetosphere and aurora may be seen in low latitude region. The Day Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi-NPP represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities. The DNB senses radiance spanning 7 orders of magnitude in one (0.5-0.9 μm) reflective solar band and provides imagery over illumination levels ranging from full sunlight to quarter moon. In this paper, DNB observations of aurora activities during the two geomagnetic storm events are analyzed. During these events, auroras are observed to evolve with salient features by DNB during orbital pass on the night side (~local time 1:30am) in both hemispheres. The radiometricly calibrated DNB observations allow us to quantitatively analyze the large-scale spatial distribution and temporal evolution of aurora during the geomagnetic storms. The radiance data from DNB observation are collected at the night sides of both hemispheres during the two events and geo-located onto geomagnetic local time (MLT) coordinates. Regions of aurora during each orbital pass are identified through image processing by contouring radiance values and excluding regions with stray light near day-night terminator. The evolution of aurora are characterized with time series of the poleward and low latitude boundary of aurora, their

  12. Regional Heat Sources and the Active and Break Phases of Boreal Summer Intraseasonal (30-50 Day) Variability(.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annamalai, H.; Sperber, K. R.

    2005-08-01

    The boreal summer intraseasonal variability (BSISV) associated with the 30-50-day mode is represented by the coexistence of three components: poleward propagation of convection over the Indian and tropical west Pacific longitudes and eastward propagation along the equator. The hypothesis that the three components influence each other has been investigated using observed outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, and solutions from an idealized linear model. The null hypothesis is that the three components are mutually independent. Cyclostationary EOF (CsEOF) analysis is applied on filtered OLR to extract the life cycle of the BSISV. The dominant CsEOF mode is significantly tied to the observed spatial rainfall pattern associated with the active/break phases over the Indian subcontinent. The components of the heating patterns from CsEOF analysis serve as prescribed forcings for the dry version of the linear model. This allows one to investigate the possible roles that the regional heat sources and sinks play in driving the large-scale monsoon circulation at various stages of the BSISV life cycle. To understand the interactive nature between convection and circulation, the moist version of the model is forced with intraseasonal SST anomalies.The linear models reproduce the major features of the BSISV seen in the reanalysis. The linear model suggests three new findings: (i) The circulation anomalies that develop as a Rossby wave response to suppressed convection over the equatorial Indian Ocean associated with the previous break phase of the BSISV results in low-level convergence and tropospheric moisture enhancement over the equatorial western Indian Ocean and helps trigger the next active phase of the BSISV. (ii) The development of convection over the tropical west Pacific forces descent anomalies to the west. This, in conjunction with the weakened cross-equatorial flow due to suppressed convective anomalies over the equatorial Indian Ocean, reduces

  13. Factors That Moderate Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction in People With Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Goverover, Yael; Strober, Lauren; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2015-01-01

    We examined the variables most associated with activity limitation (i.e., cooking) and participation restriction (i.e., employment) in 72 people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery assessing memory, executive functions, visual perception, and processing speed and completed questionnaires assessing activity, participation, fatigue, and affective symptoms. Results showed that processing speed was the only variable consistently significantly related to both activity and participation. When examining specific aspects of activity and participation in isolation, employment status was significantly associated with education level, visual memory, fatigue, and processing speed. Cooking ability was associated with performance on tasks of working memory, verbal memory, and processing speed. These findings suggest that processing speed is a primary cognitive factor in MS influencing quality of both activity and participation in everyday life.

  14. Transform-limited pulses generated by an actively Q-switched distributed fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Laborde, C; Pérez-Millán, P; Andrés, M V; Díez, A; Cruz, J L; Barmenkov, Yu O

    2008-11-15

    A single-mode, transform-limited, actively Q-switched distributed-feedback fiber laser is presented, based on a new in-line acoustic pulse generator. Our technique permits a continuous adjustment of the repetition rate that modulates the Q factor of the cavity. Optical pulses of 800 mW peak power, 32 ns temporal width, and up to 20 kHz repetition rates were obtained. The measured linewidth demonstrates that these pulses are transform limited: 6 MHz for a train of pulses of 10 kHz repetition rate, 80 ns temporal width, and 60 mW peak power. Efficient excitation of spontaneous Brillouin scattering is demonstrated.

  15. Effect of high-dose phytase supplementation in broilers from 22 to 42 days post-hatch given diets severely limited in available phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Taheri, H R; Heidari, A; Shahir, M H

    2015-01-01

    1. Two trials were conducted from 22 to 42 d post-hatch to evaluate the effectiveness of high concentrations of supplemental phytase in maize-soya bean meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (P). Growth performance, plasma P and tibia ash (TA) were measured. 2. Each trial used 220 21-d-old male broilers in 20 pens with 11 birds per pen. Dietary treatments included a positive control [PC, 4.3 g/kg nonphytate P (NPP)], negative control [NC, 2.3 g/kg NPP (Trial 1) or 1.4 g/kg NPP (Trial 2)] and NC plus 1000, 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg of the diet. 3. Birds fed on the PC diet had higher average daily gain (ADG), gain to feed ratio (G:F), plasma P (Trials 1 and 2) and TA (Trial 2) than those fed on the NC. 4. In Trial 1, ADG and G:F values of the NC plus 1000, 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg reached those of the PC. Plasma P values of the NC plus 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg reached that of the PC. Although TA values of the NC, NC + 1000 or NC + 2000 reached that of the PC, TA of the NC + 4000 was more than that of the PC. 5. In Trial 2, ADG and G:F values of the NC plus 4000 phytase U/kg reached those of the PC; nevertheless, plasma P values of the NC diets did not come up to that of the PC. While TA values of the NC, NC + 1000 or NC + 2000 did not reach that of the PC, TA of the NC + 4000 was greater than that of the PC. 6. Results of this study showed that, in the diets with 2.3 and 1.4 g/kg NPP, respectively, 1000 and 4000 phytase U/kg can be sufficient to obtain a comparable performance in broilers to those given diets adequate in available P.

  16. Study of Day, Month and Season Pedometer-Determined Variability of Physical Activity of High School Pupils in The Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Pelclová, Jana; Walid, El Ansari; Vašícková, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Long-term day-to-day monitoring of physical activity (PA) has not been undertaken in adolescents despite PA declines rapidly during adolescence. This study monitored the school year-round pedometer-determined PA of pupils attending high school in the Czech Republic. We assessed their PA levels; appraised the school year-round variability of their PA; and, assessed the associations between their PA levels and weekdays/weekends; months; seasons; and physical education (PE) lessons at school. We observed the PA levels of 10 girls and 2 boys (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years). Each pupil wore an unsealed pedometer (Omron HJ-105) on the right side of the waist continuously for one year, and recorded steps/day and daily behaviour (e.g. after-school PA, PE lesson) into an activity diary. In total, participants recorded step counts for 2,979 person- days (82.0% of a possible 3,628 person-days). We used the Missing Values Analysis EM function of SPSS to estimate step values that were missing from the dataset. The sample’s mean daily step count was 14,727 ± 6,612 steps/day, and repeated ANOVA showed differences in steps/day across the days of the week (p < 0.0001), months (p < 0.0001) and seasons (p < 0.0001). The mean number of steps/day for weekdays (15,733 ± 6,354) was higher (p < 0.0001) than weekends values (12,196 ± 6,574), and was higher for days with PE lesson (17,280 ± 5,988) than for days without PE lesson (15,569 ± 6,318) (p < 0.0001). The total contribution of PE class (90 minutes) to pupils’ daily PA was 10.0% additional steps per PE day. In conclusion, this study contributes to understanding the day-to-day PA variability of adolescent pupils across the school year. Across all months and seasons, pupils achieved notably more steps on weekdays than on weekends; and on PE days than on non-PE days. Research is required to assess these findings for school pupils in other countries. Key points Pedometer appears to be suitable for long-term monitoring of physical

  17. Science Challenge Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The…

  18. Influence of the day care, home and neighbourhood environment on young children's physical activity and health: protocol for the PLAYCE observational study

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Hayley; Maitland, Clover; Enkel, Stephanie; Trapp, Georgina; Trost, Stewart G; Schipperijn, Jasper; Boruff, Bryan; Lester, Leanne; Rosenberg, Michael; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The early years are a critical period in a child's health and development, yet most preschool children fail to meet physical activity guidelines. Outside of the home and neighbourhood, children spend a large proportion of time within early childhood education and care (ECEC) services such as long day care. Research is required to determine how the design of day care outdoor (and indoor) spaces provides opportunities or constraints for physical activity. A significant evidence gap surrounds what objectively measured attributes of the home and neighbourhood environment influence preschoolers’ physical activity. The PLAY Spaces & Environments for Children's Physical Activity (PLAYCE) study will empirically investigate the relative and cumulative influence of the day care, home and neighbourhood environment on preschoolers’ physical activity. Methods and analysis The PLAYCE study is a cross-sectional observational study (April 2015 to April 2018) of 2400 children aged 2–5 years attending long day care in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Accelerometers will measure physical activity with indoor physical activity measured using radio frequency identification. Global positioning systems will be used to determine outdoor location of physical activity around the home and neighbourhood for a subsample (n=310). The day care environment will be objectively measured using a validated audit tool. Other potential individual, social and physical environmental influences on preschoolers’ physical activity will be collected by geographic information systems measures, parent and day care educator surveys. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been granted by The University of Western Australia Human Ethics Research Committee, approval number RA/4/1/7417. Findings will be published in international peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. Key findings will be disseminated to stakeholders, collaborators, policymakers and

  19. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  20. Limits on information transduction through amplitude and frequency regulation of transcription factor activity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anders S; O'Shea, Erin K

    2015-05-18

    Signaling pathways often transmit multiple signals through a single shared transcription factor (TF) and encode signal information by differentially regulating TF dynamics. However, signal information will be lost unless it can be reliably decoded by downstream genes. To understand the limits on dynamic information transduction, we apply information theory to quantify how much gene expression information the yeast TF Msn2 can transduce to target genes in the amplitude or frequency of its activation dynamics. We find that although the amount of information transmitted by Msn2 to single target genes is limited, information transduction can be increased by modulating promoter cis-elements or by integrating information from multiple genes. By correcting for extrinsic noise, we estimate an upper bound on information transduction. Overall, we find that information transduction through amplitude and frequency regulation of Msn2 is limited to error-free transduction of signal identity, but not signal intensity information.

  1. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business...

  2. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business...

  3. Growth and alkaline phosphatase activity of Chattonella marina and Heterosigma akashiwo in response to phosphorus limitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Hui; Liang, Yu

    2015-02-01

    The growth and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) of two raphidophyceae species Chattonella marina and Heterosigma akashiwo were investigated in response to P-limitation and subsequent addition of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP, NaH2PO4) and two dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) compounds: guanosine 5-monophosphate (GMP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP). APA levels increased greatly after P-starvation as the decrease of the cellular phosphorus quotes (Qp). C. marina responded to P-limitation quickly and strongly, with 10-fold increase in APA within 24 hr after P-starvation. The larger difference between maximal and minimal QP values in C. marina indicated its high capacity in P storage. APA of H. akashiwo was maximally enlarged about 2.5 times at 48 hr of P-starvation. After the addition of nutrients, cell numbers of C. marina increased in all treatments including the P-free culture, demonstrating the higher endurance of C. marina to P-limitation. However, those of H. akashiwo increased only in DIP and GMP cultures. APA increased only after the addition of the monophosphate ester GMP. The results suggest that quick responses of C. marina to P-limitation, high capacity in P storage as well as endurance for P-depletion provide this species an ecological advantage in phytoplankton community competition under DIP-limited conditions.

  4. Passive dosing of soil invertebrates with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: limited chemical activity explains toxicity cutoff.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Philipp; Holmstrup, Martin

    2008-10-01

    The partitioning of organic soil pollutants into soil organisms is driven by their chemical activity, which normally does not exceed that of the pure pollutant. Passive dosing with the silicone poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was used to initiate and maintain the maximum chemical activity of 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in toxicity tests with the springtail Folsomia candida. The test animals could move freely on the PDMS saturated with PAHs, resulting in direct contact and exposure to saturated air. After 7 days, springtail lethality correlated neither with the octanol-water partition coefficients of the PAHs nor with their molecular size, but with their melting point All low-melting PAHs (T(M) < or = 110 degrees C) caused 100% lethality, whereas all high-melting PAHs (TM > or = 180 degrees C) caused no significant lethality. The lethality was successfully fitted to one chemical activity response curve for all PAHs tested, with effective chemical activity causing 50% lethality (Ea-50) of 0.058. It was also fitted to the PAH concentration in the PDMS, resulting in an EC(PDMS)-50 of 8.7 mM. Finally, the combined exposure to anthracene and pyrene was described by the sum of chemical activities causing lethality, in good agreement with the chemical activity-response curve obtained.

  5. Increased Brain Activation for Foot Movement During 70-Day 6 Deg Head-Down Bed Rest (HDBR): Evidence from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, P.; Koppelmans, V.; Cassady, K.; Cooke, K.; De Dios, Y. E.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; Riascos-Castaneda, R.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been widely used as a simulation of weightlessness in studying the effects of microgravity exposure on human physiology and cognition. Changes in muscle function and functional mobility have been reported to be associated with bed rest. Understanding the effect of bed rest on neural control of movement would provide helpful information for spaceflight. In the current study, we evaluated how the brain activation for foot movement changed as a function of bed rest. Eighteen healthy men (aged 25 to 39 years) participated in this HDBR study. They remained continuously in the 6deg head-down tilt position for 70 days. Functional MRI was acquired during 1-Hz right foot tapping, and repeated at 7 time points: 12 days pre-, 8 days pre-, 7 days in-, 50 days in-, 70 days in-, 8 days post-, and 12 days post- HDBR. In all 7 sessions, we observed increased activation in the left motor cortex, right cerebellum and right occipital cortex during foot movement blocks compared to rest. Compared to the pre-HDBR baseline (1st and 2nd sessions), foot movement-induced activation in the left hippocampus increased during HDBR. This increase emerged in the 4th session, enlarged in the 5th session, and remained significant in the 6th and 7th sessions. Furthermore, increased activation relative to the baseline in left precuneus was observed in the 5th, 6th and 7th sessions. In addition, in comparison with baseline, increased activation in the left cerebellum was found in the 4th and 5th sessions, whereas increased activation in the right cerebellum was observed in the 4th, 6th and 7th sessions. No brain region exhibited decreased activation during bed rest compared to baseline. The increase of foot movement related brain activation during HDBR suggests that in a long-term head-down position, more neural control is needed to accomplish foot movements. This change required a couple of weeks to develop in HDBR (between 3rd and 4th sessions), and did not return to baseline even 12

  6. Cumulated activities determined from biodistribution data in pregnant rats ranging from 13 to 21 days gestation. I. Tc-99m pertechnetate.

    PubMed

    Wegst, A V; Goin, J E; Robinson, R G

    1983-01-01

    Cumulated activity estimates for Tc-99m pertechnetate were determined using biodistribution data from pregnant and nonpregnant rats. The pregnant rats were studied at 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 days gestation. The results indicate that maternal organ cumulated activities are not a simple function of gestational age. The organs into which Tc-99m pertechnetate enters through passive diffusion follow the pattern established by the blood, generally resulting in an increase from the 13th through the 17th day with a decrease on the 19th and 21st day. The organs dominated by active transport follow unique and different patterns. The fetal cumulated activity estimates increased exponentially with gestational age and the placental estimates increased linearly.

  7. A 90-day repeated dose oral (gavage) toxicity study of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) in rats (with functional observational battery and motor activity determinations).

    PubMed

    Chengelis, Christopher P; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie B; Radovsky, Ann; Shinohara, Motoki

    2009-06-01

    Possible toxic effects of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) were evaluated when administered orally by gavage to rats at levels up to 200mg/kg/day for 90 days. Lower body weight gains were noted in the 10, 50 and 200mg/kg/day group males (not dose-responsive) throughout dosing. Other changes included lower red blood cell parameters, higher reticulocyte counts and lower globulin in the 200mg/kg/day group males and females, higher liver enzymes in males at 50 and 200mg/kg/day, lower total protein and higher albumin/globulin ratio, and lower cholesterol, calcium in males at 200mg/kg/day. Minimal centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy was present in 200mg/kg/day group males and correlated with higher liver weights and slightly higher peroxisome beta oxidation activity at the end of the dosing period. Based on liver histopathology and liver weight changes, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for oral administration was 50mg/kg/day for males and 200mg/kg/day for females.

  8. Activator of G-Protein Signaling 3-Induced Lysosomal Biogenesis Limits Macrophage Intracellular Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Vural, Ali; Al-Khodor, Souhaila; Cheung, Gordon Y C; Shi, Chong-Shan; Srinivasan, Lalitha; McQuiston, Travis J; Hwang, Il-Young; Yeh, Anthony J; Blumer, Joe B; Briken, Volker; Williamson, Peter R; Otto, Michael; Fraser, Iain D C; Kehrl, John H

    2016-01-15

    Many intracellular pathogens cause disease by subverting macrophage innate immune defense mechanisms. Intracellular pathogens actively avoid delivery to or directly target lysosomes, the major intracellular degradative organelle. In this article, we demonstrate that activator of G-protein signaling 3 (AGS3), an LPS-inducible protein in macrophages, affects both lysosomal biogenesis and activity. AGS3 binds the Gi family of G proteins via its G-protein regulatory (GoLoco) motif, stabilizing the Gα subunit in its GDP-bound conformation. Elevated AGS3 levels in macrophages limited the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, a sensor of cellular nutritional status. This triggered the nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB, a known activator of lysosomal gene transcription. In contrast, AGS3-deficient macrophages had increased mammalian target of rapamycin activity, reduced transcription factor EB activity, and a lower lysosomal mass. High levels of AGS3 in macrophages enhanced their resistance to infection by Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, whereas AGS3-deficient macrophages were more susceptible. We conclude that LPS priming increases AGS3 levels, which enhances lysosomal function and increases the capacity of macrophages to eliminate intracellular pathogens.

  9. Limiting concentrations of activated mononucleotides necessary for poly(C)-directed elongation of oligoguanylates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Chang, S.; Alberas, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Selected imidazolide-activated nucleotides have been subjected to hydrolysis under conditions similar to those that favor their template-directed oligomerization. Rate constants of hydrolysis of the P-N bond in guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) and in guanosine 5'-monophosphate imidazolide (ImpG), kh, have been determined in the presence/absence of magnesium ion as a function of temperature and polycytidylate [poly(C)] concentration. Using the rate constant of hydrolysis of 2-MeImpG and the rate constant of elongation, i.e., the reaction of an oligoguanylate with 2-MeImpG in the presence of poly(C) acting as template, the limiting concentration of 2-MeImpG necessary for oligonucleotide elongation to compete with hydrolysis can be calculated. The limiting concentration is defined as the initial concentration of monomer that results in its equal consumption by hydrolysis and by elongation. These limiting concentrations of 2-MeImpG are found to be 1.7 mM at 37 degrees C and 0.36 mM at 1 degrees C. Boundary conditions in the form of limiting concentration of activated nucleotide may be used to evaluate a prebiotic model for chemical synthesis of biopolymers. For instance, the limiting concentration of monomer can be used as a basis of comparison among catalytic, but nonenzymatic, RNA-type systems. We also determined the rate constant of dimerization of 2-MeImpG, k2 = 0.45 +/- 0.06 M-1 h-1 in the absence of poly(C), and 0.45 +/- 0.06 less than or equal to k2 less than or equal to 0.97 +/- 0.13 M-1 h-1 in its presence at 37 degrees C and pH 7.95.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  10. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Limits Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Activation in B Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Erik R.; Koganti, Siva; Zhi, Jizu; Megyola, Cynthia; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Tangye, Stuart G.; Farrell, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Lytic activation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is central to its life cycle and to most EBV-related diseases. However, not every EBV-infected B cell is susceptible to lytic activation. This lack of uniform susceptibility to lytic activation also directly impacts the success of viral oncolytic therapy for EBV cancers, yet determinants of susceptibility to lytic induction signals are not well understood. To determine if host factors influence susceptibility to EBV lytic activation, we developed a technique to separate lytic from refractory cells and reported that EBV lytic activation occurs preferentially in cells with lower levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Using this tool to detect single cells, we now extend the correlation between STAT3 and lytic versus refractory states to EBV-infected circulating B cells in patients with primary EBV infection, leading us to investigate whether STAT3 controls susceptibility to EBV lytic activation. In loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies in EBV-positive B lymphoma and lymphoblastoid cells, we found that the levels of functional STAT3 regulate susceptibility to EBV lytic activation. This prompted us to identify a pool of candidate cellular genes that might be regulated by STAT3 to limit EBV lytic activation. From this pool, we confirmed increases in transcript levels in refractory cells of a set of genes known to participate in transcription repression. Taken together, our findings place STAT3 at a critical crossroads between EBV latency and lytic activation, processes fundamental to EBV lymphomagenesis. PMID:23966384

  11. The activity of nodules of the supernodulating mutant Mtsunn is not limited by photosynthesis under optimal growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Ricardo A; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Tränkner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2014-04-10

    Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants.

  12. The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Tränkner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants. PMID:24727372

  13. Health and safety economics: limitations of economic appraisal of occupational health services activities in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2002-01-01

    Methods of economic appraisal developed for evaluating activities in health care system may as well be successfully used for evaluating occupational health service activities. This involves the problem of resources management and cost containment not only at the company level, but also at different managerial and institutional levels. The decision makers have to know what resources are spent on occupational health, what is the effectiveness and efficiency of investing in employees health. The key issue of good understanding of the theory and practice of economic appraisal is a precise definition of costs, effectiveness and benefits. Another important area is the identification of information sources and barriers of economic appraisal. The results of the project carried out by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine have provided evidence that defining costs, effectiveness and benefits of preventive activities need to be developed. It becomes even more clear after an analysis of existing limitations of economic appraisal in Polish enterprises.

  14. Is there a common water-activity limit for the three domains of life?

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Andrew; Cray, Jonathan A; Williams, Jim P; Santos, Ricardo; Sahay, Richa; Neuenkirchen, Nils; McClure, Colin D; Grant, Irene R; Houghton, Jonathan DR; Quinn, John P; Timson, David J; Patil, Satish V; Singhal, Rekha S; Antón, Josefa; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Hocking, Ailsa D; Lievens, Bart; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Voytek, Mary A; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Oren, Aharon; Timmis, Kenneth N; McGenity, Terry J; Hallsworth, John E

    2015-01-01

    Archaea and Bacteria constitute a majority of life systems on Earth but have long been considered inferior to Eukarya in terms of solute tolerance. Whereas the most halophilic prokaryotes are known for an ability to multiply at saturated NaCl (water activity (aw) 0.755) some xerophilic fungi can germinate, usually at high-sugar concentrations, at values as low as 0.650–0.605 aw. Here, we present evidence that halophilic prokayotes can grow down to water activities of <0.755 for Halanaerobium lacusrosei (0.748), Halobacterium strain 004.1 (0.728), Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and Halococcus morrhuae (0.717), Haloquadratum walsbyi (0.709), Halococcus salifodinae (0.693), Halobacterium noricense (0.687), Natrinema pallidum (0.681) and haloarchaeal strains GN-2 and GN-5 (0.635 aw). Furthermore, extrapolation of growth curves (prone to giving conservative estimates) indicated theoretical minima down to 0.611 aw for extreme, obligately halophilic Archaea and Bacteria. These were compared with minima for the most solute-tolerant Bacteria in high-sugar (or other non-saline) media (Mycobacterium spp., Tetragenococcus halophilus, Saccharibacter floricola, Staphylococcus aureus and so on) and eukaryotic microbes in saline (Wallemia spp., Basipetospora halophila, Dunaliella spp. and so on) and high-sugar substrates (for example, Xeromyces bisporus, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Aspergillus and Eurotium spp.). We also manipulated the balance of chaotropic and kosmotropic stressors for the extreme, xerophilic fungi Aspergillus penicilloides and X. bisporus and, via this approach, their established water-activity limits for mycelial growth (∼0.65) were reduced to 0.640. Furthermore, extrapolations indicated theoretical limits of 0.632 and 0.636 aw for A. penicilloides and X. bisporus, respectively. Collectively, these findings suggest that there is a common water-activity limit that is determined by physicochemical constraints for the three domains of life. PMID:25500507

  15. Is there a common water-activity limit for the three domains of life?

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Andrew; Cray, Jonathan A; Williams, Jim P; Santos, Ricardo; Sahay, Richa; Neuenkirchen, Nils; McClure, Colin D; Grant, Irene R; Houghton, Jonathan Dr; Quinn, John P; Timson, David J; Patil, Satish V; Singhal, Rekha S; Antón, Josefa; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Hocking, Ailsa D; Lievens, Bart; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Voytek, Mary A; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Oren, Aharon; Timmis, Kenneth N; McGenity, Terry J; Hallsworth, John E

    2015-06-01

    Archaea and Bacteria constitute a majority of life systems on Earth but have long been considered inferior to Eukarya in terms of solute tolerance. Whereas the most halophilic prokaryotes are known for an ability to multiply at saturated NaCl (water activity (a(w)) 0.755) some xerophilic fungi can germinate, usually at high-sugar concentrations, at values as low as 0.650-0.605 a(w). Here, we present evidence that halophilic prokayotes can grow down to water activities of <0.755 for Halanaerobium lacusrosei (0.748), Halobacterium strain 004.1 (0.728), Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and Halococcus morrhuae (0.717), Haloquadratum walsbyi (0.709), Halococcus salifodinae (0.693), Halobacterium noricense (0.687), Natrinema pallidum (0.681) and haloarchaeal strains GN-2 and GN-5 (0.635 a(w)). Furthermore, extrapolation of growth curves (prone to giving conservative estimates) indicated theoretical minima down to 0.611 aw for extreme, obligately halophilic Archaea and Bacteria. These were compared with minima for the most solute-tolerant Bacteria in high-sugar (or other non-saline) media (Mycobacterium spp., Tetragenococcus halophilus, Saccharibacter floricola, Staphylococcus aureus and so on) and eukaryotic microbes in saline (Wallemia spp., Basipetospora halophila, Dunaliella spp. and so on) and high-sugar substrates (for example, Xeromyces bisporus, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Aspergillus and Eurotium spp.). We also manipulated the balance of chaotropic and kosmotropic stressors for the extreme, xerophilic fungi Aspergillus penicilloides and X. bisporus and, via this approach, their established water-activity limits for mycelial growth (∼0.65) were reduced to 0.640. Furthermore, extrapolations indicated theoretical limits of 0.632 and 0.636 a(w) for A. penicilloides and X. bisporus, respectively. Collectively, these findings suggest that there is a common water-activity limit that is determined by physicochemical constraints for the three domains of life.

