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Sample records for activity lipid peroxidation

  1. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in avian semen.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Agnieszka; Lukaszewicz, Ewa; Niżański, Wojciech

    2012-10-01

    The present study compared the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in semen of two avian species: chicken and goose. The experiment was conducted on Greenleg Partridge roosters and White Koluda(®) ganders, each represented by 10 mature males. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in sperm cells and seminal plasma. In gander spermatozoa, the amount of MDA was 10 times greater (P<0.01) than in rooster spermatozoa. Each of the investigated antioxidant enzymes had greater (P<0.01) activity in goose than chicken sperm. Catalase activity was detected in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from both studied species for the first time. In seminal plasma, the activity of GPx was two times greater (P<0.01) in the White Koluda(®) than in chickens, whereas SOD activity was less (P<0.01) than in chickens. This is the first study describing the presence of CAT in avian semen and the occurrence of indicator of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in geese. Data from the present study clearly show the species-specific differences in the activity of antioxidant defense and LPO. The greater amount of lipid peroxidation and greater activity of antioxidant enzymes in goose semen might suggest that spermatozoa were under greater oxidative stress and the enzymes were not utilized for the protection of functionally and structurally impaired cells. In turn, in fresh chicken semen a lesser activity of antioxidant enzymes accompanied with a lesser lipid peroxidation amount and good semen quality could indicate that fowl spermatozoa were under oxidative stress, but the enzymes were employed to protect and maintain sperm quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential anti-lipid peroxidative activity of melatonin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanishi, Shinya; Sakurai, Hiromu

    2002-01-01

    Scavenging activities of melatonin, which is a pineal secretory product and functions in circadian biology, and its related compounds against reactive oxygen species such as superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen as well as organic peroxide radical (t-BuOO•) were evaluated chemically by using electron spin resonance-spin trap and chemiluminescence methods. Antioxidative activity of the compounds was estimated by IC50 value (µM), 50% inhibiting concentration of a compound against reactive oxygen species formed in each system, and the second-order rate constants ( k 2) for the reactions of the compounds and superoxide anion radical or hydroxyl radical. Because melatonin has exhibited the highest scavenging activity against t-BuOO•, the biochemical anti-lipid peroxide radical scavenging activities of melatonin were examined. We found that melatonin exhibits higher anti-lipid peroxidative activity in the rat brain microsomes than in the rat liver microsomal and liposomal systems, suggesting that melatonin may function as a treatment for reactive oxygen species-related diseases of the brain.

  3. Effect of acylethanolamides on lipid peroxidation and paraoxonase activity.

    PubMed

    Zolese, Giovanna; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Masciangelo, Simona; Ragni, Letizia; Ambrosi, Simona; Ambrosini, Annarina; Marini, Milvia; Ferretti, Gianna

    2008-01-01

    N-acylethanolamides (NAEs) are hydrophobic molecules synthesized in many tissues. An increase in the plasma levels of NAEs has been observed in human diseases. Previous studies have suggested that NAEs could exert a protective effect against oxidative stress. Aim of the study was to investigate whether NAEs (oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide and anandamide), differing for acyl chain length and unsaturation, exert a protective role against plasma lipid peroxidation triggered by incubation with Cu2+2 or AAPH (2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride). Moreover, we investigated the effect of NAEs on the activity of HDL-associated paraoxonase (PON1), an enzyme involved in the antioxidant end anti-inflammatory role of human high density lipoproteins (HDL). The results demonstrated that the NAEs protect plasma lipids and PON1 activity against AAPH and/or copper-induced oxidation.

  4. Isoleukotrienes are biologically active free radical products of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, K A; Murphy, R C

    1995-07-21

    The free radical oxidation of arachidonic acid esterified to glycerophospholipids is known to generate complex metabolites, termed isoprostanes, that share structural features of prostaglandins derived from prostaglandin H2 synthase. Furthermore, certain isoprostanes have been found to exert biological activity through endogenous receptors on cell surfaces. Using mass spectrometry and ancillary techniques, the free radical oxidation of 1-hexadecanoyl-2-arachidonoyl-glycerophosphocholine was studied in the search for products of arachidonic acid isomeric to the leukotrienes that are derived from 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed metabolism of arachidonic acid. Several conjugated triene metabolites were chromatographically separated from known 5-lipoxygenase products and structures characterized as 5,12-dihydroxy-6,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid esterified to the glycerophosphocholine backbone. We have termed these products as B4-isoleukotrienes. Following saponification some, but not all, B4-isoleukotrienes were found to exert biological activity in elevating intracellular calcium in Indo-1-loaded human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This activity could be blocked by a leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist. An EC50 of approximately 30 nM was determined for one unique B4-isoleukotriene with a relative retention index of 2.54. We have shown that free radical processes can lead to the formation of biologically active isoleukotrienes in glycerophosphocholine liposomes, and we propose that B4-isoleukotrienes may also be formed in membrane glycerophospholipids as a result of lipid peroxidation during tissue injury. Such B4-isoleukotrienes could then mediate events of tissue damage through activation of leukotriene B4 receptors on target cells.

  5. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  6. Augmentation of macrophage growth-stimulating activity of lipids by their peroxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Yui, S.; Yamazaki, M. )

    1990-02-15

    Previously, we reported that some kinds of lipids (cholesterol esters, triglycerides, and some negatively charged phospholipids) that are constituents of lipoproteins or cell membranes induce growth of peripheral macrophages in vitro. In this paper, we examined the effect of peroxidation of lipids on their macrophage growth-stimulating activity because lipid peroxidation is observed in many pathological states such as inflammation. When phosphatidylserine, one of the phospholipids with growth-stimulating activity, was peroxidized by UV irradiation, its macrophage growth-stimulating activity was augmented in proportion to the extent of its peroxidation. The activity of phosphatidylethanolamine was also increased by UV irradiation. On the other hand, phosphatidylcholine or highly unsaturated free fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, did not induce macrophage growth irrespective of whether they were peroxidized. The augmented activity of UV-irradiated phosphatidylserine was not affected by the coexistence of an antioxidant, vitamin E or BHT. These results suggest that some phospholipids included in damaged cells or denatured lipoproteins which are scavenged by macrophages in vivo may induce growth of peripheral macrophages more effectively when they are peroxidized by local pathological processes.

  7. Correlation among lung damage after radiation, amount of lipid peroxides, and antioxidant enzyme activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nozue, M.; Ogata, T.

    1989-04-01

    The correlation between lipid peroxidation and morphologic changes was examined in Sprague-Dawley rat lungs after 30 Gy single thoracic radiation. The rats were sacrificed every week until the end of the fifth week after radiation. The left lungs were used for the measurement of lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes activities. The right lungs were examined by light and electron microscopy. Amounts of lung lipid peroxides were within normal limits, and no cellular degenerative changes were observed in the lungs except for subendothelial and interstitial edema 2 weeks after radiation. Lipid peroxides drastically increased and marked degenerative cellular changes such as edematous swelling, vacuolation, and destruction of cell membranes occurred in the alveolar septa following the third week after radiation. The activities of catalase were significantly higher during the period from the second to the fifth week and those of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased at the end of the fifth week. Our results demonstrated that the acceleration of lipid peroxidation was well correlated with the morphologic expression of cell injury in the irradiated lungs.

  8. Effects of lithium therapy on Na+-K+-ATPase activity and lipid peroxidation in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Ushasi; Dasgupta, Anindya; Rout, Jayanta Kumar; Singh, Om Prakash

    2012-04-27

    Oxidative stress induced lipid peroxidation along with a reduced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorders (BPD). Although, lithium therapy results in significant improvement in the symptoms of the disease, studies regarding its effect on the altered sodium pump activity and lipid peroxidation status have come out with conflicting results. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the status of lipid peroxidation and analyze the role of lithium and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in its regulation in BPD patients in our region. We measured RBC membrane Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and serum thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) level in 73 BPD patients and serum lithium, in addition, in 48 patients receiving lithium therapy among them. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and serum TBARS level were significantly decreased and increased respectively in all BPD patients compared to age and sex matched healthy controls. Same trend was observed in the BPD patients stabilized on lithium therapy compared to the lithium naive ones. Although, the enzyme activity showed a reciprocal relationship with TBARS in all patients of BPD, a significant positive correlation and dependence of the enzyme activity was evident with serum lithium level only in the lithium stabilized BPD group. BPD patients showed significantly compromised Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and increased lipid peroxidation. Lithium induced improvement in the enzyme activity was associated with significant reduction in lipid peroxidation. Enhancement of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by optimum dosage of lithium may be a potential contributing factor for reducing oxidative stress in BPD patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Lipid peroxidation processes and activity of brain succinate dehydrogenase in experimental craniocerebral trauma].

    PubMed

    Demchuk, M L; Medvedev, A E; Promyslov, M Sh; Gorkin, V Z

    1993-01-01

    A statistically significant decrease in the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) was found in the rabbit brain after craniocerebral injury. The decrease in the activity of brain SDH was not shown to result from "competitive inhibition" by malonate accumulated after activation of lipid peroxidation. The activity of brain SDH was normalized by directed modification of the function of the central nervous system via administration of phenamine (amphetamine) into the injured animals.

  10. In vivo effects of nickel and cadmium in rats on lipid peroxidation and ceruloplasmin activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sole, J.; Huguet, J.; Arola, L.; Romeu, A. )

    1990-05-01

    Before Ni(II) and Cd(II), or any other metallic ion, can interact intracellulary, it must penetrate the cell membrane. The latter, therefore, is a primary target for toxic metals. Damage to cell membranes may allow a greater uptake of metal and thus injury may extend to more critical targets, although loss of plasmatic membrane functionality may be a crucial factor to explain the interactions of these metals with cellular components. In this sense the present study has been carried out. Factors that have been investigated in order to prove the membrane response of nickel and cadmium toxicity include lipid peroxidation, since divalent ions of transition metals can promote lipid peroxidation and this evidently contributes to the toxicity of certain metals and to metal interaction with ceruloplasmin, as its ferroxidase and scavenger of superoxide radicals activities are important protective mechanisms in vivo against peroxidative damage.

  11. Anti lipid peroxidation activity of Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Dinakaran, Sathis Kumar; Saraswathi, Narasimha Raju; Nalini, Venkata Rama Rao; Srisudharson; Bodanapu, Venkat Ram Reddy; Avasarala, Harani; Banji, David

    2011-07-01

    Attempt has been made to evaluate free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract of Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. individually. In this study goat liver has been used as lipid source. This in vitro evaluation was done by measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA) of tissue homogenates. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of the Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. has the ability to suppress the lipid peroxidation and it was also found that Piper trioicum Roxb. extract has more activity than Physalis minima L. extract.

  12. Enzyme activity alteration by cadmium administration to rats: the possibility of iron involvement in lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Casalino, E; Sblano, C; Landriscina, C

    1997-10-15

    The specific activities of D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) are reduced in the liver and kidney of rats intoxicated with 2.5 mg Cd/kg body wt and sacrificed after 24 h; conversely ketone-body concentration is strongly increased in both of these organs and blood. In the same animals a great stimulation of antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase occurs. The prooxidant state induced by cadmium in liver mitochondria and microsomes is unaffected by superoxide dismutase, catalase, or mannitol, whereas it is completely blocked by vitamin E thus excluding the involvement of reactive oxygen species in this process. The mechanism by which cadmium induces lipid peroxidation has been investigated by measuring the effect of this metal on liposomes. Ninety-minute treatment of liposomes with CdCl2 does not induce any lipid peroxidation. In contrast, Fe2+ ions under the same conditions cause strong liposome peroxidation. It has also been observed that cadmium promotes a time-dependent iron release from biological membranes. When lipid peroxidation is induced by a low concentration (5 microM) of FeCl2, in place of CdCl2, the characteristics of this process and the sensitivity to the various antioxidants used are similar to those observed with Cd. From these results we conclude that the prooxidative effect of cadmium is an indirect one since it is mediated by iron. With regard to the inhibitory effect on BDH and GDH following cadmium intoxication, it does not appear to be imputable to lipid peroxidation since in vitro investigations indicate that the presence of vitamin E does not remove the inhibition at all.

  13. [The intensity of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidative activity in potato leaves under action of drought and polystimulin K].

    PubMed

    Nyzhnyk, T P; Hryhoriuk, I P; Mykhal's'ka, L M

    2004-01-01

    The influence long-term soil drought and potato plants treatment by synthetic analog of cytokinin--polystimulin K on intensity of lipid peroxidation processes and enzymatic antioxidative activity have been investigated. It has been found, that the drought induced the shift of prooxidative-antioxidative balance in respect of lipid peroxidation activation in the potato leaves. It was accompanied by the increase of the ethylene output, membrane permeability, as well as decrease of the lipids content and increase in the enzymatic antioxidative activity (catalase and peroxidase). It is shown, that the intensity of peroxidation processes was higher in budding phases, while enzymatic antioxidative activity was higher in flowering phases in potato plants. Plant exogenous treatment by polystimulin K induced both the decrease in peroxidate oxidation processes, stabilization of catalase and peroxidase activity, as well as the increase in potato resistance to drought.

  14. Diazepam blocks striatal lipid peroxidation and improves stereotyped activity in a rat model of acute stress.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Cuesta, Luis A; Márquez-Valadez, Berenice; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Escobar-Briones, Carolina; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Alvarez-Ruiz, Yarummy; Maldonado, Perla D; Santana, Ricardo A; Santamaría, Abel; Carrillo-Mora, Paul

    2011-11-01

    In this work, the effect of a single dose of diazepam was tested on different markers of oxidative damage in the striatum of rats in an acute model of immobilization (restraint) stress. In addition, the locomotor activity was measured at the end of the restraint period. Immobilization was induced to animals for 24 hr, and then, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and content, and mitochondrial function were all estimated in striatal tissue samples. Corticosterone levels were measured in serum. Diazepam was given to rats as a pre-treatment (1 mg/kg, i.p.) 20 min. before the initiation of stress. Our results indicate that acute stress produced enhanced striatal levels of lipid peroxidation (73% above the control), decreased superoxide dismutase activity (54% below the control), reduced levels of mitochondrial function (35% below the control) and increased corticosterone serum levels (86% above the control). Pre-treatment of stressed rats with diazepam decreased the striatal lipid peroxidation levels (68% below the stress group) and improved mitochondrial function (18% above the stress group), but only mild preservation of superoxide dismutase activity was detected (17% above the stress group). In regard to the motor assessment, only the stereotyped activity was increased in the stress group with respect to control (46% above the control), and this effect was prevented by diazepam administration (30% below the stress group). The preventive actions of diazepam in this acute model of stress suggest that drugs exhibiting anxiolytic and antioxidant properties might be useful for the design of therapies against early acute phases of physic stress.

  15. Lipid peroxidation in cell death.

    PubMed

    Gaschler, Michael M; Stockwell, Brent R

    2017-01-15

    Disruption of redox homeostasis is a key phenotype of many pathological conditions. Though multiple oxidizing compounds such as hydrogen peroxide are widely recognized as mediators and inducers of oxidative stress, increasingly, attention is focused on the role of lipid hydroperoxides as critical mediators of death and disease. As the main component of cellular membranes, lipids have an indispensible role in maintaining the structural integrity of cells. Excessive oxidation of lipids alters the physical properties of cellular membranes and can cause covalent modification of proteins and nucleic acids. This review discusses the synthesis, toxicity, degradation, and detection of lipid peroxides in biological systems. Additionally, the role of lipid peroxidation is highlighted in cell death and disease, and strategies to control the accumulation of lipid peroxides are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The potent antioxidant activity of the vitamin K cycle in microsomal lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, L M; Ronden, J E; Thijssen, H H

    1997-10-15

    In the vitamin K cycle, vitamin K-hydroquinone, the active cofactor for gamma-glutamylcarboxylase, is continuously regenerated. The successive pathways contain oxidation of the hydroquinone to the epoxide, followed by reduction to the quinone and reduction to the hydroquinone. Vitamin K-hydroquinone is a potent radical scavenging species (Mukai et al., J Biol Chem 267: 22277-22281, 1992). We tested the potential antioxidant activity of the vitamin K cycle in lipid peroxidation reactions (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) in rat liver microsomes. As prooxidant we used Fe2+/ascorbate, NADPH-Fe3+/ATP, and NADPH/CCl4. Vitamin K (< or = 50 microM) on its own did not influence the formation of TBARS. In combination with 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT), the reductive cofactor for the microsomal enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase, vitamin K suppressed lipid peroxidation with a concentration that blocked the maximal response by 50% (IC50) of ca. 0.2 microM. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone-4) were equally active. Warfarin (5 microM) and chloro-vitamin K (50 microM), inhibitors of vitamin K epoxide reductase and gamma-glutamylcarboxylase, respectively, were able to completely abolish the antioxidant effect. Lipid peroxidation was inversely related to the amount of vitamin K hydroquinone in the reaction. Vitamin K epoxide reductase seemed sensitive to lipid peroxidation, with half of the activity being lost within 10 min during oxidation with NADPH/CCl4. The inactivation could be attenuated by antioxidants such as vitamin E, reduced glutathione, and menadione and also by a K vitamin in combination with DTT, but not by superoxide dismutase and catalase. The results show that the vitamin K cycle could act as a potent antioxidant, that the active species in all probability is vitamin K-hydroquinone, and that the primary reaction product is the semiquinone. The results also show that the reaction product is processed in the vitamin K cycle to

  17. [Effect of phensuccinal on lipid metabolism, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant system activity in rabbits with dithiazone-induced diabetes].

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, N I; Poltorak, V V; Gladkikh, A I; Ivanova, O V

    2003-01-01

    A three-month administration of phensuccinal improved glucose homeostasis, decreased the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, fatty acids, and low-density lipoproteins in the blood serum, and reduced the lipid peroxidation rate as compared to the untreated diabetic control. In addition, phensuccinal increased the content of the antiatherogenic high-density lipoprotein fraction and the related paraoxonase enzyme activity. The preventive effect of phensuccinal with respect to diabetic dyslipidemia development, together with the antioxidant action, show this compound to be a promising therapeutic means of preventing and/or reducing macrovascular complications in diabetic patients.

  18. Lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activities of acidic aqueous extracts of some dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Raman, Priyadarshini; Dewitt, David L; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-02-01

    The botanical supplement market is growing at a fast pace with more and more people resorting to them for maintaining good health. Echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, Siberian ginseng, grape seed extract, kava kava, saw palmetto and St John's wort are some of the popular supplements used for a variety of health benefits. These supplements are associated with various product claims, which suggest that they possess cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme and lipid s inhibitory activities. COX enzymes are found to be at elevated levels in inflamed and cancerous cells. To test some of the product claims, selected supplements were analysed for their ability to inhibit COX-1 and -2 enzymes and lipid peroxidation in vitro. The supplements were extracted with acidified water (pH 2) at 37 degrees C to simulate the gastric environment. The supplements tested demonstrated varying degrees of COX enzyme inhibition (5-85% for COX-1 and 13-28% for COX-2). Interestingly, extracts of garlic (Meijer), ginkgo (Solaray), ginseng (Nature's Way), Siberian ginseng (GNC, Nutrilite, Solaray, Natrol), kava kava (GNC, Sundown, Solaray) and St John's wort (Nutrilite) selectively inhibited COX-2 enzyme. These supplements also inhibited lipid peroxidation in vitro (5-99%). The results indicated that the consumption of these botanical supplements studied possess health benefits.

  19. Lipid peroxidation inhibition and antiradical activities of some leaf fractions of Mangifera indica.

    PubMed

    Badmus, Jelili A; Adedosu, Temitope O; Fatoki, John O; Adegbite, Victor A; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess in vitro lipid peroxidation inhibitions and anti-radical activities of methanolic, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water fractions of Mangifera indica leaf. Inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in egg, brain, and liver homogenates, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH-) radical scavenging activities were evaluated. Total phenol was assessed in all fractions, and the reducing power of methanolic fraction was compared to gallic acid and ascorbic acid. The results showed that Fe2+ induced significant lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all the homogenates. Ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest percentage inhibition of LPO in both egg yolk (68.3%) and brain (66.3%), while the aqueous fraction exerted the highest inhibition in liver homogenate (89.1%) at a concentration of 10 microg/mL. These observed inhibitions of LPO by these fractions were higher than that of ascorbic acid used as a standard. The DPPH radical scavenging ability exhibited by ethyl acetate fraction was found to be the highest with IC50 value of 1.5 microg/mL. The ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions had the highest OH- radical scavenging ability with the same IC50 value of 5 microg/mL. The total phenol content of ethyl acetate fraction was the highest with 0.127 microg/mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The reductive potential of methanolic fraction showed a concentration-dependent increase. This study showed that inhibition of LPO and the DPPH and OH- radicals scavenging abilities of Mangifera indica leaf could be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. Therefore, the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaf may be a good source of natural antioxidative agent.

  20. Relationship between Active Oxygen Species, Lipid Peroxidation, Necrosis, and Phytoalexin Production Induced by Elicitins in Nicotiana.

    PubMed Central

    Rusterucci, C.; Stallaert, V.; Milat, M. L.; Pugin, A.; Ricci, P.; Blein, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    Excised leaves of Nicotiana tabacum var Xanthi and Nicotiana rustica were treated with cryptogein and capsicein, basic and acidic elicitins, respectively. Both compounds induced leaf necrosis, the intensity of which depended on concentration and duration of treatment. N. tabacum var Xanthi was the most sensitive species and cryptogein was the most active elicitin. Lipid peroxidation in elicitin-treated Nicotiana leaves was closely correlated with the appearance of necrosis. Elicitin treatments induced a rapid and transient burst of active oxygen species (AOS) in cell cultures of both Nicotiana species, with the production by Xanthi cells being 6-fold greater than that by N. rustica. Similar maximum AOS production levels were observed with both elicitins, but capsicein required 10-fold higher concentrations than those of cryptogein. Phytoalexin production was lower in response to both elicitins in N. tabacum var Xanthi cells than in N. rustica cells, and capsicein was the most efficient elicitor of this response. In cryptogein-treated cell suspensions, phytoalexin synthesis was unaffected by diphenyleneiodonium, which inhibited AOS generation, nor was it affected by tiron or catalase, which suppressed AOS accumulation in the extracellular medium. These results suggest that AOS production, lipid peroxidation, and necrosis are directly related, whereas phytoalexin production depends on neither the presence nor the intensity of these responses. PMID:12226334

  1. Effect of Repeatedly Heated Palm Olein on Blood Pressure—Regulating Enzymes Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xin-Fang, Leong; Jumat, Salimon; Mohd Rais, Mustafa; Kamsiah, Jaarin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The process of deep-fat frying in dietary cooking oil plays a role in the generation of free radicals. In this study, palm olein heated to 180 °C was tested for its effect on the activity of blood pressure–regulating enzymes and lipid peroxidation. Methods: Forty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally assigned into 6 groups.The first group was fed with normal rat chow as the control group, and the subsequent groups were fed with rat chow fortified with 15% weight/weight of the following: fresh palm olein, palm olein heated once, palm olein heated twice, palm olein heated 5 times, or palm olein heated 10 times. The duration of feeding was 6 months. Fatty acid analyses of oil were performed using gas chromatography. Peroxide values were determined using standard titration. Plasma was collected for biochemical analyses. Results: Repeatedly heated palm olein increased the levels of peroxide, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and lipid peroxidation as well as reduced the level of heme oxygenase. Fresh palm olein and palm olein heated once had lesser effects on lipid peroxidation and a better effect on the activity of blood pressure–regulating enzymes than repeatedly heated palm olein. Conclusion: Repeatedly heated palm olein may negatively affect the activity of blood pressure–regulating enzymes and increase lipid peroxidation. PMID:22977371

  2. PEA chloroplasts under clino-rotation: lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranenko, V. V.

    The lipid peroxidation (LP) intensity and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in chloroplasts of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants grown for 7 and 14 days under clino-rotation. An increase in LP levels in chloroplasts during both terms of clinorotation in comparison with stationary controls was documented. SOD activity increased in chloroplasts of plants that were clino-rotated for seven days. SOD has a significant protective effect by diminishing the availability of O2-. However, under more prolonged clino-rotation (14 days), SOD activity decreased but was still higher than in the control samples. In accordance with Selye's oxidative stress theory (Selye, 1956; modified by Leshem et al., 1998), plants that were clino-rotated for seven days are presumed to be in a stage of resistance while 14-day plants reached a stage of exhaustion.

  3. Lipid peroxidation of fish oils.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Angela; Prabhu, H Ramachandra

    2006-03-01

    Fish and fish oils are the richest sources of ω-3 fatty acids. However, they are susceptible to lipid peroxidation due to their high degree of unsaturation. In the present study, the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive material in various fish oils available in the market with and without added Vitamin E was determined. The peroxide levels in fish oil heated to food frying temperature of 180°C and the effect of addition of vitamin E has also been studied. The results indicate that the peroxide levels in almost all the products available in the market were abnormally high irrespective of their Vitamin E content. This might be due to the inefficient methods used for processing and storage of fish oils. Addition of vitamin E was found to have a significant effect in lowering the rate of peroxidation of fish oil during thermal stress, showing that association of antioxidants with ω-3 fatty acids lowers the rate of lipid peroxidation.

  4. Inhibition of iron induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of Indian spices and Acacia in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Amit Singh; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2010-03-01

    The spices used in the Indian foods such as Star anise (Illicium verum), Bay leaves (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and Cobra's saffron (Mesua ferrea), and Acacia (Acacia catechu), which have medicinal value, were used as test samples, to find their effect on in vitro lipid peroxidation (LPO). Rat liver post mitochondrial supernatant (PMS) in Tris HCl buffer, pH 7.4 was incubated for 0 and 1 h, with various test extracts in three different oxidant systems. The results show that addition of test samples to FeCl(3) medium at 0 h significantly stop the initiation of the LPO. However, the propagation phase of LPO was inhibited by Cobra's saffron and Acacia and not by Star anise and Bay leaves. The test samples also showed strong reducing power and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cobra's saffron and Acacia showed the highest antioxidant activity, probably due to the higher polyphenol content as compared to other test samples.

  5. Investigation of lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in magnetic fluid treated mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, M. L. L.; Silva, L. P.; Freitas, J. L.; Azevedo, R. B.; Lacava, Z. G. M.; Homem de Bittencourt, P. I.; Curi, R.; Buske, N.; Morais, P. C.

    2003-05-01

    The increasing interest in magnetic fluids (MFs) for biomedical applications demands a deeper knowledge of their effects in biological systems. To evaluate the in vivo response of a MF sample based on magnetite nanoparticles stabilized by a precoating double layer of dodecanoic acid plus ethoxylated polyalcohol (MFDE), the inflammation-related oxidative stress and antioxidant tissue response were both addressed in this study. MFDE sample was intraperitoneally administrated to mice at three different doses. The lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defense induced in the liver and spleen were evaluated, respectively, by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase activity, 1, 14, and 28 days after MFDE treatment. The liver and spleen responded with a huge increase in TBARS after MFDE treatment. We observed that oxidative changes as well as the variations in the liver catalase activity were time and MFDE-dose dependent.

  6. Pomegranate peel extract decreases small intestine lipid peroxidation by enhancing activities of major antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Blachier, François; Faure, Patrice; Garrel, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Pomegranate peel extract (PPE) contains several compounds with antioxidative properties. PPE added to foods may interact with endogenous antioxidants and promote health. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanisms by which PPE exerts their actions on tissues of biological systems in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PPE on activities of antioxidant enzymes. Mice were used to investigate the effects of PPE on plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tissue MDA content and activities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD2 and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the small intestine, liver and skeletal muscle - different tissues involved in the digestion, absorption and metabolism of dietary nutrients. Control mice were fed a standard diet, whereas treated mice were fed for 40 days with the standard diet containing 5% or 10% PPE. Mice fed the 10% PPE diet exhibited lower plasma MDA concentrations, reduced content of MDA in the small intestine and liver and higher levels of SOD1 and GPX activities in the small intestine compared to mice fed the control diet. These findings demonstrate that intake of PPE in diet attenuates small intestine lipid peroxidation and strengthens the first line of small intestine antioxidant defense by enhancing enzymatic antioxidative pathways. PPE is worthy of further study as a therapeutic approach to prevent peroxidative stress-induced gut pathogenesis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients evolving with cholestatic jaundice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax infection has been considered a benign and self-limiting disease, however, recent studies highlight the association between vivax malaria and life-threatening manifestations. Increase in reactive oxygen species has already been described in vivax malaria, as a result of the increased metabolic rate triggered by the multiplying parasite, and large quantities of toxic redox-active byproducts generated. The present study aimed to study the oxidative stress responses in patients infected with P. vivax, who developed jaundice (hyperbilirubinaemia) in the course of the disease, a common clinical complication related to this species. Methods An evaluation of the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes profile was performed in 28 healthy individuals and compared with P. vivax infected patients with jaundice, i.e., bilirubin < 51.3 μmol/L (8 patients) or without jaundice (34 patients), on day 1 (D1) and day 14 (D14) after anti-malarial therapy. Results Hyperbilirubinaemia was more frequent among women and patients experiencing their first malarial infection, and lower haemoglobin and higher lactate dehydrogenase levels were observed in this group. Malondialdehyde levels and activity of celuroplasmin and glutathione reductase were increased in the plasma from patients with P. vivax with jaundice compared to the control group on D1. However, the activity of thioredoxin reductase was decreased. The enzymes glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, thiols and malondialdehyde also differed between jaundiced versus non-jaundiced patients. On D14 jaundice and parasitaemia had resolved and oxidative stress biomarkers were very similar to the control group. Conclusion Cholestatic hyperbilirubinaemia in vivax malaria cannot be totally disassociated from malaria-related haemolysis. However, significant increase of lipid peroxidation markers and changes in antioxidant enzymes in patients with P. vivax-related jaundice was observed. These results

  8. Involvement of active oxygen in lipid peroxide radical reaction of epidermal homogenate following ultraviolet light exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Nishi, J.; Ogura, R.; Sugiyama, M.; Hidaka, T.; Kohno, M. )

    1991-07-01

    To elucidate the radical mechanism of lipid peroxidation induced by ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation, an electron spin resonance (ESR) study was made on epidermal homogenate prepared from albino rat skin. The exposure of the homogenate to UV light resulted in an increase in lipid peroxide content, which was proportional to the time of UV exposure. Using ESR spin trapping (dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide, DMPO), the DMPO spin adduct spectrum of lipid radicals (L.) was measured following UV exposure (DMPO-L.:aN = 15.5 G, aH = 22.7 G), as was the spectrum of DMPO-hydroxyl radical (DMPO-OH, aN = aH = 15.5 G). In the presence of superoxide dismutase, the DMPO spin adduct spectrum of lipid radicals was found to be reduced remarkably. Therefore, it was shown that the generation of the lipid radicals partially involves superoxide anion radicals, in addition to hydroxyl radicals. In the ESR free-radical experiment, an ESR signal appeared at g = 2.0064 when the ESR tube filled with homogenate was exposed to UV light at -150 degrees C. The temperature-dependent change in the ESR free radical signal of homogenate exposed to UV light was observed at temperatures varying from -150 degrees C to room temperature. By using degassed samples, it was confirmed that oxygen is involved in the formation of the lipid peroxide radicals (LOO.) from the lipid radicals (L.).

  9. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  10. Mechanisms involved in the modulation of astroglial resistance to oxidative stress induced by activated microglia: antioxidative systems, peroxide elimination, radical generation, lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Röhl, Claudia; Armbrust, Elisabeth; Herbst, Eva; Jess, Anne; Gülden, Michael; Maser, Edmund; Rimbach, Gerald; Bösch-Saadatmandi, Christine

    2010-05-01

    Microglia and astrocytes are the cellular key players in many neurological disorders associated with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Previously, we have shown that microglia activated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induce the expression of antioxidative enzymes in astrocytes and render them more resistant to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, we examined the mechanisms involved with respect to the cellular action of different peroxides, the ability to detoxify peroxides, and the status of further antioxidative systems. Astrocytes were treated for 3 days with medium conditioned by purified quiescent (microglia-conditioned medium, MCM[-]) or LPS-activated (MCM[+]) microglia. MCM[+] reduced the cytotoxicity of the organic cumene hydroperoxide in addition to that of H2O2. Increased peroxide resistance was not accompanied by an improved ability of astrocytes to remove H2O2 or an increased expression/activity of peroxide eliminating antioxidative enzymes. Neither peroxide-induced radical generation nor lipid peroxidation were selectively affected in MCM[+] treated astrocytes. The glutathione content of peroxide resistant astrocytes, however, was increased and superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase were found to be upregulated. These changes are likely to contribute to the higher peroxide resistance of MCM[+] treated astrocytes by improving their ability to detoxify reactive oxygen radicals and oxidation products. For C6 astroglioma cells a protective effect of microglia-derived factors could not be observed, underlining the difference of primary cells and cell lines concerning their mechanisms of oxidative stress resistance. Our results indicate the importance of microglial-astroglial cell interactions during neuroinflammatory processes.

  11. Relationship between total superoxide dismutase activity with lipid peroxidation, dynamics and morphological parameters in canine semen.

    PubMed

    Cassani, Paula; Beconi, Martha T; O'Flaherty, Cristian

    2005-03-01

    There is a lack of information regarding biochemical studies on canine semen. The knowledge of canine sperm metabolism is important because this species has differences in fertility among males, but biochemical studies are not well developed in this species. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are active molecules produced during the oxygen reduction that have been implicated in several deleterious effects on the function and viability of spermatozoa when they are produced at high concentrations. Peroxidation of the plasma membrane phospholipids leads to a loss of motility, viability, and cytosolic elements, metabolic changes and structural alterations in spermatozoa. The most important antioxidant enzyme involved in ROS detoxification in mammalian spermatozoa is superoxide dismutase (SOD). The aims of the present study were to determine the presence of SOD-like activity in different fractions of canine semen, and to determine the relationship between SOD-like activity and different morphological, dynamical and biochemical parameters in canine spermatozoa. We demonstrated the presence of SOD-like activity in canine seminal plasma and spermatozoa; the negative correlation between SOD-like activity and lipid peroxidation concentrations in spermatozoa suggests a protective effect of this enzymatic activity against the potential oxidative stress in canine spermatozoa. A significant negative correlation between percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and the percentage of progressive motility or vigor was found. Abnormal spermatozoa not only showed a deformed shape, moreover there was an energetic motility system failure. The presence of SOD-like activity in seminal plasma, spermatic, and postspermatic fractions of canine semen was demonstrated for the first time.

  12. Selenium status, lipid peroxides concentration, and glutathione peroxidase activity in the blood of power station and rubber factory workers.

    PubMed

    Zachara, B A; Wasowicz, W; Sklodowska, M; Gromadzinska, J

    1987-01-01

    Concentration of selenium in whole blood and plasma, lipid peroxides in plasma, and glutathione peroxidase activities in red blood cell hemolysates and plasma were determined in 49 coal power plant workers and in 50 rubber factory workers. The results were compared with those obtained for 58 nonindustrial controls. Whole blood selenium was significantly lower and plasma lipid peroxides were significantly higher in power plant workers when compared to the nonindustrial group. In the rubber factory workers, whole blood selenium and red blood cells and plasma glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly lower than in the control group. Urinary output of selenium was also significantly decreased in rubber factory workers. Slightly elevated lipid peroxides were also observed in that group. It seems reasonable to conclude that the lower blood selenium and decreased urinary output of this element may result from increased loss of selenium with perspiration. No correlation has been observed between selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity and between enzyme activity and lipid peroxides concentration in the industrial group.

  13. Using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry to determine reactive oxygen species formation and membrane lipid peroxidation in viable boar spermatozoa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fluorescence-activated flow cytometry analyses were developed for determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and membrane lipid peroxidation in live spermatozoa loaded with, respectively, hydroethidine (HE) or the lipophilic probe 4,4-difluoro-5-(4-phenyl-1,3-butadienyl)-4-bora-3a,4a-d...

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant, antimutagenic, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities of selected fractions of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don) leaves.

    PubMed

    Badmus, Jelili A; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Yekeen, Taofeek A; Gbadegesin, Adedapo M; Fatoki, John O; Godo, Muyideen O; Oyebanjo, Kayode S; Hiss, Donavon C

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants often leads to an upsurge in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS oxidize cellular fatty acids to produce lipid peroxyl radicals, subsequently transformed into lipid peroxides, which decrease membrane fluidity and increase the activity of various enzymes implicated in degenerative diseases and cancer formation. Edible plants that contain exogenous compounds like curcumeroid, β-carotene, turmeric, and so on, protect the aerobic cells from oxidation of free radicals. This study thus evaluates antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of ethyl acetate, aqueous and methanolic fractions of Holarrhena floribunda leaves. Inhibitory activities of the ethyl acetate fraction on Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in hen egg yolk; rat liver and brain tissues were also evaluated. The Allium cepa root assay was used to evaluate antimutagenic activity. Results showed that the ethyl acetate scavenged DPPH, OH•, and •O2(-) much stronger than other fractions, as evidenced by its lowest respective IC50 values. All the fractions displayed antimutagenic activities against cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations. Likewise, all the fractions induced a reduction in mitotic index, a hallmark of cytotoxicity in the root meristem of Allium cepa. The decrease in mitotic index was most profound for the ethyl acetate fraction, which also demonstrated a significant lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity in the liver and brain homogenates, but not in egg yolk, compared with the ascorbic acid standard. In general, the results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction might contain beneficial phytochemicals that should be explored as novel candidates for preclinical drug development.

  15. Effect of sound wave stress on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of Dendrobium candidum.

    PubMed

    Li, Biao; Wei, Jinmin; Wei, Xiaolan; Tang, Kun; Liang, Yilong; Shu, Kunxian; Wang, Bochu

    2008-06-01

    The effect of sound wave stress on important medicinal plant, Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl, was investigated, including the responses on malondialdehyde (MDA) content, the activities change of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Results were found that the activities of SOD, CAT, POD and APX enhanced totally in different organs of D. candidum, as leaves, stems and roots, in response to the stress. Furthermore there happened similar shift of antioxidant enzymes activities, which increased in the initial stimulation and decreased afterwards. Data showed SOD, CAT, POD and APX activities ascended to max at day 9, 6, 9 and 12 in leaves, at day 9, 6, 12 and 9 in stems, and at day 12, 6, 9 and 9 in roots, respectively. As a lipid peroxidation parameter, MDA content in different organs increased in the beginning, dropped afterward, and increased again in the late. Anyway the total trend was the rise of MDA level compared to the control. It was interesting that the MDA content appeared the lowest levels almost when the antioxidant enzymes activities were up to the highest. Our results demonstrated the different organs of D. candidum might produce accumulation of active oxygen species (AOS) under initial treatment of sound wave stress. Later AOS might start to reduce due to the enhancement of antioxidant enzymes activities treated by the stress. The data revealed that the antioxidant metabolism was to be important in determining the ability of plants to survive in sound stress, and the up regulation of these enzymes activities would help to reduce the build up of AOS, which could protect plant cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, different cell compartments might activate different defensive system to reduce excessive amount of AOS. Finally the mechanism of this action was also discussed simply.

  16. Sesame lignans enhance antioxidant activity of vitamin E in lipid peroxidation systems.

    PubMed

    Ghafoorunissa; Hemalatha, S; Rao, M Vishnu Vardhana

    2004-07-01

    The antioxidant properties of sesame lignans (sesamol, sesamin and sesamolin) were evaluated in comparison to tocols (alpha- and gamma-tocopherols and alpha-tocotrienol) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) using the following in vitro lipid peroxidation systems: (i) rat liver microsomes and cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH)/Fe2+-ADP-NADPH (enzymatic) or (ii) rat liver mitochondria and Fe2+-ascorbate (nonenzymatic) systems. Sesamol containing a free phenolic group inhibited lipid peroxidation in both the systems whereas sesamin and sesamolin having methylenedioxy groups were effective only in the microsomal system. Since detoxifying enzymes are localized in microsomes, the inhibitory effects of sesamin and sesamolin observed in the microsomal system may be attributed to their metabolites. However, the inhibitory effects of lignans were lower than tocols and BHT. Combination of individual lignans and tocopherols (alpha, gamma) or alpha-tocotrienol showed higher inhibitory effects than the sum of individual inhibitions in CumOOH and Fe2+-ascorbate systems suggesting synergistic interactions. The time course of CumOOH-mediated lipid peroxidation showed a lag period and a decreased rate of thiobarbituric acid reactive product formation in the presence of individual lignans in combination with alpha-tocopherol suggesting recycling of alpha-tocopherol.

  17. Effects of alginate on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa quality, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinghua; Geng, Guoxia; Li, Qingwang; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cao, Hualin; Liu, Yawei

    2014-06-30

    Although alginate was reported to play an important role as free radical scavengers in vitro and could be used as sources of natural antioxidants, there was no study about the cryoprotective effects of alginate on boar spermatozoa freezing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of alginate added to the freezing extenders on boar spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial activities, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes activities (SOD and GSH-Px) after thawing. Alginate was added to the TCG extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of alginate increased (P<0.05) total motility. The spermatozoa plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity were improved at four different concentrations: 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL. The addition of alginate also provided significantly positive effect on post-thaw boar spermatozoa acrosomal integrity at concentrations of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL, compared with that of the control (P<0.05). The freezing extenders with the presence of alginate led to higher SOD and GSH-Px activities and lower MDA levels, in comparison to the control (P<0.05). In summary, alginate exhibited a dose-related response on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa motility, functional integrity and antioxidative capacity at appropriate concentrations. Therefore alginate could be employed as an effective cryoprotectant in boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.

  18. Effect of tea polyphenols on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenrong; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Shen, Yanwen; Duan, Xuewu; Jiang, Yuemin

    2014-10-20

    To understand the potential of application of tea polyphenols to the shelf life extension and quality maintenance of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit, the fruits were dipped into a solution of 1% tea phenols for 5 min before cold storage at 4 °C. Changes in browning index, contents of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, O2.- production rate and H2O2 content, levels of relative leakage rate and lipid peroxidation, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were measured after 0, 10, 20 and 30 days of cold storage. The results showed that application of tea polyphenols markedly delayed pericarp browning, alleviated the decreases in contents of total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid, and maintained relatively high levels of total phenolics and anthocyanins of litchi fruit after 30 days of cold storage. Meanwhile, the treatment reduced the increases in relative leakage rate and lipid peroxidation content, delayed the increases in both O2.- production rate and H2O2 contents, and increased SOD activity but reduced POD activity throughout this storage period. These data indicated that the delayed pericarp browning of litchi fruit by the treatment with tea polyphenols could be due to enhanced antioxidant capability, reduced accumulations of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, and improved membrane integrity.

  19. Effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in Pacific cod Gadus microcephalus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueying; Shi, Xuehui; Liu, Yifan; Yu, Daode; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Sperm motility and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (Gr), and lipid peroxidation (measured via malondialdehyde (MDA) content) were determined after the milt was stored at 4°C for 12 h, cryopreserved without cryoprotectant in 12% propylene glycol (PG), cryopreserved in 12% PG+0.1 mol/L trehalose, or cryopreserved in 12% PG spermatozoa but centrifuged to decant the supernatant prior to cryopreservation (only sperm cells were cryopreserved). After chilled storage or cryopreservation, the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were reduced in sperm cells and increased in seminal plasma in almost all treatments; sperm motility parameters were also decreased. However, the addition of trehalose into the cryoprotectant could significantly improve the postthaw sperm quality as revealed by the sperm average path velocity. This improvement might be attributed to the function of trehalose in scavenging reactive oxygen species. Chilled storage and cryopreservation had significant effects on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod.

  20. Membrane lipid peroxidation in neurodegeneration: Role of thrombin and proteinase-activated receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Citron, Bruce A; Ameenuddin, Syed; Uchida, K; Suo, William Z; SantaCruz, Karen; Festoff, Barry W

    2016-07-15

    Thrombin and membrane lipid peroxidation (MLP) have been implicated in various central nervous system (CNS) disorders from CNS trauma to stroke, Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Because thrombin also induces MLP in platelets and its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases we hypothesized that its deleterious effects might, in part, involve formation of MLP in neuronal cells. We previously showed that thrombin induced caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in motor neurons, via a proteinase-activated receptor (PAR1). We have now investigated thrombin's influence on the oxidative state of neurons leading to induction of MLP-protein adducts. Translational relevance of thrombin-induced MLP is supported by increased levels of 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts (HNEPA) in AD and PD brains. We now report for the first time that thrombin dose-dependently induces formation of HNEPA in NSC34 mouse motor neuron cells using anti-HNE and anti-acrolein monoclonal antibodies. The most prominent immunoreactive band, in SDS-PAGE, was at ∼54kDa. Membrane fractions displayed higher amounts of the protein-adduct than cytosolic fractions. Thrombin induced MLP was mediated, at least in part, through PAR1 since a PAR1 active peptide, PAR1AP, also elevated HNEPA levels. Of interest, glutamate and Fe2SO4 also increased the ∼54kDa HNEPA band in these cells but to a lesser extent. Taken together our results implicate the involvement of thrombin and MLP in neuronal cell loss observed in various CNS degenerative and traumatic pathologies.

  1. Effect of lipid peroxidation on membrane-bound Ca2+-ATPase activity of the intestinal brush-border membranes.

    PubMed

    Ohta, A; Mohri, T; Ohyashiki, T

    1989-09-04

    We have studied lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity of the porcine intestinal brush-border membranes using a oxygen-radical-generating system consisting of dithiothreitol (DTT)/Fe2+ and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH). The rates of lipid peroxidation were measured by formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBAR) and conjugated diene. Incubation of the membranes with DTT/Fe2+ in the absence and presence of t-BuOOH resulted in a slight (about 20%) and a marked (about 50%) inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase activity, respectively. The degree of inhibition was dependent on the hydroperoxide concentration. Addition of thiourea effectively protected Ca2+-ATPase activity but catalase and superoxide dismutase showed a slight and no effect on protection of the ATPase activity, respectively. Results of kinetic studies on the ATPase activity with varying ATP and Ca2+ concentrations revealed that the decrease in the enzyme activity by treatment with these oxidizing agents is mainly due to decrease of the Vmax value. Modification of SH groups in the membrane proteins by thiol group reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide, monoiodoacetate and monoiodacetamide did not induce the inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase activity. From these results, it is suggested that inhibition of the ATPase activity of the membranes by treatment with DTT/Fe2+ in the presence and absence of t-BuOOH is dependent on lipid peroxidation and that oxidative modification of SH groups may not be directly involved to the loss of the ATPase activity. In addition, results of the fluorescence anisotropy measurements of pyrene-labeled membranes suggested that change in the Ca2+-ATPase activity is partly related to a decrease in the membrane lipid fluidity.

  2. Application of simulation modeling to lipid peroxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Tappel, A L; Tappel, A A; Fraga, C G

    1989-01-01

    A quantitative simulation model was developed that utilized present knowledge of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. The simulation model incorporated the following features: peroxidizability of polyunsaturated lipids, activation of inducers and their initiation of lipid peroxidation, concurrent autoxidation, inhibition of lipid peroxidation by vitamin E, reduction of some of the hydroperoxides by glutathione peroxidase, and formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Simulation calculations were done using a computer spreadsheet program. When the simulation program was applied to tissue slice and microsomal peroxidizing systems, the results of the stimulation were in agreement with the experimental data.

  3. Lipid peroxidation, calcium, iron, and TCDD toxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Bayati, Z.A.F.

    1986-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been studied as a prototype of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Previous studies have shown that TCDD enhances hepatic lipid peroxidation. This study on TCDD administration to rats was conducted to: measure induction of lipid peroxidation in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues; compare lipid peroxidation between sexes; determine the contributions of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and other reactive oxygen species and associated enzymes on hepatic lipid peroxidation: determine the role of iron in TCDD-induced lipid peroxidation; and investigate the relationship between TCDD-induced alterations in lipid peroxidation, calcium homeostasis, reduced glutathione content (GSH) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px). The results demonstrated that TCDD induces changes in microsomal lipid peroxidation in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues. The rates of microsomal lipid peroxidation in male rats were less than in microsomes from female rats. TCDD treatment produced a significant increase in lipid peroxidation which preceded an increase in whole homogenate and mitochondrial calcium content, but paralleled an increase in microsomal calcium content. TCDD treatment produced dose and time dependent decreases in hepatic GSH content and GSH-Px activity in female rats. H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and possibly hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen are involved in TCDD-induced hepatic microsomal lipid peroxidation. The results support the hypothesis that the toxicity of TCDD and its lack of tissue selectivity in male and female rats may be due in part to lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation may alter membrane permeability to calcium and lead to sequestration of calcium.

  4. Anthocyanin content, lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activities of sweet and sour cherries.

    PubMed

    Mulabagal, Vanisree; Lang, Gregory A; DeWitt, David L; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2009-02-25

    Cherries contain bioactive anthocyanins that are reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic and antiobese properties. The present study revealed that red sweet cherries contained cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside as major anthocyanin (>95%). The sweet cherry cultivar "Kordia" (aka "Attika") showed the highest cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside content, 185 mg/100 g fresh weight. The red sweet cherries "Regina" and "Skeena" were similar to "Kordia", yielding cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside at 159 and 134 mg/100 g fresh weight, respectively. The yields of cyanidin-3-O-glucosylrutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were 57 and 19 mg/100 g fresh weight in "Balaton" and 21 and 6.2 mg/100 g fresh weight in "Montmorency", respectively, in addition to minor quantities of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. The water extracts of "Kordia", "Regina", "Glacier" and "Skeena" sweet cherries gave 89, 80, 80 and 70% of lipid peroxidation (LPO) inhibition, whereas extracts of "Balaton" and "Montmorency" were in the range of 38 to 58% at 250 microg/mL. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the yellow sweet cherry "Rainier" containing beta-carotene, ursolic, coumaric, ferulic and cafeic acids inhibited LPO by 78 and 79%, respectively, at 250 microg/mL. In the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitory assay, the red sweet cherry water extracts inhibited the enzymes by 80 to 95% at 250 microg/mL. However, the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of "Rainier" and "Gold" were the most active against COX-1 and -2 enzymes. Water extracts of "Balaton" and "Montmorency" inhibited COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 84, and 91 and 77, and 87%, respectively, at 250 microg/mL.

  5. Alterations of metabolic activity in human osteoarthritic osteoblasts by lipid peroxidation end product 4-hydroxynonenal

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qin; Vaillancourt, France; Côté, Véronique; Fahmi, Hassan; Lavigne, Patrick; Afif, Hassan; Di Battista, John A; Fernandes, Julio C; Benderdour, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation end product, is produced abundantly in osteoarthritic (OA) articular tissues, but its role in bone metabolism is ill-defined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that alterations in OA osteoblast metabolism are attributed, in part, to increased levels of HNE. Our data showed that HNE/protein adduct levels were higher in OA osteoblasts compared to normal and when OA osteoblasts were treated with H2O2. Investigating osteoblast markers, we found that HNE increased osteocalcin and type I collagen synthesis but inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity. We next examined the effects of HNE on the signaling pathways controlling cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in view of their putative role in OA pathophysiology. HNE dose-dependently decreased basal and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced IL-6 expression while inducing COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release. In a similar pattern, HNE induces changes in osteoblast markers as well as PGE2 and IL-6 release in normal osteoblasts. Upon examination of signaling pathways involved in PGE2 and IL-6 production, we found that HNE-induced PGE2 release was abrogated by SB202190, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor. Overexpression of p38 MAPK enhanced HNE-induced PGE2 release. In this connection, HNE markedly increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, JNK2, and transcription factors (CREB-1, ATF-2) with a concomitant increase in the DNA-binding activity of CRE/ATF. Transfection experiments with a human COX-2 promoter construct revealed that the CRE element (-58/-53 bp) was essential for HNE-induced COX-2 promoter activity. However, HNE inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα and subsequently the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB. Overexpression of IKKα increased TNF-α-induced IL-6 production. This induction was inhibited when TNF-α was combined with HNE. These findings suggest that HNE may exert multiple

  6. Lipoprotein-specific transport of circulating lipid peroxides.

    PubMed

    Ahotupa, Markku; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Vuorimaa, Timo; Vasankari, Tommi

    2010-10-01

    Serum lipoproteins, the carriers of cholesterol and other lipophilic substances in blood, are known to contain variable amounts of lipid peroxides. We investigated the transport of food-derived and endogenously formed lipid peroxides by serum lipoproteins under physiological conditions. Five independent trials were conducted in which different groups of healthy volunteers either consumed a test meal (a standard hamburger meal rich in lipid peroxides) or underwent strenuous physical exercise. The transport function was characterized by analyzing the kinetics of lipid peroxides in lipoprotein fractions. For evaluation of their potential involvement, indicators of oxidative stress (8-isoprostanes, malondialdehyde, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine), antioxidant functions (total antioxidant potential, paraoxonase activity), and serum lipids were also analyzed. We found that food lipid peroxides are incorporated into serum triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and low-density lipoprotein, directing the flow of lipid peroxides towards peripheral tissues. High-density lipoprotein appears to have an opposite and protective function, and is able to respond to oxidative stress by substantially increasing the reverse transport of lipid peroxides. We propose that the specific atherosclerosis-related effects of serum lipoproteins are not explained by cholesterol transport alone and may rather result from the transport of the more directly atherogenic lipid peroxides.

  7. Copper and zinc induction of lipid peroxidation and effects on antioxidant enzyme activities in the microalga Pavlova viridis (Prymnesiophyceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Hu, Changwei; Zhu, Qin; Chen, Li; Kong, Zhiming; Liu, Zhili

    2006-01-01

    The metal-induced lipid peroxidation and response of antioxidative enzymes have been investigated in the marine microalga Pavlova viridis to understand the mechanisms of metal resistance in algal cells. We have analyzed superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and glutathione (GSH) contents in microalgal cells grown at different concentrations of copper and zinc. In response to each metal, lipid peroxidation was enhanced with the increase of concentrations, as an indication of the oxidative damage caused by metal concentration assayed in the microalgae cells. Exposure of P. viridis to the two metals caused changes in enzyme activities in a different manner, depending on the metal assayed: after copper treatments, total SOD activity was enhanced, while it was reduced after zinc exposure. Copper and zinc stimulated the activities of CAT and GSH whereas GPX showed a remarkable increase in activity in response to copper treatments and decrease after zinc treatments. These results suggest that an activation of some antioxidant enzymes was enhanced to counteract the oxidative stress induced by the two metals.

  8. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium.

    PubMed

    Vasavada, A R; Thampi, P; Yadav, S; Rawal, U M

    1993-12-01

    The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium) and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium). In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium) and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium). From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  9. Serum biochemical profile, enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation in organs of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut shell liquid.

    PubMed

    Braz, N M; Freitas, E R; Trevisan, M T S; do Nascimento, G A J; Salles, R P R; Cruz, C E B; Farias, N N P; da Silva, I N G; Watanabe, P H

    2017-03-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding laying hens diets containing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) as a source of anacardic acid on the blood biochemical parameters as well as the enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation of liver and tissues of the reproductive system (ovary, magnum, and uterus). A total of 216 Hisex White commercial laying hens were distributed randomly into six treatments, with six replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a diet without growth promoter (GP); a diet with GP; and diets without GP, with addition of increasing levels of CNSL (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0%). Addition of CNSL to the diet did not affect the blood biochemical parameters (uric acid, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides), the enzymatic activity (superoxide dismutase and nonprotein sulphydryl groups) in the organs (liver, ovary, magnum and uterus) or the peroxidation of lipids from the blood serum, liver, magnum and uterus (p > 0.05). However, the addition of 0.75% and 1.00% CNSL provided a lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content in the birds' ovary (p < 0.001) compared to birds of other treatments, whereas the treatment without the GP provided a higher value. Addition of up to 1% of the CNSL as a source of anacardic acid in the laying hens' diets does not influence blood biochemical parameters or the endogenous enzymatic activity in the liver, ovary, magnum and uterus, but affects the lipid peroxidation in the ovary, although the problem is reduced from the inclusion of 0.75% CNSL.

  10. Catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in alloxan--induced diabetes mellitus in female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Ebuehi, O A T; Ajuluchukwu, A E; Afolabi, O T; Ebuehi, O M; Akinwande, A I

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism and is associated with oxidative reactions. The present study is to determine the activities of catalase, lipid peroxidation, glucose, protein, cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the liver and kidney in alloxan-induced diabetes in female and male rats. In addition, the study is to ascertain if gender differences affect oxidative stress in diabetes. Forty male (165 +/- 8.46 g) and female (162.7 +/- 7.94 g) albino Sprague Dawley rats were used for the study. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 150 mg/body weight of alloxan monohydrate, to induce diabetes-for 14 days. The rats were divided into four groups, consisting of 10 diabetic male, 10 non-diabetic male, 10 diabetic female and 10 non-diabetic female. The rats were fed rat chow and water ad libitum for 14 days and then sacrificed by decapitation. Blood was taken by cardiac puncture, while liver and kidney were quickly excised. The catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, glucose, protein, cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the liver and kidney of rats were determined. Bats administered alloxan monohydrate had elevated plasma glucose levels. The body weights of diabetic female and male rats were significantly reduced compared to the non-diabetic rats. The catalase activities in liver and kidney of diabetic male or female rats were significantly lower than in non-diabetic rats but the reduction was more pronounced in diabetic female rats. The liver lipid peroxidation, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the diabetic male or female than in the non-diabetic rats, but with no significant differences in the diabetic female or male rats. Data of the study indicate that sex differences do not significantly affect oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus.

  11. [Nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation].

    PubMed

    Cristol, J P; Maggi, M F; Guérin, M C; Torreilles, J; Descomps, B

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical produced enzymatically in biological systems from the guanidino group of L-arginine. Its large spectrum of biological effects is achieved through chemical interactions with different targets including oxygen (O2), superoxide (O2o-) and other oxygen reactive species (ROS), transition metals and thiols. Superoxide anions and other ROS have been reported to react with NO to produce peroxynitrite anions that can decompose to form nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and hydroxyl radial (OHo). Thus, NO has been reported to have a dual effect on lipid peroxidation (prooxidant via the peroxynitrite or antioxydant via the chelation of ROS). In the present study we have investigated in different models the in vitro and in vivo action of NO on lipid peroxidation. Copper-induced LDL oxidation were used as an in vitro model. Human LDL (100 micrograms ApoB/ml) were incubated in oxygene-saturated PBS buffer in presence or absence of Cu2+ (2.5 microM) with increasing concentrations of NO donnors (sodium nitroprussiate or nitroso-glutathione). LDL oxidation was monitored continuously for conjugated diene formation (234 nm) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) accumulation. Exogenous NO prevents in a dose dependent manner the progress of copper-induced oxidation. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (I/R), characterized by an overproduction of ROS, is used as an in vivo model. Anaesthetized rats were submitted to 1 hour renal ischaemia following by 2 hours of reperfusion. Sham-operated rats (SOP) were used as control. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the HNE accumulated in rats kidneys in presence or absence of L-arginine or D-arginine infusion. L-arginine, but not D-arginine, enhances HNE accumulation in I/R but not in SOP (< 0.050 pmol/g tissue in SOP versus 0.6 nmol/g tissue in I/R), showing that, in this experimental conditions, NO produced from L-arginine, enhances the toxicity of ROS. This study shows that the pro- or antioxydant effects of NO are different

  12. Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehyde-protein adducts contribute to trichloroethene-mediated autoimmunity via activation of CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gangduo; König, Rolf; Ansari, G A S; Khan, M Firoze

    2008-04-01

    Lipid peroxidation is implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases. Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) are highly reactive and bind to proteins, but their role in eliciting an autoimmune response and their contribution to disease pathogenesis remain unclear. To investigate the role of lipid peroxidation in the induction and/or exacerbation of autoimmune response, 6-week-old autoimmune-prone female MRL+/+ mice were treated for 4 weeks with trichloroethene (TCE; 10 mmol/kg, ip, once a week), an environmental contaminant known to induce lipid peroxidation. Sera from TCE-treated mice showed significant levels of antibodies against MDA-and HNE-adducted proteins along with antinuclear antibodies. This suggested that TCE exposure not only caused increased lipid peroxidation, but also accelerated autoimmune responses. Furthermore, stimulation of cultured splenic lymphocytes from both control and TCE-treated mice with MDA-adducted mouse serum albumin (MDA-MSA) or HNE-MSA for 72 h showed significant proliferation of CD4+ T cells in TCE-treated mice as analyzed by flow cytometry. Also, splenic lymphocytes from TCE-treated mice released more IL-2 and IFN-gamma into cultures when stimulated with MDA-MSA or HNE-MSA, suggesting a Th1 cell activation. Thus, our data suggest a role for lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes in TCE-mediated autoimmune responses and involvement of Th1 cell activation.

  13. Effects of blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) on DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and phase II enzyme activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Dulebohn, Rachel V; Yi, Weiguang; Srivastava, Anita; Akoh, Casimir C; Krewer, Gerard; Fischer, Joan G

    2008-12-24

    Blueberry extracts have high antioxidant potential and increase phase II enzyme activities in vitro. This study tested the hypothesis that blueberries would reduce DNA damage and lipid peroxidation and increase phase II enzyme activities in vivo. Young, healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8 per group) were fed control AIN-93 diets or AIN-93 diets supplemented with blueberries or blueberry extracts for 3 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 10% freeze-dried whole blueberries, blueberry polyphenol extract and sugars to match the 10% blueberry diet, or 1 and 0.2% blueberry flavonoids, which were primarily anthocyanins. Liver and colon mucosa glutathione-S-transferase (GST), quinone reductase, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities in colon mucosa and liver were not significantly increased by freeze-dried whole blueberries or blueberry fractions. Liver GST activity, however, was approximately 25% higher than controls for the freeze-dried whole blueberry, blueberry polyphenol, and 1% flavonoid groups. DNA damage was significantly lower than control only in the liver of animals fed the 1% flavonoid diet. The level of urinary F(2)-isoprostanes, a measure of lipid peroxidation, was unaffected. In summary, in healthy rats, short-term supplementation with freeze-dried whole blueberries, blueberry polyphenols, or blueberry flavonoids did not significantly increase phase II enzyme activities. However, supplementation with 1% blueberry flavonoids did decrease oxidative DNA damage in the liver.

  14. Ferroptosis: Death by Lipid Peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan Seok; Stockwell, Brent R

    2016-03-01

    Ferroptosis is a regulated form of cell death driven by loss of activity of the lipid repair enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and subsequent accumulation of lipid-based reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly lipid hydroperoxides. This form of iron-dependent cell death is genetically, biochemically, and morphologically distinct from other cell death modalities, including apoptosis, unregulated necrosis, and necroptosis. Ferroptosis is regulated by specific pathways and is involved in diverse biological contexts. Here we summarize the discovery of ferroptosis, the mechanism of ferroptosis regulation, and its increasingly appreciated relevance to both normal and pathological physiology.

  15. [Effects of exogenous spermidine on lipid peroxidation and membrane proton pump activity of cucumber seedling leaves under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Guo, Shi-Rong; Sun, Jin; Wang, Li-Ping; Yang, Yan-Juan; Li, Bin

    2011-12-01

    Taking a relatively heat-resistant cucumber (Cucumis sativus) cultivar 'Jinchun No. 4' as test material, a sand culture experiment was conducted in growth chamber to investigate the effects of foliar spraying spermidine (Spd) on the lipid peroxidation, membrane proton pump activity, and corresponding gene expression of cucumber seedling leaves under high temperature stress. Compared with the control, foliar spraying Spd increased the plant height, stem diameter, dry and fresh mass, and leaf area significantly, and inhibited the increase of leaf relative conductivity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity effectively. Foliar spraying Spd also helped to the increase of leaf plasma membrane- and tonoplast H(+)-ATPase activity, but no significant difference was observed in the gene expression levels. These results suggested that exogenous Spd could significantly decrease the leaf lipid peroxidation and increase the proton pump activity, and thus, stabilize the leaf membrane structure and function, alleviate the damage induced by high temperature stress, and enhance the heat tolerance of cucumber seedlings.

  16. Dermal quercetin lipid nanocapsules: Influence of the formulation on antioxidant activity and cellular protection against hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Hatahet, T; Morille, M; Shamseddin, A; Aubert-Pouëssel, A; Devoisselle, J M; Bégu, S

    2017-02-25

    Quercetin is a plant flavonoid with strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties interesting for skin protection. However, its poor water solubility limits its penetration and so its efficiency on skin. For this purpose, quercetin lipid nanocapsules were formulated implementing phase inversion technique wherein several modifications were introduced to enhance quercetin loading. Quercetin lipid nanocapsules were formulated with two particle size range, (50nm and 20nm) allowing a drug loading of 18.6 and 32mM respectively. The successful encapsulation of quercetin within lipid nanocapsules increased its apparent water solubility by more than 5000 fold (from 0.5μg/ml to about 5mg/ml). The physicochemical properties of these formulations such as surface charge, stability and morphology were characterized. Lipid nanocapsules had spherical shape and were stable for 28days at 25°C. Quercetin release from lipid nanocapsules was studied and revealed a prolonged release kinetics during 24h. Using DPPH assay, we demonstrated that the formulation process of lipid nanocapsules did not modify the antioxidant activity of quercetin in vitro (92.3%). With the goal of a future dermal application, quercetin lipid nanocapsules were applied to THP-1 monocytes and proved the cellular safety of the formulation up to 2μg/ml of quercetin. Finally, formulated quercetin was as efficient as the crude form in the protection of THP-1 cells from oxidative stress by exogenous hydrogen peroxide. With its lipophilic nature and occlusive effect on skin, lipid nanocapsules present a promising strategy to deliver quercetin to skin tissue and can be of value for other poorly water soluble drug candidates.

