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Sample records for activity locomotor activity

  1. Panic disorder and locomotor activity

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Noriyuki; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Hiroe; Takimoto, Yoshiyuki; Kaiya, Hisanobu; Kumano, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Akabayashi, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Background Panic disorder is one of the anxiety disorders, and anxiety is associated with some locomotor activity changes such as "restlessness". However, there have been few studies on locomotor activity in panic disorder using actigraphy, although many studies on other psychiatric disorders have been reported using actigraphy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between panic disorder and locomotor activity pattern using a wrist-worn activity monitor. In addition, an ecological momentary assessment technique was used to record panic attacks in natural settings. Methods Sixteen patients with panic disorder were asked to wear a watch-type computer as an electronic diary for recording panic attacks for two weeks. In addition, locomotor activity was measured and recorded continuously in an accelerometer equipped in the watch-type computer. Locomotor activity data were analyzed using double cosinor analysis to calculate mesor and the amplitude and acrophase of each of the circadian rhythm and 12-hour harmonic component. Correlations between panic disorder symptoms and locomotor activity were investigated. Results There were significant positive correlations between the frequency of panic attacks and mesor calculated from double cosinor analysis of locomotor activity (r = 0.55) and between HAM-A scores and mesor calculated from double cosinor analysis of locomotor activity (r = 0.62). Conclusion Panic disorder patients with more panic attacks and more anxiety have greater objectively assessed locomotor activity, which may reflect the "restlessness" of anxiety disorders. PMID:19017383

  2. Schedule-induced locomotor activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Muller, P G; Crow, R E; Cheney, C D

    1979-01-01

    In two experiments, humans received tokens either on a fixed-interval schedule for plunger pulling or various response-nondependent fixed-time schedules ranging from 16 to 140 seconds. Locomotor activity such as walking, shifting weight, or pacing was recorded in quarters of the interreinforcement interval to examine the induced characteristics of that behavior in humans. While performance was variable, several characteristics were present that have counterparts in experiments with nonhumans during periodic schedules of food reinforcement: (a) first quarter rates, and sometimes overall rates, of locomotor activity were greater during intervals that terminated in a visual stimulus and token delivery than those without: (b) overall rates of locomotor activity were greater during fixed-time 16-second schedules than during fixed-time 80- or 140-second schedules; (c) rates of locomotor activity decreased during the interreinforcement intervals; (d) locomotor activity was induced by response-dependent and response-nondependent token delivery. These results showed that the rate and temporal pattern of locomotor activity can be schedule-induced in humans. PMID:429959

  3. Effect of caffeine on cocaine locomotor stimulant activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Misra, A L; Vadlamani, N L; Pontani, R B

    1986-03-01

    The effect of caffeine on the locomotor stimulant activity induced by intravenous cocaine in rats was investigated. Low doses of caffeine (20 mg/kg IP) potentiated the locomotor activity induced by 1, 2.5 mg/kg intravenous doses of cocaine and higher doses of caffeine (50, 100 mg/kg IP) had no significant effect. The locomotor stimulant effect of 20 mg/kg IP dose of caffeine per se in vehicle was significantly higher and that with 100 mg/kg dose significantly lower than that of the vehicle control. Thus caffeine produced dose-dependent effects on cocaine-induced locomotor stimulant activity, with low dose potentiating and higher doses having no significant effect on such activity. Pharmacokinetic or dispositional factors did not appear to play a role in potentiation of cocaine locomotor stimulant activity by caffeine. PMID:3703910

  4. Low-dose effect of ethanol on locomotor activity induced by activation of the mesolimbic system.

    PubMed

    Milton, G V; Randall, P K; Erickson, C K

    1995-06-01

    Four experiments were designed to study the ability of 0.5 g/kg ethanol (EtOH) intraperitoneally to modify locomotor activity induced by drugs that interact with different sites in the mesolimbic system (MLS) of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Locomotor activity was measured in a doughnut-shaped circular arena after various treatments. EtOH alone did not alter locomotor activity in any of the experiments. Amphetamine (AMP, intraperitoneally or intraaccumbens) increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner, and the presence of EtOH attenuated AMP-induced locomotor activity. Bilateral infusion of GABAA antagonist picrotoxin (PIC) into the ventral tegmental area also increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner, and the presence of EtOH attenuated PIC-induced locomotor activity. On the other hand, the interaction between bilateral infusion of mu-receptor agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-NMe-Phe-Gly-ol (DAGO) and EtOH on locomotor activity is complex. The highest dose of DAGO that significantly increased locomotor activity was not affected by the presence of EtOH. But, with lower doses of DAGO that either had no effect or a small increase in locomotor activity, the combination of EtOH and DAGO increased and attenuated locomotor activity, respectively. Results from this study support our hypothesis that a low dose of EtOH that does not modify behavior can interact with neurotransmitter systems in the brain and modify drug-induced locomotor activity. Modification of this drug-induced locomotor activity by a low dose of EtOH is dependent on the rate of ongoing locomotor behavior induced by drug and the neurotransmitter substrate that the drug modified to induce locomotor behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Testosterone induces "splitting" of circadian locomotor activity rhythms in birds.

    PubMed

    Gwinner, E

    1974-07-01

    Under the influence of testosterone, the free-running circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of the starling, Sturnus vulgaris, tends to "split" into two components which temporarily run with different circadian frequencies: "splitting" occurred in intact birds whose testes grew, and in castrated birds that were injected with testosterone. Since "splitting" most probably reflects the temporal separation of two (or two groups of) circadian oscillators, these results suggest that testosterone affects the mutual coupling of circadian oscillators controlling locomotor activity.

  6. Chronic electromyographic analysis of circadian locomotor activity in crayfish.

    PubMed

    Tomina, Yusuke; Kibayashi, Akihiro; Yoshii, Taishi; Takahata, Masakazu

    2013-07-15

    Animals generally exhibit circadian rhythms of locomotor activity. They initiate locomotor behavior not only reflexively in response to external stimuli but also spontaneously in the absence of any specific stimulus. The neuronal mechanisms underlying circadian locomotor activity can, therefore, be based on the rhythmic changes in either reflexive efficacy or endogenous activity. In crayfish Procambarus clarkii, it can be determined by analyzing electromyographic (EMG) patterns of walking legs whether the walking behavior is initiated reflexively or spontaneously. In this study, we examined quantitatively the leg muscle activity that underlies the locomotor behavior showing circadian rhythms in crayfish. We newly developed a chronic EMG recording system that allowed the animal to freely behave under a tethered condition for more than 10 days. In the LD condition in which the animals exhibited LD entrainment, the rhythmic burst activity of leg muscles for stepping behavior was preceded by non-rhythmic tonic activation that lasted for 1323±488ms when the animal initiated walking. In DD and LL free-running conditions, the pre-burst activation lasted for 1779±31 and 1517±39ms respectively. In the mechanical stimulus-evoked walking, the pre-burst activation ended within 79±6ms. These data suggest that periodic changes in the crayfish locomotor activity under the condition of LD entrainment or free-running are based on activity changes in the spontaneous initiation mechanism of walking behavior rather than those in the sensori-motor pathway connecting mechanoreceptors with leg movements.

  7. Nitric oxide mediates caerulein-induced suppression of locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Volke, V; Soosaar, A; Kõks, S; Bourin, M; Männistö, P T; Vasar, E

    1996-08-01

    Caerulein, a non-selective agonist of cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors, is shown to suppress locomotor activity in rodents via stimulation of CCK(A) receptors. In the present study we examined the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in caerulein-induced hypolocomotion in rats. Caerulein (10 microg/kg) markedly decreased the horizontal and vertical components of locomotor activity in rats measured in dark motility boxes. Pretreatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), at 5 mg/kg i.p., abolished the inhibiting action of caerulein on the horizontal activity, but did not affect the reduced frequency of rearing. The other doses of L-NAME (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg) were ineffective against caerulein. As L-NAME at this dose range does not stimulate locomotor activity, it is likely that NO is involved in the motor suppressant effect of systemically administered caerulein.