  16. An investigation into the minimum accelerometry wear time for reliable estimates of habitual physical activity and definition of a standard measurement day in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Hislop, Jane; Law, James; Rush, Robert; Grainger, Andrew; Bulley, Cathy; Reilly, John J; Mercer, Tom

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number of hours and days of accelerometry data necessary to provide a reliable estimate of habitual physical activity in pre-school children. The impact of a weekend day on reliability estimates was also determined and standard measurement days were defined for weekend and weekdays.Accelerometry data were collected from 112 children (60 males, 52 females, mean (SD) 3.7 (0.7)yr) over 7 d. The Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula (S-B prophecy formula) was used to predict the number of days and hours of data required to achieve an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.7. The impact of including a weekend day was evaluated by comparing the reliability coefficient (r) for any 4 d of data with data for 4 d including one weekend day.Our observations indicate that 3 d of accelerometry monitoring, regardless of whether it includes a weekend day, for at least 7 h  d(-1) offers sufficient reliability to characterise total physical activity and sedentary behaviour of pre-school children. These findings offer an approach that addresses the underlying tension in epidemiologic surveillance studies between the need to maintain acceptable measurement rigour and retention of a representatively meaningful sample size.

  17. Physiologically adaptive changes of the L5 afferent neurogram and of the rat soleus EMG activity during 14 days of hindlimb unloading and recovery.

    PubMed

    De-Doncker, L; Kasri, M; Picquet, F; Falempin, M

    2005-12-01

    The hindlimb unloading rat model (HU, Morey's model) is usually used to mimic and study neuromuscular changes that develop during spaceflights. This Earth-based model of microgravity induces a muscular atrophy of the slow postural muscle of hindlimbs, such as the soleus, a loss of strength, modifications of contraction kinetics, changes in histochemical and electrophoretical profiles and modifications of the tonic EMG activity. It has been suggested in the literature that some of these neuromuscular effects were due to a reduction of afferent feedback during HU. However, no direct data have confirmed this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to clearly establish if changes of the L5 afferent neurogram are closely related to the soleus EMG activity during and after 14 days of HU. Immediately after HU, the EMG activity of the soleus muscle disappeared and was associated with a decrease in the afferent neurogram. The soleus electromyographic and afferent activities remained lower than the pre-suspension levels until the sixth day of HU and were recovered between the sixth and the ninth day. On the twelfth and fourteenth days, they were increased beyond the pre-suspension levels. During the first recovery day, these activities were significantly higher than those on the fourteenth HU day and returned to the pre-suspension levels between the third and sixth recovery days. To conclude, our study directly demonstrates that the HU conditions cannot be considered as a functional deafferentation, as suggested in the literature, but only as a reduction of afferent information at the beginning of the HU period.

  18. SU-F-19A-07: Is a Day30 Scan Necessary to Evaluate Activity-Based Regulatory Compliance in Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Kapur, P; Ford, J; Moghanaki, D; Datsang, R; Chang, M; Rosu, M; Hagan, M; Palta, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the Medical Event (ME) criteria for I-125 prostate implants based on the assessment of post implant dosimetry on “Day0”/“Day30” imaging. The new ME criteria do not mandate a timeframe for this assessment. The compliance criteria are: more than 80% of the activity from the written directive for treatment site (TS) must be implanted inside TS, and doses to 1cc of either uninvolved rectum (D1-UR) or uninvolved bladder (D1-UB), or 2cc of other non-specified tissue (D2-UT) must be less than 150% of the planned dose. Methods: “Day0”/“Day30” post-implant analyses for 25 patients were evaluated. Treatment plans had a peripheral loading pattern with 2 core needles placed at least 10 mm away from urethra, with several seeds planned outside of the prostate for adequate target coverage. TS were a uniform 5 mm expansion of the prostate, except posteriorly (no expansion). Results: “Day0”/“Day30”analyses found no MEs. The relative changes for D1-UR, D1-UB, and D2-UT were (ranges): [−37.0, 38.2]%, [−96.5, 74.7]%, and [−41.2, 37.7]%. Furthermore, changes did not correlate with prostate volume changes of −18.7% [σ:16.0%, range:−60.5%, +6.4%]. These unfavorable changes did not lead to ME at “Day30” because these values were generally well below 150% at “Day0”. However, D2-UT dose values exceeded those for D1-UR and D1-UB at both “Day0”/“Day30”. Conclusion: The total activity was relatively insensitive to changes in target volume from “Day0” to ”Day30”. The dose metrics of interest, albeit susceptible to large, often unfavorable changes, remained less than the 150% threshold. Data from this study suggest that “Day0” can be used for the regulatory compliance evaluation. However, further evaluation at “Day30” is advisable if D2-UT is 110% or above (based on the largest D2-UT increase of 37.7% observed in this patient population). Future rigorous statistical analysis of a larger cohort will afford a

  19. Randomized dose-ranging study of the 14-day early bactericidal activity of bedaquiline (TMC207) in patients with sputum microscopy smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Diacon, Andreas H; Dawson, Rodney; Von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Symons, Gregory; Venter, Amour; Donald, Peter R; Conradie, Almari; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann M; Egizi, Erica; Winter, Helen; Becker, Piet; Mendel, Carl M

    2013-05-01

    Bedaquiline is a new antituberculosis agent targeting ATP synthase. This randomized, double-blinded study enrolling 68 sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients evaluated the 14-day early bactericidal activity of daily doses of 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, and 400 mg bedaquiline, preceded by loading doses of 200 mg, 400 mg, 500 mg, and 700 mg, respectively, on the first treatment day and 100 mg, 300 mg, 400 mg, and 500 mg on the second treatment day. All groups showed activity with a mean (standard deviation) daily fall in log10 CFU over 14 days of 0.040 (0.068), 0.056 (0.051), 0.077 (0.064), and 0.104 (0.077) in the 100-mg, 200-mg, 300-mg, and 400-mg groups, respectively. The linear trend for dose was significant (P = 0.001), and activity in the 400-mg dose group was greater than that in the 100-mg group (P = 0.014). All of the bedaquiline groups showed significant bactericidal activity that was continued to the end of the 14-day evaluation period. The finding of a linear trend for dose suggests that the highest dose compatible with safety considerations should be taken forward to longer-term clinical studies.

  20. Suicidal ideation and its determinants in Korean adults: The role of physical activity and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Park, S M

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations.

  1. A Poem a Day: 180 Thematic Poems and Activities That Teach and Delight All Year Long. Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Helen H.

    This collection of 180 poems was assembled with classroom needs in mind. Intended to delight students every day, the collection's poems span the school year from September to summertime. Its introduction gives teachers before-, during-, and after-reading ideas. Sections in the collection include: Me and My World, Primary Concepts, Seasons and…

  2. Being an Active Subject as an Element of Quality in Day Care Centres. Reprints and Miniprints No. 844.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig; And Others

    This project dealt with the quality of the child's life in day care centers and aimed at a better understanding of the concept of quality. The project was based on a synthesis of knowledge from various research traditions, as well as theories of education and developmental psychology (such as Bruner, Davydov, Leontiev, Piaget, and Vygotsky). The…

  3. Current limitations and recommendations to improve testing for the environmental assessment of endocrine active substances.

    PubMed

    Coady, Katherine K; Biever, Ronald C; Denslow, Nancy D; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D; Holbech, Henrik; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Krueger, Hank; Levine, Steven L; Maack, Gerd; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Ankley, Gerald T

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine active chemicals are described, and associated challenges are discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across geographies, but all basically evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or to the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro, and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect apical data to detect possible adverse effects. These test systems are currently designed to robustly assess endocrine activity and/or adverse effects in the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone signaling pathways; however, there are some limitations of current test systems for evaluating endocrine hazard and risk. These limitations include a lack of certainty regarding: 1) adequately sensitive species and life stages; 2) mechanistic endpoints that are diagnostic for endocrine pathways of concern; and 3) the linkage between mechanistic responses and apical, adverse outcomes. Furthermore, some existing test methods are resource intensive with regard to time, cost, and use of animals. However, based on recent experiences, there are opportunities to improve approaches to and guidance for existing test methods and to reduce uncertainty. For example, in vitro high-throughput screening could be used to prioritize chemicals for testing and provide insights as to the most appropriate assays for characterizing hazard and risk. Other recommendations include adding endpoints for elucidating connections between mechanistic effects and adverse outcomes, identifying potentially sensitive taxa for which test methods currently do not exist, and addressing key endocrine pathways of possible concern in addition to those associated with estrogen, androgen, and thyroid

  4. Family Science Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought…

  5. Lectin-induced activation of platelets may require only limited phosphorylation of the 47K protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, C.; Chelladurai, M.; Ganguly, P.

    1986-05-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is an N-acetylglucosamine (Glc-NAc) specific lectin which can activate platelets. Like thrombin, stimulation of platelets by WGA is accompanied by enhanced phosphorylation of two polypeptides of M/sub r/ 47K and 20K. Addition of GlcNAc at different time intervals arrested that aggregation of platelets by WGA and paralleled the modification of phosphorylation of the 47K polypeptide. So, the phosphorylation of the 47K polypeptide may regulate the WGA-receptor mediated stimulation of platelets. However, the ratio of phosphoserine to phosphothreonine in the 47K protein was markedly different in WGA-activated than thrombin-stimulated platelets. Thus, the molecular mechanism of action of thrombin and WGA could be different. To explore this idea, /sup 32/P/sub i/-labeled platelets were stimulated with WGA and the activation arrested with N-acetyl-glucosamine at different times. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of total protein at 5s showed only two phosphorylated species of 47K protein. At 60s, maximally four phosphorylated species were noted. In contrast, with thrombin using the same technique, seven to nine phosphorylated components have been reported. These results suggest that the different activators of platelets may act by different mechanisms. In addition, activation of platelets may require only limited levels of phosphorylation of the 47K polypeptide.

  6. Are nest sites actively chosen? Testing a common assumption for three non-resource limited birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, A. E.; Elliot, S. L.; Hart, A. G.

    2009-09-01

    Many widely-accepted ecological concepts are simplified assumptions about complex situations that remain largely untested. One example is the assumption that nest-building species choose nest sites actively when they are not resource limited. This assumption has seen little direct empirical testing: most studies on nest-site selection simply assume that sites are chosen actively (and seek explanations for such behaviour) without considering that sites may be selected randomly. We used 15 years of data from a nestbox scheme in the UK to test the assumption of active nest-site choice in three cavity-nesting bird species that differ in breeding and migratory strategy: blue tit ( Cyanistes caeruleus), great tit ( Parus major) and pied flycatcher ( Ficedula hypoleuca). Nest-site selection was non-random (implying active nest-site choice) for blue and great tits, but not for pied flycatchers. We also considered the relative importance of year-specific and site-specific factors in determining occupation of nest sites. Site-specific factors were more important than year-specific factors for the tit species, while the reverse was true for pied flycatchers. Our results show that nest-site selection, in birds at least, is not always the result of active choice, such that choice should not be assumed automatically in studies of nesting behaviour. We use this example to highlight the need to test key ecological assumptions empirically, and the importance of doing so across taxa rather than for single "model" species.

  7. Application of an artificial neural network for evaluation of activity concentration exemption limits in NORM industry.

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Hannah; Peyrés, Virginia; Crespo, Teresa; Mejuto, Marcos; García-Toraño, Eduardo; Maringer, Franz Josef

    2016-12-27

    NORM emits many different gamma energies that have to be analysed by an expert. Alternatively, artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used. These mathematical software tools can generalize "knowledge" gained from training datasets, applying it to new problems. No expert knowledge of gamma-ray spectrometry is needed by the end-user. In this work an ANN was created that is able to decide from the raw gamma-ray spectrum if the activity concentrations in a sample are above or below the exemption limits.

  8. 30 CFR 285.521 - Do my financial assurance requirements change as activities progress on my limited lease or grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Assurance for Limited Leases, Row Grants, and Rue Grants § 285.521 Do my financial assurance requirements... level of your financial assurance as activities progress on your limited lease or grant. We will base... requirement for increased financial assurance levels for the limited lease or grant by increasing the...

  9. 76 FR 43654 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... the antidumping duty administrative review on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of... preliminary results by 120 days to April 30, 2011. See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic...

  10. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-06

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  11. Variability of a Stellar Corona on a Time Scale of Days: Evidence for Abundance Fractionation in an Emerging Coronal Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordon, R.; Behar, E.; Drake, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Elemental abundance effects in active coronae have eluded our understanding for almost three decades, since the discovery of the first ionization potential (FIP) effect on the sun. The goal of this paper is to monitor the same coronal structures over a time interval of six days and resolve active regions on a stellar corona through rotational modulation. We report on four iso-phase X-ray spectroscopic observations of the RS CVn binary EI Eri with XMM-Newton, carried out approximately every two days, to match the rotation period of EI Eri. We present an analysis of the thermal and chemical structure of the EI Eri corona as it evolves over the six days. Although the corona is rather steady in its temperature distribution, the emission measure and FIP bias both vary and seem to be correlated. An active region, predating the beginning of the campaign, repeatedly enters into our view at the same phase as it rotates from beyond the stellar limb. As a result, the abundances tend slightly, but consistently, to increase for high FIP elements (an inverse FIP effect) with phase. We estimate the abundance increase of high FIP elements in the active region to be of about 75% over the coronal mean. This observed fractionation of elements in an active region on time scales of days provides circumstantial clues regarding the element enrichment mechanism of non-flaring stellar coronae.

  12. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:27058555

  13. The Upper Limit of Sunspot Activity as Observed over a Long Time Interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagovitsyn, Yu. A.; Obridko, V. N.; Kuleshova, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    After analyzing the observational manifestations of the α- and ω-effects of the dynamo theory and using the modified Waldmeier rule, we show that the annual mean Wolf numbers at the maximum of the 11-year cycle that are likely to occur a time interval of 104 years have an upper limit amounting approximately to W EXTR˜230 - 240. Similar values were also obtained using the results by Usoskin et al. (2014, Astron. Astrophys. 562, L10), who considered the probability of various activity levels by reconstructing the variations of solar activity over three thousand years. As an additional result, the predicted maximum of Cycle 24 is refined and is shown to be W M=72 - 132 with a 95 % confidence.

  14. The SKIV2L RNA exosome limits activation of the RIG-I-like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Eckard, Sterling C.; Rice, Gillian I.; Fabre, Alexandre; Badens, Catherine; Gray, Elizabeth E.; Hartley, Jane L.; Crow, Yanick J.; Stetson, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Innate immune sensors of intracellular nucleic acids must be regulated to prevent inappropriate activation by endogenous DNA and RNA. The exonuclease Trex1 regulates the DNA sensing pathway by metabolizing potential DNA ligands that trigger it. However, an analogous mechanism for regulating the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) that detect RNA remains unknown. We show that the SKIV2L RNA exosome potently limits the activation of RLRs. We find that the unfolded protein response (UPR), which generates endogenous RLR ligands through IRE-1 endonuclease cleavage of cellular RNAs, triggers type I interferon (IFN) production in SKIV2L-depleted cells. Humans with SKIV2L deficiency have a type I IFN signature in their peripheral blood. Our findings reveal a mechanism for intracellular metabolism of immunostimulatory RNA, with implications for specific autoimmune disorders. PMID:25064072

  15. The multiple sulfatase deficiency gene encodes an essential and limiting factor for the activity of sulfatases.

    PubMed

    Cosma, Maria Pia; Pepe, Stefano; Annunziata, Ida; Newbold, Robert F; Grompe, Markus; Parenti, Giancarlo; Ballabio, Andrea

    2003-05-16

    In multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), a human inherited disorder, the activities of all sulfatases are impaired due to a defect in posttranslational modification. Here we report the identification, by functional complementation using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer, of a gene that is mutated in MSD and is able to rescue the enzymatic deficiency in patients' cell lines. Functional conservation of this gene was observed among distantly related species, suggesting a critical biological role. Coexpression of SUMF1 with sulfatases results in a strikingly synergistic increase of enzymatic activity, indicating that SUMF1 is both an essential and a limiting factor for sulfatases. These data have profound implications on the feasibility of enzyme replacement therapy for eight distinct inborn errors of metabolism.

  16. The conduction system and expressions of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel 4 and connexin43 expressions in the hearts of fetal day 13 mice.

    PubMed

    Wen, Y; Li, B

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the development of the sinus node of the heart conduction system by localizing hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel 4 (HCN4) and connexin43 (Cx43) in the hearts of fetal day 13 mice. Horizontal serial sections of day 13 whole fetuses were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and immunofluorescence to identify myocardial cells that express HCN4, hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel 2 (HCN2) and Cx43. Expression levels of HCN4 and Cx43 were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in both fetal day 13 and adult mice. We found that both Cx43 and HCN4 expressions were located on the cell membranes in the hearts of fetal day 13 mice, but Cx43 was distributed throughout the myocardial cells. HCN4 expression was concentrated mainly in the left dorsal epicardium of the right atrium where Cx43 expression was low or absent. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that HCN4 expression was significantly higher and HCN2 expression was significantly lower in fetal day 13 mice than in adults. We found no statistically significant difference in Cx43 expression between fetal day 13 mice and adults. HCN4 stained myocardial cells in the left dorsal epicardium of the right atrium are the origin of the sinus node and the remainder of the heart conduction system.

  17. Experiments on FTU with an actively water cooled liquid lithium limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzitelli, G.; Apicella, M. L.; Apruzzese, G.; Crescenzi, F.; Iannone, F.; Maddaluno, G.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Roccella, S.; Reale, M.; Viola, B.; Lyublinski, I.; Vertkov, A.

    2015-08-01

    In order to prevent the overheating of the liquid Li surface and the consequent Li evaporation for T > 500 °C, an advanced version of the liquid lithium limiter has been realized and installed on FTU. This new system, named Cooled Lithium Limiter (CLL), has been optimized to demonstrate the lithium limiter capability to sustain thermal loads as high as 10 MW/m2 with up to 5 s of plasma pulse duration. The CLL operates with an actively cooled system with water circulation at the temperature of about 200 °C, for heating lithium up to the melting point and for the heat removal during the plasma discharges. To characterize CLL during discharges, a fast infrared camera and the spectroscopic signals from Li and D atom emission have been used. The experiments analyzed so far and simulated by ANSYS code, point out that heat loads as high as 2 MW/m2 for 1.5 s have been withstood without problems.

  18. Azo doped polymer thin films for active and passive optical power limiting applications.

    PubMed

    Rajashekar, B; Limbu, Sagar; Aditya, Kamarusu; Nageswara Rao, G; Siva Sankara Sai, S

    2013-10-01

    Two novel optical power limiters, 2-[ethyl-(4-phenylazo-phenyl)-amino]-ethanol (E4PA) and 2-[ethyl-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenylazo-phenyl)-amino]-ethanol (E4TPA) were synthesized using a diazotization reaction. The purified azo material was made into thin films in a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix using a gravity settling technique. The electronic nonlinearities of these films were investigated using an open aperture Z-scan technique in the fs excitation regime, resulting in nonlinear absorption due to a two-photon absorption (2PA) process. The 2PA coefficient for these films is of the order 10(-12) m W(-1) and the limiting threshold values are 1.1 J cm(-2) each. A non-degenerate pump probe set-up was employed with CW lasers to study the nonlinear behaviour arising from photo-induced anisotropy and excited-state absorption. The present study shows that these azo thin films are potential candidates for active and passive optical power limiting applications.

  19. Disaggregating Activities of Daily Living Limitations for Predicting Nursing Home Admission

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Joelle H; Mitchell, Olivia S; Koh, Benedict S K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether disaggregated activities of daily living (ADL) limitations better predict the risk of nursing home admission compared to conventionally used ADL disability counts. Data Sources We used panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) for years 1998–2010. The HRS is a nationally representative survey of adults older than 50 years (n = 18,801). Study Design We fitted Cox regressions in a continuous time survival model with age at first nursing home admission as the outcome. Time-varying ADL disability types were the key explanatory variables. Principal Findings Of the six ADL limitations, bathing difficulty emerged as the strongest predictor of subsequent nursing home placement across cohorts. Eating and dressing limitations were also influential in driving admissions among more recent cohorts. Using simple ADL counts for analysis yielded similar adjusted R2s; however, the amount of explained variance doubled when we allowed the ADL disability measures to time-vary rather than remain static. Conclusions Looking beyond simple ADL counts can provide health professionals insights into which specific disability types trigger long-term nursing home use. Functional disabilities measured closer in time carry more prognostic power than static measures. PMID:25256014

  20. Effects of chronic and acute methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) administration on locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalizations, and neuromotor development in 3- to 11-day-old CD-1 mouse pups.

    PubMed

    Penner, M R; McFadyen, M P; Carrey, N; Brown, R E

    2001-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of chronic and acute treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) on isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations, spontaneous locomotor activity, and neuromotor coordination in 3- to 11-day-old CD-1 mouse pups. In Experiment 1, 3- to 11-day-old pups received daily injections of saline, 5 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg of methylphenidate hydrochloride, or no injection and were tested on postnatal Days 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. Both doses of methylphenidate resulted in significant increases in locomotor activity at all ages, but had no significant effect on body weight, neuromotor development, or emission of ultrasonic vocalizations. In Experiment 2, pups were given a single dose of methylphenidate (5 or 20 mg/kg), saline, or no injection on one of postnatal Days 5, 7, 9, or 11. This acute methylphenidate treatment increased locomotor activity, but had no significant effects on ultrasonic vocalizations or neuromotor coordination. These results indicate that short-term, chronic methylphenidate treatment elevates locomotor responses, but has no immediate effects on anxietylike responses or on the development of neuromotor behavior of CD-1 mice in the first 11 days of life.

  1. Correlation among the toxicity profiling (28-days repeated oral dose toxicity), toxicokinetics and tissue distribution data of ulifloxacin, the active metabolite of prulifloxacin in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Utpal; Roy, Bikash; Das, Anjan Kumar; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2012-09-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate correlation among 28-days repeated oral dose toxicity, toxicokinetics and tissue distribution data of ulifloxacin (active metabolite of prulifloxacin) in Wistar albino rats. Prulifloxacin was administered for 28-days in rats at 0, 100, 200, 400mg/kg/day followed by 14-days recovery period. Simultaneously different toxicokinetic parameters and tissue distributions of ulifloxacin was examined by LC-MS/MS method. Plasma levels and tissue concentrations of ulifloxacin were increased with dose-related manner. Ulifloxacin was also distributed to many tissues, and concentration in lungs nearly equivalent to the plasma concentration. Based on these results it was concluded that long-term repeated dose of prulifloxacin may produce different blood parameters abnormality, liver damage, stomach ulcer, joint damage and dysfunction of lungs in rats which relates to high tissue distribution and accumulation of ulifloxacin in these tissues. These findings help in management of prulifloxacin induced adverse effects by appropriate dose selection in clinical practice.

  2. Anticancer drug released from near IR-activated prodrug overcomes spatiotemporal limits of singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Rajaputra, Pallavi; Bio, Moses; Nkepang, Gregory; Thapa, Pritam; Woo, Sukyung; You, Youngjae

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality where photosensitizer (PS) is activated by visible and near IR light to produce singlet oxygen ((1)O2). However, (1)O2 has a short lifetime (<40 ns) and cannot diffuse (<20 nm) beyond the cell diameter (e.g., ∼ 1800 nm). Thus, (1)O2 damage is both spatially and temporally limited and does not produce bystander effect. In a heterogeneous tumor, cells escaping (1)O2 damage can regrow after PDT treatment. To overcome these limitations, we developed a prodrug concept (PS-L-D) composed of a photosensitizer (PS), an anti-cancer drug (D), and an (1)O2-cleavable linker (L). Upon illumination of the prodrug, (1)O2 is generated, which damages the tumor and also releases anticancer drug. The locally released drug could cause spatially broader and temporally sustained damage, killing the surviving cancer cells after the PDT damage. In our previous report, we presented the superior activity of our prodrug of CA4 (combretastatin A-4), Pc-(L-CA4)2, compared to its non-cleavable analog, Pc-(NCL-CA4)2, that produced only PDT effects. Here, we provide clear evidence demonstrating that the released anticancer drug, CA4, indeed damages the surviving cancer cells over and beyond the spatial and temporal limits of (1)O2. In the limited light illumination experiment, cells in the entire well were killed due to the effect of released anti-cancer drug, whereas only a partial damage was observed in the pseudo-prodrug treated wells. A time-dependent cell survival study showed more cell death in the prodrug-treated cells due to the sustained damage by the released CA4. Cell cycle analysis and microscopic imaging data demonstrated the typical damage patterns by CA4 in the prodrug treated cells. A time-dependent histological study showed that prodrug-treated tumors lacked mitotic bodies, and the prodrug caused broader and sustained tumor size reduction compared to those seen in the tumors treated with the pseudo-prodrug. This data

  3. Functional limitations in Romanian children with haemophilia: further testing of psychometric properties of the Paediatric Haemophilia Activities List.

    PubMed

    Groen, W; van der Net, J; Lacatusu, A M; Serban, M; Helders, P J M; Fischer, K

    2013-05-01

    Children with haemophilia often experience limitations in activities of daily life. Recently the Paediatric Haemophilia Activities List (PedHAL) has been developed and tested in Dutch children with intensive replacement therapy. The psychometric properties of the PedHAL in children not receiving intensive replacement therapy are not known. The objective was to gain further insight into the psychometric properties of the PedHAL and to study the functional health status of Romanian children and adolescents with haemophilia. Children attending to the rehabilitation centre of Buzias in Romania were sampled consecutively. Construct validity of the PedHAL was evaluated by concurrent testing with objective and subjective measures of physical function and functional ability. Reproducibility was tested by a 3-day test-retest by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement (LOA). Responsiveness to rehabilitation was assessed by Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) and PedHAL. Twenty-nine children with severe (n = 25) or moderate (n = 4) haemophilia participated. Mean age was 13.2 years (SD 4.0). Median score of the PedHAL was 83.5 (IQR 47.9-90.5). The PedHAL correlated moderately with HJHS (rho = -0.59), Functional Independence Score in& Haemophilia (rho = 0.65) and Child Health Questionnaire-physical function (rho = 0.40) and not with Child Health Questionnaire-mental health, Child Health Questionnaire-behaviour and 6MWT. Test-retest reliability was good (ICC = 0.95). LOA was 17.4 points for the sum score. HJHS scores improved slightly after rehabilitation, whereas PedHAL scores did not change. In general, construct validity and test-retest reliability were good, test-retest agreement showed some variability. Therefore, currently the PedHAL may be more appropriate for research purposes than for individual patient monitoring in clinical practice.