  17. Curcumin Blocks Naproxen-Induced Gastric Antral Ulcerations through Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation and Activation of Enzymatic Scavengers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Jin, Soojung; Kwon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Byung Woo

    2016-08-28

    Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, which is used for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study was undertaken to determine the protective effect of curcumin against naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations in rats. Different doses (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) of curcumin or vehicle (curcumin, 0 mg/kg) were pretreated for 3 days by oral gavage, and then gastric mucosal lesions were caused by 80 mg/kg naproxen applied for 3 days. Curcumin significantly inhibited the naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcer area and lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, curcumin markedly increased activities of radical scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, 100 mg/kg curcumin completely protected the gastric mucosa against the loss in the enzyme, resulting in a drastic increase of activities of radical scavenging enzymes up to more than the level of untreated normal rats. Histological examination obviously showed that curcumin prevents naproxen-induced gastric antral ulceration as a result of direct protection of the gastric mucosa. These results suggest that curcumin blocks naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations through prevention of lipid peroxidation and activation of radical scavenging enzymes, and it may offer a potential remedy of gastric antral ulcerations.

  18. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity of maize plants under temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiancan; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen

    2010-06-01

    The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus etunicatum, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation, osmotic adjustment, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of maize (Zea mays L.) plants was studied in pot culture under temperature stress. The maize plants were placed in a sand and soil mixture under normal temperature for 6 weeks and then exposed to five different temperature treatments (5 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 40 degrees C) for 1 week. AM symbiosis decreased membrane relative permeability and malondialdehyde content in leaves and roots. The contents of soluble sugar content and proline in roots were higher, but leaf proline content was lower in mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal plants. AM colonization increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase in leaves and roots. The results indicate that the AM fungus is capable of alleviating the damage caused by temperature stress on maize plants by reducing membrane lipid peroxidation and membrane permeability and increasing the accumulation of osmotic adjustment compounds and antioxidant enzyme activity. Consequently, arbuscular mycorrhiza formation highly enhanced the extreme temperature tolerance of maize plant, which increased host biomass and promoted plant growth.

  19. Chelating and radical scavenging activities of soy protein hydrolysates prepared from microbial proteases and their effect on meat lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Jianrong; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-04-01

    Three commercial microbial proteases, neutral protease from Bacillus subtilis (NP), validase from Aspergillus oryze (Val), and alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis (AP), were investigated for producing antioxidant hydrolysates from soy protein. The resulting hydrolysates were fractioned by sequential ultrafiltration and their antioxidant properties were examined. All the 12 hydrolysate fractions showed noticeable oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) but significantly varied from 23.8 to 83.8 micromol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g. The hydrolysates also possessed significantly different 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH()) scavenging activities and transition metal chelating activities. Three fractions with strong antioxidant activities, NP-F1, Val-F1, and AP-F3, were incorporated into ground beef to determine their dose-response on lipid peroxidation during 15-day storage. AP-F3 and NP-F1 but not Val-F1 significantly reduced meat lipid peroxidation by 20.1% and 12.9%, respectively. Our results suggested that the commercial microbial proteases such as B. subtilis and B. licheniformis could be used to produce effective antioxidant hydrolysates from food proteins. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant activity of white rice, brown rice and germinated brown rice (in vivo and in vitro) and the effects on lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Abdul Kadir, Khairul-Kamilah; Amom, Zulkhairi; Azlan, Azrina

    2013-11-15

    Antioxidant activity of different rice extract and the effect on the levels of antioxidant enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), vitamin E, lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemia rabbits were investigated. Germinated brown rice (GBR) has the highest antioxidant activity compared to white rice (WR) and brown rice (BR). All rice grains increased the activity of SOD and GPx. However, vitamin E levels increased only in the groups that received the BR and GBR diets. The reduction of lipid peroxidation levels and activity of hepatic enzymes (alanine transferase, ALT and aspartate transaminase, AST) were only significantly observed in the GBR group. In conclusion, GBR supplementation has the greatest impact on increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and vitamin E level and on reducing lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolaemia rabbit, thereby preventing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, GBR diet can also reduce the level of hepatic enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxidative stress responses and lipid peroxidation damage are induced during dehydration in the production of dry active wine yeasts.

    PubMed

    Garre, Elena; Raginel, Françoise; Palacios, Antonio; Julien, Anne; Matallana, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry wine yeast is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Many studies have shown the complexity of the cellular effects caused by water loss, including oxidative injuries on macromolecular components. However the technological interest of yeast drying was not addressed in those studies, and the dehydration conditions were far from the industrial practice. In the present study a molecular approach was used to characterize the relevant injuring conditions during pilot plant dehydration under two different drying temperatures (i.e., 35 and 41 degrees C). We have analyzed expression changes for several stress gene markers and we have determined two biochemical redox indicators (glutathione and lipid peroxidation levels) during pilot plant dehydration to produce active dry biomass, according to the standard practice in industry. The main gene expression response involves the induction of genes TRR1 and GRX5, corresponding to the two main redox balance systems, thioredoxins and glutathione/glutaredoxins. Elevated glutathione content and significant lipid peroxidation damage indicate the physiological impact of the oxidative stress on cellular components. The comparison between commercial stocks and pilot plant samples demonstrate the suitability of the molecular approach at the pilot plant scale to study physiological traits of industrial yeast products.

  2. Effect of Hypoxia on the Calcium and Magnesium Content, Lipid Peroxidation Level, and Ca2+-ATPase Activity of Syncytiotrophoblast Plasma Membranes from Placental Explants

    PubMed Central

    Chiarello, Delia I.; Benzo, Zully; Piñero, Sandy; Botana, Desirée; Abad, Cilia

    2014-01-01

    In the current study the possible relationship between the Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio of human syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes and their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity was determined. Syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes of placental explants cultured under hypoxia increased their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+ content, diminished their Ca2+-ATPase activity, and kept their Mg2+ content unchanged. Membranes preincubated with different concentrations of Ca2+ increased their Ca2+ content without changes in their Mg2+ content. There is a direct relationship between Ca2+ content and lipid peroxidation of the membranes, as well as an inverse relationship between their Ca2+ content and Ca2+-ATPase activity. On the contrary, preincubation of membranes with different concentrations of Mg2+ showed a higher Mg2+ content without changing their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity. Explants cultured under hypoxia in the presence of 4 mM MgSO4 showed similar values of lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity of their membranes compared to those of explants cultured under normoxia. Increased Ca2+ content of the membranes by interacting with negatively charged phospholipids could result in destabilizing effects of the membrane structure, exposing hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to the action of free radicals. Mg2+ might exert a stabilizing effect of the membranes, avoiding their exposure to free radicals. PMID:25180187

  3. Effect of hypoxia on the calcium and magnesium content, lipid peroxidation level, and Ca²⁺-ATPase activity of syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes from placental explants.

    PubMed

    Chiarello, Delia I; Marín, Reinaldo; Proverbio, Fulgencio; Benzo, Zully; Piñero, Sandy; Botana, Desirée; Abad, Cilia

    2014-01-01

    In the current study the possible relationship between the Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio of human syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes and their lipid peroxidation and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was determined. Syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes of placental explants cultured under hypoxia increased their lipid peroxidation and Ca(2+) content, diminished their Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and kept their Mg(2+) content unchanged. Membranes preincubated with different concentrations of Ca(2+) increased their Ca(2+) content without changes in their Mg(2+) content. There is a direct relationship between Ca(2+) content and lipid peroxidation of the membranes, as well as an inverse relationship between their Ca(2+) content and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. On the contrary, preincubation of membranes with different concentrations of Mg(2+) showed a higher Mg(2+) content without changing their lipid peroxidation and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. Explants cultured under hypoxia in the presence of 4 mM MgSO4 showed similar values of lipid peroxidation and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of their membranes compared to those of explants cultured under normoxia. Increased Ca(2+) content of the membranes by interacting with negatively charged phospholipids could result in destabilizing effects of the membrane structure, exposing hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to the action of free radicals. Mg(2+) might exert a stabilizing effect of the membranes, avoiding their exposure to free radicals.

  4. [Indices of oxidative stress. 2. Lipid peroxides].

    PubMed

    Lushchak, V I; Bahniukova, T V; Luzhna, L I

    2006-01-01

    Two methods of the determination of lipid peroxidation products have been compared which are based on Fe(II) oxidation by them at acid pH values in the presence of xylenol orange which binds Fe(III) have been compared. The first method uses cumene hydropeoxide as an internal standard. In the second one, lipid peroxides are previously reduced by triphenylphosphine and these substances content is measured as a difference of the production of complexes with xylenol orange and iron ions in the control (with reduction) and experimental sample (without reduction). The optimization of measurement conditions is described. The levels of lipid peroxides in goldfish tissues assayed simultaneously by two methods were similar. The method with cumene hydroperoxide needs less amounts of biological material; moreover, there is no necessity in a calibration curve. Effects of hyperoxia on lipid peroxide levels in goldfish tissues were studied with the cumene method. Within the first hours of hyperoxia this index increased 13-times in the liver and 2-times in the brain and muscle. The further exposure rebounded this parameter to the initial level. Levels of lipid peroxides positively correlated with levels of end products of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbiturate acid reactive substances) in the goldfish tissues. The method of quantification of lipid peroxides with cumene is recommended for wide using in biological investigations.

  5. [Lipid peroxidation processes in chronic bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Ignatova, G L; Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Volkova, E G; Kazachkov, E L; Kolesnikov, O L

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products in condensate of the exhaled air (CEA) and in the biopsy samples from the inflammation focus. Extraction spectrophotometry was used to measure LPO products in CEA and biopsies from 30 males aged 30-60 years suffering from chronic bronchitis and 30 healthy controls of the same age. There was activation of local accumulation of isopropanol-soluble LPO products in the bronchopulmonary system accompanied by lowered content of lipoperoxides and high antioxidant activity in CEA. Chronic bronchitis is characterized by multidirectional shifts in LPO in the inflammation focus and CEA.

  6. Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

  7. Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of lead (Pb) poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for 3 weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with decreased triglycerides and increased cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

  8. Changes on lipid peroxidation,enzymatic activities and gene expression in planarian (Dugesia japonica) following exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zuoqing; Miao, Zili; Gong, Xiaoning; Zhao, Baoying; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Hongdou; Zhang, Jianyong; Zhao, Bosheng

    2017-11-01

    We investigated perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-induced stress response in planarians. We administered different concentrations of PFOA to planarians for up to 10 d. PFOA exposure resulted in significant concentration-dependent elevations in lipid peroxidation, glutathione S-transferase and caspase-3 protease activities, and a significant decline in glutathione peroxidase activities compared with control groups. Exposure to PFOA significantly up-regulated the heat shock proteins hsp70 and hsp90, and p53, and down-regulated hsp40 compared with controls. PFOA exposure also increased HSP70 protein levels, as demonstrated by western blot analysis. These alterations indicated that PFOA exposure induced a stress response and affected the regulation of oxidative stress, enzymatic activities and gene expression. These results suggest that these sensitive parameters, together with other biomarkers, could be used for evaluating toxicity, for ecological risk assessment of PFOA in freshwaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Local salt substitutes "Obu-otoyo" activate acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and induce lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O

    2015-09-01

    Evidence has shown that ingestion of heavy metals can lead to neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to investigate the neurotoxic potential of salt substitutes (Obu-Otoyo); salt A (made by burning palm kernel shaft then soaked in water overnight and the extract from the resulting residue is used as the salt substitute) and salt B (an unrefined salt mined from a local site at Ilobu town, Osun-State, Nigeria) by assessing their effect on some key enzymes linked with neurodegenerative disease [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities] as well as on malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the rat brain. Salt substitutes were fed to normal rats as dietary inclusion at doses of 0.5 and 1.0% for 30 days. Thereafter, the effect of the salt substitutes on AChE and BChE activities as well as on MDA level in the rat brain was determined. The results revealed that the salt substitutes caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in both AChE and BChE activity and also induced lipid peroxidation in the brain of rats in vivo as well as under in vitro condition in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of the salt substitutes on AChE and BChE activities could be attributed to the presence of some toxic heavy metals. Therefore, the ability of the salt substitutes to induce lipid peroxidation and activate AChE and BChE activities could provide some possible mechanism for their neurotoxic effect.

  10. Local salt substitutes “Obu-otoyo” activate acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and induce lipid peroxidation in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has shown that ingestion of heavy metals can lead to neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to investigate the neurotoxic potential of salt substitutes (Obu-Otoyo); salt A (made by burning palm kernel shaft then soaked in water overnight and the extract from the resulting residue is used as the salt substitute) and salt B (an unrefined salt mined from a local site at Ilobu town, Osun-State, Nigeria) by assessing their effect on some key enzymes linked with neurodegenerative disease [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities] as well as on malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the rat brain. Salt substitutes were fed to normal rats as dietary inclusion at doses of 0.5 and 1.0% for 30 days. Thereafter, the effect of the salt substitutes on AChE and BChE activities as well as on MDA level in the rat brain was determined. The results revealed that the salt substitutes caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in both AChE and BChE activity and also induced lipid peroxidation in the brain of rats in vivo as well as under in vitro condition in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of the salt substitutes on AChE and BChE activities could be attributed to the presence of some toxic heavy metals. Therefore, the ability of the salt substitutes to induce lipid peroxidation and activate AChE and BChE activities could provide some possible mechanism for their neurotoxic effect. PMID:27486373

  11. Lipid peroxidation in experimental uveitis: sequential studies.

    PubMed

    Goto, H; Wu, G S; Chen, F; Kristeva, M; Sevanian, A; Rao, N A

    1992-06-01

    Previously we have detected the occurrence of retinal lipid peroxidation initiated by phagocyte-derived oxygen radicals in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). In the current studies, the confirmation of inflammation-mediated lipid peroxidation was proceeded further to include measurement of multiple parameters, including conjugated dienes, ketodienes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and fluorescent chromolipids. The assay for myeloperoxidase, a measure for the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the inflammatory sites was also carried out. The levels of all these parameters were followed through the course of EAU development. The sequential evaluation of histologic changes using both light and electron microscopy was also carried out and the results were correlated with lipid peroxidation indices. These data suggest that the retinal lipid peroxidation plays a causative role in the subsequent retinal degeneration.

  12. Effects of different resistance exercise protocols on nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation and creatine kinase activity in sedentary males.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Nevin Atalay; Hazar, Serkan; Erbas, Deniz

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes of oxidative response and exercise-induced muscle damage after two different resistance exercise protocols. Whether training with low or high intensity resistance programs cause alterations in the activities of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide (NOx), and creatine kinase (CK) activity in human plasma was investigated. Twenty untrained males participated into this study. Ten of the subjects performed high intensity resistance (HR) exercise circuit and the rest of them performed low intensity resistance (LR) exercise circuit of 4 different exercises as a single bout. Venous blood samples were drawn pre-exercise, immediately after the exercise, and at the 6(th), 24(th), 48(th) and the72(nd) hours of post-exercise. Samples were analyzed for markers of muscle damage (CK), lipid peroxidation (MDA) and NOx. NOx production increased in HR group (p < 0.05). The MDA response to the two different resistance exercise protocol in this study caused a significant increase between pre and post-exercise values in both groups (p < 0.05). Also, there was a significant difference in the MDA level between the two groups in post-exercise values (p < 0.05) and higher values were observed in HR group. CK activities showed a significant increase in all post exercise values (p < 0.05) of both groups but there were no difference between HR and LR groups. These findings support that high intensity resistance exercise induces free radical production more than low intensity resistance exercise program. Key pointsHigh intensity resistance exercise caused increases in NOx, MDA and CK levels.Light intensity resistance exercises increased MDA and CK levels but did not affect NOx levels.Damage arose during resistance exercises may be related to the level of resistance applied.

  13. Effect of boric acid on antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, and ultrastructure of midgut and fat body of Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Snela, Milena; Erdem, Meltem; Radtke, Katarzyna; Ziemnicki, Kazimierz; Adamski, Zbigniew

    2013-04-01

    Boric acid is widely used as an insecticide, acaricide, herbicide, and fungicide and also during various industrial processings. Hence, numerous populations are subjects to this toxic compound. Its action on animals is still not fully known and understood. We examined the effect of boric acid on larvae of greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella). The chemical appeared to be toxic for larvae, usually in a concentration-dependent manner. Exposed groups revealed increased lipid peroxidation and altered activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase. We also observed changes of ultrastructure, which were in tune with biochemical assays. We suggest that boric acid has a broad mode of action, which may affect exposed larvae, and even if sublethal, they may lead to disturbances within exposed populations.

  14. Effects of acute exposure to the radiofrequency fields of cellular phones on plasma lipid peroxide and antioxidase activities in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Y M; Moustafa, R M; Belacy, A; Abou-El-Ela, S H; Ali, F M

    2001-11-01

    Radiofrequency fields of cellular phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, which appear mainly to enhance lipid peroxidation, and by changing the antioxidase activities of human blood thus leading to oxidative stress. To test this, we have investigated the effect of acute exposure to radiofrequency fields of commercially available cellular phones on some parameters indicative of oxidative stress in 12 healthy adult male volunteers. Each volunteer put the phone in his pocket in standby position with the keypad facing the body. The parameters measured were lipid peroxide and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase. The results obtained showed that the plasma level of lipid peroxide was significantly increased after 1, 2 and 4 h of exposure to radiofrequency fields of the cellular phone in standby position. Moreover, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in human erythrocytes showed significant reduction while the activity of catalase in human erythrocytes did not decrease significantly. These results indicate that acute exposure to radiofrequency fields of commercially available cellular phones may modulate the oxidative stress of free radicals by enhancing lipid peroxidation and reducing the activation of SOD and GSH-Px, which are free radical scavengers. Therefore, these results support the interaction of radiofrequency fields of cellular phones with biological systems.

  15. [Perfluoran influence upon lipids peroxide oxidation and oral fluid antioxidant system activity in patients with chronic generalized parodontitis].

    PubMed

    Bespalova, N A; Kontorshchikova, K N; Vorob'eva, A V

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of perfluoran submucous administration in the postoperative period in patients with chronic parodontal diseases was studied over the dynamics of indicators of oral fluid antioxidant system and lipids peroxide oxidation. It was established that perfluoran submucous administration during postoperative period increased the efficacy of postoperative wound healing and decreased the risk of disease relapse development.

  16. Involvement of lipid peroxidation and organic peroxides in UVA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Polte, Tobias; Tyrrell, Rex M

    2004-06-15

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation causes human skin aging and skin cancer at least partially through the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP-1, the interstitial collagenase, is responsible for the degradation of collagen and is involved in tumor progression in human skin. The present study uses human skin fibroblast cells (FEK4) to investigate the involvement of lipid peroxidation and the role of peroxides as possible mediators in MMP-1 activation by UVA. Preincubation with the antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and Trolox reduced UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation, suggesting that peroxidation of membrane lipids is involved. Blocking the iron-driven generation of lipid peroxides and hydroxyl radicals by different iron chelators led to a decrease in UVA-induced MMP-1 mRNA accumulation. Moreover, modulation of glutathione peroxidase activity by use of the specific inhibitor mercaptosuccinate (MS) or by the depletion of glutathione (using buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine, BSO), enhanced the UVA-dependent MMP-1 response. Finally, UVA irradiation generated a significant increase in intracellular peroxide levels which is augmented by pretreatment of the cells with BSO or MS. Our results demonstrate that lipid peroxidation and the production of peroxides are important events in the signalling pathway of MMP-1 activation by UVA.

  17. 2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA) induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and changes in some antioxidant enzyme activities in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus).

    PubMed

    Batish, D R; Singh, H P; Setia, N; Kaur, S; Kohli, R K

    2006-01-01

    2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA), a well-known allelochemical with strong phytotoxicity, is a potential herbicidal candidate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether phytotoxicity of BOA is due to induction of oxidative stress caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes induced in response to BOA. Effect of BOA was studied on electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation (LP), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation, proline (PRO) accumulation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.11), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, 1.11.1.7), catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2) in Phaseolus aureus (mung bean). BOA significantly enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) content, a product of LP, in both leaves and roots of mung bean. The amount of H(2)O(2), a product of oxidative stress, and endogenous PRO increased many-fold in response to BOA. Accumulation of PRO, MDA and H(2)O(2) indicates the cellular damage in the target tissue caused by ROS generated by BOA. In response to BOA, there was a significant increase in the activities of scavenging enzymes SOD, APX, GPX, CAT, and GR in root and leaf tissue of mung bean. At 5 mM BOA, GR activity in roots showed a nearly 22-fold increase over that in control. The present study concludes that BOA induces oxidative stress in mung bean through generation of ROS and upregulation of activities of various scavenging enzymes.

  18. Effect of vitamin E and selenium supplementation of cockerel diets on glutathione peroxidase activity and lipid peroxidation susceptibility in sperm, testes, and liver.

    PubMed

    Surai, P; Kostjuk, I; Wishart, G; Macpherson, A; Speake, B; Noble, R; Ionov, I; Kutz, E

    1998-01-01

    The phospholipids of avian spermatozoa are characterized by high proportions of arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosatetraenoic (22:4n-6) fatty acids and are therefore sensitive to lipid peroxidation. Alpha-tocopherol and glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px] are believed to be the primary components of the antioxidant system of the spermatozoa. The present study evaluates the effect of vitamin E and vitamin E plus Se supplementation of the cockerel diet on GSH-Px activity, vitamin E accumulation, and lipid peroxidation in the spermatozoa, testes, and liver. At the beginning of the experiment 75 Rhode Island Red cockerels were divided into five groups, kept in individual cages, and fed a wheat-barley-based ration balanced in all nutrients. Supplements fed to the different groups were as follows: vitamin E, 0, 20, 200, 20, and 200 mg/kg to groups 1-5, respectively, with groups 4 and 5 also receiving 0. 3 mg Se/kg. The vitamin E supplementation produced increased levels of alpha-tocopherol in semen, testes, and liver. The inclusion of the Se into the cock diet had a significant (P < 0.01) stimulating effect on GSH-Px activity in seminal plasma, spermatozoa, testes, and liver. The increased vitamin E concentration in the spermatozoa was associated with a reduction in their susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Similarly, the increased GSH-Px activity provided enhanced protection against lipid peroxidation.

  19. [THE INFLUENCE OF OPIOID PEPTIDES ON LIPID PEROXIDATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY IN RATS AFTER SWIMMING STRESS].

    PubMed

    Solin, A V; Lyashev, Yu D

    2015-08-01

    It was established in experiments on rats, that injection of opioid peptides DAGO (a selective igonist of opioid mu-receptors), DSLET (a selective agonist of opioid delta-receptors) or dynorpiin A (1-13) (a selective agonist of opioid kappa-receptors) decreased the stress-induced activatin of lipid peroxidation in liver tissue and plasma. A selective agonist of opioid mu-receptors) AGO manifested the most expressed activity. The using of investigating peptides caused the increase of superoxiddismutase activity in liver tissue. The reinforcement of catalase activity was )bserved in DSLET or dynorphin A (1-13). DAGO decreased its activity. The peptide effects of lifferent directions oncatalase activity in plasma were established. These effects can be explained y the stress-limiting action of peptides in entire organism, the peculiarities of opioid receptors spreading in liver tissue and by the influence of preceded load with non-complete oxidized sub stances after intensive swimming on the opioid receptor affinity.

  20. [Lipid peroxidation, activity of Na+,k(+) -ATPase and exzymes of antioxidant defence in rats with nephropathy induced by cobalt chloride].

    PubMed

    Tedtoeva, A I; Dzugkoeva, F S; Mozhaeva, I V; Dzugkoev, S G

    2010-01-01

    Chronic parenteral administration of cobalt chloride (6 mg/kg) to male rats for 2 weeks or 1 month was accompanied by activation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), a decrease of superoxide dismutase activity and an increase of catalase activity. The membrane toxic action also resulted in a decrease of cortical and medullar Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of kidneys, and the decrease in renal functions (glomerular filtration, renal water reabsorption, spontaneous diuresis, electrolyte excretion).

  1. Lipid Peroxidation and Its Toxicological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Tae-gyu

    2011-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation is a free radical oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid or arachidonic acid. This process has been related with various pathologies and disease status mainly because of the oxidation products formed during the process. The oxidation products include reactive aldehydes such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. These reactive aldehydes can form adducts with DNAs and proteins, leading to the alterations in their functions to cause various diseases. This review will provide a short summary on the implication of lipid peroxidation on cancer, atherosclerosis, and neurodegeneration as well as chemical and biochemical mechanisms by which these adducts affect the pathological conditions. In addition, select examples will be presented where antioxidants were used to counteract oxidative damage caused by lipid peroxidation. At the end, isoprostanes are discussed as a gold standard for the assessment of oxidative damages. PMID:24278542

  2. Lipid peroxidation and its toxicological implications.

    PubMed

    Nam, Tae-Gyu

    2011-03-01

    Lipid peroxidation is a free radical oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid or arachidonic acid. This process has been related with various pathologies and disease status mainly because of the oxidation products formed during the process. The oxidation products include reactive aldehydes such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. These reactive aldehydes can form adducts with DNAs and proteins, leading to the alterations in their functions to cause various diseases. This review will provide a short summary on the implication of lipid peroxidation on cancer, atherosclerosis, and neurodegeneration as well as chemical and biochemical mechanisms by which these adducts affect the pathological conditions. In addition, select examples will be presented where antioxidants were used to counteract oxidative damage caused by lipid peroxidation. At the end, isoprostanes are discussed as a gold standard for the assessment of oxidative damages.

  3. Lipid peroxide formation in microsomes. Relationship of hydroxylation to lipid peroxide formation

    PubMed Central

    Wills, E. D.

    1969-01-01

    1. Aminopyrine strongly inhibits NADPH-induced lipid peroxide formation in rat liver microsomes, but ascorbate-induced peroxidation is inhibited to a smaller extent. 2. Aminopyrine oxidation is stimulated by Mg2+ but inhibited by Ca2+. Concentrated solutions (10mm) of iron-chelating agents inhibit aminopyrine oxidation, but the more dilute solutions (0·5mm) of chelators that block lipid peroxide formation do not inhibit aminopyrine oxidation. Microsomes prepared from sucrose–EDTA homogenates rapidly oxidize aminopyrine, but do not form lipid peroxide when incubated with ascorbate or NADPH. 3. Aminopyrine oxidation is strongly inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, less by iodoacetamide and weakly by N-ethylmaleimide. The site of action of these compounds is considered to be a ferredoxin-type protein. GSH and cysteine also inhibit. 4. Other drugs oxidized by microsomes such as caffeine, phenobarbitone and hexobarbitone had either no or little effect on lipid peroxide formation, but codeine inhibited. 5. Most aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes did not affect lipid peroxide formation, but chloroform and carbon tetrachloride inhibited. 6. Many aromatic compounds inhibited lipid peroxide formation. Only aromatic acids were without any effect and phenols and amines were very strong inhibitors. 7. Induction of lipid peroxide formation in microsomes by incubation with ascorbate or NADPH or by treatment with ionizing radiation leads to a sharp decline in the ability of microsomes to oxidize aminopyrine or hydroxylate aniline. 8. It is considered that the two processes of hydroxylation and lipid peroxide formation are closely linked in microsomes. They probably depend on the same electron-transport chain, and peroxide formation, which involves membrane disintegration, may be part of the normal membrane remodelling process. PMID:4390103

  4. The effects of dietary boric acid and borax supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, and DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Cigerci, Ibrahim Hakki; Fatih Fidan, A; Eryavuz, Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of high dietary supplementation with boric acid and borax, called boron (B) compounds, on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some vitamin levels, and DNA damage in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into three equal groups: the animals in the first group (control) were fed with a standard rodent diet containing 6.4 mg B/kg, and the animals in the experimental group were fed with a standard rodent diet added with a supra-nutritional amount of boric acid and borax (100 mg B/kg) throughout the experimental period of 28 days. The B compounds decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA damage, the protein carbonyl content (PCO) level in blood, and glutathione (GSH) concentration in the liver, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity in the kidney. The B compounds increased GSH concentration in blood and the vitamin C level in plasma. Consequently, our results demonstrate that B supplementation (100 mg/kg) in diet decreases LPO, and enhances the antioxidant defense mechanism and vitamin status. There are no differences in oxidant/antioxidant balance and biochemical parameters except for serum vitamin A and liver GSH concentration, between the boron compounds used in this study. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Carissa opaca leaves extract on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and reproductive hormones in male rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Carissa opaca leaves are traditionally used in the treatment of male dysfunction and hormonal disorder as well as in oxidative stress in Pakistan and Asia. The present study was designed to assess the protective effects of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca leaves (MLC) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced reproductive stress in male rats and bioactive constituents responsible for the activity. Methods CCl4 was induced in 42 male rats for eight weeks and checked the protective efficacy of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca leaves at various hormonal imbalances, alteration of antioxidant enzymes, DNA fragmentation levels and lipid peroxidation caused testicular fibrosis in testis while High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used for detection of bioactive components. Results HPLC characterization revealed the presence of isoquercitin , hyperoside , vitexin , myricetin and kaempherol. CCl4 caused significant alteration in the secretion of reproductive hormones. Activity of antioxidant enzymes viz; catalase, superoxide dimutase and phase II metabolizing enzymes including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and reduced glutathione was decreased while DNA fragmentation, hydrogen per oxide contents and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were increased with CCl4 treatment. Co-administration of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w. MLC effectively ameliorated the alterations in the biochemical markers; hormonal and molecular levels. Conclusion Protective effects of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca against CCl4−induced antioxidant and hormonal dysfunction which might be due to bioactive compound present in extract. PMID:23786717

  6. [Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate on the antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level of Perna viridis].

    PubMed

    Qin, Jie-fang; Chen, Hai-gang; Cai, Wen-gui; Yang, Tao; Jia, Xiao-ping

    2011-07-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level presented by malondialdehyde (MDA) in visceral mass and mantle of green mussel (Perna viridis) after exposure to 0.5- 62.5 mg x L(-1) of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) for 15 days, and to study the change characteristics of these biochemical indicators after the green mussel released into DBP-free seawater for 10 days. During exposure period, the SOD activity in visceral mass was inhibited first and then reached the level of the control at 0.5 and 2.5 mg x L(-1) of DBP, but inhibited significantly (P< 0.01) at 12.5 and 62.5 mg L(-1) of DBP. The CAT activity in visceral mass was inhibited at all test concentrations of DBP, while the LPO level was obviously induced. During the chronic DBP exposure, the SOD and CAT activities in the mantle were induced significantly but had no regular pattern, and the LPO level was also obviously induced. After the exposed green mussel was released into clean seawater, the SOD and CAT activities in the visceral mass in 12.5 and 62.5 mg DBP x L(-1) groups recovered much slowly, but the LPO level gradually recovered to control level. During the recovery period, the SOD activity in the mantle showed an increasing trend with time, but the CAT activity and LPO level reached gradually to the level of the control.

  7. Phytic acid inhibits lipid peroxidation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Alicja; Wilczok, Adam; Węglarz, Ludmiła; Dzierżewicz, Zofia

    2013-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) has been recognized as a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, with the use of HPLC/MS/MS, whether PA is capable of inhibiting linoleic acid autoxidation and Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced peroxidation, as well as Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in human colonic epithelial cells. PA at 100 μM and 500 μM effectively inhibited the decay of linoleic acid, both in the absence and presence of Fe(II)/ascorbate. The observed inhibitory effect of PA on Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation was lower (10-20%) compared to that of autoxidation. PA did not change linoleic acid hydroperoxides concentration levels after 24 hours of Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced peroxidation. In the absence of Fe(II)/ascorbate, PA at 100 μM and 500 μM significantly suppressed decomposition of linoleic acid hydroperoxides. Moreover, PA at the tested nontoxic concentrations (100 μM and 500 μM) significantly decreased 4-hydroxyalkenal levels in Caco-2 cells which structurally and functionally resemble the small intestinal epithelium. It is concluded that PA inhibits linoleic acid oxidation and reduces the formation of 4-hydroxyalkenals. Acting as an antioxidant it may help to prevent intestinal diseases induced by oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation products.

  8. Phytic Acid Inhibits Lipid Peroxidation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Węglarz, Ludmiła; Dzierżewicz, Zofia

    2013-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) has been recognized as a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, with the use of HPLC/MS/MS, whether PA is capable of inhibiting linoleic acid autoxidation and Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced peroxidation, as well as Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in human colonic epithelial cells. PA at 100 μM and 500 μM effectively inhibited the decay of linoleic acid, both in the absence and presence of Fe(II)/ascorbate. The observed inhibitory effect of PA on Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation was lower (10–20%) compared to that of autoxidation. PA did not change linoleic acid hydroperoxides concentration levels after 24 hours of Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced peroxidation. In the absence of Fe(II)/ascorbate, PA at 100 μM and 500 μM significantly suppressed decomposition of linoleic acid hydroperoxides. Moreover, PA at the tested nontoxic concentrations (100 μM and 500 μM) significantly decreased 4-hydroxyalkenal levels in Caco-2 cells which structurally and functionally resemble the small intestinal epithelium. It is concluded that PA inhibits linoleic acid oxidation and reduces the formation of 4-hydroxyalkenals. Acting as an antioxidant it may help to prevent intestinal diseases induced by oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation products. PMID:24260736

  9. Temperature acclimation alters oxidative capacities and composition of membrane lipids without influencing activities of enzymatic antioxidants or susceptibility to lipid peroxidation in fish muscle

    PubMed Central

    Grim, J. M.; Miles, D. R. B.; Crockett, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Cold acclimation of ectotherms results typically in enhanced oxidative capacities and lipid remodeling, changes that should increase the risk of lipid peroxidation (LPO). It is unclear whether activities of antioxidant enzymes may respond in a manner to mitigate the increased potential for LPO. The current study addresses these questions using killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus macrolepidotus) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) acclimated to 5 and 25°C for 9 days and 2 months, respectively. Because the effects of temperature acclimation on pro- and antioxidant metabolism may be confounded by variable activity levels among temperature groups, one species (killifish) was also subjected to a 9-day exercise acclimation. Oxidative capacity of glycolytic (skeletal) muscle (indicated by the activity of cytochrome c oxidase) was elevated by 1.5-fold in killifish, following cold acclimation, but was unchanged in cardiac muscle and also unaffected by exercise acclimation in either tissue. No changes in citrate synthase activity were detected in either tissue following temperature acclimation. Enzymatic antioxidants (catalase and superoxide dismutase) of either muscle type were unaltered by temperature or exercise acclimation. Mitochondria from glycolytic muscle of cold-acclimated killifish were enriched in highly oxidizable polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA), including diacyl phospholipids (total carbons:total double bonds) 40:8 and 44:12. Increased oxidative capacity, coupled with elevated PUFA content in mitochondria from cold-acclimated animals did not, however, impact LPO susceptibility when measured with C11-BODIPY. The apparent mismatch between oxidative capacity and enzymatic antioxidants following temperature acclimation will be addressed in future studies. PMID:20086129

  10. Effects of idebenone (CV-2619) and its metabolites on respiratory activity and lipid peroxidation in brain mitochondria from rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Y; Fujita, T; Matsumoto, M; Okamoto, K; Imada, I

    1985-12-01

    The effects of idebenone (CV-2619) and its metabolites on respiratory activity and lipid peroxidation in isolated brain mitochondria from rats and dogs were studied. CV-2619 was easily reduced by canine brain mitochondria in the presence of respiratory substrates. Reduced CV-2619 (2H-CV-2619) was rapidly oxidized through the cytochrome b chain, indicating that the compound functioned simply as an electron carrier of mitochondrial respiratory system. Both nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)- and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent lipid peroxidations were examined in canine brain mitochondria in the presence of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and Fe3+. NADH-cytochrome c reductase activity was sensitive to NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation. CV-2619 (10(-5)M) strongly inhibited both types of the lipid peroxidation reactions and protected the resultant inactivation of the NADH-cytochrome c reductase activity. Activities of succinate oxidase in rat and canine brain mitochondria were virtually unaffected by CV-2619 and its metabolites (10(-5)-10(-6) M). On the other hand, CV-2619 markedly suppressed the state 3 respiration in glutamate oxidation in a dose dependent manner without any effect on the state 4 respiration and the ADP/O ratio in intact rat brain mitochondria. The inhibitory effect of CV-2619 was also observed in NADH-cytochrome c reductase, but not in NADH-2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCIP) and NADH-ubiquinone reductases in canine brain mitochondria. These facts and results of inhibitor analysis suggest that the action site of CV-2619 is NADH-linked complex I in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and is different from that of inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation such as rotenone, oligomycin and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Finally, the above findings suggest that CV-2619 acts as an electron carrier in respiratory chains and functions as an antioxidant against membrane damage caused by lipid peroxidation in brain mitochondria. It appears

  11. Effects of thermal stress on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Hao; Liu, Huai; Wang, Jin-Jun; Wang, Zi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Changes in temperature are known to cause a variety of physiological stress responses in insects and mites. Thermal stress responses are usually associated with the increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, we examined the time-related effect (durations for 1, 2, 3, and 5 h) of thermal stress conditions-i.e., relatively low (0, 5, 10, and 15 °C) or high (35, 38, 41, and 44 °C) temperatures-on the activities of antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris. Also the lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels of the predatory mite were measured under thermal stress conditions. The results confirmed that thermal stress results in a condition of so-called oxidative stress and the four antioxidant enzymes play an important role in combating the accumulation of ROS in N. cucumeris. CAT and POX activity changed significantly when the mites were exposed to cold and heat shock, respectively. The elevated levels of SOD and GSTs activity, expressed in a time-dependent manner, may have an important role in the process of antioxidant response to thermal stress. However, the levels of LPO in N. cucumeris were high, serving as an important signal that these antioxidant enzyme-based defense mechanisms were not always adequate to counteract the surplus ROS. Thus, we hypothesize that thermal stress, especially extreme temperatures, may contribute much to the generation of ROS in N. cucumeris, and eventually to its death.

  12. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation by cinnarizine. Possible implications to its therapeutic and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, A C; Filipe, P M; Coelho, H; Manso, C F

    1991-03-01

    Cinnarizine has antivasoconstrictor properties and improves red-cell deformability. Its major side-effects are the induction of extrapyramidal reactions. It is a calcium antagonist, but it was suggested that its effects may depend on other mechanisms, namely on antiperoxidant properties. We have studied these properties in different biological systems, intact red-cells included. The occurrence of lipid peroxidation was determined by the formation of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive products. Cinnarizine was found to inhibit spontaneous lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates, copper-induced lipid peroxidation in human plasma and copper-induced and hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation in human red-cells. In red-cells, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation is accompanied by the inhibition of hemolysis. Copper-induced red-cell lipid peroxidation is 85% inhibited by as little as 5 microM cinnarizine. The antioxidant activity of cinnarizine may contribute to explain some of the effects of this drug.

  13. Effect of Danofloxacin on Reactive Oxygen Species Production, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Kidney Tubular Epithelial Cell Line, LLC-PK1.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun-Hong; Liu, Zhao-Ying; Sun, Lei-Sheng; Li, Yu-Juan; Zhang, Da-Sheng; Pan, Ren-Tao; Sun, Zhi-Liang

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility that oxidative stress was involved in danofloxacin-induced toxicity in renal tubular cells epithelial cell line (LLC-PK1). Confluent LLC-PK1 cells were incubated with various concentrations of danofloxacin. The extent of oxidative damage was assessed by measuring the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, lipid peroxidation, cell apoptosis and antioxidative enzyme activities. Danofloxacin induced a concentration-dependent increase in the ROS production, not even cytotoxic conditions. Similarly, danofloxacin caused an about 4 times increase in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances at the concentration of 400 μM for 24 hr, but it did not induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Antioxidant enzymes activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were increased after treatment with 100, 200 and 400 μM of danofloxacin for 24 hr. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) was significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, ROS production, lipid peroxidation and GPX decline were inhibited by additional glutathione and N-acetyl cysteine. These data suggested that danofloxacin could not induce oxidative stress in LLC-PK1 cells at the concentration (≤400 μM) for 24 hr. The increase levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation could be partly abated by the increase activities of SOD and CAT. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Assessment of phytochemicals, antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-hemolytic activity of extract and various fractions of Maytenus royleanus leaves

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maytenus royleanus is traditionally used in gastro-intestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methanol extract of leaves and its derived fractions for various antioxidant assays and for its potential against lipid peroxidation and hemolytic activity. Methods Various parameters including scavenging of free-radicals (DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical), hydrogen peroxide scavenging, Fe3+ to Fe2+ reducing capacity, total antioxidant capacity, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-hemolytic activity were investigated. Methanol extract and its derived fractions were also subjected for chemical constituents. LC-MS was also performed on the methanol extract. Results Qualitative analysis of methanol extract exhibited the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, phlobatannins, tannins and terpenoids. LC-MS chromatogram indicated the composition of diverse compounds including flavonoids, phenolics and phytoestrogens. Methanol extract, its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions constituted the highest amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and showed a strong correlation coefficient with the IC50 values for the scavenging of DPPH, hydrogen peroxide radicals, superoxide radicals, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-hemolytic efficacy. Moreover, n-butanol fraction showed the highest scavenging activity for ABTS radicals and for reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+. Conclusions Present results suggested the therapeutic potential of Maytenus royleanus leaves, in particular, methanol extract, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fraction as therapeutic agent against free-radical associated damages. The protective potential of the extract and or fraction may be attributed due to the high concentration of phenolic, flavonoid, tannins and terpenoids. PMID:23800043

  15. Effects of temperature on oxidative stress defense systems, lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase activity in Phalaenopsis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad Babar; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2005-03-01

    Higher plants growing in natural environments experience various abiotic stresses. The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to temperature-stress would lead to oxidative stress and whether this effect varied with different exposure periods. The thermal dependencies of the activities of protective enzymes, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), protein, non-protein thiol (NP-SH), cysteine content, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity (EC 1.13.11.12) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content at 25-40 degrees C were determined for 4, 24 and 48 h in leaf and root segments of Phalaenopsis. The increase in MDA level and LOX activity may be due to temperature-associated oxidative damage to leaf and root segments. Temperature-stress induced not only activities of active oxygen species (AOS) scavenging enzymes but also protein, NP-SH and cysteine content in both leaf and root segments at 30 degrees C for 4 and 24 h (except for 48 h in some cases) compared to 25 degrees C-and greenhouse-grown leaf and root segments indicating that antioxidants enzymes played an important role in protecting plant from temperature-stress. However, activities of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.9) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) in leaf and root, glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) in leaf and guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD, 1.11.1.7) in root segments were induced significantly at 40 degrees C compared to 25 degrees C and greenhouse-grown plants suggesting that these enzymes play protective roles at high temperature. In contrast, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, EC 1.6.5.4) in leaf and root, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) in root, GR in root, and protein, cysteine, NP-SH content in both root and leaf and Fv/Fm ratio were diminished significantly at 40 degrees C compared to 25 degrees C-and greenhouse-grown plants. These indicate that these enzymes were apparently not

  16. Peroxide-induced cell death and lipid peroxidation in C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Linden, Arne; Gülden, Michael; Martin, Hans-Jörg; Maser, Edmund; Seibert, Hasso

    2008-08-01

    Peroxides are often used as models to induce oxidative damage in cells in vitro. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of lipid peroxidation in peroxide-induced cell death. To this end (i) the ability to induce lipid peroxidation in C6 rat astroglioma cells of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) and t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) (ii) the relation between peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation and cell death in terms of time and concentration dependency and (iii) the capability of the lipid peroxidation chain breaking alpha-tocopherol to prevent peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation and/or cell death were investigated. Lipid peroxidation was characterised by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and, by HPLC, malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and hexanal. Within 2 h CHP, t-BuOOH and H2O2 induced cell death with EC50 values of 59+/-9 microM, 290+/-30 microM and 12+/-1.1 mM, respectively. CHP and t-BuOOH, but not H2O2 induced lipid peroxidation in C6 cells with EC50 values of 15+/-14 microM and 130+/-33 microM, respectively. The TBARS measured almost exclusively consisted of MDA. 4-HNE was mostly not detectable. The concentration of hexanal slightly increased with increasing concentrations of organic peroxides. Regarding time and concentration dependency lipid peroxidation preceded cell death. Pretreatment with alpha-tocopherol (10 microM, 24 h) prevented both, peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation and cell death. The results strongly indicate a major role of lipid peroxidation in the killing of C6 cells by organic peroxides but also that lipid peroxidation is not involved in H2O2 induced cell death.

  17. Effect of Drought Stress on Total Phenolic, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Activity of Achillea Species.

    PubMed

    Gharibi, Shima; Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed; Saeidi, Ghodratollah; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2016-02-01

    The changes in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and antioxidant activity were assessed based on three model systems in three Achillea species (Achillea millefolium, A. nobilis, and A. filipendulina) growing under four irrigation regimes, including 100% FC (field capacity as normal irrigation) 75% FC (low stress), 50% FC (moderate stress), and 25% FC (severe stress) conditions. The highest TPC (47.13 mg tannic acid/g DW) and TFC (20.86 mg quercetin/g W) were obtained in A. filipendulina under moderate and severe stress conditions. In 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the highest and the lowest antioxidant activity was obtained for A. millefolium (70.28%) and A. filipendulina (53.21%), respectively, while in the FTC model system A. nobilis revealed the highest antioxidant activity (1.934) in severe drought condition. In the linoleic model system, the highest antioxidant activity was observed under low drought stress condition in A. nobilis. MDA and H2O2 content were increased due to both low (75% FC) and moderate (50% FC) drought stress, but they were decreased under severe stress condition (25% FC). Furthermore, A. millefolium revealed the lowest H2O2 (4.96 nm/g FW) and MDA content (176.32 μmol/g). Investigation of the relationship among different metabolites showed a strong positive correlation with TPC and TFC. Finally, the moderate drought stress treatment (50% FC) was introduced as the optimum condition to obtain appreciable TPC and TFC,, while the highest antioxidant activity was obtained in severe stress condition (25%FC).

  18. Ethanol induces rapid lipid peroxidation and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B in cerebral vascular smooth muscle: relation to alcohol-induced brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Gebrewold, Asefa; Zhang, Aimin; Altura, Bella T

    2002-06-07

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that acute administration of alcohol (ethanol) to primary cultured cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells will cause lipid peroxidation, inhibition of IkappaB phosphorylation, and inhibition of nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB). Ethanol (10, 25, 100 mM) resulted in concentration-dependent rises in malondialdehyde in as little as 30-45 min after exposure to the alcohol, rising to levels 2.5-10x normal after 18-24 h. Using EMSA assays and specific antibodies, ethanol caused three DNA-binding proteins (p50, p65, c-Rel) to rise in nuclear extracts in a concentration-dependent manner. Using a rabbit antibody, IkappaB phosphorylation (and degradation) was stimulated by ethanol (in a concentration-dependent manner) and inhibited by a low concentration of the NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. These new biochemical and molecular data indicate that ethanol, even in physiologic concentrations, can elicit rapid lipid peroxidation and activation of NF-kappaB in cerebral vascular muscle cells. The present results when viewed in light of other recently published data suggest that ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation and activation of nuclear transcription factors probably play important roles in alcohol-induced brain-vascular damage, neurobehavioral actions and stroke.

  19. Baccaurea angulata fruit inhibits lipid peroxidation and induces the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Hazali, Norazlanshah; Abdul Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Abdul Ghani, Radiah; Hashim, Ridzwan; Abdul Wahab, Ridhwan; Jahuari Arief, Solachuddin; Md Isa, Muhammad Lokman; Draman, Samsul; Adros Yahya, Mohammad Noor

    2016-06-01

    The consequence of the increased demand due to the population expansion has put tremendous pressure on the natural supply of fruits. Hence, there is an unprecedented growing interest in the exploration of the potentials of underutilized fruits as alternatives to the commercially available fruits. Baccaurea angulata is an underutilized fruit widely distributed in Borneo Island of Malaysia. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of B. angulata whole fruit (WF), skin (SK) and pulp (PL) juices on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant enzymes in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet. Thirty-six male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to six groups. Rabbits were fed either a standard pellet (group NC) or a high-cholesterol diet (groups HC, PC, WF, SK and PL). Groups WF, SK and PL were also given 1 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF, SK and PL juices, respectively. Baccaurea angulata had high antioxidant activities. The administration of the various juices significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the concentration of induced plasma MDA. The decrease in the SOD, GPx, CAT and TAC levels caused by cholesterol feeding was also ameliorated with B. angulata. Our results show that B. angulata fruit is beneficial in positively influencing and managing oxidative damage.

  20. Biosynthesis of colloidal gold nanoparticles by Streptomyces sp. NK52 and its anti-lipid peroxidation activity.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Divya; Mahale, Vishal; Bankar, Ashok; Nawani, Neelu; Mahale, Vishal; Prakash, Divya

    2013-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were synthesized from chloroauric acid using cell free supernatant of Streptomyces sp. NK52 grown in nutrient broth. These nanoparticles were synthesized by varying pH and temperature of the reaction mixture and chloroauric acid concentration. The nanoparticles were characterized by spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. Au-NP ranged from 10-100 nm in size and exhibited a polydispersive nature with various shapes like rods, hexagons, triangles, spheres. The diffraction peaks at 2theta = 38.1 degrees and 44.5 degrees could be assigned to the (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) planes of a faced centre cubic (fcc) lattice of gold. Au-NP showed 47% inhibition of lipid peroxidation in vitro. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the rapid biosynthesis of Au-NP using cell free supernatant of Streptomyces sp. and its evaluation for anti-lipid peroxidation.

  1. Enhanced lipid peroxidation and platelet activation as potential contributors to increased cardiovascular risk in the low-HDL phenotype.

    PubMed

    Vazzana, Natale; Ganci, Antonina; Cefalù, Angelo Baldassare; Lattanzio, Stefano; Noto, Davide; Santoro, Nicole; Saggini, Raoul; Puccetti, Luca; Averna, Maurizio; Davì, Giovanni

    2013-04-04

    Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are major predictors of cardiovascular (CV) events, even in patients on statin treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) at target. In animal models HDLs protect LDL from oxidation and blunt platelet activation. Our study aimed to examine whether HDL levels are related to in vivo oxidative stress and platelet activation, as determinants of atherothrombosis. Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and 11-dehydro-TXB2, in vivo markers of oxidative stress and platelet activation, respectively, were measured in 65 coronary heart disease (CHD) normocholesterolemic patients with HDL ≤35 mg/dL, and in 47 CHD patients with HDL >35 mg/dL. The 2 eicosanoids were also measured before and after an intensive exercise program in sedentary people (n=18) and before and after fenofibrate treatment in otherwise healthy subjects with low HDL (n=10). Patients with HDL ≤35 mg/dL showed significantly higher urinary 8-iso-PGF2α (median [25th to 75th percentiles]: 289 [189 to 380] versus 216 [171 to 321] pg/mg creatinine, P=0.019) and 11-dehydro-TXB2 (563 [421 to 767] versus 372 [249 to 465] pg/mg creatinine, P=0.0001) than patients with higher HDL. A direct correlation was found between urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and 11-dehydro-TXB2 in the entire group of patients (ρ=0.77, P<0.0001). HDL levels were inversely related to both 8-iso-PGF2α (ρ=-0.32, P=0.001) and 11-dehydro-TXB2 (ρ=-0.52, P<0.0001). On multiple regression, only 8-iso-PGF2α (β=0.68, P<0.0001) and HDL level (β=-0.29, P<0.0001) were associated with urinary 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion, independent of sex, age, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides. Both intensive exercise and fenofibrate treatment significantly reduced the 2 eicosanoids in healthy subjects, in parallel with an HDL increase. A low HDL phenotype, both in CHD patients and in healthy subjects, is associated with increased lipid peroxidation and platelet activation

  2. Minocycline increases the life span and motor activity and decreases lipid peroxidation in manganese treated Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, E; Contreras, R; Medina-Leendertz, S; Mora, M; Villalobos, V; Bravo, Y

    2012-03-29

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Minocycline in the life span, motor activity, and lipid peroxidation of Drosophila melanogaster treated with manganese. Two days after emerging from the pupa male wild-type D. melanogaster were fed for 13 days with corn media containing 15 mM manganese. Then, they were divided in six groups of 300 flies each: group (a) remained treated with manganese (Mn group); group (b) began treatment with Minocycline (0.05 mM) (Mn-Minocycline group); group (c) received no additional treatment (Mn-no treatment group); group (d) simultaneously fed with manganese and Minocycline (Mn+Minocycline group). Additionally, a control (group e) with no treatment and another group (f) fed only with Minocycline after emerging from the pupa were added. All the manganese treated flies (group a) were dead on the 25th day. The life span in group f (101.66±1.33 days, mean S.E.M.) and of group b (97.00±3.46 days) were similar, but in both cases it was significantly higher than in group e (68.33±1.76 days), group c (67.05±2.30 days) and in those of group d (37.33±0.88). Manganese (groups a and d) decreased motor activity in D. melanogaster. In the Minocycline fed flies (groups b and f) a higher motor activity was detected. In Mn-Minocycline and Mn+Minocycline treated flies a significant decrease of MDA levels was detected when compared to the Minocycline group indicating that Minocycline and Mn appear to have a synergistic effect. In conclusion, Minocycline increased the life span and motor activity and decreased MDA formation of manganese treated D. melanogaster, probably by an inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species. Manganese also exerted an antioxidant effect as shown by the significant decrease of MDA levels when compared to control flies.

  3. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships Predicting the Antioxidant Potency of 17β-Estradiol-Related Polycyclic Phenols to Inhibit Lipid Peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Prokai, Laszlo; Rivera-Portalatin, Nilka M.; Prokai-Tatrai, Katalin

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant potency of 17β-estradiol and related polycyclic phenols has been well established. This property is an important component of the complex events by which these types of agents are capable to protect neurons against the detrimental consequences of oxidative stress. In order to relate their molecular structure and properties with their capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative stress, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were conducted. The inhibition of Fe3+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate, measured through an assay detecting thiobarbituric acid reactive substances for about seventy compounds were correlated with various molecular descriptors. We found that lipophilicity (modeled by the logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient, logP) was the property that influenced most profoundly the potency of these compounds to inhibit lipid peroxidation in the biological medium studied. Additionally, the important contribution of the bond dissociation enthalpy of the phenolic O–H group, a shape index, the solvent-accessible surface area and the energy required to remove an electron from the highest occupied molecular orbital were also confirmed. Several QSAR equations were validated as potentially useful exploratory tools for identifying or designing novel phenolic antioxidants incorporating the structural backbone of 17β-estradiol to assist therapy development against oxidative stress-associated neurodegeneration. PMID:23344051

  4. Quantitative structure-activity relationships predicting the antioxidant potency of 17β-estradiol-related polycyclic phenols to inhibit lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Prokai, Laszlo; Rivera-Portalatin, Nilka M; Prokai-Tatrai, Katalin

    2013-01-11

    The antioxidant potency of 17β-estradiol and related polycyclic phenols has been well established. This property is an important component of the complex events by which these types of agents are capable to protect neurons against the detrimental consequences of oxidative stress. In order to relate their molecular structure and properties with their capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative stress, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were conducted. The inhibition of Fe3+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate, measured through an assay detecting thiobarbituric acid reactive substances for about seventy compounds were correlated with various molecular descriptors. We found that lipophilicity (modeled by the logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient, logP) was the property that influenced most profoundly the potency of these compounds to inhibit lipid peroxidation in the biological medium studied. Additionally, the important contribution of the bond dissociation enthalpy of the phenolic O-H group, a shape index, the solvent-accessible surface area and the energy required to remove an electron from the highest occupied molecular orbital were also confirmed. Several QSAR equations were validated as potentially useful exploratory tools for identifying or designing novel phenolic antioxidants incorporating the structural backbone of 17β-estradiol to assist therapy development against oxidative stress-associated neurodegeneration.

  5. Subadditive interactions between antioxidants in the protection against lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Lukasz; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    Synergistic interactions between antioxidants have been postulated but not proven. On the contrary, it has been reported that the antioxidant activity of mixtures of antioxidants can be lower than the sum of the antioxidant activities of individual components. We report that such a situation can be observed in 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-treated phosphatidylcholine liposomes in which lipid peroxidation was monitored by oxidation of 4,4-difluoro-5-(4-phenyl-1 3-butadienyl)-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-undecanoic acid (C11-BODIPY581/591). Glutathione, present inside liposomes, and hydrophobic antioxidants, present in the lipid bilayer, protected against lipid peroxidation, but their simultaneous action was lower than the sum of individual contributions. A possible explanation for this effect is proposed.

  6. Methods to create thermally oxidized lipids and comparison of analytical procedures to characterize peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Kerr, B J; Chen, C; Weber, T E; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate peroxidation in 4 lipids, each with 3 levels of peroxidation. Lipid sources were corn oil (CN), canola oil (CA), poultry fat, and tallow. Peroxidation levels were original lipids (OL), slow-oxidized lipids (SO), and rapid-oxidized lipids (RO). To produce peroxidized lipids, OL were either heated at 95°C for 72 h to produce SO or heated at 185°C for 7 h to produce RO. Five indicative measurements (peroxide value [PV], p-anisidine value [AnV], thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS] concentration, hexanal concentration, 4-hydroxynonenal [HNE] concentration, and 2,4-decadienal [DDE]) and 2 predictive tests (active oxygen method [AOM] stability and oxidative stability index [OSI]) were performed to quantify the level of oxidation of the subsequent 12 lipids with varying levels of peroxidation. Analysis showed that a high PV accurately indicated the high level of lipid peroxidation, but a moderate or low PV may be misleading due to the unstable characteristics of hydroperoxides as indicated by the unchanged PV of rapidly oxidized CN and CA compared to their original state (OL). However, additional tests, which measure secondary peroxidation products such as AnV, TBARS, hexanal, HNE, and DDE, may provide a better indication of lipid peroxidation than PV for lipids subjected to a high level of peroxidation. Similar to PV analysis, these tests may also not provide irrefutable information regarding the extent of peroxidation because of the volatile characteristics of secondary peroxidation products and the changing stage of lipid peroxidation. For the predictive tests, AOM accurately reflected the increased lipid peroxidation caused by SO and RO as indicated by the increased AOM value in CN and CA but not in poultry fat and tallow, which indicated a potential disadvantage of the AOM test. Oxidative stability index successfully showed the increased lipid peroxidation caused by SO and RO in all lipids, but it too may

  7. Ascorbate does not act as a pro-oxidant towards lipids and proteins in human plasma exposed to redox-active transition metal ions and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jung; Zhu, Ben-Zhan; Frei, Balz

    2003-05-15

    The combination of ascorbate, transition metal ions, and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is an efficient hydroxyl radical generating system called "the Udenfriend system." Although the pro-oxidant role of ascorbate in this system has been well characterized in vitro, it is uncertain whether ascorbate also acts as a pro-oxidant under physiological conditions. To address this question, human plasma, used as a representative biological fluid, was either depleted of endogenous ascorbate with ascorbate oxidase, left untreated, or supplemented with 25 microM-1 mM ascorbate. Subsequently, the plasma samples were incubated at 37 degrees C with 50 microM-1 mM iron (from ferrous ammonium sulfate), 60 or 100 microM copper (from cupric sulfate), and/or 200 microM or 1 mM H(2)O(2). Although endogenous and added ascorbate was depleted rapidly in the presence of transition metal ions and H(2)O(2), no cholesterol ester hydroperoxides or malondialdehyde were formed, i.e., ascorbate protected against, rather than promoted, lipid peroxidation. Conversely, depletion of endogenous ascorbate was sufficient to cause lipid peroxidation, the rate and extent of which were enhanced by the addition of metal ions but not H(2)O(2). Ascorbate also did not enhance protein oxidation in plasma exposed to metal ions and H(2)O(2), as assessed by protein carbonyl formation and depletion of reduced thiols. Interestingly, neither the rate nor the extent of endogenous alpha-tocopherol oxidation in plasma was affected by any of the treatments. Our data show that even in the presence of redox-active iron or copper and H(2)O(2), ascorbate acts as an antioxidant that prevents lipid peroxidation and does not promote protein oxidation in human plasma in vitro.

  8. Various fractions of Hypericum x moserianum and Hypericum ericoides possess antiglycation, anti-lipid peroxidation, antioxidative activities and non-toxic effects in vitro.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Shahzad, Muhammad; Saddiqe, Zeb; Hassan, M Jawad; Saba, Sumbal; Rafique, Jamal; Malik, Rizwana; Hussain, Hidayat

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, two species Hypericum x moserianum and Hypericum ericoides which belong to genus Hypericum were evaluated for their potential antiglycation, antioxidant, anti lipid peroxidation and cytotoxic activities. These species are widely used in folk medicine and to the best of our knowledge there were no previous reports regarding antioxidant, anti-glycation and cytotoxicity studies of these species. Among the crude methanol extracts and fractions of both the species, the ethyl acetate fraction of H. x moserianum exhibited promising antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with IC50 129.084±1.215μg/ml, followed by methanol extract (IC50=232.083 ± 1.215μg/ml) and aqueous fraction (IC50=266.962 ±2.213 μg/ml). The ethyl acetate fraction of H. ericoides exhibited IC50 value of 295.088 ± 2.320 μg/ml. In antiglycation assay, the ethyl acetate fraction of H. x moserianum showed 52.096% inhibition at 500μg/ml. For lipid peroxidation assay, the dichloromethane, aqueous and n-hexane fractions of H. x moserianum showed 67.241, 66.147 and 64.213% inhibition respectively, while aqueous fraction of H. ericoides exhibited 67.404% inhibition at 500μg/ml. In cytotoxicity assay, all fractions of both the species were found to be non-toxic on mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells with IC50 value greater than 30μg/ml as compared to cycloheximide with IC50 value 0.073±0.1μg/ml used as a standard. It was concluded from the study that among the two species, crude methanolic and ethyl acetate fractions were more active regarding the antioxidant, anti-glycation activities while dichloromethane, aqueous and n-hexane fractions possessed anti-lipid peroxidation activity.

  9. The lipid peroxidation in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Piekarski, Janusz

    2010-06-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress (by using different biomarkers of lipid peroxidation--isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in patients with invasive breast cancer, patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group. We observed a statistically increased level of TBARS in plasma and isoprostanes in urine of patients with invasive breast cancer in comparison with a control group. The concentration of tested biomarkers in plasma or urine from patients with invasive breast cancer was also higher than in patients with benign breast diseases. Moreover, the levels of tested markers in patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group did not differ. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that free radicals induce peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid in patients with breast cancer.

  10. Action of UV-A and blue light on enzymes activity and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in attached and detached frog retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapina, Victoria A.; Doutsov, Alexander E.

    1994-07-01

    The effect of the UV-A and blue light on the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and activities of succinate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase in the retina was examined in eye cup model of dark and light adapted frogs R. temporaria. Retinas were exposed to UV-A radiation (8 mW/cm2) and blue light (10 to 150 mW/cm2) for periods from 5 min to 1 hr. We have measured TBA-active products both in the retina homogenates and in the reaction media. Enzyme activities was measured in the retina homogenates only. The measurements revealed a significant increase in the endogenous and exogenous forms of lipid peroxidation products in the retina of dark adapted frog (1.6+/- 0.4; 1.4+/- 0.3 nmole TBA-active products per mg protein, respectively) compared to light adapted (0.85+/- 0.16; 0.32+/- 0.06 nmole TBA-active products per mg protein, respectively). In the same conditions succinate dehydrogenase activity was decline more than 50% but superoxide dismutase activity didn't decrease. Disorganized inner and outer segments were observed after 40 min exposures. No light microscopic changes were detected after 5 min exposures. Light damage was significantly higher in the retina of dark adapted frog. The results indicate that the retina from eye cup of dark adapted frog is more susceptible to UV-A and blue light damages.

  11. Modulatory effect of pineapple peel extract on lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and hepatic biomarker levels in blood plasma of alcohol-induced oxidative stressed rats

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, OY; Erukainure, OL; Ajiboye, JA; Adejobi, RO; Owolabi, FO; Kosoko, SB

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel to modulate alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation, changes in catalase activities and hepatic biochemical marker levels in blood plasma. Methods Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20% w/v) at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw in rats. After 28 days of treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected with a 2 mL syringe by cardiac puncture and was centrifuged at 3 000 rpm for 10 min. The plasma was analyzed to evaluate malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations. Results Administration of alcohol caused a drastic increase (87.74%) in MDA level compared with the control. Pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the MDA level by 60.16% at 2.5 mL/kg bw. Rats fed alcohol only had the highest catalase activity, treatment with pineapple peel extract at 2.5 mL/kg bw however, reduced the activity. Increased AST, ALP and ALT activities were observed in rats fed alcohol only respectively, treatment with pineapple peel extract drastically reduced their activities. Conclusions The positive modulation of lipid peroxidation, catalase activities as well as hepatic biomarker levels of blood plasma by the methanolic extract of pineapple peels under alcohol-induced oxidative stress is an indication of its protective ability in the management of alcohol-induced toxicity. PMID:23569717

  12. Modulatory effect of pineapple peel extract on lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and hepatic biomarker levels in blood plasma of alcohol-induced oxidative stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Okafor, O Y; Erukainure, O l; Ajiboye, J A; Adejobi, R O; Owolabi, F O; Kosoko, S B

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel to modulate alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation, changes in catalase activities and hepatic biochemical marker levels in blood plasma. Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20% w/v) at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw in rats. After 28 days of treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected with a 2 mL syringe by cardiac puncture and was centrifuged at 3 000 rpm for 10 min. The plasma was analyzed to evaluate malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations. Administration of alcohol caused a drastic increase (87.74%) in MDA level compared with the control. Pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the MDA level by 60.16% at 2.5 mL/kg bw. Rats fed alcohol only had the highest catalase activity, treatment with pineapple peel extract at 2.5 mL/kg bw however, reduced the activity. Increased AST, ALP and ALT activities were observed in rats fed alcohol only respectively, treatment with pineapple peel extract drastically reduced their activities. The positive modulation of lipid peroxidation, catalase activities as well as hepatic biomarker levels of blood plasma by the methanolic extract of pineapple peels under alcohol-induced oxidative stress is an indication of its protective ability in the management of alcohol-induced toxicity.