  8. Exendin-4 Decreases Amphetamine-induced Locomotor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Erreger, Kevin; Davis, Adeola R.; Poe, Amanda M.; Greig, Nigel H.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Galli, Aurelio

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is released in response to nutrient ingestion and is a regulator of energy metabolism and consummatory behaviors through both peripheral and central mechanisms. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is widely distributed in the central nervous system, however little is known about how GLP-1Rs regulate ambulatory behavior. The abused psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) promotes behavioral locomotor activity primarily by inducing the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Here, we identify the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) as a modulator of behavioral activation by AMPH. We report that in rats a single acute administration of Ex-4 decreases both basal locomotor activity as well as AMPH-induced locomotor activity. Ex-4 did not induce behavioral responses reflecting anxiety or aversion. Our findings implicate GLP-1R signaling as a novel modulator of psychostimulant-induced behavior and therefore a potential therapeutic target for psychostimulant abuse. PMID:22465309

  9. Modulation of Locomotor Activation by the Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Lavezzi, Heather N; Parsley, Kenneth P; Zahm, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) is a strong inhibitor of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) reported to influence neurobiological and behavioral responses to reward omission, aversive and fear-eliciting stimuli, and certain drugs of abuse. Insofar as previous studies implicate ventral mesencephalic dopamine neurons as an essential component of locomotor activation, we hypothesized that the RMTg also should modulate locomotion activation. We observed that bilateral infusions into the RMTg of the gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) agonist, muscimol, indeed activate locomotion. Alternatively, bilateral RMTg infusions of the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline, suppress robust activations of locomotion elicited in two distinct ways: (1) by disinhibitory stimulation of neurons in the lateral preoptic area and (2) by return of rats to an environment previously paired with amphetamine administration. The possibility that suppressive locomotor effects of RMTg bicuculline infusions were due to unintended spread of drug to the nearby VTA was falsified by a control experiment showing that bilateral infusions of bicuculline into the VTA produce activation rather than suppression of locomotion. These results objectively implicate the RMTg in the regulation of locomotor activation. The effect is important because much evidence reported in the literature suggests that locomotor activation can be an involuntary behavioral expression of expectation and/or want without which the willingness to execute adaptive behaviors is impaired. PMID:25164249

  10. Genotypic structure of a Drosophila population for adult locomotor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Grechanyi, G.V.; Korzun, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the variation of adult locomotor activity in four samples taken at different times from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster showed that the total variation of this trait is relatively stable in time and has a substantial genetic component. Genotypic structure of the population for locomotor activity is characterized by the presence of large groups of genotypes with high and low values of this trait. A possible explanation for the presence of such groups in a population is cyclic density-dependent selection.

  11. Determination of the spontaneous locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jared K; Kowalski, Suzanne; Rogina, Blanka

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an excellent model organism to study environmental and genetic manipulations that affect behavior. One such behavior is spontaneous locomotor activity. Here we describe our protocol that utilizes Drosophila population monitors and a tracking system that allows continuous monitoring of the spontaneous locomotor activity of flies for several days at a time. This method is simple, reliable, and objective and can be used to examine the effects of aging, sex, changes in caloric content of food, addition of drugs, or genetic manipulations that mimic human diseases. PMID:24747955

  12. DRUG EFFECTS ON THE LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY OF LARVAL ZEBRAFISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an effort to develop a rapid in vivo screen for EPA’s prioritization of toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae and the effects of prototype drugs. Zebrafish larvae (6-7 days post-fertilization) were indiv...

  13. Acute Neuroactive Drug Exposures alter Locomotor Activity in Larval Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the development of a rapid in vivo screen for prioritization of toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae by assessing the acute effects of prototypic drugs that act on the central nervous system. Initially,...

  14. Acute neuroactive drug exposures alter locomotor activity in larval zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to develop a rapid in vivo screen for EPA's prioritization of toxic chemicals, we are characterizing the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae after exposure to prototypic drugs that act on the central nervous system. MPTP (1-methyl-4phenyl- 1 ,2,3,6-...

  15. Active Gaze, Visual Look-Ahead, and Locomotor Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.; Allison, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined observers steering through a series of obstacles to determine the role of active gaze in shaping locomotor trajectories. Participants sat on a bicycle trainer integrated with a large field-of-view simulator and steered through a series of slalom gates. Steering behavior was determined by examining the passing distance through…

  16. Effects of sodium butyrate on methamphetamine-sensitized locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Harkness, John H; Hitzemann, Robert J; Edmunds, Stephanie; Phillips, Tamara J

    2013-02-15

    Neuroadaptations associated with behavioral sensitization induced by repeated exposure to methamphetamine (MA) appear to be involved in compulsive drug pursuit and use. Increased histone acetylation, an epigenetic effect resulting in altered gene expression, may promote sensitized responses to psychostimulants. The role of histone acetylation in the expression and acquisition of MA-induced locomotor sensitization was examined by measuring the effect of histone deacetylase inhibition by sodium butyrate (NaB). For the effect on expression, mice were treated repeatedly with MA (10 days of 2mg/kg MA) or saline (10 days), and then vehicle or NaB (630 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered 30 min prior to MA challenge and locomotor response was measured. NaB treatment increased the locomotor response to MA in both acutely MA treated and sensitized animals. For acquisition, NaB was administered 30 min prior to each MA exposure (10 days of 1 or 2mg/kg), but not prior to the MA challenge test. Treatment with NaB during the sensitization acquisition period significantly increased locomotor activation by MA in sensitized mice only. NaB alone did not significantly alter locomotor activity. Acute NaB or MA, but not the combination, increased striatal acetylation at histone H4. Repeated treatment with MA, but not NaB or MA plus NaB, increased striatal acetylation at histone H3. Although increased histone acetylation may alter the expression of genes involved in acute locomotor response to MA and in the acquisition of MA-induced sensitization, results for acetylation at H3 and H4 showed little correspondence with behavior.

  17. Origin of thoracic spinal network activity during locomotor-like activity in the neonatal rat.

    PubMed

    Beliez, Lauriane; Barrière, Grégory; Bertrand, Sandrine S; Cazalets, Jean-René

    2015-04-15

    Effective quadrupedal locomotor behaviors require the coordination of many muscles in the limbs, back, neck, and tail. Because of the spinal motoneuronal somatotopic organization, motor coordination implies interactions among distant spinal networks. Here, we investigated some of the interactions between the lumbar locomotor networks that control limb movements and the thoracic networks that control the axial muscles involved in trunk movement. For this purpose, we used an in vitro isolated newborn rat spinal cord (from T2 to sacrococcygeal) preparation. Using extracellular ventral root recordings, we showed that, while the thoracic cord possesses an intrinsic rhythmogenic capacity, the lumbar circuits, if they are rhythmically active, will entrain the rhythmicity of the thoracic circuitry. However, if the lumbar circuits are rhythmically active, these latter circuits will entrain the rhythmicity of the thoracic circuitry. Blocking the synaptic transmission in some thoracic areas revealed that the lumbar locomotor network could trigger locomotor bursting in distant thoracic segments through short and long propriospinal pathways. Patch-clamp recordings revealed that 72% of the thoracic motoneurons (locomotor-driven motoneurons) expressed membrane potential oscillations and spiking activity coordinated with the locomotor activity expressed by the lumbar cord. A biphasic excitatory (glutamatergic)/inhibitory (glycinergic) synaptic drive was recorded in thoracic locomotor-driven motoneurons. Finally, we found evidence that part of this locomotor drive involved a monosynaptic component coming directly from the lumbar locomotor network. We conclude that the lumbar locomotor network plays a central role in the generation of locomotor outputs in the thoracic cord by acting at both the premotoneuronal and motoneuronal levels. PMID:25878284