  4. Muscle Strength, Physical Activity, and Functional Limitations in Older Adults with Central Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Cassandra M.; Batsis, John A.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; McQuoid, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and muscle weakness are independently associated with increased risk of physical and functional impairment in older adults. It is unknown whether physical activity (PA) and muscle strength combined provide added protection against functional impairment. This study examines the association between muscle strength, PA, and functional outcomes in older adults with central obesity. Methods. Prevalence and odds of physical (PL), ADL, and IADL limitation were calculated for 6,388 community dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 with central obesity. Individuals were stratified by sex-specific hand grip tertiles and PA. Logistic models were adjusted for age, education, comorbidities, and body-mass index and weighted. Results. Overall prevalence of PL and ADL and IADL limitations were progressively lower by grip category. Within grip categories, prevalence was lower for individuals who were active than those who were inactive. Adjusted models showed significantly lower odds of PL OR 0.42 [0.31, 0.56]; ADL OR 0.60 [0.43, 0.84], and IADL OR 0.46 [0.35, 0.61] for those in the highest grip strength category as compared to those in the lowest grip category. Conclusion. Improving grip strength in obese elders who are not able to engage in traditional exercise is important for reducing odds of physical and functional impairment. PMID:27034833

  5. Impairment variables predicting activity limitation in individuals with lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Raya, Michele A; Gailey, Robert S; Fiebert, Ira M; Roach, Kathyrn E

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether measures of impairment (i.e., muscle strength, balance), personal factors (i.e., comorbidities, demographic information) and amputation specific variables (i.e., time since amputation, cause of amputation, level of amputation) were able to predict performance on the six-minute walk test, a measure of activity limitation, in individuals with lower limb amputation. A total of 72 individuals with lower limb amputation ranging in age from 21-83 were tested for balance, limb muscle strength and function. Medical comorbidities were recorded and activity limitation was measured using the six-minute walk test. Data were analyzed and multivariate relationships were examined using multiple linear regression. Impairment variables of strength, balance, subject demographics, time since amputation, cause of amputation and level of amputation were all significant predictors and explained 72% of the variance in the outcome variable. Strength of the hip extensors was the strongest predictor, accounting for 30.9% of the total variance. Multiple factors impact six minute walk scores in individuals with lower limb amputation. Impairments in hip strength and balance appear to be the two most significant. The findings of this study support the use of the six-minute walk test to underscore impairments of the musculoskeletal system that can affect ambulation ability in the amputee.

  6. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Oxidase Activity Limits Ethylene Biosynthesis in Rumex palustris during Submergence

    PubMed Central

    Vriezen, Wim H.; Hulzink, Raymond; Mariani, Celestina; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Submergence strongly stimulates petiole elongation in Rumex palustris, and ethylene accumulation initiates and maintains this response in submerged tissues. cDNAs from R. palustris corresponding to a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase gene (RP-ACO1) were isolated from elongating petioles and used to study the expression of the corresponding gene. An increase in RP-ACO1 messenger was observed in the petioles and lamina of elongating leaves 2 h after the start of submergence. ACC oxidase enzyme activity was measured in homogenates of R. palustris shoots, and a relevant increase was observed within 12 h under water with a maximum after 24 h. We have shown previously that the ethylene production rate of submerged shoots does not increase significantly during the first 24 h of submergence (L.A.C.J. Voesenek, M. Banga, R.H. Thier, C.M. Mudde, F.M. Harren, G.W.M. Barendse, C.W.P.M. Blom [1993] Plant Physiol 103: 783–791), suggesting that under these conditions ACC oxidase activity is inhibited in vivo. We found evidence that this inhibition is caused by a reduction of oxygen levels. We hypothesize that an increased ACC oxidase enzyme concentration counterbalances the reduced enzyme activity caused by low oxygen concentration during submergence, thus sustaining ethylene production under these conditions. Therefore, ethylene biosynthesis seems to be limited at the level of ACC oxidase activity rather than by ACC synthase in R. palustris during submergence. PMID:10482674

  7. Active Community-Based Case Finding for Tuberculosis With Limited Resources

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Bindu; Kittel, Guenter; Bolokon, Ignatius; Duke, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Papua New Guinea is one of the 14 highest-burden countries for tuberculosis (TB) infection, but few community-based studies exist. We evaluated a low-cost method of active community case finding in Kabwum and Wasu in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. Over 3 months we visited 26 villages and screened adults and children for symptoms and signs of TB. Sputum samples were examined using smear microscopy. A total of 1700 people had chronic symptoms, of which 267 were suspicious for TB on further examination. Sputum from 230 symptomatic adults yielded 97 samples that were positive for acid-fast bacilli. In addition, 15 cases of extrapulmonary TB in adults and 17 cases of TB in children were identified. One hundred and thirty people were identified with active TB disease among the source population of approximately 17 000, giving an estimated prevalence of 765 per 100 000. One hundred and six (82%) cases were not previously diagnosed. The cost per case identified was US$146. It is feasible to conduct active community-based case finding and treatment initiation for TB with limited resources and in remote areas, and in Papua New Guinea the yield was high. Active case finding and follow-up of treatment in villages is needed to address the hidden burden of TB in Papua New Guinea and other high-burden Asia Pacific countries. PMID:28033717

  8. Effect of three day bed-rest on circulatory and hormonal responses to active orthostatic test in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubala, P.; Smorawinski, J.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Circulatory and hormonal parameters were measured in endurance-trained athletes and control subjects during orthostatic tolerance tests conducted prior to and after three days of bed rest. Heart rate and blood pressure changes due to bed rest appeared to be the same in both groups. Hormonal changes, however, were different between the two groups, with the athletes having decreased sympathoadrenal activity and increased plasma renin activity. Untrained subjects had changes in cortisol secretion only.

  9. Huzzah Means Hooray: Activities from the Days of Damsels, Jesters, and Blackbirds in a Pie. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Laurie

    Written for juveniles, this book presents information and activities aimed at increasing student understanding of the life experiences of Europeans during the Middle Ages. Student activities are organized by the following categories: (1) "Medieval--What's That?" presents background information; (2) "Lets Dress Up!" examines…

  10. Lifestyle and Risk of Premature Sexual Activity in a High School Population of Seventh-Day Adventists: Valuegenesis 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbender, Miriam L. M.; Rossignol, Annette MacKay

    1996-01-01

    Evaluated Adventist lifestyle as a modification of popular American culture which reduces the risk of early sexual activity in adolescents and thus also reduces the risk for both STDs and teen pregnancy. Data analysis demonstrated a wide variety of behaviors were associated with premature sexual activity, including previously reported high-risk…

  11. The Impact of Students' Choice of Time of Day for Class Activity and Their Sleep Quality on Academic Performance in Multidisciplinary Distance Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the impact of students' choice of time of day for class activity and their sleep quality on academic performance in multidisciplinary distance education courses at a southeastern U.S. state college. The research addressed the relationship of other individual student characteristics (i.e., age, gender,…

  12. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data for CTEPP-OH concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of ...

  13. Treatment with polyamine oxidase inhibitor reduces microglial activation and limits vascular injury in ischemic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, C.; Xu, Z.; Shosha, E.; Xing, J.; Lucas, R.; Caldwell, R.W.; Caldwell, R.B.; Narayanan, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Retinal vascular injury is a major cause of vision impairment in ischemic retinopathies. Insults such as hyperoxia, oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to this pathology. Previously, we showed that hyperoxia-induced retinal neurodegeneration is associated with increased polyamine oxidation. Here, we are studying the involvement of polyamine oxidases in hyperoxia-induced injury and death of retinal vascular endothelial cells. Newborn C57BL6/J mice were exposed to hyperoxia (70% O2) from postnatal day (P) 7 to 12 and were treated with the polyamine oxidase inhibitor MDL 72527 or vehicle starting at P6. Mice were sacrificed after different durations of hyperoxia and their retinas were analyzed to determine the effects on vascular injury, microglial cell activation, and inflammatory cytokine profiling. The results of this analysis showed that MDL 72527 treatment significantly reduced hyperoxia-induced retinal vascular injury and enhanced vascular sprouting as compared with the vehicle controls. These protective effects were correlated with significant decreases in microglial activation as well as levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In order to model the effects of polyamine oxidation in causing microglial activation in vitro, studies were performed using rat brain microvascular endothelial cells treated with conditioned-medium from rat retinal microglia stimulated with hydrogen peroxide. Conditioned-medium from activated microglial cultures induced cell stress signals and cell death in microvascular endothelial cells. These studies demonstrate the involvement of polyamine oxidases in hyperoxia-induced retinal vascular injury and retinal inflammation in ischemic retinopathy, through mechanisms involving cross-talk between endothelial cells and resident retinal microglia. PMID:27239699

  14. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1984 : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Gerard A.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center

    1986-07-01

    The extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir was determined. Salmonids were the single most important food item by weight for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) in the restricted zones at McNary tailrace and John Day forebay during all sampling periods. Salmonids accounted for 18.1% of the weight in the diet of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1984 which was at least twice that found in previous years. In smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) salmonids contributed little to their diet whereas for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fish accounted for 64.1% of the weight in their diet with salmonids responsible for approximately half of this weight. An intensive search of the fisheries literature was conducted to review various fish capture and control techniques which might have potential as predation control measures for the major predators of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River system. Most prey protection measures were judged to have high potential and direct predator control measures were judged to have moderate or low potential.

  15. Variability of Physical Activity Patterns by Type of Day and Season in 8-10-Year-Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Ann V.; Hughes, Dylan R.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: (a) compare physical activity across two seasons and, within those seasons, across school and vacation time, and (b) compare the proportion of children meeting the activity thresholds recommended by Tudor-Locke et al. (2004) at each time point. Thirty-six boys, between the ages of 8 and 10 years (M age = 8.8 years,…

  16. Are Functional and Activity Limitations Becoming More Prevalent among 55 to 69-Year-Olds in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, HwaJung; Schoeni, Robert F.; Martin, Linda G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines changes in functional and activity limitations 1998–2012 for individuals 55–69. Methods Logistic models are used to estimate trends in limitations in vision, hearing, physical and cognitive functioning, IADLs, and ADLs. Additional models assess the extent to which trends are associated with and differ by education, smoking, and BMI. Results Changes in prevalence of limitations in vision, hearing, cognitive functioning, and ADLs are not statistically significant. Limitations in physical functioning declined by 0.37% per year. IADL limitations increased by 1.33% per year, but most of the increase occurred between 2008 and 2010/2012, and are associated with economic hardship during the Great Recession. Increases in education are especially beneficially associated with trends in limitations, but reductions in smoking also appear to be advantageous for some outcomes. Increases in BMI are associated with trends in physical functioning, IADL, and ADL limitation. Discussion For Americans 55–69, functional and activity limitations were largely unchanged 1998–2012. Our results suggest that if educational attainment had not increased, most functional and activity limitations potentially could have worsened substantially. Future change in educational attainment is not expected to be so positive. Continued monitoring of trends in activity limitations might well include greater focus on the explanatory roles of environmental factors, including economic circumstances. PMID:27783638

  17. Characterization of the profession/occupation of individuals affected by leprosy and the relationship with limitations in professional activities.

    PubMed

    Nardi, S M T; Ikehara, E; Pedro, H S P; Paschoal, V D A

    2012-01-01

    People who had leprosy stay away from work and have difficulty of employability and to perform their functions or retire early. This study aimed at determining whether there is a relationship between profession/occupation and limitations in activities. This was a cross-sectional study that used the SALSA scale (Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness) to assess limitations and to classify professions/occupations as low, medium or high risk. Of the 277 people surveyed, 50.2% were men, the mean age was 53.8 years (SD = 16.3), 62.7% had multibacillary, 59.7% had family incomes of 3 minimum wages or less, 58.5% had up to 6 years schooling and 57% did not have paid jobs. As for occupations, 45.8% were considered low, 39.7% medium and 12.3% high risk. Of thetotal, 49.1% had mild/moderate, 8.7% severe/very severe and 42.2% did not have any limitations. The relationship between limitations in activities and occupational risk indicated that people with severe limitations tend to have low risk occupations (p value < 0.05). The limitations associated with employability showed that most active individuals have no limitations (p value < 0.05). Hence, most people who had leprosy have low risk professions/occupations; the limitations favor a shift from high-risk activities and interfere with employability.

  18. Predictors of general discomfort, limitations in activities of daily living and intention of a second donation in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell donation.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Jang, J H; Min, H J; Jang, H I; Nah, J H; Lyu, C J; Han, K-S; Won, J H; Lee, Y-H; Chong, S Y; Mun, Y C; Lee, W S; Kim, S J; Kim, I

    2017-02-01

    We performed a retrospective study of 1868 consecutive unrelated donors to predict the risk factors related to general discomfort, limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) and intention of a second donation in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) donation. General discomfort and limitations in ADLs were assessed by numerical measurement (scores of 0-10) and donor's intention of a second donation by yes or no reply. The post-donation questionnaires were completed within 48 h after HSC collection and at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 4 months thereafter. Predictors of general discomfort included female sex (P<0.0001), bone marrow (BM) collection (P<0.0001) or PBSC collection through a central line (CL; P=0.0349), 2-day collection (P=0.0150) and negative or undetermined intention of a second donation on day 1 (P<0.0001). Predictors of limitations in ADLs included age group of 30-39 years (P=0.0046), female sex (P<0.0001), BM collection (P<0.0001) or PBSC collection through a CL (P<0.0001) and negative or undetermined intention of a second donation on day 1 (P<0.0001). The only predictor of positive intention of a second donation was male sex (P=0.0007). Age, sex and collection method and period should be considered risk factors when unrelated HSC donation is performed.

  19. The patient-specific functional scale is more responsive than the Roland Morris disability questionnaire when activity limitation is low.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amanda M; Maher, Chris G; Latimer, Jane; Ferreira, Manuela L; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine which questionnaire, the Roland Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ) or the patient-specific functional scale (PSFS), was better at detecting change in activity limitation in a large cohort of patients with low back pain undergoing rehabilitation. A secondary aim was to determine if the responsiveness of the questionnaires was influenced by the patient's level of activity limitation at baseline. Responsiveness statistics, including effect size statistics, Pearson's r correlations and receiver operative characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used to determine ability to detect change in activity limitation on 831 patients with low back pain. Data were analysed at two time points; directly after treatment (termed short-term) and several weeks post-treatment (termed mid-term). The data were subsequently re-analysed on sub-sets of the full cohort according to the level of activity limitation from RMDQ baseline scores. In the total cohort we found that the PSFS was more responsive than the RMDQ; however, in the subgroup with high activity limitation this pattern was not observed. This is true for time points up to 6 months post-treatment. In conclusion, the RMDQ and PSFS both demonstrate good responsiveness according to the definitions given in previous guidelines. The PSFS is more responsive than the RMDQ for patients with low levels of activity limitation but not for patients with high levels of activity limitation.

  20. Anti-helminthic activity of Momordica charantia L. against Fasciola hepatica eggs after twelve days of incubation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cíntia A J; Oliveira, Laura L S; Coaglio, Aytube L; Santos, Fernanda S O; Cezar, Rodolfo S M; Mendes, Tiago; Oliveira, Fernando L P; Conzensa, Gustavo; Lima, Walter S

    2016-09-15

    Fasciolosis, a parasitic disease caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica underreported is expanding both in human and animal population, throughout the world. The constant use of synthetic drugs to treat this condition has led to the natural selection of resistant strains of the parasite. Hence, there is a growing focus on the potential anti-helminthic properties of medicinal plants and phytopharmaceuticals. The current study assessed the potential anti-fasciolicide action of Momordica charantia leaf extracts and fractions on the eggs of F. hepatica parasites. The lyophilized crude extract (CE) of M. charantia leaves and its sub-fractions, obtained from liquid-liquid partitioning with organic solvents, were analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), suspended in 1% DMSO and used in in vitro tests. Quadruplicates of 50F. hepatica eggs were incubated at 23°C with M. charantia leaf CE in different concentrations. After 12days no larvae were formed in eggs incubated with CE concentrations above 12.5mg/mL. Eggs incubated with CE sub-fractions at concentrations of 1000, 100, 10, 1, 0.1, 0.01μg/mL affected embryonic development, with n-butanol presenting the strongest inhibition of miracidia formation. In contrast, on the 12th day, 90% of the miracidia hatched in the control experiments using 0.03% DMSO whereas embryogenesis was completely abolished with any concentration of albendazole sulphoxide ABZ(SO). Chemical analysis of the CE and sub-fractions revealed a prominent presence of flavonoids. HPLC-MS confirmed Quercetin to be one of the main flavonoids present in the CE and the n-butanol subfraction. This is the first study to analyse the potential anti-fasciolicide action of M. charantia leaf CE and subfractions.

  1. Word of the Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrar-Ul-Hassan, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    Independent lexical development initiatives empower and equip language learners with skills to boost their lexical repertoires. Language instructors can train learners to be autonomous word learners. A sample activity, namely word of the day, is presented in this article. The activity is an independent lexical learning task, which aims to develop…

  2. Limited adsorption selectivity of active carbon toward non-saccharide compounds in lignocellulose hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojiang; Zhuang, Jingshun; Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Zongquan; Fu, Yingjuan; Qin, Menghua

    2016-05-01

    Prehydrolysis of lignocellulose produces abundant hemicellulose-derived saccharides (HDS). To obtain pure HDS for application in food or pharmaceutical industries, the prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) must be refined to remove non-saccharide compounds (NSC) derived from lignin depolymerization and carbohydrate degradation. In this work, activated carbon (AC) adsorption was employed to purify HDS from NSC with emphasis on adsorption selectivity. The adsorption isotherms showed the priority of NSC to be absorbed over HDS at low AC level. However, increase of AC over 90% of NSC removal made adsorption non-selective due to competitive adsorption between NSC and HDS. Size exclusion chromatography showed that the adsorption of oligomeric HDS was dominant while monomeric HDS was inappreciable. The limited selectivity suggested that AC adsorption is infeasibility for HDS purification, but applicable as a pretreatment method.

  3. Application of active quenching of second generation wire for current limiting

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Li, Qiang

    2015-10-19

    Superconducting fault current limiters (SFCL's) are increasingly implemented in the power grid as a protection of substation equipment from fault currents. Resistive SFCL's are compact and light, however they are passively triggered and thus may not be sufficiently sensitive to respond to faults in the distribution grid. Here, we explore the prospect of adding an active management feature to a traditional resistive SFCL. A flexible radio-frequency coil, which is an integral part of the switching structure, acts as a triggering device. We show that the application of a short, 10 ms, burst of ac magnetic field during the fault triggers a uniform quench of the wire and significantly reduces the reaction time of the wire at low currents. The ac field burst generates a high density of normal zones, which merge into a continuous resistive region at a rate much faster than that of sparse normal zones created by the transport current alone.

  4. Application of active quenching of second generation wire for current limiting

    DOE PAGES

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Li, Qiang

    2015-10-19

    Superconducting fault current limiters (SFCL's) are increasingly implemented in the power grid as a protection of substation equipment from fault currents. Resistive SFCL's are compact and light, however they are passively triggered and thus may not be sufficiently sensitive to respond to faults in the distribution grid. Here, we explore the prospect of adding an active management feature to a traditional resistive SFCL. A flexible radio-frequency coil, which is an integral part of the switching structure, acts as a triggering device. We show that the application of a short, 10 ms, burst of ac magnetic field during the fault triggersmore » a uniform quench of the wire and significantly reduces the reaction time of the wire at low currents. The ac field burst generates a high density of normal zones, which merge into a continuous resistive region at a rate much faster than that of sparse normal zones created by the transport current alone.« less

  5. Application of active quenching of second generation wire for current limiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Li, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) are increasingly implemented in the power grid as a protection of substation equipment from fault currents. Resistive SFCLs are compact and light, however they are passively triggered and thus may not be sufficiently sensitive to respond to faults in the distribution grid. Here, we explore the prospect of adding an active management feature to a traditional resistive SFCL. A flexible radio-frequency coil, which is an integral part of the switching structure, acts as a triggering device. We show that the application of a short, 10 ms, burst of ac magnetic field during the fault triggers a uniform quench of the wire and significantly reduces the reaction time of the wire at low currents. The ac field burst generates a high density of normal zones, which merge into a continuous resistive region at a rate much faster than that of sparse normal zones created by the transport current alone.

  6. Interleukin-6 signaling promotes alternative macrophage activation to limit obesity-associated insulin resistance and endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Mauer, Jan; Chaurasia, Bhagirath; Goldau, Julia; Vogt, Merly C.; Ruud, Johan; Nguyen, Khoa D.; Theurich, Sebastian; Hausen, A. Christine; Schmitz, Joel; Brönneke, Hella S.; Estevez, Emma; Allen, Tamara L.; Mesaros, Andrea; Partridge, Linda; Febbraio, Mark A.; Chawla, Ajay; Wunderlich, F. Thomas; Brüning, Jens C.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are closely associated with the development of low-grade inflammation. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is linked to obesity-associated inflammation, however its role in this context remains controversial. Here, we show that mice with inactivated Il6ra gene in myeloid cells (Il6raΔmyel) displayed exaggerated deterioration of glucose homeostasis upon diet-induced obesity due to enhanced insulin resistance. Insulin target tissues showed increased inflammation and a shift in macrophage polarization. IL-6 induced IL-4-receptor expression and augmented the response to IL-4 in macrophages in a cell-autonomous manner. Il6raΔmyel mice were resistant to IL-4-mediated alternative macrophage polarization and exhibited increased susceptibility to LPS-induced endotoxemia. These results reveal IL-6 signaling as an important determinant for alternative macrophage-activation and assign IL-6 an unexpected homeostatic role to limit inflammation. PMID:24681566

  7. Thymidylate Limitation Potentiates Cephalosporin Activity toward Enterococci via an Exopolysaccharide-Based Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Jessica S; Kristich, Christopher J

    2016-06-17

    Multidrug resistant enterococci are major causes of nosocomial infections. Prior therapy with cephalosporins increases the risk of developing an enterococcal infection due to the intrinsic resistance of enterococci to these antibiotics. While progress has been made toward understanding the genetic and biochemical mechanisms of cephalosporin resistance, available data indicate that as-yet-unidentified resistance factors must exist. Here, we describe results of a screen to identify small molecules capable of sensitizing enterococci to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. We found that both Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were sensitized to broad and expanded-spectrum cephalosporins when thymidylate production was impaired, whether by direct inhibition of thymidylate synthase, or by limiting production of cofactors required for its activity. Cephalosporin potentiation is the result of altered exopolysaccharide production due to reduced dTDP-glucose synthesis. Hence, exopolysaccharide production is a previously undescribed contributor to the intrinsic cephalosporin resistance of enterococci and serves as a new target for antienterococcal therapeutics.

  8. Active Interrogation Observables for Enrichment Determination of DU Shielded HEU Metal Assemblies with Limited Geometrical Information

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, Kirsten E; McConchie, Seth M; Crye, Jason Michael; Mihalczo, John T

    2011-01-01

    Determining the enrichment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal assemblies shielded by depleted uranium (DU) proves a unique challenge to currently employed measurement techniques. Efforts to match time-correlated neutron distributions obtained through active interrogation to Monte Carlo simulations of the assemblies have shown promising results, given that the exact geometries of both the HEU metal assemblies and DU shields are known from imaging and fission site mapping. In certain situations, however, it is desirable to obtain enrichment with limited or no geometrical information of the assemblies being measured. This paper explores the possibility that the utilization of observables in the interrogation of assemblies by time-tagged D-T neutrons, including time-correlated distribution of neutrons and gammas using liquid scintillators operating on the fission chain time scale, can lead to enrichment determination without a complete set of geometrical information.

  9. Present-day submarine hydrothermal activity in the Taupo-Rotorua Zone (Bay of Plenty, New Zealand)

    SciTech Connect

    Osipenko, A.B.; Egorov, Yu.O.; Fazlullin, S.M.; Gavrilenko, G.M.; Shul`kin, V.I.; Chertkova, L.V.

    1994-09-01

    We made detailed descriptions of the structure and material composition of sedimentary and water columns in the vicinity of active submarine hydrothermal activity in the southern part of the Bay of Plenty (North Island, New Zealand). Geophysical methods revealed that the hydrothermal system is confined to a tectonically distinct zone with a sedimentary cover characterized by complex structure. Chemical and mineralogical investigations confirmed that the activity of underwater vents exerts no substantial regional influence on the composition and features of ore mineralization in these formations. It is shown that essentially hydrothermal formations distinguishable within areas of otherwise monotypic sediments directly coincide with zones of hydrothermal discharge in the ocean floor. The absence of pronounced hydrothermal anomalies, together with the presence of {open_quotes}tongues{close_quotes} of anomalous concentrations of water-soluble gases suggests that the discharges are primarily hydrothermal in character.

  10. Sedentary Behaviors by Type of Day and Physical Activity in Spanish Adolescents: A Socio-Ecological Approach.

    PubMed

    Abarca-Sos, Alberto; Bois, Julien E; Aibar, Alberto; Antonio Julián, José; Generelo, Eduardo; Zaragoza, Javier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between TV and computer use, study time, and physical activity, with regard to gender, school, and weekday/weekend. Adolescents (N = 1,609; M age = 14.5 yr., SD = 1.3) reported on physical activity, sedentary behavior, their parents' employment, and environmental factors. The relationship between PA and screen media behaviors was negative on weekdays, while no relationship was found at weekends. Only 30.7% of adolescents met the screen media guidelines on weekdays and 14.6% at weekends. Girls spent more time on study, only showing a positive relationship with physical activity on weekdays. Each type of sedentary behavior has different correlates for weekdays and weekends.

  11. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-1T - Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... activity bonds (temporary). 1.103(n)-1T Section 1.103(n)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-1T Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary). Q-1: What does section 103(n) provide? A-1: Interest on an issue of private activity bonds...

  12. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-1T - Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... activity bonds (temporary). 1.103(n)-1T Section 1.103(n)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-1T Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary). Q-1: What does section 103(n) provide? A-1: Interest on an issue of private activity bonds...

  13. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-1T - Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... activity bonds (temporary). 1.103(n)-1T Section 1.103(n)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-1T Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary). Q-1: What does section 103(n) provide? A-1: Interest on an issue of private activity bonds...

  14. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-1T - Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... activity bonds (temporary). 1.103(n)-1T Section 1.103(n)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-1T Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary). Q-1: What does section 103(n) provide? A-1: Interest on an issue of private activity bonds...

  15. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-1T - Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... activity bonds (temporary). 1.103(n)-1T Section 1.103(n)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-1T Limitation on aggregrate amount of private activity bonds (temporary). Q-1: What does section 103(n) provide? A-1: Interest on an issue of private activity bonds...

  16. 75 FR 39916 - Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-904 Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China... initiation of the antidumping duty administrative review on certain activated carbon from the People's... Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results...

  17. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Rigidity Spectrum of the 27-Day Variation of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Intensity in Different Epochs of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, A.; Alania, M. V.