  13. Effects of oral contraceptive norethindrone on blood-lipid and lipid peroxidation parameters.

    PubMed

    Saha, A; Roy, K; De, K; Sengupta, C

    2000-01-01

    Considering importance of the lipophilicity of norethindrone (log P=2.97), a significant contributor to its mechanism of action, interaction of the drug with total lipids of goat whole blood have been investigated using phospholipid binding, fatty acid composition and peroxidation phenomena as the parameters under investigation. The objective was to derive an insight into the pharmacodynamic behavior of the drug by correlating biological activity with drug induced changes in lipid constituents. Significant loss in phospholipid along with changes in fatty acid cotmposition was observed after incubation of whole blood with norethindrone at 56 ng/ml (effective contraceptive concentration in blood) in varying periods of time. This may be ascribed to binding affinity of norethindrone with lipid constituents in blood. Lipid binding potential of the drug may have a role in its therapeutic effect. Lipid peroxidation induction potential of norethindrone was quantitatively measured in the context of its toxicity. The results reveal that northindrone caused significant extent of lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid, a promising antioxidant, at equivalent human dose levels of 250 mg and 500 mg could significantly reduce norethindrone induced lipid peroxidation.

  14. Liposome as a delivery system for carotenoids: comparative antioxidant activity of carotenoids as measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power, DPPH assay and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chen; Xue, Jin; Abbas, Shabbar; Feng, Biao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Shuqin

    2014-07-16

    This study was conducted to understand how carotenoids exerted antioxidant activity after encapsulation in a liposome delivery system, for food application. Three assays were selected to achieve a wide range of technical principles, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant powder (FRAP), and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (LPIC) during liposome preparation, auto-oxidation, or when induced by ferric iron/ascorbate. The antioxidant activity of carotenoids was measured either after they were mixed with preformed liposomes or after their incorporation into the liposomal system. Whatever the antioxidant model was, carotenoids displayed different antioxidant activities in suspension and in liposomes. The encapsulation could enhance the DPPH scavenging and FRAP activities of carotenoids. The strongest antioxidant activity was observed with lutein, followed by β-carotene, lycopene, and canthaxanthin. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation assay revealed a mutually protective relationship: the incorporation of either lutein or β-carotene not only exerts strong LPIC, but also protects them against pro-oxidation elements; however, the LPIC of lycopene and canthaxanthin on liposomes was weak or a pro-oxidation effect even appeared, concomitantly leading to the considerable depletion of these encapsulated carotenoids. The antioxidant activity of carotenoids after liposome encapsulation was not only related to their chemical reactivity, but also to their incorporation efficiencies into liposomal membrane and modulating effects on the membrane properties.

  15. Dietary fiber and lipid peroxidation: effect of dietary fiber on levels of lipids and lipid peroxides in high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Thampi, B S; Manoj, G; Leelamma, S; Menon, V P

    1991-06-01

    Effect of feeding coconut and blackgram fiber isolated as neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on the levels of lipids and lipid peroxides was studied in rats given a high fat diet. Concentration of cholesterol, free falty acid and phospholipids showed significant decrease in the serum, liver aorta and intestine of coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes was significantly decreased in liver and intestine of both fiber groups, while hydroperoxides showed significant increase in liver and heart of both the fiber groups. SOD and catalase activity was found to be increased in liver, intestine, heart proximal colon and distal colon of both the fiber groups. Serum ceruloplasmin levels showed a slight increase in animals fed coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Glutathione levels in liver, intestine proximal colon, distal colon and heart also showed a significant decrease in the animals of both the fiber groups.

  16. Assessing the Effects of Amoxicillin on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, Lipid Peroxidation and Protein Carbonyl Content in the Clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Battistara, Margherita; Marisa, Ilaria; Bertin, Valeria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the capability of amoxicillin (AMX)-one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide-to induce oxidative stress in both gills and digestive gland from two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as the lipid peroxidation levels (LPO) and protein carbonyl content (PCC), were measured in bivalves exposed to 100, 200 and 400 µg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days. The results obtained demonstrated that AMX affected slightly biomarker responses of molluscs.

  17. Superoxide activates uncoupling proteins by generating carbon-centered radicals and initiating lipid peroxidation: studies using a mitochondria-targeted spin trap derived from alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael P; Echtay, Karim S; Blaikie, Frances H; Asin-Cayuela, Jordi; Cocheme, Helena M; Green, Katherine; Buckingham, Julie A; Taylor, Ellen R; Hurrell, Fiona; Hughes, Gillian; Miwa, Satomi; Cooper, Christopher E; Svistunenko, Dimitri A; Smith, Robin A J; Brand, Martin D

    2003-12-05

    Although the physiological role of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) 2 and 3 is uncertain, their activation by superoxide and by lipid peroxidation products suggest that UCPs are central to the mitochondrial response to reactive oxygen species. We examined whether superoxide and lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal act independently to activate UCPs, or if they share a common pathway, perhaps by superoxide exposure leading to the formation of lipid peroxidation products. This possibility can be tested by blocking the putative reactive oxygen species cascade with selective antioxidants and then reactivating UCPs with distal cascade components. We synthesized a mitochondria-targeted derivative of the spin trap alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, which reacts rapidly with carbon-centered radicals but is unreactive with superoxide and lipid peroxidation products. [4-[4-[[(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-oxidoimino]methyl]phenoxy]butyl]triphenylphosphonium bromide (MitoPBN) prevented the activation of UCPs by superoxide but did not block activation by hydroxynonenal. This was not due to MitoPBN reacting with superoxide or the hydroxyl radical or by acting as a chain-breaking antioxidant. MitoPBN did react with carbon-centered radicals and also prevented lipid peroxidation by the carbon-centered radical generator 2,2'-azobis(2-methyl propionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Furthermore, AAPH activated UCPs, and this was blocked by MitoPBN. These data suggest that superoxide and lipid peroxidation products share a common pathway for the activation of UCPs. Superoxide releases iron from iron-sulfur center proteins, which then generates carbon-centered radicals that initiate lipid peroxidation, yielding breakdown products that activate UCPs.

  18. Protection by Ziziphora clinopoides of acetic acid-induced toxic bowel inflammation through reduction of cellular lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, H; Yasa, N; Mohammadirad, A; Dehghan, G; Zamani, M J; Nikfar, S; Khorasani, R; Minaie, B; Abdollahi, M

    2006-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic condition of the intestine with unknown etiology involving multiple immune, genetic and environmental factors. We were interested in examining the effect of a total extract from Ziziphora clinopoides, an Iranian folk herbal medicine, in the prevention and control of experimental mouse IBD. Z. clinopoides was administered (75, 150, 300 mg/kg) through drinking water to mice, which dispensed a toxic dose of acetic acid intrarectally. Prednisolone was used as the standard drug for comparison. Biochemical, macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the colon were performed. Biochemical evaluation of the inflamed colon was carried out using assays of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) as indicators of free radical activity and cellular lipid peroxidation. Results indicated that the activity of MPO and lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) increased in acetic acid-treated groups, while recovered by pretreatment of animals with Z. clinopoides (75-300 mg/kg) and prednisolone. All doses of Z. clinopoides and prednisolone-treated groups showed significant lower score values of macroscopic and microscopic characters when compared to the acetic acid-treated group. The beneficial effect of Z. clinopoides (300 mg/kg) was comparable to that of prednisolone. It is concluded that Z. clinopoides inhibits acetic acid toxic reactions in the mouse bowel through inhibition of cellular oxidative stress. Proper clinical investigation should be carried out to confirm the same activity in human.

  19. Lipid peroxidation in rats chronically fed ethanol.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Greenfield, S M; Watson, D; Punchard, N A; Miller, N; Rice-Evans, C A; Thompson, R P

    1994-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption induces cytochrome P450IIE1, enabling habitual abusers to consume far greater quantities of alcohol than normal subjects. This pathway of metabolism leads to the production of free radical species, which cause tissue damage through peroxidation of cell membranes. Groups of Wistar rats of equal male: female ratio (n = 24) were fed alcohol by gavage twice daily to achieve a dosage of 15 g/kg body weight. Mean peak blood alcohol concentrations of 186 mg% were produced in males and 156 mg% in females. The animals were allowed free access to standard laboratory chow and water. Control animals were pair-fed to the alcoholic group and fed isocaloric glucose by gavage. Groups of animals were killed between 9 and 11 am on consecutive mornings, after nocturnal feeding, since it has previously been shown that fasting rapidly depletes hepatic glutathione concentrations. Hepatic glutathione was measured by a spectrophotometric enzymatic recycling procedure. As a marker of lipid peroxidation hepatic malonaldehyde (MDA) was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Hepatic MDA was increased in the alcoholic group (p < 0.001), as was total hepatic glutathione (p < 0.0001). Plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol were increased in the alcoholic group, but ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase values were not affected. No sex differences were detected. The increased MDA production in the alcohol group is strong evidence that lipid peroxidation is a mechanism of alcoholic tissue damage. The rise in hepatic glutathione may be an adaptive response to free radical production that protects the rat against tissue damage. PMID:7828990

  20. Isolation of high molecular weight components and contribution to the protective activity of coffee against lipid peroxidation in a rat liver microsome system.

    PubMed

    Daglia, Maria; Papetti, Adele; Aceti, Camilla; Sordelli, Barbara; Gregotti, Cesarina; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2008-12-24

    One of the most extensively studied and best-established properties of coffee is its antioxidant activity. We have shown that coffee brew has the ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation completely in a rat liver microsome biological system. The inhibitory activity was mainly due to the high molecular weight (HMW) fraction; this consisted of five components that were isolated, purified, and seen to occur in different amounts in the brew. Each component had different spectra and element compositions, although they all contained nitrogen. HMW, nitrogen content, and brown color enabled three components to be attributed to the melanoidin family; the two nonbrown components could not be considered as melanoidins. Each melanoidin and nonmelanoidin component contributes to a different extent to the protective action exerted by coffee brew. None of the isolated components completely inhibited microsomal lipid peroxidation alone, suggesting that each acts at different sites and/or possesses different mechanisms of action. The protective activity of coffee brew is thus underpinned by the antiradical properties, reducing power, and metal chelating ability of the individual components, each contributing to a different extent.

  1. Antioxidant effect of bisphosphonates and simvastatin on chondrocyte lipid peroxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Dombrecht, E.J.; De Tollenaere, C.B.; Aerts, K.; Cos, P.; Schuerwegh, A.J.; Bridts, C.H.; Van Offel, J.F.; Ebo, D.G.; Stevens, W.J. . E-mail: immuno@ua.ac.be; De Clerck, L.S.

    2006-09-22

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) and simvastatin on chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. For this purpose, a flow cytometrical method using C11-BODIPY{sup 581/591} was developed to detect hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation in chondrocytes. Tertiary butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced a time and concentration dependent increase in chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. Addition of a Fe{sup 2+}/EDTA complex to t-BHP or hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) clearly enhanced lipid peroxidation. The lipophilic simvastatin demonstrated a small inhibition in the chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. None of three tested BPs (clodronate, pamidronate, and risedronate) had an effect on chondrocyte lipid peroxidation induced by t-BHP. However, when Fe{sup 2+}/EDTA complex was added to t-BHP or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, BPs inhibited the lipid peroxidation process varying from 25% to 58%. This study demonstrates that BPs have antioxidant properties as iron chelators, thereby inhibiting the chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. These findings add evidence to the therapeutic potential of bisphosphonates and statins in rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. Excess copper induces accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and increases lipid peroxidation and total activity of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in roots of Elsholtzia haichowensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxiao; Xia, Yan; Wang, Guiping; Shen, Zhenguo

    2008-01-01

    The effects of excess copper (Cu) on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antioxidant enzyme activities in roots of the Cu accumulator Elsholtzia haichowensis Sun were investigated. Copper at 100 and 300 microM significantly increased the concentrations of malondialdehyde and H2O2, and the activities of catalase (E.C. 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (E.C. 1.11.1.11), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD, E.C. 1.11.1.7) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1). Isoenzyme pattern and inhibitor studies showed that, among SOD isoforms, only copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) increased. Excess Cu greatly increased the accumulation of superoxide anion (O2 (.-)) and H2O2 in E. haichowensis roots. This study also provides the first cytochemical evidence of an accumulation of H2O2 in the root cell walls as a consequence of Cu treatments. Experiments with diphenyleneiodonium as an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-3,5-disulphonic acid as an O2 (.-) scavenger, and N-N-diethyldithiocarbamate as an inhibitor of SOD showed that the source of H2O2 in the cell walls could partially be NADPH oxidase. The enzyme can use cytosolic NADPH to produce O2 (.-), which rapidly dismutates to H2O2 by SOD. Apoplastic GPOD and CuZn-SOD activities were induced in roots of E. haichowensis with 100 microM Cu suggesting that these two antioxidant enzymes may be responsible for H2O2 accumulation in the root apoplast.

  3. In Vivo Immunomodulation and Lipid Peroxidation Activities Contributed to Chemoprevention Effects of Fermented Mung Bean against Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Beh, Boon Kee; Ho, Wan Yong; Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah

    2013-01-01

    Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory effects in vitro. Fermented products are reported to have enhanced immunomodulation and cancer chemopreventive effects. In this study, fermented mung bean treatments in vivo were studied by monitoring tumor development, spleen immunity, serum cytokine (interleukin 2 and interferon gamma) levels, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels after injection with low and high risk 4T1 breast cancer cells. Pretreatment with fermented mung bean was associated with delayed tumor formation in low risk mice. Furthermore, this treatment was connected with higher serum anticancer cytokine levels, spleen T cell populations, splenocyte cytotoxicity, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels. Histopathological evaluation of fermented mung bean treated tumor revealed lower event of mitotic division. On the other hand, antioxidant and nitric oxide levels that were significantly increased in the untreated mice were inhibited in the fermented mung bean treated groups. These results suggested that fermented mung bean has potential cancer chemoprevention effects through the stimulation of immunity, lipid peroxidation, and anti-inflammation.

  4. In Vivo Immunomodulation and Lipid Peroxidation Activities Contributed to Chemoprevention Effects of Fermented Mung Bean against Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Beh, Boon Kee; Ho, Wan Yong; Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah

    2013-01-01

    Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory effects in vitro. Fermented products are reported to have enhanced immunomodulation and cancer chemopreventive effects. In this study, fermented mung bean treatments in vivo were studied by monitoring tumor development, spleen immunity, serum cytokine (interleukin 2 and interferon gamma) levels, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels after injection with low and high risk 4T1 breast cancer cells. Pretreatment with fermented mung bean was associated with delayed tumor formation in low risk mice. Furthermore, this treatment was connected with higher serum anticancer cytokine levels, spleen T cell populations, splenocyte cytotoxicity, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels. Histopathological evaluation of fermented mung bean treated tumor revealed lower event of mitotic division. On the other hand, antioxidant and nitric oxide levels that were significantly increased in the untreated mice were inhibited in the fermented mung bean treated groups. These results suggested that fermented mung bean has potential cancer chemoprevention effects through the stimulation of immunity, lipid peroxidation, and anti-inflammation. PMID:23710232

  5. Antiatherogenic activity of extracts of Argania spinosa L. pericarp: beneficial effects on lipid peroxidation and cholesterol homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Berrougui, Hicham; Cherki, Mounia; Koumbadinga, Geremy Abdull; Isabelle, Maxim; Douville, Jasmin; Spino, Claude; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2007-09-01

    Prevention of lipoprotein oxidation by natural compounds may prevent atherosclerosis via reducing early atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated for the first time the beneficial properties of methanolic extract of argania pericarp (MEAP) towards atherogenesis by protecting human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidation while promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. By measuring the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated diene as well as the lag phase and the progression rate of lipid peroxidation, the MEAP was found to possess an inhibitory effect. In addition, MEAP reduced the rate of disappearance of alpha-tocopherol as well as the apoB electrophoretic mobility in a dose-dependent manner. These effects are related to the free radical scavenging and copper-chelating effects of MEAP. In terms of cell viability, MEAP has shown a cytotoxic effect (0-40 microg/mL). Incubation of 3H-cholesterol-loaded J774 macrophages with HDL in the presence of increasing concentrations of MEAP enhanced HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux independently of ABCA1 receptor pathways. Our findings suggest that argania seed pericarp provides a source of natural antioxidants that inhibit LDL oxidation and enhance cholesterol efflux and thus can prevent development of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Possible role of regional superoxide dismutase activity and lipid peroxide levels in cadmium neurotoxicity: in vivo and in vitro studies in growing rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, G.S.; Hussain, T.; Chandra, S.V.

    1987-11-09

    Cd/sup 2 +/ (0.4 mg/kg) administration to growing rats (45 +/- 5 g) intraperitoneally, daily for 30 days was found to decrease the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in all the brain regions, except hippocampus. The concentrations of lipid peroxides were significantly elevated in the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, corpus striatum and midbrain. A 100% inhibition in SOD activity was observed by 14 ..mu..M and 50 ..mu..M of Cd/sup 2 +/ in bovine blood and rat brain preparations, respectively. Cadmium-induces strong inhibitory effect on brain and purified bovine blood SOD suggested a direct effect of the metal on enzyme molecule. Furthermore, in vitro addition of a wide range of Cd/sup 2 +/ (1-100 ..mu..M) increased the rate of lipid peroxidation (LPO) reactions in fresh brain homogenate, however, did not affect boiled homogenate. The studies on LPO in reconstituted homogenate resulting from mixing of fresh and/or heated different subcellular fractions indicated the presence of some heat-labile Cd/sup 2 +/-sensitive factor in 15,000 x g pellet fraction. It is suggested that Cd/sup 2 +/ directly and indirectly through inhibition of SOD, increases the LOP of cell membranes and thus produces damage to the associated physiological functions leading to central nervous dysfunctions. 53 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  7. Assessment of the Antioxidant Activity of Silybum marianum Seed Extract and Its Protective Effect against DNA Oxidation, Protein Damage and Lipid Peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Serçe, Aynur; Toptancı, Bircan Çeken; Tanrıkut, Sevil Emen; Altaş, Sevcan; Kızıl, Göksel; Kızıl, Süleyman

    2016-01-01

    Summary Antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Silybum marianum (milk thistle) seeds was investigated. We have also investigated the protein damage activated by oxidative Fenton reaction and its prevention by Silybum marianum seed extract. Antioxidant potential of Silybum marianum seed ethanol extract was measured using different in vitro methods, such as lipid peroxidation, 1,1–diphenyl–2–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power assays. The extract significantly decreased DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals. Protein damage induced by hydroxyl radicals was also efficiently inhibited, which was confirmed by the presence of protein damage markers, such as protein carbonyl formation and by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE). The present study shows that milk thistle seeds have good DPPH free radical scavenging activity and can prevent lipid peroxidation. Therefore, Silybum marianum can be used as potentially rich source of antioxidants and food preservatives. The results suggest that the seeds may have potential beneficial health effects providing opportunities to develop value-added products. PMID:28115903

  8. Assessment of growth rate, chlorophyll a fluorescence, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity in Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Pediastrum simplex and Synedra acus exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Ran, Xiaofei; Liu, Rui; Xu, Sha; Bai, Fang; Xu, Jinzhu; Yang, Yanjun; Shi, Junqiong; Wu, Zhongxing

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the effects of cadmium on the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, the green alga Pediastrum simplex and the diatom Synedra acus was evaluated on the basis of growth rate, chlorophyll a fluorescence, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity. The EC50 values (effective concentration inducing 50 % of growth inhibition) of cadmium in A. flos-aquae, P. simplex and S. acus were 1.18 ± 0.044, 4.32 ± 0.068 and 3.7 ± 0.055 mg/L, respectively. The results suggested that cadmium stress decreases growth rate and chlorophyll a concentration. The normalized chlorophyll a fluorescence transients significantly increased at cadmium concentrations of 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/L, but slightly decreased at concentrations of 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed considerable variation among the three species, while lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities showed a significant increase. Our results demonstrated that blockage of electron transport on the acceptor side of photosystem II is the mechanism responsible for cadmium toxicity in freshwater microalgae, and that the tolerance of the three species to cadmium was in the order green alga P. simplex > diatom S. acus > cyanobacterium A. flos-aquae.

  9. Changes in Lipid Peroxidation and Lipolytic and Free-Radical Scavenging Enzyme Activities during Aging and Sprouting of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Seed-Tubers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, GNM.; Knowles, N. R.

    1993-05-01

    Previous research has shown that cell membranes of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Russet Burbank) seed-tubers lose integrity between 7 and 26 months of storage (4[deg]C, 95% relative humidity), and this loss coincides with a significant decrease in growth potential. The age-induced decline in membrane integrity is apparently due to increased peroxidative damage of membrane lipids. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and ethane concentrations (sensitive markers of lipid peroxidation and membrane damage) increased in seed-tuber tissues with advancing age. Moreover, in vivo ethane production from discs of cortex tissue from 13- and 25-month-old seed-tubers was 87% greater (on average) than that from discs from 1-month-old tubers. Calcium suppressed ethane production from all ages of tissue discs, and the effect was concentration dependent. Linoleic acid enhanced ethane production from 5- and 17-month-old tubers by 61 and 228%, respectively, suggesting that older tissue may contain a higher free-radical (FR) titer and/or lower free polyunsaturated fatty acid content. In addition, throughout plant establishment, the internal ethane concentration of older seed-tubers was 54% higher than that of younger seed-tubers. MDA concentration of tuber tissue declined by about 65% during the initial 7 months of storage and then increased 267% as tuber age advanced to 30 months. The age-induced trend in tuber reducing sugar concentration was similar to that of MDA, and the two were linearly correlated. The age-dependent increase in reducing sugars may thus reflect peroxidative degeneration of the amyloplast membrane, leading to increased starch hydrolysis. Compared with 5-month-old seed tubers, 17- and 29-month-old seed-tubers had significantly higher levels of lipofuscin-like fluorescent compounds (FCs), which are produced when MDA reacts with free amino acids. Age-dependent increases in MDA, ethane, and FCs were not associated with higher activities of phospholipase and lipoxygenase in tissue

  10. Changes in Lipid Peroxidation and Lipolytic and Free-Radical Scavenging Enzyme Activities during Aging and Sprouting of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Seed-Tubers.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, GNM.; Knowles, N. R.

    1993-01-01

    Previous research has shown that cell membranes of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Russet Burbank) seed-tubers lose integrity between 7 and 26 months of storage (4[deg]C, 95% relative humidity), and this loss coincides with a significant decrease in growth potential. The age-induced decline in membrane integrity is apparently due to increased peroxidative damage of membrane lipids. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and ethane concentrations (sensitive markers of lipid peroxidation and membrane damage) increased in seed-tuber tissues with advancing age. Moreover, in vivo ethane production from discs of cortex tissue from 13- and 25-month-old seed-tubers was 87% greater (on average) than that from discs from 1-month-old tubers. Calcium suppressed ethane production from all ages of tissue discs, and the effect was concentration dependent. Linoleic acid enhanced ethane production from 5- and 17-month-old tubers by 61 and 228%, respectively, suggesting that older tissue may contain a higher free-radical (FR) titer and/or lower free polyunsaturated fatty acid content. In addition, throughout plant establishment, the internal ethane concentration of older seed-tubers was 54% higher than that of younger seed-tubers. MDA concentration of tuber tissue declined by about 65% during the initial 7 months of storage and then increased 267% as tuber age advanced to 30 months. The age-induced trend in tuber reducing sugar concentration was similar to that of MDA, and the two were linearly correlated. The age-dependent increase in reducing sugars may thus reflect peroxidative degeneration of the amyloplast membrane, leading to increased starch hydrolysis. Compared with 5-month-old seed tubers, 17- and 29-month-old seed-tubers had significantly higher levels of lipofuscin-like fluorescent compounds (FCs), which are produced when MDA reacts with free amino acids. Age-dependent increases in MDA, ethane, and FCs were not associated with higher activities of phospholipase and lipoxygenase in tissue

  11. A natural xanthone increases catalase activity but decreases NF-kappa B and lipid peroxidation in U-937 and HepG2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Binay K; Zaidi, Adeel H; Gupta, Pankaj; Mokhamatam, Raveendra B; Raviprakash, Nune; Mahali, Sidhartha K; Manna, Sunil K

    2015-10-05

    Mangiferin, a C-glycosyl xanthone, has shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic activities. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism for the antioxidant property of mangiferin. Considering the role of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) in inflammation and tumorigenesis, we hypothesized that modulating its activity will be a viable therapeutic target in regulating the redox-sensitive ailments. Our results show that mangiferin blocks several inducers, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lypopolysaccharide (LPS), phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) mediated NF-κB activation via inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation. In silico docking studies predicted strong binding energy of mangiferin to the active site of catalase (-9.13 kcal/mol), but not with other oxidases such as myeloperoxidase, glutathione peroxidase, or inducible nitric oxide synthase. Mangiferin increased activity of catalase by 44%, but had no effect on myeloperoxidase activity in vitro. Fluorescence spectroscopy further revealed the binding of mangiferin to catalase at the single site with binding constant and binding affinity of 3.1×10(-7) M(-1) and 1.046 respectively. Mangiferin also inhibits TNF-induced lipid peroxidation and thereby protects apoptosis. Hence, mangiferin with its ability to inhibit NF-κB and increase the catalase activity may prove to be a potent therapeutic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Structure-activity analysis of diffusible lipid electrophiles associated with phospholipid peroxidation: 4-hydroxynonenal and 4-oxononenal analogues.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Colleen E; Tallman, Keri A; Porter, Ned A; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2011-03-21

    Electrophile-mediated disruption of cell signal-ing is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases including atherosclerosis and cancer. Diffusible and membrane bound lipid electrophiles are known to modify DNA and protein substrates and modulate cellular pathways including ER stress, antioxidant response, DNA damage, heat shock, and apoptosis. Herein we report on a structure-activity relationship for several electrophilic analogues of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 4-oxononenal (ONE) with regard to toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity. The analogues studied were the oxidation products of HNE and ONE, HNEA/ONEA, the in vivo hydrolysis products of oxidized phosphatidylcholine, COOH-HNE/COOH-ONE, and their methyl esters, COOMe-HNE/ONE. The reactivity of each compound toward N-acetylcysteine was determined and compared to the toxicity toward a human colorectal carcinoma cell line (RKO) and a human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). Further analysis was performed in differentiated THP-1 macrophages to assess changes in macrophage activation and pro-inflammatory signaling in response to each lipid electrophile. HNE/ONE analogues inhibited THP-1 macrophage production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα, after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/IFNγ activation. Inhibition of cytokine production was observed at submicromolar concentrations of several analogues with as little as 30 min of exposure. Phagocytosis of fluorescent beads was also inhibited by lipid electrophile treatment. Lipid electrophiles related to HNE/ONE are both toxic and anti-inflammatory, but the anti-inflammatory effects in human macrophages are observed at nontoxic concentrations. Neither toxicity nor anti-inflammatory activity are strongly correlated to the reactivity of the model nucleophile, N-acetylcysteine.

  13. Role of membrane cholesterol and lipid peroxidation in regulating the Na+/K+-ATPase activity in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Suparna; Dasgupta, Anindya; Banerjee, Ushasi; Chowdhury, Piali; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis; Saha, Gautam; Singh, Omprakash

    2016-01-01

    Background: Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity is compromised in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Oxidative stress and membrane lipid composition play important roles in regulating NKA activity. Aims: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of oxidative stress-induced membrane lipid damage and membrane cholesterol composition on NKA pump activity in schizophrenia. Settings and Design: It was a hospital-based, cross-sectional, observational study in 49 cases and 51 controls for 1 year. Materials and Methods: NKA pump activity in red blood cell membrane, serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC) adducts, and cholesterol were measured by standard spectrophotometric techniques in newly diagnosed schizophrenia patients by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision criteria. Membrane cholesterol was analyzed by chloroform and isopropanol extraction followed by measuring the cholesterol concentration by spectrophotometric technique. Statistical Analysis and Results: Mean values for NKA pump activity, membrane cholesterol level, and serum cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the case group (P < 0.001). The activity of NKA pump was found to be directly correlated to membrane cholesterol level rather than with the serum cholesterol values. Although the NKA pump activity showed inverse relationship with the serum values of TBARS and PC products both, on multiple linear regression analysis, it was found to be significantly positively dependent on the membrane cholesterol (β = 0.268, P = 0.01) and negatively dependent on the serum TBARS (β = −0.63, P < 0.001) levels only. Conclusion: Reduced membrane cholesterol and oxidative stress-induced damage to membrane lipids play crucial roles in decreasing the NKA activity in schizophrenia. Hence, for a better prognosis and treatment, measures are required to maintain optimum levels of cholesterol in neuronal tissues along

  14. The peroxidase activity of ADM-Fe(3+) cooperates with lipid peroxidation: The participation of hydroperoxide and hydroxyl radicals in the damage to proteins and DNA.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toshiaki

    2015-07-05

    To investigate the mechanisms of cardiotoxicity induced by adriamycin (ADM), the enzymatic activities of ADM-Fe(3+), including the peroxidase and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, and participation of active oxygen species in the damage to biological components were examined. ADM-Fe(3+), but not ADM, steadily oxidized tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine in the presence of peroxides, indicating that ADM-Fe(3+) acts as a peroxidase. However, the activity of ADM-Fe(3+) as peroxidase was very low compared with that of heme peroxidase, but was similar to that of LOX, which has a known peroxidase activity. Conversely, the activity of ADM-Fe(3+) as a LOX was also very low compared with that of LOX itself. However, the lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) produced by ADM-Fe(3+) were the substrate for ADM-Fe(3+) as a peroxidase. These findings indicate that lipid peroxidation cooperates with the peroxidase activity of ADM-Fe(3+). Hydroxyl radicals (HO) were generated when ADM-Fe(3+) was incubated with H2O2, but not with LOOH. Alcohol dehydrogenase was inactivated by LOOH. Conversely, DNA was mainly damaged by ADM-Fe(3+) with H2O2. A small amount of DNA remained at the starting point on agarose gels during incubation with ADM-Fe(3+) with LOOH and ADM-Fe(3+) with H2O2. It seems that HO and compound I-like species participate in the strand breaks and the aggregation of DNA, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lycopene control of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetković, Dragan; Marković, Dejan

    2012-05-01

    Lycopene antioxidant activity in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous regime of UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C) has been evaluated in this work. Lycopene expected role was to control lipid peroxidation, by scavenging free radicals generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone. This work shows that lycopene undergoes to UV-induced destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on the incident photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The further increase ("excess") of its bleaching is undoubtedly related to the further increase of its antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, having the same cause: increase of (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  16. [Mexidol preparation influence upon lipids peroxide oxidation and oral fluid antioxidant system activity in patients with chronic generalized parodontitis and arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kazarina, L N; Vdovina, L V; Dubrovskaia, E N

    2010-01-01

    Results of laboratory investigations of the estimation of peroxide oxidation of lipids and antioxidant protection in the oral fluid of the patients with chronic generalizating parodontitis and arterial hypertension with using mexidol. It was shown that the normalization of parameters of the primary and second products of peroxidation with mexidol action, antioxidant protection of oral liquid increased that was favorably reflected in structures and functions of cell.

  17. Silicon Reverses Lipid Peroxidation but not Acetylcholinesterase Activity Induced by Long-Term Exposure to Low Aluminum Levels in Rat Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Noremberg, Simone; Bohrer, Denise; Schetinger, Maria R C; Bairros, André V; Gutierres, Jessié; Gonçalves, Jamile F; Veiga, Marlei; Santos, Francielli W

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is the most widely distributed metal in the environment and is extensively used in daily life leading to easy exposure to human beings. Besides not having a recognized physiological role, Al may produce adverse effects through the interaction with the cholinergic system contributing to oxidative stress. The present study evaluated, in similar conditions of parenteral nutrition, whether the reaction of silicon (SiO2) with Al(3+) to form hydroxyaluminosilicates (HAS) reduces its bioavailability and toxicity through intraperitoneal administrations of 0.5 mg Al/kg/day and/or 2 mg Si/kg/day in Wistar rats. Al and Si concentrations were determined in rat brain tissue and serum. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were analyzed in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus, and blood. An increase in the Al concentration was verified in the Al + Si group in the brain. All the groups demonstrated enhanced Si compared to the control animals. Al(3+) increased LPO measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in cerebellum and hippocampus, whereas SiO2 reduced it when compared with the control group. An increase of AChE activity was observed in the Al-treated group in the cerebellum whereas a decrease of this enzyme activity was observed in the cortex and hippocampus in the Al and Al + Si groups. Al and Si concentrations increased in rat serum; however, no effect was observed in blood TBARS levels and AChE activity. SiO2 showed a protective effect in the hippocampus and cerebellum against cellular damage caused by Al(3+)-induced lipid peroxidation. Thus, SiO2 may be considered an important protector in LPO induced by Al(3+).

  18. [Study on lipid peroxidation of electrolyzing-aluminum workers].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiyong; Zhu, Qixing; Hu, Chuanlai; Yang, Yongjian

    2002-04-01

    In order to study the changes in lipid peroxidation level and anti-oxidase activity in electrolyzing-aluminum workers exposed to both aluminum and fluoride and to find out the sensitive biological monitoring indicators, 65 electrolyzing-aluminum workers are recruited as exposed group and 52 healthy workers as control group. Serum and urine aluminum and fluoride concentration, serum glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) activity, serum malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) concentration, whole blood superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity, serum cuprum and zinc concentration, and X-ray of skeleton are detected and taken. The results showed that aluminum and fluoride concentration in serum and urine increase, GSH-Px activity reduces, MDA concentration increases and SOD activity increases, cuprum concentration increases and zinc concentration reduces significantly (P < 0.001) in exposed group compared with those of control group. Both serum aluminum and fluoride concentration are correlated inversely with GSH-Px activity, and correlated with MDA concentration and SOD activity. It is suggested that serum aluminum and fluoride concentration can clearly reflect the loading capacity of body aluminum and fluoride. Occupational exposure to both aluminum and fluoride lead to rising of lipid peroxidation and abnormal metabolism of cuprum and zinc before changes in skeleton occurred. Serum MDA concentration and GSH-Px activity might be the potential early-stage indicators of biological surveillance for electrolyzing-aluminum workers' health. The increase of SOD activity may be a kind of body compensations.

  19. Lipid peroxidation of plants under microgravity and its simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhadko, S I; Polulyakh YuA; Vorobyeva, T V; Baraboy, V A

    1994-01-01

    In series of space experiments aboard the biosatellites "Cosmos 1887", "Bion 9", the orbital stations "Salut", "Mir" and under clinostating, changes of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidation activity (AOA) of Chlorella, Haplopappus tissue culture, wheat and pea roots were determined. The changes had a complex fluctuation character; three steps of response were established: LPO decreasing accompanied by AOA increase; stabilization LPO <==> AOA balance; secondary LPO activation. Most early and highly amplitude decreasing of LPO were fixed in mitochondria. The rate of response have been increased on multicellular level of plants organization.

  20. Lipid peroxidation of plants under microgravity and its simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhadko, S. I.; Polulyakh, Yu. A.; Vorobyeva, T. V.; Baraboy, V. A.

    1994-08-01

    In series of space experiments a board the biosatellites ``Cosmos 1887'', ``Bion 9'', the orbital stations ``Salut'', ``Mir'' and under clinostating, changes of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidation activity (AOA) of Chlorella, Haplopappus tissue culture, wheat and pea roots were determined. The changes had a complex fluctuation character three steps of response were established; LPO decreasing accompanied by AOA increase; stabilization LPO⇄AOA balance; secondary LPO activation. Most early and highly amplitude decreasing of LPO were fixed in mitochondria. The rate of response have been increased on multicellular level of plants organization.

  1. Kinetic activity, membrane mitochondrial potential, lipid peroxidation, intracellular pH and calcium of frozen/thawed bovine spermatozoa treated with metabolic enhancers.

    PubMed

    Boni, R; Gallo, A; Cecchini, S

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the progressive decline of sperm motility during storage there is a need to find substances capable of enhancing sperm energy metabolism and motility and/or preserving it from oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate in frozen/thawed bovine spermatozoa the effect of several compounds, such as myo-inositol, pentoxifylline, penicillamine + hypotaurine + epinephrine mixture (PHE), caffeine and coenzyme Q10+ zinc + d-aspartate mixture (CZA), on either kinetic or metabolic parameters. Sperm kinetics was evaluated by Sperm Class Analyser whereas specific fluorochromes were used to evaluated mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular pH, intracellular calcium concentration and lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation was also evaluated by TBARS analysis. Treatments significantly affected total and progressive motility with different dynamics in relation to the incubation time. After the first hour of incubation, CZA treatment produced the best performance in total and progressive sperm motility as well as in curvilinear velocity, average path velocity and amplitude of head displacement, whereas pentoxifylline stimulated the highest straight-line velocity. MMP showed higher values (p < 0.01) after treatment with pentoxifylline and PHE. Intracytoplasmic calcium concentration and lipid peroxidation were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the incubation time rather than the treatments. Intracellular pH varied significantly (p < 0.01) in relation to either the incubation time or treatments. In particular, it showed a progressive increase throughout incubation with values in control group significantly higher than in myo-inositol, PHE, caffeine, pentoxifylline and CZA groups (7.37 ± 0.03 vs. 7.29 ± 0.03, 7.28 ± 0.03, 7.26 ± 0.03, 7.22 ± 0.03 and 7.00 ± 0.03, respectively; p < 0.01).; however, among treatments, CZA displayed the lowest values. Significant correlations were found between sperm kinetic and metabolic

  2. [Effects of graft on lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activities of Capsicum annum seedlings under low temperature and weak light intensity].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-tao; Ai, Xi-zhen; Zheng, Nan; Jiang, Fei; Li, Qing-ming

    2010-05-01

    Taking 'Chifengtexuan' as scion and 'Weishi' as rootstock, this paper studied the changes in the electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and root activity of own-rooted and grafted Capsicum annuum seedlings under 1-7 days low temperature (8 degrees C/ 5 degrees C) and weak light intensity (100 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) stress and after 1-3 d recovery. During the early stress days, the EL, MDA content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in both own-rooted and grafted seedlings leaves and roots increased, but the root activity decreased significantly. 1-3 days later, grafted seedlings showed a stable state in EL and MDA content, a decrease in SOD, POD, APX, and GR activities, and an increasing trend in root activity. After 3 days recovery, the EL, MDA content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and root activity of grafted seedlings reached or exceeded their original levels, except for the MDA content in roots, while the EL and MDA content of own-rooted seedlings were still significantly higher than those before the stress. Comparing with own-rooted seedlings, grafted seedlings showed lower EL and MDA content, higher activities of SOD, POD, APX and GR, and higher root activity during stress and recovery days. These data suggested that graft could effectively decrease the lipid peroxidation, and alleviate the damage of low temperature and weak light intensity to Capsicum annuum seedlings.

  3. Lipid peroxidation-DNA damage by malondialdehyde.

    PubMed

    Marnett, L J

    1999-03-08

    Malondialdehyde is a naturally occurring product of lipid peroxidation and prostaglandin biosynthesis that is mutagenic and carcinogenic. It reacts with DNA to form adducts to deoxyguanosine and deoxyadenosine. The major adduct to DNA is a pyrimidopurinone called M1G. Site-specific mutagenesis experiments indicate that M1G is mutagenic in bacteria and is repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway. M1G has been detected in liver, white blood cells, pancreas, and breast from healthy human beings at levels ranging from 1-120 per 108 nucleotides. Several different assays for M1G have been described that are based on mass spectrometry, 32P-postlabeling, or immunochemical techniques. Each technique offers advantages and disadvantages based on a combination of sensitivity and specificity. Application of each of these techniques to the analysis of M1G is reviewed and future needs for improvements are identified. M1G appears to be a major endogenous DNA adduct in human beings that may contribute significantly to cancer linked to lifestyle and dietary factors. High throughput methods for its detection and quantitation will be extremely useful for screening large populations. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Effects of ultraviolet A on the activity of two metabolic enzymes, DNA damage and lipid peroxidation during early developmental stages of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    PubMed

    Mekkawy, Imam A A; Mahmoud, Usama M; Osman, Alaa G; Sayed, Alaa El-Din H

    2010-09-01

    Many ultraviolet-A (UVA)-induced biochemical and physiological changes are valid as biomarkers using aquatic species for detection of the degree of stress. Changes in the concentration and activities of enzymes, such as glucose-6-phosphate dehyderogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehyderogenase (LDH), DNA damage and lipid peroxidation (LPO), can be used as biomarkers to identify possible environmental contamination in fish. This study aimed to investigate the impact of UVA on the activity of the selected enzymes, DNA damage and LPO during early developmental stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Embryo hemogenates were used for measurements of G6PDH, LDH, DNA damage and LPO concentrations and activities spectrophotometrically at 37 degrees C. The normal ontogenetic variations in enzyme activities, DNA damage and LPO of the early developmental stages (24-168 h-PFS; hours-post fertilization stage) were studied. There was a significant decrease in the activity of G6PDH till 120 h-PFS. Then after 120 h-PFS, the activity of such enzymes insignificantly increased toward higher stages. The LDH activity was recorded with a pattern of decrease till 96 h-PFS, followed by a significant increase toward 168 h-PFS. The polynomial pattern of variations in DNA damage and LPO was also evident. The patterns of the enzyme activities, corresponding DNA damage and LPO of the early ontogenetic stages under the influence of three different UVA doses (15, 30 and 60 min), were recorded. The pattern of variations in G6PDH activity in UVA-induced groups was similar to that of the control group with variation in the magnitude of such activity. In all treated groups, LDH activity decreased till 96 h-PFS, then increased till 168 h-PFS. Within each of the embryonic stages, the increase in UVA led to a significant increase in DNA damage. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation under UVA doses was recorded. The variability in number and molecular weight of proteins under exposure to UVA

  5. Effects of ultraviolet A on the activity of two metabolic enzymes, DNA damage and lipid peroxidation during early developmental stages of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

    PubMed Central

    Mekkawy, Imam A. A.; Mahmoud, Usama M.; Osman, Alaa G.

    2009-01-01

    Many ultraviolet-A (UVA)-induced biochemical and physiological changes are valid as biomarkers using aquatic species for detection of the degree of stress. Changes in the concentration and activities of enzymes, such as glucose-6-phosphate dehyderogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehyderogenase (LDH), DNA damage and lipid peroxidation (LPO), can be used as biomarkers to identify possible environmental contamination in fish. This study aimed to investigate the impact of UVA on the activity of the selected enzymes, DNA damage and LPO during early developmental stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Embryo hemogenates were used for measurements of G6PDH, LDH, DNA damage and LPO concentrations and activities spectrophotometrically at 37°C. The normal ontogenetic variations in enzyme activities, DNA damage and LPO of the early developmental stages (24–168 h-PFS; hours-post fertilization stage) were studied. There was a significant decrease in the activity of G6PDH till 120 h-PFS. Then after 120 h-PFS, the activity of such enzymes insignificantly increased toward higher stages. The LDH activity was recorded with a pattern of decrease till 96 h-PFS, followed by a significant increase toward 168 h-PFS. The polynomial pattern of variations in DNA damage and LPO was also evident. The patterns of the enzyme activities, corresponding DNA damage and LPO of the early ontogenetic stages under the influence of three different UVA doses (15, 30 and 60 min), were recorded. The pattern of variations in G6PDH activity in UVA-induced groups was similar to that of the control group with variation in the magnitude of such activity. In all treated groups, LDH activity decreased till 96 h-PFS, then increased till 168 h-PFS. Within each of the embryonic stages, the increase in UVA led to a significant increase in DNA damage. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation under UVA doses was recorded. The variability in number and molecular weight of proteins under exposure to UVA

  6. Dependence of Guaiacol Peroxidase Activity and Lipid Peroxidation Rate in Drooping Birch (Betula pendula Roth) and Tillet (Tilia cordata Mill) Leaf on Motor Traffic Pollution Intensity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hormesis and paradoxical effects are frequently found for different plant parameters. These phenomena were also observed for lipid peroxidation (LP) rate at environmental pollution. However, the role of antioxidant enzymes, particularly guaiacol peroxidases (GPX), in a nonmonotonic variation in the LP rate remains insufficiently explored. Therefore, dependence of GPX activity and LP rate in Betula pendula and Tilia cordata leaf on motor traffic pollution intensity was studied. Regression analysis revealed dependences of LP rate and GPX activity on traffic intensity. In B pendula, GPX activity enhanced significantly (up to 2.8 times relatively control) under increased traffic that induced biphasic paradoxical effect for LP rate. In the first phase, LP level increased in comparison with the control, and in the second phase, it was normalized by enhanced GPX activity. In T cordata, dependences of GPX activity and LP rate on traffic pollution were paradoxical effects. However, there was no connection between change of GPX activity and LP rate under middle- and high-level pollution: LP level reduced relatively the control or normalized even if GPX activity was lower than the control. This indicates that in T cordata, other regulatory mechanisms instead of GPX were activated which could control LP rate under middle- and high-level pollution. PMID:26676174

  7. Dependence of Guaiacol Peroxidase Activity and Lipid Peroxidation Rate in Drooping Birch (Betula pendula Roth) and Tillet (Tilia cordata Mill) Leaf on Motor Traffic Pollution Intensity.

    PubMed

    Erofeeva, Elena A

    2015-01-01

    Hormesis and paradoxical effects are frequently found for different plant parameters. These phenomena were also observed for lipid peroxidation (LP) rate at environmental pollution. However, the role of antioxidant enzymes, particularly guaiacol peroxidases (GPX), in a nonmonotonic variation in the LP rate remains insufficiently explored. Therefore, dependence of GPX activity and LP rate in Betula pendula and Tilia cordata leaf on motor traffic pollution intensity was studied. Regression analysis revealed dependences of LP rate and GPX activity on traffic intensity. In B pendula, GPX activity enhanced significantly (up to 2.8 times relatively control) under increased traffic that induced biphasic paradoxical effect for LP rate. In the first phase, LP level increased in comparison with the control, and in the second phase, it was normalized by enhanced GPX activity. In T cordata, dependences of GPX activity and LP rate on traffic pollution were paradoxical effects. However, there was no connection between change of GPX activity and LP rate under middle- and high-level pollution: LP level reduced relatively the control or normalized even if GPX activity was lower than the control. This indicates that in T cordata, other regulatory mechanisms instead of GPX were activated which could control LP rate under middle- and high-level pollution.

  8. [Peroxidation of lipids in mitochondrial membranes, induced by enzymatic deamination of biogenic amines].

    PubMed

    Kagan, V E; Smirnov, A V; Savov, V M; Gorkin, V Z

    1984-01-01

    In presence of ferrous cations and ascorbate lipid peroxidation in mitochondrial membranes has been induced by incubation of fragments of the membrane devoid of catalase activity with amines which are substrates of monoamine oxidases of the B type (2-phenyl ethylamine, benzylamine) or transformed monoamine oxidases of type A (cadaverine). In the samples containing both cadaverine and benzylamine the highest stimulation of lipid peroxidation was noted. To the contrary, a substrate of the monoamine oxidases of the type A (serotonin) caused under the same conditions an antioxidative effect. The following conditions are obligatory to induce lipid peroxidation in mitochondria by incubation with amines: I. absence of catalase activity in the biomembranes; 2. presence of physiological concentrations of Fe2+. Physiological concentrations of ascorbate or alterations of pH in the samples caused additional stimulation of the lipid peroxidation.

  9. Lipid peroxidation in mitochondrial membranes induced by enzymatic deamination of biogenic amines.

    PubMed

    Kagan, V E; Smirnov, A V; Savov, V M; Prilipko, L L; Gorkin, V Z

    1983-01-01

    In the presence of Fe2+ and ascorbate lipid peroxidation in mitochondrial membranes is induced by incubation of membrane fragments devoid of catalase activity with amines which are the substrates of monoamine oxidases of the type B (2-phenylethylamine, benzylamine) or transformed monoamine oxidases of the type A (cadaverine). The highest stimulation of lipid peroxidation is observed in the samples containing both cadaverine and benzylamine. On the contrary, the substrate of the monoamine oxidases of the type A, serotonin, causes an antioxidative effect under these conditions. The necessary prerequisites for lipid peroxidation induction in mitochondria during their incubation with amines are i) the absence of catalase activity in the biomembranes and, ii) the presence of physiological concentrations of Fe2+. Physiological concentrations of ascorbate or pH shifts cause additional stimulation of lipid peroxidation.

  10. The effect of melatonin on lipid peroxidation and nitrite/nitrate levels, and on superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in kainic acid-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Akcay, Yasemin Delen; Yalcin, Ayfer; Sozmen, Eser Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) initiates neuronal injury and death by inducing oxidative stress and nitric oxide release from various regions of the brain. It was recently shown that melatonin has free radical-scavenging action and may protect against kainate-induced toxicity. In order to assess the possible supportive effect of melatonin treatment in KA-induced injury in the rat brain cortex, we determined malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as an index of lipid peroxidation, and assessed the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the levels of nitrite/nitrate 35 male rats were divided into five groups, each receiving a different intraperitoneal treatment: saline solution (0.2 ml), kainic acid (15 mg/kg), melatonin (20 mg/kg), KA then melatonin (each as above, 15 min apart), or melatonin then KA (each as above, 30 min apart). Administration of KA caused an about five-fold increase in the catalase activity and an increase in the SOD activity in the cortex relative to the activities for the controls. Treatment with melatonin 15 min after KA injection kept malondialdehyde levels and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities at the normal levels, and led to an increase in the levels of nitrite/nitrate. Our data suggests that melatonin treatment following KA administration has a protective effect on antioxidant enzyme activities and thus supports the role of melatonin and oxidative stress in the regulation of antioxidative enzyme activity.

  11. Osmotic fragility of red blood cells, lipid peroxidation and Ca²⁺-ATPase activity of placental homogenates and red blood cell ghosts in salt-loaded pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Deliana; Rodríguez, Freddy; Barráez, Juvell; Piñero, Sandy; Chiarello, Delia I; Abad, Cilia; Marín, Reinaldo; Proverbio, Fulgencio

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the osmotic fragility of red blood cells and the level of lipid peroxidation, the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of red cell ghosts and placental homogenates from salt-loaded pregnant rats. Salt-loaded pregnant rats received 1.8% NaCl solution ad libitum as a beverage for seven days, starting on 15th day of pregnancy. Then, it was evaluated the level of lipid peroxidation and the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of placental homogenates and red blood cell ghosts from control and experimental rats. Furthermore, the osmotic fragility of the red blood cells was evaluated by measuring the lysis of these cells when incubated with a NaCl solution with different osmolarities. It was found that placental homogenates and red blood cell ghosts from experimental pregnant rats showed an increased level of lipid peroxidation and a lowered Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, as compared to control pregnant rats. They also presented an increased osmotic fragility of their red blood cells. Salt-loaded pregnant rats showed, similar to preeclamptic women, an increased level of lipid peroxidation and a lowered Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in placental and red blood cells membranes, as well as an increased osmotic fragility of the red blood cells.

  12. Lipid peroxidation in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Chen, C Y; Sheu, J Y; Chuang, I C; Pan, J H; Lin, T H

    1999-02-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to hexavalent chromium induces lipid peroxidation in human. This study involved 25 chrome-plating factory workers and a reference group of 28 control subjects. The whole-blood and urinary chromium concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the activities of protective enzymes were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. In the chrome-plating workers, the mean concentrations of chromium in blood and urine were 5.98 microg/L and 5.25 microg/g creatinine, respectively; the mean concentrations of MDA in blood and urine were 1.7 micromol/L and 2.24 micromol/g creatinine. The concentrations of both chromium and MDA in blood and urine were significantly higher in the chromium-exposed workers. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) were not markedly different between control and exposed workers. Data suggest that MDA may be used as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure. Antioxidant enzymic activities are not a suitable marker for chromium exposure.

  13. Modulation of radiation induced lipid peroxidation by phospholipase A 2 and calmodulin antagonists: Relevance to detoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Rajeev; Kale, R. K.

    1995-04-01

    Ghost membranes prepared from erythrocytes of Swiss albino mice were irradiated with 0.9 Gy s -1. Lipid peroxidation initiated by ionizing radiation was enhanced by phospholipase A 2, and required both phospholipase A 2 and GSH-peroxidase for consecutive action to convert fatty acid peroxides into corresponding alcohols. The ability of phospholipase A 2 to enhance lipid peroxidation was increased in presence of Ca 2+. However, in combination, phospholipase A 2 and GSH-peroxidase were effective in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. These findings show that free fatty acid peroxides considerably increase the peroxidation. Calmodulin antagonists inhibit lipid peroxidation and decrease the radiation induced release of Ca 2+ from the membranes. Our results suggest the importance of Ca 2+ dependent phospholipase A 2 in detoxification of fatty acid peroxides in the membranes. It is quite possible that scavenging of free radicals by calmodulin antagonists lower the formation of hydroperoxides, resulting in the decrease in activity of phospholipase A 2. Alternatively, decrease in Ca 2+ release due to the calmodulin antagonists might have affected the activity of phospholipase A 2. Our observations might be of considerable significance in the understanding of post irradiation effect on biological membranes.

  14. Lipid peroxidation induced by indomethacin with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide: involvement of indomethacin radicals.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toshiaki; Muraoka, Sanae; Fujimoto, Yukio

    2002-06-01

    Some of the side-effects of using indomethacin (IM) involve damage to the gastric mucosa and liver mitochondria. On the other hand, neutrophils infiltrate inflammatory sites to damage the tissues through the generation of reactive oxygen species by myeloperoxidase. The stomach and intestine have large amounts of peroxidase. These findings suggest that peroxidases are involved in tissue damage induced by IM. To clarify the basis for the tissue damage induced by IM in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and H2O2 (HRP-H2O2), lipid peroxidation was investigated. When IM was incubated with liver microsomes in the presence of HRP-H2O2 and ADP-Fe3+, lipid peroxidation was time-dependent. Catalase and desferrioxamine almost completely inhibited lipid peroxidation, indicating that H2O2 and iron are necessary for lipid peroxidation. Of interest, superoxide dismutase strongly inhibited lipid peroxidation, and it also inhibited the formation of bathophenanthroline-Fe2+, indicating that reduction of the ferric ion was due to superoxide (O2-). ESR signals of IM radicals were detected during the interaction of IM with HRP-H2O2. However, the IM radical by itself did not reduce the ferric ion. These results suggest that O2- may be generated during the interaction of IM radicals with H2O2. Ferryl species, which are formed during the reduction of iron by O2-, probably are involved in lipid peroxidation.

  15. Intraperitoneal Exposure to Nano/Microparticles of Fullerene (C60) Increases Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Brain

    PubMed Central

    Dal Forno, Gonzalo Ogliari; Kist, Luiza Wilges; de Azevedo, Mariana Barbieri; Fritsch, Rachel Seemann; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Britto, Roberta Socoowski; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Külkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes; Bonan, Carla Denise; Monserrat, José María; Bogo, Maurício Reis

    2013-01-01

    Even though technologies involving nano/microparticles have great potential, it is crucial to determine possible toxicity of these technological products before extensive use. Fullerenes C60 are nanomaterials with unique physicochemical and biological properties that are important for the development of many technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of nonphotoexcited fullerene C60 exposure in brain acetylcholinesterase expression and activity, antioxidant responses, and oxidative damage using adult zebrafish as an animal model. None of the doses tested (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) altered AChE activity, antioxidant responses, and oxidative damage when zebrafish were exposed to nonphotoexcited C60 nano/microparticles during 6 and 12 hours. However, adult zebrafish exposed to the 30 mg/kg dose for 24 hours have shown enhanced AChE activity and augmented lipid peroxidation (TBARS assays) in brain. In addition, the up-regulation of brain AChE activity was neither related to the transcriptional control (RT-qPCR analysis) nor to the direct action of nonphotoexcited C60 nano/microparticles on the protein (in vitro results) but probably involved a posttranscriptional or posttranslational modulation of this enzymatic activity. Taken together these findings provided further evidence of toxic effects on brain after C60 exposure. PMID:23865059

  16. Possible involvement of membrane lipids peroxidation and oxidation of catalytically essential thiols of the cerebral transmembrane sodium pump as component mechanisms of iron-mediated oxidative stress-linked dysfunction of the pump's activity.

    PubMed

    Omotayo, T I; Akinyemi, G S; Omololu, P A; Ajayi, B O; Akindahunsi, A A; Rocha, J B T; Kade, I J

    2015-01-01

    The precise molecular events defining the complex role of oxidative stress in the inactivation of the cerebral sodium pump in radical-induced neurodegenerative diseases is yet to be fully clarified and thus still open. Herein we investigated the modulation of the activity of the cerebral transmembrane electrogenic enzyme in Fe(2+)-mediated in vitro oxidative stress model. The results show that Fe(2+) inhibited the transmembrane enzyme in a concentration dependent manner and this effect was accompanied by a biphasic generation of aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation. While dithiothreitol prevented both Fe(2+) inhibitory effect on the pump and lipid peroxidation, vitamin E prevented only lipid peroxidation but not inhibition of the pump. Besides, malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibited the pump by a mechanism not related to oxidation of its critical thiols. Apparently, the low activity of the pump in degenerative diseases mediated by Fe(2+) may involve complex multi-component mechanisms which may partly involve an initial oxidation of the critical thiols of the enzyme directly mediated by Fe(2+) and during severe progression of such diseases; aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation such as MDA may further exacerbate this inhibitory effect by a mechanism that is likely not related to the oxidation of the catalytically essential thiols of the ouabain-sensitive cerebral electrogenic pump.

  17. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of GST activity by cardamom and cinnamon during chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Shamee; Rana, Tapasi; Sengupta, Archana

    2007-01-01

    Globally, colorectal cancer is the third commonest cancer in men since 1975.The present study focuses on the preventive strategies aimed at reducing the incidences and mortality of large bowel cancer. Chemoprevention of colon cancer appears to be a very realistic possibility because various intermediate stages have been identified preceding the development of malignant colonic tumors. Several studies have demonstrated that generous consumption of vegetables reduces the risk of colon cancer. This idea has prompted the present investigation to search for some novel plant products, which may have possible anticarcinogenic activity. It has already been proved from various experiments that chemopreventive agents, by virtue of their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, apoptosis-inducing activity, act at various levels including molecular, cellular, tissue and organ levels to interfere with carcinogens. Previous studies from our laboratory have already reported the inhibitory effect of cinnamon and cardamom on azoxymethane induced colon carcinogenesis by virtue of their anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity. This particular experiment was carried out to assess the anti-oxidative potential of these spices. Aqueous suspensions of cinnamon and cardamom have been shown to enhance the level of detoxifying enzyme (GST activity) with simultaneous decrease in lipid peroxidation levels in the treatment groups when compared to that of the carcinogen control group.

  18. Acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Scott A; Zaccagni, Hayden; Bichell, David P; Christian, Karla G; Mettler, Bret A; Donahue, Brian S; Roberts, L Jackson; Pretorius, Mias

    2014-07-01

    Hemolysis, occurring during cardiopulmonary bypass, is associated with lipid peroxidation and postoperative acute kidney injury. Acetaminophen inhibits lipid peroxidation catalyzed by hemeproteins and in an animal model attenuated rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Single-center prospective randomized double-blinded study. University-affiliated pediatric hospital. Thirty children undergoing elective surgical correction of a congenital heart defect. Patients were randomized to acetaminophen (OFIRMEV [acetaminophen] injection; Cadence Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) or placebo every 6 hours for four doses starting before the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass. Markers of hemolysis, lipid peroxidation (isofurans and F2-isoprostanes), and acute kidney injury were measured throughout the perioperative period. Cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with a significant increase in free hemoglobin (from a prebypass level of 9.8 ± 6.2 mg/dL to a peak of 201.5 ± 42.6 mg/dL postbypass). Plasma and urine isofuran and F2-isoprostane concentrations increased significantly during surgery. The magnitude of increase in plasma isofurans was greater than the magnitude in increase in plasma F2-isoprostanes. Acetaminophen attenuated the increase in plasma isofurans compared with placebo (p = 0.02 for effect of study drug). There was no significant effect of acetaminophen on plasma F2-isoprostanes or urinary makers of lipid peroxidation. Acetaminophen did not affect postoperative creatinine, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, or prevalence of acute kidney injury. Cardiopulmonary bypass in children is associated with hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Acetaminophen attenuated the increase in plasma isofuran concentrations. Future studies are needed to establish whether other therapies that attenuate or prevent the effects of free

  19. Acetaminophen Attenuates Lipid Peroxidation in Children Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Scott A.; Zaccagni, Hayden; Bichell, David P.; Christian, Karla G.; Mettler, Bret A.; Donahue, Brian S.; Roberts, L. Jackson; Pretorius, Mias

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hemolysis, occurring during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), is associated with lipid peroxidation and postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). Acetaminophen (ApAP) inhibits lipid peroxidation catalyzed by hemeproteins and in an animal model attenuated rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that ApAP attenuates lipid peroxidation in children undergoing CPB. Design Single center prospective randomized double blinded study. Setting University-affiliated pediatric hospital. Patients Thirty children undergoing elective surgical correction of a congenital heart defect. Interventions Patients were randomized to ApAP (OFIRMEV® (acetaminophen) injection, Cadence Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) or placebo every 6 hours for 4 doses starting before the onset of CPB. Measurement and Main Results Markers of hemolysis, lipid peroxidation (isofurans and F2-isoprostanes) and AKI were measured throughout the perioperative period. CPB was associated with a significant increase in free hemoglobin (from a pre-bypass level of 9.8±6.2 mg/dl to a peak of 201.5±42.6 mg/dl post-bypass). Plasma and urine isofuran and F2-isoprostane concentrations increased significantly during surgery. The magnitude of increase in plasma isofurans was greater than the magnitude in increase in plasma F2-isoprostanes. ApAP attenuated the increase in plasma isofurans compared to placebo (P=0.02 for effect of study drug). There was no significant effect of ApAP on plasma F2-isoprostanes or urinary makers of lipid peroxidation. ApAP did not affect postoperative creatinine, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin or prevalence of AKI. Conclusion CPB in children is associated with hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. ApAP attenuated the increase in plasma isofuran concentrations. Future studies are needed to establish whether other therapies that attenuate or prevent the effects of free hemoglobin result in more effective inhibition of lipid peroxidation in patients

  20. Coupling of the Functional Stability of Rat Myocardium and Activity of Lipid Peroxidation in Combined Development of Postinfarction Remodeling and Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Afanasiev, S A; Kondratieva, D S; Rebrova, T Yu; Batalov, R E; Popov, S V

    2016-01-01

    Coupling of the functional stability of rat myocardium and activity of lipid peroxidation processes in combined development of postinfarction remodeling and diabetes mellitus has been studied. The functional stability of myocardium was studied by means of the analysis of inotropic reaction on extrasystolic stimulus, the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy, and the size of scar zone. It was shown that in combined development of postinfarction cardiac remodeling of heart (PICR) with diabetes mellitus (DM) animal body weight decreased in less degree than in diabetic rats. Animals with combined pathology had no heart hypertrophy. The amplitude of extrasystolic contractions in rats with PICR combined with DM had no differences compared to the control group. In myocardium of rats with PICR combined with DM postextrasystolic potentiation was observed in contrast with the rats with PICR alone. The rats with combined pathology had the decreased value of TBA-active products. Thus, the results of study showed that induction of DM on the stage of the development of postinfarction remodeling increases adaptive ability of myocardium. It is manifested in inhibition of increase of LPO processes activity and maintaining of force-interval reactions of myocardium connected with calcium transport systems of sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiomyocytes.

  1. Methods to create thermally oxidized lipids and comparison of analytical procedures to characterize peroxidation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate peroxidation in 4 lipids, each with 3 degrees of peroxidation. Lipid sources were: corn oil (CN), canola oil (CA), poultry fat, and tallow. Peroxidation levels were: original lipids (OL), slow-oxidized lipids (SO), and rapid-oxidized lipids (RO). To p...