  18. Sigma ligand S14905 and locomotor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hascoet, M; Bourin, M; Payeur, R; Lombet, A; Peglion, J L

    1995-12-01

    The binding and locomotor profile of a new sigma ligand, S14905, (isobutyl-N-(1-indan-2yl-piperid-4-yl)N-methyl carbamate, furamate) was studied. The binding data revealed that S14905 has a high affinity for sigma receptors and very low affinity for both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. We have demonstrated that this sigma ligand prevents the locomotor stimulation induced by morphine (32 and 64 mg/kg), cocaine (16 mg/kg), amphetamine (4 mg/kg) and adrafinil (32 mg/kg) at doses lower than those required to depress spontaneous locomotor activity. The antagonism observed in the present study seems to be more specific of morphine induced hyperlocomotion. The high affinity of this compound for sigma receptors makes it a good choice to study the role of this receptor in the CNS. In addition, S14905 does not directly block dopamine receptors but may modulate them in some manner, and would thus warrant further study as a potential atypical antipsychotic agent, and an antagonist for the hyperactivity induced by opiate drug. PMID:8998401

  19. Sigma ligand S14905 and locomotor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hascoet, M; Bourin, M; Payeur, R; Lombet, A; Peglion, J L

    1995-12-01

    The binding and locomotor profile of a new sigma ligand, S14905, (isobutyl-N-(1-indan-2yl-piperid-4-yl)N-methyl carbamate, furamate) was studied. The binding data revealed that S14905 has a high affinity for sigma receptors and very low affinity for both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. We have demonstrated that this sigma ligand prevents the locomotor stimulation induced by morphine (32 and 64 mg/kg), cocaine (16 mg/kg), amphetamine (4 mg/kg) and adrafinil (32 mg/kg) at doses lower than those required to depress spontaneous locomotor activity. The antagonism observed in the present study seems to be more specific of morphine induced hyperlocomotion. The high affinity of this compound for sigma receptors makes it a good choice to study the role of this receptor in the CNS. In addition, S14905 does not directly block dopamine receptors but may modulate them in some manner, and would thus warrant further study as a potential atypical antipsychotic agent, and an antagonist for the hyperactivity induced by opiate drug.

  20. Sensory-evoked perturbations of locomotor activity by sparse sensory input: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Bui, Tuan V; Brownstone, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Sensory inputs from muscle, cutaneous, and joint afferents project to the spinal cord, where they are able to affect ongoing locomotor activity. Activation of sensory input can initiate or prolong bouts of locomotor activity depending on the identity of the sensory afferent activated and the timing of the activation within the locomotor cycle. However, the mechanisms by which afferent activity modifies locomotor rhythm and the distribution of sensory afferents to the spinal locomotor networks have not been determined. Considering the many sources of sensory inputs to the spinal cord, determining this distribution would provide insights into how sensory inputs are integrated to adjust ongoing locomotor activity. We asked whether a sparsely distributed set of sensory inputs could modify ongoing locomotor activity. To address this question, several computational models of locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) that were mechanistically diverse and generated locomotor-like rhythmic activity were developed. We show that sensory inputs restricted to a small subset of the network neurons can perturb locomotor activity in the same manner as seen experimentally. Furthermore, we show that an architecture with sparse sensory input improves the capacity to gate sensory information by selectively modulating sensory channels. These data demonstrate that sensory input to rhythm-generating networks need not be extensively distributed. PMID:25673740

  1. Temperature and population density effects on locomotor activity of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Schou, T M; Faurby, S; Kjærsgaard, A; Pertoldi, C; Loeschcke, V; Hald, B; Bahrndorff, S

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of ectotherm organisms is affected by both abiotic and biotic factors. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the synergistic effects on behavioral traits. This study examined the effect of temperature and density on locomotor activity of Musca domestica (L.). Locomotor activity was measured for both sexes and at four densities (with mixed sexes) during a full light and dark (L:D) cycle at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. Locomotor activity during daytime increased with temperature at all densities until reaching 30°C and then decreased. High-density treatments significantly reduced the locomotor activity per fly, except at 15°C. For both sexes, daytime activity also increased with temperature until reaching 30 and 35°C for males and females, respectively, and thereafter decreased. Furthermore, males showed a significantly higher and more predictable locomotor activity than females. During nighttime, locomotor activity was considerably lower for all treatments. Altogether the results of the current study show that there is a significant interaction of temperature and density on daytime locomotor activity of M. domestica and that houseflies are likely to show significant changes in locomotor activity with change in temperature.

  2. Evolving Hox Activity Profiles Govern Diversity in Locomotor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Heekyung; Mazzoni, Esteban O.; Soshnikova, Natalia; Hanley, Olivia; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Duboule, Denis; Dasen, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The emergence of limb-driven locomotor behaviors was a key event in the evolution of vertebrates and fostered the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life. We show that the generation of limb-projecting lateral motor column (LMC) neurons in mice relies on a transcriptional autoregulatory module initiated via transient activity of multiple genes within the HoxA and HoxC clusters. Repression of this module at thoracic levels restricts expression of LMC determinants, thus dictating LMC position relative to the limbs. This suppression is mediated by a key regulatory domain that is specifically found in the Hoxc9 proteins of appendage-bearing vertebrates. The profile of Hoxc9 expression inversely correlates with LMC position in land vertebrates, and likely accounts for the absence of LMC neurons in limbless species such as snakes. Thus, modulation of both Hoxc9 protein function and Hoxc9 gene expression likely contributed to evolutionary transitions between undulatory and ambulatory motor circuit connectivity programs. PMID:24746670

  3. [Non-invasive transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation facilitates locomotor activity in decerebrated and spinal cats].

    PubMed

    Musienko, P E; Bogacheva, I N; Savochin, A A; Kilimnik, V A; Gorskiĭ, O V; Nikitin, O A; Gerasimenko, Ia P

    2013-08-01

    It is known that spinal neuronal networks activated by epidural electrical stimulation (EES) can produce the stepping EMG pattern and control the locomotor behavior. At present study we showed that non-invasive transcutaneous electrical spinal cord stimulation (tESCS) applied to the lumbar-sacral enlargement can facilitate the locomotor activity in decerebrated and spinal animals. The comparison of the motor responses evoked by EES vs tESCS showed that both methods produce the locomotor patterns with close properties and similar reflex mechanisms. The data obtained suggest that tESCS is an efficient approach for investigation of the locomotor control in acute and chronic experiments as well as facilitates of the locomotor abilities after spinal cord injury. Taking to account the non-invasivity and easement of tESCS, this approach could be further implemented in clinical practice for rehabilitation of the patient with spinal cord injury.

  4. Locomotor activity and zonation of upper shore arthropods in a sandy beach of north central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, E.; Contreras, H.; Duarte, C.; Avellanal, M. H.