    2013-04-01

    We consider the recent, very exceptional, 11-year cycle (2003 - 2009) of solar activity and confirm that the relative amplitude in rigidity spectrum, δD( R)/ D( R), which can be approximated by a power law in rigidity R, of the first three harmonics of the 27-day variation of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity is hard in the maximum and soft in the minimum epochs of solar activity, as was found by neutron monitor data for the period of 1965 - 2002. This property is seen not only in separate minimum and maximum epochs but in individual intervals of a solar Carrington rotation as well: There exist many individual intervals of solar rotation when the expected rigidity spectrum of the 27-day variation of the GCR intensity indeed is hard in the maximum epoch of solar activity and is soft in the minimum epoch. We then construct a three-dimensional model of the 27-day variation of the GCR intensity based on Parker's transport equation, by implementing in situ measurements of the changes in heliographic longitude of the solar wind velocity and interplanetary magnetic field for different epochs of solar activity.

  18. Assessing Potential Energy Savings in Household Travel: Methodological and Empirical Considerations of Vehicle Capability Constraints and Multi-day Activity Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolon, Kevin M.

    The lack of multi-day data for household travel and vehicle capability requirements is an impediment to evaluations of energy savings strategies, since (1) travel requirements vary from day-to-day, and (2) energy-saving transportation options often have reduced capability. This work demonstrates a survey methodology and modeling system for evaluating the energy-savings potential of household travel, considering multi-day travel requirements and capability constraints imposed by the available transportation resources. A stochastic scheduling model is introduced---the multi-day Household Activity Schedule Estimator (mPHASE)---which generates synthetic daily schedules based on "fuzzy" descriptions of activity characteristics using a finite-element representation of activity flexibility, coordination among household members, and scheduling conflict resolution. Results of a thirty-household pilot study are presented in which responses to an interactive computer assisted personal interview were used as inputs to the mPHASE model in order to illustrate the feasibility of generating complex, realistic multi-day household schedules. Study vehicles were equipped with digital cameras and GPS data acquisition equipment to validate the model results. The synthetically generated schedules captured an average of 60 percent of household travel distance, and exhibited many of the characteristics of complex household travel, including day-to-day travel variation, and schedule coordination among household members. Future advances in the methodology may improve the model results, such as encouraging more detailed and accurate responses by providing a selection of generated schedules during the interview. Finally, the Constraints-based Transportation Resource Assignment Model (CTRAM) is introduced. Using an enumerative optimization approach, CTRAM determines the energy-minimizing vehicle-to-trip assignment decisions, considering trip schedules, occupancy, and vehicle capability

  19. Department of the Army Field Contracting Activities’ Contracting Efforts Under the Javits-Wagner-O’Day Act

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Question Eleven The contracting activities were asked to compare the quality of JWOD products and services with the quality of products and services they...Eleven is below: (a) How does the quality of the products provided to your agency under the JWOD Program compare with the quality of products provided to...services provided to your agency under the JWOD Program compare with the quality of products provided to you by other contractors? JWOD services are better

  20. Changes in Nutrient Intakes of Conditioned Men during a 5-Day Period of Increased Physical Activity and Other Stresses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP nutrition minerals energy balanQe vitamins 19...Introduction and urinary constituents of 16 Navy servicemen were obtained before and during a period of 113 It is an axiom that proper nutrition will...deprivation. Psychological stresses included verbal confrontations, perform- Key words: Nutrition >- Energy balance -- Vita- ance anxiety, and activities with

  1. Key Brainstem Structures Activated during Hypoxic Exposure in One-day-old Mice Highlight Characteristics for Modeling Breathing Network in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Fanny; Loiseau, Camille; Perrin-Terrin, Anne-Sophie; Cayetanot, Florence; Frugière, Alain; Voituron, Nicolas; Bodineau, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    We mapped and characterized changes in the activity of brainstem cell groups under hypoxia in one-day-old newborn mice, an animal model in which the central nervous system at birth is particularly immature. The classical biphasic respiratory response characterized by transient hyperventilation, followed by severe ventilation decline, was associated with increased c-FOS immunoreactivity in brainstem cell groups: the nucleus of the solitary tract, ventral reticular nucleus of the medulla, retrotrapezoid/parafacial region, parapyramidal group, raphe magnus nucleus, lateral, and medial parabrachial nucleus, and dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus. In contrast, the hypoglossal nucleus displayed decreased c-FOS immunoreactivity. There were fewer or no activated catecholaminergic cells activated in the medulla oblongata, whereas ~45% of the c-FOS-positive cells in the dorsal subcoeruleus were co-labeled. Approximately 30% of the c-FOS-positive cells in the parapyramidal group were serotoninergic, whereas only a small portion were labeled for serotonin in the raphe magnus nucleus. None of the c-FOS-positive cells in the retrotrapezoid/parafacial region were co-labeled for PHOX2B. Thus, the hypoxia-activated brainstem neuronal network of one-day-old mice is characterized by (i) the activation of catecholaminergic cells of the dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus, a structure implicated in the strong depressive pontine influence previously reported in the fetus but not in newborns, (ii) the weak activation of catecholaminergic cells of the ventral reticular nucleus of the medulla, an area involved in hypoxic hyperventilation, and (iii) the absence of PHOX2B-positive cells activated in the retrotrapezoid/parafacial region. Based on these results, one-day-old mice could highlight characteristics for modeling the breathing network of premature infants. PMID:28018238

  2. Endotoxin- and ATP-neutralizing activity of alkaline phosphatase as a strategy to limit neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme which can neutralize endotoxin as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an endogenous danger signal released during brain injury. In this study we assessed a potential therapeutic role for AP in inhibiting neuroinflammation using three complementary approaches. Methods Mice were immunized to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and treated with AP for seven days during different phases of disease. In addition, serological assays to determine AP activity, endotoxin levels and endotoxin-reactive antibodies were performed in a cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls. Finally, the expression of AP and related enzymes CD39 and CD73 was investigated in brain tissue from MS patients and control subjects. Results AP administration during the priming phase, but not during later stages, of EAE significantly reduced neurological signs. This was accompanied by reduced proliferation of splenocytes to the immunogen, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide. In MS patients, AP activity and isoenzyme distribution were similar to controls. Although endotoxin-reactive IgM was reduced in primary-progressive MS patients, plasma endotoxin levels were not different between groups. Finally, unlike AP and CD73, CD39 was highly upregulated on microglia in white matter lesions of patients with MS. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that: 1) pre-symptomatic AP treatment reduces neurological signs of EAE; 2) MS patients do not have altered circulating levels of AP or endotoxin; and 3) the expression of the AP-like enzyme CD39 is increased on microglia in white matter lesions of MS patients. PMID:23231745

  3. Torilin Inhibits Inflammation by Limiting TAK1-Mediated MAP Kinase and NF-κB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Kim, Na-Mi; Kim, Seung-Hyung

    2017-01-01

    Torilin, a sesquiterpene isolated from the fruits of Torilis japonica, has shown antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, data on the mechanism of torilin action against inflammation is limited. This study aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory property of torilin in LPS-induced inflammation using in vitro model of inflammation. We examined torilin's effect on expression levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The involvement of NF-kB and AP-1, MAP kinases, and adaptor proteins were assessed. Torilin strongly inhibited LPS-induced NO release, iNOS, PGE2, COX-2, NF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and GM-CSF gene and protein expressions. In addition, MAPKs were also suppressed by torilin pretreatment. Involvement of ERK1/2, P38MAPK, and JNK1/2 was further confirmed by PD98059, SB203580, and SP600125 mediated suppression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Furthermore, torilin attenuated NF-kB and AP-1 translocation, DNA binding, and reporter gene transcription. Interestingly, torilin inhibited TAK1 kinase activation with the subsequent suppression of MAPK-mediated JNK, p38, ERK1/2, and AP-1 (ATF-2 and c-jun) activation and IKK-mediated I-κBα degradation, p65/p50 activation, and translocation. Together, the results revealed the suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 regulated inflammatory mediator and cytokine expressions, suggesting the test compound's potential as a candidate anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:28316375

  4. Field and Laboratory Studies Provide Insights into the Meaning of Day-Time Activity in a Subterranean Rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco

    PubMed Central

    Tomotani, Barbara M.; Flores, Danilo E. F. L.; Tachinardi, Patrícia; Paliza, José D.; Oda, Gisele A.; Valentinuzzi, Verônica S.

    2012-01-01

    South American subterranean rodents (Ctenomys aff. knighti), commonly known as tuco-tucos, display nocturnal, wheel-running behavior under light-dark (LD) conditions, and free-running periods >24 h in constant darkness (DD). However, several reports in the field suggested that a substantial amount of activity occurs during daylight hours, leading us to question whether circadian entrainment in the laboratory accurately reflects behavior in natural conditions. We compared circadian patterns of locomotor activity in DD of animals previously entrained to full laboratory LD cycles (LD12∶12) with those of animals that were trapped directly from the field. In both cases, activity onsets in DD immediately reflected the previous dark onset or sundown. Furthermore, freerunning periods upon release into DD were close to 24 h indicating aftereffects of prior entrainment, similarly in both conditions. No difference was detected in the phase of activity measured with and without access to a running wheel. However, when individuals were observed continuously during daylight hours in a semi-natural enclosure, they emerged above-ground on a daily basis. These day-time activities consisted of foraging and burrow maintenance, suggesting that the designation of this species as nocturnal might be inaccurate in the field. Our study of a solitary subterranean species suggests that the circadian clock is entrained similarly under field and laboratory conditions and that day-time activity expressed only in the field is required for foraging and may not be time-dictated by the circadian pacemaker. PMID:22649565

  5. Effectiveness of the anaesthetic MS-222 in gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata: effect of feeding time and day-night variations in plasma MS-222 concentration and GST activity.

    PubMed

    Vera, L M; Montoya, A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2013-02-17

    Feeding time is a potent zeitgeber capable of synchronising behavioural and physiological daily rhythms in fish. However, the effect of feeding time on the daily rhythm of drugs toxicity and/or effectiveness remains unexplored to date. In this paper we investigated the day/night variations in the effectiveness of an anaesthetic commonly used in fish (Tricaine, MS-222) in a teleost of great chronobiological and aquaculture interest (gilthead seabream). To this end, fish were kept under LD 12:12 and fed at mid-light (ML), mid-darkness (MD) or random times (RD). The time needed to induce anaesthesia (reduction of locomotor activity) during MS-222 exposure (65 mg/L) as well as the recovery period were investigated at ML and MD in the three experimental groups using specialised video tracking software. In addition, daily rhythms of GST activity in the liver (as an indicator of detoxification processes) and plasma MS-222 concentration (related to uptake) were determined. The results revealed that MS-222 effectiveness in the ML group was higher during the day than at night (significant reduction of activity after 3 min vs. 5 min) whereas in the MD group, the daily variation of MS-222 effectiveness was inverted (significant reduction of activity after 7 min at ML vs. 2 min at MD), suggesting that feeding time can shift the day-night variations in the effectiveness of MS-222. Hepatic GST also seemed to be affected by feeding time: in fish fed at MD or RD this enzyme activity showed significant differences during the day, and the highest levels were found at different times of the day in each group. Plasma MS-222 concentrations were higher at ML (142.4±12.8 ng/ml) than at MD (96.3±10.9 ng/ml) (t-Student, p<0.05). These results suggest that the daily variation in MS-222 concentration following exposure might be involved, among other factors, in the existence of day-night variations in the effectiveness of this anaesthetic. Furthermore, manipulation of the feeding schedule

  6. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-4T - Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bond limit (temporary). 1.103(n)-4T Section 1.103(n)-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-4T Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit... carryforward for any one or more projects described in A-5 of this § 1.103(n)-4T (carryforward projects)....

  7. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-4T - Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bond limit (temporary). 1.103(n)-4T Section 1.103(n)-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-4T Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit... carryforward for any one or more projects described in A-5 of this § 1.103(n)-4T (carryforward projects)....

  8. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-4T - Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bond limit (temporary). 1.103(n)-4T Section 1.103(n)-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-4T Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit... carryforward for any one or more projects described in A-5 of this § 1.103(n)-4T (carryforward projects)....

  9. Activity limitations and participation restrictions in women with hand osteoarthritis: patients' descriptions and associations between dimensions of functioning

    PubMed Central

    Kjeken, I; Dagfinrud, H; Slatkowsky-Christ..., B; Mowinckel, P; Uhlig, T; Kvien, T; Finset, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe the functional consequences of hand osteoarthritis, and analyse associations between personal factors, hand impairment, activity limitations, and participation restrictions within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Methods: 87 women with hand osteoarthritis completed a clinical examination including recording of sociodemographic data, measures of hand impairment, and completion of self reported health status measures. The function subscale of the AUSCAN Osteoarthritis Hand Index was used as a measure of hand related activity limitations, while the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to describe and measure activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual. The study variables were categorised using the dimensions in the ICF framework and analysed using bivariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Results: The patients described problems in many domains of activity and participation. The most frequently described hand related problems were activities requiring considerable grip strength combined with twisting of the hands. On the impairment level, the patients had reduced grip force and joint mobility in the hands, and resisted motion was painful. Regression analyses showed that hand related activity limitations were associated with measures of hand impairment, while activity and participation (as measured by the COPM) were more strongly associated with personal factors than with hand impairment. Conclusions: Hand osteoarthritis has important functional consequences in terms of pain, reduced hand mobility and grip force, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Rehabilitation programmes should therefore be multidisciplinary and multidimensional, focusing on hand function, occupational performance, and coping strategies. PMID:15829571

  10. Aspirin Has Limited Ability to Modulate Shear-Mediated Platelet Activation Associated with Elevated Shear Stress of Ventricular Assist Devices

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, Lorenzo; Tran, Phat L.; Sheriff, Jawaad; Brengle, William; Ghosh, Ram; Chiu, Wei-Che; Redaelli, Alberto; Fiore, Gianfranco B.; Pappalardo, Federico; Bluestein, Danny; Slepian, Marvin J.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous flow ventricular assist devices (cfVADs) while effective in advanced heart failure, remain plagued by thrombosis related to abnormal flows and elevated shear stress. To limit cfVAD thrombosis, patients utilize complex anti-thrombotic regimens built upon a foundation of aspirin (ASA). While much data exists on ASA as a modulator of biochemically-mediated platelet activation, limited data exists as to the efficacy of ASA as a means of limiting shear-mediated platelet activation, particularly under elevated shear stress common within cfVADs. We investigated the ability of ASA (20, 25 and 125 μM) to limit shear-mediated platelet activation under conditions of: 1) constant shear stress (30 dyne/cm2 and 70 dyne/cm2); 2) dynamic shear stress, and 3) initial high shear exposure (70 dyne/cm2) followed by low shear exposure – i.e. a platelet sensitization protocol, utilizing a hemodynamic shearing device providing uniform shear stress in vitro. The efficacy of ASA to limit platelet activation mediated via passage through a clinical cfVAD system (DeBakey Micromed) in vitro was also studied. ASA reduced platelet activation only under conditions of low shear stress (38% reduction compared to control, n = 10, p < 0.004), with minimal protection at higher shear stress and under dynamic conditions (n = 10, p > 0.5) with no limitation of platelet sensitization. ASA had limited ability (25.6% reduction in platelet activation rate) to modulate shear-mediated platelet activation induced via cfVAD passage. These findings, while performed under “deconstructed” non-clinical conditions by utilizing purified platelets alone in vitro, provide a potential contributory mechanistic explanation for the persistent thrombosis rates experienced clinically in cfVAD patients despite ASA therapy. An opportunity exists to develop enhanced pharmacologic strategies to limit shear-mediated platelet activation at elevated shear levels associated with mechanical circulatory support

  11. [Bion-M1. Biological activities of microorganisms under the conditions of a 30-day space flight].

    PubMed

    Voeĭkova, T A; Tiaglov, B V; Novikova, L M; Krest'ianova, I N; Emel'ianova, L K; Korshunov, D V; Morozova, Iu A; Il'in, V K

    2014-01-01

    It was stated that spaceflight factors (SFF) affect the chromosomal DNA interchange during Streptomyces crossing. Cross polarity and primary input of a parent chromosome fragment in recombinant generation imply a more lasting cells contact in microgravity and a broader horizontal transport of genetic material. SFF had no effect on recombination frequency and mutation in a model of parental auxotrophic markers reversion to prototrophism. It was demonstrated that SFF boosted the fC31 phage exit from S. lividans 66 (fC31) and did not influence phage induction in S. coelicolor A3(2) (fC31). SFF inhibited synthesis of antiobiotic actinorhodin in lisogenic S. coelicolor A3(2), and tylosin and desmicosin in S. fradiae. Survivability of electrogenic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in space flight was higher compared with the synchronous control experiment. The reduction activity of S. oneidensis MR-1 as an indicator of electron generation effectiveness was identical in flight and laboratory samples.

  12. The involvement of the olfactory bulbs in the regulation of gonadal and thyroidal activities of male red-winged blackbirds, exposed to short-day light regime.

    PubMed

    Robinzon, B; Katz, Y; Rogers, J G

    1979-01-01

    Surgical removal of the olfactory bulbs (OB) was performed in mature male red-winged blackbirds, maintained under a short-day light regime. Bulbectomy caused hyperphagia, which was not accompanied by obesity. Bulbectomized (OBX) birds had incresaed thyroid follicular activity and had greater developed testes than sham-operated controls. In the adenohypophyses of the OB-removed birds there was an increase in the populations of 4 types of chromophils: alcianophils, PAS-positive basophils, orangeophils and PAS-positive acidophils. The possibility that the OB are involved in the photoperiodic regulation of the activity of the gonads and thyroids is discussed.

  13. A novel accelerometer-based method to describe day-to-day exposure to potentially osteogenic vertical impacts in older adults: findings from a multi-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hannam, K; Deere, K C; Hartley, A; Clark, E M; Coulson, J; Ireland, A; Moss, C; Edwards, M H; Dennison, E; Gaysin, T; Cooper, R; Wong, A; McPhee, J S; Cooper, C; Kuh, D; Tobias, J H

    2017-03-01

    This observational study assessed vertical impacts experienced in older adults as part of their day-to-day physical activity using accelerometry and questionnaire data. Population-based older adults experienced very limited high-impact activity. The accelerometry method utilised appeared to be valid based on comparisons between different cohorts and with self-reported activity.

  14. Brief report: Association between socio-demographic factors, screen media usage and physical activity by type of day in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Devís-Devís, José; Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J; Tomás, José Manuel

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors, screen media time usage, and light, moderate and vigorous activities on weekdays and weekends. Cross-sectional data was collected from 323 Spanish adolescents (mean age 13.59 years) who completed an interview administered recall questionnaire. Structural equation models indicated that male and younger adolescents spent more time on vigorous activities at the weekend, while females and older adolescents showed a greater involvement in light activities both on weekdays and weekends. State school students reported engaging in light and vigorous activities for longer periods than private school students on weekends. TV viewing was negatively linked to vigorous activities during weekdays and to light and moderate activities on weekends. The amount of mobile phone usage, however, was positively linked to light activities during weekdays, but negatively on weekends. The negative relationship between adolescents' use of screen media (TV and mobile phone) and physical activity and its possible displacement, depending on the type of day, added useful comparable knowledge for policies promoting an active lifestyle. Further research is required to provide evidence of the causality in the observed relationships.

  15. Effect of a 12-Week Summer Break on School Day Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness in Low-Income Children from CSPAP Schools

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 12-week summer break on school day physical activity and health-related fitness (HRF) in children from schools receiving a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Methods. Participants were school-aged children (N = 1,232; 624 girls and 608 boys; mean age = 9.5 ± 1.8 years) recruited from three low-income schools receiving a CSPAP. Physical activity and HRF levels were collected during the end of spring semester 2015 and again during the beginning of fall semester 2015. Physical activity was assessed using the Yamax DigiWalker CW600 pedometer. HRF measures consisted of body mass index (BMI) and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Results. Results from a doubly MANCOVA analysis indicated that pedometer step counts decreased from 4,929 steps in the spring to 4,445 steps in the fall (mean difference = 484 steps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.30) and PACER laps decreased from 31.2 laps in the spring to 25.8 laps in the fall (mean difference = 5.4 laps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.33). Conclusions. Children from schools receiving a CSPAP intervention had lower levels of school day physical activity and cardiorespiratory endurance following a 12-week summer break. PMID:28377791

  16. Effect of a 12-Week Summer Break on School Day Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness in Low-Income Children from CSPAP Schools.

    PubMed

    Fu, You; Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C; Burns, Ryan D

    2017-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 12-week summer break on school day physical activity and health-related fitness (HRF) in children from schools receiving a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Methods. Participants were school-aged children (N = 1,232; 624 girls and 608 boys; mean age = 9.5 ± 1.8 years) recruited from three low-income schools receiving a CSPAP. Physical activity and HRF levels were collected during the end of spring semester 2015 and again during the beginning of fall semester 2015. Physical activity was assessed using the Yamax DigiWalker CW600 pedometer. HRF measures consisted of body mass index (BMI) and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Results. Results from a doubly MANCOVA analysis indicated that pedometer step counts decreased from 4,929 steps in the spring to 4,445 steps in the fall (mean difference = 484 steps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.30) and PACER laps decreased from 31.2 laps in the spring to 25.8 laps in the fall (mean difference = 5.4 laps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.33). Conclusions. Children from schools receiving a CSPAP intervention had lower levels of school day physical activity and cardiorespiratory endurance following a 12-week summer break.

  17. Metastasis suppressor NM23 limits oxidative stress in mammals by preventing activation of stress-activated protein kinases/JNKs through its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Peuchant, Evelyne; Bats, Marie-Lise; Moranvillier, Isabelle; Lepoivre, Michel; Guitton, Jérôme; Wendum, Dominique; Lacombe, Marie-Lise; Moreau-Gaudry, François; Boissan, Mathieu; Dabernat, Sandrine

    2017-04-01

    NME1 (nonmetastatic expressed 1) gene, which encodes nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) A [also known as nonmetastatic clone 23 (NM23)-H1 in humans and NM23-M1 in mice], is a suppressor of metastasis, but several lines of evidence-mostly from plants-also implicate it in the regulation of the oxidative stress response. Here, our aim was to investigate the physiologic relevance of NDPK A with respect to the oxidative stress response in mammals and to study its molecular basis. NME1-knockout mice died sooner, suffered greater hepatocyte injury, and had lower superoxide dismutase activity than did wild-type (WT) mice in response to paraquat-induced acute oxidative stress. Deletion of NME1 reduced total NDPK activity and exacerbated activation of the stress-related MAPK, JNK, in the liver in response to paraquat. In a mouse transformed hepatocyte cell line and in primary cultures of normal human keratinocytes, MAPK activation in response to H2O2 and UVB, respectively, was dampened by expression of NM23-M1/NM23-H1, dependent on its NDPK catalytic activity. Furthermore, excess or depletion of NM23-M1/NM23-H1 NDPK activity did not affect the intracellular bulk concentration of nucleoside di- and triphosphates. NME1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts grew poorly in culture, were more sensitive to stress than WT fibroblasts, and did not immortalize, which suggested that they senesce earlier than do WT fibroblasts. Collectively, these results indicate that the NDPK activity of NM23-M1/NM23-H1 protects cells from acute oxidative stress by inhibiting activation of JNK in mammal models.-Peuchant, E., Bats, M.-L., Moranvillier, I., Lepoivre, M., Guitton, J., Wendum, D., Lacombe, M.-L., Moreau-Gaudry, F., Boissan, M., Dabernat, S. Metastasis suppressor NM23 limits oxidative stress in mammals by preventing activation of stress-activated protein kinases/JNKs through its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity.

  18. Present-day activity, monitoring, and documentation of gullies with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Tanya N.; Malin, Michael C.; Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2009-10-01

    Covering up to 9390 km2 in a single image, CTX provides large areal coverage at a resolution (6 m/pixel) capable of observing > 95% of the middle- and high-latitude gullies on Mars. We use CTX to cover entire gullied landforms (craters, pits, etc.) to remove the sampling bias in previous Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) coverage, allowing relations between gully occurrence and insolation, geographic location, and climate influences to be addressed. The gullies are imaged during appropriate illumination and seasonal conditions for maximum visibility. We acquire CTX stereopairs to aid in quantitative geomorphic studies, and we recommend targets for higher-resolution (0.3 m/pixel) imaging by the MRO HiRISE based on our previous decade of observations of these landforms. CTX is used to routinely monitor 617 locations to look for changes in gullies. From these efforts, we found further evidence that some gullies are active today, with 6 new gully flows discovered using CTX (adding to the 2 found by MOC) that formed since 2001. Examination of HiRISE images of these 6 landforms indicates a debris flow origin (requiring liquid); this interpretation is based on the patterns of flow around obstacles, ponding in and subsequent overtopping of topographic depressions, super-elevation of deposits on channel banks where the channels change direction, anastomoses in distal reaches, and lobate terminations. Of the 6 new flows, 3 have formation dates constrained to within a single Mars year; these 3 formed during autumn to early spring, demonstrating that summer warming is not participating in creating the liquid involved in their formation. We have also found similar gully flow features for which there is no "before" image; these are interpreted to be relatively recent but we cannot constrain their age. All gullied locations imaged by MOC and CTX have been cataloged; as of July 2009, > 43% of Mars has been imaged and > 4,000 separate gullied landform sites (tens of

  19. Present-day Focal Mechanisms and Stress Field of the Sichuan-Yunnan Active Block and Its Adjacent Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zhao, cuiping; luo, jun; zhou, lianqing

    2013-04-01

    Focal mechanism solutions together with the depths of 66 M 3.5 moderate earthquakes occurred in the Sichuan Yunnan active block and its adjacent regions from Aug.1st, 2007 to Sep.15th, 2012was obtained by CAP method. Furthermore, by combining the results with the focal mechanism solutions from Harvard University, we investigated the characteristics of the stress field in the study area. We discussed the spatial distribution of the focal mechanisms and the focal depths, and then analyzed its dynamics. Four conclusions are drawn as follows. (1)Focal mechanism solutions show zoning characteristic. Along the ANH-ZMH-XJ faults(the eastern border of Sichuan-Yunnan block), the earthquakes are mostly left-lateral strike-slip mechanism. Along the HSH fault, the earthquakes are mostly right-lateral strike-slip mechanism. Around the XGLL block and in its interior, there exists remarkable normal fault mechanism with different fault striking and direction of P and T stress axis. Along the arc boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan block with the Sichuan basin, the earthquakes are reverse fault mechanism. (2) The inversed regional stress field shows complicated local feature. On and to the east side of the eastern border of Sichuan-Yunnan block, the stress field is similar with the stress field of the Eastern China block, which is from the relative motion of Philippine plate towards the Urasia plate. Whereas to the west side of the eastern border of Sichuan-Yunnan block, the stress field is much more complicated, indicting the strong influence of local structures to the stress field, especially the NE striking of JPS-YL over-thrusting tectonic structure located in the interior of Sichuan-Yunnan block.(3)The moment center depths of events occurred in the Sichuan-Yunnan active block are within 15km deep, and mostly among 5~15km, suggesting that the brittle seismic layer is among the depth of 5~15km in the upper and middle crust.