  2. Interaction of aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation and membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pizzimenti, Stefania; Ciamporcero, Eric; Daga, Martina; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Arcaro, Alessia; Cetrangolo, Gianpaolo; Minelli, Rosalba; Dianzani, Chiara; Lepore, Alessio; Gentile, Fabrizio; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    A great variety of compounds are formed during lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids. Among them, bioactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxyalkenals, malondialdehyde (MDA) and acrolein, have received particular attention since they have been considered as toxic messengers that can propagate and amplify oxidative injury. In the 4-hydroxyalkenal class, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is the most intensively studied aldehyde, in relation not only to its toxic function, but also to its physiological role. Indeed, HNE can be found at low concentrations in human tissues and plasma and participates in the control of biological processes, such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Moreover, at low doses, HNE exerts an anti-cancer effect, by inhibiting cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and by inducing differentiation and/or apoptosis in various tumor cell lines. It is very likely that a substantial fraction of the effects observed in cellular responses, induced by HNE and related aldehydes, be mediated by their interaction with proteins, resulting in the formation of covalent adducts or in the modulation of their expression and/or activity. In this review we focus on membrane proteins affected by lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:24027536

  3. Structure of a Drosophila sigma class glutathione S-transferase reveals a novel active site topography suited for lipid peroxidation products.

    PubMed

    Agianian, Bogos; Tucker, Paul A; Schouten, Arie; Leonard, Kevin; Bullard, Belinda; Gros, Piet

    2003-02-07

    Insect glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are grouped in three classes, I, II and recently III; class I (Delta class) enzymes together with class III members are implicated in conferring resistance to insecticides. Class II (Sigma class) GSTs, however, are poorly characterized and their exact biological function remains elusive. Drosophila glutathione S-transferase-2 (GST-2) (DmGSTS1-1) is a class II enzyme previously found associated specifically with the insect indirect flight muscle. It was recently shown that GST-2 exhibits considerable conjugation activity for 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a lipid peroxidation product, raising the possibility that it has a major anti-oxidant role in the flight muscle. Here, we report the crystal structure of GST-2 at 1.75A resolution. The GST-2 dimer shows the canonical GST fold with glutathione (GSH) ordered in only one of the two binding sites. While the GSH-binding mode is similar to other GST structures, a distinct orientation of helix alpha6 creates a novel electrophilic substrate-binding site (H-site) topography, largely flat and without a prominent hydrophobic-binding pocket, which characterizes the H-sites of other GSTs. The H-site displays directionality in the distribution of charged/polar and hydrophobic residues creating a binding surface that explains the selectivity for amphipolar peroxidation products, with the polar-binding region formed by residues Y208, Y153 and R145 and the hydrophobic-binding region by residues V57, A59, Y211 and the C-terminal V249. A structure-based model of 4-HNE binding is presented. The model suggest that residues Y208, R145 and possibly Y153 may be key residues involved in catalysis.

  4. High intensity interval training in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation in physically active men

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Silva, Ana Angélica; Moreira, Eduardo; de Melo-Marins, Denise; Schöler, Cinthia M.; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of circulating markers of lipid and protein oxidation following an incremental test to exhaustion before and after 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat. Methods. To address this question, 16 physically active men (age = 23 ± 2 years; body mass = 73 ± 12 kg; height = 173 ± 6 cm; % body fat = 12.5 ± 6 %; body mass index = 24 ± 4 kg/m2) were allocated into 2 groups: control group (n = 8) performing high-intensity interval training at 22°C, 55% relative humidity and heat group (n = 8) training under 35°C, 55% relative humidity. Both groups performed high-intensity interval training 3 times per week for 4 consecutive weeks, accumulating a total of 12 training sessions. Before and after the completion of 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training, participants performed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion under temperate environment (22°C, 55% relative humidity) where blood samples were collected after the test for determination of exercise-induced changes in oxidative damage biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive species and protein carbonyls). Results. When high-intensity interval training was performed under control conditions, there was an increase in protein carbonyls (p < 0.05) following the incremental test to exhaustion with no changes in thiobarbituric acid reactive species. Conversely, high-intensity interval training performed in high environmental temperature enhanced the incremental exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (p < 0.05) with no changes in protein carbonyls. Conclusion. In conclusion, 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation following a maximal incremental exercise in healthy active men. PMID:27227083

  5. High intensity interval training in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Souza-Silva, Ana Angélica; Moreira, Eduardo; de Melo-Marins, Denise; Schöler, Cinthia M; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of circulating markers of lipid and protein oxidation following an incremental test to exhaustion before and after 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat. Methods. To address this question, 16 physically active men (age = 23 ± 2 years; body mass = 73 ± 12 kg; height = 173 ± 6 cm; % body fat = 12.5 ± 6 %; body mass index = 24 ± 4 kg/m(2)) were allocated into 2 groups: control group (n = 8) performing high-intensity interval training at 22°C, 55% relative humidity and heat group (n = 8) training under 35°C, 55% relative humidity. Both groups performed high-intensity interval training 3 times per week for 4 consecutive weeks, accumulating a total of 12 training sessions. Before and after the completion of 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training, participants performed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion under temperate environment (22°C, 55% relative humidity) where blood samples were collected after the test for determination of exercise-induced changes in oxidative damage biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive species and protein carbonyls). Results. When high-intensity interval training was performed under control conditions, there was an increase in protein carbonyls (p < 0.05) following the incremental test to exhaustion with no changes in thiobarbituric acid reactive species. Conversely, high-intensity interval training performed in high environmental temperature enhanced the incremental exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (p < 0.05) with no changes in protein carbonyls. Conclusion. In conclusion, 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation following a maximal incremental exercise in healthy active men.

  6. Early life undernutrition alters the level of reduced glutathione but not the activity levels of reactive oxygen species enzymes or lipid peroxidation in the mouse forebrain.

    PubMed

    Partadiredja, G; Worrall, S; Bedi, K S

    2009-08-18

    Diet restriction of rodents during adult life is known to cause an increased life span. It has been hypothesised that this increase may be related to effects on the anti-oxidant defence systems. However, it has been suggested that undernutrition during the gestation and pre-weaning may reduce their life span as it is known to have other deleterious effects on a rodent's growth and development. We have now examined the activity levels of some anti-oxidant defence system enzymes and other markers of oxidative stress in mice that have been undernourished from conception until 21 postnatal days of age, followed in some cases by a period of nutritional rehabilitation until 61 days of age. We found that such undernutrition exerted only minimal effects on oxidative stress markers under investigation (ROS enzyme activities, GSH levels, and lipid peroxidation). Only GSH levels were significantly affected by pre-weaning undernutrition. In conclusion, pre-weaning undernutrition may regulate anti-oxidant enzymes at the transcriptional level differently from that at the post-transcriptional, translational, or post-translational levels. The possible effects that these changes at the cellular level, may have on the longevity of the animals remain of great interest and importance.

  7. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activities and stress protein (HSP72/73, GRP94) expression in kidney and liver of rats under lithium treatment.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Riadh; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Bourogaa, Ezzedine; Saoudi, Monji; Murat, Jean-Claude; Croute, Françoise; Elfeki, Abdelfettah

    2012-03-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the effects of a subchronic lithium treatment on rat liver and kidneys, paying attention to the relationship between lithium toxicity, oxidative stress, and stress protein expression. Male rats were submitted to lithium treatment by adding 2 g of lithium carbonate/kg of food for different durations up to 1 month. This treatment led to serum concentrations ranging from 0.5 mM (day 7) to 1.34 mM (day 28) and renal insufficiency highlighted by an increase of blood creatinine and urea levels and a decrease of urea excretion. Lithium treatment was found to trigger an oxidative stress both in kidney and liver, leading to an increase of lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Conversely, glutathione peroxidase activity was reduced. Constitutive HSP73 (heat shock protein 73) expression was not modified by lithium treatment, whereas inducible HSP72 was down-regulated in kidney. GRP94 (glucose regulated protein 94) appeared as two isoforms of 92 and 98 kDa: the 98-kDa protein being overexpressed in kidney by lithium treatment whereas 92-kDa protein was underexpressed both in kidney and liver.

  8. Effects of water-saving superabsorbent polymer on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in corn (Zea mays L.) under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Robiul; Hu, Yuegao; Mao, Sishuai; Jia, Pengfei; Eneji, A Egrinya; Xue, Xuzhang

    2011-03-30

    Drought is the most important abiotic stress factor limiting corn (Zea mays L.) growth and productivity. Therefore efficient management of soil moisture and study of metabolic changes in response to drought are important for improved production of corn. The objective of the present study was to gain a better understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms and improve soil water management strategies using a water-saving superabsorbent polymer (SAP) at 30 kg ha(-1) under three irrigation levels (adequate, moderate and deficit) using a new type of hydraulic pressure-controlled auto-irrigator. The results showed that relative water content and leaf water potential were much higher in corn treated with SAP. Although application of SAP reduced biomass accumulation by 11.1% under adequate irrigation, it increased the biomass markedly by 39.0% under moderate irrigation and 98.7% under deficit irrigation. Plants treated with SAP under deficit irrigation showed a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in leaves compared with control plants. The results of this study suggest that drought stress causes the production of oxygen radicals, leading to increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in plants, and the application of a superabsorbent polymer could conserve soil water, making it available to plants for quenching oxidative stress and increasing biomass accumulation, especially under severe water stress. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effects of water-saving superabsorbent polymer on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in oat (Avena sativa L.) under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Robiul; Xue, Xuzhang; Mao, Sishuai; Ren, Changzhong; Eneji, A Egrinya; Hu, Yuegao

    2011-03-15

    Drought stress significantly limits oat (Avena sativa L.) growth and productivity. Thus an efficient management of soil moisture and study of metabolic changes in response to drought are important for improved production of oat. The objective was to gain a better understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms and improve soil water management strategies using water-saving superabsorbent polymer (SAP) at 60 kg ha(-1) under three irrigation levels (adequate, moderate and deficit) using a new type of hydraulic pressure-controlled auto irrigator. The results showed that the relative water content and leaf water potential (ψ(1) ) were much higher in oats treated with SAP. Although the SAP had little effect on plant biomass accumulation under adequate and moderate irrigation, it significantly increased the biomass by 52.7% under deficit irrigation. Plants treated with SAP under deficit irrigation showed a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in leaves compared with control plants. Our results suggested that drought stress leads to production of oxygen radicals, which results in increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the plant, and the application of SAP could conserve soil water, making same available to plants for increased biomass accumulation and reduced oxidative stress especially under severe water stress. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Lipid peroxidation induced by trichloroethylene in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Keiki; Hobara, Tatuya; Kobayashi, Haruo; Ishiyama, Hironobu; Gotoh, Masayuki; Imamura, Akihisa; Egami, Norio )

    1991-03-01

    It is well-known that trichloroethylene (TRI) is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 to TRI oxide, which binds irreversibly to cell macromolecules to generates hepatic damage. TRI oxide was metabolized to Chloral and Chloral hydrate, as an intramolecular rearrangement product of TRI oxide. However, recent studies have demonstrated that TRI oxide is not an obligate intermediate in the conversion of TRI to chloral. Therefore, there is no satisfactory explanation about the hepatic toxicity of TRI. On the other hand, the hepatic toxicity of halogenated compounds, may be closely related to lipid peroxidation, TRI enhances carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in association with lipid peroxidation. In this report, the authors studied the effect of TRI on lipid peroxidation in vivo and in vitro.

  11. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder. PMID:25582173

  12. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-05-01

    Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder.

  13. Induced lipid peroxidation in ram sperm: semen profile, DNA fragmentation and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Thais Rose dos Santos; de Castro, Letícia Signori; Delgado, Juliana de Carvalho; de Assis, Patrícia Monken; Siqueira, Adriano Felipe Perez; Mendes, Camilla Mota; Goissis, Marcelo Demarchi; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José Álvaro; Nichi, Marcílio; Visintin, José Antonio; D'Ávila Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz

    2016-04-01

    Action of reactive oxygen species, protamination failures and apoptosis are considered the most important etiologies of sperm DNA fragmentation. This study evaluated the effects of induced lipid peroxidation susceptibility on native semen profile and identified the mechanisms involved in sperm DNA fragmentation and testicular antioxidant defense on Santa Ines ram sperm samples. Semen was collected from 12 adult rams (Ovis aries) performed weekly over a 9-week period. Sperm analysis (motility, mass motility, abnormalities, membrane and acrosome status, mitochondrial potential, DNA fragmentation, lipid peroxidation and intracellular free radicals production); protamine deficiency; PRM1, TNP1 and TNP2 gene expression; and determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase activity and immunodetection in seminal plasma were performed. Samples were distributed into four groups according to the sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation after induction with ascorbate and ferrous sulfate (low, medium, high and very high). The results were analyzed by GLM test and post hoc least significant difference. We observed an increase in native GPx activity and CAT immunodetection in groups with high susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. We also found an increase in total sperm defects, acrosome and membrane damages in the group with the highest susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. Additionally, the low mitochondrial membrane potential, susceptible to chromatin fragmentation and the PRM1 mRNA were increased in the group showing higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Ram sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation may compromise sperm quality and interfere with the oxidative homeostasis by oxidative stress, which may be the main cause of chromatin damage in ram sperm. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  14. Cumene peroxide and Fe(2+)-ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation and effect of phosphoglucose isomerase.

    PubMed

    Agadjanyan, Z S; Dugin, S F; Dmitriev, L F

    2006-09-01

    Malondialdehyde (MDA) is one of cytotoxic aldehydes produced in cells as a result of lipid peroxidation and further MDA metabolism in cytoplasm is not known. In our experiments the liver fraction 10,000 g containing phosphoglucose isomerase and enzymes of the glyoxalase system was used and obtained experimental data shows that in this fraction there is an aggregate of reactions taking place both in membranes (lipid peroxidation) and outside membranes. MDA accumulation is relatively slow because MDA is a substrate of aldehyde isomerase (MDA <--> methylglyoxal). The well known enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase acts as an aldehyde isomerase (Michaelis constant for this enzyme Km = 133 +/- 8 microM). MDA conversion to methylglyoxal and further to neutral product D-lactate (with GSH as a cofactor) occurs in cytoplasm and D-lactate should be regarded as the end product of two different parametabolic reactions: lipid peroxidation or protein glycation.

  15. Novel interference in thiobarbituric acid assay for lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, W A; Baker, N; Hill, V A; Wright, E T

    1975-05-01

    The thiobarbituric acid test for lipid peroxidation, when applied to a mixture of acetaldehyde and sucrose, produces a 532 nm aborbing chromogen which is indistinguishable from that formed by malonaldehyde and thiobarbituric acid. Unless special procedures are adopted to correct for this effect, the combined action of acetaldehyde and sucrose interferes seriously with the assay of lipid peroxidation reactions, notably those implicated in alcohol-induced liver injuries. However, this unusual thiobarbituric acid effect also can be used as a sensitive method for the detection of acetaldehyde.

  16. Effect of asbestos on lipid peroxidation in the red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, S; Anca, Z

    1975-01-01

    In vitro exposure of red cells to vie International Union against Cancer (UICC) standard reference asbestos samples resulted in an increase of thiobarbituric acid substances. Chrysotiles developed the largest amounts of lipid peroxides, followed by anthophyllite, amosite, and crocidolite in decreasing order. Compared with the control samples erythrocytes free of dusts, all types of the asbestos examined disclosed significant differences. The results obtained provide support for the cytotoxic potential of amosite and crocidolite and, on the other hand, suggest that a lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids may be involved in the mechanisms(s) of membrane-damaging effects of asbestos dusts. PMID:1125126

  17. Interrelationship of antioxidative status, lipid peroxidation, and lipid profile in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Cimbaljević, Branko; Vasilijević, Ana; Cimbaljević, Slavica; Buzadzić, Biljana; Korać, Aleksandra; Petrović, Vesna; Janković, Aleksandra; Korać, Bato

    2007-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interrelationship of plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and erythrocyte antioxidative defense in patients with insulin-dependent (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM) diabetes mellitus. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipid peroxides and the activities of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), as well as the amount of glutathione in erythrocytes, were determined in IDDM, NIDDM, and nondiabetic control subjects. Additionally, morphology of erythrocytes in all subjects was examined. Plasma levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in NIDDM compared with controls. Also, the lipid peroxide level was higher in NIDDM than in either control or IDDM subjects. CuZnSOD activity in erythrocytes was elevated in NIDDM patients compared with the control. In NIDDM patients, more extensive erythrocyte spherocytosis and echinocytosis compared with both control and IDDM subjects were observed. In contrast with the IDDM group, the observed abnormality in lipid metabolism in NIDDM patients is closely associated with increased lipid peroxidation, changes in antioxidative defense, and erythrocyte morphology.

  18. Effects of diffusible products of peroxidation of rat liver microsomal lipids

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Angelo; Casini, Alessandro F.; Ferrali, Marco; Comporti, Mario

    1979-01-01

    The effects on cellular structures of products of peroxidation of rat liver microsomal lipids were investigated. A system containing actively peroxidizing liver microsomal fraction was separated from a revealing or target system by a dialysis membrane. The target system, contained in the dialysis tube, consisted of either intact cells (erythrocytes) or subcellular fractions (liver microsomal fraction). When liver microsomal fractions were incubated with NADPH (or an NADPH-generating system), lipid peroxidation, as measured by the amount of malonaldehyde formed, occurred very rapidly. The malon-aldehyde concentration tended to equilibrate across the dialysis membrane. When the target system consisted of erythrocytes, haemolysis occurred abruptly after a lag phase. The lysis was greatly accelerated when erythrocytes from vitamin E-deficient rats were used, but no haemolysis was observed when erythrocytes from vitamin E-treated rats were used. When, in the same system, freshly prepared liver microsomal fractions were exposed to diffusible factors produced by lipid peroxidation, the glucose 6-phosphatase activity markedly decreased. A similar decrease in glucose 6-phosphatase activity, as well as a smaller but significant decrease in cytochrome P-450, was observed when the target microsomal fractions were exposed to diffusible factors derived from the peroxidation of liver microsomal lipids in a separate preincubation step. These and additional experiments indicated that the toxicological activity is relatively stable. Experiments in which the hepatic microsomal fractions destined for lipid peroxidation contained radioactively labelled arachidonic acid, previously incorporated into the membranes, showed that part of the radioactivity released from the microsomal fraction into the incubation medium entered the dialysis tube and was recovered bound to the constituents of the microsomal fractions of the target system. These results indicate that during the course of the

  19. Induction of lipid peroxidation by hexachlorocyclohexane, dieldrin, TCDD, carbon tetrachloride, and hexachlorobenzene in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, M.R.; Shara, M.A.; Stohs, S.J.

    1988-02-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCCH) and dieldrin are all halogenated lipophilic environmental contaminants. A common biologic property of these compounds is their ability to induce hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, exposure of laboratory animals to these xenobiotics elicits a number of similar effects including porphyria, hypothyroidism, a wasting syndrome and lethality. Perturbation of membrane lipids and lipid peroxidation may be responsible for at least part of the toxic effects of HCCH. TCDD has been shown to induce lipid peroxidation in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues. Based on the similar toxic manifestations of HCB, HCCH, TCDD and dieldrin, the authors have examined the effects of these xenobiotics on hepatic lipid peroxidation following an acutely toxic dose. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by determining the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in the liver, employing malondialdehyde as the standard. Animals were also treated with carbon tetrachloride, a well know inducer of lipid peroxidation, as a positive control. Furthermore, the ability of these xenobiotics to inhibit selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSHPX) activity was determined.

  20. Effect of Yerbimat herbicide on lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, and histological damage in gills and liver of the freshwater fish Goodea atripinnis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Ordoñez, Esperanza; Uría-Galicia, Esther; Ruiz-Picos, Ricardo Arturo; Duran, Angela Georgina Sánchez; Trejo, Yoseline Hernández; Sedeño-Díaz, Jacinto Elías; López-López, Eugenia

    2011-10-01

    The use of herbicides for agricultural and aquatic weed control has increased worldwide. These substances are potentially toxic pollutants because they induce the production of reactive oxygen species for biological systems and exert oxidative stress in nontarget organisms living in the treated aquatic systems. Recent evidence suggests differences in the toxicity of glyphosate in the form of an active ingredient compared to the toxicity of glyphosate in combination with surfactants, such as those found in commercial formulations. In Mexico, one of the most widely used glyphosate-based herbicides is Yerbimat, which has agricultural as well as aquatic weed control applications. However, there are no aquatic toxicity data, particularly regarding native fish. Therefore, we determined the acute toxicity of commercial-formulation Yerbimat in a static bioassay at 96 h (LC(50)). We also determined its toxicity at 96 h in sublethal concentrations to assess the lipid peroxidation levels (LPX), catalase activity, hepatic glycogen content, and histological damage in the liver and gills of the fish Goodea atripinnis associated with chronic exposure (75 days). The LC(50) was 38.95 ± 0.33 mg/L. The results of the short-term exposure study indicate that Yerbimat can potentially induce oxidative stress in G. atripinnis, because LPX was increased in the gills and liver. Catalase activity was reduced in the gills but increased in the liver, whereas hepatic glycogen was depleted. Chronic exposure was associated with histopathological damage in the gills and liver, some of which was irreversible. Yerbimat represents a potential risk for aquatic biota; therefore, we recommend that its application be carefully considered. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  1. Carvedilol inhibition of lipid peroxidation. A new antioxidative mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tadolini, B; Franconi, F

    1998-11-01

    To define the molecular mechanism(s) of carvedilol inhibition of lipid peroxidation we have utilized model systems that allow us to study the different reactions involved in this complex process. Carvedilol inhibits the peroxidation of sonicated phosphatidylcholine liposomes triggered by FeCl2 addition whereas atenolol, pindolol and labetalol are ineffective. The inhibition proved not to be ascribable (a) to an effect on Fe2+ autoxidation and thus on the generation of oxygen derived radical initiators; (b) to the scavenging of the inorganic initiators O2*- and *OH; (c) to an effect on the reductive cleavage of organic hydroperoxides by FeCl2; (d) to the scavenging of organic initiators. The observations that (a) carvedilol effectiveness is inversely proportional to the concentration of FeCl2 and lipid hydroperoxides in the assay; (b) the drug prevents the onset of lipid peroxidation stimulated by FeCl3 addition and; (c) it can form a complex with Fe3+, suggest a molecular mechanism for carvedilol action. It may inhibit lipid peroxidation by binding the Fe3+ generated during the oxidation of Fe2+ by lipid hydroperoxides in the substrate. The lag time that carvedilol introduces in the peroxidative process would correspond to the time taken for carvedilol to be titrated by Fe3+; when the drug is consumed the Fe3+ accumulates to reach the critical parameter that stimulates peroxidation. According to this molecular mechanism the antioxidant potency of carvedilol can be ascribed to its ability to bind a species, Fe3+, that is a catalyst of the process and to its lipophilic nature that concentrates it in the membranes where Fe3+ is generated by a site specific mechanism.

  2. Age-related changes of antioxidant enzyme activities, glutathione status and lipid peroxidation in rat erythrocytes after heat stress.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Oğuz; Gümüşlü, Saadet

    2004-08-13

    The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to heat stress would lead to oxidative stress and whether this effect varied with different exposure periods. We kept 1-, 6- and 12-month-old male Wistar rats at an ambient temperature of either 22 degrees C or 40 degrees C for 3 and 7 days and measured glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in erythrocytes and determined GSH/GSSG ratio, total glutathione and the redox index. G-6-PD and CAT activities were found to be significantly increased in 1- and 6-month-old rats after 3 and 7 days of heat stress, but G-6-PD activities decreased in 12-month-old rats. Cu, Zn-SOD activity decreased in 1-month-old rats after heat stress, whereas it increased in 6- and 12-month-old rats. GST activity increased in all groups. GSH and total GSH levels and GSH/GSSG ratios decreased in 1- and 6-month-old rats but they increased in 12-month-old rats after heat stress. GSSG levels increased in 1- and 6-month-old rats but decreased in 12-month-old rats after heat stress. TBARS levels increased in all groups. Seven days of stress is more effective in altering enzyme activities and levels of GSH, GSSG and TBARS. When the effects of both heat stress and aging were examined together, it was interesting to note that they mostly influenced G-6-PD activity.

  3. The protective effect of Aloysia triphylla aqueous extracts against brain lipid-peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Lasagni Vitar, Romina M; Reides, Claudia G; Ferreira, Sandra M; Llesuy, Susana F

    2014-03-01

    In a normal diet, the use of herbs may contribute significantly to the total intake of plant antioxidants and even be a better source of dietary antioxidants than many other food groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extracts of Aloysia triphylla (infusion and decoction) against lipid-peroxidation of brain homogenates and to determine changes in the prooxidant/antioxidant balance when the plant material is added. In order to elucidate a possible antioxidant mechanism in vitro evaluation of total antioxidant capacity, oxygen species scavenging ability and reducing power (RP) were studied. Tested extracts had shown a strong inhibition of lipid-peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive products of lipid-peroxidation (TBARS) and chemiluminescence. Furthermore, infusion and decoction exhibited free radical trapping ability, expressed by the capacity to scavenge superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Additionally, both aqueous extracts presented antioxidant activity measured as total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS) scavenging activity and RP. These results suggest that the lipid-peroxidation inhibition mechanism proposed is that the antioxidants present in Aloysia triphylla could act as strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species not only at the initiation of the lipid-peroxidation chain reaction, but also at the propagation step. Therefore, they could be used as prophylactic and therapeutic agents for those diseases where the occurrence of oxidative stress and lipid-peroxidation contributes to the progression of damage.

  4. Increased erythrocyte lipid peroxidation in hereditary xerocytosis.

    PubMed

    Harm, W; Fortier, N L; Lutz, H U; Fairbanks, G; Snyder, L M

    1979-12-03

    Xerocytosis is a chronic hemolytic anemia with abnormal membrane function manifested by an increase in passive potassium permeability. Xerocytes demonstrate a greater susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide manifested by the production of malondialdehyde (MDA). Xerocyte membrane phospholipid and fatty acid analysis is normal except for a slight increase in phosphatidyl choline, a commensurate decrease in sphingomyelin, as well as a decrease in linoleic acid. Metabolism and glutathione stability are normal as well as plasma vitamin E levels in patients with xerocytosis. The increased susceptibility to oxidant stress is exaggerated in the "older aged" xerocyte population and correlated well with decreased intracellular potassium concentration.

  5. [Lipid peroxidation indices in children with congenital cleft palate].

    PubMed

    Nagirnyĭ, Ia P

    1989-01-01

    Observed were 66 children with congenital palate clefts and a control group of 25 children. The data suggest that the disease involves the lipid peroxidation disorders and impairment of the antioxydative defence. The results can be used for designing the antioxydant and membrane-stabilizing therapies in out-patient departments.

  6. Lipid peroxidation, proteins modifications, anti-oxidant enzymes activities and selenium deficiency in the plasma of hashitoxicosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Mseddi, Malek; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Mnif, Fatma; Gargouri, Bochra; Abid, Mohamed; Guermazi, Fadhel; Attia, Hamadi; Lassoued, Saloua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the oxidative stress profile in hashitoxicosis (HTX) and to compare it with that of healthy subjects. Patients and methods: Spectrophotometric methods were used to evaluate the oxidative stress markers. The selenium level was investigated by atomic absorption. Results: High levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and conjugated dienes were found in HTX patients (p = 0.034 and p = 0.043, respectively) compared with healthy controls. For antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities increased, whereas that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased (p = 0.000, p = 0.014, p = 0.000, respectively) compared with controls. A reduction in the level of selenium (p = 0.029) and thiol groups (p = 0.008) were shown in patients; however, levels of carbonyl group and malondialdehyde (MDA) protein adducts decreased (p = 0.000) compared with controls. Positive correlation was shown between levels of free thyroxine (FT4) and TBARS (r = 0.711, p = 0.048) and between FT4 level and SOD activity (r = 0.713, p = 0.047). Conversely, GPx activity presented a negative correlation with FT4 and free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels (r = –0.934, p = 0.001; r = –0.993, p = 0.000, respectively). In addition, GPx activity showed positive correlation with selenium level (r = 0.981, p = 0.019) and the FT3 level correlated negatively with the level of thiol groups (r = –0.892, p = 0.017). Conclusions: This study shows the presence of an oxidative stress and selenium deficiency in HTX patients and suggests that the hyperthyroid state is strongly implicated in the establishment of this disturbed oxidative profile. PMID:26445640

  7. Pre-weaning undernutrition alters the expression levels of reactive oxygen species enzymes but not their activity levels or lipid peroxidation in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Partadiredja, G; Worrall, S; Simpson, R; Bedi, K S

    2008-07-30

    It has been hypothesised that the increased life span commonly observed in rodents that have had their diet restricted after weaning may be related to its effects on the anti-oxidant defence systems. However, undernutrition during the gestation and pre-weaning period is known to have long-term deleterious effects on a rodent's growth and development, and it has been suggested that this may reduce their life span. We have now examined some of the anti-oxidant defence system in rats that have been undernourished from conception until 21 postnatal days-of-age, followed in some cases by a period of nutritional rehabilitation until 62 days of age. We found that such undernutrition could modulate the mRNA expression of Cu/ZnSOD and catalase in some brain regions. However, only catalase showed any undernutrition-induced change of enzyme activity level. There was some evidence that undernourished (but not control) rats had an age-related increase in the level of lipid peroxidation between 21 and 62 days of age, although the group x age interaction was not statistically significant. There was no significant change in the level of reduced glutathione induced by the pre-weaning period of undernutrition. If ROS and the extent of oxidative damage are truly implicated in the determination of life span, our results indicate that this is unlikely to be markedly affected by the relatively small changes we have observed in the anti-oxidant defence systems induced by undernutrition of rats from conception until weaning.

  8. [Activity of lipid peroxidation processes and the condition of antioxidative defense system in children with rheumatic fever].

    PubMed

    Shanidze, E; Zhvania, M

    2005-10-01

    Aim of study consists of establishing of some clinical-biological correlates for rheumatic fever (RF) in children, namely correlations between clinical status and lipoperoxidation products -- malonidialdehide (MDA) and antioxidative enzymes in the blood. In the neutralization process of superoxside anions ceruloplazmin (CP), catalase (CAT) and transferin (TF) are key antioxidant enzymes (AOE) of antioxidative defense system (AOD). We studied 38 patients 3-15 years of age with different variants of RF. We measured the levels of MDA, CAT, CP, TF in the plasma in patients with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD). In all of our cases AOE (CAT, CP, TF) were high at time of diagnosis, concomitant with increased MDA and inflammatory tests. Our study revealed intensified activity of AOD enzymes in children with RF.

  9. Effect of genistein against copper-induced lipid peroxidation of human high density lipoproteins (HDL).

    PubMed

    Ferretti, G; Bacchetti, T; Menanno, F; Curatola, G

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the isoflavone genistein exerts a protective effect against lipid peroxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL). Aim of our study was to investigate whether genistein protects high density lipoproteins (HDL), isolated from normolipemic subjects, against Cu(++)-induced lipid peroxidation. Our results demonstrated that genistein exerts an inhibitory effect against Cu(++)-induced lipid peroxidation of HDL, as shown by the lower increase in the levels of conjugated dienes in lipoproteins oxidized after preincubation with different concentrations of genistein (0.5-2.5microM). Moreover the analysis of fluorescence emission spectra of tryptophan (Trp) and Laurdan (6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethyl-aminonaphthalene) demonstrated that genistein prevents the alterations of apoprotein structure and physico-chemical properties, associated with Cu(++)-triggered lipid peroxidation of lipoproteins. The protective effect exerted by genistein against oxidative damage of lipoproteins was realized at concentrations similar to those observed in plasma of human subjects consuming a traditional soy diet or receiving a soy supplement. Therefore, we suggested that antioxidant activity exerted by genistein against lipid peroxidation of HDL in vitro could be of physiological relevance.

  10. NADPH- and linoleic acid hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation and destruction of cytochrome P-450 in hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Iba, M M; Mannering, G J

    1987-05-01

    Temporal aspects of the effects of inhibitors on hepatic cytochrome P-450 destruction and lipid peroxidation induced by NADPH and linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LAHP) were compared. In the absence of added Fe2+, NADPH-induced lipid peroxidation in hepatic microsomes exhibited a slow phase followed by a fast phase. The addition of Fe2+ eliminated the slow phase, thus demonstrating that iron is a rate-limiting component in the reaction. EDTA, which complexes iron, and p-chloromercurobenzoate (pCMB), which inhibits NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, inhibited both phases of the reaction. Catalase as well as scavengers of hydroxyl radical, inhibited NADPH-induced lipid peroxidation almost completely. GSH also inhibited the NADPH-dependent reaction but only when added at the beginning of the reaction. In contrast with NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation, the autocatalytic reaction induced by LAHP was not biphasic, NADPH-dependent or iron-dependent, nor was it inhibited by hydroxyl radical scavengers, catalase or GSH. A synergistic effect on lipid peroxidation was observed when both NADPH and LAHP were added to microsomes. It is concluded that both the fast and slow phases of NADPH-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation are catalyzed enzymatically and are dependent upon Fe2+, whereas LAHP-dependent lipid peroxidation is autocatalytic. Since the fast phase of enzymatic lipid peroxidation occurred during the fast phase of destruction of cytochrome P-450, it is postulated that iron made available from cytochrome P-450 is sufficient to promote optimal lipid peroxidation. Since catalase and hydroxyl radical scavengers inhibited NADPH-dependent but not LAHP-dependent lipid peroxidation, it is concluded that the hydroxyl radical derived from H2O2 is the initiating active-oxygen species in the enzymatic reaction but not in the autocatalytic reaction.

  11. Nutrient overload, lipid peroxidation and pancreatic beta cell function.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Shlomo

    2017-10-01

    Since the landmark discovery of α,β-unsaturated 4-hydroxyalkenals by Esterbauer and colleagues most studies have addressed the consequences of the tendency of these lipid peroxidation products to form covalent adducts with macromolecules and modify cellular functions. Many studies describe detrimental and cytotoxic effects of 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal (4-HNE) in myriad tissues and organs and many pathologies. Other studies similarly assigned unfavorable effects to 4-hydroxy-2E-hexenal (4-HHE) and 4-hydroxy-2E,6Z-dodecadienal (4-HDDE). Nutrient overload (e.g., hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia) modifies lipid metabolism in cells and promotes lipid peroxidation and the generation of α,β-unsaturated 4-hydroxyalkenals. Advances glycation- and lipoxidation end products (AGEs and ALEs) have been associated with the development of insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and the etiology of type 2 diabetes and its peripheral complications. Less acknowledged are genuine signaling properties of 4-hydroxyalkenals in hormetic processes that provide defense against the consequences of nutrient overload. This review addresses recent findings on such lipohormetic mechanisms that are associated with lipid peroxidation in pancreatic beta cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: LIPID OXIDATION PRODUCTS, edited by Giuseppe Poli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of cold acclimation on GSH, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Barja de Quiroga, G; López-Torres, M; Pérez-Campo, R; Abelenda, M; Paz Nava, M; Puerta, M L

    1991-01-01

    Cold acclimation increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, total and selenium (Se)-dependent glutathione peroxidases (GPx) and glutathione reductase by 2-4-fold in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of cold-acclimated rats. Nevertheless, when expressed per unit protein, the antioxidant enzyme activities were unaltered. Sensitivity to lipid peroxidation and GSH levels both increased by one order of magnitude in the cold on a per weight basis and were still 3-5 times greater in the cold when expressed per mg of protein. We suggest that activation of BAT leads to a large increase in the potential for lipid peroxidation and that the tissue responds to this challenge by increasing practically all of its antioxidant defences. Nevertheless, GSH, and possibly GPx activity, seem to be the principal defences involved in adaptation of the tissue to a higher sensitivity to peroxidative damage after activation. PMID:1854342

  13. Assay to detect lipid peroxidation upon exposure to nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Potter, Timothy M; Neun, Barry W; Stern, Stephan T

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes a method for the analysis of human hepatocarcinoma cells (HEP G2) for lipid peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), following treatment with nanoparticle formulations. Oxidative stress has been identified as a likely mechanism of nanoparticle toxicity, and cell-based in vitro systems for evaluation of nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress are widely considered to be an important component of biocompatibility screens. The products of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides, and aldehydes, such as MDA, can be measured via a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. In this assay, which can be performed in cell culture or in cell lysate, MDA combines with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to form a fluorescent adduct that can be detected at an excitation wavelength of 530 nm and an emission wavelength of 550 nm. The results are then expressed as MDA equivalents, normalized to total cellular protein (determined by Bradford assay).

  14. Peroxidation of tobacco membrane lipids by the photosensitizing toxin, cercosporin.

    PubMed

    Daub, M E

    1982-06-01

    Cercosporin, a nonspecific toxin from Cercospora species, is a photosensitizing compound which rapidly kills plant cells in the light. Cell death appears to be due to a cercosporin-mediated peroxidation of membrane lipids. Tobacco leaf discs treated with cercosporin showed a large increase in electrolyte leakage 1 to 2 minutes after irradiation with light. All tobacco protoplasts exposed to cercosporin in the light were damaged within 45 minutes. Chloroform:methanol extracts of toxin-treated suspension cultures gave positive reactions for lipid hydroperoxides in the thiobarbituric acid test. Cercosporin-treated leaf discs emitted high concentrations of ethane 12 to 24 hours after incubation in the light. Cercosporin also oxidized solutions of methyl linolenate as determined by the thiobarbituric acid assay and the emission of ethane. alpha-Tocopherol had an inhibitory effect on the cercosporin-mediated lipid peroxidation.

  15. Plant water status, ethylene evolution, N(2)-fixing efficiency, antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation in Cicer arietinum L. nodules as affected by short-term salinization and desalinization.

    PubMed

    Nandwal, Ajit Singh; Kukreja, Sarvjeet; Kumar, Neeraj; Sharma, Praveen Kumar; Jain, Monika; Mann, Anita; Singh, Sunder

    2007-09-01

    ethylene in relation to water status and lipid peroxidation and along with other metabolic processes has an important role in induced nodules senescence under salinity.

  16. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of root extract of pepper fruit (Dennetia tripetala), and it's potential for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Okolie, Ngozi Paulinus; Falodun, Abiodun; Davids, Oluseyi

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of ethanolic root extract of pepper fruit (Donnetia tripetala), and its effect on lipid peroxidation of some fresh beef tissues during frozen storage were investigated. The antioxidant parameters were assessed using standard methods, while malondialdehyde levels of different fresh beef tissue sections treated with the extract prior to freezing, were estimated in a colorimetric reaction with thiobarbituric acid. The H2O2-scavenging ability of the extract was similar to that of ascorbic acid, with a maximum scavenging power of 55.61 ±4.98%, and an IC50 value of 86µg/ml. The extract exhibited a concentration-dependent ferric ion-reducing power, although this was significantly lower relative to that of the ascorbic acid (p < 0.05). The total phenolic content was 212.5 ± 0.002 mg/g, while the nitric oxide-scavenging ability was 64.33 ± 0.2% after 150 min. The capacity of the extract to inhibit lipid peroxidation in frozen heart muscle slices was significantly higher than that of vitamin C (p < 0 .05), but comparable to vitamins C and E in frozen testes and kidney slices. These results suggest that the root extract of D. tripetala is rich in antioxidants which can be applied to meat preservation during refrigerated storage.

  17. Effect of grape seed extract on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and peripheral blood lymphocytes in rats exposed to x-radiation.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Hüseyin; Cemek, Mustafa; Karaca, Turan; Unak, Perihan

    2007-11-01

    The present studies were designed to evaluate supplemental grape seed extract (GSE) and vitamin E supplements on lipid peroxidation, on antioxidant systems and peripheral blood lymphocytes in rats exposed to x-rays. Three groups of rats were investigated: a control group (CG) received intraperitoneal (i.p.) physiological serum 1 mL/day (n=10), i.p.; a vitamin E group (VG) received 50 mg/kg/day (n=10); an i.p. grape seed extract group received 50 mg/kg/day (n=10). Four weeks later, a 6 Gy radiation dose was given to the rats. Blood samples were taken 24 h later after irradiation and lymphocyte, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitrate, nitrite, reduced ascorbic acid, retinol, beta-carotene and ceruloplasmin concentrations were analysed. The levels of GSH (p<0.05), retinol (p<0.001), beta-carotene (p<0.05) and ceruloplasmin concentration (p<0.001) in the GSE group were found to be higher than in the control group but the level of MDA (p<0.001) and nitrite concentration (p<0.05) in rats supplemented with GSE were found to be lower than in the control group. The results indicate that GSE enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the incidence of free radical-induced lipid peroxidation in blood samples of rats exposed to x-radiation. The antioxidant effect of GSE given to animals was more effective than vitamin E administered before whole-body irradiation in rats.

  18. Toxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine: Effects on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus (Bloch)

    PubMed Central

    Nwani, Christopher Ddidigwu; Lakra, Wazir Singh; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Kumar, Ravindra; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Srivastava, Satish Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 of atrazine, calculated by probit analysis, were determined to be 77.091, 64.053, 49.100, 44.412 and 42.381 mg·L−1, respectively, in a semi static system with significant difference (p < 0.05) in LC10–90 values obtained for different times of exposure. In addition to concentration and time dependent decrease in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were also observed in response to the test chemical. In fish exposed for 15 days to different sublethal concentrations of the herbicide (1/4 LC50 = ∼10.600 mg·L−1, 1/8 LC50 = ∼5.300 mg·L−1 and 1/10 LC50 = ∼4.238 mg·L−1) induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidence by increased lipid peroxidation levels. The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) responded positively in a concentration dependent pattern, thus, suggesting the use of these antioxidants as potential biomarkers of toxicity associated with contaminations exposure in freshwater fishes. PMID:20948961

  19. Effect of cadmium, copper and mercury on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in the gills of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus.

    PubMed

    Company, R; Serafim, A; Bebianno, M J; Cosson, R; Shillito, B; Fiala-Médioni, A

    2004-01-01

    Metals are known to influence lipid peroxidation and oxidative status of marine organisms. Hydrothermal vent mussels Bathymodiolus azoricus live in deep-sea environments with anomalous conditions, including high metal concentrations. Although B. azoricus are aerobic organisms they possess abundant methano and thioautotrophic symbiotic bacteria in the gills. The enzymatic defences (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (Total GPx) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx)) and lipid peroxidation were determined in the gills of B. azoricus exposed to Cd (0.9 microM), Cu (0.4 microM) and Hg (0.1 microM) with different times of exposure. The experiments were performed in pressurized containers at 9+/-1 degrees C and 85 bars. Results show that vent mussels possess antioxidant enzymatic protection in the gills. Cd and Cu had an inhibitory effect in the enzymatic defence system, contrarily to Hg. These enzymatic systems are not completely understood in the B. azoricus, since reactive oxygen species might be produced through other processes than natural redox cycling, due to hydrogen sulphide and oxygen content present. Also the symbiotic bacteria may play an important contribution in the antioxidant protection of the gills.

  20. Effect of stress-induced lipid peroxidation on functions of rat peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Izgüt-Uysal, V Nimet; Tan, Ruken; Bülbül, Mehmet; Derin, Narin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of stress-induced lipid peroxidation on macrophages' functions. Animals were subjected to 4 h immobilization at 4 degrees C in restraining devices. The peritoneal macrophages obtained from rats exposed to cold and restraint stress exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decline of chemotaxis and phagocytosis compared with control rats. After supplementation with vitamin E, the increment in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content as the oxidative stress marker and the decline of chemotaxis and phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages observed during cold-restraint stress was significantly removed. No significant change in catalase activity of peritoneal macrophages was observed in groups exposed to cold-restraint stress and treated with vitamin E. These findings indicate that phagocytic and chemotactic capacities of peritoneal macrophages are decreased by cold-restraint stress and this effect of stress may be related to lipid peroxidation.

  1. Photoirradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diones by UVA light leading to lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuewei; Xia, Qingsu; Yin, Jun-Jie; Yu, Hongtao; Fu, Peter P

    2011-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous genotoxic environmental pollutants and potentially pose a health risk to humans. In most if not all cases, PAHs in the environment can be oxidized into their corresponding PAH-diones. This process is considered a detoxification pathway with regard to tumorigenicity. Nevertheless, photo-induced toxicological activity of PAH-diones has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we show that 27 potential environmental PAH-diones induced lipid peroxidation, in a dose (light) response manner, when irradiated with UVA at 7 and 21 J cm(-2). Photoirradiation in the presence of sodium azide, deuterated methanol, or superoxide dismutase revealed that lipid peroxidation is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping studies supported this observation. These results suggest that UVA photoirradiation of PAH-diones generates reactive oxygen species and induces lipid peroxidation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effects of high-amount-high-intensity exercise on in vivo platelet activation: modulation by lipid peroxidation and AGE/RAGE axis.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Francesca; Vazzana, Natale; Iodice, Pierpaolo; Lattanzio, Stefano; Liani, Rossella; Bellomo, Rosa Grazia; Lessiani, Gianfranco; Perego, Francesca; Saggini, Raoul; Davì, Giovanni

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction, but the effects of exercise on platelet activation remain controversial. We investigated the effects of regular high-amount, high intensity aerobic exercise on in vivo thromboxane (TX)-dependent platelet activation and plasma levels of platelet-derived proteins, CD40L and P-selectin, and whether platelet variables changes may be related to changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and in the extent of oxidative stress and oxidative stress-related inflammation, as reflected by urinary isoprostane excretion and endogenous soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (esRAGE), respectively. Urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB₂ and 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F(2α) and plasma levels of P-selectin, CD40L and esRAGE were measured before and after a eight-week standardised aerobic high-amount-high-intensity training program in 22 sedentary subjects with low-to-intermediate risk. Exercise training had a clear beneficial effect on HDL cholesterol (+10%, p=0.027) and triglyceride (-27%, p=0.008) concentration. In addition, a significant (p<0.0001) decrease in urinary 11-dehydro-TXB₂ (26%), 8-iso-PGF(2α) (21%), plasma P-selectin (27%), CD40L (35%) and a 61% increase in esRAGE were observed. Multiple regression analysis revealed that urinary 8-iso-PGF(2α) [beta=0.33, SEM=0.116, p=0.027] and esRAGE (beta=-0.30, SEM=31.3, p=0.046) were the only significant predictors of urinary 11-dehydro-TXB₂ excretion rate over the training period. In conclusion, regular high-amount-high-intensity exercise training has broad beneficial effects on platelet activation markers, paralleled and possibly associated with changes in the lipoprotein profile and in markers of lipid peroxidation and AGE/RAGE axis. Our findings may help explaining why a similar amount of exercise exerts significant benefits in preventing cardiovascular events.

  3. On the role of microsomal aldehyde dehydrogenase in metabolism of aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Antonenkov, V D; Pirozhkov, S V; Panchenko, L F

    1987-11-30

    To elucidate a possible role of membrane-bound aldehyde dehydrogenase in the detoxication of aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation, the substrate specificity of the highly purified microsomal enzyme was investigated. The aldehyde dehydrogenase was active with different aliphatic aldehydes including 4-hydroxyalkenals, but did not react with malonic dialdehyde. When Fe/ADP-ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation of arachidonic acid was carried out in an in vitro system, the formation of products which react with microsomal aldehyde dehydrogenase was observed parallel with malonic dialdehyde accumulation.

  4. Lipid peroxidation in the presence of albumin, inhibitory and prooxidative effects.

    PubMed

    Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Gal, Sigal; Schnitzer, Edit; Lichtenberg, Dov; Pinchuk, Ilya

    2004-11-01

    Oxidative modifications of LDL are involved in atherogenesis. Previously we have developed a simple assay to evaluate the susceptibility of lipids to copper-induced peroxidation in the relatively natural milieu of unfractionated serum in the presence of excess citrate. Based on our previous results we have proposed that the inducer of peroxidation in our optimized assay is a copper-citrate complex. Recent investigations indicate that under certain conditions a copper-albumin complex may induce peroxidation of ascorbate. Two different complexes may be formed in albumin-containing systems (e.g. serum) namely 1:1 and 2:1 copper-albumin complexes. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the possibility that at least one of these complexes may be responsible for the induction of peroxidation of lipids in lipidic systems containing copper and albumin, including our optimized assay. Towards this end, we have investigated the dependence of copper-induced peroxidation on the concentration of added albumin in lipidic systems in the absence and presence of citrate. In all the systems investigated in this study (PLPC liposomes, LDL, HDL and mixtures of HDL and LDL) we found that at low concentrations of free copper (e.g. in the presence of excess citrate) the 2:1 copper-albumin complex is redox-active and that this complex is the major contributor to the initiation of lipid peroxidation in these systems and in our optimized assay. The possible relevance of the induction of peroxidation in vivo by the latter complex has yet to be studied.

  5. Membrane lipid peroxidation by UV-A: Mechanism and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, B.; Agarwal, S.; Chatterjee, S.N. )

    1990-10-01

    UV-A produced a dose-dependent linear increase of lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane, as detected by the assay of (i) conjugated dienes, (ii) lipid hydroperoxides, (iii) malondialdehydes (MDA), and (iv) the fluorescent adducts formed by the reaction of MDA with glycine and also a linear dose-dependent increase of ({sup 14}C)glucose efflux from the liposomes. UV-A-induced MDA production could not be inhibited by any significant degree by sodium formate, dimethyl sulfoxide, EDTA, or superoxide dismutase but was very significantly inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene, alpha-tocopherol, sodium azide, L-histidine, dimethylfuran, and beta-carotene. MDA formation increased with an increase in the D{sub 2}O content in water, leading to a maximal amount of nearly 50% enhancement of lipid peroxidation in 100% D{sub 2}O vis-a-vis water used as dispersion medium. The experimental findings indicate the involvement of singlet oxygen as the initiator of the UV-A-induced lipid peroxidation.

  6. [Status of the lipid peroxidation system in the tissues of rats following a 7-day flight on the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Delenian, N V; Markin, A A

    1989-01-01

    Rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were for the first time used to measure antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase), lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases) and tocopherol. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the heart was completely compensated by activation of antioxidative enzymes. The content of all lipid peroxidation products measured in the liver increased; this was accompanied by a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of superoxide dismutase activities. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation was activated in response to altered gravity.

  7. A spectrophotometric assay for lipid peroxides in serum lipoproteins using a commercially available reagent.

    PubMed

    el-Saadani, M; Esterbauer, H; el-Sayed, M; Goher, M; Nassar, A Y; Jürgens, G

    1989-04-01

    A method is described for measuring lipid peroxides by means of the color reagent of a commercially available test kit for cholesterol estimation. In principle, this assay makes use of the oxidative capacity of lipid peroxides to convert iodide to iodine, which can be measured photometrically at 365 nm. Calibration curves were obtained using peroxides such as H2O2, t-butyl hydroperoxide, and cumene hydroperoxide. A stoichiometric relationship was observed between the amount of organic peroxides assayed and the concentration of iodine produced. Concentrations of lipid peroxides as small as 1 nmol/ml could be measured. The ability to estimate lipid peroxides of isolated low density lipoprotein was demonstrated.

  8. Lipid peroxidation: pathophysiological and pharmacological implications in the eye

    PubMed Central

    Njie-Mbye, Ya Fatou; Kulkarni-Chitnis, Madhura; Opere, Catherine A.; Barrett, Aaron; Ohia, Sunny E.

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen-derived free radicals such as hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl species have been shown to oxidize phospholipids and other membrane lipid components leading to lipid peroxidation. In the eye, lipid peroxidation has been reported to play an important role in degenerative ocular diseases (age-related macular degeneration, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy). Indeed, ocular tissues are prone to damage from reactive oxygen species due to stress from constant exposure of the eye to sunlight, atmospheric oxygen and environmental chemicals. Furthermore, free radical catalyzed peroxidation of long chain polyunsaturated acids (LCPUFAs) such as arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid leads to generation of LCPUFA metabolites including isoprostanes and neuroprostanes that may further exert pharmacological/toxicological actions in ocular tissues. Evidence from literature supports the presence of endogenous defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species in the eye, thereby presenting new avenues for the prevention and treatment of ocular degeneration. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and synthetic peroxides can exert pharmacological and toxicological effects on tissues of the anterior uvea of several mammalian species. There is evidence suggesting that the retina, especially retinal ganglion cells can exhibit unique characteristics of antioxidant defense mechanisms. In the posterior segment of the eye, H2O2 and synthetic peroxides produce an inhibitory action on glutamate release (using [3H]-D-aspartate as a marker), in vitro and on the endogenous glutamate and glycine concentrations in vivo. In addition to peroxides, isoprostanes can elicit both excitatory and inhibitory effects on norepinephrine (NE) release from sympathetic nerves in isolated mammalian iris ciliary bodies. Whereas isoprostanes attenuate dopamine release from mammalian neural retina, in vitro, these novel arachidonic acid metabolites exhibit a biphasic regulatory effect on glutamate release from retina and

  9. CISD1 inhibits ferroptosis by protection against mitochondrial lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hua; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Xiuying; Kang, Rui; Tang, Daolin

    2016-09-16

    Ferroptosis is a form of non-apoptotic cell death originally identified in cancer cells. However, the key regulator of ferroptosis in mitochondria remains unknown. Here, we show that CDGSH iron sulfur domain 1 (CISD1, also termed mitoNEET), an iron-containing outer mitochondrial membrane protein, negatively regulates ferroptotic cancer cell death. The classical ferroptosis inducer erastin promotes CISD1 expression in an iron-dependent manner in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (e.g., HepG2 and Hep3B). Genetic inhibition of CISD1 increased iron-mediated intramitochondrial lipid peroxidation, which contributes to erastin-induced ferroptosis. In contrast, stabilization of the iron sulfur cluster of CISD1 by pioglitazone inhibits mitochondrial iron uptake, lipid peroxidation, and subsequent ferroptosis. These findings indicate a novel role of CISD1 in protecting against mitochondrial injury in ferroptosis.

  10. Lipid peroxidation, hemolysis and antioxidant enzymes of erythrocytes in stroke.

    PubMed

    Sudha, K; Rao, Ashalatha V; Rao, Suryanarayana; Rao, Anjali

    2004-04-01

    Erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and consequent percentage hemolysis and related antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase were determined in 16 cases of hemorrhagic stroke and 30 cases of thrombotic stroke. The results obtained were compared with 50 age and sex matched controls. 12 thrombotic stroke patients who showed symptomatic recovery after medication were considered for follow up. Lipid peroxidation and percentage hemolysis in patients with thrombotic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke was significantly elevated when compared to controls. Glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase levels were found to be significantly reduced in thrombotic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke respectively, when compared to healthy subjects. There was no significant difference in the other parameters when compared to controls. In post treatment thrombotic stoke, catalase and glutathione reductase levels increased significantly and oxidative hemolysis decreased compared to their pretreatment values. Thus, our results indicate considerable oxidative stress in stroke.

  11. Benefits of blackberry nectar (Rubus spp.) relative to hypercholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira de Araujo, P R; da Silva Santos, V; Rodrigues Machado, A; Gevehr Fernandes, C; Silva, J A; da Silva Rodrigues, R

    2011-01-01

    In humans, the normal metabolic activity produces free radicals that constantly, along with other risk factors, including hypercholesterolemia may be responsible for the onset of degenerative diseases. Some bioactive compounds present in blackberry (Rubus spp.) have the ability to act as natural antioxidants can make the food to minimize effects on the body caused by reactive oxygen species. This study verified the benefits of blackberry nectar through the quantification of triglycerides, total and fraction cholesterol HDL (high density lipoprotein) and LDL-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein), blood glucose and lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Two groups were treated with hypercholesterolemic diets (0.1% cholesterol), one of them receiving an additional 5 mL of nectar daily, and a third (control group) treated only with a standard diet. In the blood the quantification of lipids, blood glucose and lipid peroxidation was performed. In the brain, liver and small intestine the lipid peroxidation was determined and in other organs, histopathological evaluations were carried out. The blackberry nectar reduced the triglycerides serum levels, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamsters, without influencing the HDL and blood glucose concentrations. A decrease in the initiation of lipid peroxidation reactions in the blood, brain and small intestine was also observed. Only the liver showed histopathological changes (steatosis), due to excess cholesterol, with no positive influence from the nectar.

  12. Alterations in circadian rhythms are associated with increased lipid peroxidation in females with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Cudney, Lauren E; Sassi, Roberto B; Behr, Guilherme A; Streiner, David L; Minuzzi, Luciano; Moreira, Jose C F; Frey, Benicio N

    2014-05-01

    Disturbances in both circadian rhythms and oxidative stress systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), yet no studies have investigated the relationship between these systems in BD. We studied the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on lipid damage in 52 depressed or euthymic BD females, while controlling for age, severity of depressive symptoms and number of psychotropic medications, compared to 30 healthy controls. Circadian rhythm disruption was determined by a self-report measure (Biological Rhythm Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry; BRIAN), which measures behaviours such as sleep, eating patterns, social rhythms and general activity. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured as a proxy of lipid peroxidation. We also measured the activity of total and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Multiple linear regressions showed that circadian rhythm disturbance was independently associated with increased lipid peroxidation in females with BD (p < 0.05). We found decreased extracellular SOD (p < 0.05), but no differences in total SOD, CAT or GST activity between bipolar females and controls. Circadian rhythms were not associated with lipid peroxidation in healthy controls, where aging was the only significant predictor. These results suggest an interaction between the circadian system and redox metabolism, in that greater disruption in daily rhythms was associated with increased lipid peroxidation in BD only. Antioxidant enzymes have been shown to follow a circadian pattern of expression, and it is possible that disturbance of sleep and daily rhythms experienced in BD may result in decreased antioxidant defence and therefore increased lipid peroxidation. This study provides a basis for further investigation of the links between oxidative stress and circadian rhythms in the neurobiology of BD.

  13. Chromosome aberration and lipid peroxidation in chromium-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Maeng, S H; Chung, H W; Kim, K J; Lee, B M; Shin, Y C; Kim, S J; Yu, I J

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency and lipid peroxidation levels were analyzed to investigate their efficacy as biological markers for monitoring the genotoxicity and oxidative damage in Korean chromium (Cr)-exposed workers. Fifty-one Cr-exposed workers and 31 age-matched controls in ten chrome-plating plants were sampled. The Cr level was measured in the workers' blood and urine, and in the ambient air at the workplaces. The conventional Giemsa staining method and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique were used for chromosome aberration analysis. Spectrum green whole chromosome paint specific for chromosome 4 was used in the FISH procedure. As for lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured in the blood plasma as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The blood Cr concentration was statistically correlated with both the frequency of chromatid exchange and the total frequency of chromosome/chromatid breaks and exchanges, as detected by the Giemsa staining. Meanwhile, the frequency of translocation, as detected by the FISH technique, was significantly higher in the Cr-exposed workers than in the controls and it correlated with the blood Cr concentration. Although the concentration of MDA, the metabolite of lipid peroxidation, in the exposed workers was higher than that of the controls, no statistically significant correlation between the MDA level and the blood or urine Cr levels was observed. Accordingly, the genotoxicity and oxidative damage (plasma lipid peroxidation) in the Korean Cr-exposed workers were consequential at quite low exposure levels, plus chromosome rearrangement, especially translocation, was clearly evident as a biological response marker for Cr exposure based on a significant positive correlation between the translocations detected by FISH and the Cr in the blood.

  14. The effect of alpha-tocopherol on lipid peroxidation of microsomes and mitochondria from rat testis.

    PubMed

    Gavazza, M B; Catalá, A

    2006-04-01

    The testis is a remarkably active metabolic organ; hence it is suitable not only for studies of lipid metabolism in the organ itself but also for the study of lipid peroxidation processes in general. The content of fatty acids in testis is high with a prevalence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which renders this tissue very susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of alpha-tocopherol in vitro on ascorbate-Fe(++) lipid peroxidation of rat testis microsomes and mitochondria. Chemiluminescence and fatty acid composition were used as an index of the oxidative destruction of lipids. Special attention was paid to the changes produced on the highly PUFA [C20:4 n6] and [C22:5 n6]. Lipid peroxidation of testis microsomes or mitochondria induced a significant decrease of both fatty acids. Total chemiluminescence was similar in both kinds of organelles when the peroxidized without (control) and with ascorbate-Fe(++) (peroxidized) groups were compared. Arachidonic acid was protected more efficiently than docosapentaenoic acid at all alpha-tocopherol concentrations tested when rat testis microsomes or mitochondria were incubated with ascorbate-Fe(++). The maximal percentage of inhibition in both organelles was approximately 70%; corresponding to an alpha-tocopherol concentration between 1 and 0.25 mM. IC50 values from the inhibition of alpha-tocopherol on the chemiluminescence were higher in microsomes (0.144 mM) than mitochondria (0.078 mM). The protective effect observed by alpha-tocopherol in rat testis mitochondria was higher compared with microsomes, associated with the higher amount of [C20:4 n6]+[C22:5 n6] in microsomes that in mitochondria. It is proposed that the vulnerability to lipid peroxidation of rat testis microsomes and mitochondria is different because of the different proportion of PUFA in these organelles The peroxidizability index (PI) was positively correlated with the level of long chain fatty acids. The

  15. Lipid-induced peroxidation in the intestine is involved in glucose homeostasis imbalance in mice.

    PubMed

    Serino, Matteo; Waget, Aurélie; Marsollier, Nicolas; Masseboeuf, Myriam; Payros, Gaëlle; Kabani, Catherine; Denom, Jessica; Lacombe, Amélie; Thiers, Jean-Claude; Negre-Salvayre, Anne; Luquet, Serge; Burcelin, Rémy; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Daily variations in lipid concentrations in both gut lumen and blood are detected by specific sensors located in the gastrointestinal tract and in specialized central areas. Deregulation of the lipid sensors could be partly involved in the dysfunction of glucose homeostasis. The study aimed at comparing the effect of Medialipid (ML) overload on insulin secretion and sensitivity when administered either through the intestine or the carotid artery in mice. An indwelling intragastric or intracarotid catheter was installed in mice and ML or an isocaloric solution was infused over 24 hours. Glucose and insulin tolerance and vagus nerve activity were assessed. Some mice were treated daily for one week with the anti-lipid peroxidation agent aminoguanidine prior to the infusions and tests. The intestinal but not the intracarotid infusion of ML led to glucose and insulin intolerance when compared with controls. The intestinal ML overload induced lipid accumulation and increased lipid peroxidation as assessed by increased malondialdehyde production within both jejunum and duodenum. These effects were associated with the concomitant deregulation of vagus nerve. Administration of aminoguanidine protected against the effects of lipid overload and normalized glucose homeostasis and vagus nerve activity. Lipid overload within the intestine led to deregulation of gastrointestinal lipid sensing that in turn impaired glucose homeostasis through changes in autonomic nervous system activity.

  16. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation promoted by iron(III) and ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Beach, D C; Giroux, E

    1992-09-01

    Peroxidation of rat liver microsomes and of phospholipid isolated from them was studied using iron(III) and ascorbate initiation. One-half equivalent of citrate per iron equivalent maintained solubility of the metal ion at neutral pH. Several metal chelators, including additional citrate, blocked peroxidation, but catalase did not. These characteristics are consistent with those reported by others (D. M. Miller and S. D. Aust (1989) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 271, 113-119). Several antioxidants, principally tocopherol analogues and nitroxides, and, as well, a nonenzymatic component of "thymol-free" catalase, potently blocked lipid peroxidation, or, equivalently, dioxygen depletion from suspensions of peroxidizing microsomes. Chromanols were the most active antioxidants. No thiol studied had significant antioxidant activity in the test system.

  17. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidative protection mechanism in rat lungs upon acute and chronic exposure to nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Sagai, M; Ichinose, T

    1987-01-01

    This work was done to clarify the relation between the changes of lipid peroxidation and the activities of antioxidative protective enzymes in lungs of rats exposed acutely, subacutely, and chronically to nitrogen dioxide. It was confirmed that the activities of the antioxidative enzymes to protect cells from oxidative stress increased in an early phase, and then the activities decreased gradually. Lipid peroxides increased once in an early phase and then returned to the control level; thereafter, lipid peroxides increased gradually again. Lipid peroxidation as measured by ethane exhalation increased significantly with 0.04, 0.4, and 4 ppm nitrogen dioxide exposure for 9, 18, and 27 months, and a dose-response relationship was clearly observed. The temporal changes of lipid peroxidation varied inversely with that of the activities of antioxidative protective enzymes. From these results, it was suggested that the increments of antioxidative protective enzyme activities in an early phase were complementary effects to protect cells from damage by lipid peroxides which were increased by nitrogen dioxide exposure, and that the complementary effects are lost in later phases of life-span exposure. Finally, loss of such protective complementary effects might relate to some chronic diseases in lungs. Therefore, the temporal changes described above are important characteristics in chronic exposure of air pollutants. PMID:3665862

  18. Effect of quercetin and genistein on copper- and iron-induced lipid peroxidation in methyl linolenate.

    PubMed

    Boadi, William Y; Iyere, Peter A; Adunyah, Samuel E

    2003-01-01

    The single and combined effects of two abundant flavonoids, namely quercetin and genistein, were investigated according to their ability to inhibit the oxidation of methyl linolenate via Fenton's pathway. Antioxidative activity was determined by oxidizing methyl linolenate suspended in a buffer solution with either Fe2+ (50 microM) or Cu2+ (50 microM) and hydrogen peroxide (0.01 mM) without or with a flavonoid sample (10 or 20 microM). Lipid peroxidation products were measured by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay and the amounts of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were calculated from a calibration curve using 1,1,3,3-tetraethoxypropane as the standard. Both quercetin and genistein at the 10 or 20 microM level decreased lipid peroxidation significantly compared with their respective controls. Of the two flavonoids tested, quercetin had a more marked effect on inhibiting lipid peroxides. Peroxidation products for the control samples were higher for the Fe2+-treated samples compared with the Cu2+ samples. Combination of both flavonoids at the same dose levels continued to decrease lipid peroxidation, the effect being the same for both metal ions. The data suggest that the combined flavonoids offered better protection than the single treatments and this may be attributed to the better radical scavenging or increased chelating capabilities of the combined over the single treatments. The differences in peroxide levels for the single treatment of quercetin compared with the genistein-treated samples may reflect the structural differences between these compounds in combating oxidative stress.