    2003-10-01

    The tenebrionid beetle Phalerisida maculata Kulzer, the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet and the oniscid isopod Tylos spinulosus Dana are semi-terrestrial burrowing species, which coexist on sandy beaches of north central Chile (28-30°S). During the night, these scavengers emerge to make downshore migrations. Given the similarity in niches of these three species (all are known to include macroalgal detritus in their diet) and their relatively high abundance on that beaches, there is the potential for some degree of interaction, both inter- and intraspecific. Field studies were carried out to examine zonation of these burrowing organisms and eventual time and/or space partitioning of locomotor activity during night hours. Locomotor activity on the beach surface was analyzed over 12 h periods during spring and neap tides of September and December 2000, and March 2001. Scavengers moving over the beach surface were captured using pitfall traps buried with their rims flush with the beach surface along a transect extended from the foot of the dunes to the highest levels reached by the swashes. Every 1 h the captured animals in the traps were collected. Locomotor activity was also studied in the laboratory with chambers equipped with infrared recording systems (actographs). Data downloaded from the actographs were graphed to obtain a display of locomotor activity per 15 min interval during the course of the 7 day experiments. Results show space partitioning of burrowed organisms and time partitioning in the locomotor activity of O. tuberculata, T. spinulosus and P. maculata over the beach surface. Circular statistics showed that usually the activity peaks of O. tuberculata were more different from those of P. maculata and T. spinulosus than those of the last two species when compared with each other. Intraspecific differences were also found in the surface locomotor activity, primarily between juveniles and adults of O. tuberculata. Interseasonal

  5. Diurnal changes in the synthesis of the neurosteroid 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone stimulating locomotor activity in newts.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Teppei; Haraguchi, Shogo; Vaudry, Hubert; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    We recently identified 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone as a novel amphibian neurosteroid stimulating locomotor activity in newts. Because male newts show marked diurnal changes in locomotor activity, we hypothesized that 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone may be a key factor for the induction of diurnal changes in locomotor activity in male newts. In this study, we found diurnal changes in 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis in the brain of male newts, which paralleled locomotor activity. Interestingly, the production of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone in the male newt brain increased during the dark phase when locomotor activity of males was high.

  6. Locomotor activity and tissue levels following acute administration of lambda- and gamma-cyhalothrin in rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids produce neurotoxicity that depends, in part, on the chemical structure. Common behavioral effects include locomotor activity changes and specific toxic syndromes (types I and II). In general these neurobehavioral effects correlate well with peak internal dose metric...

  7. Neurochemical factors underlying individual differences in locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavioral responses in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Muraleetharan, Arrujyan; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Variation among individuals may arise for several reasons, and may have diverse underlying mechanisms. Individual differences have been studied in a variety of species, but recently a new model organism has emerged in this field that offers both sophistication in phenotypical characterization and powerful mechanistic analysis. Recently, zebrafish, one of the favorites of geneticists, have been shown to exhibit consistent individual differences in baseline locomotor activity. In the current study, we further explore this finding and examine whether individual differences in locomotor activity correlate with anxiety-like behavioral measures and with levels of dopamine, serotonin and the metabolites of these neurotransmitters. In addition, we examine whether individual differences in locomotor activity are also associated with reactivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of and neurochemical responses to acute ethanol exposure (30min long, 1% v/v ethanol bath application). Principal component analyses revealed a strong association among anxiety-like responses, locomotor activity, serotonin and dopamine levels. Furthermore, ethanol exposure was found to abolish the locomotion-dependent anxiety-like behavioral and serotonergic responses suggesting that this drug also engages a common underlying pathway. Overall, our results provide support for an important role of the serotonergic system in mediating individual differences in anxiety-like responses and locomotor activity in zebrafish and for a minor modulatory role of the dopaminergic system.

  8. Sex-related effects of agmatine on caffeine-induced locomotor activity in Swiss Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Uzbay, Tayfun; Kose, Akin; Kayir, Hakan; Ulusoy, Gokhan; Celik, Turgay

    2010-03-25

    In mammalian brain, agmatine is an endogenous amine that is synthesized through the decarboxylation of l-arginine by arginine decarboxylase. It has been proposed as a new neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator. It was shown that agmatine had some beneficial effects in animal models of opioid and alcohol addiction. Locomotor stimulant properties of drugs such as ethanol, caffeine, nicotine and amphetamine have been linked to their addictive properties. The present study investigates the effects of agmatine on caffeine-induced locomotor activity both in male and female mice. Adult Swiss Webster mice were used in the study. Locomotor activity was measured for 30min immediately following caffeine (2.5, 5, 10 and 20mg/kg, i.p.) or saline treatments. Agmatine (5, 10 and 20mg/kg, i.p.) were injected 20min before caffeine (2.5 and 5mg/kg, i.p.) administration. In both sexes, agmatine (5-20mg/kg) were also tested for ability to depress or stimulate locomotor activity in the absence of caffeine. Caffeine (5mg/kg) induced a significant increase in locomotor activity of both male and female mice. There was no significant difference in the locomotor-activating effects of caffeine between male and female mice. Agmatine blocked the caffeine (5mg/kg)-induced locomotor stimulation dose dependently in male but not female mice. Agmatine had not any effect on the lower dose (2.5mg/kg) of caffeine in both sexes. These results suggest that agmatine has sex-related inhibitory effects on caffeine-induced locomotor activity in Swiss Webster mice, and male mice are more sensitive than the females to the effect of agmatine.

  9. Extract of Hypericum perforatum blocks caffeine-induced locomotor activity in mice: a possible role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Uzbay, I Tayfun; Coskun, Ilke; Kayir, Hakan; Ozturk, Nilgun; Ozturk, Yusuf

    2007-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of HPE on caffeine-induced locomotor activity in mice. Caffeine (4-16 mg/kg) or saline were given to adult male Swiss-Webster mice, and the locomotor activity was immediately measured for 30 min. HPE (6-48 mg/kg) and saline were injected to another group of mice and the locomotor activity was measured 20 min later. HPE (6-24 mg/kg) was also administered to another group of mice 20 min before caffeine (16 mg/kg) injections and the locomotor activity was recorded for 30 min immediately after caffeine administrations. Finally l-arginine (1 g/kg) was administered i.p. 20 min before HPE (6 mg/kg) and the locomotor activity was measured as mentioned above. Each group of mice was used only once. Caffeine produced some significant increases in locomotor activity of the mice. HPE (6-24 mg/kg) significantly blocked the caffeine-induced locomotor hyperactivity. Pretreatment of l-arginine (1 g/kg) reversed the inhibitory effect of HPE (6 mg/kg) on caffeine-induced locomotor activity without producing any significant effect on locomotor activity of the mice when it was administered alone. The results suggest that HPE blocks caffeine-induced locomotor hyperactivity in mice. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of HPE on caffeine-induced locomotor activity may be related to its NOS inhibitory property.

  10. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p < 0.05) and cause increases in activity during several daytime hours in preovulated and ovulated females. These results are one of the first examples of how sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  11. Caffeine and amphetamine produce cross-sensitization to nicotine-induced locomotor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Celik, Eylem; Uzbay, I Tayfun; Karakas, Sirel

    2006-01-01

    Sensitization development is linked to the addictive potential of the drugs. The same mechanisms might play a role in sensitization development to the different addictive drugs. The aim of the study was to investigate the development of cross-sensitization to caffeine and amphetamine in nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization in mice. Caffeine (2.5-20 mg/kg), amphetamine (1-16 mg/kg) or saline were injected to Swiss-Webster mice and locomotor activity was recorded for 30 min. Nicotine (0.5-2 mg/kg) or saline were injected to mice and locomotor activity was recorded for 30 min. Process was applied for 19 days, every other day (10 sessions). Caffeine (5 mg/kg), amphetamine (4 mg/kg) or saline were challenged to the different groups of nicotine-sensitized mice 2 days later on the last nicotine injection, and locomotor activity was recorded. Repetitive injections of nicotine (0.5-2 mg) produced locomotor sensitization in mice. After caffeine and amphetamine challenge injections, locomotor activity of the nicotine-sensitized mice was found to be significantly higher than saline-pretreated mice. Saline challenge did not produce any significant effect in nicotine- or saline-pretreated mice. Our results suggest that a cross-sensitization developed to both caffeine and amphetamine in nicotine-sensitized mice. In conclusion, similar central mechanisms may be responsible for the development of addiction to these substances.