  20. The transition from day-to-night activity is a risk factor for the development of CNS oxygen toxicity in the diurnal fat sand rat (Psammomys obesus).

    PubMed

    Eynan, Mirit; Biram, Adi; Mullokandov, Michael; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Paz-Cohen, Rotem; Menajem, Dvir; Arieli, Yehuda

    2017-02-03

    Performance and safety are impaired in employees engaged in shift work. Combat divers who use closed-circuit oxygen diving apparatus undergo part of their training during the night hours. The greatest risk involved in diving with such apparatus is the development of central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT). We investigated whether the switch from day-to-night activity may be a risk factor for the development of CNS-OT using a diurnal animal model, the fat sand rat (Psammomys obesus). Animals were kept on a 12:12 light-dark schedule (6 a.m. to 6 p.m. at 500 lx). The study included two groups: (1) Control group: animals were kept awake and active during the day, between 09:00 and 15:00. (2) Experimental group: animals were kept awake and active during the night, between 21:00 and 03:00, when they were exposed to dim light in order to simulate the conditions prevalent during combat diver training. This continued for a period of 3 weeks, 5 days a week. On completion of this phase, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (6-SMT) levels in urine were determined over a period of 24 h. Animals were then exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). To investigate the effect of acute melatonin administration, melatonin (50 mg/kg) or its vehicle was administered to the animals in both groups 20 min prior to HBO exposure. After the exposure, the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was measured, as were the levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and overall nitrotyrosylation in the cortex and hippocampus. Latency to CNS-OT was significantly reduced after the transition from day-to-night activity. This was associated with alterations in the level of melatonin metabolites secreted in the urine. Acute melatonin administration had no effect on latency to CNS-OT in either of the groups. Nevertheless, the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase, as well as nitrotyrosine and nNOS levels, were altered in the hippocampus following melatonin

  1. Upper Limits to the Diffuse Neutrino Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolesta, Jeffery W.

    1997-07-01

    In November of 1987 a muon detector dubbed the Short Prototype String (SPS) was successfully operated for about 30 hours in the deep ocean approximately 35 km west of the big island of Hawaii. The original purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of conducting neutrino astronomy in the deep ocean, and to serve as the prototype to the DUMAND experiment. Hence, the data were originally analyzed to measure the deep ocean flux of atmospheric muons as a proof of concept. The more recent theoretical investigations of neutrino production in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) has motivated a search of the data for the unique signature of neutrino-induced particle cascades. The optical properties of the deep ocean allows for surprisingly large detection volumes that grow with incident neutrino energy. It is found through Monte Carlo simulation that the fiducial mass for this type of search is ~7 × 106 tons of water at incident neutrino energies of 1 PeV (1015eV). This results in an exposure of 19.2 kton-years (kty) at this energy for 24 hours of operation. No evidence for neutrino-induced cascades was found in ~20 hours of detector livetime. This leads to the most stringent limits of AGN neutrino fluxes above the PeV scale yet published.

  2. Bone morphogenetic proteins induce the expression of noggin, which limits their activity in cultured rat osteoblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Gazzerro, E; Gangji, V; Canalis, E

    1998-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce the differentiation of cells of the osteoblastic lineage and enhance the function of the osteoblast. Growth factors are regulated by binding proteins, but there is no information about binding proteins for BMPs in skeletal cells. Noggin specifically binds BMPs, but its expression by cells of the osteoblastic lineage has not been reported. We tested for the expression of noggin and its induction by BMP-2 in cultures of osteoblast-enriched cells from 22-d-old fetal rat calvariae (Ob cells). BMP-2 caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in noggin mRNA and polypeptide levels, as determined by Northern and Western blot analyses. The effects of BMP-2 on noggin transcripts were dependent on protein, but independent of DNA synthesis. BMP-2 increased the rates of noggin transcription as determined by nuclear run-on assays. BMP-4, BMP-6, and TGF-beta1 increased noggin mRNA in Ob cells, but basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet- derived growth factor BB, and IGF-I did not. Noggin decreased the stimulatory effects of BMPs on DNA and collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity in Ob cells. In conclusion, BMPs induce noggin transcription in Ob cells, a probable mechanism to limit BMP action in osteoblasts. PMID:9854046

  3. Rate limiting activity of charge transfer during lithiation from ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F.; Lin, Xinrong; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Grinstaff, Mark W.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2016-10-01

    Given the increased use of room temperature ionic liquid electrolytes in Li-ion batteries, due to their non-flammability and negligible volatility, this study evaluates the lithiation kinetics to understand and improve the rate performance of Li-ion batteries. Lithium titanate spinel is used as a model electrode and the electrolyte is composed of LiTFSI and TFSI-coordinated alkoxy-modified phosphonium ionic liquid. Based on the analysis of activation energies for each process, we report that the charge-transfer reaction at the electrode/electrolyte interface is the rate-limiting step for cell operation. This finding is further supported by the observation that a 50-fold decrease in charge-transfer resistance at higher temperatures leads to a significant performance improvement over that of a traditional organic electrolyte at room temperature. Charge-transfer resistance and electrolyte wetting on the electrode surface are critical processes for optimal battery performance, and such processes need to be included when designing new ionic liquids in order to exceed the power density obtained with the use of current carbonate-based electrolytes.

  4. Regulatory cascade and biological activity of Beauveria bassiana oosporein that limits bacterial growth after host death.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanhua; Liu, Xi; Keyhani, Nemat O; Tang, Guirong; Pei, Yan; Zhang, Wenwen; Tong, Sheng

    2017-02-28

    The regulatory network and biological functions of the fungal secondary metabolite oosporein have remained obscure. Beauveria bassiana has evolved the ability to parasitize insects and outcompete microbial challengers for assimilation of host nutrients. A novel zinc finger transcription factor, BbSmr1 (B. bassiana secondary metabolite regulator 1), was identified in a screen for oosporein overproduction. Deletion of Bbsmr1 resulted in up-regulation of the oosporein biosynthetic gene cluster (OpS genes) and constitutive oosporein production. Oosporein production was abolished in double mutants of Bbsmr1 and a second transcription factor, OpS3, within the oosporein gene cluster (ΔBbsmr1ΔOpS3), indicating that BbSmr1 acts as a negative regulator of OpS3 expression. Real-time quantitative PCR and a GFP promoter fusion construct of OpS1, the oosporein polyketide synthase, indicated that OpS1 is expressed mainly in insect cadavers at 24-48 h after death. Bacterial colony analysis in B. bassiana-infected insect hosts revealed increasing counts until host death, with a dramatic decrease (∼90%) after death that correlated with oosporein production. In vitro studies verified the inhibitory activity of oosporein against bacteria derived from insect cadavers. These results suggest that oosporein acts as an antimicrobial compound to limit microbial competition on B. bassiana-killed hosts, allowing the fungus to maximally use host nutrients to grow and sporulate on infected cadavers.

  5. Particle exhaust of helium plasmas with actively cooled outboard pump limiter on Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, T.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Loarer, T.; Chatelier, M.; Guilhem, D.; Lutz, T.; Nygren, R.E.; Mahdavi, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    The superconducting tokamak Tore Supra was designed for long-pulse (30-s) high input power operation. Here observations on the particle-handling characteristics of the actively cooled modular outboard pump limiter (OPL) are presented for helium discharges. The important experimental result was that a modest pumping speed (1 m{sup 3}/s) of the OPL turbomolecular pump (TMP) provided background helium exhaust. This result came about due to a well-conditioned vessel wall with helium discharges that caused no wall outgasing. The particle accountability in these helium discharges was excellent, and the well-conditioned wall did not play a significant role in the particle balance. The helium density control, 25% density drop with OPL exhaust efficiency of {approximately}1%, was possible with TMP although this may not be the case with reactive gases such as deuterium. The observed quadratic increase of the OPL neutral pressure with helium density was consistent with an improvement of the particle control with increasing plasma density.

  6. Limiting activity coefficients of some aromatic and aliphatic nitro compounds in water

    SciTech Connect

    Benes, M.; Dohnal, V.

    1999-09-01

    Limiting activity coefficients of nine nitroaromatic compounds and four nitroalkanes in water were determined in the range of environmentally related temperatures by measuring suitable phase equilibria. For liquid and solid nitroaromatics (nitrobenzene, 2-nitrotoluene, 3-nitrotoluene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 1-chloro-2-nitrobenzene, and 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene) the aqueous solubilities were measured by a conventional batch contacting method with UV spectrophotometric analysis, while for nitroalkanes (nitromethane, nitroethane, 1-nitropropane, and 2-nitropropane) the air-water partitioning (Henry`s law constant H{sub 12} or air-water partition coefficient K{sub aw}) was determined by the inert gas stripping method employing gas chromatography. Whenever possible, results were compared to literature values. Calculation of H{sub 12} or K{sub aw} for nitroaromatics from the measured solubilities is hindered by the lack of reliable vapor pressure data. On the basis of the temperature dependences of the solubilities measured, the enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution for the nitroaromatics in water were evaluated.

  7. Thirteen-day periodicity and the center-to-limb dependence of UV, EUV, and X-ray emission of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, R. F.; Puga, L. C.

    1990-12-01

    This paper discusses the satellite and ground-based observatons of 13- to 14-day quasi-periodicity ('the 13-day periodicity') in the full-disk solar UV fluxes, with an emphasis on the wavelength dependence in the X-ray, EUV, and UV range. It is shown that the 13-day periodicity is uniformly strong at most wavelengths in the 1750-2900 A range, where the flux originates from the upper photosphere, the temperature minimum, and the lower chromosphere and is moderately strong for lines from the chromosphere, such as the Mg II h and k absorption lines, the He I absorption line, the EUV emission lines of H L-beta, He I, and He II, and in the chromospheric Ca-K plage index P. It is also shown that simple models can explain qualitatively the wavelength-dependent characteristics of the 13-day periodicity in terms of the average solar central angle dependence of the active region emission.

  8. Avoidance of wind farms by harbour seals is limited to pile driving activities.

    PubMed

    Russell, Debbie J F; Hastie, Gordon D; Thompson, David; Janik, Vincent M; Hammond, Philip S; Scott-Hayward, Lindesay A S; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Jones, Esther L; McConnell, Bernie J

    2016-12-01

    As part of global efforts to reduce dependence on carbon-based energy sources there has been a rapid increase in the installation of renewable energy devices. The installation and operation of these devices can result in conflicts with wildlife. In the marine environment, mammals may avoid wind farms that are under construction or operating. Such avoidance may lead to more time spent travelling or displacement from key habitats. A paucity of data on at-sea movements of marine mammals around wind farms limits our understanding of the nature of their potential impacts.Here, we present the results of a telemetry study on harbour seals Phoca vitulina in The Wash, south-east England, an area where wind farms are being constructed using impact pile driving. We investigated whether seals avoid wind farms during operation, construction in its entirety, or during piling activity. The study was carried out using historical telemetry data collected prior to any wind farm development and telemetry data collected in 2012 during the construction of one wind farm and the operation of another.Within an operational wind farm, there was a close-to-significant increase in seal usage compared to prior to wind farm development. However, the wind farm was at the edge of a large area of increased usage, so the presence of the wind farm was unlikely to be the cause.There was no significant displacement during construction as a whole. However, during piling, seal usage (abundance) was significantly reduced up to 25 km from the piling activity; within 25 km of the centre of the wind farm, there was a 19 to 83% (95% confidence intervals) decrease in usage compared to during breaks in piling, equating to a mean estimated displacement of 440 individuals. This amounts to significant displacement starting from predicted received levels of between 166 and 178 dB re 1 μPa(p-p). Displacement was limited to piling activity; within 2 h of cessation of pile driving, seals were distributed as per

  9. 40 CFR Table 2 to Part 455 - Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient Effluent Limitations Best Available Technology Economically...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 455—Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient Effluent Limitations Best Available Technology Economically...

  10. 40 CFR Table 2 to Part 455 - Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient Effluent Limitations Best Available Technology Economically...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 455—Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient Effluent Limitations Best Available...

  11. 40 CFR Table 2 to Part 455 - Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient Effluent Limitations Best Available Technology Economically...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 455—Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient Effluent Limitations Best Available...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 to Part 455 - Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient Effluent Limitations Best Available Technology Economically...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 455—Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient Effluent Limitations Best Available Technology Economically...

  13. 40 CFR Table 2 to Part 455 - Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient Effluent Limitations Best Available Technology Economically...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 455—Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient Effluent Limitations Best Available...

  14. Assessing Activity Limitations in Patients with Neuromuscular Diseases: Is the ACTIVLIM Questionnaire Linked to ICF and ICF-CY?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore to what extent the ACTIVLIM questionnaire, designed to evaluate limitations in activities involving upper and lower limbs in adults and children with neuromuscular diseases, is linked to the domains of the Activities and Participation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and…

  15. 12 CFR 225.145 - Limitations established by the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987 on the activities and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Equality Banking Act of 1987 on the activities and growth of nonbank banks. 225.145 Section 225.145 Banks... Interpretations § 225.145 Limitations established by the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987 on the activities and growth of nonbank banks. (a) Introduction. Effective August 10, 1987, the Competitive...

  16. 12 CFR 225.145 - Limitations established by the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987 on the activities and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations established by the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987 on the activities and growth of nonbank banks. 225.145 Section 225.145 Banks... activities and growth of nonbank banks. (a) Introduction. Effective August 10, 1987, the Competitive...

  17. Chronic central administration of apelin-13 over 10 days increases food intake, body weight, locomotor activity and body temperature in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Valle, A; Hoggard, N; Adams, A C; Roca, P; Speakman, J R

    2008-01-01

    The peptide apelin has been located in a wide range of tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract, stomach and adipose tissue. Apelin and its receptor has also been detected in the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, which are involved in the control of feeding behaviour and energy expenditure. This distribution suggests apelin may play a role in energy homeostasis, but previous attempts to discern the effects of apelin by acute injection into the brain have yielded conflicting results. We examined the effect of a chronic 10-day intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of apelin-13 into the third ventricle on food intake, body temperature and locomotor activity in C57BL/6 mice. Apelin-13 (1 microg/day) increased food intake significantly on days 3-7 of infusion; thereafter, food intake of treated and control individuals converged. This convergence was potentially because of progressive conversion of apelin-13 to [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 which has a four-fold lower receptor binding affinity at the orphan G protein-coupled receptor, APJ. Locomotor activity was also higher in the apelin-treated mice, especially during the nocturnal peak, when most feeding occurs, and the first hours of the light phase. Body temperature was also elevated during this increased period of activity, but was otherwise unaffected. Apelin-13-infused animals gained more weight than the saline-infused controls, suggesting the elevated locomotor activity did not offset the increased food intake. Elevated locomotion and the consequent increases in body temperature were probably secondary effects to the increased food intake. These results suggest that apelin-13 may play a central role in the control of feeding behaviour and is one of only two peripheral ligands known to stimulate rather than inhibit intake. As apelin production is elevated during obesity, this may provide an important feed-forward mechanism exacerbating the problem. Antagonists of the apelin receptor may

  18. Validation of a previous day recall for measuring the location and purpose of active and sedentary behaviors compared to direct observation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gathering contextual information (i.e., location and purpose) about active and sedentary behaviors is an advantage of self-report tools such as previous day recalls (PDR). However, the validity of PDR’s for measuring context has not been empirically tested. The purpose of this paper was to compare PDR estimates of location and purpose to direct observation (DO). Methods Fifteen adult (18–75 y) and 15 adolescent (12–17 y) participants were directly observed during at least one segment of the day (i.e., morning, afternoon or evening). Participants completed their normal daily routine while trained observers recorded the location (i.e., home, community, work/school), purpose (e.g., leisure, transportation) and whether the behavior was sedentary or active. The day following the observation, participants completed an unannounced PDR. Estimates of time in each context were compared between PDR and DO. Intra-class correlations (ICC), percent agreement and Kappa statistics were calculated. Results For adults, percent agreement was 85% or greater for each location and ICC values ranged from 0.71 to 0.96. The PDR-reported purpose of adults’ behaviors were highly correlated with DO for household activities and work (ICCs of 0.84 and 0.88, respectively). Transportation was not significantly correlated with DO (ICC = -0.08). For adolescents, reported classification of activity location was 80.8% or greater. The ICCs for purpose of adolescents’ behaviors ranged from 0.46 to 0.78. Participants were most accurate in classifying the location and purpose of the behaviors in which they spent the most time. Conclusions This study suggests that adults and adolescents can accurately report where and why they spend time in behaviors using a PDR. This information on behavioral context is essential for translating the evidence for specific behavior-disease associations to health interventions and public policy. PMID:24490619

  19. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  20. We Love Science Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne

    1986-01-01

    Describes the goals and outcomes of the "We Love Science Day" programs that resulted from the inservice course, "Creative Integration of Science in Elementary Education" for Pennsylvania teachers. Provides samples of the hands-on activities that were offered to students, parents, and teachers. Includes a calendar of…

  1. Make a Splash Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, Greg; Rust, April; Jensen, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    At the annual, all-day events-sponsored by Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) and held in nearly every state across the country each September--students participate in interactive activities and exhibits to learn about water resources and explore how human behaviors, such as development and recreation, can affect the quality of the…

  2. Sun-Earth Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Michael Sandras, a member of the Pontchartrain Astronomical Society, explains his solar telescope to students of Second Street in Bay St. Louis, Hancock County and Nicholson elementary schools in StenniSphere's Millennium Hall on April 10. The students participated in several hands-on activities at Stennis Space Center's Sun-Earth Day celebration.

  3. Determining the limits of anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge with grease interceptor waste.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Aziz, Tarek N; de los Reyes, Francis L

    2013-07-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with grease interceptor waste (GIW) from a food service establishment was conducted in lab scale semi-continuous digesters. GIW included the entire contents of the grease interceptor (GI) including fat, oil, and grease (FOG), food residuals, and associated wastewater. GIW was added in step increases to identify the maximum methane production and the corresponding threshold input of GIW that led to inhibition of methanogenesis. The experiment was performed at mesophilic conditions (37 °C) with a solids retention time (SRT) of 20 days. The highest GIW addition rate achieved without digester failure was 20% (v/v), or 65.5% (w/w) of volatile solids (VS) added, enhancing the methane yield from 0.180 to 0.752 m3(CH4)/kg(VS added), biogas production from 2.2 × 10(-3) to 1.4 × 10(-2) m(3)/d, and methane content from 60.2% to 70.1%. The methane yield of 0.752 m3(CH4)/kg(VS added) is the highest value reported to date for co-digestion of GIW. Stepwise increases in co-substrate addition led to better microbial acclimation and reduced the GIW inhibitory effect. The limit for GIW addition leading to an inhibited digestion process was identified to be between 20 and 40% (v/v) or 65.5 and 83.5% (w/w) of VS added. The results show the significant benefits of anaerobic co-digestion of GIW and the positive impacts of gradual addition of GIW.

  4. Outdoor PM2.5, Ambient Air Temperature, and Asthma Symptoms in the Past 14 Days among Adults with Active Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Flanders, W. Dana; Qin, Xiaoting; Garbe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Relationships between air quality and health are well-described, but little information is available about the joint associations between particulate air pollution, ambient temperature, and respiratory morbidity. Objectives: We evaluated associations between concentrations of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and exacerbation of existing asthma and modification of the associations by ambient air temperature. Methods: Data from 50,356 adult respondents to the Asthma Call-back Survey from 2006–2010 were linked by interview date and county of residence to estimates of daily averages of PM2.5 and maximum air temperature. Associations between 14-day average PM2.5 and the presence of any asthma symptoms during the 14 days leading up to and including the interview date were evaluated using binomial regression. We explored variation by air temperature using similar models, stratified into quintiles of the 14-day average maximum temperature. Results: Among adults with active asthma, 57.1% reported asthma symptoms within the past 14 days, and 14-day average PM2.5 ≥ 7.07 μg/m3 was associated with an estimated 4–5% higher asthma symptom prevalence. In the range of 4.00–7.06 μg/m3 of PM2.5, each 1-μg/m3 increase was associated with a 3.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 5.7] increase in symptom prevalence; across categories of temperature from 1.1 to 80.5°F, each 1-μg/m3 increase was associated with increased symptom prevalence (1.1–44.4°F: 7.9%; 44.5–58.6°F: 6.9%; 58.7–70.1°F: 2.9%; 70.2–80.5°F: 7.3%). Conclusions: These results suggest that each unit increase in PM2.5 may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of asthma symptoms, even at levels as low as 4.00–7.06 μg/m3. Citation: Mirabelli MC, Vaidyanathan A, Flanders WD, Qin X, Garbe P. 2016. Outdoor PM2.5, ambient air temperature, and asthma symptoms in the past 14 days among adults with active asthma. Environ Health Perspect 124:1882–1890;

  5. Sun-Earth Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  6. Healthcare-Related Financial Burden among Families in the U.S.: The Role of Childhood Activity Limitations and Income

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Whitney P.; Litzelman, Kristin; Mandic, Carmen G.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Hampton, John M.; Creswell, Paul D.; Gottlieb, Carissa A.; Gangnon, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of childhood activity limitations on family financial burden in the U.S. We used ten complete panels (1996-2006) of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to evaluate the burden of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures for 17,857 families with children aged 0-17 years. Multivariate generalized linear models were used to examine the relationship between childhood activity limitation status and both absolute and relative financial burden. Families of children with limitations had higher absolute out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures than families of children without limitations ($594.36 higher; p<0.05), and were 54% more likely to experience relative burden (p<0.05). Substantial socioeconomic disparities in financial burden were observed. Policies are needed to enable these families to access appropriate and affordable healthcare services. PMID:21552342

  7. What is Rate-Limiting during Sustained Synaptic Activity: Vesicle Supply or the Availability of Release Sites

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    For some types of synapses the availability of release-ready vesicles is a limiting factor during ongoing activity. Synaptic strength in this case is determined both by the recruitment of such vesicles and the probability of their release during an action potential. Here it is argued that not the availability of vesicles is the limiting factor for recruitment, but rather the availability of specific sites to which vesicles can dock. PMID:21423530

  8. Influence of CO2 change during 90-day experiment on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegetables grown in Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lingzhi; Liu, Hong; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    To establish bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) on lunar or Mars bases in the future, it is necessary to firstly conduct manned simulation experiments on the ground. For this purpose, Lunar palace 1 as an integrative experimental facility for permanent astrobase life support artificial closed ecosystem was set up, and 90-day experiment was carried out in this system. Vegtables as one of the important plant units, provide various nutrient content for crews in the system, such as vitamin, antioxidants and so on. However, it is not clear yet that how the CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment to affect on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegtables grown in the system. In this study, red lettuce, red rape, romaine lettuce, and bibb lettuce grown in the system were chosen as the subject investigated. Growth, expressed as dry weight, length of shoot and root, leaf area, was mearsured, and photosynthesis,expressed as net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO _{2} concentration, chlorophyll contents and fluorescence was analyzed to detemind influence of CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment on growth in vegtables grown in the system.

  9. Self-reported knee instability and activity limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis: results of the Amsterdam osteoarthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    van der Esch, Martin; Knoop, Jesper; van der Leeden, Marike; Voorneman, Ramon; Gerritsen, Martijn; Reiding, Dick; Romviel, Suzanne; Knol, Dirk L; Lems, Willem F; Dekker, Joost; Roorda, Leo D

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether self-reported knee instability is associated with activity limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), in addition to knee pain and muscle strength. A cohort of 248 patients diagnosed with knee OA was examined. Self-reported knee instability was defined as the perception of any episode of buckling, shifting, or giving way of the knee in the past 3 months. Knee pain was assessed using a numeric rating scale, and knee extensor and flexor strength were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Activity limitations were measured by using the Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function questionnaire, the timed Get Up and Go, and the timed stair climbing and three questionnaires evaluating walking, climbing stairs, and rising from a chair. Other potential determinants of activity limitations were also collected, including joint proprioception, joint laxity, age, sex, body mass index (BMI), disease duration, and radiographic disease severity. Regression analyses evaluated the effect of adding self-reported knee instability to knee pain and muscle strength, when examining associations with the activity limitations measures. Self-reported knee instability was common (65 %) in this cohort of patients with knee OA. Analyses revealed that self-reported knee instability is significantly associated with activity limitations, even after controlling for knee pain and muscle strength. Joint proprioception, joint laxity, age, sex, BMI, duration of complaints, and radiographic severity did not confound the associations. In conclusion, self-reported knee instability is associated with activity limitations in patients with knee OA, in addition to knee pain and muscle strength. Clinically, self-reported knee instability should be assessed in addition to knee pain and muscle strength.

  10. 20 CFR 667.266 - What are the limitations related to religious activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the religious liberty of Department of Labor social service providers and beneficiaries. (2) Limitations on the employment of participants under WIA Title I to carry out the construction, operation,...

  11. 20 CFR 667.266 - What are the limitations related to religious activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the religious liberty of Department of Labor social service providers and beneficiaries. (2) Limitations on the employment of participants under WIA Title I to carry out the construction, operation,...

  12. 20 CFR 667.266 - What are the limitations related to religious activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the religious liberty of Department of Labor social service providers and beneficiaries. (2) Limitations on the employment of participants under WIA Title I to carry out the construction, operation,...

  13. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fang, Yi; Myrer, Rachel S; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of recommended levels (≥ 30 min/day) of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥ 30 min/day) from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p < 0.01), and were 55% lower for every 1% increase in sedentary time (p < 0.001). Older children had 26% lower odds of meeting the recommended levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p < 0.05). A significant proportion of MVPA variance was explained by classroom and school affiliation (Rho = 0.09 to 0.54, p < 0.001). Daily steps, sedentary times, grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children.