  19. The involvement of transition metal ions on iron-dependent lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Marisa G; Ferrarotti, Nidia F; Boveris, Alberto

    2010-04-01

    The metals iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are considered trace elements, and the metals cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) are known as ultra-trace elements, considering their presence in low to very low quantity in humans. The biologic activity of these transition metals is associated with the presence of unpaired electrons that favor their participation in redox reactions. They are part of important enzymes involved in vital biologic processes. However, these transition metals become toxic to cells when they reach elevated tissue concentrations and produce cellular oxidative damage. Phospholipid liposomes (0.5 mg/ml, phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylserine (PS), 60/40) were incubated for 60 min at 37 degrees C with 25 microM of Fe2+ in the absence and in the presence of Cu2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ (0-100 microM) with and without the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 5-50 microM). Iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in PC/PS liposomes was assessed by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) production. Metal transition ions promoted lipid peroxidation by H2O2 decomposition and direct homolysis of endogenous hydroperoxides. The Fe2+-H2O2-mediated lipid peroxidation takes place by a pseudo-second order process, and the Cu2+-mediated process by a pseudo-first order reaction. Co2+ and Ni2+ alone do not induce lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, when they are combined with Fe2+, Fe2+-H2O2-mediated lipid peroxidation was stimulated in the presence of Ni2+ and was inhibited in the presence of Co2+. The understanding of the effects of transition metal ions on phospholipids is relevant to the prevention of oxidative damage in biologic systems.

  20. Measuring oxidative stress: the confounding effect of lipid concentration in measures of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Romero-Haro, Ana A; Sternalski, Audrey; Muriel, Jaime; Mougeot, Francois; Gil, Diego; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation products are widely used as markers of oxidative damage in the organism. To properly interpret the information provided by these markers, it is necessary to know potential sources of bias and control confounding factors. Here, we investigated the relationship between two indicators of lipid mobilization (circulating levels of triglycerides and cholesterol) and two common markers of oxidative damage (plasma levels of malondialdehyde and hydroperoxides; the latter estimated from the d-ROMs assay kit). The following five avian species were studied: red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor), marsh harrier (Circus aeroginosus), and Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus). In all cases, plasma triglyceride levels positively and significantly correlated with lipid peroxidation markers, explaining between 8% and 34% of their variability. Plasma cholesterol, in contrast, showed a significant positive relationship only among spotless starling nestlings and a marginally significant association in zebra finches. These results indicate that lipid peroxidation marker levels covary with circulating lipid levels. We discuss the potential causes and implications of this covariation and recommend that future studies that measure oxidative damage using lipid peroxidation markers report both raw and relative levels (i.e., corrected for circulating triglycerides). Whether the observed pattern also holds for other tissues and in other taxa would deserve further research.

  1. Sex-related differences in lipid peroxidation and photoprotection in Pistacia lentiscus.

    PubMed

    Juvany, Marta; Müller, Maren; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-03-01

    Sex-related differences in the response of dioecious plants to abiotic stress have been poorly studied to date. This work explored to what extent sex may affect plant stress responses in Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae), a tree well adapted to Mediterranean climatic conditions. It was hypothesized that a greater reproductive effort in females may increase oxidative stress in leaves, particularly when plants are exposed to abiotic stress. Measurements of oxidative stress markers throughout the year revealed increased lipid peroxidation in females, but only during the winter. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in females was associated with reduced photoprotection, as indicated by reduced tocopherol levels and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in females was also observed at predawn, which was associated with increased lipoxygenase activity and reduced cytokinin levels. An analysis of the differences between reproductive (R) and nonreproductive (NR) shoots showed an enhanced photoprotective capacity in R shoots compared to NR shoots in females. This capacity was characterized by an increased NPQ and a better antioxidant protection (increased carotenoid and tocopherol levels per unit of chlorophyll) in R compared to NR shoots. It is concluded that (i) females exhibit higher lipid peroxidation in leaves than males, but only during the winter (when sex-related differences in reproductive effort are the highest), (ii) this is associated with a lower photoprotective capacity at midday, as well as enhanced lipoxygenase activity and reduced cytokinin levels at predawn, and (iii) photoprotection capacity is higher in R relative to NR shoots in females.

  2. Sex-related differences in lipid peroxidation and photoprotection in Pistacia lentiscus

    PubMed Central

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related differences in the response of dioecious plants to abiotic stress have been poorly studied to date. This work explored to what extent sex may affect plant stress responses in Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae), a tree well adapted to Mediterranean climatic conditions. It was hypothesized that a greater reproductive effort in females may increase oxidative stress in leaves, particularly when plants are exposed to abiotic stress. Measurements of oxidative stress markers throughout the year revealed increased lipid peroxidation in females, but only during the winter. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in females was associated with reduced photoprotection, as indicated by reduced tocopherol levels and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in females was also observed at predawn, which was associated with increased lipoxygenase activity and reduced cytokinin levels. An analysis of the differences between reproductive (R) and nonreproductive (NR) shoots showed an enhanced photoprotective capacity in R shoots compared to NR shoots in females. This capacity was characterized by an increased NPQ and a better antioxidant protection (increased carotenoid and tocopherol levels per unit of chlorophyll) in R compared to NR shoots. It is concluded that (i) females exhibit higher lipid peroxidation in leaves than males, but only during the winter (when sex-related differences in reproductive effort are the highest), (ii) this is associated with a lower photoprotective capacity at midday, as well as enhanced lipoxygenase activity and reduced cytokinin levels at predawn, and (iii) photoprotection capacity is higher in R relative to NR shoots in females. PMID:24378602

  3. Inhibitory Response of Raphanus sativus on Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, inhibitory effect of the methanol extract of Raphanus sativus root on lipid peroxidation has been carried out in normal rats. Graded doses of methanol extract of root of the plant (40, 80 and 120 mg kg−1 body weight) were administered orally for 15 days to experimental treated rats. Distilled water was administered to experimental control rats. At the end of experiment, rats were killed by decapitation after ether anesthesia. Blood and liver were collected to measure thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, reduced glutathione and activity of catalase. Results indicated that the extract of R. sativus root reduced the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance significantly in all experimental treated groups (P < 0.05) as compared to the experimental control group. It also increased the levels of reduced glutathione and increased the activity of catalase. In vitro experiments with the liver of experimental control and experimental treated rats were also carried out against cumene hydroperoxide induced lipid peroxidation. The extract inhibited in vitro cumene hydroperoxide induced lipid peroxidation. R. sativus inhibits lipid peroxidation in vivo and in vitro. It provides protection by strengthening the antioxidants like glutathione and catalase. Inclusion of this plant in every day diet would be beneficial. PMID:18317549

  4. Acute response of rat liver microsomal lipids, lipid peroxidation, and membrane anisotropy to a single oral dose of polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Bernert, J T; Groce, D F

    1984-01-01

    Liver microsomal lipids and lipid peroxidation activities were examined in adult male rats at intervals over a 2-mo period after the administration of a single oral dose of 0 or 500 mg/kg of FireMaster BP-6 in corn oil. Microsomal lipids were markedly altered in the polybrominated biphenyl- (PBB-) dosed animals at the earliest time examined (1 wk), and these changes persisted throughout the remainder of the study. An early decrease in the cholesterol-phospholipid ratio was noted, which probably contributed to the significant decrease in the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy demonstrable in both intact microsomes and in liposomes prepared from microsomal lipid extracts. Significant concentrations of PBBs were present in dosed rat microsomes, but the changes in anisotropy appeared to result from membrane lipid alterations rather than from a direct perturbation by PBBs. Iron ascorbate-induced peroxidation was also greatly enhanced in dosed rat microsomes, even when rats were maintained on a low-iron (25 ppm) diet. These early alterations in membrane fluidity and peroxidative capacity of microsomes may ultimately contribute to the hepatotoxicity of PBBs.

  5. Regulation of NF-κB-Induced Inflammatory Signaling by Lipid Peroxidation-Derived Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Umesh C. S.; Ramana, Kota V.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases including cancer. This view has broadened significantly with the recent discoveries that reactive oxygen species initiated lipid peroxidation leads to the formation of potentially toxic lipid aldehyde species such as 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), acrolein, and malondialdehyde which activate various signaling intermediates that regulate cellular activity and dysfunction via a process called redox signaling. The lipid aldehyde species formed during synchronized enzymatic pathways result in the posttranslational modification of proteins and DNA leading to cytotoxicity and genotoxicty. Among the lipid aldehyde species, HNE has been widely accepted as a most toxic and abundant lipid aldehyde generated during lipid peroxidation. HNE and its glutathione conjugates have been shown to regulate redox-sensitive transcription factors such as NF-κB and AP-1 via signaling through various protein kinase cascades. Activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and their nuclear localization leads to transcriptional induction of several genes responsible for cell survival, differentiation, and death. In this review, we describe the mechanisms by which the lipid aldehydes transduce activation of NF-κB signaling pathways that may help to develop therapeutic strategies for the prevention of a number of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23710287

  6. Low extracellular magnesium ions induce lipid peroxidation and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B in canine cerebral vascular smooth muscle: possible relation to traumatic brain injury and strokes.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Gebrewold, Asefa; Zhang, Aimin; Altura, Bella T

    2003-05-08

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that administration of low extracellular levels of magnesium ions ([Mg(2+)](o)) to primary cultured cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells will cause lipid peroxidation, degradation of IkappaB-alpha, and activation of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) in cultured cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells. Low [Mg(2+)](o) (0, 0.15, 0.3 and 0.48 mM) resulted in concentration-dependent rises in malondialdehyde (MDA) in as little as 3 h after exposure to low [Mg(2+)](o), rising to levels 3-12xnormal after 18-24 h; the lower the [Mg(2+)](o), the higher the MDA level. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and specific antibodies, low [Mg(2+)](o) caused two DNA-binding proteins (p50, p65) to rise in nuclear extracts in a concentration-dependent manner. High [Mg(2+)](o) (i.e. 4.8 mM) downregulated p50 and p65. Using a rabbit antibody, IkappaB phosphorylation (and degradation) was stimulated by low [Mg(2+)](o) (in a concentration-dependent manner) and inhibited by a low concentration of the NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. These new biochemical and molecular data indicate that low [Mg(2+)](o), in concentrations found in the blood of patients, after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and diverse types of strokes, can elicit rapid lipid peroxidation and activation of NF-kappaB in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells. The present results, when viewed in light of other recently published data, suggest that low [Mg(2+)](o)-induced lipid peroxidation and activation of NF-kappaB play important roles in TBI and diverse types of strokes.

  7. Liver Necrosis and Lipid Peroxidation in the Rat as the Result of Paraquat and Diquat Administration

    PubMed Central

    Burk, Raymond F.; Lawrence, Richard A.; Lane, James M.

    1980-01-01

    Paraquat and diquat facilitate formation of superoxide anion in biological systems, and lipid peroxidation has been postulated to be their mechanism of toxicity. Paraquat has been shown to be more toxic to selenium-deficient mice than to controls, presumably as the result of decreased activity of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase. The present study was designed to measure lipid peroxidation and to assess toxicity in control and selenium-deficient rats given paraquat and diquat. Lipid peroxidation was measured by determining ethane production rates of intact animals; toxicity was assessed by survival and by histological and serum enzyme evidence of liver and kidney necrosis. Paraquat and diquat were both much more toxic to selenium-deficient rats than to control rats. Diquat (19.5 μmol/kg) caused rapid and massive liver and kidney necrosis and very high ethane production rates in selenium-deficient rats. The effect of paraquat (78 μmol/kg) was similar to that of diquat but was not as severe. Acutely lethal doses of paraquat (390 μmol/kg) and diquat (230 μmol/kg) in control rats caused very little ethane production and no evidence of liver necrosis. These findings suggest that paraquat and diquat exert their acute toxicity largely through lipid peroxidation in selenium-deficient rats. Selenium deficiency had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes or in 105,000 g supernate of liver or kidney. Glutathione peroxidase, which represents the only well-characterized biochemical function of selenium in animals, was dissociated from the protective effect of selenium against diquat-induced lipid peroxidation and toxicity by a time-course study in which selenium-deficient rats were injected with 50 μg of selenium and later given diquat (19.5 μmol/kg). Within 10 h, the selenium injection provided significant protection against diquat-induced lipid peroxidation and mortality even though this treatment resulted in no rise in glutathione peroxidase

  8. UVA Photoirradiation of Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons—Induction of Reactive Oxygen Species and Formation of Lipid Peroxides

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Qingsu; Yin, Jun J.; Zhao, Yuewei; Wu, Yuh-Sen; Wang, Yu-Qui; Ma, Liang; Chen, Shoujun; Sun, Xin; Fu, Peter P.; Yu, Hongtao

    2013-01-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are a class of genotoxic environmental contaminants. We have long been interested in determining the mechanisms by which nitro-PAHs induce genotoxicity. Although the metabolic activation of nitro-PAHs leading to toxicological activities has been well studied, the photo-induced activation of nitro-PAHs has seldom been reported. In this paper, we report photo-induced lipid peroxidation by 19 nitro-PAHs. The results indicated that all but two of the nitro-PAHs can induce lipid peroxidation. Mechanistic studies suggest that lipid peroxidation by nitro-PAHs is mediated by free radicals generated in the reaction. There was no structural correlation between the nitro-PAHs and their ability to induce lipid peroxidation upon UVA irradiation, or between the HOMO-LUMO gap and the ability to cause lipid peroxidation. Most of the nitro-PAHs are less potent in terms of causing lipid peroxidation than their parent PAHs. The lack of correlation is attributed to the complex photophysics and photochemistry of the nitro-PAHs and the yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other factors. PMID:23493032

  9. UVA photoirradiation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-induction of reactive oxygen species and formation of lipid peroxides.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qingsu; Yin, Jun-Jie; Zhao, Yuewei; Wu, Yuh-Sen; Wang, Yu-Qui; Ma, Liang; Chen, Shoujun; Sun, Xin; Fu, Peter P; Yu, Hongtao

    2013-03-14

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are a class of genotoxic environmental contaminants. We have long been interested in determining the mechanisms by which nitro-PAHs induce genotoxicity. Although the metabolic activation of nitro-PAHs leading to toxicological activities has been well studied, the photo-induced activation of nitro-PAHs has seldom been reported. In this paper, we report photo-induced lipid peroxidation by 19 nitro-PAHs. The results indicated that all but two of the nitro-PAHs can induce lipid peroxidation. Mechanistic studies suggest that lipid peroxidation by nitro-PAHs is mediated by free radicals generated in the reaction. There was no structural correlation between the nitro-PAHs and their ability to induce lipid peroxidation upon UVA irradiation, or between the HOMO-LUMO gap and the ability to cause lipid peroxidation. Most of the nitro-PAHs are less potent in terms of causing lipid peroxidation than their parent PAHs. The lack of correlation is attributed to the complex photophysics and photochemistry of the nitro-PAHs and the yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other factors.

  10. Native and Heated Hydrolysates of Milk Proteins and Their Capacity to Inhibit Lipid Peroxidation in the Zebrafish Larvae Model.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Wilman; Guzmán, Xavier; Vilcacundo, Edgar

    2017-09-14

    Casein and whey proteins with and without heat treatment were obtained of whole milk and four commercial milks in Ecuador, and were hydrolyzed. Then, their capacity to inhibit the lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method was evaluated at concentrations of 0.02, 0.04, 0.2, and, 0.4 mg/mL. Native and heated hydrolysates of milk proteins present high inhibitions of lipid peroxidation with a dose dependent effect both in vivo and in vitro tests. Casein and whey proteins obtained from whole milk were the ones with the highest anti-oxidant activity in vitro and in vivo test. Native casein hydrolysate at 0.4 mg/mL present a value of 55.55% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and heated casein hydrolysate at 0.4 mg/mL presents a value of 58.00% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Native whey protein at 0.4 mg/mL present a value of 34.84% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and heated whey protein at 0.4 mg/mL presents a value of 40.86% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Native and heated casein hydrolysates were more active than native and heated whey protein hydrolysates. Heat treatments have an effect of increasing the in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation of hydrolysates of milk protein. Casein and whey hydrolysates were able to inhibiting lipid peroxidation in the zebrafish larvae model. Native casein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk presents 48.35% of inhibition TBARS in vivo, this activity was higher in heated casein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk with a value of 56.28% of inhibition TBARS in vivo. Native whey protein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk presents 35.30% of inhibition TBARS, and heated whey protein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk was higher, with a value of 43.60% of inhibition TBARS in vivo.

  11. Native and Heated Hydrolysates of Milk Proteins and Their Capacity to Inhibit Lipid Peroxidation in the Zebrafish Larvae Model

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Wilman; Guzmán, Xavier; Vilcacundo, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    Casein and whey proteins with and without heat treatment were obtained of whole milk and four commercial milks in Ecuador, and were hydrolyzed. Then, their capacity to inhibit the lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method was evaluated at concentrations of 0.02, 0.04, 0.2, and, 0.4 mg/mL. Native and heated hydrolysates of milk proteins present high inhibitions of lipid peroxidation with a dose dependent effect both in vivo and in vitro tests. Casein and whey proteins obtained from whole milk were the ones with the highest anti-oxidant activity in vitro and in vivo test. Native casein hydrolysate at 0.4 mg/mL present a value of 55.55% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and heated casein hydrolysate at 0.4 mg/mL presents a value of 58.00% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Native whey protein at 0.4 mg/mL present a value of 34.84% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and heated whey protein at 0.4 mg/mL presents a value of 40.86% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Native and heated casein hydrolysates were more active than native and heated whey protein hydrolysates. Heat treatments have an effect of increasing the in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation of hydrolysates of milk protein. Casein and whey hydrolysates were able to inhibiting lipid peroxidation in the zebrafish larvae model. Native casein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk presents 48.35% of inhibition TBARS in vivo, this activity was higher in heated casein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk with a value of 56.28% of inhibition TBARS in vivo. Native whey protein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk presents 35.30% of inhibition TBARS, and heated whey protein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk was higher, with a value of 43.60% of inhibition TBARS in vivo. PMID:28906440

  12. [Emoxipin correction of disorders of lipid peroxidation as affected by a slight excess of oxygen pressure].

    PubMed

    Lukash, A I; Vnukov, V V; Prokof'ev, V N; Khodakova, A A; Mogil'nitskaia, L V; Kostenko, E V

    1994-01-01

    The role of the emoxipin (Em.) (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-oxipyridine) in the correction of the free radical oxidation and allied processes in lung tissues and blood plasma under high-pressure oxygen-prolonged action has been investigated. The studied oxygen exposure (0.3 MPa, 5h) causes the lung stage of oxygen intoxication. It is confirmed by exterior morphological assessment of the lung. The lipid peroxidation increase in lung tissue and blood plasma as well as erythrocyte membranes destabilization result from oxygen exposure. Lipid peroxidation intensity was estimated by determining of content of lipid peroxidation molecular products such as diene conjugates and Shiffs' bases. Erythrocyte membranes stability was evaluated with hemoglobin yield, total iron level and total peroxidase activity in blood plasma. Emoxipin was injected intraperitoneally in a dose 150 mg per 1 kg rats' weight just before the oxygen exposure. Emoxipin is found to improve physiological state of animals and to increase their survival; it normalizes morphology of the lungs and their state; stabilizes erythrocyte membranes injured under oxygen exposure; decreases intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in the lungs and in blood plasma which was previously increased under hyperoxia.

  13. Increased non-protein bound iron in Down syndrome: contribution to lipid peroxidation and cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Manna, Caterina; Officioso, Arbace; Trojsi, Francesca; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Leoncini, Silvia; Signorini, Cinzia; Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21) is the leading cause of chromosomal-related intellectual disability. At an early age, adults with DS develop with the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, associated with a chronic oxidative stress. To investigate if non-protein bound iron (NPBI) can contribute to building up a pro-oxidative microenvironment, we evaluated NPBI in both plasma and erythrocytes from DS and age-matched controls, together with in vivo markers of lipid peroxidation (F2-isoprostanes, F2-dihomo-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes) and in vitro reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in erythrocytes. The serum iron panel and uric acid were also measured. Second, we explored possible correlation between NPBI, lipid peroxidation and cognitive performance. Here, we report NPBI increase in DS, which correlates with increased serum ferritin and uric acid. High levels of lipid peroxidation markers and intraerythrocyte ROS formations were also reported. Furthermore, the scores of Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test, performed as a measure of current cognitive function, are inversely related to NPBI, serum uric acid, and ferritin. Likewise, ROS production, F2-isoprostanes, and F4-neuroprostanes were also inversely related to cognitive performance, whereas serum transferrin positively correlated to RCPM scores. Our data reveal that increased availability of free redox-active iron, associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, may be involved in neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in DS. In this respect, we propose chelation therapy as a potential preventive/therapeutic tool in DS.

  14. Antioxidant action of eugenol compounds: role of metal ion in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masae; Murakami, Keiko; Yoshino, Masataka

    2005-03-01

    Antioxidant action of eugenol compounds was analyzed in relation to the role of transition metal. Iron-mediated lipid peroxidation and autooxidation of Fe2+ ion were inhibited markedly by isoeugenol, and less effectively by eugenol. Copper-dependent oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was potently inhibited by eugenol and isoeugenol to the same extent: eugenol compounds showed protective effects by prolonging lag phase and by suppressing propagation rate in the absence and presence of alpha-tocopherol. Inhibition of LDL oxidation by eugenol compounds was closely related to activities reducing copper and scavenging a stable radical, 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Antioxidant properties of eugenol compounds can be explained by forming complexes with reduced metals. Potent inhibitory effect of isoeugenol on lipid peroxidation may be related to the decreased formation of perferryl ion or the iron-oxygen chelate complex as the initiating factor of lipid peroxidation by keeping iron at a reduced state. Inhibition of LDL oxidation by eugenol compounds is due to the suppression of free radical cascade of lipid peroxidation in LDL by reducing copper ion.

  15. In vitro inhibition activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Clove) buds against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Adefegha, Stephen Adeniyi; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the inhibitory properties of free and bound phenolic extracts of clove bud against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (alpha-amylase & alpha-glucosidase) and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. Methods The free phenolics were extracted with 80% (v/v) acetone, while bound phenolics were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Then, the interaction of the extracts with alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase was subsequently assessed. Thereafter, the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined. Results The result revealed that both extracts inhibited alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner. However, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extracts were significantly (P<0.05) higher than their alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. The free phenolics (31.67 mg/g) and flavonoid (17.28 mg/g) contents were significantly (P<0.05) higher than bound phenolic (23.52 mg/g) and flavonoid (13.70 mg/g) contents. Both extracts also exhibited high antioxidant activities as typified by their high reducing power, 1,1 diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities, as well as inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. Conclusions This study provides a biochemical rationale by which clove elicits therapeutic effect on type 2 diabetes. PMID:23569846

  16. In vitro inhibition activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Clove) buds against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Adefegha, Stephen Adeniyi; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2012-10-01

    To investigate and compare the inhibitory properties of free and bound phenolic extracts of clove bud against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (alpha-amylase & alpha-glucosidase) and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% (v/v) acetone, while bound phenolics were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Then, the interaction of the extracts with alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase was subsequently assessed. Thereafter, the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined. The result revealed that both extracts inhibited alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner. However, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extracts were significantly (P<0.05) higher than their alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. The free phenolics (31.67 mg/g) and flavonoid (17.28 mg/g) contents were significantly (P<0.05) higher than bound phenolic (23.52 mg/g) and flavonoid (13.70 mg/g) contents. Both extracts also exhibited high antioxidant activities as typified by their high reducing power, 1,1 diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities, as well as inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. This study provides a biochemical rationale by which clove elicits therapeutic effect on type 2 diabetes.

  17. Urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiana; Huang, Min; Cao, Fangbo; Pardha-Saradhi, P; Zou, Yingbin

    2017-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of urea on nitrogen metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla pinnata. Compared to controls, the application of urea to A. pinnata resulted in a 44% decrease in nitrogenase activity, no significant change in glutamine synthetase activity, 660% higher glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, 39% increase in free amino acid levels, 22% increase in malondialdehyde levels, 21% increase in Na+/K+- levels, 16% increase in Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase levels, and 11% decrease in superoxide dismutase activity. In terms of H2O2 detoxifying enzymes, peroxidase activity did not change and catalase activity increased by 64% in urea-treated A. pinnata. These findings suggest that urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in A. pinnata.

  18. [Opioid peptides effect on lipid peroxidation in long-term stress].

    PubMed

    Solin, A V; Liashev, Iu D

    2012-08-01

    It was shown in rats, that injection of opioid peptides (dynorphin A (1-13), DSLET and DAGO) decreased the stress-induced activation of lipid peroxidation in liver tissue and plasma. Dynorphin A (1-13) manifested the most expressed antioxidant effect in liver tissue. It not only decreased lipid peroxidation metabolites concentration, but also increased superoxiddismutase and catalase activity. Other peptides did not interfere enzyme activity. The use of DSLET or DAGO increased the superoxiddismutase plasma activity. Dynorphin A (1-13) injection increased catalase activity, but not superoxiddismutase. These effects could be explained by peculiarities of opioid receptors spread in liver tissue and stress-limiting action of peptides in entire organism.

  19. Ultraviolet- and sunlight-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, T.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1980-08-01

    Ultraviolet radiation and sunlight caused lipid peroxidation in the liposomal membrane (as detected by measurement of the oxidation index, A/sub 233//A/sub 215/, and the amount of malondialdehyde formed) and made the membrane leaky (as revealed by the release of the trapped chromate anions). The oxidation index and the formation of malondialdehyde increased linearly with increasing dose of radiation and depended significantly on the dose rate. The effects were smaller in liposomes derived from Vibrio cholerae phospholipid than in those derived from egg lecithin. The effects of the radiation dose and dose rate on hemolysis and peroxidation (MDA formation) of the erythrocyte membrane followed a similar pattern. A direct correlation between the percentage leakage of chromate (Y) and the oxidation index (X) of the liposomal system was obtained as Y = 236.5 x X.

  20. An increase in lipoprotein oxidation and endogenous lipid peroxides in serum of obese women.

    PubMed

    Mutlu-Türkoğlu, U; Oztezcan, S; Telci, A; Orhan, Y; Aykaç-Toker, G; Sivas, A; Uysal, M

    2003-02-01

    Endogenous malondialdehyde and diene conjugate levels, the susceptibility of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins to copper-induced lipid peroxidation, and antibody titer against oxidized low-density lipoproteins were increased, but serum antioxidant activity was unchanged in obese women. Serum cholesterol, low-density lipoproteincholesterol, and trigliceride levels were also elevated, but high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels remained unchanged in obese women. In vitro, oxidation of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and levels of antibody against oxidized low-density lipoprotein correlated with body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteincholesterol levels in obese women. These results indicate that obesity is associated with increases in endogenous lipid peroxides, oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and lipids in serum.

  1. Simulation of lipid peroxidation in low-density lipoprotein by a basic "skeleton" of reactions.

    PubMed

    Abuja, P M; Esterbauer, H

    1995-01-01

    A minimal kinetic model describing lipid peroxidation in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been set up. Models have been calculated by numeric integration of the differential equations describing this system consisting of seven reactions and eleven reactants in a single compartment. The model describes the usually observed behavior of the reaction system, showing that the crucial intermediate is the lipid peroxyl radical (LOO.). During different stages of the reaction, depending on the presence of antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol), different pathways in the reaction scheme become active. Simulation also demonstrates that tocopherol-mediated propagation can occur under certain conditions, i.e., a low rate of initiation. This, however, does not mean that tocopherol enhances lipid peroxidation in LDL, as without tocopherol the process would be much faster. Further extension of the basic model by inclusion of a hypothetical antioxidant leads to a model which is capable of describing Cu(2+)-induced LPO over the whole lag phase up to full propagation.

  2. Lipid peroxidation is increased in tears from the elderly.

    PubMed

    Benlloch-Navarro, Soledad; Franco, Ilenia; Sánchez-Vallejo, Violeta; Silvestre, Dolores; Romero, Francisco Javier; Miranda, María

    2013-10-01

    We describe a procedure in which tears, obtained from Schirmer strips, are used to measure a marker of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA). We also compared the levels of proteins and MDA in tears from two groups of people: young adults (18-30 years old) and elderly adults (65-85 years old), because the data related to total protein concentration of human tears vary widely and because the majority of people over the age of 65 experience some symptoms of dry eyes and this condition has been recognized as an oxidative stress-induced disease. Our results show a significant difference in the protein concentration of the tears taken from the two age categories, younger adults (18-30 years old) and older adults (65-85 years old). Herein, we report for the first time an increase in MDA concentrations determined by HPLC in human tears based on age. It is possible that alterations in the tear lipid layer may lead to an increase in lipid peroxidation. Further studies are needed to understand the nature and function of tear film and stability in order to obtain new methods to analyze tears in patients with different diseases. In this sense, it would be interesting to compare MDA concentration in tears from control subjects and from people with meibomian gland dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Almonds reduce biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in older hyperlipidemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C; Marchie, Augustine; Josse, Andrea R; Nguyen, Tri H; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Lapsley, Karen G; Blumberg, Jeffrey

    2008-05-01

    Nut consumption has been associated with reduced coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. In addition to cholesterol-lowering properties, almonds have been shown to lower oxidized LDL concentrations. However, little is known regarding their effects on other markers of oxidative stress. The dose-response effects of whole almonds, taken as snacks, were compared with low-saturated fat (<5% energy) whole-wheat muffins (control) in the therapeutic diets of hyperlipidemic subjects. In a randomized crossover study, 27 hyperlipidemic men and women consumed 3 isoenergetic (mean 423 kcal/d or 1770 kJ/d) supplements each for 1 mo. Supplements consisted of full-dose almonds (73 +/- 3 g/d), half-dose almonds plus half-dose muffins (half-dose almonds), and full-dose muffins (control). Subjects were assessed at wk 0, 2 and 4. Mean body weights differed < or = 300 g between treatments, although the weight loss on the half-dose almond treatment was greater than on the control (P < 0.01). At 4 wk, the full-dose almonds reduced serum concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P = 0.040) and creatinine-adjusted urinary isoprostane output (P = 0.026) compared with the control. Serum concentrations of alpha- or gamma-tocopherol, adjusted or unadjusted for total cholesterol, were not affected by the treatments. Almond antioxidant activity was demonstrated by their effect on 2 biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, serum MDA and urinary isoprostanes, and supports the previous finding that almonds reduced oxidation of LDL-C. Antioxidant activity provides an additional possible mechanism, in addition to lowering cholesterol, that may account for the reduction in CHD risk with nut consumption.

  4. Lipid peroxidation induced by maternal cadmium exposure in mouse pups

    SciTech Connect

    Baohui Xu |; Yapin Jin; Zhaoliang Feng; Zhaofa Xu; Matsushita, Toshio

    1993-11-01

    Cadmium as an environmental pollutant has received considerable attention and its toxic effects have been studied extensively in human and adult animals. Moreover, an International Task Group on Metal Accumulation (1973) has established that although it is in a limited quantity cadmium can be transported across placenta and excreted through milk in animals. Likewise, it can pass through placenta in humans. Furthermore, the fact is that women in the cadmium-polluted areas are continuously exposed to cadmium during gestation and lactation. Even if they are removed from the exposure, the body burden of cadmium probably remains high because of the very long biological half-time of cadmium which is estimated to be between 17.6 and 33 years. Thus, it is possible that fetuses and pups may be exposed to cadmium during maternal gestation and lactation. Although placenta affords some protection from cadmium exposure, cadmium exposure prior to day 10-11 when placenta forms may be deleterious. Cadmium exposure during pregnancy and its effects on offsprings, which were mainly focused on litter size, pup survival, pup growth and cadmium contents in pups following maternal cadmium exposure have been reported. Lipid peroxide has been considered as a sensitive toxicological index for environmental pollutants. The inhibited antioxidant enzymes and enhanced lipid peroxidation due to cadmium exposure have been demonstrated both in humans and animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effects of maternal cadmium exposure on mouse pups using both the indices used in the previous studies and determinations of lipid peroxide concentrations in various pup organs. In conclusion, data from the present study indicate that the detection of LPO concentration in selected pup tissues is a sensitive index for evaluating the effects of maternal cadmium exposure on mouse pups. 16 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Silica radical-induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, X; Mao, Y; Daniel, L N; Saffiotti, U; Dalal, N S; Vallyathan, V

    1994-01-01

    In recent years, more attention has been given to the mechanism of disease induction caused by the surface properties of minerals. In this respect, specific research needs to be focused on the biologic interactions of oxygen radicals generated by mineral particles resulting in cell injury and DNA damage leading to fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis. In this investigation, we used electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin trapping to study oxygen radical generation from aqueous suspensions of freshly fractured crystalline silica. Hydroxyl radical (.OH), superoxide radical (O2.-) and singlet oxygen (1O2) were all detected. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) partially inhibited .OH yield, whereas catalase abolished .OH generation. H2O2 enhanced .OH generation while deferoxamine inhibited it, indicating that .OH is generated via a Haber-Weiss type reaction. These spin trapping measurements provide the first evidence that aqueous suspensions of silica particles generate O2.- and 1O2. Oxygen consumption measurements indicate that freshly fractured silica uses molecular oxygen to generate O2.- and 1O2. Electrophoretic assays of in vitro DNA strand breakages showed that freshly fractured silica induced DNA strand breakage, which was inhibited by catalase and enhanced by H2O2. In an argon atmosphere, DNA damage was suppressed, showing that molecular oxygen is required for the silica-induced DNA damage. Incubation of freshly fractured silica with linoleic acid generated linoleic acid-derived free radicals and caused dose-dependent lipid peroxidation as measured by ESR spin trapping and malondialdehyde formation. SOD, catalase, and sodium benzoate inhibited lipid peroxidation by 49, 52, and 75%, respectively, again showing the role of oxygen radicals in silica-induced lipid peroxidation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 7. PMID:7705289

  6. Oxygen concentration dependence of lipid peroxidation and lipid-derived radical generation: application of profluorescent nitroxide switch.

    PubMed

    Mito, Fumiya; Kitagawa, Kana; Yamasaki, Toshihide; Shirahama, Chisato; Oishi, Taketoshi; Ito, Yuko; Yamato, Mayumi; Yamada, Ken-Ichi

    2011-09-01

    Lipid-derived radicals and peroxides are involved in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress diseases and, although lipid peroxide production is a required reaction between a lipid radical and molecular oxygen, a useful lipid radical detection method has remained tentative. Also, the effect of oxygen concentration on lipid peroxide production must be considered because of the hypoxic conditions in cancer and ischemic regions. In this study, the focus was on nitroxide reactivity, which allows spin trapping with carbon-centred radicals via radical-radical reactions and fluorophore quenching through interactions with nitroxide's unpaired electron. Thus, the aim here was to demonstrate a useful detection method for lipid-derived radicals as well as to clarify the effects of oxygen concentration on lipid peroxide production using profluorescent nitroxide. This latter compound reacted with lipid-derived radicals in a manner inversely dependent on oxygen concentration, resulting in fluorescence due to alkoxyamine formation and, conversely, lipid peroxide concentrations decreased with lower oxygen in the reaction system. Furthermore, nitroxide inhibited lipid peroxide production and stopped oxygen consumption in the same solution. These results suggested that the novel application of profluorescent nitroxide could directly and sensitively detect lipid-derived radicals and that radical and peroxide production were dependent on oxygen concentration.

  7. Application of FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy to Determine the Extent of Lipid Peroxidation in Plasma during Haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Oleszko, Adam; Olsztyńska-Janus, Sylwia; Grzeszczuk-Kuć, Karolina; Bujok, Jolanta; Gałecka, Katarzyna; Czerski, Albert; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Komorowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    During a haemodialysis (HD), because of the contact of blood with the surface of the dialyser, the immune system becomes activated and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are released into plasma. Particularly exposed to the ROS are lipids and proteins contained in plasma, which undergo peroxidation. The main breakdown product of oxidized lipids is the malondialdehyde (MDA). A common method for measuring the concentration of MDA is a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method. Despite the formation of MDA in plasma during HD, its concentration decreases because it is removed from the blood in the dialyser. Therefore, this research proposes the Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy, which enables determination of primary peroxidation products. We examined the influence of the amount of hydrogen peroxide added to lipid suspension that was earlier extracted from plasma specimen on lipid peroxidation with use of TBARS and FTIR-ATR methods. Linear correlation between these methods was shown. The proposed method was effective during the evaluation of changes in the extent of lipid peroxidation in plasma during a haemodialysis in sheep. A measurement using the FTIR-ATR showed an increase in plasma lipid peroxidation after 15 and 240 minutes of treatment, while the TBARS concentration was respectively lower. PMID:25961007

  8. 4-Hydroxy-nonenal—A Bioactive Lipid Peroxidation Product †

    PubMed Central

    Schaur, Rudolf J.; Siems, Werner; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Eckl, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    This review on recent research advances of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE) has four major topics: I. the formation of HNE in various organs and tissues, II. the diverse biochemical reactions with Michael adduct formation as the most prominent one, III. the endogenous targets of HNE, primarily peptides and proteins (here the mechanisms of covalent adduct formation are described and the (patho-) physiological consequences discussed), and IV. the metabolism of HNE leading to a great number of degradation products, some of which are excreted in urine and may serve as non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress. PMID:26437435

  9. Artepillin C isoprenomics: design and synthesis of artepillin C isoprene analogues as lipid peroxidation inhibitor having low mitochondrial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Uto, Yoshihiro; Ae, Shutaro; Koyama, Daisuke; Sakakibara, Mitsutoshi; Otomo, Naoki; Otsuki, Mamoru; Nagasawa, Hideko; Kirk, Kenneth L; Hori, Hitoshi

    2006-08-15

    We designed and synthesized isoprene analogues of artepillin C, a major component of Brazilian propolis, and investigated the inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation of rat liver mitochondria (RLM) and RLM toxicity based on isoprenomics. We succeeded in the synthesis of artepillin C isoprene analogues using regioselective prenylation within the range from 22% to 53% total yield. Reactivity of artepillin C and its isoprene analogues with ABTS (2,2'-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)) radical cations showed only a slight difference among the molecules. The isoprene side-chain elongation analogues of artepillin C showed almost the same inhibitory activity against RLM lipid peroxidation as artepillin C. Artepillin C and its isoprene analogues had very weak RLM uncoupling activity. Moreover, artepillin C and its isoprene analogues exhibited a lower inhibitory activity against adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis by about two orders of magnitude than the effective inhibitory activity against RLM lipid peroxidation. From these results we conclude that artepillin C isoprene analogues could be potent lipid peroxidation inhibitors having low mitochondrial toxicity. We also conclude that elongation of the isoprene side chain of artepillin C to increase lipophilicity had little influence on the inhibitory activity toward RLM lipid peroxidation.

  10. Antioxidant action of Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) against antitubercular drugs induced lipid peroxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Ashok Kumar, N; Pari, L

    2003-01-01

    The protective effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidants was investigated during antitubercular drug (isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide)-induced toxicity in rats. Enhanced hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation of antitubercular drug treatment was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of vitamin C, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase. Administration of Moringa oleifera extract and silymarin significantly decreased hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation with a simultaneous increase in the level of antioxidants. We speculate that Moringa oleifera extract exerts its protective effects by decreasing liver lipid peroxides and enhancing antioxidants.

  11. [Effects of manganese, zircon and lithium alone on rat liver lipid peroxidation].

    PubMed

    Li, S; Long, S

    2001-05-01

    Lipid peroxide (LPO) in rat liver was detected by malondiadehyde (MDA) colorimetry. The effect of manganese, zircon and lithium alone on lipid peroxidation in rat liver was also studied. The results showed that manganese and zircon at the doses of (9.862-1.972) x 10(-4) and (0.1972-9.862) x 10(-5) nmol/L respectively decreased LPO in rat liver(P < 0.01). Lithium inhibited lipid peroxidation at the dose of (19.72-1.972) x 10(-4) nmol/L, and induced lipid peroxidation at higher concentration.

  12. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by S-nitrosoglutathione and copper.

    PubMed

    Rigobello, Maria Pia; Scutari, Guido; Boscolo, Rita; Bindoli, Alberto

    2002-10-01

    The antioxidant properties of S-nitrosoglutathione, a nitric oxide-derived product were studied in different experimental systems. By using the crocin bleaching test, S-nitrosoglutathione, in the presence of copper ions, shows an antioxidant capacity about six times higher than that of Trolox c and referable to the interception of peroxyl radicals by nitric oxide. Copper alone shows a modest inhibitory action, which is about seven times lower than that of Trolox c. S-nitrosoglutathione prevents lipid peroxidation induced by the well-known Fe2+/ascorbate system (IC50 = 450 microM) and the inhibitory effect is strongly reinforced by the presence of copper ions (IC50 = 6.5 microM). In addition, cumene hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation is markedly decreased by S-nitrosoglutathione, provided that copper ions, maintained reduced by ascorbate, are present. Decomposition of S-nitrosoglutathione through metal catalysis and/or the presence of reducing agents and the consequent release of nitric oxide are of crucial importance for eliciting the antioxidant power. In this way, copper ions and/or reducing species with low antioxidant potency are able to promote the formation of an extremely strong antioxidant species such as nitric oxide.

  13. Oxidative and reductive metabolism of lipid-peroxidation derived carbonyls

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mahavir; Kapoor, Aniruddh; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) results in tissue injury under a variety of pathological conditions and chronic degenerative diseases. While ROS are highly reactive and can incite significant injury, polyunsaturated lipids in membranes and lipoproteins are their main targets. ROS-triggered lipid peroxidation reactions generate a range of reactive carbonyl species (RCS), and these RCS spread and amplify ROS-related injury. Several RCS generated in oxidizing lipids, such as 4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal (HNE), 4-oxo-2-(E)-nonenal (ONE), acrolein, malondialdehyde (MDA) and phospholipid aldehydes have been shown to be produced under conditions of oxidative stress and contribute to tissue injury and dysfunction by depleting glutathione and other reductants leading to the modification of proteins, lipids, and DNA. To prevent tissue injury, these RCS are metabolized by several oxidoreductases, including members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily, aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs). Metabolism via these enzymes results in RCS inactivation and detoxification, although under some conditions, it can also lead to the generation of signaling molecules that trigger adaptive responses. Metabolic transformation and detoxification of RCS by oxidoreductases prevent indiscriminate ROS toxicity, while at the same time, preserving ROS signaling. A better understanding of RCS metabolism by oxidoreductases could lead to the development of novel therapeutic interventions to decrease oxidative injury in several disease states and to enhance resistance to ROS-induced toxicity. PMID:25559856

  14. [Effect of phytic acid and its derivatives on blood lipid peroxidation state in vitro].

    PubMed

    Martusevich, A K; Sidorova, M V; Mel'nikova, N B; Solov'eva, A G; Peretiagin, S P

    2014-01-01

    We have studied specific features of lipid peroxidation in whole human blood under the action of aqueous solutions of xymedone (19.6 microM), phytic acid (117.9 microM) and its complex (237.6 microM) synthesized in distilled water and isotonic (0.9%) solution of sodium chloride. The estimated parameters included lipid peroxidation (LPO) rate, total antioxidant potential, superoxide dismutase (SOD) level, and malonic dialdehyde (MDA) level in blood plasma and erythrocytes. It was established that the effect of phytic acid on blood samples includes moderate stimulation of total antioxidant activity and SOD activity with predominant prooxidant effect. The phytic acid--xymedone complex synthesized in distilled water exhibits an antioxidant action, while its synthesis in saline solution yields a prooxidant.

  15. Reconstitution studies on the involvement of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in damage to membrane enzymes.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, O; Nagatsuka, S; Nakazawa, T

    1983-04-01

    The effect of radiation on the drug-metabolizing enzyme system of microsomes, reconstituted with liposomes of microsomal phospholipids, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and cytochrome P-450, was examined to elucidate the role of lipid peroxidation of membranes in radiation-induced damage to membrane-bound enzymes. The reconstituted system of non-irradiated enzymes with irradiated liposomes showed a low activity of hexobarbital hydroxylation, whereas irradiated enzymes combined with non-irradiated liposomes exhibited an activity equal to that of unirradiated controls. Irradiation of liposomes caused a decrease in cytochrome P-450 content by destruction of the haem of cytochrome P-450 and also inhibited the binding capacity of cytochrome P-450 for hexobarbital. The relationship between radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane-bound enzymes is discussed.

  16. [Calcium transport in endoplasmic reticulum of the rat liver during lipid peroxidation].

    PubMed

    Gubskiĭ, Iu I; Kurskiĭ, M D; Zadorina, O V; Fedorov, A N; Briuzgina, T S; Iurzhenko, N N

    1990-01-01

    Some parameters of calcium transport in rat liver microsomes under conditions of lipoperoxidation activation modelled by antioxidant deficiency (AOD) were studied. This process was shown to be associated with a sharp stimulation of NADPH- and ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation in hepatocyte endoplasmic reticulum. The activation of lipid peroxidation was accompanied by disturbances in the kinetic properties of Ca2(+)-ATPase. This was paralleled with a considerable decrease of the ATP-dependent 45Ca-accumulation, increase in the passive permeability of microsomal vesicles for Ca2+ and Ca2+ elevation in the microsomal fraction. The AOD-induced diminution of the Ca2(+)-pump efficiency was slightly prevented by injections of rats with the antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol acetate and ionol which enable Ca2+ compartmentation correction in liver cytosol and membrane fractions.

  17. Comparison between in vitro lipid peroxidation in fresh sheep platelets and peroxidative processes during sheep platelet ageing under storage at 4 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Martín-Valmaseda, E M; Sánchez-Yagüe, J; Rodríguez, M C; Gómez, F P; Llanillo, M

    1999-07-15

    Incubation of sheep platelet crude membranes with xanthine oxidase (XO)/hypoxanthine/Fe(2+)-ADP revealed: (i) a fast peroxidative response - with a maximal linear rate of 14 nmol malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalents/mg protein, as evidenced by the thiobarbituric acid test - and a decrease in the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the platelet crude membranes; (ii) a decrease in the lipid fluidity in the deep lipid core of the membranes but not at the membrane surface; (iii) a dramatic inhibitory effect on glucose 6-phosphatase (Glc-6-Pase) but not on acetylcholinesterase activity. Platelets were also aged by storage at 4 degrees C in their own plasma or in Seto additive solution. In these media, platelet aggregates were visible and the effects on platelet phospholipids, PUFA, lipid extract fluorescence, crude membrane fluidity and membrane-bound enzyme activities were assessed for comparison with those observed in in vitro lipid peroxidation. The sensitivity of membranes from stored platelets to lipid peroxidation was also assessed. Storage of platelets in plasma for 5 days was associated with different changes in their crude membranes such as decreases in arachidonic acid contents, the decrease not being avoided by the presence of phospholipase A(2) inhibitors, increases in MDA equivalents, conjugated dienes and lipid extract fluorescence, decreases in the amounts of MDA equivalents formed by platelet crude membranes treated with the oxidizing agents, changes in membrane fluidity and inhibition of Glc-6-Pase. All these alterations were less pronounced or even abolished after platelet storage in Seto. These findings suggest that platelet lipid peroxidation due to XO/hypoxanthine/Fe(2+)-ADP and platelet membrane alterations observed after platelet ageing under storage at 4 degrees C share common features. Also, as regards the prevention of peroxidative processes, Seto solution permits better storage of sheep platelets than plasma.

  18. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat brain by nifedipine and clorazepate after electrically induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Kułak, W; Sobaniec, W; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M

    1993-01-01

    The effect of nifedipine and clorazepate on the concentration of lipid peroxides (LP) in rat brain, and the characteristics of electrically induced seizures were assessed. A significant increase in the concentration of brain LP after electroshock was found. Both nifedipine (1.00 mg/kg per os) and clorazepate (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) decreased the levels of LP in the rat brain after electroshock. Nifedipine combined with clorazepate brought an inhibition of LP formation and an additive anticonvulsant activity.

  19. [Tissue specificity of antioxidant system functioning and lipid peroxidation in different age groups of Amur carp].

    PubMed

    Kras', S I; Tarasiuk, S I

    2011-01-01

    Key features of tissue enzymes functioning in antioxidant system (AOS) in sexually mature and immature individuals of Amur carp were studied. The activity of antioxidant enzymes was highest in the myocardium and subjected to age-related changes. It was concluded that changes in the functioning of AOS and intensity of lipid peroxidation processes are characterized by organ-tissue metabolic features and age peculiarities of metabolism that is most expressed in the myocardium.

  20. Lipid peroxidation and haemoglobin degradation in red blood cells exposed to t-butyl hydroperoxide. Effects of the hexose monophosphate shunt as mediated by glutathione and ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Trotta, R J; Sullivan, S G; Stern, A

    1982-05-15

    Lipid peroxidation and haemoglobin degradation were the two extremes of a spectrum of oxidative damage in red cells exposed to t-butyl hydroperoxide. The exact position in this spectrum depended on the availability of glucose and the ligand state of haemoglobin. In red cells containing oxy- or carbonmono-oxy-haemoglobin, hexose monophosphate-shunt activity was mainly responsible for metabolism of t-butyl hydroperoxide; haem groups were the main scavengers in red cells containing methaemoglobin. Glutathione, via glutathione peroxidase, accounted for nearly all of the hydroperoxide metabolizing activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt. Glucose protection against lipid peroxidation was almost entirely mediated by glutathione, whereas glucose protection of haemoglobin was only partly mediated by glutathione. Physiological concentrations of intracellular or extracellular ascorbate had no effect on consumption of t-butyl hydroperoxide or oxidation of haemoglobin. Ascorbate was mainly involved in scavenging chain-propagating species involved in lipid peroxidation. The protective effect of intracellular ascorbate against lipid peroxidation was about 100% glucose-dependent and about 50% glutathione-dependent. Extracellular ascorbate functioned largely without a requirement for glucose metabolism, although some synergistic effects between extracellular ascorbate and glutathione were observed. Lipid peroxidation was not dependent on the rate or completion of t-butyl hydroperoxide consumption but rather on the route of consumption. Lipid peroxidation appears to depend on the balance between the presence of initiators of lipid peroxidation (oxyhaemoglobin and low concentrations of methaemoglobin) and terminators of lipid peroxidation (glutathione, ascorbate, high concentrations of methaemoglobin).

  1. Effect of intracellular iron loading on lipid peroxidation of brain slices.

    PubMed

    Oubidar, M; Boquillon, M; Marie, C; Bouvier, C; Beley, A; Bralet, J

    1996-01-01

    The effect of artificially elevated cell iron content on oxygen-derived free radical production was assessed in brain slices by use of an iron ligand, 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ). The iron complex Fe(3+)-HQ exhibited a high lipid solubility evidenced by n-octanol/water partition coefficient and was avidely taken up by brain slices. The catalytically active form of Fe3+ within the complex was evidenced by measuring the rate of ascorbate oxidation. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in brain homogenates or slices exposed to two doses of Fe(3+)-HQ (10 microM/20 microM, 100 microM/200 microM) or Fe(3+)-citrate (10 microM, 100 microM). Addition of the iron complexes to homogenates or slices resulted in a dose-dependent increase in lipid peroxidation. In homogenates, the effects were grossly similar with both complexes, whereas in slices the effects of Fe-HQ were significantly higher than those of Fe-citrate. Lipid peroxidation persisted in washed slices preexposed to Fe-HQ, but not in slices preexposed to the hydrophilic iron complex Fe-citrate. Fe-HQ-induced lipid peroxidation in slices was enhanced in the presence of H2O2, an effect that was not seen using Fe-citrate. Addition of Fe-HQ to brain homogenates in the presence of salicylic acid resulted in the production of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid and the effect was potentiated in the presence of H2O2. This model of iron cell loading may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of antioxidant drugs.

  2. IFN-γ ameliorates autoimmune encephalomyelitis by limiting myelin lipid peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Rebecca A.; Murphey, Cathi; Robinson, Rachel R.; Forsthuber, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has suggested both a pathogenic and a protective role for the proinflammatory cytokine IFN-γ in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the mechanisms underlying the protective role of IFN-γ in EAE have not been fully resolved, particularly in the context of CNS antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In this study we examined the role of IFN-γ in myelin antigen uptake by CNS APCs during EAE. We found that myelin antigen colocalization with APCs was decreased substantially and that EAE was significantly more severe and showed a chronic-progressive course in IFN-γ knockout (IFN-γ−/−) or IFN-γ receptor knockout (IFN-γR−/−) mice as compared with WT animals. IFN-γ was a critical regulator of phagocytic/activating receptors on CNS APCs. Importantly, “free” myelin debris and lipid peroxidation activity at CNS lesions was increased in mice lacking IFN-γ signaling. Treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a potent antioxidant, abolished lipid peroxidation activity and ameliorated EAE in IFN-γ–signaling-deficient mice. Taken together the data suggest a protective role for IFN-γ in EAE by regulating the removal of myelin debris by CNS APCs and thereby limiting the substrate available for the generation of neurotoxic lipid peroxidation products. PMID:26305941

  3. In vitro effects of alloxan/copper combinations on lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Alexandrova, Albena; Petrov, L; Kessiova, Mila; Kirkova, Margarita

    2007-12-01

    The in vitro effects of alloxan and the product of its reduction dialuric acid (alone or in combination with copper ions) on lipid peroxidation, carbonyl content, GSH level and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat liver and kidney have been studied. The effects of Cu2+/alloxan and Cu2+/dialuric acid were compared with those of Fe3+/alloxan and Fe3+/dialuric acid. Unlike alloxan, dialuric acid increased liver and kidney lipid peroxidation; similar effects were registered in the presence of Fe3+. In the presence of Cu2+/dialuric acid, the lipid peroxidation was strongly inhibited and vice versa--the liver protein oxidation was increased. Alloxan and dialuric acid, as well as their combinations with Fe3+ had no effect on the total GSH level. Both substances did not affect the Cu2+-induced changes in GSH level, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and gluthatione reductase activities. In contrast, Cu2+ had no effect on dialuric-acid induced changes in gluthatione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. The present in vitro results, concerning the metal dependence of the effects of alloxan and dialuric acid, are a premise for in vivo study of alloxan effects in metal-loaded animals.

  4. [The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, content of lipid peroxidation products and nitric oxide in the blood plasma and liver of rats with induced insulin-resistance].

    PubMed

    Onopchenko, O V; Kosiakova, H V; Horid'ko, T M; Berdyshev, A H; Mehed', O F; Hula, N M

    2013-01-01

    The influence of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) on the content of lipid peroxidation products, activity of antioxidant enzymes and the nitric oxide level in the liver and blood plasma of rats with insulin-resistance (IR) state was investigated. IR state was induced in rats by prolonged high-fat diet (58% of energy derived from fat) for 6 months combined with one injection of streptozotocin (15 mg/kg of body weight). The existence of IR state was estimated by results of glucoso-tolerance test and blood plasma insulin content. The level of lipid peroxides products was shown to be higher in the liver of insulin resistant animals as a result of reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, however, glutathione peroxidase activity was increased. The increase of nitric-oxide content in the liver and blood plasma of high-fat diet rats compared with healthy control animals was also observed. The administration of the NSE suspension per os in a dose of 50 mg/kg during 2 weeks to the rats with induced insulin-resistance state contributed to the increase of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity. In consequence of antioxidant enzymes activation the intensity of POL process was decreased. The NSE administration caused normalization of nitric oxide level, restoring pro-/antioxidant balance in the liver and blood plasma of rats with IR state. In conclusion, the NSE administration to the rats with insulin-resistance state restored pro-/antioxidant balance and enhanced the content of nitric oxide, therefore, improving insulin sensitivity.

  5. Inhibition of photosystem II precedes thylakoid membrane lipid peroxidation in bisulfite-treated leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Covello, P.S.; Dumbroff, E.B.; Thompson, J.E. Univ. of Guelph, Ontario ); Chang, A. )

    1989-08-01

    Exposure of leaves to SO{sub 2} bisulfite is known to induce peroxidation of thylakoid lipids and to inhibit photosynthetic electron transport. In the present study, we have examined the temporal relationship between bisulfite-induced thylakoid lipid peroxidation and inhibition of electron transport in an attempt to clarify the primary mechanism of SO{sub 2} phytotoxicity. Primary leaves of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Kinghorn) were floated on a solution of NaHSO{sub 3}, and the effects of this treatment on photosynthetic electron transport were determined in vivo by measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction and in vitro by biochemical measurements of the light reactions using isolated thylakoids. Lipid peroxidation in treated leaves was followed by monitoring ethane emission from leaf segments and by measuring changes in fatty acid composition and lipid fluidity in isolated thylakoids. A 1 hour treatment with bisulfite inhibited photosystem II (PSII) activity by 70% without modifying Photosystem I, and this inhibitory effect was not light-dependent. By contrast, lipid peroxidation was not detectable until after the inhibition of PSII and was strongly light dependent. This temporal separation of events together with the differential effect of light suggests that bisulfite-induced inhibition of PSII is not a secondary effect of lipid peroxidation, and that bisulfite acts directly on one or more components of PSII.

  6. Breath pentane as a marker for lipid peroxidation and adverse outcome in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Nycyk, J; Drury, J; Cooke, R

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To test the hypothesis that complications of neonatal intensive care are related to increased oxygen derived free radical activity, using breath pentane as a marker of lipid peroxidation.
METHODS—Exhaled breath was collected daily from 57 ventilated preterm infants and pentane concentration measured by gas chromatography.
RESULTS—High peak pentane exhalation was significantly associated with low gestational age, mortality, intraventricular haemorrhage and retinopathy of prematurity. Peak pentane was not significantly associated with the development of chronic lung disease.
CONCLUSIONS—The demonstration that pentane exhalation is related to the course of neonatal disease and its outcome is consistent with the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation is associated with these illnesses, and may contribute to their severity. If this is a causal relation, antioxidant treatments could prove useful in reducing their severity. Measurement of breath pentane might assist in the assessment of antioxidant strategies prior to more extensive clinical trials.

 PMID:9797630

  7. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by extracts/subfractions of Chickrassy ( Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Thind, Tarunpreet Singh; Singh, Bikram; Arora, Saroj

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols and polyphenol-rich fractions of plants have been reported to have protective effects against lipid peroxidation, most probably by serving as scavengers of free radicals and/or by chelating metal ions. In the present study, the effect of different extracts/subfractions of Chickrassy ( Chukrasia tabularis) on peroxyl radical mediated damage to the polyunsaturated fatty acids was investigated. Liver homogenate was used as experimental material. The production of malondialdehyde served as a marker of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. It was observed that polyphenol-rich fractions, particularly the ethyl acetate fractions of bark and leaves, showed the highest protective activity of 83.02% and 88.62% inhibition, respectively. This study will help in knowing the scientific validation of this plant, for its use in ayurvedic formulations.

  8. Seasonal variations in the antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation of the digestive gland of mussels.

    PubMed

    Viarengo, A; Canesi, L; Pertica, M; Livingstone, D R

    1991-01-01

    1. The seasonal variations in the level of antioxidant compounds (glutathione (GSH), vitamin E, carotenoids) and in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), GSH-peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) in the digestive gland of mussels (Mytilus sp.) were evaluated. The lipid peroxidation process was also measured by determining the tissue concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). 2. The physiological fluctuations of the antioxidant defence systems were inversely related to the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (MDA) in the tissue. The observed seasonal variations are presumably related to the changing metabolic status of the animals, itself dependent on such factors as gonad ripening and food availability. 3. In particular, the obtained data indicate that a reduction of the antioxidant defence systems, occurring during winter, could be directly responsible for an enhanced susceptibility of mussels tissues to oxidative stress, as indicated by the high MDA concentration observed in this period.

  9. The mechanism of Fe(2+)-initiated lipid peroxidation in liposomes: the dual function of ferrous ions, the roles of the pre-existing lipid peroxides and the lipid peroxyl radical.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, L; Zhang, Y; Qian, Z; Shen, X

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of Fe(2+)-initiated lipid peroxidation in a liposomal system was studied. It was found that a second addition of ferrous ions within the latent period lengthened the time lag before lipid peroxidation started. The apparent time lag depended on the total dose of Fe(2+) whenever the second dose of Fe(2+) was added, which indicates that Fe(2+) has a dual function: to initiate lipid peroxidation on one hand and suppress the species responsible for the initiation of the peroxidation on the other. When the pre-existing lipid peroxides (LOOH) were removed by incorporating triphenylphosphine into liposomes, Fe(2+) could no longer initiate lipid peroxidation and the acceleration of Fe(2+) oxidation by the liposomes disappeared. However, when extra LOOH were introduced into liposomes, both enhancement of the lipid peroxidation and shortening of the latent period were observed. When the scavenger of lipid peroxyl radicals (LOO(.)), N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylene-diamine, was incorporated into liposomes, neither initiation of the lipid peroxidation nor acceleration of the Fe(2+) oxidation could be detected. The results may suggest that both the pre-existing LOOH and LOO(.) are necessary for the initiation of lipid peroxidation. The latter comes initially from the decomposition of the pre-existing LOOH by Fe(2+) and can be scavenged by its reaction with Fe(2+). Only when Fe(2+) is oxidized to such a degree that LOO(.) is no longer effectively suppressed does lipid peroxidation start. It seems that by taking the reactions of Fe(2+) with LOOH and LOO(.) into account, the basic chemistry in lipid peroxidation can explain fairly well the controversial phenomena observed in Fe(2+)-initiated lipid peroxidation, such as the existence of a latent period, the critical ratio of Fe(2+) to lipid and the required oxidation of Fe(2+). PMID:11062055

  10. Protective effects of Emblica officinalis (Amla) on metal-induced lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Vijay Kumar; Rather, Irfan Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    The protective potential of Emblica officinalis (amla) was investigated on metal-induced lipid per oxidation in human erythrocytes. Increases in the levels of MDA and catalase activity were assessed as lipid per oxidation. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione (GSH), and ascorbic acid levels were assessed as antioxidant indices. Preliminary investigation of the extract exhibited a significant reduction in lipid per oxidation and an increase in antioxidant abilities, such as a decrease in MDA, GPx and GSH (P<0.05). A significant reduction in erythrocyte hemolysis induced by hydrogen peroxide was observed using amla extract (P<0.05). These findings show that amla extract has significant protective potential against lipid per oxidation.

  11. Photoirradiation of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and twelve isomeric methylbenz[a]anthracene with UVA light: formation of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qingsu; Chou, Ming W; Yin, Jun J; Howard, Paul C; Yu, Hongtao; Fu, Peter P

    2006-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants, which require metabolic activation in order to exert biological activities, including mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Photoactivation is another activation pathway that can lead to PAH genotoxicity. In this paper, we demonstrate that photoirradiation of a series of representative PAHs, with and without bearing a methyl substituent, with UVA light in the presence of methyl linoleate resulted in the formation of methyl linoleate hydroperoxides (a lipid peroxide). The lipid peroxide formation was inhibited by dithiothreitol (DTT) (free radical scavenger), NaN3 (singlet oxygen and free radical scavenger), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (superoxide scavenger), but was enhanced by the presence of deuterium oxide (D2O) (extends singlet oxygen lifetime). These results suggest that photoirradiation of PAHs by UVA light generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce lipid peroxidation.

  12. Photolysis and membrane lipid peroxidation of human erythrocytes by m-chloroperbenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Abou-Seif, M A; Elgendy, E M

    1998-09-14

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the biological hazard of photooxidation products of m-chloroperbenzoic acid (mCPBA), as a novel photo-sensitizer, on lysis and membrane lipid peroxidation of human red blood cells (RBC). The photohemolysis activity of mCPBA oxidative products was concentration- and exposure time-dependent. Ten minutes photoexposure time and 100 micromol/L of mCPBA concentration were optimum to study the effect of generated superoxide (O2.-) and hydroxyl (.OH) radicals on RBC. The hemolytic effect of mCPBA was highly significantly inhibited by formate (as an .OH radical scavenger) compared with the partial inhibition effect of SOD-like Cu(II) complex (as O2.- radical Scavenger). The MDA value (an end product of membrane lipid peroxidation of RBC) induced by mCPBA was highly significantly decreased by formate. The generation of O2.- radicals by mCPBA was also confirmed by the partial hemolytic effect of phenazine methosulfate (PMS., O2.- radical generation). The data suggest the molecular mechanism of the oxygen radical species (O2.- and .OH through the photosensitization reaction of mCPBA and explain that hydroxyl radicals (.OH) play an active role in the photohemolysis process and peroxidation of membrane lipids of human erythrocytes.

  13. Ranking antioxidants based on their effect on human serum lipids peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, Ilya; Shoval, Hila; Bor, Ariela; Schnitzer, Edit; Dotan, Yedidya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the activity of antioxidants is commonly based on measurements of the effect of a specific antioxidant on redox reactions conducted in a solution. Given the difference between reactions that occur in homogeneous solutions and those that occur at lipid-water interfaces, as in biological membranes and lipoproteins, the relevance of the commonly-used assays (such as TEAC and ORAC) to the antioxidative activity in biological systems is questionable. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a more relevant assay. Based on our results, we propose an assay based on prolongation of the lag preceding fast peroxidation of serum lipids. The assay employs our previously developed procedure for determination of susceptibility of serum lipids to peroxidation. The effect of antioxidants is expressed in terms of the relative prolongation of the lag preceding peroxidation. It can be considered reliable because it is only marginally dependent on the specific sera used for the assay. The resultant ranking of antioxidants may be expressed either as the relative prolongation of the lag per 1μM of antioxidant or as the concentration of antioxidant required to double the lag. As expected, the observed ranking order is very different from that reported for TEAC or ORAC assays, undermining the relevance of these assays for oxidation that occurs at interfaces.