  12. Daily locomotor activity and melatonin rhythms in Senegal sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Bayarri, M J; Muñoz-Cueto, J A; López-Olmeda, J F; Vera, L M; Rol de Lama, M A; Madrid, J A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2004-06-01

    The daily locomotor and melatonin rhythms of the Senegal sole, a benthonic species of increasing interest in aquaculture, are still unknown, despite the fact that such knowledge is of prime importance for optimising its production. The aim of the present research was therefore to investigate the daily rhythms of locomotor activity and melatonin in the Senegal sole. For this purpose, the individual locomotor activity rhythms of fish were registered using a photocell. Plasma and ocular melatonin rhythms were studied in animals reared in circular tanks placed in earth under an LD 12:12 light regime and 16-18 degrees C temperature range (spring equinox). Blood and eye samples were taken every 3 h during a complete 24-h cycle. The impact of a light pulse in the middle of the dark period (MD) on plasma melatonin was also studied. Locomotor activity was mainly nocturnal, with 84.3% of the total activity occurring during darkness. The levels of plasma melatonin were higher at night (55 pg/ml) than during the day (2 pg/ml), while ocular melatonin levels appeared to be arrhythmic. Both weight and melatonin content were found to be significantly higher in the left eye in relation to the right eye. A light pulse in MD provoked a significant decrease in plasma melatonin levels. In summary, photoperiod is a key factor in synchronizing locomotor activity and melatonin rhythms in the Senegal sole, whose nocturnal habits should be taken into account for their rearing by aquaculture. PMID:15178150

  13. Influence of dimethoate on acetylcholinesterase activity and locomotor function in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Engenheiro, Elizabeth L; Hankard, Peter K; Sousa, José P; Lemos, Marco F; Weeks, Jason M; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2005-03-01

    Locomotor behavior in terrestrial organisms is crucial for burrowing, avoiding predators, food seeking, migration, and reproduction; therefore, it is a parameter with ecological relevance. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a nervous system enzyme inhibited by several compounds and widely used as an exposure biomarker in several organisms. Moreover, changes in energy reserves also may indicate an exposure to a stress situation. The aim of this study is to link biomarkers of different levels of biological organization in isopods exposed to increasing doses of dimethoate in semifield conditions. Locomotor parameters, AChE activity, and energy reserves (lipid, glycogen, and protein contents) were evaluated in the isopod Porcellio dilatatus after 48-h and 10-d exposure to dimethoate-contaminated soil. Results showed a clear impairment of both locomotor and AChE activity during the entire study, although effects were more pronounced after 48 h. Most locomotor parameters and AChE activity showed a clear dose-response relationship. By contrast, no clear trend was observed on energetic components. A positive and significant relationship was found between AChE activity and those locomotor parameters indicating activity, and the opposite was observed with those locomotor parameters indicating confusion and disorientation. The results obtained in this study enhance the importance of linking biochemical responses to parameters with ecological relevance at individual level, the value of locomotor behavior as an important marker to assess effects of toxicants, and also the usefulness and the acquisition of ecological relevance by AChE as a biomarker, by linking it with ecologically relevant behavioral parameters.

  14. Effects of coal mine wastewater on locomotor and non-locomotor activities of empire gudgeons (Hypseleotris compressa).

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, C; Melvin, S D; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Wilson, S P

    2016-05-01

    Coal mining represents an important industry in many countries, but concerns exist about the possible adverse effects of minewater releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems. Coal mining generates large volumes of complex wastewater, which often contains high concentrations of dissolved solids, suspended solids, metals, hydrocarbons, salts and other compounds. Traditional toxicological testing has generally involved the assessment of acute toxicity or chronic toxicity with longer-term tests, and while such tests provide useful information, they are poorly suited to ongoing monitoring or rapid assessment following accidental discharge events. As such, there is considerable interest in developing rapid and sensitive approaches to environmental monitoring, and particularly involving the assessment of sub-lethal behavioural responses in locally relevant aquatic species. We therefore investigated behavioural responses of a native Australian fish to coal mine wastewater, to evaluate its potential use for evaluating sub-lethal effects associated with wastewater releases on freshwater ecosystems. Empire gudgeons (Hypseleotris compressa) were exposed to wastewater from two dams located at an open cut coal mine in Central Queensland, Australia and activity levels were monitored using the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor® (LimCo International GmbH). A general decrease in locomotor activity (i.e., low frequency movement) and increase in non-locomotor activity (i.e., high frequency movement including ventilation and small fin movement) was observed in exposed fish compared to those in control water. Altered activity levels were observable within the first hour of exposure and persisted throughout the 15-d experiment. Results demonstrate the potential for using behavioural endpoints as tools for monitoring wastewater discharges using native fish species, but more research is necessary to identify responsible compounds and response thresholds, and to understand the relevance

  15. Locomotor activity and body temperature in selected mouse lines differing greatly in feed intake.

    PubMed

    Sojka, P A; Griess, R S; Nielsen, M K

    2013-08-01

    Locomotor activity, body temperature, feed intake, and BW were measured on 382 mature male mice sampled from lines previously selected (25 generations) for either high (MH) or low (ML) heat loss and an unselected control (MC). Animals were from all 3 independent replicates of the 3 lines and across 4 generations (68 through 71). Locomotor activity and body temperatures were obtained using implanted transmitters with data collection over 4 d following a 3-d postsurgery recovery period. Data were collected every minute and then averaged into 30-min periods, thus providing 192 data points for each mouse. Least-squares means for feed intake adjusted for BW (Feed/BW, feed·BW(-1)·d(-1), g/g) were 0.1586, 0.1234, and 0.1125 (±0.0022) for MH, MC, and ML, respectively, with line being a highly significant source of variation (P < 0.0003). Line effects for locomotor activity counts, transformed to the 0.25 power for analysis, were significantly different, with MH mice being 2.1 times more active than ML mice (P < 0.003); MC mice were intermediate. Differences in body temperature were significant for both line (P < 0.03) and day effects (P < 0.001), with a 0.32°C difference between the MH and ML lines. Fourier series analysis used the combined significant periodicities of 24, 18, 12, 9, 6, and 3 h to describe circadian cycles for activity and body temperature. All 3 lines expressed daily peaks in body temperature and locomotor activity ∼3 h into darkness and ∼2 h after lights were turned on. There was a stronger relationship between locomotor activity and Feed/BW (P < 0.0001) than between body temperature and Feed/BW (P < 0.01); differences between lines in locomotor activity and body temperature explained 17% and 3%, respectively, of differences between lines in Feed/BW. Thus, line differences in locomotor activity contribute to line differences in maintenance, but approximately 80% of the differences between the MH and ML selection lines in Feed/BW remains

  16. Voluntary locomotor activity mitigates oxidative damage associated with isolation stress in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Kelsey L.; Whitley, Brittany N.; Treidel, Lisa A.; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C.; Stevenson, Jennie R.; Haussmann, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Organismal performance directly depends on an individual's ability to cope with a wide array of physiological challenges. For social animals, social isolation is a stressor that has been shown to increase oxidative stress. Another physiological challenge, routine locomotor activity, has been found to decrease oxidative stress levels. Because we currently do not have a good understanding of how diverse physiological systems like stress and locomotion interact to affect oxidative balance, we studied this interaction in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles were either pair housed or isolated and within the isolation group, voles either had access to a moving wheel or a stationary wheel. We found that chronic periodic isolation caused increased levels of oxidative stress. However, within the vole group that was able to run voluntarily, longer durations of locomotor activity were associated with less oxidative stress. Our work suggests that individuals who demonstrate increased locomotor activity may be better able to cope with the social stressor of isolation. PMID:26179798

  17. Voluntary locomotor activity mitigates oxidative damage associated with isolation stress in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Kelsey L; Whitley, Brittany N; Treidel, Lisa A; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C; Stevenson, Jennie R; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-07-01

    Organismal performance directly depends on an individual's ability to cope with a wide array of physiological challenges. For social animals, social isolation is a stressor that has been shown to increase oxidative stress. Another physiological challenge, routine locomotor activity, has been found to decrease oxidative stress levels. Because we currently do not have a good understanding of how diverse physiological systems like stress and locomotion interact to affect oxidative balance, we studied this interaction in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles were either pair housed or isolated and within the isolation group, voles either had access to a moving wheel or a stationary wheel. We found that chronic periodic isolation caused increased levels of oxidative stress. However, within the vole group that was able to run voluntarily, longer durations of locomotor activity were associated with less oxidative stress. Our work suggests that individuals who demonstrate increased locomotor activity may be better able to cope with the social stressor of isolation.