  14. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Ryan D.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Fang, Yi; Myrer, Rachel S.; Fu, You; Hannon, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of recommended levels (≥ 30 min/day) of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥ 30 min/day) from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p < 0.01), and were 55% lower for every 1% increase in sedentary time (p < 0.001). Older children had 26% lower odds of meeting the recommended levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p < 0.05). A significant proportion of MVPA variance was explained by classroom and school affiliation (Rho = 0.09 to 0.54, p < 0.001). Daily steps, sedentary times, grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children. PMID:26844162

  15. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in the John Day Pool : 1983, Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Gerard A.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center

    1985-02-01

    This report summarizes activities in 1983, the second of a five year study to determine the extent of predation by resident populations of native and introduced fishes on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. As in 1982, catches of northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were highest in areas adjacent to dams; percent by weight of juvenile salmonids in the diet was up to 89.7% higher in these areas. Catches of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) were greatest outside restricted zones (700 to 900 m above and below the dams) in spring of both 1982 and 1983. Percent by weight of juvenile salmonids in walleyes collected in 1983 was generally higher at McNary tailrace and lower at Irrigon and John Day tailrace than in 1982. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) was the most common species collected and contained few salmonids in 1983. Results of the diet analysis for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) varied substantially between 1982 and 1983 as a result of eliminating the John Day River sampling transect and increasing sampling effort at McNary tailrace, Irrigon, and John Day tailrace. The beach seine and boat electroshocker were effective gears for evaluating prey abundance. Data obtained to estimate relationships between fork length of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and other body or bone measurements indicated that body length predicted fork length best, followed by cleithrum, dentary, and opercle measurements. Digestion over time was estimated for 162 northern squawfish fed juvenile salmonids at temperatures ranging from 10 to 20 C. 1 ref., 7 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  17. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  18. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  19. Day-night differences in neural activation in histaminergic and serotonergic areas with putative projections to the cerebrospinal fluid in a diurnal brain.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Ruiz, A; Gall, A J; Smale, L; Nunez, A A

    2013-10-10

    In nocturnal rodents, brain areas that promote wakefulness have a circadian pattern of neural activation that mirrors the sleep/wake cycle, with more neural activation during the active phase than during the rest phase. To investigate whether differences in temporal patterns of neural activity in wake-promoting regions contribute to differences in daily patterns of wakefulness between nocturnal and diurnal species, we assessed Fos expression patterns in the tuberomammillary (TMM), supramammillary (SUM), and raphe nuclei of male grass rats maintained in a 12:12 h light-dark cycle. Day-night profiles of Fos expression were observed in the ventral and dorsal TMM, in the SUM, and in specific subpopulations of the raphe, including serotonergic cells, with higher Fos expression during the day than during the night. Next, to explore whether the cerebrospinal fluid is an avenue used by the TMM and raphe in the regulation of target areas, we injected the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit beta (CTB) into the ventricular system of male grass rats. While CTB labeling was scarce in the TMM and other hypothalamic areas including the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which contains the main circadian pacemaker, a dense cluster of CTB-positive neurons was evident in the caudal dorsal raphe, and the majority of these neurons appeared to be serotonergic. Since these findings are in agreement with reports for nocturnal rodents, our results suggest that the evolution of diurnality did not involve a change in the overall distribution of neuronal connections between systems that support wakefulness and their target areas, but produced a complete temporal reversal in the functioning of those systems.

  20. [Effect of water-salt dietary supplements on tolerance to head-pelvis acceleration after 7 days of "dry" immersion and during normal motor activity].

    PubMed

    Kokova, N I

    1984-01-01

    The effect of water-salt supplements as an agent increasing human tolerance to head-to-feet acceleration with a slow onset was examined. The test subjects were rotated in a 7.25 m arm centrifuge after 7-day dry immersion or normal motor activity. The water-salt supplements were given at a dose of 0.15 g NaCl and 18 ml water per kg body weight (with the total daily dose consumed in four fractions). During immersion fluid retention was significantly higher than during normal activity (818 +/- 139.7 ml versus 478 +/- 69 ml). Water-salt supplements consumed produced a positive effect on tolerance to head-to-feet acceleration. During centrifugation after water-salt supplementation the physiological responses were less strained. Water-salt supplements taken on the last immersion day increased the tolerance level as compared to the control. The amount of the fluid retained in the body was found to be inversely proportional to the tolerance level. It is concluded that water-salt supplements may be recommended to increase tolerance to head-to-feet acceleration in aerospace medicine.

  1. Activity/participation Limitation and Weight Loss Among Overweight and Obese US Adults: 1999 to 2002 NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Bish, Connie L.; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Maynard, L. Michele; Serdula, Mary K.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and association of activity/participation limitation with trying to lose weight and weight loss practices (eating fewer calories, physical activity, or both) among overweight and obese adults in the United States. Research Methods and Procedures Eligible adults were 20 years of age or older with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 (n = 5608) who responded to standard physical functioning questions included in the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a continuous survey of the civilian non-institutionalized US population. Results Obese (BMI ≥ 30) men with vs. without activity/participation limitations were more likely to try to lose weight (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.05–2.41). This was not the case for overweight women and men (BMI 25–29.9), or obese women. Among adults trying to lose weight, reducing calorie consumption was common (63%–73%, men, 67%–76%, women). Overweight women with vs without activity/participation limitations had significantly reduced likelihood of attaining recommended physical activity (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.36–0.89). Obese adults were more likely to try to lose weight if they attributed their limitation to body weight (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.11–2.88) or diabetes (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.01–3.43) compared to other causes. Overweight and obese adults who attributed activity/participation limitations to mental health, musculoskeletal, or cardiovascular problems were equally likely to attempt weight loss when respondents with each condition were compared to respondents without the condition. Discussion These results verify the importance of adequate subjective health assessment when developing individual weight loss plans, and may help guide weight management professionals in the development and delivery of more personalized care. PMID:18092069

  2. Hemorheological changes, the state of microcirculation, and blood acid-base balance in rats under conditions of a 30-day limiting of the motor activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtykhno, Y. M.; Udovichenko, V. I.

    1980-01-01

    Changes were expressed in reduction in number of true capillaries, the appearance of nonfunctioning empty vessels and in the opening of the arteriolo-venular shunts. Changes in the acid-base balance in the direction of reduction of buffer blood content were also noted.

  3. Polyhydroxybutyrate production by direct use of waste activated sludge in phosphorus-limited fed-batch culture.

    PubMed

    Cavaillé, Laëtitia; Grousseau, Estelle; Pocquet, Mathieu; Lepeuple, Anne-Sophie; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina; Paul, Etienne

    2013-12-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production directly by waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated in aerobic fed-batch conditions using acetic acid as substrate. PHB production was induced by phosphorus limitation. WAS of different origin were tested with various degrees of phosphorus limitation and PHB contents of up to 70% (gCOD PHB/gCOD particulate) were obtained. This strategy showed the importance of maintaining cell growth for PHB production in order to increase PHB concentration and that the degree of phosphorus limitation has a direct impact on the quantity of PHB produced. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA transcripts showed changes in the active bacteria of the WAS microbial community as well as the acclimation of populations depending on sludge origin. The monitoring of the process appeared as the key factor for optimal PHB production by WAS. Different strategies are discussed and compared in terms of carbon yield and PHB content with the feast and famine selection process.

  4. 78 FR 73823 - Subzone 38E, Authorization of Limited Production Activity, Black & Decker (U.S.) Inc., (Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Subzone 38E, Authorization of Limited Production Activity, Black & Decker (U.S.) Inc., (Power Tools), Fort Mill, SC On July 19, 2013, Black & Decker (U.S.) Inc. submitted...

  5. The Importance of Motor Functional Levels from the Activity Limitation Perspective of ICF in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutlu, Akmer

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose in this study was to evaluate performance and capacity as defined by Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) from the "activity limitation" perspective of International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and to investigate the relationship between the…

  6. 12 CFR 225.145 - Limitations established by the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987 on the activities and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Equality Banking Act of 1987 on the activities and growth of nonbank banks. 225.145 Section 225.145 Banks... Companies Interpretations § 225.145 Limitations established by the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987... Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987 (“CEBA”) redefined the term “bank” in the Bank Holding Company...

  7. 12 CFR 225.145 - Limitations established by the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987 on the activities and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Equality Banking Act of 1987 on the activities and growth of nonbank banks. 225.145 Section 225.145 Banks... Companies Interpretations § 225.145 Limitations established by the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987... Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987 (“CEBA”) redefined the term “bank” in the Bank Holding Company...

  8. Photosystem II cycle activity and alternative electron transport in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under dynamic light conditions and nitrogen limitation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Lavaud, Johann; Wilhelm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Alternative electron sinks are an important regulatory mechanism to dissipate excessively absorbed light energy particularly under fast changing dynamic light conditions. In diatoms, the cyclic electron transport (CET) around Photosystem II (PS II) is an alternative electron transport pathway (AET) that contributes to avoidance of overexcitation under high light illumination. The combination of nitrogen limitation and high-intensity irradiance regularly occurs under natural conditions and is expected to force the imbalance between light absorption and the metabolic use of light energy. The present study demonstrates that under N limitation, the amount of AET and the activity of CETPSII in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were increased. Thereby, the activity of CETPSII was linearly correlated with the amount of AET rates. It is concluded that CETPSII significantly contributes to AET in P. tricornutum. Surprisingly, CETPSII was found to be activated already at the end of the dark period under N-limited conditions. This coincided with a significantly increased degree of reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. The analysis of the macromolecular composition of cells of P. tricornutum under N-limited conditions revealed a carbon allocation in favor of carbohydrates during the light period and their degradation during the dark phase. A possible linkage between the activity of CETPSII and degree of reduction of the PQ pool on the one side and the macromolecular changes on the other is discussed.

  9. 49 CFR 40.355 - What limitations apply to the activities of service agents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (including, but not limited to, collections, laboratory testing, MRO, and SAP services). No one may do so on... in the transmission of individual SAP reports to the actual employer. That is, the SAP may not send... individual SAP summary reports and follow-up testing plans after they are sent to the DER, and the SAP...

  10. 49 CFR 40.355 - What limitations apply to the activities of service agents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (including, but not limited to, collections, laboratory testing, MRO, and SAP services). No one may do so on... in the transmission of individual SAP reports to the actual employer. That is, the SAP may not send... individual SAP summary reports and follow-up testing plans after they are sent to the DER, and the SAP...

  11. Guardians to Counter Adolescent Drug Use?: Limitations of a Routine Activities Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Based on suggestions made by routine activities theory and data from two surveys, the present study discusses the use of adult guardians as a means to counter drug use among adolescents who seek out unsupervised routine activities with peers. Two surveys with 13- to 15-year-olds were conducted 4 years apart in a Norwegian town (Ns = 1,455 and…

  12. [The effect of limiting neuronal energy metabolism on the level of impulse activity and membrane potentials].

    PubMed

    Voronova, N V; Chumachenko, A A

    1989-01-01

    The changes of the membrane potential and the frequency of impulse activity of the crayfish stretch receptor neuron have been studied under condition of energy supply deficiency. The energetic metabolism inhibitors have been found not to exert a significant effect on the membrane potential. The activity of the glycolysis process and the Krebs cycle have different effect on the sensitivity of the generating mechanism.

  13. Arabidopsis S-Sulfocysteine Synthase Activity Is Essential for Chloroplast Function and Long-Day Light-Dependent Redox Control[W

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, Maria Angeles; Páez-Ochoa, Maria Angeles; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C.

    2010-01-01

    In bacteria, the biosynthesis of Cys is accomplished by two enzymes that are encoded by the cysK and cysM genes. CysM is also able to use thiosulfate as a substrate to produce S-sulfocysteine. In plant cells, the biosynthesis of Cys occurs in the cytosol, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain two O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase homologs, which are encoded by the OAS-B and CS26 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. An in vitro enzymatic analysis of the recombinant CS26 protein demonstrated that this isoform possesses S-sulfocysteine synthase activity and lacks O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase activity. In vivo functional analysis of this enzyme in knockout mutants demonstrated that mutation of CS26 suppressed the S-sulfocysteine synthase activity that was detected in the wild type; furthermore, the cs26 mutants exhibited a reduction in size and showed paleness, but penetrance of the growth phenotype depended on the light regime. The cs26 mutant plants also had reductions in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity (neither of which were observed in oas-b mutants) as well as elevated glutathione levels. However, cs26 leaves were not able to properly detoxify reactive oxygen species, which accumulated to high levels under long-day growth conditions. The transcriptional profile of the cs26 mutant revealed that the mutation had a pleiotropic effect on many cellular and metabolic processes. Our findings reveal that S-sulfocysteine and the activity of S-sulfocysteine synthase play important roles in chloroplast function and are essential for light-dependent redox regulation within the chloroplast. PMID:20179139

  14. The Effect of Breakfast Prior to Morning Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Appetite Later in the Day in Habitually Active Women.

    PubMed

    Veasey, Rachel C; Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F; Kennedy, David O; Tiplady, Brian; Stevenson, Emma J

    2015-07-14

    Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise (all p < 0.05). In a follow-up, randomised, controlled trial, 24 active women completed three trials in a balanced, cross-over design. At 0815 h participants completed baseline cognitive tasks, mood and appetite visual analogue scales (VAS) and were administered a cereal breakfast (providing 118 or 236 kcal) or no breakfast. After 45 min, they completed a 30 min run at 65% heart rate reserve (HRR). Parameters were re-assessed immediately after exercise, then hourly until lunch (~1240 h), immediately post-lunch and at 1500 and 1900 h via a mobile phone. Breakfast enhanced feelings of relaxation before lunch (p < 0.05, d > 0.40), though breakfast was detrimental for working memory mid-afternoon (p = 0.019, d = 0.37) and mental fatigue and tension later in the day (all p < 0.05, d > 0.038). Breakfast was also beneficial for appetite control before lunch irrespective of size (all p < 0.05, d > 0.43). These data provide information on pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females and suggest that a small breakfast eaten prior to exercise can benefit post-exercise mood and subjective appetite ratings.

  15. The Effect of Breakfast Prior to Morning Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Appetite Later in the Day in Habitually Active Women

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, Rachel C.; Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F.; Kennedy, David O.; Tiplady, Brian; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise (all p < 0.05). In a follow-up, randomised, controlled trial, 24 active women completed three trials in a balanced, cross-over design. At 0815 h participants completed baseline cognitive tasks, mood and appetite visual analogue scales (VAS) and were administered a cereal breakfast (providing 118 or 236 kcal) or no breakfast. After 45 min, they completed a 30 min run at 65% heart rate reserve (HRR). Parameters were re-assessed immediately after exercise, then hourly until lunch (~1240 h), immediately post-lunch and at 1500 and 1900 h via a mobile phone. Breakfast enhanced feelings of relaxation before lunch (p < 0.05, d > 0.40), though breakfast was detrimental for working memory mid-afternoon (p = 0.019, d = 0.37) and mental fatigue and tension later in the day (all p < 0.05, d > 0.038). Breakfast was also beneficial for appetite control before lunch irrespective of size (all p < 0.05, d > 0.43). These data provide information on pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females and suggest that a small breakfast eaten prior to exercise can benefit post-exercise mood and subjective appetite ratings. PMID:26184302

  16. Oxygen limitation favors the production of protein with antimicrobial activity in Pseudoalteromonas sp

    PubMed Central

    López, Ruth; Monteón, Víctor; Chan, Ernesto; Montejo, Rubí; Chan, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on the production of biomass and metabolites with antimicrobial activity of Pseudoalteromonas sp cultured at 0, 150, 250, or 450 revolutions per minute (rev. min-1). Dissolved oxygen (D.O) was monitored during the fermentation process, biomass was quantified by dry weight, and antimicrobial activity was assessed using the disk diffusion method. The bacterium Pseudoalteromonas reached similar concentration of biomass under all experimental agitation conditions, whereas antimicrobial activity was detected at 0 and 150 rev. min-1 registering 0% and 12% of D.O respectively corresponding to microaerophilic conditions. Antibiotic activity was severely diminished when D.O was above 20% of saturation; this corresponded to 250 or 450 rev. min-1. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis revealed a protein with a molecular weight of approximately 80 kilodaltons (kDa) with antimicrobial activity. Pseudoalteromonas is capable of growing under oxic and microaerophilic conditions but the metabolites with antimicrobial activity are induced under microaerophilic conditions. The current opinion is that Pseudoalteromonas are aerobic organisms; we provide additional information on the amount of dissolved oxygen during the fermentation process and its effect on antimicrobial activity. PMID:24031945

  17. Steps toward validity in active living research: research design that limits accusations of physical determinism.

    PubMed

    Riggs, William

    2014-03-01

    "Active living research" has been accused of being overly "physically deterministic" and this article argues that urban planners must continue to evolve research and address biases in this area. The article first provides background on how researchers have dealt with the relationship between the built environment and health over years. This leads to a presentation of how active living research might be described as overly deterministic. The article then offers lessons for researchers planning to embark in active-living studies as to how they might increase validity and minimize criticism of physical determinism.

  18. Will present day glacier retreat increase volcanic activity? Stress induced by recent glacier retreat and its effect on magmatism at the Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagli, Carolina; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2008-05-01

    Global warming causes retreat of ice caps and ice sheets. Can melting glaciers trigger increased volcanic activity? Since 1890 the largest ice cap of Iceland, Vatnajökull, with an area of ~8000 km2, has been continuously retreating losing about 10% of its mass during last century. Present-day uplift around the ice cap is as high as 25 mm/yr. We evaluate interactions between ongoing glacio-isostasy and current changes to mantle melting and crustal stresses at volcanoes underneath Vatnajökull. The modeling indicates that a substantial volume of new magma, ~0.014 km3/yr, is produced under Vatnajökull in response to current ice thinning. Ice retreat also induces significant stress changes in the elastic crust that may contribute to high seismicity, unusual focal mechanisms, and unusual magma movements in NW-Vatnajökull.

  19. Current limitations and recommendations to improve testing for the environmental assessment of endocrine active substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine-active chemicals are described, and associated challenges discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across organizatio...

  20. AJUBA LIM Proteins Limit Hippo Activity in Proliferating Cells by Sequestering the Hippo Core Kinase Complex in the Cytosol

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, Radhika; Schimizzi, Gregory V.; Zhang, Kun; Loza, Andrew J.; Yabuta, Norikazu; Nojima, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo pathway controls organ growth and is implicated in cancer development. Whether and how Hippo pathway activity is limited to sustain or initiate cell growth when needed is not understood. The members of the AJUBA family of LIM proteins are negative regulators of the Hippo pathway. In mammalian epithelial cells, we found that AJUBA LIM proteins limit Hippo regulation of YAP, in proliferating cells only, by sequestering a cytosolic Hippo kinase complex in which LATS kinase is inhibited. At the plasma membranes of growth-arrested cells, AJUBA LIM proteins do not inhibit or associate with the Hippo kinase complex. The ability of AJUBA LIM proteins to inhibit YAP regulation by Hippo and to associate with the kinase complex directly correlate with their capacity to limit Hippo signaling during Drosophila wing development. AJUBA LIM proteins did not influence YAP activity in response to cell-extrinsic or cell-intrinsic mechanical signals. Thus, AJUBA LIM proteins limit Hippo pathway activity in contexts where cell proliferation is needed. PMID:27457617

  1. When Every Day Is Professional Development Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Stonaker, Lew

    2007-01-01

    In the Monroe Township (New Jersey) Public Schools, teachers' learning occurs daily, not just on one day in October and February. Central office and school-level administrators foster job-embedded teacher growth. Every day is a professional development day in the district, but that has not always been so. How did the district become a system with…

  2. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorim, Jonaina; Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Azevedo, Bruna Fernades; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  3. Field test data on small strongyles in evaluation of activity of fenbendazole given once a day for 5 consecutive days to thoroughbred yearlings on two farms in Kentucky in 2002 and 2003.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C

    2003-10-01

    Fenbendazole (FBZ) suspension was administered intraorally at the dose rate of 7.0-10.3 mg/kg once a day for 5 consecutive days to 58 thoroughbred yearlings on two farms in central Kentucky in April, 2002. The average dose rates of drug given to groups of colts and fillies on each farm were 7.8-8.5 mg/kg. Only 3 of the yearlings had negative counts of strongyle eggs per gram of feces (EPGs) after treatment which was at 8.4, 8.7, or 9.4 mg/kg; the pretreatment EPG counts were low (10-30). Reduction of EPG values at the highest dose rates was 0% (at 9.5 mg/kg) and 78% (at 10.3 mg/kg). This study was repeated in April, 2003 in 38 thoroughbred yearlings on one of the two same farms used in the 2002 research, but all horses were treated at the same dose rate (10 mg/kg) of FBZ paste once daily for 5 consecutive days. Only 1 of these yearlings had a negative EPG count after treatment, but this value was also negative before treatment. Reductions of EPG counts after treatment ranged from 0% to 85% (mean =22%) for the colts and from 0 to 63% (mean =14%) for the fillies. Examination of cultures of fecal samples from these yearlings revealed that only small strongyle larvae were present. There was obvious FBZ-resistance of the small strongyles in yearlings on both farms at the dose rates used.

  4. Potential and Limitations of the Modal Characterization of a Spacecraft Bus Structure by Means of Active Structure Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grillenbeck, Anton M.; Dillinger, Stephan A.; Elliott, Kenny B.

    1998-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies have been performed to investigate the potential and limitations of the modal characterization of a typical spacecraft bus structure by means of active structure elements. The aim of these studies has been test and advance tools for performing an accurate on-orbit modal identification which may be characterized by the availability of a generally very limited test instrumentation, autonomous excitation capabilities by active structure elements and a zero-g environment. The NASA LARC CSI Evolutionary Testbed provided an excellent object for the experimental part of this study program. The main subjects of investigation were: (1) the selection of optimum excitation and measurement to unambiguously identify modes of interest; (2) the applicability of different types of excitation means with focus on active structure elements; and (3) the assessment of the modal identification potential of different types of excitation functions and modal analysis tools. Conventional as well as dedicated modal analysis tools were applied to determine modal parameters and mode shapes. The results will be presented and discussed based on orthogonality checks as well as on suitable indicators for the quality of the acquired modes with respect to modal purity. In particular, the suitability for modal analysis of the acquired frequency response functions as obtained by excitation with active structure elements will be demonstrated with the help of reciprocity checks. Finally, the results will be summarized in a procedure to perform an on-orbit modal identification, including an indication of limitation to be observed.

  5. Ligands Raise the Constraint That Limits Constitutive Activation in G Protein-coupled Opioid Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Vezzi, Vanessa; Onaran, H. Ongun; Molinari, Paola; Guerrini, Remo; Balboni, Gianfranco; Calò, Girolamo; Costa, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Using a cell-free bioluminescence resonance energy transfer strategy we compared the levels of spontaneous and ligand-induced receptor-G protein coupling in δ (DOP) and μ (MOP) opioid receptors. In this assay GDP can suppress spontaneous coupling, thus allowing its quantification. The level of constitutive activity was 4–5 times greater at the DOP than at the MOP receptor. A series of opioid analogues with a common peptidomimetic scaffold displayed remarkable inversions of efficacy in the two receptors. Agonists that enhanced coupling above the low intrinsic level of the MOP receptor were inverse agonists in reducing the greater level of constitutive coupling of the DOP receptor. Yet the intrinsic activities of such ligands are identical when scaled over the GDP base line of both receptors. This pattern is in conflict with the predictions of the ternary complex model and the “two state” extensions. According to this theory, the order of spontaneous and ligand-induced coupling cannot be reversed if a shift of the equilibrium between active and inactive forms raises constitutive activation in one receptor type. We propose that constitutive activation results from a lessened intrinsic barrier that restrains spontaneous coupling. Any ligand, regardless of its efficacy, must enhance this constraint to stabilize the ligand-bound complexed form. PMID:23836900

  6. Ligands raise the constraint that limits constitutive activation in G protein-coupled opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Vezzi, Vanessa; Onaran, H Ongun; Molinari, Paola; Guerrini, Remo; Balboni, Gianfranco; Calò, Girolamo; Costa, Tommaso

    2013-08-16

    Using a cell-free bioluminescence resonance energy transfer strategy we compared the levels of spontaneous and ligand-induced receptor-G protein coupling in δ (DOP) and μ (MOP) opioid receptors. In this assay GDP can suppress spontaneous coupling, thus allowing its quantification. The level of constitutive activity was 4-5 times greater at the DOP than at the MOP receptor. A series of opioid analogues with a common peptidomimetic scaffold displayed remarkable inversions of efficacy in the two receptors. Agonists that enhanced coupling above the low intrinsic level of the MOP receptor were inverse agonists in reducing the greater level of constitutive coupling of the DOP receptor. Yet the intrinsic activities of such ligands are identical when scaled over the GDP base line of both receptors. This pattern is in conflict with the predictions of the ternary complex model and the "two state" extensions. According to this theory, the order of spontaneous and ligand-induced coupling cannot be reversed if a shift of the equilibrium between active and inactive forms raises constitutive activation in one receptor type. We propose that constitutive activation results from a lessened intrinsic barrier that restrains spontaneous coupling. Any ligand, regardless of its efficacy, must enhance this constraint to stabilize the ligand-bound complexed form.

  7. RWM control studies on RFX-mod with a limited set of active coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruzzo, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Liu, Y. Q.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Soppelsa, A.; Takechi, M.; Villone, F.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, the results of resistive wall mode (RWM) control experiments using several sets of active coils are presented. The control effectiveness as a function of coil number and covered torus surface is studied in the RFX-mod device, thanks to the powerful and flexible MHD active control system. Active control is tried using similar coil number and size both in the reversed field pinch (RFP) and in the tokamak configurations, giving a good experimental set to exploit the differences between the two cases. The experimental results are compared with predictions by a new integrated simulator for closed loop RWM growth. The numerical tool couples, in a self-consistent way, a full 3D finite element description of the machine boundaries, a 2D toroidal model of RFP plasma stability and a model of the RFX-mod control system, producing an overall dynamic model cast in the state variable space. In this way a full dynamic flight simulator of RWM control experiments is implemented, where coil coverage and experimental proportional-integral-derivative gains are explored in simulations. Both in the performed experiments and in simulations wall mode active control is proven to be possible in both the configurations with a very reduced set of active control coils. .

  8. Factors Limiting Microbial Growth and Activity at a Proposed High-Level Nuclear Repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    PubMed Central

    Kieft, T. L.; Kovacik, W. P.; Ringelberg, D. B.; White, D. C.; Haldeman, D. L.; Amy, P. S.; Hersman, L. E.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nev., as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste, volcanic tuff was analyzed for microbial abundance and activity. Tuff was collected aseptically from nine sites along a tunnel in Yucca Mountain. Microbial abundance was generally low: direct microscopic cell counts were near detection limits at all sites (3.2 x 10(sup4) to 2.0 x 10(sup5) cells g(sup-1) [dry weight]); plate counts of aerobic heterotrophs ranged from 1.0 x 10(sup1) to 3.2 x 10(sup3) CFU g(sup-1) (dry weight). Phospholipid fatty acid concentrations (0.1 to 3.7 pmol g(sup-1)) also indicated low microbial biomasses; diglyceride fatty acid concentrations, indicative of dead cells, were in a similar range (0.2 to 2.3 pmol g(sup-1)). Potential microbial activity was quantified as (sup14)CO(inf2) production in microcosms containing radiolabeled substrates (glucose, acetate, and glutamic acid); amendments with water and nutrient solutions (N and P) were used to test factors potentially limiting this activity. Similarly, the potential for microbial growth and the factors limiting growth were determined by performing plate counts before and after incubating volcanic tuff samples for 24 h under various conditions: ambient moisture, water-amended, and amended with various nutrient solutions (N, P, and organic C). A high potential for microbial activity was demonstrated by high rates of substrate mineralization (as much as 70% of added organic C in 3 weeks). Water was the major limiting factor to growth and microbial activity, while amendments with N and P resulted in little further stimulation. Organic C amendments stimulated growth more than water alone. PMID:16535670

  9. Radioisotopes "economy of promises": on the limits of biomedicine in public legitimization of nuclear activities.

    PubMed

    Boudia, Soraya

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the rise and the fall of biomedicine in the public legitimization of the development of nuclear energy. Until the late 1950s, biological and medical applications of radioisotopes were presented as the most important successes of the peaceful uses of atomic energy. I will argue that despite the major financial investment, the development of the uses of radioisotopes and their important impact on biology and clinical practices, the assessment of medical uses remained relatively limited. As consequence, the place of biomedicine in the public legitimization of financial investment and civilian uses of nuclear energy began to decline from the late 1950s.