  14. Lipid peroxidation of rabbit small intestinal microvillus membrane vesicles by iron complexes.

    PubMed

    Fodor, I; Marx, J J

    1988-07-01

    Fe(II)- and Fe(III)-induced lipid peroxidation of rabbit small intestinal microvillus membrane vesicles was studied. Ferrous ammonium sulphate, ferrous ascorbate at a molar ratio of 10:1, and ferric citrate, at molar ratios of 1:1 and 1:20, did not stimulate lipid peroxidation. Ferrous ascorbate, 1:1, induced low stimulation, while ferrous ascorbate, 1:20 gave higher stimulation of lipid peroxidation. These results show that in our experimental system, ascorbate is a promotor rather than an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation. Ferric nitrilotriacetate (at molar ratios of 1:2 and 1:10), at an iron concentration of 200 microM, was by far the most effective in inducing lipid peroxidation. Superoxide dismutase, mannitol and glutathione had no effect, while catalase, thiourea and vitamin E markedly decreased ferrous ascorbate 1:20-induced lipid peroxidation. Ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced lipid peroxidation was slightly reduced by catalase and mannitol, significantly reduced by superoxide dismutase, and completely inhibited by thiourea. Glutathione caused a 100% increase in the ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that Fe(II) in the presence of trace amounts of Fe(III), or an oxidizing agent and Fe(III) in the presence of Fe(II) or a reducing agent, are potent stimulators of lipid peroxidation of microvillus membrane vesicles. Addition of deferoxamine completely inhibited both ferrous ascorbate, 1:20 and ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced lipid peroxidation, demonstrating the requirement for iron for its stimulation. Iron-induced peroxidation of microvillus membrane may have physiological significance because it could already be demonstrated at 2 microM iron concentration.

  15. Drought stress induced changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in genus Avena.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Harish C; Baig, M J; Chandra, A; Bhatt, R K

    2010-07-01

    Seven species of genus Avena viz., Avena sativa, Avena strigosa, Avena brevis, Avena vaviloviana, Avena abyssinica, Avena marocana and Avena sterilis were used to study the impact of drought stress on lipid peroxidation and other antioxidant enzymes. Maximum increase in the catalase activity was recorded in A. vaviloviana (129.97%) followed by A. sativa (122.82%) and A. brevis (83.38%) at vegetative stage; however at flowering stage the maximum increase was reported in A. sativa (25.62%) followed by A. sterilis (20.46%) and A. brevis (18.53%). At vegetative stage drought, maximum increase in peroxidase activity was recorded in A. sativa (122.82%) followed by A. brevis (83.38%) and A. sterilis (49.78%). Flowering stage drought, showed maximum increase in A. Sativa (27.09%) followed by A. marocana (23.50%) and A. sterilis (20.46%). A. sativa and A. sterilis showed stress tolerance at both the stages by accumulating higher percentage of peroxidase followed by A. brevis at vegetative and A. marocana at flowering stage. Level of lipid peroxidation in terms of Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased in the leaves when plants were subjected to moisture stress. The rate of increase in lipid peroxidation occurs irrespective of stage however; maximum increase was recorded in A. strigosa at both the stages. Avena species which showed high level of MDA content, indicates more lipid peroxidation and more membrane permeability and are comparatively more susceptible for water stress than those which produce less Malondialdehyde (MDA) content at higher magnitude of water stress such species have better capability for moisture stress tolerance.

  16. Effects of Ferulago angulata Extract on Serum Lipids and Lipid Peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Gharipour, Mojgan; Darvishzadeh-Boroujeni, Pariya

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nowadays, herbs they are considered to be the main source of effective drugs for lowering serum lipids and lipid peroxidation. The present experimental animal study aimed to assess the impact of Ferulago angulata on serum lipid profiles, and on levels of lipid peroxidation. Methods. Fifty male Wistar rats, weighing 250–300 g, were randomly divided into five equal groups (ten rats in each). The rat groups received different diets as follows: Group I: fat-rich diet; Group II: fat-rich diet plus hydroalcoholic extracts of Ferulago angulata at a dose of 400 mg/kg; Group III: fat-rich diet plus hydroalcoholic extracts of Ferulago angulata at a dose of 600 mg/kg; Group IV: fat-rich diet plus atorvastatin; Group V: common stock diet. The levels of serum glucose and lipids and the atherogenic index were measured. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA), thiol oxidation, carbonyl concentrations, C-reactive proteins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in each group of rats. Results. Interestingly, by adding a hydroalcoholic extract of Ferulago angulata to the high-fat diet, the levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in the high-fat diet rats were both significantly reduced. This result was considerably greater compared to when atorvastatin was added as an antilipid drug. The beneficial effects of the Ferulago angulata extract on lowering the level of triglycerides was observed only when a high dosage of this plant extraction was added to a high fat diet. Furthermore, the level of malondialdehyde, was significantly affected by the use of the plant extract in a high-fat diet, compared with a normal regimen or high-fat diet alone. Conclusion. Administration of a hydroalcoholic extract of Ferulago angulata can reduce serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. It can also inhibit lipid peroxidation. PMID:24707310

  17. Effects of metal ions on lipid peroxidation in cultured rat hepatocytes loaded with alpha-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Furono, K; Suetsuga, T; Sugihara, N

    1996-06-07

    We investigated the ability of various redox-active metal ions to induce lipid peroxidation in normal and alpha-linolenic acid-loaded (LNA-loaded) cultured rat hepatocytes. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the culture medium. At low concentrations induction was highest with ferrous ions (Fe), whereas at high concentrations, vanadium (V) and copper ions (Cu) had the greatest effect on both groups of hepatocytes. With any one of the three metal ions, the extent of lipid peroxidation in LNA-loaded hepatocytes was several times greater compared to normal cells. In addition, upon the addition of Fe or V, LNA-loaded hepatocytes were injured whereas normal cells were not. The addition of Cu caused substantial cell injury in normal hepatocytes, and even greater injury in LNA-loaded cells. The prevention of lipid peroxidation in LNA-loaded hepatocytes by addition of an antioxidant like N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DPPD) almost completely prevented Fe- and V-induced cell injury, and reduced Cu-induced cell injury. alpha-Tocopherol behaved in a way similar to but less effective than DPPD. .OH radical scavengers such as mannitol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) had no effect on lipid peroxidation induced by any metal ions in LNA-loaded hepatocytes. Addition of cadmium ions (Cd), which required the lowest concentration to cause cell injury, induced a slight increase in lipid peroxidation in normal hepatocytes, but did not induce lipid peroxidation to the same extent as seen in LNA-loaded cells treated with any of the three metal ions already mentioned. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation by DPPD scarcely protected LNA-loaded hepatocytes from Cd-induced cell injury. None of the other metal ions including aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and tin (Sn) ions, effectively induced lipid peroxidation in either group of hepatocytes, except cobalt ions (Co), which had a peroxidative effect in LNA

  18. [Lipid peroxidation in microalgae cells under simulated microgravity].

    PubMed

    Li, Gen-bao; Wang, Gao-hong; Song, Li-rong; Liu, Yong-ding

    2002-08-01

    Objective. To provide direct evidences for effects of microgravity on structure and function of plasma membrane. Method. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was examined on the basis of quantitative reaction of both MDA and thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and electrolyte leaking was determined with conductometer model DDS-11A. Result. Experiments showed that under simulated microgravity, lipid peroxidation and the content of MDA increased. Meanwhile, the membrane permeability increased in cells of two microalgae: Anabaena sp PCC7120 and Synechococcus 7942. Conclusion. Our results suggest that there is some commonness between microgravity stress and certain other environmental stresses. And cellular membrane might be the site of perception of gravity in unicells without special gravity sensitive structure, such as alga cells.

  19. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in Alzheimer disease (AD): an update.

    PubMed

    Bradley-Whitman, Melissa A; Lovell, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that free radical-mediated oxidation of biological substrates is a key feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. While it has long been established that biomarkers of lipid peroxidation (LPO) are elevated in AD brain as well as ventricular CSF postmortem, more recent studies have demonstrated increased LPO biomarkers in postmortem brain from subjects with mild cognitive impairment, the earliest clinically detectable phase of dementia and preclinical AD, the earliest detectable pathological phase. Furthermore, multiple LPO biomarkers are elevated in readily accessible biological fluids throughout disease progression. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that LPO is an early feature during disease progression and may be considered a key pathway for targeted therapeutics as well as an enhancer of diagnostic accuracy for early detection of subjects during the prodromal phase.

  20. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in Alzheimer disease (AD): an update

    PubMed Central

    Bradley-Whitman, Melissa A.; Lovell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests free radical mediated oxidation of biological substrates is a key feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. While it has long been established that biomarkers of lipid peroxidation (LPO) are elevated in AD brain as well as ventricular CSF postmortem, more recent studies have demonstrated increased LPO biomarkers in postmortem brain from subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the earliest clinically detectable phase of dementia and preclinical AD (PCAD), the earliest detectable pathological phase. Furthermore, multiple LPO biomarkers are elevated in readily accessible biological fluids throughout disease progression. Collectively these studies demonstrate that LPO is an early feature during disease progression and may be considered a key pathway for targeted therapeutics as well as an enhancer of diagnostic accuracy for early detection of subjects during the prodromal phase. PMID:25895140

  1. Tyrosine-lipid peroxide adducts from radical termination: para coupling and intramolecular Diels-Alder cyclization.

    PubMed

    Shchepin, Roman; Möller, Matias N; Kim, Hye-young H; Hatch, Duane M; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Radi, Rafael; Porter, Ned A

    2010-12-15

    Free radical co-oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids with tyrosine or phenolic analogues of tyrosine gave rise to lipid peroxide-tyrosine (phenol) adducts in both aqueous micellar and organic solutions. The novel adducts were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometry (MS). The spectral data suggest that the polyunsaturated lipid peroxyl radicals give stable peroxide coupling products exclusively at the para position of the tyrosyl (phenoxy) radicals. These adducts have characteristic (13)C chemical shifts at 185 ppm due to the cross-conjugated carbonyl of the phenol-derived cyclohexadienone. The primary peroxide adducts subsequently undergo intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) cyclization, affording a number of diastereomeric tricyclic adducts that have characteristic carbonyl (13)C chemical shifts at ~198 ppm. All of the NMR HMBC and HSQC correlations support the structure assignments of the primary and Diels-Alder adducts, as does MS collision-induced dissociation data. Kinetic rate constants and activation parameters for the IMDA reaction were determined, and the primary adducts were reduced with cuprous ion to give a phenol-derived 4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone. No products from adduction of peroxyls at the phenolic ortho position were found in either the primary or cuprous reduction product mixtures. These studies provide a framework for understanding the nature of lipid-protein adducts formed by peroxyl-tyrosyl radical-radical termination processes. Coupling of lipid peroxyl radicals with tyrosyl radicals leads to cyclohexenone and cyclohexadienone adducts, which are of interest in and of themselves since, as electrophiles, they are likely targets for protein nucleophiles. One consequence of lipid peroxyl reactions with tyrosyls may therefore be protein-protein cross-links via interprotein Michael adducts.

  2. Targeting lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial imbalance in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Abeti, Rosella; Uzun, Ebru; Renganathan, Indhushri; Honda, Tadashi; Pook, Mark A; Giunti, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disorder, caused by reduced levels of the protein frataxin. This protein is located in the mitochondria, where it functions in the biogenesis of iron-sulphur clusters (ISCs), which are important for the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. Moreover, disruption in iron biogenesis may lead to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can be the cause and/or the consequence of mitochondrial energy imbalance, leading to cell death. Fibroblasts from two FRDA mouse models, YG8R and KIKO, were used to analyse two different categories of protective compounds: deuterised poly-unsaturated fatty acids (dPUFAs) and Nrf2-inducers. The former have been shown to protect the cell from damage induced by lipid peroxidation and the latter trigger the well-known Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. Our results show that the sensitivity to oxidative stress of YG8R and KIKO mouse fibroblasts, resulting in cell death and lipid peroxidation, can be prevented by d4-PUFA and Nrf2-inducers (SFN and TBE-31). The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) of YG8R and KIKO fibroblasts revealed a difference in their mitochondrial pathophysiology, which may be due to the different genetic basis of the two models. This suggests that variable levels of reduced frataxin may act differently on mitochondrial pathophysiology and that these two cell models could be useful in recapitulating the observed differences in the FRDA phenotype. This may reflect a different modulatory effect towards cell death that will need to be investigated further.

  3. Potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Phyllanthus acidus leaf extract in minced pork.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuyen Thi Kim; Laosinwattana, Chamroon; Teerarak, Montinee; Pilasombut, Komkhae

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of extraction solvents on antioxidant bio-active compounds as well as potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Phyllanthus acidus (P. acidus) leaf extract in minced pork. The effect of various solvent systems of water, 25%, 50%, 75% (v/v) ethanol in water and absolute ethanol on the extraction crude yield, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant activities of P. acidus leaves was determined. In addition, antioxidant activities of the addition of crude extract from P. aciuds leaves at 2.5 and 5 g/kg in minced pork on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical cation decolorization, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS) were determined. Moreover, sensory evaluation of the samples was undertaken by using a 7-point hedonic scale. The results showed that the highest crude yield (2.8 g/100 g dry weight) was obtained from water which also had the highest recovery yield for total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and the strongest antioxidant activity. The addition of crude water extract from P. acidus leaves was more effective in retarding lipid peroxidation and higher antioxidant activity than control and butylated hydroxytoluene in minced pork. In particular, the samples containing P. acidus extract had no significant effect on the sensory scores of overall appearance, color, odor, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability compared to the control. Water solvent was an optimally appropriate solvent for P. acidus leaf extraction because of its ability to yield the highest amount of bio-active compounds and in vitro antioxidant property. Particularly, P. acidus crude water extract also strongly expressed the capacity to retard lipid oxidation, radical scavenging, radical cation decolorization and reducing power in

  4. Structure-dependent lipid peroxidation by photoirradiation of pyrene and its mono-substituted derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Fullove, Tracie Perkins; Johnson, Britney; Yu, Hongtao

    2014-01-01

    Pyrene, one of the most studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can damage biological macromolecules and cause toxicity when irradiated by light. The effect of substituents, 1-amino, 1-hydroxy, 1-nitro, and 1-bromo, on light-induced lipid peroxidation is studied. Degradation kinetics and photoproduct analyses were conducted to test how these substituents affect the photoreaction. All five compounds have different photodegradation rates, and these rates parallel their light absorptivity. Four out of the five compounds induce lipid peroxidation when irradiated with UVA light; whereas, 1-aminopyrene causes minimum or no lipid peroxidation. The relative amount of lipid peroxidation caused is: 1-Bromopyrene > Pyrene > 1-Nitropyrene ≈ 1-Hydroxypyrene > 1-Aminopyrene. This relative lipid peroxidation is dependent on structure due to the following factors: light absorptivity, relative rates of the competing processes in the excited states, nature of the photoreaction, and nature of the photoproducts. PMID:23245298

  5. Green tea supplementation affects body weight, lipids, and lipid peroxidation in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Sanchez, Karah; Leyva, Misti J; Wu, Mingyuan; Betts, Nancy M; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2010-02-01

    To compare the effects of supplementation of green tea beverage or green tea extracts with controls on body weight, glucose and lipid profile, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and safety parameters in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Randomized, controlled prospective trial. General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) at University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (OUHSC). Thirty-five subjects with obesity and metabolic syndrome were recruited in age- and gender-matched trios and were randomly assigned to the control (4 cups water/d), green tea (4 cups/d), or green tea extract (2 capsules and 4 cups water/d) group for 8 weeks. The tea and extract groups had similar dosing of epiogallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the active compound in green tea. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipids, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based lipid particle size, safety parameters, biomarkers of oxidative stress (oxidized low-density lipoprotein [LDL], myeloperoxidase [MPO], malondialdehyde and hydroxynonenals [MDA and HNE]), and free catechins were analyzed at screen and at 4 and 8 weeks of the study. Pairwise comparisons showed green tea beverage and green tea extracts caused a significant decrease in body weight and body mass index (BMI) versus controls at 8 weeks (-2.5 +/- 0.7 kg, p < 0.01, and -1.9 +/- 0.6, p < 0.05, respectively). Green tea beverage showed a decreasing trend in LDL-cholesterol and LDL/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) versus controls (p < 0.1). Green tea beverage also significantly decreased MDA and HNE (-0.39 +/- 0.06 microM, p < 0.0001) versus controls. Plasma free catechins were detectable in both beverage and extract groups versus controls at screen and at 8 weeks, indicating compliance and bioavailability of green tea catechins. Green tea beverage consumption (4 cups/d) or extract supplementation (2 capsules/d) for 8 weeks significantly decreased body weight and BMI. Green tea beverage further lowered lipid peroxidation versus age- and

  6. Hydrogen sulfide decreases the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by homocysteine and its thiolactone.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been investigated widely in recent years. H2S plays a variety of roles in different biological systems, including cardiovascular system. It is the final product of amino acids metabolism, which contains sulfur-cysteine and homocysteine (Hcy). In human plasma, there are several various forms of homocysteine: free Hcy, protein-bound Hcy (S-linked, and N-linked), and homocysteine thiolactone (HTL). Our previous works have shown that both Hcy in the reduced form and its thiolactone may modify fibrinolysis, coagulation process, and biological activity of blood platelets. Moreover, we have observed that HTL, like its precursor-Hcy stimulated the generation of superoxide anion radicals (O 2 (-•) ) in blood platelets. The aim of our study in vitro was to establish the influence of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, as a fast-releasing H2S donor; at tested concentrations: 10-1000 µM) on the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by the reduced Hcy (at final concentrations of 0.01-1 mM) and HTL (at final concentrations of 0.1-1 µM). Our results indicate that 10 and 100 µM NaHS decreased the lipid peroxidation in plasma treated with 1 mM Hcy or 1 µM HTL (when NaHS and Hcy/HTL were added to plasma together). The protective effect of 10 and 100 µM NaHS against the lipid peroxidation in plasma preincubated with 1 mM Hcy or 1 µM HTL was also observed. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that the lipid peroxidation (induced by different forms of homocysteine) may be reduced by hydrogen sulfide.

  7. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) attenuates antioxidant defense in aged spinal cord and inhibits copper induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative modifications.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeev K; Dua, Anita; Vohra, Bhupinder P S

    2003-01-01

    Withania somnifera is classified in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine, as a rasayana, a group of plant-derived drugs which promote physical and mental health, augment resistance of the body against disease and diverse adverse environmental factors, revitalize the body in debilitated conditions and increase longevity. We investigated the effects of Withania somnifera on copper-induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in aging spinal cord of Wistar rats. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased significantly in the spinal cord from adult to aged mice. Treatment with Withania somnifera successfully attenuated GPx activity and inhibited lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent manner. Withania somnifera inhibited both the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative modification induced by copper. These effects were similar to those of superoxide dismutase and mannitol. The results indicate the therapeutic potential of Withania somnifera in aging and copper-induced pathophysiological conditions.

  8. Antioxidant properties of resveratrol and piceid on lipid peroxidation in micelles and monolamellar liposomes.

    PubMed

    Fabris, Sabrina; Momo, Federico; Ravagnan, Giampietro; Stevanato, Roberto

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activities of trans-resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) and trans-piceid (trans-5,4'-dihydroxystilbene-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside), its more widespread glycosilate derivative, have been compared measuring their inhibitory action on peroxidation of linoleic acid (LA) and the radical scavenging ability towards different free radicals (such as DPPH) and radical initiators. It has been found that the two stilbenes have similar antioxidant capacity, while the comparison with BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, vit. E), taken as reference, points out a slower but prolonged protective action against lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, piceid appears more efficacious than resveratrol as a consequence of the reaction of the latter with its radical form. The DSC profiles of phosphatidylcholine liposomes of various chain lengths, and EPR measurements of spin labelled liposomes demonstrated that the susceptible hydroxyl group of these compounds are located in the lipid region of the bilayer close to the double bonds of polyunsaturated fatty acids, making these stilbenes particularly suitable for the prevention and control of the lipid peroxidation of the membranes.

  9. CALCIUM-INDUCED LIPID PEROXIDATION IS MEDIATED BY RHODNIUS HEME-BINDING PROTEIN (RHBP) AND PREVENTED BY VITELLIN.

    PubMed

    Paes, Marcia C; Silveira, Alan B; Ventura-Martins, Guilherme; Luciano, Monalisa; Coelho, Marsen G P; Todeschini, Adriane R; Bianconi, M Lucia; Atella, Georgia C; Silva-Neto, Mário A C

    2015-10-01

    Lipid peroxidation is promoted by the quasi-lipoxygenase (QL) activity of heme proteins and enhanced by the presence of free calcium. Unlike mammalian plasma, the hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease, contains both a free heme-binding protein (RHBP) and circulating lipoproteins. RHBP binds and prevents the heme groups of the proteins from participating in lipid peroxidation reactions. Herein, we show that despite being bound to RHBP, heme groups promote lipid peroxidation through a calcium-dependent QL reaction. This reaction is readily inhibited by the presence of ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene or micromolar levels of the main yolk phosphoprotein vitellin (Vt). The inhibition of lipid peroxidation is eliminated by the in vitro dephosphorylation of Vt, indicating that this reaction depends on the interaction of free calcium ions with negatively charged phosphoamino acids. Our results demonstrate that calcium chelation mediated by phosphoproteins occurs via an antioxidant mechanism that protects living organisms from lipid peroxidation.

  10. Lipid peroxidation causes endosomal antigen release for cross-presentation

    PubMed Central

    Dingjan, Ilse; Verboogen, Daniëlle RJ; Paardekooper, Laurent M; Revelo, Natalia H; Sittig, Simone P; Visser, Linda J; Mollard, Gabriele Fischer von; Henriet, Stefanie SV; Figdor, Carl G; ter Beest, Martin; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) present foreign antigen in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to cytotoxic T cells in a process called cross-presentation. An important step in this process is the release of antigen from the lumen of endosomes into the cytosol, but the mechanism of this step is still unclear. In this study, we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the NADPH-oxidase complex NOX2 cause lipid peroxidation, a membrane disrupting chain-reaction, which in turn results in antigen leakage from endosomes. Antigen leakage and cross-presentation were inhibited by blocking ROS production or scavenging radicals and induced when using a ROS-generating photosensitizer. Endosomal antigen release was impaired in DCs from chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients with dysfunctional NOX2. Thus, NOX2 induces antigen release from endosomes for cross-presentation by direct oxidation of endosomal lipids. This constitutes a new cellular function for ROS in regulating immune responses against pathogens and cancer. PMID:26907999

  11. Lipid peroxidation causes endosomal antigen release for cross-presentation.

    PubMed

    Dingjan, Ilse; Verboogen, Daniëlle Rj; Paardekooper, Laurent M; Revelo, Natalia H; Sittig, Simone P; Visser, Linda J; Mollard, Gabriele Fischer von; Henriet, Stefanie Sv; Figdor, Carl G; Ter Beest, Martin; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2016-02-24

    Dendritic cells (DCs) present foreign antigen in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to cytotoxic T cells in a process called cross-presentation. An important step in this process is the release of antigen from the lumen of endosomes into the cytosol, but the mechanism of this step is still unclear. In this study, we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the NADPH-oxidase complex NOX2 cause lipid peroxidation, a membrane disrupting chain-reaction, which in turn results in antigen leakage from endosomes. Antigen leakage and cross-presentation were inhibited by blocking ROS production or scavenging radicals and induced when using a ROS-generating photosensitizer. Endosomal antigen release was impaired in DCs from chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients with dysfunctional NOX2. Thus, NOX2 induces antigen release from endosomes for cross-presentation by direct oxidation of endosomal lipids. This constitutes a new cellular function for ROS in regulating immune responses against pathogens and cancer.

  12. Lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity induced by respirable volcanic ash.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Antonio-Nieto-Camacho; Gomez-Vidales, Virginia; Ramirez-Apan, María Teresa; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención; Kaufhold, Stephan; Abidin, Zeanal; Theng, Benny K G

    2014-06-15

    This paper reports that the main component of respirable volcanic ash, allophane, induces lipid peroxidation (LP), the oxidative degradation of lipids in cell membranes, and cytotoxicity in murin monocyle/macrophage cells. Naturally-occurring allophane collected from New Zealand, Japan, and Ecuador was studied. The quantification of LP was conducted using the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay. The cytotoxic effect was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) determinations of naturally-occurring allophane confirmed the incorporation in the structure and clustering of structural Fe(3+), and nucleation and growth of small-sized Fe (oxyhydr)oxide or gibbsite. LP induced by allophane varied with time, and solid concentration and composition, reaching 6.7 ± 0.2 nmol TBARS mg prot(-1). LP was surface controlled but not restricted by structural or surface-bound Fe(3+), because redox processes induced by soluble components other than perferryl iron. The reactivity of Fe(3+) soluble species stemming from surface-bound Fe(3+) or small-sized Fe(3+) refractory minerals in allophane surpassed that of structural Fe(3+) located in tetrahedral or octahedral sites of phyllosilicates or bulk iron oxides. Desferrioxamine B mesylate salt (DFOB) or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) inhibited LP. EDTA acted as a more effective inhibitor, explained by multiple electron transfer pathways. Registered cell-viability values were as low as 68.5 ± 6.7%.

  13. Alteration of lipid status and lipid metabolism, induction of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic herbicide in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Tayeb, Wafa; Nakbi, Amel; Cheraief, Imed; Miled, Abdelhedi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic herbicide (2,4-D) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins concentrations, hepatic lipid peroxidation, fatty acid composition and antioxidant enzyme activities in rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each: control group and three 2,4-D-treated groups G1, G2 and G3 were administered 15, 75 and 150 mg/kg/BW/d 2,4-D by gavage for 28 d, respectively. Results showed that 2,4-D caused significant negative changes in the biochemical parameters investigated. The malondialdehyde level was significantly increased in 2,4-D-treated groups. Fatty acid composition of the liver was also significantly changed with 2,4-D exposure. Furthermore, the hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly affected. Finally, 2,4-D at the studied doses modifies lipidic status, disrupt lipid metabolism and induce hepatic oxidative stress. In conclusion, at higher doses, 2,4-D may play an important role in the development of vascular disease via metabolic disorder of lipoproteins, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.

  14. LDL in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism shows increased lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Zha, Kexi; Zuo, Changting; Wang, Aihong; Zhang, Bingchang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Bei; Wang, Yunjia; Zhao, Jiajun; Gao, Ling; Xu, Chao

    2015-08-25

    Population-based studies have demonstrated that subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis (OR = 1.9). However, this connection cannot be entirely explained by dyslipidemia accompanied by SCH. Lipid peroxidation also plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oxidative stress in SCH patients, as measured according to concentrations of hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (HODEs) and hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) in both plasma and low density lipoproteins (LDL). The concentrations of HODEs and HETEs in both LDL and plasma were examined in euthyroid (n = 10), mild SCH (4.5 ≤ TSH < 10 mU/L, n = 10), and significant SCH (TSH ≥ 10 mU/L, n = 10) subjects, using a liquid chromatograph-electrospray ionization- mass spectrometer. Then, we explored the relationship among LDL oxidation, TSH levels, and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a biomarker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Serum LDL-C levels and mean-IMT in the significant SCH group were higher than in the euthyroid group (p < 0.05). The HODE and HETE concentrations clearly increased in the significant SCH patients compared with the euthyroid subjects, but there was no difference between the mild SCH and euthyroid groups. Among all subjects, linear and significant positive correlations were identified between TSH and mean-IMT after adjustment for confounding factors (r = 0.480, p = 0.018). Both 9-HODE (r = 0.376, p = 0.041) and 13-HODE (r = 0.447, p = 0.013) in LDL were linearly and positively correlated with TSH. The concentrations of HODEs (both 9-HODE and 13-HODE) in LDL were much higher in the thickened IMT group than in the normal IMT group (p =  .017 and 0.015, respectively). HODEs in LDL were also positively associated with mean-IMT. Our findings showed that lipid peroxidation was higher in the significant SCH patients than in the euthyroid subjects, which suggested that qualitative as well as quantitative

  15. Lipid peroxidation: production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Antonio; Muñoz, Mario F; Argüelles, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation can be described generally as a process under which oxidants such as free radicals attack lipids containing carbon-carbon double bond(s), especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Over the last four decades, an extensive body of literature regarding lipid peroxidation has shown its important role in cell biology and human health. Since the early 1970s, the total published research articles on the topic of lipid peroxidation was 98 (1970-1974) and has been increasing at almost 135-fold, by up to 13165 in last 4 years (2010-2013). New discoveries about the involvement in cellular physiology and pathology, as well as the control of lipid peroxidation, continue to emerge every day. Given the enormity of this field, this review focuses on biochemical concepts of lipid peroxidation, production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of two main omega-6 fatty acids lipid peroxidation products: malondialdehyde (MDA) and, in particular, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), summarizing not only its physiological and protective function as signaling molecule stimulating gene expression and cell survival, but also its cytotoxic role inhibiting gene expression and promoting cell death. Finally, overviews of in vivo mammalian model systems used to study the lipid peroxidation process, and common pathological processes linked to MDA and 4-HNE are shown.

  16. Lipid Peroxidation: Production, Metabolism, and Signaling Mechanisms of Malondialdehyde and 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Mario F.; Argüelles, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation can be described generally as a process under which oxidants such as free radicals attack lipids containing carbon-carbon double bond(s), especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Over the last four decades, an extensive body of literature regarding lipid peroxidation has shown its important role in cell biology and human health. Since the early 1970s, the total published research articles on the topic of lipid peroxidation was 98 (1970–1974) and has been increasing at almost 135-fold, by up to 13165 in last 4 years (2010–2013). New discoveries about the involvement in cellular physiology and pathology, as well as the control of lipid peroxidation, continue to emerge every day. Given the enormity of this field, this review focuses on biochemical concepts of lipid peroxidation, production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of two main omega-6 fatty acids lipid peroxidation products: malondialdehyde (MDA) and, in particular, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), summarizing not only its physiological and protective function as signaling molecule stimulating gene expression and cell survival, but also its cytotoxic role inhibiting gene expression and promoting cell death. Finally, overviews of in vivo mammalian model systems used to study the lipid peroxidation process, and common pathological processes linked to MDA and 4-HNE are shown. PMID:24999379

  17. Shengmai San reduces hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation in rats fed on a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Chang, Yi-Wei; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Chiang, Meng-Tsan; Chang, Ling; Yeh, Teng-Kuang

    2008-02-28

    Shengmai San (SMS), which is comprised of the medicinal herbs of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Schisandra chinensis Baill., and Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl (2:1:2)., is a traditional Chinese medicine being used for treating coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SMS on the plasma and liver lipids, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in liver and heart of cholesterol-fed rats. Rats were fed on a high-cholesterol (0.5%) diet (control group), high-cholesterol diet containing 2% SMS (2% SMS group) and 4% SMS (4% SMS group) for four weeks. The oxidative stress marker (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) and antioxidant defense systems including glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in rat liver and heart were evaluated. Results showed that rats fed with SMS-containing diet had reduced the H(2)O(2)-induced erythrocytes susceptibility to hemolysis, and 4% SMS feeding rats had higher plasma GSH concentration compared to the animals fed with the control diet. However, SMS had no effect on plasma lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and TBARS concentration. On the other hand, rats fed with the 4% SMS diet reduced the hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride contents. Fecal bile acid excretion was significantly increased in rats fed with the SMS-containing diet. Higher hepatic GSH and lower TBARS concentrations were observed in rats fed with the 4% SMS diet compared with the rats fed with the control diet. No significant difference in activities of GSH-Px, GST and SOD was found in liver and heart after the SMS treatment. Results from this study indicate that the SMS may reduce hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation in rats.

  18. Tyrosyl radical generated by myeloperoxidase is a physiological catalyst for the initiation of lipid peroxidation in low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Savenkova, M L; Mueller, D M; Heinecke, J W

    1994-08-12

    Myeloperoxidase, a heme protein secreted by activated phagocytes, is expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions. The enzyme uses H2O2 generated by the cells to oxidize L-tyrosine to tyrosyl radical, a catalyst for protein dityrosine synthesis. We have explored the possibility that tyrosyl radical initiates lipid peroxidation, which may be of pivotal importance in transforming low density lipoprotein (LDL) into atherogenic particles. Exposure of LDL to L-tyrosine and activated human neutrophils caused peroxidation of LDL lipids. LDL oxidation required L-tyrosine but was independent of free metal ions; catalase and heme poisons were inhibitory. Incubation of LDL with L-tyrosine, myeloperoxidase, and H2O2 likewise caused lipid peroxidation, and this reaction was inhibited by heme poisons and catalase. Replacement of L-tyrosine with O-methyltyrosine, which cannot form tyrosyl radical, inhibited LDL oxidation by both activated neutrophils and myeloperoxidase. The antioxidants ascorbate and probucol, but not vitamin E, inhibited LDL oxidation by myeloperoxidase, H2O2, and L-tyrosine. Ascorbate blocked dityrosine synthesis, while probucol scavenged chain-propagating peroxyl radicals in the lipid phase of LDL. These results indicate that tyrosyl radical stimulates LDL lipid peroxidation. In striking contrast to other cell-mediated mechanisms for LDL oxidation, the myeloperoxidase-catalyzed reaction is independent of free metal ions. This raises the possibility that tyrosyl radical generated by myeloperoxidase is of physiological importance in making LDL atherogenic.

  19. Iron accumulation, glutathione depletion, and lipid peroxidation must occur simultaneously during ferroptosis and are mutually amplifying events.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Robert L

    2017-04-01

    Ferroptosis is a recently discovered form of regulated necrosis that involves iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. How cells die once ferroptosis is triggered remains unclear. Ferroptosis is hypothesized to require three critical events: (1) accumulation of redox-active iron, (2) glutathione depletion, and (3) lipid peroxidation. It is proposed that these three events must unfold simultaneously because stopping any critical event also stops ferroptosis. These events are hypothesized to amplify in severity through positive feedback loops. The cause of death in ferroptosis is therefore the synergistic combination of antioxidant depletion, iron toxicity, and membrane denaturation. The relevance of these feedback loops for cancer and neurodegenerative therapies is discussed.

  20. Promotion of iron-induced rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation by copper.

    PubMed

    Beckman, J K; Borowitz, S M; Greene, H L; Burr, I M

    1988-06-01

    Although copper has been demonstrated to promote lipid peroxidation in a number of systems, the mechanisms involved have not been fully defined. In this study, the role of copper in modifying lipid peroxidation has been explored in rat hepatic microsomes. In an in vitro system containing reduced glutathione (GSH, 200 microM) and Tris buffer, pH 7.4, cupric sulfate (1-50 microM) potentiated lipid peroxidation induced by ferrous sulfate (10 microM) but was unable to elicit peroxidation in the absence of iron. Higher levels of cupric sulfate (100 microM or greater) were inhibitory. The nature as well as the extent of the peroxidative response of microsomes to cupric sulfate were dependent on glutathione levels in addition to those of iron. Cupric sulfate (100 microM) strongly potentiated ferrous ion-induced lipid peroxidation in the presence of 400-800 microM GSH, while it inhibited peroxidation at lower levels of GSH (0-200 microM) and did not affect ferrous ion-induced peroxidation with glutathione levels of 3-10 mM. The potentiating effect of copper on ferrous ion-induced lipid peroxidation was further explored by investigating: (1) potential GSH-mediated reduction of cupric ions; (2) potential copper/GSH-mediated reduction of ferric ions (formed by oxidation during incubation); and (3) possible promotion of propagation reactions by copper/GSH. Our results indicate that cupric ions are reduced by GSH and thus are converted from an inhibitor to an enhancer of iron-induced lipid peroxidation. Cuprous ions appear to potentiate lipid peroxidation by reduction of ferric ions, rather than by promoting propagation reactions. Iron (in a specific Fe+2/Fe+3 ratio) is then an effective promoter of initiation reactions.

  1. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid connecting phospholipids on the lipid peroxidation of the brain in mice.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Seiichi; Ishihara, Kenji; Kitagawa, Tomoko; Wada, Shun; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2008-12-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) with two lipid types on lipid peroxidation of the brain was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Each group of female Balb/c mice was fed a diet containing DHA-connecting phospholipids (DHA-PL) or DHA-connecting triacylglycerols (DHA-TG) for 5 wk. Safflower oil was fed as the control. The lipid peroxide level of the brain was significantly lower in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet when compared to those fed the DHA-TG and safflower oil diets, while the alpha-tocopherol level was significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the DHA-TG and safflower oil diets. The DHA level of phosphatidylethanolamine in the brain was significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the safflower oil diet. The dimethylacetal levels were significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the safflower oil and DHA-TG diets. These results suggest that the dietary DHA-connecting phospholipids have an antioxidant activity on the brain lipids in mice, and the effect may be related to the brain plasmalogen.

  2. 6-mo aerobic exercise intervention enhances the lipid peroxide transport function of HDL.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Sanna; Luoto, Riitta; Ahotupa, Markku; Raitanen, Jani; Vasankari, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    During acute exercise, the concentration of oxidized high-density lipoprotein (HDL) lipids (ox-HDL) is reported to increase suggesting that HDL may function in decreasing the concentration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lipids. However, the effect of exercise intervention on the lipid peroxide transport function of HDL is unknown. A randomized controlled trial with sedentary women (N = 161), aged 43-63, with no current use of hormone therapy, were randomized into a 6-month (mo) exercise group and a control group. During the 6-mo intervention, the concentration of ox-HDL increased in the exercise group by 5% and decreased in the control group by 2% (p = .003). Also, the ratio of ox-HDL to HDL-cholesterol increased by 5% in the exercise group and decreased by 1.5% in the control group (p = .036). The concentrations of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and adiponectin did not change during the intervention. The concentration of serum triglycerides trended to decrease by 6% in the intervention group (p = .051). We found that the concentration of ox-HDL increased during the 6-mo aerobic exercise intervention, but the increase was not related to changes in the levels of CETP or adiponectin. These results, together with earlier studies, suggest that HDL has an active role in the reverse transport of lipid peroxides.

  3. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on blood and tissue lipid peroxidation in lipopolysaccharide-induced obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Caglikulekci, Mehmet; Dirlik, Musa; Pata, Cengiz; Plasse, Marylene; Tamer, Lulufer; Ogetman, Zekai; Ercan, Bahadir

    2006-01-01

    In obstructive jaundice, free radical production is increased and antioxidative activity is reduced. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has a beneficial effect with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, acting as a free radical scavenger. NAC inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase, suppresses cytokine expression/release, and inhibits adhesion molecule expression and nuclear factor kappa B. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC on liver/renal tissue and serum lipid peroxidation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced obstructive jaundice. We randomized 60 rats into 6 groups: group 1, Sham; group 2, obstructive jaundice (OJ) induced after bile-duct ligation; group 3, OJ + NAC (100 mg kg- 1 subcutaneously); group 4, OJ + LPS (10 mg kg-1); group 5, OJ + NAC + LPS; and group 6, OJ + LPS + NAC. For each group, the biochemical markers of lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant products were measured in serum and liver/renal tissue after sacrifice. Almost all lipid peroxidation products levels were increased and antioxidant products levels were decreased in groups who received LPS (groups 4, 5, and 6), but the effect was less remarkable when NAC was administered before LPS (group 5). The same trend was seen for groups with OJ +/- LPS who did not received NAC or received it after induced toxemia (groups 2, 4, and 6) as compared to groups 1 and 3. Moreover, in the case of OJ + LPS, rats treated with NAC before LPS (group 5) had lower lipid peroxidation products levels and higher antioxidant products levels as compared to those who did not received NAC (group 4). This phenomenon was not reproducible with NAC administered after LPS (group 6). Thus, results of this study showed that NAC prevents the deleterious effects of LPS in obstructive jaundice by reducing lipid peroxidation in serum and liver/renal tissue if administered before LPS. Nonetheless, NAC failed to prevent the lipid peroxidation in the case of established endotoxemia in obstructive jaundice.

  4. Lipid peroxidation induced by cercosporin as a possible determinant of its toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, L; Bindoli, A; Macrì, F; Vianello, A

    1979-12-01

    The photodynamic action of cercosporin was assayed in various kinds of natural and artificial membranes. Cerosporin induces lipoperoxidation of liposomes, rat liver and pea internode mitochondria and microsomes, estimated both as malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and O2 consumption. Cercosporin-induced lipoperoxidation is inhibited by either singlet oxygen quenchers, free radical trapping agents or EDTA. Superoxide anion (O2-), hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals (.OH) are not involved in the activity of cercosporin. In addition cercosporin, by chelating iron, lowers the lipoperoxidation induced by such a metal. Therefore cercosporin stimulates, through singlet oxygen production, the hydroperoxide formation but, at the same time, it inhibits the continuation of the iron-mediated free radical chain. The present results suggest that cellular lipid peroxidation has a certain relevance to toxic activity of cercosporin.

  5. Arsenic increased lipid peroxidation in rat tissues by a mechanism independent of glutathione levels.

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, O; Carrizales, L; Yáñez, L; Mejía, J; Batres, L; Ortíz, D; Díaz-Barriga, F

    1995-01-01

    The role of lipid peroxidation in the mechanism of arsenic toxicity was investigated in female rats pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a glutathione [GSH] inducer) or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a GSH depletor). Rats were challenged with sodium arsenite, and sacrificed 1 hr after this treatment. Results showed that arsenic decreased GSH levels and increased lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney, and heart, with a larger effect at 18.2 mg/kg than at 14.8 mg/kg for lipid peroxidation induction. In the liver of rats treated with arsenic, pretreatment with NAC increased the levels of GSH and decreased lipid peroxidation. In kidney and heart, NAC pretreatment protected the tissues against arsenic-induced depletion of GSH levels, but the same degree of protection was not found for lipid peroxidation induction. In its turn, BSO had an additive effect with arsenic in lowering the levels of GSH in the liver and kidney, but an inverse correlation between GSH levels and lipid peroxidation was found only in liver. Arsenic content in tissues of rats pretreated with NAC was lower than in rats treated only with arsenic. In rats with depleted levels of GSH (BSO-pretreated rats), a shift in arsenic tissue distribution was found, with higher levels in skin and lower levels in kidney. A clear tendency for a positive correlation between arsenic concentration and lipid peroxidation levels was found in liver, kidney, and heart. PMID:7621808

  6. Singlet oxygen in copper-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, A.H.; Chan, P.C.

    1984-04-01

    Lipid hydroperoxide was generated in human erythrocyte membranes by irradiation with near ultraviolet (UV) light in the presence of a photosensitizer, hematoporphyrin, but no production of 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive materials (malonaldehyde and its precursors) was detected. Incubation of the irradiated membranes with CuSO4 led to increased levels of hydroperoxide and formation of malonaldehyde. Hydroperoxides were essential for initiating the Cu(II)-catalyzed peroxidation as no significant activity was observed with nonirradiated membranes and Cu(II) unless an organic peroxide, either t-butyl hydroperoxide or cumene hydroperoxide, was added. Catalytic activity was also found with Fe(II), but not with other metal ions tested. The peroxidation catalyzed with Cu(II) was partially inhibited by several singlet oxygen quenchers but was not affected by superoxide dismutase, catalase or OH radical scavengers. The possible involvement of singlet oxygen in the Cu(II)-catalyzed peroxidation reaction was further supported by a 3-fold enhancement of malonaldehyde production in D/sub 2/O.

  7. Positive influence of Centchroman on cardiovascular system and tissue lipid peroxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Jatwa, Rameshwar; Kar, Anand

    2007-11-01

    Centchroman, a nonsteroidal oral contraceptive, was evaluated for its hitherto unstudied effect on cardiovascular system, thyroid function and tissue lipid peroxidation in rats. Wistar sperm-positive female rats were treated with Centchroman (1.5 mg/kg per day, po) for 10 days and the alterations in serum concentration of thyroid hormones [triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4))], insulin, glucose, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phospahatase (ALP) activity, hepatic type-1 iodothyronine 5'-monodeiodinase (5'D) enzyme activity and hepatic, renal, cardiac and serum lipid peroxidation (LPO) were studied. Simultaneously, alterations in endogenous antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD); catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH)], relative risk ratio (RR), atherogenic index (AI) and daily rate of food and water consumption were also investigated as supportive parameters. Centchroman administration resulted in the complete inhibition of pregnancy. It increased serum T(4) marginally and HDL-C levels, hepatic SOD, CAT and GSH; cardiac SOD and GSH and renal SOD and CAT activity significantly. However, it reduced LPO in all tissues; concentrations of other serum lipids; AI; RR and activity of ALP. As Centchroman administration did not alter the concentrations of most active thyroid hormone, T(3), serum insulin and glucose, it appears that the drug has no side effect on thyroid function and glucose metabolism. Rather, it possesses cardiovascular and anti-peroxidative benefits.

  8. The lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal causes protein synthesis in cardiac myocytes via activated mTORC1-p70S6K-RPS6 signaling.

    PubMed

    Calamaras, Timothy D; Lee, Charlie; Lan, Fan; Ido, Yasuo; Siwik, Deborah A; Colucci, Wilson S

    2015-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are elevated in the heart in response to hemodynamic and metabolic stress and promote hypertrophic signaling. ROS also mediate the formation of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes that may promote myocardial hypertrophy. One lipid peroxidation by-product, 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), is a reactive aldehyde that covalently modifies proteins thereby altering their function. HNE adducts directly inhibit the activity of LKB1, a serine/threonine kinase involved in regulating cellular growth in part through its interaction with the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but whether this drives myocardial growth is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that HNE promotes myocardial protein synthesis and if this effect is associated with impaired LKB1-AMPK signaling. In adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes, exposure to HNE (10 μM for 1h) caused HNE-LKB1 adduct formation and inhibited LKB1 activity. HNE inhibited the downstream kinase AMPK, increased hypertrophic mTOR-p70S6K-RPS6 signaling, and stimulated protein synthesis by 27.1 ± 3.5%. HNE also stimulated Erk1/2 signaling, which contributed to RPS6 activation but was not required for HNE-stimulated protein synthesis. HNE-stimulated RPS6 phosphorylation was completely blocked using the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. To evaluate if LKB1 inhibition by itself could promote the hypertrophic signaling changes observed with HNE, LKB1 was depleted in adult rat ventricular myocytes using siRNA. LKB1 knockdown did not replicate the effect of HNE on hypertrophic signaling or affect HNE-stimulated RPS6 phosphorylation. Thus, in adult cardiac myocytes HNE stimulates protein synthesis by activation of mTORC1-p70S6K-RPS6 signaling most likely mediated by direct inhibition of AMPK. Because HNE in the myocardium is commonly increased by stimuli that cause pathologic hypertrophy, these findings suggest that therapies that prevent activation of mTORC1-p70S6K-RPS6 signaling may be of therapeutic value. Copyright

  9. Lipid peroxidation product 4-Hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) causes protein synthesis in cardiac myocytes via activated mTORC1-P70S6K-RPS6 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Calamaras, Timothy D.; Lee, Charlie; Lan, Fan; Ido, Yasuo; Siwik, Deborah A.; Colucci, Wilson S.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are elevated in the heart in response to hemodynamic and metabolic stress, and promote hypertrophic signaling. ROS also mediate the formation of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes that may promote myocardial hypertrophy. One lipid peroxidation byproduct, 4-Hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), is a reactive aldehyde that covalently modifies proteins thereby altering their function. HNE adducts directly inhibit the activity of LKB1, a serine/threonine kinase involved in regulating cellular growth in part through its interaction with the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but whether this drives myocardial growth is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that HNE promotes myocardial protein synthesis, and if this effect is associated with impaired LKB1-AMPK signaling. In adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes exposure to HNE (10 μM for 1 hour) caused HNE-LKB1 adduct formation and inhibited LKB1 activity. HNE inhibited the downstream kinase AMPK, increased hypertrophic mTOR-P70S6K-RPS6 signaling, and stimulated protein synthesis by 27.1 ±3.5%. HNE also stimulated Erk1/2 signaling, which contributed to RPS6 activation but was not required for HNE-stimulated protein synthesis. HNE-stimulated RPS6 phosphorylation was completely blocked using the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. To evaluate if LKB1 inhibition by itself could promote the hypertrophic signaling changes observed with HNE, LKB1 was depleted in ARVMs using siRNA. LKB1 knockdown did not replicate the effect of HNE on hypertrophic signaling or affect HNE-stimulated RPS6 phosphorylation. Thus, in adult cardiac myocytes HNE stimulates protein synthesis by activation of mTORC1-P70S6K-RPS6 signaling most likely mediated by direct inhibition of AMPK. Because HNE in the myocardium is commonly increased by stimuli that cause pathologic hypertrophy, these findings suggest that therapies that prevent activation of mTORC1-P70S6K-RPS6 signaling may be of therapeutic value. PMID:25617592

  10. Palm olein oil produces less lipid peroxidation products than soya bean oil.

    PubMed

    Zaiton, Z; Merican, Z; Khalid, B A; Mohamed, J B; Baharom, S

    1997-06-01

    The soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats were used to investigate the effect of palm olein oil and soya bean oil on the production of lipid peroxidation products. It was found that palm olein oil but not soya bean oil significantly decreased malonaldehyde and conjugated diene levels of the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats. These findings suggest that palm olein per se produces less lipid peroxidation products than soya bean oil. Such an assay method gives a composite net picture of the propensity of an oil to produce lipid peroxidation products.

  11. Effect of thiamine hydrochloride on lead induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Senapati, S K; Dey, S; Dwivedi, S K; Patra, R C; Swarup, D

    2000-08-01

    Thiamine hydrochloride was studied on lead-induced endogenous lipid peroxidation in rat hepatic and renal tissues following po doses of 2.73 mg lead/kg bw for 6 w. Simultaneous use of 25 mg thiamine hydrochloride/kg bw po reduced lead accumulation in liver and kidneys. There were significant decreases in endogenous lipid peroxide in liver and kidney from thiamine hydrochloride-treated rats. Histopathological lesions in thiamine-treated livers and kidneys were milder in comparison to lesions in untreated Pb-exposed animals. This indicates the prophylactic potential of thiamine for lead-induced lipid peroxidation.

  12. The generation of oxidation products of benzo(a)pyrene by lipid peroxidation: a study using gamma-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, J.D.; Wills, E.D.

    1984-09-01

    The role which active oxygen and radicals generated by the peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids could play in the oxidation of benzo(a)pyrene has been studied using gamma-irradiation. Irradiation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in the formation of benzo(a)pyrene 1,6-, 3,6- and 6,12-quinones and other more polar products which were analysed by h.p.l.c. OH. radicals are believed to be involved in this oxidation. The presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated lipids stimulated the formation of benzo(a)pyrene products following gamma-irradiation. Oxidation of benzo(a)pyrene also occurred over a period of days in the presence of autoxidising mackerel oil. The rate of benzo(a)pyrene oxidation was related to the extent of lipid peroxidation as determined by malonaldehyde formation. Malonaldehyde production as a result of peroxidising lipids was inhibited by benzo(a)pyrene which suggested that benzo(a)pyrene reacted directly with lipid peroxy radicals or hydroperoxides generated in the process of lipid peroxidation. These results demonstrate that oxidation products of the peroxidation of lipids and fatty acids are able to react directly with benzo(a)pyrene to form products including benzo(a)pyrene quinones without the presence of enzymes such as the cytochrome P-450 mixed function oxidase system and prostaglandin synthetase. It is possible that benzo(a)pyrene may be activated by these types of reactions in vivo or in vitro when benzo(a)pyrene is in contact with polyunsaturated lipids in foodstuffs or the intestinal lumen and peroxidation of unsaturated fats may play an important role in human carcinogenesis.

  13. Potato peel extract-a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid peroxidation in radiation processed lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Kanatt, Sweetie R; Chander, Ramesh; Radhakrishna, P; Sharma, Arun

    2005-03-09

    The effective utilization of potato peel, a waste generated in large quantities by the food industry, as an antioxidant was investigated. Potato peel extract (PPE) exhibited high phenolic content (70.82 mg of catechin equivalent/100 g), chlorogenic acid (27.56 mg/100 g of sample) being the major component. The yield of total phenolics and chlorogenic acid increased by 26 and 60%, respectively, when the extract was prepared from gamma irradiated (150 Gy) potatoes. PPE showed excellent antioxidant activity as determined by beta-carotene bleaching and radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The suitability of PPE for controlling lipid oxidation of radiation processed lamb meat was also investigated. PPE (0.04%) when added to meat before radiation processing was found to retard lipid peroxidation of irradiated meat as measured by TBA number and carbonyl content. The antioxidant activity of PPE was found to be comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).

  14. Effects of various compounds on lipid peroxidation mediated by detergent-solubilized rat liver NADPH-cytochrome C reductase.

    PubMed

    Kamataki, T; Sugita, O; Naminohira, S; Kitagawa, H

    1978-12-01

    A reconstituted lipid peroxidation system containing NADPH-cytochrome c reductase isolated from detergent-solubilized rat liver microsomes was used to determine the effects of several compounds, including drugs, on the lipid peroxidation activity. EDTA and ferrous ion were essential requirements for reconstitution of the activity. The addition of 1,10-phenanthroline to the system containing both EDTA and ferrous ion further enhanced the activity. Pyrocatecol, thymol, p-aminophenol, imipramine, p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) and alpha-tocopherol exhibited strong inhibition, aniline, N-monomethylaniline, aminopyrine, benzphetamine, SKF 525-A and NADP exhibited moderate inhibition, and phenol, benzoic acid, acetanilide and nicotinamide exhibited less or no inhibition at the concentrations lower than 1000 micron M. Metal ions such as Hg+, Hg2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and U6+ inhibited lipid peroxidation strongly. In addition, Cd2+, St2+ and Ca2+ exhibited less potent to moderate inhibition, and Ba2+ and Mg2+ were without effects on the activity. Among sulfhydryl compounds tested, dithiothreitol inhibited lipid peroxidation to a greater extent than did the other three compounds, glutathione, cysteine and mercaptoethanol.

  15. Mammographic density, blood telomere length and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Natalie J; Harrington, Lea A; Martin, Lisa J

    2017-07-19

    Extensive mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but may also be an indicator of biological age. In this study we examined whether mammographic density is related to blood telomere length, a potential marker of susceptibility to age-related disease. We measured mammographic density by a computer assisted method and blood telomere length using a validated PCR method. Urinary malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, was measured in 24 hour urine collections. In the 342 women examined telomere length was negatively correlated with age, was lower in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women and in smokers compared to non-smokers, and was positively correlated with urinary MDA. Telomere length was not associated with percent mammographic density or dense area, before or after adjustment for risk factors and MDA. However, there was a significant interaction between telomere length and MDA in their association with mammographic density. At lower levels of MDA, mammographic density and telomere length were inversely associated; while at high levels of MDA, there was evidence of a J-shaped association between mammographic density and telomere length. Further work is need to replicate these results and to examine the association of mammographic density with age-related chronic disease and mortality.

  16. Theoretical modeling of hydroxyl-radical-induced lipid peroxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Tejero, Ismael; Gonzalez-Lafont, Angels; Lluch, José M; Eriksson, Leif A

    2007-05-24

    The OH-radical-induced mechanism of lipid peroxidation, involving hydrogen abstraction followed by O2 addition, is explored using the kinetically corrected hybrid density functional MPWB1K in conjunction with the MG3S basis set and a polarized continuum model to mimic the membrane interior. Using a small nonadiene model of linoleic acid, it is found that hydrogen abstraction preferentially occurs at the mono-allylic methylene groups at the ends of the conjugated segment rather than at the central bis-allylic carbon, in disagreement with experimental data. Using a full linoleic acid, however, abstraction is correctly predicted to occur at the central carbon, giving a pentadienyl radical. The Gibbs free energy for abstraction at the central C11 is approximately 8 kcal/mol, compared to 9 kcal/mol at the end points (giving an allyl radical). Subsequent oxygen addition will occur at one of the terminal atoms of the pentadienyl radical fragment, giving a localized peroxy radical and a conjugated butadiene fragment, but is associated with rather high free energy barriers and low exergonicity at the CPCM-MPWB1K/MG3S level. The ZPE-corrected potential energy surfaces obtained without solvent effects, on the other hand, display considerably lower barriers and more exergonic reactions.

  17. Effect of Launaea procumbens on thyroid glands lipid peroxidation and hormonal dysfunction: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rahmat Ali

    2017-09-11

    Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Amin is traditionally used in Pakistan for the treatment of hormonal disorders and oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Launaea procumbens methanol extract (LPME) against KBrO3-induced oxidative stress and hormonal dysfunction in thyroid. To examine the effects of LPME against the oxidative stress of KBrO3 in thyroid tissue, 36 male albino rats were used. Protective effects of LPME were observed on thyroid hormonal levels, activities of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and DNA damage. Treatment with KBrO3 significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the levels of T3 (55.13 ± 1.93) and T4 (14.7 ± 1.78) and increased TSH (55.13 ± 1.93) levels. KBrO3 exposure in rats reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes viz.; CAT (1.16 ± 0.08); SOD (12.0 ± 0.08), GST (17.7 ± 1.1) and GSR (54.3 ± 2.1) but increased lipid peroxidation (20.3 ± 0.71) and DNA (30.4 ± 2.0) damage. Co-administration of LPME significantly (P < 0.01) improved these alterations with respect to hormonal levels, activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation close to those seen in control rats. These results suggest that LPME can protect thyroid tissue against oxidative damage, possibly through the antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds.

  18. Antioxidant systems and lipid peroxidation in Bathymodiolus azoricus from Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent fields.

    PubMed

    Bebianno, M J; Company, R; Serafim, A; Camus, L; Cosson, R P; Fiala-Médoni, A

    2005-11-30

    Enzymatic defenses involved in protection from oxygen radical damage were determined in gills and mantle of Bathymodiolus azoricus collected from three contrasting Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) hydrothermal vent fields (Menez-Gwen, Lucky Strike and Rainbow). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (GPx) (total and Se-dependent), and levels of total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC), metallothioneins (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined in B. azoricus tissues and the impact of metal concentrations on these antioxidant systems and lipid peroxidation assessed. SOD, CAT, TOSC, MTs and LPO levels were higher in B. azoricus gills while glutathione peroxidases (total and Se-dependent) were higher in the mantle, and with the exception of CAT, were of the same order of magnitude as in other molluscs. TOSC levels from Menez-Gwen indicate that the vent environment at this site is less stressful and the formation of ROS in mussels is effectively counteracted by the antioxidant defense system. TOSC depletion indicates an elevated ROS production in molluscs at the other two vent sites. Cytosolic SOD, GPx and LPO were more relevant at Lucky Strike (Bairro Alto) where levels of essential (Cu and Zn) and toxic metals (Cd and Ag) were highest in the organisms. CAT activity and LPO were predominant at the Rainbow vent site, where an excess of Fe in mussel tissues and in vent fluids (the highest of all three vent sites) may have contributed to increased LPO. Therefore, three distinct pathways for antioxidant enzyme systems and LPO based on environmental metal speciation of MAR vent fields are proposed for Bathymodiolus gills. At Menez-Gwen, TOSC towards peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite are predominant, while at Lucky Strike cytosolic SOD activity and GPx are the main antioxidant mechanisms. Finally at Rainbow, catalase and lipid peroxidation are dominant, suggesting that resistance of mussels to metal toxicity at

  19. Biochemical effects of glyphosate based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 on enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and protein content on teleostean fishes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

    2014-09-01

    Effects of glyphosate based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 at a dose of 17.20mg/l on enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and protein content were measured in different tissues of two Indian air-breathing teleosts, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) during an exposure period of 30 days under laboratory condition. AChE activity was significantly increased in all the investigated tissues of both fish species and maximum elevation was observed in brain of H. fossilis, while spinal cord of A. testudineus showed minimum increment. Fishes showed significant increase LPO levels in all the tissues; highest was observed in gill of A. testudineus but lowest LPO level was observed in muscle of H. fossilis. CAT was also enhanced in both the fishes, while GST activity in liver diminished substantially and minimum was observed in liver of A. testudineus. Total protein content showed decreased value in all the tissues, maximum reduction was observed in liver and minimum in brain of A. testudineus and H. fossilis respectively. The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused serious alterations in the enzyme activities resulting into severe deterioration of fish health; so, AChE, LPO, CAT and GST can be used as suitable indicators of herbicidal toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lipid Peroxidation-Dependent Cell Death Regulated by GPx4 and Ferroptosis.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hirotaka; Matsuoka, Masaki; Kumagai, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Taro; Koumura, Tomoko

    2017-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase 4 (Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, PHGPx) can directly reduce phospholipid hydroperoxide. Depletion of GPx4 induces lipid peroxidation-dependent cell death in embryo, testis, brain, liver, heart, and photoreceptor cells of mice. Administration of vitamin E in tissue specific GPx4 KO mice restored tissue damage in testis, liver, and heart. These results indicate that suppression of phospholipid peroxidation is essential for cell survival in normal tissues in mice. Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent non-apoptotic cell death that can elicited by pharmacological inhibiting the cystine/glutamate antiporter, system Xc(-) (type I) or directly binding and loss of activity of GPx4 (Type II) in cancer cells with high level RAS-RAF-MEK pathway activity or p53 expression, but not in normal cells. Ferroptosis by Erastin (Type I) and RSL3 (RAS-selective lethal 3, Type II) treatment was suppressed by an iron chelator, vitamin E and Ferrostatin-1, antioxidant compound. GPx4 can regulate ferroptosis by suppression of phospholipid peroxidation in erastin and RSL3-induced ferroptosis. Recent works have identified several regulatory factors of erastin and RSL3-induced ferroptosis. In our established GPx4-deficient MEF cells, depletion of GPx4 induce iron and 15LOX-independent lipid peroxidation at 26 h and caspase-independent cell death at 72 h, whereas erastin and RSL3 treatment resulted in iron-dependent ferroptosis by 12 h. These results indicated the possibility that the mechanism of GPx4-depleted cell death might be different from that of ferroptosis induced by erastin and RSL3.

  1. Effect of mild iron overload on liver and kidney lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Galleano, M; Puntarulo, S

    1994-10-01

    1. Hepatotoxicity is the most common finding in patients with iron overload since the liver is the major recipient of iron excess, even though the kidney could be a target of iron toxicity. The effect of iron overload was studied in the early stages after iron-dextran injection in rats, as a model for secondary hemocromatosis. 2. Total hepatic and kidney iron content was markedly elevated over control values 20 h after the iron administration. Plasma GOT, GPT and LDH activities were not affected, suggesting that liver cell permeability was not affected by necrosis. 3. Spontaneous liver chemiluminescence was measured as an indicator of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Light emission was increased four-fold 6 h after iron supplementation. 4. Increases in the generation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in liver and kidney homogenates were detected after iron administration. 5. The activities of catalase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Enzymatic activities declined in liver homogenates by 25, 36 and 32%, respectively, 20 h after iron injection. These activities were not affected in kidney as compared to control values, except for SOD activity that was decreased by 26%. 6. The content of alpha-tocopherol was decreased by 31% in whole kidney homogenates and by 40% in plasma. 7. Our data indicate that lipid peroxidation occurs after mild iron overload both in liver and kidney. Enzymatic antioxidants are consumed significantly in liver and alpha-tocopherol content decreases in kidney, suggesting an organ-specific antioxidant effect.

  2. "In vitro" effect of lipid peroxidation metabolites on elongation factor-2.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Sandro; Machado, Alberto; Ayala, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Elongation Factor-2 (eEF-2) is the protein that catalyzes the translocation of the ribosome through mRNA. Not all oxidants affect eEF-2, which is extremely sensitive to oxidative stress caused mainly by lipid peroxidant compounds such as cumene hydroperoxide and t-butyl hydroperoxide. Lipid peroxides constitute a potential hazard to living organisms because of their direct reactivity with a variety of biomolecules and the ability to decompose into free radicals and reactive aldehydes. In this "in vitro" study, we show the effect of three of these aldehydes on the levels of hepatic eEF-2. The results suggest that the toxicity associated with prooxidant-mediated hepatic lipid peroxidation on protein synthesis can originate from the interaction of the aldehydic end products of lipid peroxidation with eEF-2.

  3. Antioxidant enzyme expression, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation in human myometrium with parturition.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raheela N; Matharoo-Ball, B; Shaw, R W

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen levels fluctuate considerably during human labor leading to hypoxia and reoxygenation of the uteroplacental unit and in some cases may compromise the progression of labor. Our aim was to assess the possible contribution of oxidative stress to the onset of labor. Thiobarbituric acid was used as a marker of lipid peroxidation along with Western blotting using anti-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to assess protein carbonylation in myometrial samples obtained before and after the onset of term and preterm labor. Levels of key antioxidative enzymes were also compared. Higher levels of lipid peroxidation were observed in myometrial samples obtained during term or preterm labor. Reduced levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) were also encountered in these 2 groups. Conversely, protein carbonyl content was higher in laboring term and preterm myometrial samples. Levels of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were unaltered across all 4 groups. Lipids in the laboring myometrium are susceptible to oxidative injury possibly due to diminished protection as a result of lower GSHPx activity. The reason for enhanced protein carbonylation suggests differential mechanisms governing protein turnover in the pregnant compared with the parturient uterus. Localized, oxidant damage of human myometrium may be a causal factor in difficult deliveries.