  18. Voluntary locomotor activity mitigates oxidative damage associated with isolation stress in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Kelsey L; Whitley, Brittany N; Treidel, Lisa A; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C; Stevenson, Jennie R; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-07-01

    Organismal performance directly depends on an individual's ability to cope with a wide array of physiological challenges. For social animals, social isolation is a stressor that has been shown to increase oxidative stress. Another physiological challenge, routine locomotor activity, has been found to decrease oxidative stress levels. Because we currently do not have a good understanding of how diverse physiological systems like stress and locomotion interact to affect oxidative balance, we studied this interaction in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles were either pair housed or isolated and within the isolation group, voles either had access to a moving wheel or a stationary wheel. We found that chronic periodic isolation caused increased levels of oxidative stress. However, within the vole group that was able to run voluntarily, longer durations of locomotor activity were associated with less oxidative stress. Our work suggests that individuals who demonstrate increased locomotor activity may be better able to cope with the social stressor of isolation. PMID:26179798

  19. Seasonal changes in the synthesis of the neurosteroid 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone stimulating locomotor activity in newts.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Shogo; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Koyama, Teppei; Do Rego, Jean-Luc; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    We recently found that the newt brain actively produces 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, a novel amphibian neurosteroid stimulating locomotor activity. It is well known that locomotor activity of male newts increases during the breeding period. To understand the physiological role of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, we investigated seasonal changes in 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis in the brain of male newts. Interestingly, 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis in the brain showed marked changes during the annual breeding cycle, with a maximal level in the breeding period when locomotor activity of male newts increases. These results suggest that 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone induces seasonal locomotor changes in male newts.

  20. Circadian rhythms of self-feeding and locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio Rerio).

    PubMed

    del Pozo, Ana; Sánchez-Férez, Jose Antonio; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2011-02-01

    To investigate daily feeding rhythms in zebrafish, the authors have developed a new self-feeding system with an infrared photocell acting as a food-demand sensor, which lets small-size fish such as zebrafish trigger a self-feeder. In this paper, the authors used eight groups of 20 fish. Locomotor activity rhythms were also investigated by means of infrared sensors. Under a 12 h:12 h light (L)-dark (D) cycle, zebrafish showed a clear nocturnal feeding pattern (88.0% of the total daily food-demands occurring in the dark phase), concentrated during the last 4 h of the dark phase. In contrast, locomotor activity was mostly diurnal (88.2% of total daily activity occurring in the light phase). Moreover, both feeding and locomotor rhythms were endogenously driven, as they persisted under free-running conditions. The average period length (τ) of the locomotor and feeding rhythms was shorter (τ = 22.9 h) and longer (τ = 24.6 h) than 24 h, respectively. During the time that food availability was restricted, fish could only feed during ZT0-ZT12 or ZT12-ZT16. This resulted in feeding activity being significantly modified according to feeding time, whereas the locomotor activity pattern remained synchronized to the LD cycle and did not change during this trial. These findings revealed an independent phasing between locomotor and feeding activities (which were mostly nocturnal or diurnal, respectively), thus supporting the concept of multioscillatory control of circadian rhythmicity in zebrafish. PMID:21182403

  1. [On mechanism of functional changes in the organism of teenagers at different levels of locomotor activity].

    PubMed

    Mindubaeva, F A; Shukurov, F A; Salikhova, Y Y; Niyazova, Y I; Ramazanov, A K

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive study of the cardiovascular system functional condition of 15-16 teenagers while in normal daily locomotor activity and in the mode of regular moderate physical activity was performed. The features of cerebral circulation and myocardium functional condition of teenagers are studied depending on initial tonus of the autonomic nervous system and locomotor activity level in the process of continuous step physical activity on tredmil. The condition of regulatory mechanisms, providing adaptation of teenagers in the conditions of modern school was studied. Research results showed, that elasticity of cerebrum arterial vessels, veins tone, venous outflow for teenagers not having regular physical activity, considerably mionectic. More adequate reaction of coronary blood flow in the process of physical activity is educed for the trained teenagers with the balanced autonomic regulation of cardiac rhythm. This group showed a higher level and regulation quality of organism reserve possibilities.

  2. Levamisole enhances the rewarding and locomotor-activating effects of cocaine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tallarida, Christopher S.; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Rawls, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Drug Enforcement Agency estimates that 80% of cocaine seized in the United States contains the veterinary pharmaceutical levamisole (LVM). One problem with LVM is that it is producing life-threatening neutropenia in an alarming number of cocaine abusers. The neuropharmacological profile of LVM is also suggestive of an agent with modest reinforcing and stimulant effects that could enhance cocaine’s addictive effects. Methods We tested the hypothesis that LVM (ip) enhances the rewarding and locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine (ip) using rat conditioned place preference (CPP) and locomotor assays. Effects of LVM by itself were also tested. Results LVM (0–10 mg/kg) produced CPP at 1 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and locomotor activation at 5 mg/kg (P < 0.05). For CPP combination experiments, a statistically inactive dose of LVM (0.1 mg/kg) was administered with a low dose of cocaine (2.5 mg/kg). Neither agent produced CPP compared to saline (P > 0.05); however, the combination of LVM and cocaine produced enhanced CPP compared to saline or either drug by itself (P < 0.01). For locomotor experiments, the same inactive dose of LVM (0.1 mg/kg, ip) was administered with low (10 mg/kg) and high doses (30 mg/kg) of cocaine. LVM (0.1 mg/kg) enhanced locomotor activation produced by 10 mg/kg of cocaine (P < 0.05) but not by 30 mg/kg (P > 0.05). Conclusions LVM can enhance rewarding and locomotor-activating effects of low doses of cocaine in rats while possessing modest activity of its own. PMID:25683823

  3. The hyperactive syndrome: metanalysis of genetic alterations, pharmacological treatments and brain lesions which increase locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Davide

    2008-12-01

    The large number of transgenic mice realized thus far with different purposes allows addressing new questions, such as which animals, over the entire set of transgenic animals, show a specific behavioural abnormality. In the present study, we have used a metanalytical approach to organize a database of genetic modifications, brain lesions and pharmacological interventions that increase locomotor activity in animal models. To further understand the resulting data set, we have organized a second database of the alterations (genetic, pharmacological or brain lesions) that reduce locomotor activity. Using this approach, we estimated that 1.56% of the genes in the genome yield to hyperactivity and 0.75% of genes produce hypoactivity when altered. These genes have been classified into genes for neurotransmitter systems, hormonal, metabolic systems, ion channels, structural proteins, transcription factors, second messengers and growth factors. Finally, two additional classes included animals with neurodegeneration and inner ear abnormalities. The analysis of the database revealed several unexpected findings. First, the genes that, when mutated, induce hyperactive behaviour do not pertain to a single neurotransmitter system. In fact, alterations in most neurotransmitter systems can give rise to a hyperactive phenotype. In contrast, fewer changes can decrease locomotor activity. Specifically, genetic and pharmacological alterations that enhance the dopamine, orexin, histamine, cannabinoids systems or that antagonize the cholinergic system induce an increase in locomotor activity. Similarly, imbalances in the two main neurotransmitters of the nervous system, GABA and glutamate usually result in hyperactive behaviour. It is remarkable that no genetic alterations pertaining to the GABA system have been reported to reduce locomotor behaviour. Other neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, have a more complex influence. For instance, a decrease in norepinephrine

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY OF ZEBRAFISH LARVAE: TEMPORAL VARIABILITY AND PHOTORESPONSE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of EPA’s effort to develop a rapid, in vivo, vertebrate screen for toxic chemicals, we have begun research to characterize the locomotor activity of 6-day post-fertilization (dpf) zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae were individually housed and tested in 96-well micro...