  10. Body size limits dim-light foraging activity in stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Streinzer, Martin; Huber, Werner; Spaethe, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Stingless bees constitute a species-rich tribe of tropical and subtropical eusocial Apidae that act as important pollinators for flowering plants. Many foraging tasks rely on vision, e.g. spatial orientation and detection of food sources and nest entrances. Meliponini workers are usually small, which sets limits on eye morphology and thus quality of vision. Limitations are expected both on acuity, and thus on the ability to detect objects from a distance, as well as on sensitivity, and thus on the foraging time window at dusk and dawn. In this study, we determined light intensity thresholds for flight under dim light conditions in eight stingless bee species in relation to body size in a Neotropical lowland rainforest. Species varied in body size (0.8-1.7 mm thorax-width), and we found a strong negative correlation with light intensity thresholds (0.1-79 lx). Further, we measured eye size, ocelli diameter, ommatidia number, and facet diameter. All parameters significantly correlated with body size. A disproportionately low light intensity threshold in the minute Trigonisca pipioli, together with a large eye parameter P eye suggests specific adaptations to circumvent the optical constraints imposed by the small body size. We discuss the implications of body size in bees on foraging behavior.

  11. 78 FR 12790 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Limited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) will be submitting the following... 5400.4. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4) Affected public who will be asked...

  12. Microbial Enzyme Activity, Nutrient Uptake, and Nutrient Limitation in Forested Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured NH4 + and PO4 -3 uptake length (Sw), uptake velocity (Vf), uptake rate (U), biofilm enzyme activity (BEA), and channel geomorphology in streams draining forested catchments in the Northwestern (Northern California Coast Range and Cascade Mountains) and Southeastern (A...

  13. Sediment Microbial Enzyme Activity as an Indicator of Nutrient Limitation in Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study, the first to link microbial enzyme activities to regional-scale anthropogenic stressors, suggests that microbial enzyme regulation of carbon and nutrient dynamics may be sensitive indicators of nutrient dynamics in aquatic ecosystems, but further work is needed to elu...

  14. Linking anti-predator behaviour to prey demography reveals limited risk effects of an actively hunting large carnivore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Arthur D.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; McWhirter, Douglas E.; Jimenez, Michael D.; Cook, Rachel C.; Cook, John G.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Sawyer, Hall; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory predicts that the diffuse risk cues generated by wide-ranging, active predators should induce prey behavioural responses but not major, population- or community-level consequences. We evaluated the non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of an active predator, the grey wolf (Canis lupus), by simultaneously tracking wolves and the behaviour, body fat, and pregnancy of elk (Cervus elaphus), their primary prey in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. When wolves approached within 1 km, elk increased their rates of movement, displacement and vigilance. Even in high-risk areas, however, these encounters occurred only once every 9 days. Ultimately, despite 20-fold variation in the frequency of encounters between wolves and individual elk, the risk of predation was not associated with elk body fat or pregnancy. Our findings suggest that the ecological consequences of actively hunting large carnivores, such as the wolf, are more likely transmitted by consumptive effects on prey survival than NCEs on prey behaviour.

  15. Linking anti-predator behaviour to prey demography reveals limited risk effects of an actively hunting large carnivore.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Arthur D; Kauffman, Matthew J; McWhirter, Douglas E; Jimenez, Michael D; Cook, Rachel C; Cook, John G; Albeke, Shannon E; Sawyer, Hall; White, P J

    2013-08-01

    Ecological theory predicts that the diffuse risk cues generated by wide-ranging, active predators should induce prey behavioural responses but not major, population- or community-level consequences. We evaluated the non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of an active predator, the grey wolf (Canis lupus), by simultaneously tracking wolves and the behaviour, body fat, and pregnancy of elk (Cervus elaphus), their primary prey in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. When wolves approached within 1 km, elk increased their rates of movement, displacement and vigilance. Even in high-risk areas, however, these encounters occurred only once every 9 days. Ultimately, despite 20-fold variation in the frequency of encounters between wolves and individual elk, the risk of predation was not associated with elk body fat or pregnancy. Our findings suggest that the ecological consequences of actively hunting large carnivores, such as the wolf, are more likely transmitted by consumptive effects on prey survival than NCEs on prey behaviour.

  16. 2016 SPD: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    advances in simulating sunspot formation. He and his collaborators have used high-performance computing to build a model that successfully reproduces many of the key properties of sunspots that are observed.In particular, these simulations track the motions of the magnetic field starting within the interior of the Sun (8000 km below the surface!). The magnetic field is generated and intensified by convection deep within the solar interior. Bundles of magnetic field then rise through the convection zone, eventually breaking through the solar surface and giving rise to sunspots.This process of tracking the flow as it travels from the convective layer all the way through the solar surface has resulted in what may be some of the highest fidelity simulations of sunspots thus far. The structures produced in these simulations compares very favorably with actual observations of sunspots including the asymmetry seen in most sunspots.Counting Spots on the SunContinuing the discussion of sunspots, Leif Svalgaard (Stanford University) next took us on a historical journey from the 1600s through the present. For the last 400 years starting with Galileo people have kept records of the number of sunspots visible on the Suns disk.One of Galileos drawings of his sunspot observations from 1612. [The Galileo Project]This turns out to be a very useful practice! Total solar irradiance, a measure used as input into climate models, is reconstructed from sunspot numbers. Therefore, the historical record of sunspots over the last 400 years impacts our estimates of the long-term trends in solar activity.Based on raw sunspot counts, studies have argued that solar activity has been steadily increasing over time. But could this be a misinterpretation resulting from the fact that our technology and therefore our ability to detect sunspots has improved over time? Svalgaard believes so.By studying and reconstructing 18th century telescopes, he demonstrates that modern-day sunspot counts are able to detect

  17. The Limited Utility of Multiunit Data in Differentiating Neuronal Population Activity

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Corey J.; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    To date, single neuron recordings remain the gold standard for monitoring the activity of neuronal populations. Since obtaining single neuron recordings is not always possible, high frequency or ‘multiunit activity’ (MUA) is often used as a surrogate. Although MUA recordings allow one to monitor the activity of a large number of neurons, they do not allow identification of specific neuronal subtypes, the knowledge of which is often critical for understanding electrophysiological processes. Here, we explored whether prior knowledge of the single unit waveform of specific neuron types is sufficient to permit the use of MUA to monitor and distinguish differential activity of individual neuron types. We used an experimental and modeling approach to determine if components of the MUA can monitor medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) in the mouse dorsal striatum. We demonstrate that when well-isolated spikes are recorded, the MUA at frequencies greater than 100Hz is correlated with single unit spiking, highly dependent on the waveform of each neuron type, and accurately reflects the timing and spectral signature of each neuron. However, in the absence of well-isolated spikes (the norm in most MUA recordings), the MUA did not typically contain sufficient information to permit accurate prediction of the respective population activity of MSNs and FSIs. Thus, even under ideal conditions for the MUA to reliably predict the moment-to-moment activity of specific local neuronal ensembles, knowledge of the spike waveform of the underlying neuronal populations is necessary, but not sufficient. PMID:27111446

  18. Encapsulation, protection, and release of hydrophilic active components: potential and limitations of colloidal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    McClements, David Julian

    2015-05-01

    There have been major advances in the development of edible colloidal delivery systems for hydrophobic bioactives in recent years. However, there are still many challenges associated with the development of effective delivery systems for hydrophilic bioactives. This review highlights the major challenges associated with developing colloidal delivery systems for hydrophilic bioactive components that can be utilized in foods, pharmaceuticals, and other products intended for oral ingestion. Special emphasis is given to the fundamental physicochemical phenomena associated with encapsulation, stabilization, and release of these bioactive components, such as solubility, partitioning, barriers, and mass transport processes. Delivery systems suitable for encapsulating hydrophilic bioactive components are then reviewed, including liposomes, multiple emulsions, solid fat particles, multiple emulsions, biopolymer particles, cubosomes, and biologically-derived systems. The advantages and limitations of each of these delivery systems are highlighted. This information should facilitate the rational selection of the most appropriate colloidal delivery systems for particular applications in the food and other industries.

  19. Using active resonator impedance matching for shot-noise limited, cavity enhanced amplitude modulated laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jong H; Littler, Ian C M; Rabeling, David S; McClelland, David E; Gray, Malcolm B

    2008-05-26

    We introduce a closed-loop feedback technique to actively control the coupling condition of an optical cavity, by employing amplitude modulation of the interrogating laser. We show that active impedance matching of the cavity facilitates optimal shot-noise sensing performance in a cavity enhanced system, while its control error signal can be used for intra-cavity absorption or loss signal extraction. We present the first demonstration of this technique with a fiber ring cavity, and achieved shot-noise limited loss sensitivity. We also briefly discuss further use of impedance matching control as a tool for other applications.

  20. QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged ≥45 Years with Activity Limitations, by Age Group and Type of Limitation* - National Health Interview Survey,(†) United States, 2000-2015.

    PubMed

    2016-08-26

    The percentage of adults aged 45-64 years with limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) increased from 1.3% in 2000 to 2.0% in 2015, and the percentage with limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) increased from 2.8% to 4.0%. Among adults aged ≥65 years, the percentage with limitations in ADLs increased from 6.4% to 6.9%, and the percentage with limitations in IADLs decreased from 12.9% to 11.7%.

  1. Active to sterile neutrino mixing limits from neutral-current interactions in MINOS.

    PubMed

    Adamson, P; Auty, D J; Ayres, D S; Backhouse, C; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Cavanaugh, S; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Coelho, J A B; Coleman, S J; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Danko, I Z; de Jong, J K; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grant, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Huang, X; Hylen, J; Ilic, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Lefeuvre, G; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mitchell, J; Moore, C D; Morfín, J; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Nowak, J A; Oliver, W P; Orchanian, M; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Petyt, D A; Phan-Budd, S; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Qiu, X; Ratchford, J; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Shanahan, P; Sousa, A; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tinti, G; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Walding, J J; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Wojcicki, S G; Zwaska, R

    2011-07-01

    Results are reported from a search for active to sterile neutrino oscillations in the MINOS long-baseline experiment, based on the observation of neutral-current neutrino interactions, from an exposure to the NuMI neutrino beam of 7.07×10(20) protons on target. A total of 802 neutral-current event candidates is observed in the Far Detector, compared to an expected number of 754 ± 28(stat) ± 37(syst) for oscillations among three active flavors. The fraction f(s) of disappearing ν(μ) that may transition to ν(s) is found to be less than 22% at the 90% C.L.

  2. 49 CFR 173.425 - Table of activity limits-excepted quantities and articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: 0.037 TBq/L (1.0 Ci/L) 0.037 TBq (1.0 Ci) Other Liquids 10−3 A2 10−1 A2 10−4 A2 Gases: Tritium 2 2... A2 1 For mixtures of radionuclides see § 173.433(d). 2 These values also apply to tritium in activated luminous paint and tritium adsorbed on solid carriers....

  3. 49 CFR 173.425 - Table of activity limits-excepted quantities and articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: 0.037 TBq/L (1.0 Ci/L) 0.037 TBq (1.0 Ci) Other Liquids 10−3 A2 10−1 A2 10−4 A2 Gases: Tritium 2 2... A2 1 For mixtures of radionuclides see § 173.433(d). 2 These values also apply to tritium in activated luminous paint and tritium adsorbed on solid carriers....

  4. 49 CFR 173.425 - Table of activity limits-excepted quantities and articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: 0.037 TBq/L (1.0 Ci/L) 0.037 TBq (1.0 Ci) Other Liquids 10−3 A2 10−1 A2 10−4 A2 Gases: Tritium 2 2... A2 1 For mixtures of radionuclides see § 173.433(d). 2 These values also apply to tritium in activated luminous paint and tritium adsorbed on solid carriers....

  5. 49 CFR 173.425 - Table of activity limits-excepted quantities and articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: 0.037 TBq/L (1.0 Ci/L) 0.037 TBq (1.0 Ci) Other Liquids 10−3 A2 10−1 A2 10−4 A2 Gases: Tritium 2 2... A2 1 For mixtures of radionuclides see § 173.433(d). 2 These values also apply to tritium in activated luminous paint and tritium adsorbed on solid carriers....

  6. A low upper limit on the subsurface rise speed of solar active regions

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Aaron C.; Schunker, Hannah; Braun, Douglas C.; Cameron, Robert; Gizon, Laurent; Löptien, Björn; Rempel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic field emerges at the surface of the Sun as sunspots and active regions. This process generates a poloidal magnetic field from a rising toroidal flux tube; it is a crucial but poorly understood aspect of the solar dynamo. The emergence of magnetic field is also important because it is a key driver of solar activity. We show that measurements of horizontal flows at the solar surface around emerging active regions, in combination with numerical simulations of solar magnetoconvection, can constrain the subsurface rise speed of emerging magnetic flux. The observed flows imply that the rise speed of the magnetic field is no larger than 150 m/s at a depth of 20 Mm, that is, well below the prediction of the (standard) thin flux tube model but in the range expected for convective velocities at this depth. We conclude that convective flows control the dynamics of rising flux tubes in the upper layers of the Sun and cannot be neglected in models of flux emergence. PMID:27453947

  7. A low upper limit on the subsurface rise speed of solar active regions.

    PubMed

    Birch, Aaron C; Schunker, Hannah; Braun, Douglas C; Cameron, Robert; Gizon, Laurent; Löptien, Björn; Rempel, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic field emerges at the surface of the Sun as sunspots and active regions. This process generates a poloidal magnetic field from a rising toroidal flux tube; it is a crucial but poorly understood aspect of the solar dynamo. The emergence of magnetic field is also important because it is a key driver of solar activity. We show that measurements of horizontal flows at the solar surface around emerging active regions, in combination with numerical simulations of solar magnetoconvection, can constrain the subsurface rise speed of emerging magnetic flux. The observed flows imply that the rise speed of the magnetic field is no larger than 150 m/s at a depth of 20 Mm, that is, well below the prediction of the (standard) thin flux tube model but in the range expected for convective velocities at this depth. We conclude that convective flows control the dynamics of rising flux tubes in the upper layers of the Sun and cannot be neglected in models of flux emergence.

  8. Observation and interpretation of thermal instabilities at the front face of actively cooled limiters in TORE-SUPRA

    SciTech Connect

    Guilhem, D.; Hogan, J.T.; Mitteau, R.; Phillips, V.

    1995-12-01

    In TORE-SUPRA, actively cooled modular limiters (time constant = 2 s) covered with carbon have been used to exhaust the convective heat flux continuously up to 700 kW steady state (design value) without thermal instability, i.e., 4.5 MW/m{sup 2} on average. Steady state surface temperatures in the range 600 C (with 1.45 MW of Lower Hybrid waves) were routinely obtained. However, sudden surface temperature excursions from 600 C to 1,900 C, called ``super-brilliances``, were observed during ohmic or heated plasmas, taking place locally over 20 ms, which led to a new equilibrium. This new equilibrium correspond to a local increased power flux density to the limiter as confirmed by calorimetric measurements. Shot after shot, an increasing number of independent overheated zones (up to 4) were observed on the limiter ridge, the closest location to Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS). The power extracted by the limiter then was {approximately} 1.1 MW (6.9 MW/m{sup 2} average and 15 MW/m{sup 2} maximum). Experimental data and possible mechanisms leading to a finite increased heat flux to the limiter surface are reviewed and comparisons with modelization are made.

  9. Auroral activities observed by SNPP VIIRS day/night band during a long period geomagnetic storm event on April 29-30, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xi; Cao, Changyong; Liu, Tung-chang; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Wenhui; Fung, Shing F.

    2015-10-01

    The Day/Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi-NPP represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities. The DNB senses radiance that can span 7 orders of magnitude in one panchromatic (0.5-0.9 μm) reflective solar band and provides imagery of clouds and other Earth features over illumination levels ranging from full sunlight to quarter moon. When the satellite passes through the day-night terminator, the DNB sensor is affected by stray light due to solar illumination on the instrument. With the implementation of stray light correction, stray light-corrected DNB images enable the observation of aurora occurred in the high latitude regions during geomagnetic storms. In this paper, DNB observations of auroral activities are analyzed during a long period (> 20 hours) of geomagnetic storm event occurred on Apr. 29-30, 2014. The storm event has the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) pointing southward for more than 20 hours. During this event, the geomagnetic storm index Dst reached -67 nT and the geomagnetic auroral electrojet (AE) index increased and reached as high as 1200 nT with large amplitude fluctuations. The event occurred during new moon period and DNB observation has minimum moon light contamination. During this event, auroras are observed by DNB for each orbital pass on the night side (~local time 1:30am) in the southern hemisphere. DNB radiance data are processed to identify regions of aurora during each orbital pass. The evolution of aurora is characterized with time series of the poleward and equatorward boundary of aurora, area, peak radiance and total light emission of the aurora in DNB observation. These characteristic parameters are correlated with solar wind and geomagnetic index parameters. It is found that the evolution of total area-integrated radiance of auroral region over the southern hemisphere correlated well with the ground geomagnetic AE index with correlation

  10. Effect of 3-Day Bed Rest on the Basal Sympathetic Activity and Responsiveness of this System to Physiological Stimuli In Athletes and Sedentary Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, Jerzy; Adrian, Jacek; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Greenleaf, John E.; Dalton, P. Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine the effect of three days of bed rest (BR) on basal plasma epinephrine [E] and norepinephrine [NE] and the catecholamine responses to various physiological stimuli, and (2) to find out whether previous physical activity modifies effects of BR. In the first series, 29 young men (11 sedentary students, 8 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test in supine position and to active orthostatic test before and after 3 days of BR. Plasma [E] and [NE] were measured after overnight fast (basal condition), at 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion (70 a), and at the 8th min of unsupported standing. In the second series, other 22 subjects (12 sedentary students, 10 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to 2 min cold pressor test (CPT) and exercise. Plasma E and NE were determined in the supine position after overnight fast and at 60th and 120th s of hand cooling. Then, after breakfast followed by 2-3 hour sitting, the subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise with workload increasing until volitional exhaustion. Plasma [E] and [NE] were determined at the end of each load. Plasma catecholamines were determined made radioenzymatically. After BR, basal plasma [NE] was decreased in endurance and strength athletes (p<0.01) but not in sedentary subjects. In neither group BR affected the basal [E]. Responses of both catecholamines to glucose load were diminished after BR in all three groups (p<0.05) but the effect was most pronounced in the endurance athletes. All subjects tolerated well 8-min standing although their heart rate response was increased after BR. Plasma catecholamine responses standing were not significantly affected by BR in either group but the plasma [NE] and [E] during standing were lowered after BR in endurance athletes (p<0.01). BR did not affect blood pressure and catecholamine responses to CPT. The pre- and post-exercise plasma catecholamines

  11. Youth Field Day Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Youth field days expose children to outdoor activities, land use ethics, and habitat conservation and encourage adults to be mentors in these areas. A typical youth field day could have programs in archery, fishing, boating, shooting, or safety. The event requires a diverse steering committee that usually includes sporting clubs and state…

  12. Assessing braze quality in the actively cooled Tore Supra Phase III outboard pump limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.E.; Lutz, T.L.; Miller, J.D.; McGrath, R.; Dale, G.

    1994-12-31

    The quality of brazing of pyrolytic graphite armor brazed to copper tubes in Tore Supra`s Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter was assessed through pre-service qualification testing of individual copper/tile assemblies. The evaluation used non-destructive, hot water transient heating tests performed in the high-temperature, high-pressure flow loop at Sandia`s Plasma Materials Test Facility. Surface temperatures of tiles were monitored with an infrared camera as water at 120{degrees}C at about 2.07 MPa (300 psi) passed through a tube assembly initially at 30{degrees}C. For tiles with braze voids or cracks, the surface temperatures tagged behind those of adjacent well-bonded tiles. Temperature tags were correlated with flaw sizes observed during repairs based upon a detailed 2-D heat transfer analyses. {open_quotes}Bad{close_quotes} tiles, i.e., temperature tags of 10-20{degrees}C depending upon tile`s size, were easy to detect and, when removed, revealed braze voids of roughly 50% of the joint area. Eleven of the 14 tubes were rebrazed after bad tiles were detected and removed. Three tubes were rebrazed twice.

  13. Reactivity of 9-aminoacridine drug quinacrine with glutathione limits its antiprion activity.

    PubMed

    Šafařík, Martin; Moško, Tibor; Zawada, Zbigniew; Šafaříková, Eva; Dračínský, Martin; Holada, Karel; Šebestík, Jaroslav

    2016-12-09

    Quinacrine-the drug based on 9-aminoacridine-failed in clinical trials for prion diseases, whereas it was active in in vitro studies. We hypothesize that aromatic nucleophilic substitution at C9 could be contributing factor responsible for this failure because of the transfer of acridine moiety from quinacrine to abundant glutathione. Here, we described the semi-large-scale synthesis of the acridinylated glutathione and the consequences of its formation on biological and biophysical activities. The acridinylated glutathione is one order of magnitude weaker prion protein binder than the parent quinacrine. Moreover, according to log DpH 7.4 , the glutathione conjugate is two orders of magnitude more hydrophilic than quinacrine. Its higher hydrophilicity and higher dsDNA binding potency will significantly decrease its bioavailability in membrane-like environment. The glutathione deactivates quinacrine not only directly but also decreases its bioavailability. Furthermore, the conjugate can spontaneously decompose to practically insoluble acridone, which is precipitated out from the living systems.

  14. Aurora B suppresses microtubule dynamics and limits central spindle size by locally activating KIF4A

    PubMed Central

    Nunes Bastos, Ricardo; Gandhi, Sapan R.; Baron, Ryan D.; Gruneberg, Ulrike; Nigg, Erich A.

    2013-01-01

    Anaphase central spindle formation is controlled by the microtubule-stabilizing factor PRC1 and the kinesin KIF4A. We show that an MKlp2-dependent pool of Aurora B at the central spindle, rather than global Aurora B activity, regulates KIF4A accumulation at the central spindle. KIF4A phosphorylation by Aurora B stimulates the maximal microtubule-dependent ATPase activity of KIF4A and promotes its interaction with PRC1. In the presence of phosphorylated KIF4A, microtubules grew more slowly and showed long pauses in growth, resulting in the generation of shorter PRC1-stabilized microtubule overlaps in vitro. Cells expressing only mutant forms of KIF4A lacking the Aurora B phosphorylation site overextended the anaphase central spindle, demonstrating that this regulation is crucial for microtubule length control in vivo. Aurora B therefore ensures that suppression of microtubule dynamic instability by KIF4A is restricted to a specific subset of microtubules and thereby contributes to central spindle size control in anaphase. PMID:23940115

  15. Proceedings, Dean's Day 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Zanner, M.A.

    1999-03-01

    On January 14--15, 1999, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored Deans Day, a conference for the Deans of Engineering and other executive-level representatives from 29 invited universities. Through breakout sessions and a wrap-up discussion, university and Sandia participants identified activities to further develop their strategic relationships. The four primary activities are: (A) concentrate joint efforts on current and future research strengths and needs; (B) attract the best students (at all grade levels) to science and engineering; (C) promote awareness of the need for and work together to influence a national science and technology R and D policy; and (D) enable the universities and Sandia to be true allies, jointly pursuing research opportunities and funding from government agencies and industry.

  16. Ubiquitin ligase Nedd4L targets activated Smad2/3 to limit TGF-beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Sheng; Alarcón, Claudio; Sapkota, Gopal; Rahman, Sadia; Chen, Pan-Yu; Goerner, Nina; Macias, Maria J; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Massagué, Joan

    2009-11-13

    TGF-beta induces phosphorylation of the transcription factors Smad2 and Smad3 at the C terminus as well as at an interdomain linker region. TGF-beta-induced linker phosphorylation marks the activated Smad proteins for proteasome-mediated destruction. Here, we identify Nedd4L as the ubiquitin ligase responsible for this step. Through its WW domain, Nedd4L specifically recognizes a TGF-beta-induced phosphoThr-ProTyr motif in the linker region, resulting in Smad2/3 polyubiquitination and degradation. Nedd4L is not interchangeable with Smurf1, a ubiquitin ligase that targets BMP-activated, linker-phosphorylated Smad1. Nedd4L limits the half-life of TGF-beta-activated Smads and restricts the amplitude and duration of TGF-beta gene responses, and in mouse embryonic stem cells, it limits the induction of mesoendodermal fates by Smad2/3-activating factors. Hierarchical regulation is provided by SGK1, which phosphorylates Nedd4L to prevent binding of Smad2/3. Previously identified as a regulator of renal sodium channels, Nedd4L is shown here to play a broader role as a general modulator of Smad turnover during TGF-beta signal transduction.

  17. Drought and Heat Differentially Affect XTH Expression and XET Activity and Action in 3-Day-Old Seedlings of Durum Wheat Cultivars with Different Stress Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Iurlaro, Andrea; De Caroli, Monica; Sabella, Erika; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; Rampino, Patrizia; De Bellis, Luigi; Perrotta, Carla; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella; Fry, Stephen C.; Lenucci, Marcello S.

    2016-01-01

    Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance. Dehydration and heat stress differentially influence the XTH expression profiles and the activity and action of XET in the wheat seedlings, depending on the degree of susceptibility/tolerance of the cultivars, the organ, the topological region of the root and, within the root, on the gradient of cell differentiation. The root apical region was the zone mainly affected by both treatments in all assayed cultivars, while no change in XET activity was observed at shoot level, irrespective of susceptibility/tolerance, confirming the pivotal role of the root in stress perception, signaling, and response. Conflicting effects were observed depending on stress type: dehydration evoked an overall increase, at least in the apical region of the root, of XET activity and action, while a significant inhibition was caused by heat treatment in most cultivars. The data suggest that differential changes in XET action in defined portions of the root of young durum wheat seedlings may have a role as a response to drought and heat stress, thus contributing to seedling survival and crop establishment. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying

  18. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Durner, George M.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of “ice” bears in summer is unknown, “shore” bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  19. Rph1 mediates the nutrient-limitation signaling pathway leading to transcriptional activation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Amélie; Klionsky, Daniel J

    2015-04-03

    To maintain proper cellular homeostasis, the magnitude of autophagy activity has to be finely tuned in response to environmental changes. Many aspects of autophagy regulation have been extensively studied: pathways integrating signals through the master regulators TORC1 and PKA lead to multiple post-translational modifications affecting the functions, protein-protein interactions, and localization of Atg proteins. The expression of several ATG genes increases sharply upon autophagy induction conditions, and defects in ATG gene expression are associated with various diseases, pointing to the importance of transcriptional regulation of autophagy. Yet, how changes in ATG gene expression affect the rate of autophagy is not well characterized, and transcriptional regulators of the autophagy pathway remain largely unknown. To identify such regulators, we analyzed the expression of several ATG genes in a library of DNA-binding protein mutants. This led to the identification of Rph1 as a master transcriptional regulator of autophagy.