  4. Resveratrol ameliorates methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity in rats via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Dalaklioglu, S; Genc, G E; Aksoy, N H; Akcit, F; Gumuslu, S

    2013-06-01

    Hepatotoxicity is one of the major complications of methotrexate (MTX) therapy. This study was carried out to evaluate the possible protective effect of resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene, RVT) against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as control, MTX treated (7 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally (i.p.), once daily for 3 consecutive days), MTX + RVT treated (20 mg/kg/day, i.p.), and RVT treated. First dose of RVT was administrated 3 days before the MTX injection and continued for 3 days. Histopathology of liver was evaluated by light microscopy. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used as biochemical markers of MTX-induced hepatic injury. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation) and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were used to analyze the oxidative stress-mediated lipid peroxidation in liver sections. Our results showed that MTX administration significantly increased ALT, ASP, and ALP levels. TBARS, CAT, and GST levels were also markedly increased in liver after MTX administration. RVT treatment significantly prevented MTX-induced hepatotoxicity, as indicated by AST, ALT, and ALP levels and liver histopathology. Moreover, administration of RVT significantly decreased the elevated levels of TBARS and activities of CAT and GST in the liver compared to MTX-treated group. These results revealed that RVT may have a protective effect against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress-mediated lipid peroxidation. Consequently, RVT treatment might be a promising strategy against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity.

  5. Differential effects of antipsychotics on expression of antioxidant enzymes and membrane lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Vinay; Khan, Mohammad M; Mahadik, Sahebarao P

    2003-01-01

    Typical and atypical antipsychotics significantly differ in their neurotransmitter receptor affinity profiles, and their efficacy and side effects in schizophrenic patients. Typical antipsychotics have been found to increase the oxidative (i.e. free radical-mediated) cellular injury in rats. Since schizophrenia also involves oxidative injury, the understanding of differential effects of these antipsychotics on expression of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative injury may be very critical. The effect of chronic exposure of haloperidol (HAL), a typical antipsychotic, was compared to effects of risperidone (RIS) or clozapine (CLZ) or olanzapine (OLZ), atypical antipsychotics on antioxidant defense enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the rat brain. The levels of antioxidant enzymes and hydroxyalkenals (HAEs) were measured in rat brain cytosol and fatty acids were measured in brain cell membranes. Chronic HAL treatment for both 45 and 90 days significantly decreased manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT) activity with parallel marked increase in (HAEs), a marker of lipid peroxidation in rat brain. The levels of enzymatic activity very well correlated with the levels of enzyme proteins indicating that the changes were probably in the expression of net protein. However, RIS, CLZ and OLZ treatments did not produce any alterations in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and HAEs, both after 45 and 90 days. There were no alterations in the levels of saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain membranes. These findings indicate that chronic administration of HAL, but none of the studied atypicals induce oxidative stress by persistent changes in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and cause membrane lipid peroxidation.

  6. [The effect of microwaves on lipid peroxidation and on lipid and mineral metabolism in warm-blooded animals (experimental research)].

    PubMed

    Guliaev, V Iu; Tereshin, S Iu; Oranskiĭ, I E

    1990-01-01

    The experiments on 50 white mature male rats have provided evidence on the effect produced by microwave therapy on lipid peroxidation, lipid and mineral metabolism and weight of the animals. The effect varied with frequency, wavelength and the site of the exposure (abdominal or cervical zones).

  7. The effectiveness of a lipid peroxide in oxidizing protein and non-protein thiols

    PubMed Central

    Little, C.; O'Brien, P. J.

    1968-01-01

    1. Thiol oxidation by a lipid peroxide or hydrogen peroxide was as efficient in denatured non-haem proteins as in small thiols. Both peroxides were relatively ineffective in oxidizing haemoprotein thiols, especially at low pH. Increased amounts of haematin decreased greatly the efficiency of GSH oxidation by peroxides especially at low pH. 2. Other than the haematin ring, the thiol group was found to be probably the group in proteins most sensitive to modification by peroxides. 3. At low concentrations, the fatty acid moiety of a lipid peroxide appeared to impede thiol oxidation in proteins, probably by hydrophobic bonding to the protein, rather than to stimulate thiol oxidation by denaturing the protein and thereby increasing the exposure and reactivity of the thiol group. 4. The relative rates of thiol oxidation by peroxides in the different thiols were: haemoprotein thiols>small thiols>other protein thiols. In all cases, thiol oxidation was much more rapid by the lipid peroxide than by hydrogen peroxide. PMID:5637351

  8. Effect of occupation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in coal-fired thermal plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sandeep; Gill, Manmeet Singh; Gupta, Kapil; Manchanda, KC

    2013-01-01

    Background: Air pollution from coal-fired power units is large and varied, and contributes to a significant number of negative environmental and health effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coal dust-induced toxicity in coal-fired power plants. Aim: The aim of the study was to measure free radical damage and the antioxidant activity in workers exposed to varying levels of coal dust. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of workers in coal handling unit, turbine unit, and boiler unit (n = 50 each), working in thermal power plant; and electricians (n = 50) from same department were taken as controls. Lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant activity was determined by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. Statistical analysis was carried out by Student's unpaired t-test. Result: MDA levels showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in the thermal power plant workers than the electricians working in the city. The levels of SOD and GPx were significantly higher (P > 0.001) in electricians as compared to subjects working in thermal plant. Among the thermal plant workers, the coal handling unit workers showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in MDA and significant decrease in SOD and GPx than the workers of boiler and turbine unit workers. Conclusion: Oxidative stress due to increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant activity results from exposure to coal dust and coal combustion products during thermal plant activities. PMID:24083143

  9. Inhibitory effects of aromatic herbs on lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative modification by copper.

    PubMed

    Toda, Shizuo

    2003-05-01

    Aromatic herbs have been used as carminatives. Oxygen free radicals are generated in ischaemia/reperfusion injury in the stomach, and induce lipid peroxidation or protein oxidative modification. Several aromatic herbs were shown to have inhibitory effects on the generation of oxygen free radicals. It was shown that several aromatic herbs, Caryophylli Flos, Cinnamomi Cortex, Foeniculi Fructus and Zedoariae Rhizoma, have inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation or protein oxidative modification by copper.

  10. Effect of ethanol and the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole on lipid peroxidation in the rat myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Panchenko, L.F.; Pirozhkov, S.V.; Popova, S.V.; Antonenkov, V.D.

    1987-09-01

    The authors study the effect of chronic administration of ethanol and aminotriazole on the level of lipid peroxidation in the ray myocardium. The action of natural and artificial antioxidants on alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation also was studied. To determine the level of chemiluminescence, 1 ml of a sample of nuclear free homogenate or of the total fraction of particles was introduced for radioactivity measurement. After incubation the spontaneous weak luminescence was measured.

  11. Relationship between parameters of lipid peroxidation during obstructive jaundice and after bile flow restoration.

    PubMed

    Dudnik, L B; Tsupko, A N; Shupik, M A; Akhaladze, G G; Galperin, E I; Latonova, L V; Pantaz, E A; Alessenko, A V

    2008-01-01

    Restoration of bile flow after 9-day cholestasis in rat liver normalized the content of lipid peroxidation products. The removal of the cholestatic factor after 12-day cholestasis was not followed by recovery of these parameters. We showed that measurement of serum concentration of lipid peroxidation products in patients with cholelithiasis during the preoperative period holds promise for selection of the optimum time for surgical treatment and prediction of the risk of postoperative complications.

  12. Does mercury promote lipid peroxidation? An in vitro study concerning mercury, copper, and iron in peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Seppänen, Kari; Soininen, Pasi; Salonen, Jukka T; Lötjönen, Simo; Laatikainen, Reino

    2004-11-01

    In order to explore the observed association among mercury, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart disease, the effects of mercury, copper, and iron on the peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and on the enzymatic activities of glutathione peroxidase and myeloperoxidase were investigated in vitro. On the basis of our nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, we conclude that mercury does not promote the direct nonenzymatic peroxidation of LDL, like copper and iron. In our enzyme measurements, mercury inhibited slightly myeloperoxidase, although not significantly in presence of LDL. Instead, inorganic mercury, but not methylmercury chloride, inhibited glutathione peroxidase effectively and copper even at 10 micromol/L, below physiological concentrations, doubled the inhibition rate. Copper and iron had no direct effect on glutathione peroxidase, but they both seem to activate production of HOCl by myeloperoxidase. We conclude here that, first, mercury and methylmercury do not promote direct lipid peroxidation, but that, second, a simultaneous exposure to high inorganic mercury, copper, and iron and low selenium concentrations can lead to a condition in which mercury promotes lipid peroxidations. This mechanism provides a plausible molecular-level explanation for the observed association between high body mercury content and atherosclerosis.

  13. Effect of sublethal concentrations of waterborne copper on lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidant response in Gambusia holbrooki.

    PubMed

    Sáez, M I; García-Mesa, S; Casas, J J; Guil-Guerrero, J L; Venegas-Venegas, C E; Morales, A E; Suárez, M D

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the current research was to assess the possible influence of copper sulphate contamination on the antioxidant enzymatic defenses and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). Quadruplicated lots of this fish were exposed to three increasing sub-lethal concentrations of Cu (0.10; 0.17 and 0.25mgCu/L) and a control without Cu for 20 days. Previous to laboratory acclimation, 8 fish were taken to define the initial population. At the end of the trials, 12 fish/sex/treatment were sampled for the determination of levels of copper in gills, metallothioneins (MTs) content, total lipids, fatty acids profiles and antioxidant enzymatic activity, as well as lipid peroxidation. Most of the antioxidant enzymatic defenses assayed were not activated and lipid peroxidation decreased significantly in fish exposed to any concentration of copper applied. This leads us to presume the existence of a protective mechanism against peroxidation other than the enzymatic antioxidant defense, which could be related to the observed increase of copper content in the gills.

  14. Effects of soyasaponins on lipid peroxidation through the secretion of thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yasuko; Tanizawa, Hisayuki

    2006-08-01

    We investigated how soyasaponins (SS), which had been isolated from soybeans (Glycine max Merrill, seeds), influenced lipid peroxidation. The in vivo reduction in hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice intraperitoneally injected with total soyasaponins (TSS) was comparable to that which has been observed for alpha-tocopherol (VE). However, TSS and its five main constituent saponins (I, II, III, A1, and A2) had a much weaker in vitro inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation induced by NADPH in mouse liver microsomes than VE. Therefore, we were not able to explain the in vivo effect of SS on lipid peroxidation level through direct antioxidative effects. We also demonstrated that TSS increased the levels of serum thyroid hormones. The effect of serum thyroid hormones on in vitro lipid peroxidation was much stronger than that observed for VE. Furthermore, the effects of TSS on levels of serum thyroid hormones and LPO were markedly decreased by propylthiouracil, an antithyroid drug. These results indicate that the effects of SS on lipid peroxidation levels appear to be mediated through the secretion of thyroid hormones.

  15. Lipid peroxidation is an early event in necrosis of wheat hybrid.

    PubMed

    Dalal, M; Khanna-Chopra, R

    1999-08-19

    We previously reported enhanced superoxide anion generation in an F1 necrotic hybrid produced from normal parents (Khanna-Chopra et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) 248, 712-715). Further investigation of the mechanism of necrosis shows the possibility of lipid peroxidation as an early event in the death of necrotic leaves. Lipid peroxidation resulting from the inability of free radical scavenging is often associated with cell death. In this study the accumulation of malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation, was measured in hybrid leaves and those of the parents. Lipid peroxidation was higher in the hybrid leaves through out the leaf ontogeny. This was accompanied by increased membrane permeability. Cell viability measured by a TTC reduction test showed a significant correlation with conductivity. There was no apparent effect on photosynthetic pigments and maximum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) until the appearance of necrotic lesions on the hybrid leaf. There seems to be a close relationship among lipid peroxidation, membrane permeability, and cell viability in the leaves undergoing necrosis. This suggests the possibility of a genetic mechanism whereby the scavenging of free radical is impaired, leading to enhanced lipid peroxidation and membrane permeability, resulting in necrosis and death of the hybrid leaves in wheat.

  16. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidative vitamins under extreme endurance stress.

    PubMed

    Rokitzki, L; Logemann, E; Sagredos, A N; Murphy, M; Wetzel-Roth, W; Keul, J

    1994-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether extreme endurance stress of trained athletes can influence lipid peroxidation and muscle enzymes. A randomized and placebo-controlled study was carried out on 24 trained long-distance runners who were substituted with alpha-tocopherol (400 I.U. d-1) and ascorbic acid (200 mg d-1) during 4.5 weeks prior to a marathon race. The serum concentrations of retinol, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, malondialdehyde (TBARS) and uric acid as well as glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) and catalase were measured 4.5 weeks before (A), immediately before (B), immediately after (C) and 24 h after (D) the course. After competition (C) TBARS serum concentrations of the athletes (n = 22) decreased in both groups (P < 0.0001). The ascorbic acid serum concentration increased significantly in the supplemented group from (A) to (B) (P < 0.01), from (B) to (C) (P < 0.001) and in the placebo group a significant increase from (B) to (C) (P < 0.01) was observed. The alpha-tocopherol serum concentration increased significantly in the supplemented group from (A) to (B) (P < 0.001) and from (B) to (C) (P < 0.05). The enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) and catalase measured in erythrocytes as well as the serum selenium levels did not show significant differences at any time. A significant increase of CK concentration was observed from (C) to (D) in the supplemented group (P < 0.01) and in the placebo group (P < 0.001). The increase of CK serum concentration is remarkably lower in the supplemented group compared with the placebo group (P < 0.01). It is concluded that endurance training coupled with antioxidant vitamin supplementation reduces blood CK increase under exercise stress.

  17. Vanadate-induced toxicity towards isolated perfused rat livers: the role of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Younes, M; Strubelt, O

    1991-02-11

    The toxic potential of sodium orthovanadate towards isolated perfused rat livers was investigated at a dose of 2 mmol/l. In livers from fasted rats, vanadate led to a release of cytosolic (glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH] and mitochondrial (glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH] enzymes, an accumulation of calcium in the liver, a marked depletion of hepatic glutathione and an enhanced release of it into the perfusate, as well as an augmented formation and release of thiobarbituric acid-reactive material by the liver. Furthermore, a marked inhibition of oxygen consumption was observed. Vanadate-induced vasoconstriction resulted in a progressive decrease in perfusate flow rate. Control experiments with similarly reduced flow rates led to a comparable reduction in oxygen consumption. GPT and LDH release and hepatic glutathione depletion were also evident, though to a lesser extent than in the presence of vanadate, but no increase in GLDH release, in tissue calcium content or TBA-reactive material in the liver or the perfusate were observed. Thus, indirect toxic effects due to a reduced flow rate contribute only partly to vanadate hepatotoxicity and do not affect mitochondrial integrity. Omission of calcium from the perfusate did not prevent hepatotoxic responses to vanadate, although less calcium was present in the treated livers than in the control organs, indicating that calcium influx is not involved in vanadate-induced hepatotoxicity in the intact organ, in contrast to isolated hepatocytes. Feeding the animals, resulting in an activation of anaerobic energy conservation reactions, strongly attenuated vanadate hepatotoxicity indicating that the energetic status of the liver is the main target of vanadate. Superoxide dismutase did not affect the hepatotoxic responses of livers from fasted rats towards vanadate, while allopurinol and deferrioxamine inhibited lipid peroxidation and hepatotoxicity due to vanadate. The strong correlation

  18. 'Mitochondrial energy imbalance and lipid peroxidation cause cell death in Friedreich's ataxia'

    PubMed Central

    Abeti, R; Parkinson, M H; Hargreaves, I P; Angelova, P R; Sandi, C; Pook, M A; Giunti, P; Abramov, A Y

    2016-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease. The mutation consists of a GAA repeat expansion within the FXN gene, which downregulates frataxin, leading to abnormal mitochondrial iron accumulation, which may in turn cause changes in mitochondrial function. Although, many studies of FRDA patients and mouse models have been conducted in the past two decades, the role of frataxin in mitochondrial pathophysiology remains elusive. Are the mitochondrial abnormalities only a side effect of the increased accumulation of reactive iron, generating oxidative stress? Or does the progressive lack of iron-sulphur clusters (ISCs), induced by reduced frataxin, cause an inhibition of the electron transport chain complexes (CI, II and III) leading to reactive oxygen species escaping from oxidative phosphorylation reactions? To answer these crucial questions, we have characterised the mitochondrial pathophysiology of a group of disease-relevant and readily accessible neurons, cerebellar granule cells, from a validated FRDA mouse model. By using live cell imaging and biochemical techniques we were able to demonstrate that mitochondria are deregulated in neurons from the YG8R FRDA mouse model, causing a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (▵Ψm) due to an inhibition of Complex I, which is partially compensated by an overactivation of Complex II. This complex activity imbalance leads to ROS generation in both mitochondrial matrix and cytosol, which results in glutathione depletion and increased lipid peroxidation. Preventing this increase in lipid peroxidation, in neurons, protects against in cell death. This work describes the pathophysiological properties of the mitochondria in neurons from a FRDA mouse model and shows that lipid peroxidation could be an important target for novel therapeutic strategies in FRDA, which still lacks a cure. PMID:27228352

  19. N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate produces copper accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and myelin injury in rat peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, Elizabeth G; Valentine, Holly L; Milatovic, Dejan M; Valentine, William M

    2004-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of the dithiocarbamate, disulfiram, to produce a peripheral neuropathy in humans and experimental animals and have also provided evidence that N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDC) is a proximate toxic species of disulfiram. The ability of DEDC to elevate copper levels in the brain suggests that it may also elevate levels of copper in peripheral nerve, possibly leading to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation from redox cycling of copper. The study presented here investigates the potential of DEDC to promote copper accumulation and lipid peroxidation in peripheral nerve. Rats were administered either DEDC or deionized water by ip osmotic pumps and fed a normal diet or diet containing elevated copper, and the levels of metals, isoprostanes, and the severity of lesions in peripheral nerve and brain were assessed by ICP-AES/AAS, GC/MS, and light microscopy, respectively. Copper was the only metal that demonstrated any significant compound-related elevations relative to controls, and total copper was increased in both brain and peripheral nerve in animals administered DEDC on both diets. In contrast, lesions and elevated F2-isoprostanes were significantly increased only in peripheral nerve for the rats administered DEDC on both diets. Autometallography staining of peripheral nerve was consistent with increased metal content along the myelin sheath, but in brain, focal densities were observed, and a periportal distribution occurred in liver. These data are consistent with the peripheral nervous system being more sensitive to DEDC-mediated demyelination and demonstrate the ability of DEDC to elevate copper levels in peripheral nerve. Additionally lipid peroxidation appears to either be a contributing event in the development of demyelination, possibly through an increase of redox active copper, or a consequence of the myelin injury.

  20. Correlation of serum toll like receptor 9 and trace elements with lipid peroxidation in the patients of breast diseases.

    PubMed

    Karki, Kanchan; Pande, Deepti; Negi, Reena; Khanna, Seema; Khanna, Ranjana S; Khanna, Hari D

    2015-04-01

    Toll-like receptors are recognized as redox sensitive receptor proteins and have been implicated in cellular response to oxidative stress. Altered pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance leads to an increased oxidative damage and consequently play an important role in breast diseases. The study was designed to access the oxidative stress status by quantification of byproducts generated during lipid peroxidation and inadequate trace elements during oxidative damage and its effects on the toll like receptor (TLR) activity in patients of breast diseases. Decreased levels of selenium, copper, zinc, magnesium and iron with elevated levels of malondialdehyde (marker of lipid peroxidation) were accompanied by decreased TLR activity in patients of benign breast diseases as well as breast carcinoma. A similar pattern was observed with the advancement of disease and its subsequent progression in breast carcinoma patients. Results of multinomial regression analysis suggest benign breast disease patients are at higher risk of developing breast cancer with high odds ratio of lipid damage.

  1. Synthetically prepared Aamadori-glycated phosphatidylethanolaminecan trigger lipid peroxidation via free radical reactions.

    PubMed

    Oak, J; Nakagawa, K; Miyazawa, T

    2000-09-08

    This study for the first time confirmed the peroxidative role of the Amadori product derived from the glycation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), namely Amadori-PE. The product was synthesized from the reaction of dioleoyl PE with D-glucose, and then purified by a solid-phase extraction procedure, which was a key step in the next HPLC technique for the isolation of essentially pure Amadori-PE. When the synthetically prepared Amadori-PE was incubated with linoleic acid in the presence of Fe(3+) in micellar system, a remarkable formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was observed together with increases in lipid hydroperoxides. In addition, the lipid peroxidation caused by Amadori-PE was effectively inhibited by superoxide dismutase, mannitol, catalase and metal chelator. These results indicated that Amadori-PE triggers oxidative modification of lipids via the generation of superoxide, and implied the involvement of 'lipid glycation' along with membrane lipid peroxidation in the pathogenesis of diabetes and aging.

  2. The important role of lipid peroxidation processes in aging and age dependent diseases.

    PubMed

    Spiteller, Gerhard

    2007-09-01

    Any change in the cell membrane structure activates lipoxygenases (LOX). LOX transform polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to lipidhydroperoxide molecules (LOOHs). When cells are severely wounded, this physiological process switches to a non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) process producing LOO* radicals. These oxidize nearly all-biological molecules such as lipids, sugars, and proteins. The LOO* induced degradations proceed by transfer of the radicals from cell to cell like an infection. The chemical reactions induced by LO* and LOO* radicals seem to be responsible for aging and induction of age dependent diseases.Alternatively, LO* and LOO* radicals are generated by frying of fats and involve cholesterol-PUFA esters and thus induce atherogenesis. Plants and algae are exposed to LOO* radicals generating radiation. In order to remove LOO* radicals, plants and algae transform PUFAs to furan fatty acids, which are incorporated after consumption of vegetables into mammalian tissues where they act as excellent scavengers of LOO* and LO* radicals.

  3. Lipid peroxidation by "free" iron ions and myoglobin as affected by dietary antioxidants in simulated gastric fluids.

    PubMed

    Lapidot, Tair; Granit, Rina; Kanner, Joseph

    2005-05-04

    Grilled red turkey muscle (Doner Kabab) is a real "fast food" containing approximately 200 microM hydroperoxides, homogenized in simulated gastric fluid and oxidized more rapidly at pH 3.0 than at pH 5.0, after 180 min, producing 1200 and 600 microM hydroperoxides, respectively. The effects of "free" iron ions and metmyoglobin, two potential catalyzers of lipid peroxidation in muscle foods, were evaluated for linoleic acid peroxidation at pH 3.0 of simulated gastric fluid. The prooxidant effects of free iron ions on linoleic acid peroxidation in simulated gastric fluid was evaluated in the presence of ascorbic acid. At low concentrations of ascorbic acid, the effects were prooxidative, which was reversed at high concentrations. In the presence of metmyoglobin, ascorbic acid with or without free iron enhanced the antioxidative effect. Lipid peroxidation by an iron-ascorbic acid system was inhibited totally by 250-500 microM catechin at pH 3.0. The catechin antioxidant effect was determined also in the iron-ascorbic acid system containing metmyoglobin. In this system, catechin totally inhibited lipid peroxidation at a concentration 20-fold lower than without metmyoglobin. The ability of catechin to inhibit lipid peroxidation was also determined at a low pH with beta-carotene as a sensitive target molecule for oxidation. The results show that a significant protection was achieved only with almost 100-fold higher antioxidant concentration. Polyphenols from different groups were determined for the antioxidant activity at pH 3.0. The results show a high antioxidant activity of polyphenols with orthodihydroxylated groups at the B ring, unsaturation, and the presence of a 4-oxo group in the heterocyclic ring, as demonstrated by quercetin.

  4. Visible Light-Induced Lipid Peroxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids in the Retina and the Inhibitory Effects of Blueberry Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yixiang; Zhang, Di; Hu, Jimei; Liu, Guangming; Chen, Jun; Sun, Lechang; Jiang, Zedong; Zhang, Xichun; Chen, Qingchou; Ji, Baoping

    2015-10-28

    The lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) in the retina not only threatens visual cells but also affects the physiological health of the retina. In this work, the potential damages caused by daily visible light exposure on retinal UFAs were evaluated via a simulated in vitro model. At the same time, the benefits of dietary supplementation of blueberries to the eyes were also assessed. After prolonged light exposure, lipid peroxidation occurred for both docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids (DHA and AA, respectively). The oxidized UFAs presented obvious cytotoxicity and significantly inhibited cell growth in retinal pigment epithelium cells. Among the different blueberry polyphenol fractions, the flavonoid-rich fraction, in which quercetin was discovered as the main component, was considerably better in preventing visible light-induced DHA lipid peroxidation than the anthocyanin- and phenolic acid-rich fractions. Then the retinal protective activity of blueberry polyphenols against light-induced retinal injury was confirmed in vivo. On the basis of the above results, inhibiting lipid peroxidation of UFAs in the retina is proposed to be another important function mechanism for antioxidants to nourish eyes.

  5. Inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation by cytosolic protein in presence of ADP and high concentration of Fe2+.

    PubMed

    Ramasarma, T; Muakkassah-Kelly, S; Hochstein, P

    1984-12-06

    Microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by NADPH, but not by ascorbate, was found to be inhibited by liver cytosol. This inhibition was not dependent on glutathione and was enhanced by ADP in presence of Fe2+ at a concentration of 50 microM or higher. ATP was also effective, but not AMP or cyclic AMP. The cytosolic factor appeared to be a protein as it was heat-labile (greater than 70 degrees C), was non-dialyzable and was precipitated by ammonium sulfate and acetone. It was stable for several months in frozen state and also when heated at 50 degrees C for 10 min. The inhibition by the cytosolic protein was obtained by producing a lag in the activity of lipid peroxidation and was reversed by ceruloplasmin but not by catalase, cytochrome c, hemoglobin or superoxide dismutase. This inhibitory effect by cytosol was limited to formation of lipid peroxides whereas oxygen uptake and NADPH oxidation remained unaffected. Regulation of lipid peroxidation by nucleotide-Fe complexes and cytosolic proteins is indicated by these studies.

  6. Ameliorative effects of black tea extract on aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver of mice.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Anamika; Verma, R J

    2005-01-01

    We have evaluated the ameliorative effect of black tea extract on aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver of mice. Adult male albino mice were orally administered with 25 and 50 microg of aflatoxin in 0.2 ml olive oil/animal/day for 30 days. Results revealed dose-dependent and significantly (p<0.05) higher lipid peroxidation in the liver of aflatoxin-treated mice than that of vehicle control. As compared with vehicle control, the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione and ascorbic acid, as well as the enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were significantly (p<0.05) lowered in the liver of aflatoxin-treated mice. Oral administration of two percent aqueous black tea extract along with aflatoxin for 30 days (groups 6 and 7) caused significant (p<0.05) amelioration in aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation by increasing significantly (p<0.05) the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase) and contents of non-enzymatic (glutathione and ascorbic acid) antioxidants in the liver of mice as compared with those given aflatoxin alone (groups 4 and 5). Thus, oral administration of black tea along with aflatoxin significantly (p<0.05) ameliorates aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver of mice.

  7. Fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation of soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, fed different dietary lipid sources.

    PubMed

    Lin, Way-Yee; Huang, Chen-Huei

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) were fed 7 diets containing 8% of lard, soybean oil, olive oil, menhaden fish oil, or mixtures of 1 to 1 ratio of fish oil and lard, soybean oil, olive oil for 10 weeks. Growth and muscle proximate compositions of the turtles were not affected by different dietary treatments (p>0.05). Fatty acid profiles in muscle polar lipids, muscle non-polar lipids, and liver polar lipids reflected the fatty acid composition of dietary lipid source. Turtles fed diets containing fish oil generally contained significantly higher (p<0.05) proportion of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in both polar and non-polar lipids of muscle and polar fraction of liver lipids than those fed other oils. Non-polar fraction of liver lipids from all groups of turtles contained less than 1% of HUFA. All turtles contained relatively high proportions of oleic acid in their lipids regardless of the dietary lipid source. Further, lipid peroxidation in both muscle tissue and liver microsomes of turtles fed fish oil as the sole lipid source was greater (p<0.05) than those fed fish oil-free diets. Turtles fed olive oil as the sole lipid source had the lowest lipid peroxidation rate among all dietary groups. The results indicate that dietary n-3 HUFA may not be crucial for optimal growth of soft-shelled turtles although they may be used for metabolic purpose. Further, high level of dietary HUFA not only increases the HUFA content in turtle tissues, but also enhances the susceptibility of these tissues to lipid peroxidation.

  8. Loss of PLA2G6 leads to elevated mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Quan, Jorge Iván; Bartolome, Fernando; Angelova, Plamena R.; Li, Li; Pope, Simon; Cochemé, Helena M.; Khan, Shabana; Asghari, Shabnam; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Hardy, John; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Partridge, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The PLA2G6 gene encodes a group VIA calcium-independent phospholipase A2 beta enzyme that selectively hydrolyses glycerophospholipids to release free fatty acids. Mutations in PLA2G6 have been associated with disorders such as infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type II and Karak syndrome. More recently, PLA2G6 was identified as the causative gene in a subgroup of patients with autosomal recessive early-onset dystonia-parkinsonism. Neuropathological examination revealed widespread Lewy body pathology and the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau, supporting a link between PLA2G6 mutations and parkinsonian disorders. Here we show that knockout of the Drosophila homologue of the PLA2G6 gene, iPLA2-VIA, results in reduced survival, locomotor deficits and organismal hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. Furthermore, we demonstrate that loss of iPLA2-VIA function leads to a number of mitochondrial abnormalities, including mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction, reduced ATP synthesis and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. Moreover, we show that loss of iPLA2-VIA is strongly associated with increased lipid peroxidation levels. We confirmed our findings using cultured fibroblasts taken from two patients with mutations in the PLA2G6 gene. Similar abnormalities were seen including elevated mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane defects, as well as raised levels of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Finally, we demonstrated that deuterated polyunsaturated fatty acids, which inhibit lipid peroxidation, were able to partially rescue the locomotor abnormalities seen in aged flies lacking iPLA2-VIA gene function, and restore mitochondrial membrane potential in fibroblasts from patients with PLA2G6 mutations. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that loss of normal PLA2G6 gene activity leads to lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent mitochondrial membrane

  9. The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2010-01-01

    Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of

  10. Morin, a flavonoid, on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in experimental myocardial ischemic rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Numair, Khalid S; Chandramohan, Govindasamy; Alsaif, Mohammed A; Veeramani, Chinnadurai; El Newehy, Ahmed S

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial infarction affects a large population in the world. Lipid peroxide metabolism plays an important role in the pathology of myocardial infarction. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant potential of morin, a flavonoid in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI), in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pre-treated with morin (40 mg/kg), daily for a period of 30 days. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg), was subcutaneously injected in rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days. ISO-administered rats showed elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and lipid hydro-peroxide (LOOH), in plasma and heart. Pretreatment with morin, the above changes were significantly reduced to near normal level. ISO-administered rats showed decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in heart. In addition, decrease the levels non enzymatic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in plasma and heart while ceruloplasmin in plasma. Pretreatment with morin, reversed these above biochemical changes towards normalcy. These findings revealed that, the morin possess antioxidant activity in experimentally induced cardiac toxicity.

  11. Protective effects of boron on cyclophosphamide induced lipid peroxidation and genotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Acaroz, Damla Arslan; Akbel, Erten; Cigerci, Ibrahim Hakki

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of boron (B) on cyclophosphamide (CYC) induced oxidative stress in rats. Totally, thirty Wistar albino male rats were fed standard rodent diet and divided into 5 equal groups: physiological saline was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the control group (vehicle treated), to the second group only 75 mg kg(-1) CYC was given i.p. on the 14th d, and boron was administered (5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) to the other groups for 14 d and CYC (75 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on the 14th d. CYC caused increase of malondialdehyde and decrease of glutathione levels, decrease of superoxide dismutase activities in erythrocyte and tissues, decrease of erythrocyte, heart, lung, and brain catalase, and plasma antioxidant activities. Also, CYC treatment caused to DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes. Moreover, B exhibited protective action against the CYC-induced histopathological changes in tissues. However, treatment of B decreased severity of CYC-induced lipid peroxidation and genotoxicity on tissues. In conclusion, B has ameliorative effects against CYC-induced lipid peroxidation and genotoxicity by enhancing antioxidant defence mechanism in rat.

  12. A possible mechanism for initiation of lipid peroxidation by ascorbate in rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Casalino, E; Sblano, C; Landriscina, C

    1996-02-01

    The mechanism by which lipid peroxidation progresses has been known for years, but there is disagreement regarding the mode of its initiation. The aim of this study was to examine: (a) the role of endogenous iron in the initiation of ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in microsomal and liposomal membranes; (b) the role of oxygen-free radicals in this process; and (c) the redox state of ascorbate during the course of lipid peroxidation. Ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring hydroperoxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation in membranes after incubation in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) for 15 min. To confirm the role of endogenous iron and oxygen-free radicals, the effect of iron chelating agents (EDTA and thiourea) and radical scavengers (benzoate, mannitol, catalase and SOD) on lipid peroxidation was examined. Spectrophotometric measurements and ESR spectra have made it possible to determine ascorbate concentration and its redox state. Ascorbate promoted lipid peroxidation in both rat liver microsomes and liposomes without addition of exogenous iron. Iron chelating agents such as EDTA and thiourea inhibited lipid peroxidation, while SOD, catalase, mannitol and benzoate had no effect. The addition of 5 microM Fe2+ (or Fe3+) to the incubation mixture did not significantly alter hydroperoxide production, but that of TBARS was increased. Lipid peroxidation significantly altered the fatty acid profile in microsomes and liposomes, the most affected being the C20:4 and C22:6 species. Ascorbate in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) autoxidized very slowly. Its oxidation was catalyzed by Fe3+ ions at a rate determined by incubation time and iron concentration. In contrast, no ascorbate oxidation occurred in the presence of microsomes when lipid peroxidation was proceeding at a maximal rate. Under these conditions a typical ascorbyl radical ESR spectrum signal greater than that arising from ascorbate alone was obtained and the magnitude

  13. Effect of human Apo AIV against lipid peroxidation of very low density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, G; Bacchetti, T; Bicchiega, V; Curatola, G

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Apo AIV exerts a protective effect against atherosclerosis. Moreover, Qin et al. (Am. J. Physiol. 274 (1998) H1836) have demonstrated that Apo AIV, isolated from rat plasma, exerts an inhibitory effect against Cu(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation of intestinal lymph and LDL. The aim of the study was to investigate whether human Apo AIV exerts a protective effect against Cu(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation. Our results demonstrated that human Apo AIV exerted an inhibitory effect against Cu(2+) and AAPH induced lipid peroxidation of VLDL, as shown by the lower increase in the levels of TBARS and conjugated dienes in lipoproteins preincubated with Apo AIV. In addition, the tryptophan (Trp) and probe 2-(dimethylamino)-6-lauroylnaphthalene (Laurdan) fluorescence studies demonstrated that the modifications of spectral properties in both lipoproteins preincubated with Apo AIV were lower with respect to ox-lipoproteins, suggesting that Apo AIV prevents the modification of physico-chemical properties due to peroxidation.

  14. UVA photoirradiation of halogenated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons leading to induction of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Herreno-Sáenz, Diógenes; Xia, Qingsu; Chiu, Li-Ting; Fu, Peter P

    2006-06-01

    Since the finding in the 1930s, a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of different structures have been tested for potential tumorigenicity. Structure-activity relationships of halo-PAHs have been investigated to determine the regions of a PAH that may be involved in cancer initiation. From these studies, a number of halo-PAHs were found to be tumorigenic in experimental animals. It was not until the 1980s that halo- PAHs were found to be present in the environment, including municipal incinerator fly ash, urban air, coal combustion, soil, snow, automobile exhausts, and tap water. Due to their widespread presence in the environment and their genotoxic activities, including carcinogenicity, many of these compounds may pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of halo- PAHs have been studied their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. In this study, we study the photoirradiation of a series of structure-related halo-PAHs by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate, and determine as to whether or not these compounds can induce lipid peroxidation. The halo-PAHs chosen for study include 2-bromonaphthalene, 1-chloroanthracene, 9,10- dibromoanthracene, 9-chlorophenanthrene, 9-bromophenanthrene, 7-chlorobenz[a]anthracene, 7- bromobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromo-5-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 6-chlorobenzo[a]pyrene, and 6- bromobenzo[a]pyrene. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation at different levels. These results suggest that halo-PAHs may be harmful to human health.

  15. UVA Photoirradiation of Halogenated-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Leading to Induction of Lipid Peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Herreno-Sáenz, Diógenes; Xia, Qingsu; Chiu, Li-Ting; Fu, Peter P.

    2006-01-01

    Since the finding in the 1930s, a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of different structures have been tested for potential tumorigenicity. Structure-activity relationships of halo-PAHs have been investigated to determine the regions of a PAH that may be involved in cancer initiation. From these studies, a number of halo-PAHs were found to be tumorigenic in experimental animals. It was not until the 1980s that halo-PAHs were found to be present in the environment, including municipal incinerator fly ash, urban air, coal combustion, soil, snow, automobile exhausts, and tap water. Due to their widespread presence in the environment and their genotoxic activities, including carcinogenicity, many of these compounds may pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of halo-PAHs have been studied their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. In this study, we study the photoirradiation of a series of structure-related halo-PAHs by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate, and determine as to whether or not these compounds can induce lipid peroxidation. The halo-PAHs chosen for study include 2-bromonaphthalene, 1-chloroanthracene, 9,10-dibromoanthracene, 9-chlorophenanthrene, 9-bromophenanthrene, 7-chlorobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromo-5-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 6-chlorobenzo[a]pyrene, and 6-bromobenzo[a]pyrene. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation at different levels. These results suggest that halo-PAHs may be harmful to human health. PMID:16823092

  16. Alterations in lipid peroxidation and T-cell function in women with hyperemesis gravidarum.

    PubMed

    Biberoglu, E H; Kirbas, A; Dirican, A Ö; Genc, M; Avci, A; Doganay, B; Uygur, D; Biberoglu, K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity as a marker of T lymphocyte activation and parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence in hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). Serum ADA activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were investigated in 40 pregnant women with the HG and 40 with healthy pregnancies, in a descriptive study. Although serum ADA and CAT were measured to be higher in HG group, the difference was not significant. Serum MDA and GPx levels were significantly elevated in women with HG when compared with those without HG. The significance of changes in lipid peroxidation and T-cell activation in the pathogenesis of HG and whether this is a cause or a compensatory reaction to HG requires further investigations with larger multicentre trials.

  17. Dietary lipid level influences fatty acid profiles, tissue composition, and lipid peroxidation of soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Huei; Lin, Way-Yee; Chu, Jen-Hong

    2005-11-01

    Dietary lipids containing equal portions of soybean oil and fish oil were fed to juvenile Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, at supplementation level of 0 to 15% for 8 weeks. Tissue fat contents of turtles increased when dietary lipid concentration increased. Fatty acid profiles for turtles fed diets supplemented with 6% or higher levels of lipids were similar to those in dietary lipids. On absolute value basis, fatty acids of 14-, 16-, and 18-carbons in muscle of turtles fed diet without lipid supplementation were higher than those in the initial turtle muscle. Among them, C16:1 and C18:1 was approximately 4 and 2 fold higher, respectively, than that of the initial turtles. By contrast, absolute amounts of C20:5 and C22:6 in muscle of turtles fed diet without lipid supplementation were slightly less than those in the initial turtles. For turtles fed lipid supplemented diets, tissue C20:5 and C22:6, however, increased when dietary lipid level increased. These results suggest that soft-shelled turtles are capable of synthesizing fatty acids up to 18 carbons from other nutrients and that they may have limited or no ability to synthesize highly unsaturated fatty acids. Lipid peroxidation measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in tissues of turtles fed 12% and 15% lipids was greater (p<0.05) than that in turtles fed 3% to 9% lipids. This could be due to high lipid and unsaturated fatty acid content in these tissues. On lipid basis, lipid peroxidation in turtles fed diet without lipid supplementation was the highest among all groups suggesting the existence of antioxidant factors in the dietary lipids.

  18. Resveratrol reduces lipid peroxidation and increases sirtuin 1 expression in adult animals programmed by neonatal protein restriction.

    PubMed

    Franco, Juliana Gastão; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Koury, Josely Correa; Trotta, Paula Affonso; Cordeiro, Aline; Souza, Luana Lopes; Almeida, Norma Aparecida dos Santos; Lima, Natália da Silva; Pazos-Moura, Carmen Cabanelas; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Passos, Magna Cottini Fonseca

    2010-12-01

    Resveratrol (Res) has been associated with protective effects against oxidative stress. This study evaluated the effect of Res over lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense, hepatic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), which up-regulates antioxidant enzymes, and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) in adult offspring whose mothers were protein restricted during lactation. Lactating Wistar rats were divided into control (C) group, which were fed a normal diet (23% protein), and low-protein and high-carbohydrate (LPHC) group, which were fed a diet containing 8% protein. After weaning (21 days), C and LPHC offspring were fed a normal diet until they were 180 days old. At the 160th day, animals were separated into four groups as follows: control, control+Res, LPHC, and LPHC+Res. Resveratrol was given for 20 days (30  mg/kg per day by gavage). LPHC animals showed a higher total antioxidant capacity (TAC) without change in lipid peroxidation and SIRT1 expression. The treatment with Res increased TAC only in the control group without effect on lipid peroxidation and SIRT1. LPHC animals treated with Res had lower lipid peroxidation and higher protein and mRNA expression of SIRT1 without any further increase in TAC. No significant difference in liver Cu/Zn SOD expression was observed among the groups. In conclusion, maternal protein restriction during lactation programs the offspring for a higher antioxidant capacity, and these animals seem to respond to Res treatment with a lower lipid peroxidation and higher hepatic SIRT1 expression that we did not observe in the Res-treated controls. It is probable that the protective effect can be attributed to Res activating SIRT1, only in the LPHC-programmed group.

  19. Lipid peroxidation and haemoglobin degradation in red blood cells exposed to t-butyl hydroperoxide. The relative roles of haem- and glutathione-dependent decomposition of t-butyl hydroperoxide and membrane lipid hydroperoxides in lipid peroxidation and haemolysis.

    PubMed

    Trotta, R J; Sullivan, S G; Stern, A

    1983-06-15

    Red cells exposed to t-butyl hydroperoxide undergo lipid peroxidation, haemoglobin degradation and hexose monophosphate-shunt stimulation. By using the lipid-soluble antioxidant 2,6-di-t-butyl-p-cresol, the relative contributions of t-butyl hydroperoxide and membrane lipid hydroperoxides to oxidative haemoglobin changes and hexose monophosphate-shunt stimulation were determined. About 90% of the haemoglobin changes and all of the hexose monophosphate-shunt stimulation were caused by t-butyl hydroperoxide. The remainder of the haemoglobin changes appeared to be due to reactions between haemoglobin and lipid hydroperoxides generated during membrane peroxidation. After exposure of red cells to t-butyl hydroperoxide, no lipid hydroperoxides were detected iodimetrically, whether or not glucose was present in the incubation. Concentrations of 2,6-di-t-butyl-p-cresol, which almost totally suppressed lipid peroxidation, significantly inhibited haemoglobin binding to the membrane but had no significant effect on hexose monophosphate shunt stimulation, suggesting that lipid hydroperoxides had been decomposed by a reaction with haem or haem-protein and not enzymically via glutathione peroxidase. The mechanisms of lipid peroxidation and haemoglobin oxidation and the protective role of glucose were also investigated. In time-course studies of red cells containing oxyhaemoglobin, methaemoglobin or carbonmono-oxyhaemoglobin incubated without glucose and exposed to t-butyl hydroperoxide, haemoglobin oxidation paralleled both lipid peroxidation and t-butyl hydroperoxide consumption. Lipid peroxidation ceased when all t-butyl hydroperoxide was consumed, indicating that it was not autocatalytic and was driven by initiation events followed by rapid propagation and termination of chain reactions and rapid non-enzymic decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides. Carbonmono-oxyhaemoglobin and oxyhaemoglobin were good promoters of peroxidation, whereas methaemoglobin relatively spared the

  20. Lipid peroxidation markers in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new findings for oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Mahmut; Selek, Salih; Bez, Yasin; Cemal Kaya, Mehmet; Gunes, Mehmet; Karababa, Fatih; Celik, Hakim; Savas, Haluk Asuman

    2013-10-30

    Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a reliable marker of lipid peroxidation where paraoxonase and arylesterase are two enzymes against it. Although increased MDA has been previously shown in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (A-ADHD), levels of paraoxonase and arylesterase enzymes have not been studied yet. We aimed to determine the status of both MDA level and paraoxonase and arylesterase enzyme activities in A-ADHD patients. A total of 35 adults with ADHD diagnosis according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria and 29 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Serum MDA, paraoxonase and arylesterase levels of the participants were measured. The disease severity of the patients was determined by using Turgay's Adult Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) DSM IV Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale. The serum MDA level of patients was significantly higher than that of healthy control subjects, whereas their paraoxonase and arylesterase levels were significantly lower. There was no correlation between the levels of biochemical parameters (MDA, paraoxonase and arylesterase) and the disease severity. Sub-types of A-ADHD were similar in terms of these biochemical parameters. Increased lipid peroxidation, a part of oxidative stress, in adults with ADHD appears to be unbuffered by antioxidant enzymes, namely paraoxonase and arylesterase.

  1. WO3/Pt nanoparticles promote light-induced lipid peroxidation and lysosomal instability within tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Andrea J.; Petty, Howard R.

    2016-02-01

    Although metal-metal oxide nanoparticles have attracted considerable interest as catalysts, they have attracted little interest in nanomedicine. This is likely due to the fact that metal oxide semiconductors generally require biologically harmful ultraviolet excitation. In contrast, this study focuses upon WO3/Pt nanoparticles, which can be excited by visible light. To optimize the nanoparticles’ catalytic performance, platinization was performed at alkaline pH. These nanoparticles destroyed organic dyes, consumed dissolved oxygen and produced hydroxyl radicals. 4T1 breast cancer cells internalized WO3/Pt nanoparticles within the membrane-bound endo-lysosomal compartment as shown by electron and fluorescence microscopy. During visible light exposure, but not in darkness, WO3/Pt nanoparticles manufacture reactive oxygen species, promote lipid peroxidation, and trigger lysosomal membrane disruption. As cells of the immune system degrade organic molecules, produce reactive oxygen species, and activate the lipid peroxidation pathway within target cells, these nanoparticles mimic the chemical attributes of immune effector cells. These biomimetic nanoparticles should become useful in managing certain cancers, especially ocular cancer.

  2. Tenoxicam modulates antioxidant redox system and lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Uğuz, Abdulhadi Cihangir; Gokçimen, Alpaslan; Bülbül, Metin; Karatopuk, Dilek Ulusoy; Türker, Yasin; Cerçi, Celal

    2008-09-01

    We investigated effects of two doses of Tenoxicam, a type 2 cyclooxygenase inhibitor, administration on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant redox system in cortex of the brain in rats. Twenty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. First group was used as control. 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight Tenoxicam were intramuscularly administrated to rats constituting the second and third groups for 10 days, respectively. Both dose of Tenoxicam administration resulted in significant increase in the glutathione peroxidase activity, reduced glutathione and vitamins C and E of cortex of the brain. The lipid peroxidation levels in the cortex of the brain were significantly decreased by the administration. Vitamin A and beta-carotene concentration was not affected by the administration. There was no statistical difference in all values between 10 and 20 mg Tenoxicam administrated groups. In conclusion, treatment of brain with 10 and 20 mg Tenoxicam has protective effects on the oxidative stress by inhibiting free radical and supporting antioxidant redox system.

  3. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage and Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Strenuous Exercise in Rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ning-Ning

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol supplementation on oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation induced by strenuous exercise in rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: a sedentary control group, an exercise control group, and three treatment exercise groups administered increasing doses of resveratrol (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight). Resveratrol was administered by oral gavage once daily for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, the rats performed a strenuous exercise on the treadmill, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured. The results showed that resveratrol supplementation had protective effects against strenuous exercise-induced oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation by lowering the levels of LDH, CK, MDA, 4-HNE, and 8-OHdG in the serum or muscle of rats. These beneficial effects are probably owing to the inherent antioxidant activities of resveratrol.

  4. Exposure to Petroleum Hydrocarbon: Implications in Lung Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Oyebisi M; Akhigbe, Roland E.; Anigbogu, Chikodi N

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Various studies have implicated automobile exhausts as risk factors in cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases; however, there is little or no documentation on the role of the main source of the exhausts, petroleum hydrocarbons, on cardiopulmonary pathologies. Thus, we investigated the effect of petroleum hydrocarbons, using various petroleum products, on histomorphology of the lung and the role of lipid peroxidation in it. Materials and Methods: Control rats were not exposed to any of the petroleum products, whereas petrol-exposed, diesel-exposed, and kerosene-exposed rats were exposed to petrol, diesel, and kerosene by inhalation, respectively. Results: Exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons significantly induced lipid peroxidation with a consequent rise in malondialdehyde (MDA), and a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione (GSH) level. Exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons also caused an alteration in the histomorphology of lung tissues. Conclusion: Our findings imply that exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons by inhalation is a risk factor in the pathophysiology of pulmonary dysfunction. This is associated with oxidative stress. PMID:23293471

  5. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection in girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus during reproductive system development.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, Lubov I; Darenskaya, Marina A; Semenova, Natalia V; Grebenkina, Lyudmila A; Suturina, Larisa V; Dolgikh, Marya I; Gnusina, Svetlana V

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is found worldwide and is regarded as one of the main risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine the state of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant protection in girls with T1D type considering the stages of reproductive system development. This study enrolled 56 young girls with T1D and 60 healthy girls (control) matched by age. The study population was divided into 3 age groups: prepubertal, adolescent, and juvenile. The state of LPO and antioxidant system was assessed using the coefficient of oxidative stress that represented the ratio of LPO products to general antioxidative blood activity. Spectrophotometric and fluorometric methods were applied. The results of our study showed increased conjugated diene (CD) and thiobarbituric acid reactant (TBAR) concentrations as well as a decreased reduced glutathione level in prepubertal girls with T1D. Adolescent girls with T1D had a significantly greater CD level and juvenile girls with T1D had a significantly greater TBAR level and lower α-tocopherol concentration than girls in the control group. The greatest coefficient of oxidative stress (1.16) was observed in the prepubertal period. The prepubertal period is characterized by the most severe state of lipid peroxidation process-antioxidant protection. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Glycyrrhizic acid attenuated lipid peroxidation induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Khorsandi, L; Orazizadeh, M; Mansori, E; Fakhredini, F

    2015-01-01

    to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against hepatic injury induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NTiO2) in rats. Many recent studies demonstrate that most nanoparticles (NPs) have an adverse or toxic action on liver. NTiO2- intoxicated rats received 300 mg/kg of NTiO2 for 14 days by gavage method. Protection group was pretreated with 10 mg/kg of GA for 7 days before NTiO2 administration. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were detected as biomarkers in the blood to indicate hepatic injury. Product of lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were evaluated for oxidative stress in hepatic injury. Light microscopy for histopathological studies was also done. Administration of NTiO2 induced a significant elevation in plasma AST, ALT and ALP. In the liver, NTiO2 increased the oxidative stress through the increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in SOD and GPx enzymes. Pretreatment of GA significantly decreased ALT, AST and ALP, attenuated the histopathology of hepatic injury, ameliorated oxidative stress in hepatic tissue, and increased the activities of SOD and GPx. These findings indicate that GA effectively protects against NTiO2-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and might be clinically useful (Fig. 4, Ref. 47). Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  7. Dexpanthenol attenuates lipid peroxidation and testicular damage at experimental ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Etensel, Barlas; Ozkisacik, Sezen; Ozkara, Esra; Karul, Aslihan; Oztan, Onur; Yazici, Mesut; Gürsoy, Harun

    2007-02-01

    Prevention of tissue damage after testicular torsion caused by I/R injury is still a clinical and experimental problem. There are many experimental studies made with several chemicals in the literature for decreasing the effect of reactive oxygen species after ischemia and reperfusion. Dexpanthenol (Dxp) is the biologically active alcohol of pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid increases the content of reduced glutathione, Coenzyme A and ATP in cell. We studied the effect of Dxp on lipid peroxidation and testicular damage. Forty adult rats were separated randomly into five groups: group Sh, Sham-operation; group TD, torsion-detorsion; group NS, torsion-normal saline-detorsion; group D, torsion-Dxp 250 mg/kg detorsion; group D2, torsion-Dxp 500 mg/kg detorsion group. Serum MDA levels were taken before detorsion, after torsion at the first and fifth minute and at the first hour. Tissue sample was taken at the first hour. The alterations of I/R injury on testis were histological graded. Serum MDA levels were significantly lower in group D2 compared to all groups. The histopathology score of group D2 was significantly lower than groups TD, NS and D. Histopathological score and serum MDA levels are strikingly compatible. Dxp attenuated lipid peroxidation and tissue damage at I/R injury. This effect depends on its antioxidant effect with increasingly reduced glutathione, Coenzyme A and ATP. The effect of Dxp on I/R injury has been shown for the first time in the experimental testicular torsion.

  8. Carbon Monoxide Modulates Connexin Function through a Lipid Peroxidation-Dependent Process: A Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Retamal, Mauricio A.

    2016-01-01

    Hemichannels are ion channels composed of six connexins (Cxs), and they have the peculiarity to be permeable not only to ions, but also to molecules such as ATP and glutamate. Under physiological conditions they present a low open probability, which is sufficient to enable them to participate in several physiological functions. However, massive and/or prolonged hemichannel opening induces or accelerates cell death. Therefore, the study of the molecular mechanisms that control hemichannel activity appears to be essential for understanding several physiological and pathological processes. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous transmitter that modulates many cellular processes, some of them through modulation of ion channel activity. CO exerts its biological actions through the activation of guanylate cyclase and/or inducing direct carbonylation of proline, threonine, lysine, and arginine. It is well accepted that guanylate cyclase dependent pathway and direct carbonylation, are not sensitive to reducing agents. However, it is important to point out that CO—through a lipid peroxide dependent process—can also induce a secondary carbonylation in cysteine groups, which is sensitive to reducing agents. Recently, in our laboratory we demonstrated that the application of CO donors to the bath solution inhibited Cx46 hemichannel currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes, a phenomenon that was fully reverted by reducing agents. Therefore, a plausible mechanism of CO-induced Cx46 hemichannel inhibition is through Cx46-lipid oxidation. In this work, I will present current evidence and some preliminary results that support the following hypothesis: Carbon monoxide inhibits Cx46 HCs through a lipid peroxidation-dependent process. The main goal of this paper is to broaden the scientific community interest in studying the relationship between CO-Fatty acids and hemichannels, which will pave the way to more research directed to the understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) that control

  9. [The composition of lipids and lipid peroxidation in the pancreas of quails exposed to nitrates and correction by the amaranth's seeds].

    PubMed

    Tsekhmistrenko, S I; Ponomarenko, N V

    2013-01-01

    Researches of features of lipid composition, functioning of the system of antioxidant defense, maintenance of lipid peroxidation products in the quail's pancreas on the early postnatal ontogenesis stages are conducted for actions of nitrates and feeding with amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder. The arrival of nitrates in the organism of quails results in the decline of general lipids maintenance and nonetherified fat acids in the pancreas. Using of amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder on the background of the nitrate loading results in the increase of activity of the enzimes system of antioxidant defence, the growth of general lipid level in the quail's pancreas. Thus in correlation with separate classes of lipid maintenance of cholesterol goes down for certain, whereas the maintenance of triacylglycerols and ethers of cholesterol rises. The results obtained in the researches show the ability of amaranth's seeds to avert oxidative stress in quail's pancreas under nitrates influence.

  10. Measurement of lipid peroxidation products in rabbit brain and organs (response to aluminum exposure).

    PubMed

    Bertholf, R L; Nicholson, J R; Wills, M R; Savory, J

    1987-01-01

    A method was developed for measuring the concentration of lipid peroxidation products in rabbit brain, heart, lung, liver, and kidney tissue. Specimens were homogenized in cold buffer, acidified, and heated to near boiling in the presence of thiobarbituric acid in order to form the malondialdehyde-thiobarbiturate adduct. After centrifugation, the supernatant was injected onto a reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) column, and the effluent was monitored for absorbance at 532 nm. Absorbances were compared to a standard curve constructed from absorbance data for tetraethoxypropane standards, which yield stoichiometric amounts of the malondialdehyde-thiobarbiturate adduct. Results were expressed as nmol of adduct per gram (dry weight) of tissue. Hippocampus had significantly greater concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (79.0 +/- 15.7 nmol per g) than did brainstem (52.1 +/- 13.8 nmol per g), but there was no significant increase in lipid peroxidation in aluminum treated rabbit brains when compared with controls. Aluminum intoxication appeared, however, to stimulate lipid peroxidation in heart, lung, liver, and kidney. Aluminum accumulation in brain and organ tissue of treated rabbits was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry of an acid digest of the homogenate. These results are in contrast to previous studies which demonstrated an increase in lipid peroxidation products in rat brains following oral administration of aluminum hydroxide.

  11. Comparison of the effects of metals on cellular injury and lipid peroxidation in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, N.H.; Klaassen, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Various mechanisms, including increases in lipid peroxidation, have been proposed to account for metal-induced cellular injury. By comparing several metals in the same cell population, it is possible to determine whether a correlation exists between ability to produce cell injury and ability to alter parameters pertaining to a particular mechanism. Of particular interest in this study was the relation between metal-induced cytotoxicity and increases in lipid peroxidation. The effects of Cr, Mn, Zn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Fe, Cd, Hg, and Cu, at final concentrations of 1 to 1000 ..mu..M, on the viability of isolated hepatocytes were therefore examined by assessing the loss of intracellular K/sup +/ and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Simultaneously, the ability of the metals to induce lipid peroxidation, as measured by an increase in thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactants, was assessed. Hg and Cu required the lowest concentration to produce cellular injury, while Cd produced less dramatic changes in cell viability and Fe at 1000 ..mu..M produced only a small decrease in intracellular K/sup +/. The largest absolute increases in lipid peroxidation were found in the presence of V, followed by Fe and Hg, with Cd and Se causing the smallest increase in TBA reactants. These observations suggest that the lipid peroxidation associated with Cd and Hg is not necessarily responsible for the loss of cell viability induced by these two metals.

  12. Cytochrome c produces pores in cardiolipin-containing planar bilayer lipid membranes in the presence of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Puchkov, M N; Vassarais, R A; Korepanova, E A; Osipov, A N

    2013-02-01

    Interaction of cytochrome c with cardiolipin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide induces peroxidase activity in cytochrome c and the ability to oxidize membrane lipids. These cytochrome c properties play a substantial role in the cytochrome c-mediated apoptotic reactions. In the present study the electric properties (specific capacitance and integral conductance) of the cardiolipin-containing asolectin planar bilayer lipid membranes (pBLM) in the presence of cytochrome c and hydrogen peroxide were studied. Cytochrome c interaction with cardiolipin-containing pBLM in the presence of hydrogen peroxide resulted in the dramatic increase of the conductance, pore production, their growth up to 3.5 nm diameter and subsequent membrane destruction. In the absence of hydrogen peroxide cytochrome c demonstrated almost no effect on the membrane capacitance and conductance. The data obtained prove the pivotal role of cytochrome c and membrane lipids in the permeabilization of pBLM. Correlation of apoptotic reactions and cytochrome c-mediated membrane permeability is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Membrane lipid peroxidation: propagation and inhibition by antioxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    Peroxidation studies in microsomes and liposomes were performed to evaluate the importance of the interaction between ascorbate and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. The peroxidation of rat liver microsomes by FeSO/sub 4/ in the presence of ascorbate was delayed compared to when NADPH replaced ascorbate as the electron donor. To further investigate the cooperation between ascorbate and vitamin E, a liposomal system containing polyunsaturated phospholipids was used. Ascorbic acid alone (30 to 100 ..mu..M) delayed peroxidation by 20, and at higher concentrations, 60 minutes. Physiological levels of vitamin E decreased peroxidation at early times but was apparently consumed during incubation. Vitamin C and vitamin E together suppressed peroxidation at early times at approximately the sum of the individual inhibitions. At longer times, the mixture was more effective than the sum of both vitamins alone. The role of glutathione and the significance of its interaction with ascorbate were studied. Glutathione was able to reduce dehydroascorbic acid, but ascorbic acid was unable to reduce oxidized glutathione disulfide. Glutathione and ascorbic acid were oxidized by NO/sub 2/ in vitro. Pulmonary levels of glutathione and ascorbic acid in guinea pigs exposed to NO/sub 2/ were lowered. After the administration of diethyl maleate, the glutathione concentration was decreased, but the ascorbic acid concentration was unaffected. Simultaneous exposure further depressed glutathione concentration, but not the ascorbic acid concentration. (ERB)

  14. The Effects of Subacute Exposure of Peracetic Acid on Lipid Peroxidation and Hepatic Enzymes in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Golalipour, Mohammad J.; Gharravi, Anneh M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study was undertaken to determine the effect of subacute exposure of peracetic acid on lipid peroxidation and hepatic enzymes in Wistar rats. Methods 48 male animals in Treatment Group I, II and III received 0.2%, 2% and 20% peracetic acid daily for 2 and 4 weeks. Results Serum malondialdehyde increased and Alanine Transaminase and Aspartate Transaminase decreased significantly in groups 2 and 3, compared to the control group. The malondialdehyde, Alanine Transaminase and Aspartate Transaminase with 0.2% and 2% doses of peracetic acid for 2 weeks do not lead to the alteration of malondialdehyde and enzyme activities. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the enhancement of malondialdehyde could provide an oxidative damage induced by disinfectant peroxidation at 20% and 2% doses at 2 and 4 weeks. The consumption of peroxidation with 20% for 2 weeks and 2% for 4 weeks can cause the increase of malondialdehyde and the decrease of enzyme activities, respectively. PMID:22043353

  15. [Effects of emoxipine and histochrome on lipid peroxidation and activity of serum MB-creatine phosphokinase in patients with ischemic heart disease during aortocoronary shunting].

    PubMed

    Lasukova, T V; Uskina, E V; Afanas'iev, S A; Ponomarenko, I V; Naryzhnaia, N V; Cherniavskiĭ, A M; Lishmanov, Iu B

    1997-01-01

    Comparative study of the cardioprotective effect of antioxidants emoxipin and hystochrom was conducted in patients with chronic ICD during and after operation for aorto-coronary shunting. Both drugs effectively inhibited LPO activation and reduced the reperfusion damage to the myocardium recorded according to the release of MB-PCK into the blood. The new antioxidant hystochrom proved to be more effective. Its prevalent effect is associated with its higher antioxidant activity.

  16. Beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reduces plasma lipid peroxidation induced by haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Dietrich-Muszalska, Anna; Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta

    2011-07-01

    Since oxidative stress observed in schizophrenia may be caused partially by the treatment of patients with various antipsychotics, the aim of the study was to establish the effects of beta-d-glucan, polysaccharide derived from the yeast cell walls of species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the antipsychotics (the first generation antipsychotic (FGA) - haloperidol and the second generation antipsychotic (SGA) - amisulpride) action on plasma lipid peroxidation in vitro. Lipid peroxidation in human plasma was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The samples of plasma from healthy subjects were incubated with haloperidol or amisulpride in the presence of beta-glucan (4 μg/ml). The action of beta-d-glucan was also compared with the properties of a well characterized commercial monomeric polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene, the final concentration - 4 μg/ml). The two-way analysis variance showed that the differences in TBARS levels were depended on the type of tested drugs (p=7.9 × 10(-6)). We observed a statistically increase of the level of biomarker of lipid peroxidation such as TBARS after 1 and 24h incubation of plasma with haloperidol compared to the control samples (p<0.01, p<0.02, respectively). Amisulpride, contrary to haloperidol (after 1 and 24h) did not cause plasma lipid peroxidation (p>0.05). We showed that in the presence of beta-glucan, lipid peroxidation in plasma samples treated with haloperidol was significantly decreased. Moreover, we did not observe the synergistic action of beta-glucan and amisulpride on the inhibition of plasma lipid peroxidation. However, the beta-d-glucan was found to be more effective antioxidant, than the solution of pure resveratrol. The presented results indicate that beta-glucan seems to have distinctly protective effects against the impairment of plasma lipid molecules induced by haloperidol.

  17. Vanadium distribution, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress markers upon decavanadate in vivo administration.

    PubMed

    Soares, S S; Martins, H; Duarte, R O; Moura, J J G; Coucelo, J; Gutiérrez-Merino, C; Aureliano, M

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of decameric vanadate species to vanadate toxic effects in cardiac muscle was studied following an intravenous administration of a decavanadate solution (1mM total vanadium) in Sparus aurata. Although decameric vanadate is unstable in the assay medium, it decomposes with a half-life time of 16 allowing studying its effects not only in vitro but also in vivo. After 1, 6 and 12h upon decavanadate administration the increase of vanadium in blood plasma, red blood cells and in cardiac mitochondria and cytosol is not affected in comparison to the administration of a metavanadate solution containing labile oxovanadates. Cardiac tissue lipid peroxidation increases up to 20%, 1, 6 and 12h after metavanadate administration, whilst for decavanadate no effects were observed except 1h after treatment (+20%). Metavanadate administration clearly differs from decavanadate by enhancing, 12h after exposure, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (+115%) and not affecting catalase (CAT) activity whereas decavanadate increases SOD activity by 20% and decreases (-55%) mitochondrial CAT activity. At early times of exposure, 1 and 6h, the only effect observed upon decavanadate administration was the increase by 20% of SOD activity. In conclusion, decavanadate has a different response pattern of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress markers, in spite of the same vanadium distribution in cardiac cells observed after decavanadate and metavanadate administration. It is suggested that once formed decameric vanadate species has a different reactivity than vanadate, thus, pointing out that the differential contribution of vanadium oligomers should be taken into account to rationalize in vivo vanadate toxicity.