  5. The Effects of Acute Exposure to Neuroactive Drugs on the Locomotor Activity of Larval Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to develop a rapid in vivo screen for EPA’s prioritization of toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae using prototypic drugs that act on the central nervous system. Initially, we chose to define the beh...

  6. Drugs that Target Dopamine Receptors: Changes in Locomotor Activity in Larval Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an effort at the US Environmental Protection Agency to develop a rapid in vivo screen for prioritization of toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. This includes assessing the acute effects of drugs known...

  7. Developmental Exposure to a Dopaminergic Toxicant Produces Altered Locomotor Activity in Larval Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to develop a rapid in vivo screen for EPA’s prioritization of toxic chemicals, we are characterizing the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae after developmental exposure to various classes of prototypic drugs that act on the central nervous system. ...

  8. Prenatal Iron Deficiency in Guinea Pigs Increases Locomotor Activity but Does Not Influence Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Fiset, Catherine; Rioux, France M.; Surette, Marc E.; Fiset, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine whether prenatal iron deficiency induced during gestation in guinea pigs affected locomotor activity and learning and memory processes in the progeny. Dams were fed either iron-deficient anemic or iron-sufficient diets throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were fed an iron-sufficient diet. On postnatal day 24 and 40, the pups’ locomotor activity was observed within an open-field test, and from postnatal day 25 to 40, their learning and memory processes were assessed within a Morris Water Maze. The behavioural and cognitive tests revealed that the iron deficient pup group had increased locomotor activity, but solely on postnatal day 40, and that there were no group differences in the Morris Water Maze. In the general discussion, we propose that prenatal iron deficiency induces an increase in nervousness due to anxiety in the progeny, which, in the current study, resulted in an increase of locomotor activity. PMID:26186713

  9. Differential Effects of Inhaled Toluene on Locomotor Activity in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Jeffery C.; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalant abuse is a world-wide public health concern among adolescents. Most preclinical studies have assessed inhalant effects in adult animals leaving unclear how behavioral effects differ in younger animals. We exposed adolescent (postnatal day [PN] 28) and adult (PN90) male rats to toluene using 1 of 3 exposure patterns. These patterns modeled those reported in toluene abuse in teens and varied concentration, number and length of exposures, as well as the inter-exposure interval. Animals were exposed repeatedly over 12 days to toluene concentrations of 0, 8,000 or 16,000 parts per million (ppm). Locomotor activity was quantified during toluene exposures and for 30 min following completion of the final daily toluene exposure. For each exposure pattern, there were significant toluene concentration-related increases and decreases in locomotor activity compared to the 0-ppm “air” controls at both ages. These changes depended upon when activity was measured – during or following exposure. Compared to adults, adolescents displayed greater locomotor activity on the first day and generally greater increases in activity over days than adults during toluene exposure. Adults displayed greater locomotor activity than adolescents in the “recovery” period following exposure on the first and subsequent days. Age group differences were clearest following the pattern of paced, brief (5-min) repeated binge exposures. The results suggest that locomotor behavior in rats during and following inhalation of high concentrations of toluene depends on age and the pattern of exposure. The results are consistent with dose-dependent shifts in sensitivity and sensitization or tolerance to repeated toluene in the adolescent animals compared to the adult animals. Alternate interpretations are possible and our interpretation is limited by the range of very high concentrations of toluene used. The results imply that both pharmacological and psychosocial factors contribute to the teen

  10. Estimation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductance variations in motoneurons during locomotor-like rhythmic activity.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryota; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-10-29

    The rhythmic activity of motoneurons (MNs) that underlies locomotion in mammals is generated by synaptic inputs from the locomotor network in the spinal cord. Thus, the quantitative estimation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances is essential to understand the mechanism by which the network generates the functional motor output. Conductance estimation is obtained from the voltage-current relationship measured by voltage-clamp- or current-clamp-recording with knowledge of the leak parameters of the recorded neuron. However, it is often difficult to obtain sufficient data to estimate synaptic conductances due to technical difficulties in electrophysiological experiments using in vivo or in vitro preparations. To address this problem, we estimated the average variations in excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductance during a locomotion cycle from a single voltage trace without measuring the leak parameters. We found that the conductance variations can be accurately reconstructed from a voltage trace of 10 cycles by analyzing synthetic data generated from a computational model. Next, the conductance variations were estimated from mouse spinal MNs in vitro during drug-induced-locomotor-like activity. We found that the peak of excitatory conductance occurred during the depolarizing phase of the locomotor cycle, whereas the peak of inhibitory conductance occurred during the hyperpolarizing phase. These results suggest that the locomotor-like activity is generated by push-pull modulation via excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. PMID:27561702

  11. Locomotor corollary activation of trigeminal motoneurons: coupling of discrete motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hänzi, Sara; Banchi, Roberto; Straka, Hans; Chagnaud, Boris P

    2015-06-01

    During motor behavior, corollary discharges of the underlying motor commands inform sensory-motor systems about impending or ongoing movements. These signals generally limit the impact of self-generated sensory stimuli but also induce motor reactions that stabilize sensory perception. Here, we demonstrate in isolated preparations of Xenopus laevis tadpoles that locomotor corollary discharge provokes a retraction of the mechanoreceptive tentacles during fictive swimming. In the absence of sensory feedback, these signals activate a cluster of trigeminal motoneurons that cause a contraction of the tentacle muscle. This corollary discharge encodes duration and strength of locomotor activity, thereby ensuring a reliable coupling between locomotion and tentacle motion. The strict phase coupling between the trigeminal and spinal motor activity, present in many cases, suggests that the respective corollary discharge is causally related to the ongoing locomotor output and derives at least in part from the spinal central pattern generator; however, additional contributions from midbrain and/or hindbrain locomotor centers are likely. The swimming-related retraction might protect the touch-receptive Merkel cells on the tentacle from sensory over-stimulation and damage and/or reduce the hydrodynamic drag. The intrinsic nature of the coupling of tentacle retraction to locomotion is an excellent example of a context-dependent, direct link between otherwise discrete motor behaviors.

  12. The effect of baclofen on the locomotor activity of control and small-platform-stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Pokk, P; Vassiljev, V; Väli, M

    2000-09-01

    The effect of baclofen on the locomotor activity of control and small-platform-stressed mice was studied. In the small platform technique, mice are forced to stay on small platforms (d= 3.5 cm) surrounded by water for 24 h. Small platform stress increased the locomotor activity of mice in the actometer. Baclofen administered at doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1)(i.p.) had no effect on the locomotor activity of control mice. In small-platform-stressed mice, the locomotor depressant effect of baclofen was pronounced, being statistically significant at a dose of 1.0 mg kg(-1). These data suggest that small platform stress induces hypersensitivity of mice to the motor depressant effect of baclofen. On the basis of these data it could be proposed that small platform stress induces changes in the function of GABA(B)receptors and that GABA(B)receptors participate in the behavioural changes caused by small platform stress.

  13. Dynamics of locomotor activity and heat production in rats after acute stress.

    PubMed

    Pertsov, S S; Alekseeva, I V; Koplik, E V; Sharanova, N E; Kirbaeva, N V; Gapparov, M M G

    2014-05-01

    The dynamics of locomotor activity and heat production were studied in rats demonstrating passive and active behavior in the open field test at different time after exposure to acute emotional stress caused by 12-h immobilization during dark hours. The most pronounced changes in behavior and heat production followed by disturbances in circadian rhythms of these parameters were detected within the first 2 days after stress. In contrast to behaviorally active rats, the most significant decrease in locomotor activity and heat production of passive animals subjected to emotional stress was observed during dark hours. Circadian rhythms of behavior and heat production in rats tended to recover on day 3 after immobilization stress. These data illustrate the specificity of metabolic and behavioral changes reflecting the shift of endogenous biological rhythms in individuals with different prognostic resistance to stress at different terms after exposure to negative emotiogenic stimuli. PMID:24906959

  14. Characterization of sacral interneurons that mediate activation of locomotor pattern generators by sacrocaudal afferent input.