  20. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  1. Extravehicular activities limitations study. Volume 2: Establishment of physiological and performance criteria for EVA gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1988-01-01

    One of the major probelms faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human hand capabilities. This report describes the development of a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six measurement domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based on an assessment of general human hand functioning and EVA task requirements several tests within each measurement domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand as a baseline and the EVA glove at operating pressure. A test program was conducted to evaluate the tests using a representative EVA glove. Eleven test subjects participated in a repeated-measures design. The report presents the results of the tests in each capability domain.

  2. Calmodulin Activation Limits the Rate of KCNQ2 K+ Channel Exit from the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Alaimo, Alessandro; Gómez-Posada, Juan Camilo; Aivar, Paloma; Etxeberría, Ainhoa; Rodriguez-Alfaro, Jose Angel; Areso, Pilar; Villarroel, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    The potential regulation of protein trafficking by calmodulin (CaM) is a novel concept that remains to be substantiated. We proposed that KCNQ2 K+ channel trafficking is regulated by CaM binding to the C-terminal A and B helices. Here we show that the L339R mutation in helix A, which is linked to human benign neonatal convulsions, perturbs CaM binding to KCNQ2 channels and prevents their correct trafficking to the plasma membrane. We used glutathione S-transferase fused to helices A and B to examine the impact of this and other mutations in helix A (I340A, I340E, A343D, and R353G) on the interaction with CaM. The process appears to require at least two steps; the first involves the transient association of CaM with KCNQ2, and in the second, the complex adopts an “active” conformation that is more stable and is that which confers the capacity to exit the endoplasmic reticulum. Significantly, the mutations that we have analyzed mainly affect the stability of the active configuration of the complex, whereas Ca2+ alone appears to affect the initial binding step. The spectrum of responses from this collection of mutants revealed a strong correlation between adopting the active conformation and channel trafficking in mammalian cells. These data are entirely consistent with the concept that CaM bound to KCNQ2 acts as a Ca2+ sensor, conferring Ca2+ dependence to the trafficking of the channel to the plasma membrane and fully explaining the requirement of CaM binding for KCNQ2 function. PMID:19494108

  3. Global regulator Anr represses PlcH phospholipase activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa when oxygen is limiting.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Angelyca A; Daniels, Emily F; Hammond, John H; Willger, Sven D; Hogan, Deborah A

    2014-10-01

    Haemolytic phospholipase C (PlcH) is a potent virulence and colonization factor that is expressed at high levels by Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the mammalian host. The phosphorylcholine liberated from phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin by PlcH is further catabolized into molecules that both support growth and further induce plcH expression. We have shown previously that the catabolism of PlcH-released choline leads to increased activity of Anr, a global transcriptional regulator that promotes biofilm formation and virulence. Here, we demonstrated the presence of a negative feedback loop in which Anr repressed plcH transcription and we proposed that this regulation allowed for PlcH levels to be maintained in a way that promotes productive host-pathogen interactions. Evidence for Anr-mediated regulation of PlcH came from data showing that growth at low oxygen (1%) repressed PlcH abundance and plcH transcription in the WT, and that plcH transcription was enhanced in an Δanr mutant. The plcH promoter featured an Anr consensus sequence that was conserved across all P. aeruginosa genomes and mutation of conserved nucleotides within the Anr consensus sequence increased plcH expression under hypoxic conditions. The Anr-regulated transcription factor Dnr was not required for this effect. The loss of Anr was not sufficient to completely derepress plcH transcription as GbdR, a positive regulator of plcH, was required for expression. Overexpression of Anr was sufficient to repress plcH transcription even at 21 % oxygen. Anr repressed plcH expression and phospholipase C activity in a cell culture model for P. aeruginosa-epithelial cell interactions.

  4. Neuronal Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Limit Brain Infarction and Promote Survival

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yiliu; Gu, Ning; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Ruth, Peter; Sausbier, Matthias; Storm, Johan F.

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal calcium-activated potassium channels of the BK type are activated by membrane depolarization and intracellular Ca2+ ions. It has been suggested that these channels may play a key neuroprotective role during and after brain ischemia, but this hypothesis has so far not been tested by selective BK-channel manipulations in vivo. To elucidate the in vivo contribution of neuronal BK channels in acute focal cerebral ischemia, we performed middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice lacking BK channels (homozygous mice lacking the BK channel alpha subunit, BK−/−). MCAO was performed in BK−/− and WT mice for 90 minutes followed by a 7-hour-reperfusion period. Coronal 1 mm thick sections were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride to reveal the infarction area. We found that transient focal cerebral ischemia by MCAO produced larger infarct volume, more severe neurological deficits, and higher post-ischemic mortality in BK−/− mice compared to WT littermates. However, the regional cerebral blood flow was not significantly different between genotypes as measured by Laser Doppler (LD) flowmetry pre-ischemically, intra-ischemically, and post-ischemically, suggesting that the different impact of MCAO in BK−/− vs. WT was not due to vascular BK channels. Furthermore, when NMDA was injected intracerebrally in non-ischemic mice, NMDA-induced neurotoxicity was found to be larger in BK−/− mice compared to WT. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures revealed that BK channels contribute to rapid action potential repolarization, as previously found in acute slices. When these cultures were exposed to ischemia-like conditions this induced significantly more neuronal death in BK−/− than in WT cultures. These results indicate that neuronal BK channels are important for protection against ischemic brain damage. PMID:21209897

  5. Adult Day Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Adult Day Care Adult Day Care Centers are designed to provide care and ... adults who need assistance or supervision during the day. Programs offer relief to family members and caregivers, ...

  6. Oxygen Uptake and Hydrogen-Stimulated Nitrogenase Activity from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 Grown in a Succinate-Limited Chemostat

    PubMed Central

    Allen, George C.; Grimm, Daniel T.; Elkan, Gerald H.

    1991-01-01

    Succinate-limited continuous cultures of an Azorhizobium caulinodans strain were grown on ammonia or nitrogen gas as a nitrogen source. Ammonia-grown cells became oxygen limited at 1.7 μM dissolved oxygen, whereas nitrogen-fixing cells remained succinate limited even at dissolved oxygen concentrations as low as 0.9 μM. Nitrogen-fixing cells tolerated dissolved oxygen concentrations as high as 41 μM. Succinate-dependent oxygen uptake rates of cells from the different steady states ranged from 178 to 236 nmol min−1 mg of protein−1 and were not affected by varying chemostat-dissolved oxygen concentration or nitrogen source. When equimolar concentrations of succinate and β-hydroxybutyrate were combined, oxygen uptake rates were greater than when either substrate was used alone. Azide could also used alone as a respiratory substrate regardless of nitrogen source; however, when azide was added following succinate additions, oxygen uptake was inhibited in ammonia-grown cells and stimulated in nitrogen-fixing cells. Use of 25 mM succinate in the chemostat resevoir at a dilution rate of 0.1 h−1 resulted in high levels of background respiration and nitrogenase activity, indicating that the cells were not energy limited. Lowering the reservoir succinate to 5 mM imposed energy limitation. Maximum succinate-dependent nitrogenase activity was 1,741 nmol of C2H4h−1 mg (dry weight)−1, and maximum hydrogen-dependent nitrogenase activity was 949 nmol of C2H4 h−1 mg (dry weight)−1. However, when concentration of 5% (vol/vol) hydrogen or greater were combined with succinate, nitrogenase activity decreased by 35% in comparison to when succinate was used alone. Substitution of argon for nitrogen in the chemostat inflow gas resulted in “washout,” proving that ORS571 can grow on N2 and that there was not a nitrogen source in the medium that could substitute. PMID:16348585

  7. Slow river incision and erosion strongly limit active uplift in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlanger, E. D.; Granger, D. E.; Gibbon, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    The high topography of the southern African passive margin has been attributed to uplift since the 1950’s, when L.C. King associated widespread, deeply weathered surfaces to successive cycles of uplift and erosion. Since the time of King, others have attempted to identify a source for the high topography. Competing hypotheses include 1) uplift is recent and continuing due to mantle-driven dynamic topography, or 2) the high topography has been relict since at least the late Cretaceous, and any ongoing uplift is due solely to erosional isostasy. It has remained difficult to test these hypotheses because estimates of late Neogene uplift rates have been very poorly constrained, ranging from ~10-1000 m/My. To resolve whether uplift is active today, we determined modern erosion rates, paleo-erosion rates, and river incision rates in South Africa. River incision rates and paleo-erosion rates were calculated from a flight of terraces along the Sundays River Valley, located on the southeastern coast. This valley hosts the best preserved flight of strath terraces in southern Africa. We dated the river terraces with cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be in quartz sediment, using an isochron burial dating method. The ages of these terraces range from modern to ~4 Ma and vary in height from ~6-80 m above the present river level, providing an excellent opportunity to evaluate uplift rates over million-year timescales. From the terrace ages and heights, we calculated a long-term incision rate of 16 m/My for the Sundays River. The average paleo-erosion rate for the Sundays River is ~10 m/My, about equal in magnitude to the long-term incision rate. We measured modern erosion rates over a large part of South Africa, including several distinct geographic regions: the southeast coast, the Great escarpment, the Lesotho highlands, and the continental interior. Along the southeast coast, erosion rates vary from 4-10 m/My. The Great Escarpment is eroding the fastest at 30-60 m/My. Erosion rates in

  8. Brain Distribution of Cediranib Is Limited by Active Efflux at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianli; Agarwal, Sagar

    2012-01-01

    Cediranib is an orally active tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor family. Because of its potent antiangiogenic and antitumor activities, cediranib has been evaluated for therapy in glioma, a primary brain tumor. This study investigated the influence of two important efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), on the delivery of cediranib to the central nervous system. In vitro studies indicated that cediranib is a dual substrate for both P-gp and Bcrp. It is noteworthy that in spite of the in vitro data the in vivo mouse disposition studies conclusively showed that P-gp was the dominant transporter restricting the brain distribution of cediranib. The brain-to-plasma partitioning (AUCbrain/AUCplasma, where AUC is area under the curve) and the steady-state brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of cediranib were approximately 20-fold higher in Mdr1a/b(−/−) and Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice compared with wild-type and Bcrp1(−/−) mice. Moreover, there was no significant difference in brain distribution of cediranib between wild-type and Bcrp1(−/−) mice and between Mdr1a/b(−/−) and Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice. These results show that, unlike other tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are dual substrates for P-gp and Bcrp, Bcrp does not restrict the distribution of cediranib across the blood-brain barrier. We also show that inhibition of P-gp using specific or nonspecific inhibitors resulted in significantly enhanced delivery of cediranib to the brain. Concurrent administration of cediranib with chemical modulators of efflux transporters can be used as a strategy to enhance delivery and thus efficacy of cediranib in the brain. These findings are clinically relevant to the efficacy of cediranib chemotherapy in glioma. PMID:22323823

  9. A NEW UNDERSTANDING OF THE EUROPA ATMOSPHERE AND LIMITS ON GEOPHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Shemansky, D. E.; Liu, X.; Yoshii, J.; Yung, Y. L.; Hansen, C. J.; Hendrix, A. R.; Esposito, L. W.

    2014-12-20

    Deep extreme ultraviolet spectrograph exposures of the plasma sheet at the orbit of Europa, obtained in 2001 using the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph experiment, have been analyzed to determine the state of the gas. The results are in basic agreement with earlier results, in particular with Voyager encounter measurements of electron density and temperature. Mass loading rates and lack of detectable neutrals in the plasma sheet, however, are in conflict with earlier determinations of atmospheric composition and density at Europa. A substantial fraction of the plasma species at the Europa orbit are long-lived sulfur ions originating at Io, with ∼25% derived from Europa. During the outward radial diffusion process to the Europa orbit, heat deposition forces a significant rise in plasma electron temperature and latitudinal size accompanied with conversion to higher order ions, a clear indication that mass loading from Europa is very low. Analysis of far ultraviolet spectra from exposures on Europa leads to the conclusion that earlier reported atmospheric measurements have been misinterpreted. The results in the present work are also in conflict with a report that energetic neutral particles imaged by the Cassini ion and neutral camera experiment originate at the Europa orbit. An interpretation of persistent energetic proton pitch angle distributions near the Europa orbit as an effect of a significant population of neutral gas is also in conflict with the results of the present work. The general conclusion drawn here is that Europa is geophysically far less active than inferred in previous research, with mass loading of the plasma sheet ≤4.5 × 10{sup 25} atoms s{sup –1} two orders of magnitude below earlier published calculations. Temporal variability in the region joining the Io and Europa orbits, based on the accumulated evidence, is forced by the response of the system to geophysical activity at Io. No evidence for the direct injection of H{sub 2}O

  10. Older Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with Activities of Daily Living (ADL) limitations: immigration and other factors associated with institutionalization.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Chi, Monica

    2012-09-07

    This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL) limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203), Korean (n = 131), Japanese (n = 193), Filipino (n = 309), Asian Indian (n = 169), Chinese (n = 404), Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54), and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040) aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8%) (p < 0.001). After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively). When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting.

  11. Limits of Active Laser Triangulation as an Instrument for High Precision Plant Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Stefan; Eichert, Thomas; Goldbach, Heiner E.; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Laser scanning is a non-invasive method for collecting and parameterizing 3D data of well reflecting objects. These systems have been used for 3D imaging of plant growth and structure analysis. A prerequisite is that the recorded signals originate from the true plant surface. In this paper we studied the effects of species, leaf chlorophyll content and sensor settings on the suitability and accuracy of a commercial 660 nm active laser triangulation scanning device. We found that surface images of Ficus benjamina leaves were inaccurate at low chlorophyll concentrations and a long sensor exposure time. Imaging of the rough waxy leaf surface of leek (Allium porrum) was possible using very low exposure times, whereas at higher exposure times penetration and multiple refraction prevented the correct imaging of the surface. A comparison of scans with varying exposure time enabled the target-oriented analysis to identify chlorotic, necrotic and healthy leaf areas or mildew infestations. We found plant properties and sensor settings to have a strong influence on the accuracy of measurements. These interactions have to be further elucidated before laser imaging of plants is possible with the high accuracy required for e.g., the observation of plant growth or reactions to water stress. PMID:24504106

  12. OBSERVATIONAL LIMITS ON TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACCRETION RATE IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Impey, Chris D.; Gabor, Jared; Kelly, Brandon C.; Elvis, Martin; Hao Heng; Huchra, John P.; Merloni, Andrea; Bongiorno, Angela; Brusa, Marcella; Cappelluti, Nico; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Koekemoer, Anton; Nagao, Tohru; Salvato, Mara; Scoville, Nick Z.

    2009-07-20

    We present black hole masses and accretion rates for 182 Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in COSMOS. We estimate masses using the scaling relations for the broad H {beta}, Mg II, and C IV emission lines in the redshift ranges 0.16 < z < 0.88, 1 < z < 2.4, and 2.7 < z < 4.9. We estimate the accretion rate using an Eddington ratio L{sub I}/L{sub Edd} estimated from optical and X-ray data. We find that very few Type 1 AGNs accrete below L{sub I} /L{sub Edd} {approx} 0.01, despite simulations of synthetic spectra which show that the survey is sensitive to such Type 1 AGNs. At lower accretion rates the broad-line region may become obscured, diluted, or nonexistent. We find evidence that Type 1 AGNs at higher accretion rates have higher optical luminosities, as more of their emission comes from the cool (optical) accretion disk with respect to shorter wavelengths. We measure a larger range in accretion rate than previous works, suggesting that COSMOS is more efficient at finding low accretion rate Type 1 AGNs. However, the measured range in accretion rate is still comparable to the intrinsic scatter from the scaling relations, suggesting that Type 1 AGNs accrete at a narrow range of Eddington ratio, with L{sub I} /L{sub Edd} {approx} 0.1.

  13. Escherichia coli and Candida albicans Induced Macrophage Extracellular Trap-Like Structures with Limited Microbicidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chengshui; Liu, Xiaolei; Du, Jing; Shi, Haining; Wang, Xuelin; Bai, Xue; Peng, Peng; Yu, Lu; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Mingyuan

    2014-01-01

    The formation of extracellular traps (ETs) has recently been recognized as a novel defense mechanism in several types of innate immune cells. It has been suggested that these structures are toxic to microbes and contribute significantly to killing several pathogens. However, the role of ETs formed by macrophages (METs) in defense against microbes remains little known. In this study, we demonstrated that a subset of murine J774A.1 macrophage cell line (8% to 17%) and peritoneal macrophages (8.5% to 15%) form METs-like structures (METs-LS) in response to Escherichia coli and Candida albicans challenge. We found only a portion of murine METs-LS, which are released by dying macrophages, showed detectable killing effects on trapped E. coli but not C. albicans. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that, in vitro, both microorganisms were entrapped in J774A.1 METs-LS composed of DNA and microbicidal proteins such as histone, myeloperoxidase and lysozyme. DNA components of both nucleus and mitochondrion origins were detectable in these structures. Additionally, METs-LS formation occurred independently of ROS produced by NADPH oxidase, and this process did not result in cell lysis. In summary, our results emphasized that microbes induced METs-LS in murine macrophage cells and that the microbicidal activity of these METs-LS differs greatly. We propose the function of METs-LS is to contain invading microbes at the infection site, thereby preventing the systemic diffusion of them, rather than significantly killing them. PMID:24587206

  14. Limits of active laser triangulation as an instrument for high precision plant imaging.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Stefan; Eichert, Thomas; Goldbach, Heiner E; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-02-05

    Laser scanning is a non-invasive method for collecting and parameterizing 3D data of well reflecting objects. These systems have been used for 3D imaging of plant growth and structure analysis. A prerequisite is that the recorded signals originate from the true plant surface. In this paper we studied the effects of species, leaf chlorophyll content and sensor settings on the suitability and accuracy of a commercial 660 nm active laser triangulation scanning device. We found that surface images of Ficus benjamina leaves were inaccurate at low chlorophyll concentrations and a long sensor exposure time. Imaging of the rough waxy leaf surface of leek (Allium porrum) was possible using very low exposure times, whereas at higher exposure times penetration and multiple refraction prevented the correct imaging of the surface. A comparison of scans with varying exposure time enabled the target-oriented analysis to identify chlorotic, necrotic and healthy leaf areas or mildew infestations. We found plant properties and sensor settings to have a strong influence on the accuracy of measurements. These interactions have to be further elucidated before laser imaging of plants is possible with the high accuracy required for e.g., the observation of plant growth or reactions to water stress.

  15. The genome of the square archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi : life at the limits of water activity

    PubMed Central

    Bolhuis, Henk; Palm, Peter; Wende, Andy; Falb, Michaela; Rampp, Markus; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Oesterhelt, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Background The square halophilic archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi dominates NaCl-saturated and MgCl2 enriched aquatic ecosystems, which imposes a serious desiccation stress, caused by the extremely low water activity. The genome sequence was analyzed and physiological and physical experiments were carried out in order to reveal how H. walsbyi has specialized into its narrow and hostile ecological niche and found ways to cope with the desiccation stress. Results A rich repertoire of proteins involved in phosphate metabolism, phototrophic growth and extracellular protective polymers, including the largest archaeal protein (9159 amino acids), a homolog to eukaryotic mucins, are amongst the most outstanding features. A relatively low GC content (47.9%), 15–20% less than in other halophilic archaea, and one of the lowest coding densities (76.5%) known for prokaryotes might be an indication for the specialization in its unique environment Conclusion Although no direct genetic indication was found that can explain how this peculiar organism retains its square shape, the genome revealed several unique adaptive traits that allow this organism to thrive in its specific and extreme niche. PMID:16820047

  16. Day-to-day changes in ionospheric electron content at low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabas, R. S.; Bhuyan, P. K.; Tyagi, T. R.; Bhardwaj, R. K.; Lal, J. B.

    1984-06-01

    For a number of years, the ionospheric electron content (IEC) over the Indian subcontinent has been determined on the basis of the Faraday rotation of satellite radio beacon transmissions. In these determinations, use was made of the orbiting satellites BE-B and BE-C, and, for a limited period, of the geostationary satellite ATS 6. A large variability in day-to-day values of IEC was reported, and it was tried to correlate this phenomenon with magnetic activity, solar flux, or the effect of neutral winds. Tyagi (1978) observed that the day-to-day changes in IEC occur in the form of single day abnormality, and alternate day abnormality. Long-term fluctuations were found with a periodicity of about 45 days. The present investigation is concerned with a more detailed study of the observed variations. An analysis is conducted of IEC data recorded during the low phase of the solar cycle, taking into account data from six low-latitude stations covering a latitude range from approximately 15.0 deg N to 30.0 deg N.

  17. Active Breathing Control for Hodgkin's Disease in Childhood and Adolescence: Feasibility, Advantages, and Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Claude, Line . E-mail: claude@lyon.fnclcc.fr; Malet, Claude Phys.; Pommier, Pascal; Thiesse, Philippe; Chabaud, Sylvie; Carrie, Christian

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: The challenge in early Hodgkin's disease (HD) in children is to maintain good survival rates while sparing organs at risk. This study assesses the feasibility of active breathing control (ABC) in children, and compares normal tissue irradiation with and without ABC. Methods and Materials: Between May 2003 and June 2004, seven children with HD with mediastinal involvement, median age 15, were treated by chemotherapy and involved-field radiation therapy. A free-breathing computed tomography simulation scan and one additional scan during deep inspiration using ABC were performed. A comparison between planning treatment with clinical target volume including supraclavicular regions, mediastinum, and hila was performed, both in free breathing and using ABC. Results: For a prescription of 36 Gy, pulmonary dose-volume histograms revealed a mean reduction in lung volume irradiated at more than 20 Gy (V20) and 30 Gy (V30) of 25% and 26%, respectively, using ABC (p = 0.016). The mean volume of heart irradiated at 30 Gy or more decreased from 15% to 12% (nonsignificant). The mean dose delivered to breasts in girls was small in both situations (less than 2 Gy) and stable with or without ABC. Considering axillary irradiation, the mean dose delivered to breasts remained low (<9 Gy), without significant difference using ABC or not. The mean radiation dose delivered to thyroid was stable using ABC or not. Conclusions: Using ABC is feasible in childhood. The use of ABC decreases normal lung tissue irradiation. Concerning heart irradiation, a minimal gain is also shown. No significant change has been demonstrated concerning breast and thyroid irradiation.

  18. Influence of a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter on the transient stability of power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Tang, Y. J.; Shi, J.; Chen, N.; Song, M.; Cheng, S. J.; Hu, Y.; Chen, X. S.

    2009-10-01

    We have proposed a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). In this paper, the influence of the SFCL on the transient stability of power system is investigated. For the typical one-machine infinite-bus system, the power-angle characteristics of generator with SFCL are studied in different working conditions, and the transient physical process is analyzed. Using MATLAB SIMULINK, the power-angle swing curves are simulated under different current-limiting modes, fault types and fault clearance times. The results show that the proposed SFCL can effectively reduce the transient swing amplitude of rotor and extend the critical clearance time under mode 1, compared with mode 2 and mode 3 having few effects on enhancing the transient stability.

  19. Impact of reduced dose limits on NRC licensed activities. Major issues in the implementation of ICRP/NCRP dose limit recommendations: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, C.B.

    1995-05-01

    This report summarizes information required to estimate, at least qualitatively, the potential impacts of reducing occupational dose limits below those given in 10 CFR 20 (Revised). For this study, a questionnaire was developed and widely distributed to the radiation protection community. The resulting data together with data from existing surveys and sources were used to estimate the impact of three dose-limit options; 10 mSv yr{sup {minus}1} (1 rem yr{sup {minus}1}), 20 mSv yr{sup {minus}1} (2 rem yr{sup {minus}1}), and a combination of an annual limit of 50 mSv yr{sup {minus}1} (5 rem yr{sup {minus}1}) coupled with a cumulative limit, in rem, equal to age in years. Due to the somewhat small number of responses and the lack of data in some specific areas, a working committee of radiation protection experts from a variety of licensees was employed to ensure the exposure data were representative. The following overall conclusions were reached: (1) although 10 mSv yr{sup {minus}1} is a reasonable limit for many licensees, such a limit could be extraordinarily difficult to achieve and potentially destructive to the continued operation of some licensees, such as nuclear power, fuel fabrication, and medicine; (2) twenty mSv yr{sup {minus}1} as a limit is possible for some of these groups, but for others it would prove difficult. (3) fifty mSv yr{sup {minus}1} and age in 10s of mSv appear reasonable for all licensees, both in terms of the lifetime risk of cancer and severe genetic effects to the most highly exposed workers, and the practicality of operation.

  20. Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurements in The Netherlands: exposure level and variability for everyday activities, times of day and types of area.

    PubMed

    Bolte, John F B; Eikelboom, Tessa

    2012-11-01

    Knowledge of the exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields is necessary for epidemiological studies on possible health effects. The main goal of this study is to determine the exposure level and spatial and temporal variances during 39 everyday activities in 12 frequency bands used in mobile telecommunication and broadcasting. Therefore, 24 h measurements were gathered from 98 volunteers living in or near Amsterdam and Purmerend, The Netherlands. They carried an activity diary to be kept to the minute, a GPS logger sampling at an interval of 1 s, and an EME Spy exposimeter with a detection limit of 0.0066 mW/m(2) sampling at an interval of 10s in 12 frequency bands. The mean exposure over 24 h, excluding own mobile phone use, was 0.180 mW/m(2). During daytime exposure was about the same, but during night it was about half, and in the evening it was about twice as high. The main contribution to environmental exposure (calling by participant not included) is from calling with mobile phones (37.5%), from cordless DECT phones and their docking stations (31.7%), and from the base stations (12.7%). The exposure to mobile phone base stations increases with the percentage of urban ground use, which is an indication for high people density. In agreement, the highest mean exposure relates to the activities with high people density, such as travelling by public transport, visiting social events, pubs or shopping malls. Exposure at home depends mainly on exposure from people calling in the neighbourhood of the participant and thus on the number of persons in a household. In addition just the possession of DECT docking stations leads to exposure as most models transmit continuously in stand-by. Also wireless internet routers continuously transmit in the WiFi band. Though the highest exposure peaks in the WiFi band, up to 0.265 W/m(2), come from stray radiation of microwave ovens. The mean total exposure largely depends on phone calls of a high exposure level and short