  18. Changes in blood lipid peroxidation markers and antioxidants after a single sprint anaerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Groussard, C; Rannou-Bekono, F; Machefer, G; Chevanne, M; Vincent, S; Sergent, O; Cillard, J; Gratas-Delamarche, A

    2003-03-01

    It has been well demonstrated that the principal factor responsible for oxidative damage during exercise is the increase in oxygen consumption. However, other theoretical factors (acidosis, catecholamine autoxidation, ischemia-reperfusion syndrome, etc.) that are known to induce, in vitro, oxidative damage may also be operative during short-term supramaximal anaerobic exercise. Therefore, we hypothesized that short-term supramaximal anaerobic exercise (30-s Wingate test) could induce an oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation markers [serum lipid radical production detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels detected by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method], as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities [glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD)] and erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) levels, were measured at rest, after the Wingate test and during the 40 min of recovery. The recovery of exercise was associated with a significant increase (x2.7) in lipid radical production detected by ESR spectroscopy, as well as with changes in the erythrocyte GSH level (-13.6%) and SOD activity (-11.7%). The paradoxical decrease in plasma TBARS (-23.7%) which was correlated with the peak power developed during the Wingate test ( r=-0.7), strongly suggests that such exercise stimulates the elimination of MDA. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that short-term supramaximal anaerobic exercise induces an oxidative stress and that the plasma TBARS level is not a suitable marker during this type of exercise.

  19. Free copper, ferroxidase and SOD1 activities, lipid peroxidation and NO(x) content in the CSF. A different marker profile in four neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Boll, Marie-Catherine; Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Mireya; Montes, Sergio; Rios, Camilo

    2008-09-01

    The understanding of oxidative damage in different neurodegenerative diseases could enhance therapeutic strategies. Our objective was to quantify lipoperoxidation and other oxidative products as well as the activity of antioxidant enzymes and cofactors in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. We recorded data from all new patients with a diagnosis of either one of the four most frequent neurodegenerative diseases: Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and lateral amyotrophic sclerosis (ALS). The sum of nitrites and nitrates as end products of nitric oxide (NO) were increased in the four degenerative diseases and fluorescent lipoperoxidation products in three (excepting ALS). A decreased Cu/Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity characterized the four diseases. A significantly decreased ferroxidase activity was found in PD, HD and AD, agreeing with findings of iron deposition in these entities, while free copper was found to be increased in CSF and appeared to be a good biomarker of PD.

  20. Cadmium induces reactive oxygen species generation and lipid peroxidation in cortical neurons in culture.

    PubMed

    López, E; Arce, C; Oset-Gasque, M J; Cañadas, S; González, M P

    2006-03-15

    Cadmium is a toxic agent that it is also an environmental contaminant. Cadmium exposure may be implicated in some humans disorders related to hyperactivity and increased aggressiveness. This study presents data indicating that cadmium induces cellular death in cortical neurons in culture. This death could be mediated by an apoptotic and a necrotic mechanism. The apoptotic death may be mediated by oxidative stress with reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation which could be induced by mitochondrial membrane dysfunction since this cation produces: (a) depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential and (b) diminution of ATP levels with ATP release. Necrotic death could be mediated by lipid peroxidation induced by cadmium through an indirect mechanism (ROS formation). On the other hand, 40% of the cells survive cadmium action. This survival seems to be mediated by the ability of these cells to activate antioxidant defense systems, since cadmium reduced the intracellular glutathione levels and induced catalase and SOD activation in these cells.

  1. Serum iron, zinc and copper levels and lipid peroxidation in children with chronic giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Mustafa; Delibas, Namik; Altuntas, Irfan; Oktem, Faruk; Yönden, Zafer

    2003-03-01

    This study investigated the levels of iron, zinc, and copper and their demolishing effects against lipid peroxidation in chronic giardiasis. Serum iron, zinc and copper levels, erythrocyte cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, and malondialdehyde levels were measured in 34 children with chronic giardiasis and were compared with controls. The serum iron and zinc levels and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were significantly lower, and malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher among the children with chronic giardiasis compared to the control group (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in copper levels between the two groups (p > 0.05). Consequently, the oxidant-antioxidant balance may tilt towards the oxidative side due to weakness of the antioxidant system in giardiasis. If early and proper treatment is not performed, free radical-mediated damage might occur in children with chronic giardiasis.

  2. The modulatory influence of p-methoxycinnamic acid, an active rice bran phenolic acid, against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status and aberrant crypt foci in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sivagami, Gunasekaran; Karthikkumar, Venkatachalam; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Nalini, Namashivayam

    2012-03-05

    We investigated the chemopreventive effect of p-methoxycinnamic acid (p-MCA), an active phenolic acid of rice bran, turmeric, and Kaemperfia galanga against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. Group 1 consisted of control rats that received a modified pellet diet and 0.1% carboxymethyl cellulose. The rats in Group 2 received a modified pellet diet supplemented with p-MCA [80 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) post-orally (p.o.)] everyday. The rats in Groups 3-6 received 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) (20 mg/kg b.wt.) via subcutaneous injections once a week for the first 4 weeks; additionally, the rats in Groups 4, 5 and 6 received p-MCA at doses of 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg b.wt./day p.o., respectively, everyday for 16 weeks. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the experimental period of 16 weeks. The DMH-treated rats exhibited an increased incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) development; an increased crypt multiplicity; decreased concentrations of tissue lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH); decreased levels of tissue enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR); and decreased levels of non-enzymic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamins C, E and A in the colon. Supplementation with p-MCA significantly reversed these changes and significantly inhibited the formation of ACF and its multiplicity. Thus, our findings demonstrate that p-MCA exerts a strong chemopreventive activity against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis by virtue of its ability to prevent the alterations in DMH-induced circulatory and tissue oxidative stress and preneoplastic changes. p-MCA was more effective when administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg b.wt. than at the other two doses tested.

  3. Chlorophenols induce lipid peroxidation and change antioxidant parameters in the leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Michałowicz, Jaromir; Posmyk, Małgorzata; Duda, Wirgiliusz

    2009-04-01

    In this work, changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activity were determined in the leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). We analyzed the content of free phenols, the level of lipid peroxidation, and also the oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 by 2,4-DCP and PCP. Chlorophenols were spiked to soil in concentrations of 0.5 and 5.0 mg kg(-1). Plant seeds were raised in plastic pots containing soil at a temperature of 25 degrees C with a 16-h photoperiod and irradiance of 250 micromol m(-2) s(-1). The leaves were harvested on the third, sixth and twelfth days of the experiment. The inhibition of SOD activity in the leaves of wheat was observed for 2,4-DCP and PCP. 2,4-DCP and PCP induced changes in CAT activity with a stronger effect for PCP. The compounds markedly increased guaiacol POD activity during 12d of the exposition of wheat to their action. The increase in free phenol content was observed both for 2,4-DCP and PCP. Chlorophenols also induced a powerful lipid peroxidation process between the third and sixth days of the experiment. A higher concentration of chlorophenols used in our study induced greater changes in all of the investigated parameters. 2,4-DCP and PCP oxidized the fluorescent probe - dihydrorhodamine 123 - in the concentrations of 5 and 1 ppm, respectively, and the addition of magnesium ions enhanced the oxidative capacity of the examined xenobiotics.

  4. The involvement of superoxide and iron ions in the NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Klimek, J

    1988-01-19

    Incubation of human term placental mitochondria with Fe2+ and a NADPH-generating system initiated high levels of lipid peroxidation, as measured by the production of malondialdehyde. Malondialdehyde formation was accompanied by a corresponding decrease of the unsaturated fatty acid content. This NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation was strongly inhibited by superoxide dismutase and singlet oxygen scavengers, markedly stimulated by paraquat, but was not affected by hydroxyl radical scavengers. Catalase enhanced the production of malondialdehyde by placental mitochondria. The effects of catalase and hydroxyl radical scavengers suggest that the initiation of NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation is not dependent upon the hydroxyl radical produced via an iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction. These studies provide evidence that hydrogen peroxide strongly inhibits NADPH-dependent mitochondrial lipid peroxidation. The inhibitory effect of superoxide dismutase and stimulatory effect of paraquat, which was abolished by the addition of superoxide dismutase, suggests that superoxide may promote NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria.

  5. Protective effect of phytic acid hydrolysis products on iron-induced lipid peroxidation of liposomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, S; Kuwata, G; Imai, M; Nagao, A; Terao, J

    2000-12-01

    Beneficial effects of dietary phytic acid (myo-inositol hexaphosphate; IP6) have often been explained by its strong iron ion-chelating ability, which possibly suppresses iron ion-induced oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal tract. Because phytic acid is hydrolyzed during digestion, this work aimed to know whether its hydrolysis products (IP2, IP3, IP4, and IP5) could still prevent iron ion-induced lipid peroxidation. Studies using liposomal membranes demonstrated that hydrolysis products containing three or more phosphate groups are able to inhibit iron ion-induced lipid peroxidation although their effectiveness decreased with dephosphorylation. Similarly, they also prevented iron ion-induced decomposition of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide. These results demonstrate that intermediate products of phytic acid hydrolysis still possess iron ion-chelating ability, and thus they can probably prevent iron ion-induced lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

  6. Increase in plasma lipid peroxide in cats fed a fish diet.

    PubMed

    Momoi, Y; Goto, Y; Tanide, K; Takahashi, N; Watari, T; Yamazo, K; Tsujimoto, H; Kudo, T

    2001-12-01

    Plasma lipid peroxide levels were examined in cats. Plasma lipid peroxide levels in 3 of 4 clinical cases which had been fed raw fish were higher than those in normal cats. When healthy cats were put on a raw fish diet in controlled conditions, a remarkable increase in plasma lipid peroxide was observed. This increase occurred within 1 to 3 weeks in cats without obvious clinical disorders. We also showed that a continuous raw fish diet is necessary to cause the increase, but the increase was transient and restored in spite of a continuous raw fish diet, indicating the development of an unidentified antioxidant process. Our results clearly indicate that intake of foods high in polyunsaturated fatty acid can induce oxidative stress in cats.

  7. Medicinal Mushroom Cracked-Cap Polypore, Phellinus rimosus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Attenuates Acute Ethanol-Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil A; Janardhanan, Kainoor K

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and alcoholism remain one of the major health issues worldwide, especially in developing countries. The protective effect of Phellinus rimosus against acute alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver, kidney, and brain as well as its effect against antioxidant enzyme activity such as superoxide (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the liver was evaluated in mice. Ethyl acetate extract of Ph. Rimosus (50 mg/kg body wt, p.o.) 1 h before each administration of alcohol (3 mL/kg, p.o.; total 2 doses at 24-h intervals) protected against lipid peroxidation in all organs and attenuated the decline of SOD and CAT activity in the liver. The fold increase in lipid peroxidation, including conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels, was highest in the liver. There were 2.6- and 1.5- fold increases in TBARS levels in the liver of the alcohol alone- and alcohol+Ph. Rimosus-treated groups, compared with that of the normal group. Activity of SOD and CAT in the liver of alcohol- and alcohol+Ph. Rimosus- treated animals was 9.05±1.38, 18.76±1.71, and 11.26±1.02, 31.58±3.35 IU/mg protein, respectively. Extract at 1 mg/mL inhibited 50.6% activity of aniline hydroxylase (CYP2E1) in liver homogenate. From these results, we concluded that the extract significantly protected against the lipid peroxidation. Protection in the liver may be due to the inhibitory effect on CYP2E1 as well as the direct radical scavenging effect of Ph. Rimosus, which warrants further research.

  8. Hepatic glutathione metabolism and lipid peroxidation in response to excess dietary selenomethionine and selenite in mallard ducklings. [Anas platyrhynchos

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Krynitsky, A.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Studies were conducted with mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings to determine the effects of excess dietary selenium (Se) on hepatic glatathione concentration and associated enzymes, and lipid peroxidation. Day-old ducklings were fed 0.1, 10, 20, or 40 ppm Se as seleno-DL-methionine or sodium selenite for 6 wk. Selenium from selenomethionine accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in the liver, resulting in a decrease in the concentration of hepatic-reduced glutathione (GSH) and total hepatic thiols (SH). These effects were accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in the ratio of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to GSH, and an increase in malondialdehyde concentration as evidence of lipid peroxidation. Hepatic and plasma GSH peroxidase activity was initially elevated at 10 ppm Se as selenomethionine, whereas GSSG reductase activity was elevated at higher concentrations of Se. Selenium from sodium selenite accumulated in the liver to an apparent maximum at 10 ppm in the diet, resulting in an increase in hepatic GSH and GSSG accompanied by a small decrease in total hepatic SH. Sodium selenite resulted in an increase in hepatic GSSG reductase activity at 10 ppm and in plasm GSSG reductase activity at 40 ppm. A small increase in lipid peroxidation occurred at 40 ppm. These findings indicate that excess dietary Se as selenomethionine has a more pronounced effect on hepatic glutathione metabolism and lipid peroxidation in ducklings than dose selenite, which may be related to the pattern of accumulation. Effects of Se as selenite appear to be less pronounced in ducklings than reported in laboratory rodents. The effects of selenomethionine, which occurs in vegetation, are of particular interest with respect to the health of wild aquatic birds in seleniferous locations.

  9. Activity assay of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract for decreasing fasting blood cholesterol level and lipid peroxidation in type-2 diabetic mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husen, Saikhu Akhmad; Winarni, Dwi; Khaleyla, Firas; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Ansori, Arif Nur Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the activity of pericarp extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Mangosteen pericarp contains various active compounds which are beneficial for human health. In-vivo antioxidant assay of pericarp extract was carried out using 3-4 month male mice of strain BALB/c weighed 30-40 g. The mice were divided into two groups: normal control (KN) group and STZ-induced diabetic group. STZ induction was performed using multiple low-dose method 30 mg/kg body weight treated daily for five consecutive days. Diabetic group was separated into two subgroups: diabetic control (KD), metformin control (KM), and crude extract treatment subgroups. The fasting blood glucose and the cholesterol level were measured before and after lard treatment, we also did it on the first, seventh, and fourteenth day of mangosteen pericarp crude extract treatment. The mice were treated with mangosteen pericarp crude extract for 14 days. The MDA level of the fasting blood serum was measured. The body weight and fasting blood cholesterol level before and after lard treatment were analyzed by t-test, whereas, the fasting blood cholesterol and the MDA level were analyzed using one-way variant analysis continued with Duncan test. The correlation between the increasing body weight and the fasting blood cholesterol level was determined by Pearson correlation test. The results of the study showed that the administration of mangosteen pericarp crude extract was able to reduce the fasting blood cholesterol and the malondialdehide level significantly.

  10. Effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation on growth performance, fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) expressions in juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Li, Yang; Liang, Xiao; Gao, Jian

    2017-08-01

    A 9-week feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (VE) supplementation on growth performance, liver fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) genes expressions in blunt snout bream juveniles. Fish (average initial weight: 0.59 g) were fed diet supplemented with 0, 50, 100, 300 and 500 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg in triplicates, which were found to, respectively, contain 11.2, 56.3, 114.6, 306.5 and 588.4 mg α-tocopherol/kg diet. Results showed that final weight, body weight gain and specific growth rate significantly increased with increasing dietary VE supplemented level from 11.2 to 56.3 mg/kg. When the broken-line model was employed to estimate the adequate requirement of vitamin E based on body weight gain, the optimal level was 55.5 mg/kg in diet. Hepatosomatic index value significantly decreased with incremental dietary VE levels. However, liver VE concentration showed a direct relationship with the dietary VE level. The percentages of 20:5n-3, 22:6n-3 and total n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver increased with increasing dietary VE supplementation. Meanwhile, the expressions of PPAR-α, PPAR-β and PPAR-γ in liver were down-regulated by supplementation of dietary VE level from 56.3 to 588.4 mg/kg. In conclusion, supplementation of more than 55.5 mg/kg vitamin E may improve growth and increase n-3 LC-PUFA content in blunt snout bream, which is beneficial to human consumer.

  11. Lipid profiling of the Arabidopsis hypersensitive response reveals specific lipid peroxidation and fragmentation processes: biogenesis of pimelic and azelaic acid.

    PubMed

    Zoeller, Maria; Stingl, Nadja; Krischke, Markus; Fekete, Agnes; Waller, Frank; Berger, Susanne; Mueller, Martin J

    2012-09-01

    Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is induced by a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses. Although LPO is involved in diverse signaling processes, little is known about the oxidation mechanisms and major lipid targets. A systematic lipidomics analysis of LPO in the interaction of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with Pseudomonas syringae revealed that LPO is predominantly confined to plastid lipids comprising galactolipid and triacylglyceride species and precedes programmed cell death. Singlet oxygen was identified as the major cause of lipid oxidation under basal conditions, while a 13-lipoxygenase (LOX2) and free radical-catalyzed lipid oxidation substantially contribute to the increase upon pathogen infection. Analysis of lox2 mutants revealed that LOX2 is essential for enzymatic membrane peroxidation but not for the pathogen-induced free jasmonate production. Despite massive oxidative modification of plastid lipids, levels of nonoxidized lipids dramatically increased after infection. Pathogen infection also induced an accumulation of fragmented lipids. Analysis of mutants defective in 9-lipoxygenases and LOX2 showed that galactolipid fragmentation is independent of LOXs. We provide strong in vivo evidence for a free radical-catalyzed galactolipid fragmentation mechanism responsible for the formation of the essential biotin precursor pimelic acid as well as of azelaic acid, which was previously postulated to prime the immune response of Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that azelaic acid is a general marker for LPO rather than a general immune signal. The proposed fragmentation mechanism rationalizes the pathogen-induced radical amplification and formation of electrophile signals such as phytoprostanes, malondialdehyde, and hexenal in plastids.

  12. Age-dependent variations in mitochondrial and cytosolic antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in different regions of central nervous system of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Vohra, B P; Sharma, S P; Kansal, V K

    2001-10-01

    The age-related changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes of mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions were measured in different regions of the central nervous system (CNS) in 10 and 32 months old guinea pigs. In old animals, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were reduced (p < 0.05) in all the regions of CNS studied but catalase (CAT) declined significantly only in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum. Glutathione reductase (GRd) activity declined in cerebral cortex and hypothalamus in the cytosolic fractions and only in cerebellum in the mitochondrial fraction. It is concluded that age-related decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes is both region and enzyme specific. The endogenous lipid peroxide was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the 32 month old animals whereas, lipid peroxidation after incubating the tissue homogenate in air was found to be lower (p < 0.05). The in vitro mitochondrial lipid peroxidation decreased with age. The results indicate that accumulation of lipid peroxides takes place with ageing but the susceptibility of lipid peroxidation decreases in the older animals.

  13. [Impact of automobile exhaust on membrane lipid peroxidation and protective enzyme activities in seedlings foliage of four northern broadleaved tree species].

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuhua; Wang, Qingcheng; Li, Yacang

    2004-12-01

    By means of fumigating one-year-old seedlings in open top chambers, this paper studied the impact of automobile exhaust on the pH value, relative conductivity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll contents, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, and ascorbic acid (ASA) content in the seedlings foliage of four tree species, Acer mono, Malus baccata, Prunus ussuriensis, and Acer ginnala. During the fumigation, the seedlings were exposed to the same exhaust gas concentration (25 microg x m(-3), indicated by the NO2 concentration in exhaust) for different durations (1, 3, 5, 7 d), and to different concentrations (40, 60, 80, 100 microg NO2 x m(-3)) for same duration (2 h). The results showed that the pH value and the chlorophyll and ascorbic acid (ASA) contents decreased, whereas the relative conductivity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities increased with increasing fumigation duration and exhaust concentration. Obvious interspecies variations in term of physiological features were found. After treated 7 days with 25 microg NO2 x m(-3) and treated 2 h with 100 microg NO2 x m(-3), only a 1.5% and 2.7% decrease of cell juice pH was found in A. ginnala, respectively, compared to the control. The corresponding data for P. ussuriensis was 9.42% and 13.89%, followed by M. baccata. The chlorophyll content of A. mono, A. ginnala, M. baccata and P. ussuriensis was 83.0%, 71.3%, 68.7% and 54.9%, respectively of the control after 7 days treated with 25 microg NO2 x m(-3), and the corresponding data under 100 microg NO2 x m(-3) treatment was 60.2%, 73.1%, 43.4% and 51.2%, respectively. The decrease of ASA content and Acer ginnala was less in A. mono than in M. baccata and P. ussuriensis. The relative conductivity and MDA content of A. mono increased respectively by 68.1% and 52.5% in compared with control, while those of A. ginnala had the least increment. As for the 100 microg NO2 x m(-3) treatment

  14. Perioperative Intravenous Acetaminophen Attenuates Lipid Peroxidation in Adults Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Billings IV, Frederic T.; Petracek, Michael R.; Roberts II, L. Jackson; Pretorius, Mias

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) lyses erythrocytes and induces lipid peroxidation, indicated by increasing plasma concentrations of free hemoglobin, F2-isoprostanes, and isofurans. Acetaminophen attenuates hemeprotein-mediated lipid peroxidation, reduces plasma and urine concentrations of F2-isoprostanes, and preserves kidney function in an animal model of rhabdomyolysis. Acetaminophen also attenuates plasma concentrations of isofurans in children undergoing CPB. The effect of acetaminophen on lipid peroxidation in adults has not been studied. This was a pilot study designed to test the hypothesis that acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in adults undergoing CPB and to generate data for a clinical trial aimed to reduce acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery. Methods and Results In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, sixty adult patients were randomized to receive intravenous acetaminophen or placebo starting prior to initiation of CPB and for every 6 hours for 4 doses. Acetaminophen concentrations measured 30 min into CPB and post-CPB were 11.9±0.6 μg/mL (78.9±3.9 μM) and 8.7±0.3 μg/mL (57.6±2.0 μM), respectively. Plasma free hemoglobin increased more than 15-fold during CPB, and haptoglobin decreased 73%, indicating hemolysis. Plasma and urinary markers of lipid peroxidation also increased during CPB but returned to baseline by the first postoperative day. Acetaminophen reduced plasma isofuran concentrations over the duration of the study (P = 0.05), and the intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that corresponded to peak hemolysis were attenuated in those subjects randomized to acetaminophen (P = 0.03). Perioperative acetaminophen did not affect plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes or urinary markers of lipid peroxidation. Conclusions Intravenous acetaminophen attenuates the increase in intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that occurs during CPB, while urinary markers were unaffected

  15. Synthesis and Photoirradiation of Isomeric Ethylchrysenes by UVA Light Leading to Lipid Peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Chan; Xia, Qingsu; Cherng, Shu-Hui; Chen, Shoujun; Lai, Ching-Cheng; Yu, Hongtao; Fu, Peter P.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants. We have recently demonstrated that photoirradiation of PAHs leads to cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and induction of lipid peroxidation. In this paper we report the synthesis of all the six isomeric ethylchrysenes and the study of light-induced lipid peroxidation by these ethylchrysenes. 5-Ethylchrysene was synthesized by reaction of 5-keto-5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a-octahydrochrysene with CH3CH2MgBr followed by dehydration catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid and dehydrogenation with DDQ in benzene. 1- and 4-Ethylchrysenes were similarly prepared by reaction of 1-keto-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydrochrysene and 4-keto-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrochrysenes, respectively with CH3CH2MgBr followed by dehydration and dehydrogenation. Direct acetylation of chrysene followed by Wolff-Kishner or Clemmensen reduction resulted in the formation of 2-, 3-, and 6-ethylchrysenes in 4%, 16%, and 43% yields, respectively. Photoirradiation of these compounds with 7 and 21 J/cm2 UVA light in the presence of methyl linoleate all resulted in lipid peroxidation. For comparison, photoirradiation of 4-methylchrysene and 5-methylchrysene was similarly conducted. For irradiation at a UVA light dose of 21 J/cm2, the level of induced lipid peroxidation is in the order 4-methylchrysene = 5-methylchrysene = 5-ethylchrysene = 4-ethylchrysene = chrysene > 1-ethylchrysene = 2-ethylchrysene > 3-ethylchrysene > 6-ethylchrysene. Compared with chrysene, these results indicate that the ethyl group at C4 or C5 position either slightly enhances or has no effect on the light-induced lipid peroxidation, while at C1-, C2-, C3-, or C6 position reduces light-induced lipid peroxidation. PMID:17617678

  16. Continuous millimeter-wave radiation has no effect on lipid peroxidation in liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Logani, M.K.; Ziskin, M.C.

    1996-02-01

    The effect of millimeter waves on lipid peroxidation was studied in the presence and absence of melanin. Irradiation of liposomes with continuous millimeter electromagnetic waves at frequencies of 53.6, 61.2 and 78.2 GHz and incident power densities of 10, 1 and 500 mW/cm{sup 2}, respectively, did not show an enhancement in the formation of lipid peroxides compared to unirradiated samples. Liposomes exposed to 254 nm UVC radiation at 0.32 mW/cm{sup 2} and 302 nm UVB radiation at 1.12 mW/cm{sup 2} served as positive controls. No increment in the formation of lipid peroxides was observed when irradiation of liposomes was carried out in the presence of ADP-Fe{sup +3} and EDTA-Fe{sup +3}. Direct irradiation of melanin with millimeter waves did not exhibit an increased formation of superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. The present results indicate that millimeter waves of the above frequencies and intensities do not cause lipid peroxidation in liposomal membranes. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Lipid peroxidation as a measure of oxygen free radical damage in the very low birthweight infant.

    PubMed

    Inder, T E; Graham, P; Sanderson, K; Taylor, B J

    1994-03-01

    (ABSTRACTOxygen free radical mediated tissue injury is implicated as a major factor in the pathogenesis of the long term complications seen in the premature infant, and direct evidence of their role in the development of these long term problems is lacking. A prospective observational study of 78% of very low birthweight infants admitted to a level III neonatal intensive care unit in 1992 was undertaken to determine the relationship between lipid peroxidation products, antioxidant activity, and outcome. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid, MDA-TBA) and antioxidant activity (vitamin E and glutathione peroxidase activity) were measured in 22 very low birthweight infants in the cord blood and the infant's blood at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 1 week of age and correlated with outcome measures. The normal range for these measures was established in the cord blood samples of 48 consecutive healthy full term infants. The concentration of MDA-TBA at 1 week correlated with the number of days of oxygen treatment and number of days of positive pressure ventilatory support. Controlling for gestational age and antenatal complications simultaneously the MDA-TBA concentration remained significantly associated with the number of days of oxygen treatment and the number of days of positive pressure ventilatory support. Glutathione peroxidase was low in the premature and full term infants consistent with the low concentrations of selenium known to be present in southern New Zealand. There was evidence of a quadratic relationship between vitamin E at 1 week and the total number of days of supplementary oxygen requirement, with both high and low values associated with increased oxygen requirement. This association, however, did not remain after controlling for gestational age and antenatal complications. These results support the role of oxygen free radicals in mediating tissue damage associated with the development of chronic lung disease in the premature infant.

  18. Lipid peroxidation as a measure of oxygen free radical damage in the very low birthweight infant.

    PubMed Central

    Inder, T E; Graham, P; Sanderson, K; Taylor, B J

    1994-01-01

    (ABSTRACTOxygen free radical mediated tissue injury is implicated as a major factor in the pathogenesis of the long term complications seen in the premature infant, and direct evidence of their role in the development of these long term problems is lacking. A prospective observational study of 78% of very low birthweight infants admitted to a level III neonatal intensive care unit in 1992 was undertaken to determine the relationship between lipid peroxidation products, antioxidant activity, and outcome. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid, MDA-TBA) and antioxidant activity (vitamin E and glutathione peroxidase activity) were measured in 22 very low birthweight infants in the cord blood and the infant's blood at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 1 week of age and correlated with outcome measures. The normal range for these measures was established in the cord blood samples of 48 consecutive healthy full term infants. The concentration of MDA-TBA at 1 week correlated with the number of days of oxygen treatment and number of days of positive pressure ventilatory support. Controlling for gestational age and antenatal complications simultaneously the MDA-TBA concentration remained significantly associated with the number of days of oxygen treatment and the number of days of positive pressure ventilatory support. Glutathione peroxidase was low in the premature and full term infants consistent with the low concentrations of selenium known to be present in southern New Zealand. There was evidence of a quadratic relationship between vitamin E at 1 week and the total number of days of supplementary oxygen requirement, with both high and low values associated with increased oxygen requirement. This association, however, did not remain after controlling for gestational age and antenatal complications. These results support the role of oxygen free radicals in mediating tissue damage associated with the development of chronic lung disease in the premature infant. PMID

  19. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe(2+) chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress.

  20. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress. PMID:23730557

  1. Effects of beta-adrenergic blockers with different ancillary properties on lipid peroxidation in hyperthyroid rat cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Asayama, K; Dobashi, K; Hayashibe, H; Kato, K

    1989-10-01

    To determine whether beta-blockade protects rat heart against thyroxine (T4)-induced accelelation of lipid peroxidation, in vivo effects of 3 beta-blockers with different ancillary properties on the mitochondrial oxidative enzyme, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide were investigated. The rats were rendered hyperthyroid by adding T4 to their drinking water for 3 weeks and were treated simultaneously with either carteolol (a blocker with partial agonist activity; 30 mg/kg/day), atenolol (50 mg/kg/day) or arotinolol (a blocker with weak alpha-blocking action; 50 mg/kg/day). The T4-induced tachycardia was alleviated completely by either atenolol or arotinolol, but only partially by carteolol. Cytochrome c oxidase activity in the heart muscle was increased by T4 with a parallel increase in manganese (mitochondrial) superoxide dismutase. Atenolol, but neither carteolol nor arotinolol, suppressed this increase. Similarly, the T4-induced acceleration of lipid peroxidation was suppressed by atenolol alone. Glutathione peroxidase was markedly decreased, and both copper zinc (cytosolic) superoxide dismutase and catalase were also decreased or tended to be decreased by T4. The levels of these 3 enzymes were only minimally affected by the beta-blocker treatments. These results suggest that beta-blockade suppresses mitochondrial hypermetabolism and protects heart muscle against oxidative stress in hyperthyroidism, and that the ancillary properties of beta-blockers such as partial agonist activity and alpha-blocking action negate the protection.

  2. Identification of components of Prunus africana extract that inhibit lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Hass, M A; Nowak, D M; Leonova, E; Levin, R M; Longhurst, P A

    1999-11-01

    Extractive and chromatographic separations were performed on V-1326, a chloroform extract from the bark of Prunus africana (also referred to as Pygeum africanum), which is used to treat the symptoms associated with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The relative amounts of eleven identified constituents in crude V-1326 and in separated fractions were determined using gas chromatographic analysis. The ability of V-1326 and its separated fractions to inhibit ferrous ion-induced stimulation of lipid peroxidation in microsomal preparations from rabbit livers was evaluated. The extract, V-1326, and fractions containing high levels of myristic acid potently inhibited lipid peroxidation.

  3. Sensitivity of plant mitochondrial terminal oxidases to the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of the lipid peroxidation product, HNE (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal), on plant mitochondrial electron transport. In mitochondria isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures, HNE inhibited succinate-dependent oxygen consumption via the Aox (alternative oxidase), but had minimal effect on respiration via Cox (cytochrome c oxidase). Maximal Cox activity, measured with reduced cytochrome c as substrate, was only slightly inhibited by high concentrations of HNE, at which Aox was completely inhibited. Incubation with HNE prevented dimerization of the Aox protein, suggesting that one site of modification was the conserved cysteine residue involved in dimerization and activation of this enzyme (CysI). However, a naturally occurring isoform of Aox lacking CysI and unable to be dimerized, LeAox1b from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), was equally sensitive to HNE inhibition, showing that other amino acid residues in Aox also interact with HNE. The presence of HNE in vivo in Arabidopsis cell cultures was also investigated. Induction of oxidative stress in the cell cultures by the addition of hydrogen peroxide, antimycin A or menadione, caused a significant increase in hydroxyalkenals (of which HNE is the most prominent). Western blotting of mitochondrial proteins with antibodies against HNE adducts, demonstrated significant modification of proteins during these treatments. The implications of these results for the response of plants to reactive oxygen species are discussed. PMID:15689186

  4. Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Atig, Fatma; Raffa, Monia; Ali, Habib Ben; Abdelhamid, Kerkeni; Saad, Ali; Ajina, Mounir

    2012-01-01

    Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40), asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35). Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the levels of glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome. PMID:22211112

  5. Effects of methomyl on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A; Mossa, Abdel-Tawab H; Heikal, Tarek M

    2009-09-01

    Erythrocytes are a convenient model to understand the membrane oxidative damage induced by various xenobiotic pro-oxidants. This study was designed to investigate the possibility of methomyl (Lannate 90% SP), S-methyl N-(methylcarbamoyloxy) thioacetimidate, to induce oxidative stress response in rat erythrocytes in vitro. Erythrocytes were incubated for 4 hours at 37 degrees C with different concentrations (0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) of methomyl. The results showed that methomyl decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and increased level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as the percentage of haemolysis. The response occurred in a concentration-dependent manner. The study suggested that methomyl has the capability to induce oxidative damage as evidenced by increasing LPO and perturbations in various antioxidant enzymes.

  6. [Dipeptide nootropic agent GVS-111 prevents accumulation of the lipid peroxidation products during immobilization].

    PubMed

    Lysenko, A V; Uskova, N I; Ostrovskaia, R U; Gudasheva, T A; Voronina, T A

    1997-01-01

    Immobilization of rats in a narrow plastic chamber for 24 h caused a sharp increase in the level of diene conjugates and the content of schiff bases in the synaptosomes of the brain cortex as well as accumulation of extraerythrocytic hemoglobin in blood serum. The dipeptide nootropic agent GVS-111 (ethyl ether of phenylacetylprolylglycine), when administered 15 and particularly 60 min before immobilization reduced the accumulation of these products of lipid peroxidation in the brain and blood. GVS-111 demonstrated these signs of its antioxidant effect after a single i.p. injection in doses of 0.12 and 0.5 mg/kg. Pyracetam produced a similar effect on the listed parameters in injection in a dose of 300 mg/kg for three successive days. The protective effect of the new pyracetam dipeptide analog GVS-111 in relation to activation of free-radical processes induced by immobilization is additional proof of the antistress action of this dipeptide.

  7. Exercise-induced attenuation of obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and skeletal muscle lipid peroxidation in the OLETF rat.

    PubMed

    Morris, R Tyler; Laye, Matthew J; Lees, Simon J; Rector, R Scott; Thyfault, John P; Booth, Frank W

    2008-03-01

    The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rat is a model of hyperphagic obesity in which the animals retain the desire to run voluntarily. Running wheels were provided for 4-wk-old OLETF rats for 16 wk before they were killed 5 h (WL5), 53 h (WL53), or 173 h (WL173) after the wheels were locked. Sedentary (SED) OLETF rats that were not given access to running wheels served as age-matched cohorts. Epididymal fat pad mass, adipocyte volume, and adipocyte number were 58%, 39%, and 47% less, respectively, in WL5 than SED rats. Contrary to cessation of daily running in Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats, epididymal fat did not increase during the first 173 h of running cessation in the OLETF runners. Serum insulin and glucose levels were 77% and 29% less, respectively, in WL5 than SED rats. Oil red O staining for intramyocellular lipid accumulation was not statistically different among groups. However, lipid peroxidation levels, as determined by total trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and 4-HNE normalized to oil red O, was higher in epitrochlearis muscles of SED than WL5, WL53, and WL173 rats. mRNA levels of glutathione S-transferase-alpha type 4, an enzyme involved in cellular defense against electrophilic compounds such as 4-HNE, were higher in epitrochlearis muscle of WL53 than WL173 and SED rats. In contrast, 4-HNE levels in omental fat were unaltered. Epitrochlearis muscle palmitate oxidation and relative transcript levels for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator type 1 were surprisingly not different between runners and SED rats. In summary, voluntary running was associated with lower levels of lipid peroxidation in skeletal muscle without significant changes in intramyocellular lipids or mitochondrial markers in OLETF rats at 20 wk of age. Therefore, even in a genetic animal model of extreme overeating, daily physical activity promotes improved health of skeletal muscle.

  8. A lifelong competitive training practice attenuates age-related lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Barranco-Ruiz, Yaira; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Casals, Cristina; Aragón-Vela, Jerónimo; Rosillo, Silvia; Gomes, Silvana N; Rivas-García, Ana; Guisado, Rafael; Huertas, Jesús R

    2017-02-01

    The effect of exercise-induced oxidative stress on health and aging is not clearly explained. This study examined the effects of habitual sport practice, age, and submaximal exercise on the blood markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, and antioxidant response. Seventy-two healthy men were grouped by their habitual sport practice: inactive (<1.5 h/week), recreational (3-8 h/week), and trained athletes (>8 h/week), and further divided by age: young (18-25 years), adult (40-55 years), and senior (>55 years). Blood samples were collected at rest and after submaximal effort. Hydroperoxides and superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were measured by spectrophotometry. Nuclear DNA damage was analyzed by comet assay. The alpha-actin release was analyzed by Western blot. Alpha-tocopherol, retinol, and coenzyme-Q10 were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Data was analyzed through a factorial ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc test. Lipid peroxidation increased significantly with age and submaximal effort (p < 0.05). However, the trained athlete group presented lower lipid peroxidation compared with the recreational group (MD = 2.079, SED = 0.58, p = 0.002) and inactive group (MD = 1.979, SED = 0.61, p = 0.005). Trained athletes showed significant higher alpha-actin levels (p < 0.001) than the other groups. Recreational group showed lower nuclear DNA damage than trained athletes (MD = 3.681, SED = 1.28, p = 0.015). Nevertheless, the inactive group presented significantly higher superoxide dismutase and catalase (p < 0.05) than the other groups. Data suggested that habitual competitive training practice could prevent age-related increases of plasma lipid peroxidation, which, according with our results, cannot be entirely attributed to blood antioxidant defense systems.

  9. [Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on membrane lipid peroxidation and photosynthetic characteristics of Cucumis sativus seedlings under drought stress].

    PubMed

    Hao, Jing-Hong; Yi, Yang; Shang, Qing-Mao; Dong, Chun-Juan; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2012-03-01

    To approach the related mechanisms of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in improving plant drought-resistance, this paper studied the effects of applying exogenous SA to the rhizosphere on the plant growth, membrane lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation, water use efficiency, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings under drought stresses (60% and 50% of saturated water capacity). Applying SA relieved the inhibitory effects of drought stress on plant growth, Pn, and water use efficiency, decreased membrane lipid peroxidation, and promoted proline accumulation. Meanwhile, the SA decreased the decrements of the maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II, actual photochemical efficiency of PS II, potential activity of PS II, effective photochemical efficiency of PS II, and photochemical quenching coefficient under drought stress significantly, and limited the increase of non-photochemical quenching coefficient. All the results suggested that applying exogenous SA could alleviate the oxidation damage of cell membrane resulted from the drought-caused membrane lipid peroxidation, improve the Pn by increasing PS II activity to benefit water utilization, enhance the regulation capability of osmosis to decrease water loss and increase water use efficiency, and thereby, improve the plant drought-resistance.

  10. Role of lipid peroxidation derived 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in cancer: Focusing on mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Huiqin; Yin, Huiyong

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation has been associated with human physiology and diseases including cancer. Overwhelming data suggest that reactive lipid mediators generated from this process, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), are biomarkers for oxidative stress and important players for mediating a number of signaling pathways. The biological effects of 4-HNE are primarily due to covalent modification of important biomolecules including proteins, DNA, and phospholipids containing amino group. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the role of 4-HNE in pathogenesis of cancer and focus on the involvement of mitochondria: generation of 4-HNE from oxidation of mitochondria-specific phospholipid cardiolipin; covalent modification of mitochondrial proteins, lipids, and DNA; potential therapeutic strategies for targeting mitochondrial ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, and 4-HNE. PMID:25598486

  11. Modulation of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems in rat intestine by subchronic fluoride and ethanol administration.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Shailender Singh; Ojha, Sudarshan; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2011-11-01

    Excessive consumption of fluoride and ethanol has been identified as injurious to human health. Fluoride and ethanol co-exposures are commonly seen among the alcoholics residing in endemic fluoride areas worldwide. This study was undertaken to examine the modulation of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems in rat intestine by subchronic fluoride and ethanol administration. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: group I (control), group II (fluoride was given orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight), group III (30% ethanol was given orally at a dose of 1 mL/kg body weight), and group IV (a combination of fluoride and ethanol was administered orally at the dose described for groups II and III). Lipid peroxidation was elevated (P<.05) in intestine of rats by fluoride or ethanol treatments for 20 or 40 days. However, glutathione content was reduced by fluoride (32 and 44%) and ethanol (21 and 40%) treatments after 20 and 40 days, respectively. Fluoride-exposed animals showed reduction (P<.05) in the activities of superoxide dismutase (22 and 42%), catalase (30 and 37%), glutathione peroxidase (22 and 35%), glutathione reductase (32 and 34%), and glutathione-S-transferase (24 and 30%) after 20 and 40 days. A similar decrease (P<.05) in the activities of these enzymes was also noticed in animals exposed to ethanol for 20 or 40 days. The observed changes in lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione levels, and enzyme systems were further augmented in intestine of rats exposed to fluoride and ethanol together. Intestinal histology showed large reactive lymphoid follicles along with mild excess of lymphocytes in lamina propria of villi, villous edema, focal ileitis, and necrosis of villi in animals exposed to fluoride and ethanol for 40 days. These findings suggest that fluoride and ethanol exposure induces considerable changes in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense, and morphology of rat intestine, which may affect its functions.

  12. In vitro curcumin modulates ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced peroxidation of microsomal membrane lipids and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Okada, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    A number of investigations have implicated the involvement of free radicals in various pathogenic process including initiation/promotion stages of carcinogenesis and antioxidants have been considered to be a protective agent for this reason. An iron chelate, ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA), is a potent nephrotoxic agent and induces acute and subacute renal proximal tubular necrosis by catalyzing the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide-derived production of hydroxyl radicals, which are known to cause lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The latter is associated with a high incidence of renal adenocarcinoma in rodents. Lipid peroxidation and DNA damage are the principal manifestation of Fe-NTA-induced toxicity, which could be mitigated by antioxidants. In this study, we therefore investigated the effect of curcumin, a polyphenolic compound from Curcuma longa for a possible protection against lipid peroxidation and DNA damage induced by Fe-NTA and hydrogen peroxide in vitro. Incubation of renal microsomal membrane/and or calf thymus DNA with hydrogen peroxide (40 mM) in the presence of Fe-NTA (0.1 mM) induces renal microsomal lipid peroxidation and DNA damage to about 2.2-and 5.6-fold, respectively, as compared to saline treated control (P<0.001). Induction of renal microsomal lipid peroxidation and DNA damage was modulated by curcumin dose dependently. In lipid peroxidation protection studies, curcumin treatment showed a dose-dependent strong inhibition (18-80% inhibition, P<0.05-0.001) of Fe-NTA and hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation as measured by MDA formation in renal microsomes. Similarly, in DNA-sugar damage protection studies, curcumin treatment also showed a dose dependent inhibition (22-57% inhibition, P<0.05-0.001) of DNA-sugar damage. From these studies, it was concluded that curcumin modulates Fe-NTA and hydrogen peroxide-induced peroxidation of microsomal membrane lipids and DNA damage. Curcumin might, therefore, be a suitable candidate for the

  13. A possible role of cAMP dependent phosphorylation of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450: a mechanism to increase lipid peroxidation in response to hormone.

    PubMed

    Mkrtchian, S L; Andersson, K K

    1990-01-30

    Enzymatic lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes is believed to involve cytochrome P450. cAMP dependent phosphorylation of cytochrome P450 was found to increase the NADPH dependent production of malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) by about 30%. The cytochrome P450 inhibitor cyanide abolished this activity. The presence of spermine decreased the cytochrome P450 dependent lipid peroxidation in non-phosphorylated microsomes, phosphorylation partially reversed this effect. Thus, phosphorylation of cytochrome P450 and the associated increased lipid peroxidation may be a hormone dependent response to pathological conditions e.g. stress Phosphorylation was observed to subtly alter other properties of cytochrome P450. The rate of 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase activity was reduced and the microwave power required to saturate the EPR spectrum of the low spin cytochrome P450 was decreased. It is hypothesized that phosphorylation of cytochrome P450 alters the interaction between the components of the cytochrome P450 system, which may enhance production of free radical species, initiating lipid peroxidation.

  14. Tyrosine-Lipid Peroxide Adducts from Radical Termination: Para-Coupling and Intramolecular Diels-Alder Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Shchepin, Roman; Möller, Matias N.; Kim, Hye-young H.; Hatch, Duane M.; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Radi, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Free radical co-oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids with tyrosine or phenolic analogs of tyrosine gave rise to lipid peroxide-tyrosine (phenol) adducts in both aqueous micellar and organic solutions. The novel adducts were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR as well as by mass spectrometry. The spectral data suggest that the polyunsaturated lipid peroxyl radicals give stable peroxide coupling products exclusively at the para position of the tyrosyl (phenoxy) radicals. These adducts have characteristic 13C chemical shifts at 185 ppm due to the cross-conjugated carbonyl of the phenol-derived cyclohexadienone. The primary peroxide adducts subsequently undergo intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) cyclization, affording a number of diastereomeric tricyclic adducts that have characteristic carbonyl 13C chemical shifts at ~198 ppm. All NMR HMBC and HSQC correlations support the structure assignment of the primary and Diels-Alder adducts, as does MS collision induced dissociation. Kinetic rate constants and activation parameters for the IMDA reaction were determined and the primary adducts were reduced with cuprous ion giving a phenol-derived 4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone. No products from adduction of peroxyls at the phenolic ortho position were found either in the primary or the cuprous reduction product mixtures. These studies provide a framework for understanding the nature of lipid-protein adducts formed by peroxyl-tyrosyl radical-radical termination processes. Coupling of lipid peroxyl radicals with tyrosyl radicals leads to cyclohexenone and cyclohexadienone adducts which are of interest in and of themselves since, as electrophiles, they are likely targets for protein nucleophiles. One consequence of lipid peroxyl reactions with tyrosyls may therefore be protein-protein crosslinks via interprotein Michael adducts. PMID:21090613

  15. Role of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in 3-methylindole pneumotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The cytochrome P-450-catalyzed metabolism of 3-methylindole (3-MI) results in acute lung injury in ruminants and horses. Experiments were conducted to determine the role of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in 3-MI pneumotoxicity in goats. Goats were given methylethylketone peroxide (MEKP), a potent peroxidant, 3-MI, indole, or cremophor-EL vehicle. The levels of shortchain hydrocarbons in expired air were measured for 6 hours post-dosing by gas chromatography. Exhaled hydrocarbons increased 20 to 30 fold within 1 hour in goats given MEKP. No significant changes were seen in goats given 3-Mi, indole or cremophor-EL. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, were significantly increased in lung tissue from goats given MEKP. In goats given 3-MI, indole or cremophor-EL, the levels were not significantly different from each other. Goats were killed at 6 hours post-dosing and examined post mortem. Bronchiolar epithelial necrosis was seen in goats given 3-MI but there were not lung lesions in other groups. The role of oxygen radicals in 3-MI pneumotoxicity was examined in a goat lung explant system using /sup 51/Cr release as an indicator of cytotoxicity. The results of these studies provide no evidence to support the view that 3-MI pneumotoxicity involves lipid peroxidation or oxidative stress as a result of formation of oxygen or xenobiotic radicals.

  16. Effects of cupric and ferric ions on in vitro lipid peroxidation of human serum

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.; Peng, Y.; Zdunek, T. )

    1991-03-15

    Transition metal ions especially ferric ions can catalytically generate free radicals by the Haber-Weiss reaction and initiate lipid peroxidation. Such processes may contribute to the mechanism of acute toxicity by transition metals. Serum pools were prepared from normal blood donors and incubated with 1mM cupric or ferric ions at 37C for 24h. Lipid peroxidation products were subsequently measured by 2-thiobarbituric acid assay as described by Yagi and the values were expressed as {mu}mol/L malonaldehyde equivalents. In another experiment, lipoproteins were coprecipitated with other proteins by 10% phosphotungstic acid/sulfuric acid and precipitates in aqueous suspension were incubated with 1 mM cupric or ferric ions. When sera were incubated, the authors observed higher concentrations of lipid peroxidation products with cupric ions compared to samples supplemented with ferric ions. The mean value for peroxidation products in control group was 2.5 {mu}mol/L. However, the effect was reversed when protein precipitates were incubated in presence of such ions. Ferric ions also caused more peroxidation of linoleic acid and phosphatidylcholine isolated from egg yolk when compared to cupric ions. Such differential behavior may be attributed to different degree of chelation of ferric and cupric ions with serum proteins.

  17. Influence of cataract maturity on aqueous humor lipid peroxidation markers and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Miric, D J; Kisic, B M; Zoric, L D; Miric, B M; Mirkovic, M; Mitic, R

    2014-01-01

    The impact of cataract maturity on the aqueous humor (AH) oxidant/antioxidant balance is largely controversial. This study was aimed at assessing the relationships between cataract maturity and AH lipid peroxidation markers and enzymatic antioxidants. The concentrations of conjugated dienes (CD), lipofuscin-like fluorescent end-products (LLF), soluble proteins, as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in AH samples from nondiabetic patients with either immature (n=15) or mature (n=15) cataract. In the overall AH sample, the mean values of CD, LLF, SOD, and CAT were 0.160 ± 0.024 (OD234), 166 ± 27 RFU, 24.5 ± 7.1 U/ml, and 31.9 ± 3.9 pmol/ml, respectively. CD was positively correlated with SOD (r=0.647; P<0.001), CAT (r=-0.394; P=0.031), and LLF (r=-0.399; P=0.029). The LLF was negatively correlated with SOD (r=-0.461; P=0.010). In samples adjusted for confounding factors, differences between immature and mature cataract groups regarding SOD, CD, LLF, and total proteins were significant (P<0.05; for all variables). The multiple logistic regression analysis identified LLF (OR=4.08; P=0.038) and SOD (OR=4.99; P=0.031) as independent predictors of cataract maturity. These results suggest that AH lipid peroxidation markers and antioxidants may significantly depend on the cataract maturity stage.

  18. [Effects of supply with glutamine on antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in patients with parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Abilés, J; Moreno-Torres, R; Moratalla, G; Castaño, J; Pérez Abúd, R; Mudarra, A; Machado, Ma J; Planells, E; Pérez de la Cruz, A

    2008-01-01

    In the critically ill patient, there is a continuous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that need to be neutralized to prevent oxidative stress (OS). Quantitatively speaking, the glutathione system (GSH) is the most important anti-oxidant endogenous defense. To increase it, glutamine supplementation has been shown to be effective by protecting against the oxidative damage and reducing the morbimortality. To assess the effect of adding an alanylglutamine dipeptide to PN on lipid peroxidation lipidica and glutathione metabolism, as well as its relationship with morbidity in critically ill patients. Determination through spectrophotometry techniques of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total glutathione, and maloniladdehyde at admission adn after seven days of hospitalization at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in 20 patients older than 18 years on parenteral nutrition therapy. The group of patients receiving parenteral nutrition with glutamine supplementation had significant increases in total glutathione (42.35+/-13 vs 55.29+/-12 micromol/l; p<0.05) and the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidasa (470+/-195 vs 705+/-214 micromol/l; p<0.05) within one week of nutritional therapy, whereas the group on conventional parenteral nutrition did not show significant changes of any of the parameters studied (p>0.05). However, both mortality and ICU stay were not different between the study group, whereas the severity (assessed by the SOFA score) was lower in the group of patients receiving glutamine (SOFA 5+/-2 vs 8+/-1.8; p<0.05). Glutamine intake in critically ill patients improves the antioxidant defenses, which leads to lower lipid peroxidation and lower morbidity during admission at the ICU.

  19. Oral Consumption of Bitter Gourd and Tomato Prevents Lipid Peroxidation in Liver Associated with DMBA Induced Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    De, Sarmishtha; Chakraborty, Jamuna; Das, Sukta

    2000-01-01

    The protective role of two commonly consumed natural dietary items- bitter gourd and tomato against endogenous as well as 7,12- dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced lipid peroxidation in the livers of mice was investigated. The rationale for such an approach is that lipid peroxidation has been suggested to play a key role in human cancer development. There was a sharp rise in lipid peroxidation (measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation) during skin carcinogenesis induced by DMBA in mice. Aqueous extracts of bitter gourd and tomato juice were found to be very potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation both in normal and DMBA treated mice. Our observations support the hypothesis that natural combinations of phytochemicals present in the fruit juices exert cancer-protective effects via a decrease in lipid peroxidation.

  20. Potential role of conjugated bilirubin and copper in the metabolism of lipid peroxides in bile.

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, R; Ames, B N

    1987-01-01

    Conjugated bilirubin and copper ions at their physiological concentrations in bile may play an important role in hydroperoxide and other detoxification. Conjugated bilirubin may also be an important chain-breaking antioxidant preventing lipid peroxidation. Bilirubin ditaurine (BR-DT), a water-soluble model compound of conjugated bilirubin, completely prevents the peroxyl radical-induced oxidation of phosphatidylcholine in either multilamellar liposomes or micelles. This antioxidant activity is associated with the bilirubin moiety of BR-DT, since taurine alone is inefficient in scavenging peroxyl radicals. The number of peroxyl radicals trapped per molecule of BR-DT is 1.9, compared to 4.7 trapped per molecule of biliverdin, the water-soluble physiological precursor of bilirubin. Peroxyl radical-induced oxidation of BR-DT results in a spectral shift in maximal absorbance toward shorter wavelengths; biliverdin is not formed as a major oxidation product. BR-DT, but neither taurine nor biliverdin, greatly accelerates the cupric ion-catalyzed decomposition of linoleic acid hydroperoxide. In the presence of ferric ion, BR-DT shows no lipid hydroperoxide-degrading activity. Addition of cupric ion to BR-DT results in formation of a complex with spectral features similar to that of a biliverdin-cupric ion complex, indicating that BR-DT and cupric ion undergo redox reactions. PMID:3479781

  1. Studies of lipid peroxidation of rat blood after in vivo photodynamic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Nikitina, Victoria V.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2011-10-01

    Lipid peroxidation (LP) of blood serum of laboratory animals after in vivo photodynamic treatment was investigated. To determine changes in LP the standard colorimetric test OXYSTAT was used. The results indicate an increase in the intensity of free radical generation in tissues induced by photodynamic treatment.

  2. Studies of lipid peroxidation of rat blood after in vivo photodynamic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Nikitina, Victoria V.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2012-03-01

    Lipid peroxidation (LP) of blood serum of laboratory animals after in vivo photodynamic treatment was investigated. To determine changes in LP the standard colorimetric test OXYSTAT was used. The results indicate an increase in the intensity of free radical generation in tissues induced by photodynamic treatment.

  3. Histochemical detection of lipid peroxidation in the liver of bromobenzene-poisoned mice.

    PubMed Central

    Pompella, A.; Maellaro, E.; Casini, A. F.; Comporti, M.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of detecting lipid peroxidation histochemically was investigated in liver tissue in vivo, in conditions in which the process has been demonstrated by biochemical methods. The technique was based on the detection of aldehyde functions with the use of the Schiff's reagent. The study was carried out on bromobenzene-intoxicated mice, which generally exhibit levels of lipid peroxidation considerably higher than those observed in the case of other hepatotoxins. Liver sections from control animals were unstainable by the reagent, while sections from bromobenzene-poisoned mice showed a purple stain of various intensity, unhomogeneously distributed, sometimes with a mediolobular localization. Microphotometric measurements were performed at 565 nm by means of a computer-controlled microscope photometer. The ratios of Schiff-positive area relative to total section area, as well as the total extinctions referred to 100 sq mu of the sections, showed a high correlation with the corresponding hepatic contents of malonic dialdehyde, chosen as biochemical index of lipid peroxidation. In vitro studies in which liver sections were incubated in the presence of NADPH-Fe2+, showed a Schiff positivity which increased with the incubation time, confirming the reliability of the histochemical method. Another procedure, based on the use of 2-OH-3-naphtoic acid hydrazide coupled with fast blue B, was also developed and proved to be possibly more sensitive than Schiff's reagent in the detection of lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3674204

  4. [The relationship of the electrical reactions of the brain to lipid peroxidation processes in pathological aging].

    PubMed

    Fokin, V F; Ponomareva, N V; Orlov, O N; Liderman, R R; Erin, A N

    1989-06-01

    The content of breathing air pentane as in vivo index of lipid peroxidation and electrophysiological parameters (visual evoked potentials and direct current (DC) potential level) of healthy volunteers and patients with senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease following weak stress sound influence were investigated. Unlike healthy subjects correlation between stress-induced changes of pentane level and electrophysiological parameters for patients with psychopathology was shown.

  5. Polyphenols from Berries of Aronia melanocarpa Reduce the Plasma Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Ziprasidone

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich-Muszalska, Anna; Kopka, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    Background. Oxidative stress in schizophrenia may be caused partially by the treatment of patients with antipsychotics. The aim of the study was to establish the effects of polyphenol compounds derived from berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox) on the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by ziprasidone in vitro. Methods. Lipid peroxidation was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The samples of plasma from healthy subjects were incubated with ziprasidone (40 ng/ml; 139 ng/ml; and 250 ng/ml) alone and with Aronox (5 ug/ml; 50 ug/ml). Results. We observed a statistically significant increase of TBARS level after incubation of plasma with ziprasidone (40 ng/ml; 139 ng/ml; and 250 ng/ml) (after 24 h incubation: P = 7.0 × 10−4, P = 1.6 × 10−3, and P = 2.7 × 10−3, resp.) and Aronox lipid peroxidation caused by ziprasidone was significantly reduced. After 24-hour incubation of plasma with ziprasidone (40 ng/ml; 139 ng/ml; and 250 ng/ml) in the presence of 50 ug/ml Aronox, the level of TBARS was significantly decreased: P = 6.5 × 10−8, P = 7.0 × 10−6, and P = 3.0 × 10−5, respectively. Conclusion. Aronox causes a distinct reduction of lipid peroxidation induced by ziprasidone. PMID:25061527

  6. Regulation of collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts by ascorbic-induced lipid peroxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Geesin, J.C. Johnson and Johnson Consumer Products, Inc., Skillman, NJ ); Gordon, J.S. ); Gordon, J.S. ); Berg, R.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Ascorbic acid has been shown to stimulate collagen synthesis through the induction of lipid peroxidation which leads to increased transcription of the collagen genes. To test the ability of aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation to mediate this effect, the authors treated cultured fibroblasts with 1-200{mu}M of malondialdehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal or hexenal in the presence of lipid peroxidation inducing or noninducing concentrations of ascorbic acid. The treatment process involved either pretreatment of cells for 66hrs with either concentration of ascorbate before a 6hr treatment in the presence of ascorbate and the aldehydes, or 6 or 72hr treatment of the cells in the presence of either concentration of ascorbate plus the aldehydes. No effect of any of these aldehydes was seen on ascorbate-stimulated collagen synthesis. Also, pretreatment of fibroblasts for 24hrs with 100nM phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), which produces down regulation of protein kinase C(PKC), failed to alter the ascorbate-stimulation of collagen synthesis. Additionally, the authors tested the ability of benzamide, a poly ACP ribosylation inhibitor, to inhibit the ascorbate response with no specific effect noted. These results do not support the proposed roles for aldehydes, PKC, or poly ADP ribosylation in the mediation of the lipid peroxidation induced stimulation of collagen synthesis.

  7. Clinical implications of lipid peroxidation in acne vulgaris: old wine in new bottles.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Whitney P; Logan, Alan C

    2010-12-09

    Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder, one that is frequently associated with depression, anxiety and other psychological sequelae. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the extent to which oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Emerging studies have shown that patients with acne are under increased cutaneous and systemic oxidative stress. Indeed, there are indications that lipid peroxidation itself is a match that lights an inflammatory cascade in acne. The notion that lipid peroxidation is a 'starter gun' in acne is not a new one; here we review the nearly 50-year-old lipid peroxidation theory and provide a historical perspective to the contemporary investigations and clinical implications.In addition, we present a novel hypothesis in which lipid peroxidation may be priming an increased susceptibility to co-morbid depression and anxiety in those with acne. The emerging research on the systemic burden of oxidative stress in acne sheds further light on the brain-skin axis. The recent findings also suggest potential avenues of approach for the treatment of acne via specific nutrients, dietary modifications, oral and topical interventions.

  8. Clinical implications of lipid peroxidation in acne vulgaris: old wine in new bottles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder, one that is frequently associated with depression, anxiety and other psychological sequelae. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the extent to which oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Emerging studies have shown that patients with acne are under increased cutaneous and systemic oxidative stress. Indeed, there are indications that lipid peroxidation itself is a match that lights an inflammatory cascade in acne. The notion that lipid peroxidation is a 'starter gun' in acne is not a new one; here we review the nearly 50-year-old lipid peroxidation theory and provide a historical perspective to the contemporary investigations and clinical implications. In addition, we present a novel hypothesis in which lipid peroxidation may be priming an increased susceptibility to co-morbid depression and anxiety in those with acne. The emerging research on the systemic burden of oxidative stress in acne sheds further light on the brain-skin axis. The recent findings also suggest potential avenues of approach for the treatment of acne via specific nutrients, dietary modifications, oral and topical interventions. PMID:21143923

  9. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids are Selective Targets of Ethanol Withdrawal-Induced Lipid Peroxidation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethanol withdrawal is a potentially life-threatening neurological syndrome owing to decreased GABA transmission and increased glutamatergic transmission resulting in a pro-excitotoxic state. Previous data indicate that ethanol withdrawal may increase CNS lipid peroxidation particularly to the n-3 fa...

  10. Real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation by exhaled ethylene in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Simona M.; Kiss, Rudolf; te Lintel Hekkert, Sacco; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J. M.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (>30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (>10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene. PMID:25128523

  11. Almonds and Biomarkers of Lipid Peroxidation: A Randomized Controlled Cross-over Trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Almonds, in addition to their cholesterol-lowering properties, have been shown to reduce oxidized LDL concentrations. However, their effect on other markers of lipid peroxidation is unknown. Methods: Twent...

  12. Real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation by exhaled ethylene in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Simona M; Kiss, Rudolf; Hekkert, Sacco te Lintel; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J M; Risby, Terence H; Marczin, Nandor

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (> 30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (> 10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene.

  13. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of Lipid Composition and Lipid Peroxidation in the Sensitivity of Fungal Plant Pathogens to Aluminum Chloride and Sodium Metabisulfite▿

    PubMed Central

    Avis, Tyler J.; Michaud, Mélanie; Tweddell, Russell J.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum chloride and sodium metabisulfite have shown high efficacy at low doses in controlling postharvest pathogens on potato tubers. Direct effects of these two salts included the loss of cell membrane integrity in exposed pathogens. In this work, four fungal potato pathogens were studied in order to elucidate the role of membrane lipids and lipid peroxidation in the relative sensitivity of microorganisms exposed to these salts. Inhibition of mycelial growth in these fungi varied considerably and revealed sensitivity groups within the tested fungi. Analysis of fatty acids in these fungi demonstrated that sensitivity was related to high intrinsic fatty acid unsaturation. When exposed to the antifungal salts, sensitive fungi demonstrated a loss of fatty acid unsaturation, which was accompanied by an elevation in malondialdehyde content (a biochemical marker of lipid peroxidation). Our data suggest that aluminum chloride and sodium metabisulfite could induce lipid peroxidation in sensitive fungi, which may promote the ensuing loss of integrity in the plasma membrane. This direct effect on fungal membranes may contribute, at least in part, to the observed antimicrobial effects of these two salts. PMID:17337539

  15. [Lipid peroxidation of central nerve system in aged guinea pig and antioxidation effect of the method extract from Pegasus laternarius].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hui; Li, Ruisheng; Liu, Wenhui

    2002-04-01

    To study the lipid peroxidation products level in aged animals central nerve system and the antioxidation effect of the methol extract from Pegasus laternarius. The lipid peroxidation product MDA was tested by spectrophotometer. Compared with the 10 month-old guinea pig, the MDA in 32 month-old guinea pig central nerve system obviously elevated, there were some difference in different fields of tested guinea pig brain, the level of MDA in hypothalamus increased biggest (up to 161.7%), cerebral cortex 93.7%, cerebella 84.9%, brain stem 81.2%, spinal cord 90.7%, rest of the cerebrum 58.9%. The method extract from Pegasus laternarius 10, 20, 40 mg/kg and ginseng saponin 20 mg/kg could reduce the level of MDA in tested brain field of aged animals. The method extract from Pegasus laternarius had stronger activity in brain stem, spinal cord and hypothalamus. The lipid peroxidation in aged animal may be increased, the method extract from Pegasus laternarius and ginseng saponin have a protective effect on neuron in central nerve system of aged animals from free radical hurt.