    PubMed

    Etlin, Alex; Finkel, Eran; Mor, Yoav; O'Donovan, Michael J; Anglister, Lili; Lev-Tov, Aharon

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the neural pathways involved in retraining the spinal central pattern generators (CPGs) by afferent input in the absence of descending supraspinal control is feasible in isolated rodent spinal cords where the locomotor CPGs are potently activated by sacrocaudal afferent (SCA) input. Here we study the involvement of sacral neurons projecting rostrally through the ventral funiculi (VF) in activation of the CPGs by sensory stimulation. Fluorescent labeling and immunostaining showed that VF neurons are innervated by primary afferents immunoreactive for vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 and by intraspinal neurons. Calcium imaging revealed that 55% of the VF neurons were activated by SCA stimulation. The activity of VF neurons and the sacral and lumbar CPGs was abolished when non-NMDA receptors in the sacral segments were blocked by the antagonist CNQX. When sacral NMDA receptors were blocked by APV, the sacral CPGs were suppressed, VF neurons with nonrhythmic activity were recruited and a moderate-drive locomotor rhythm developed during SCA stimulation. In contrast, when the sacral CPGs were activated by SCA stimulation, rhythmic and nonrhythmic VF neurons were recruited and the locomotor rhythm was most powerful. The activity of 73 and 27% of the rhythmic VF neurons was in-phase with the ipsilateral and contralateral motor output, respectively. Collectively, our studies indicate that sacral VF neurons serve as a major link between SCA and the hindlimb CPGs and that the ability of SCA to induce stepping can be enhanced by the sacral CPGs. The nature of the ascending drive to lumbar CPGs, the identity of subpopulations of VF neurons, and their potential role in activating the locomotor rhythm are discussed. PMID:23303951

  15. Influences of acute ethanol exposure on locomotor activities of zebrafish larvae under different illumination.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ning; Lin, Jia; Peng, Xiaolan; Chen, Haojun; Zhang, Yinglan; Liu, Xiuyun; Li, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Larval zebrafish present unique opportunities to study the behavioral responses of a model organism to environmental challenges during early developmental stages. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the locomotor activities of AB strain zebrafish larvae at 5 and 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) in response to light changes under the influence of ethanol, and to explore potential neurological mechanisms that are involved in ethanol intoxication. AB strain zebrafish larvae at both 5 and 7 dpf were treated with ethanol at 0% (control), 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (v/v%). The locomotor activities of the larvae during alternating light-dark challenges, as well as the locomotor responses immediately following the light transitions, were investigated. The levels of various neurotransmitters were also measured in selected ethanol-treated groups. The larvae at 5 and 7 dpf demonstrated similar patterns of locomotor responses to ethanol treatment. Ethanol treatment at 1% increased the swimming distances of the zebrafish larvae in the dark periods, but had no effect on the swimming distances in the light periods. In contrast, ethanol treatment at 2% increased the swimming distances in the light periods, but did not potentiate the swimming activity in the dark periods, compared to controls. Differences in the levels of neurotransmitters that are involved in norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin pathways were also observed in groups with different ethanol treatments. These results indicated the behavioral studies concerning the ethanol effects on locomotor activities of zebrafish larvae could be carried out as early as 5 dpf. The 1% and 2% ethanol-treated zebrafish larvae modeled ethanol effects at different intoxication states, and the differences in neurotransmitter levels suggested the involvement of various neurotransmitter pathways in different ethanol intoxication states. PMID:26384924

  16. Influences of acute ethanol exposure on locomotor activities of zebrafish larvae under different illumination.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ning; Lin, Jia; Peng, Xiaolan; Chen, Haojun; Zhang, Yinglan; Liu, Xiuyun; Li, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Larval zebrafish present unique opportunities to study the behavioral responses of a model organism to environmental challenges during early developmental stages. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the locomotor activities of AB strain zebrafish larvae at 5 and 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) in response to light changes under the influence of ethanol, and to explore potential neurological mechanisms that are involved in ethanol intoxication. AB strain zebrafish larvae at both 5 and 7 dpf were treated with ethanol at 0% (control), 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (v/v%). The locomotor activities of the larvae during alternating light-dark challenges, as well as the locomotor responses immediately following the light transitions, were investigated. The levels of various neurotransmitters were also measured in selected ethanol-treated groups. The larvae at 5 and 7 dpf demonstrated similar patterns of locomotor responses to ethanol treatment. Ethanol treatment at 1% increased the swimming distances of the zebrafish larvae in the dark periods, but had no effect on the swimming distances in the light periods. In contrast, ethanol treatment at 2% increased the swimming distances in the light periods, but did not potentiate the swimming activity in the dark periods, compared to controls. Differences in the levels of neurotransmitters that are involved in norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin pathways were also observed in groups with different ethanol treatments. These results indicated the behavioral studies concerning the ethanol effects on locomotor activities of zebrafish larvae could be carried out as early as 5 dpf. The 1% and 2% ethanol-treated zebrafish larvae modeled ethanol effects at different intoxication states, and the differences in neurotransmitter levels suggested the involvement of various neurotransmitter pathways in different ethanol intoxication states.

  17. Characterization of locomotor activity circadian rhythms in athymic nude mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relation between circadian dysregulation and cancer incidence and progression has become a topic of major interest over the last decade. Also, circadian timing has gained attention regarding the use of chronopharmacology-based therapeutics. Given its lack of functional T lymphocytes, due to a failure in thymus development, mice carrying the Foxn1(Δ/Δ) mutation (nude mice) have been traditionally used in studies including implantation of xenogeneic tumors. Since the immune system is able to modulate the circadian clock, we investigated if there were alterations in the circadian system of the athymic mutant mice. Methods General activity circadian rhythms in 2–4 month-old Foxn1(Δ/Δ) mice (from Swiss Webster background) and their corresponding wild type (WT) controls was recorded. The response of the circadian system to different manipulations (constant darkness, light pulses and shifts in the light–dark schedule) was analyzed. Results Free-running periods of athymic mice and their wild type counterpart were 23.86 ± 0.03 and 23.88 ± 0.05 hours, respectively. Both strains showed similar phase delays in response to 10 or 120 minutes light pulses applied in the early subjective night and did not differ in the number of c-Fos-expressing cells in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, after a light pulse at circadian time (CT) 15. Similarly, the two groups showed no significant difference in the time needed for resynchronization after 6-hour delays or advances in the light–dark schedule. The proportion of diurnal activity, phase-angle with the zeitgeber, subjective night duration and other activity patterns were similar between the groups. Conclusions Since athymic Foxn1(Δ/Δ) mice presented no differences with the WT controls in the response of the circadian system to the experimental manipulations performed in this work, we conclude that they represent a good model in studies that combine xenograft implants with either alteration of the circadian

  18. Effects of phthalate esters on the locomotor activity of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex

    SciTech Connect

    Thuren, A. ); Woin, P. )

    1991-01-01

    Phthalates are of environmental concern owing to their large-scale annual production and to their ubiquitous use as additives in the manufacture of plastics. Among the phthalates, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and dibutylphthalate (DBP) are the most commonly used compounds. Phthalates are lipophilic with a relatively low water solubility and show low acute toxicity to fish and selectively toxic to cladocerans. Little is known, however, about their effects on the behavior, reproductive success or the growth of organisms. In this investigation of locomotor activity of G. pulex was studied under phthalate stress. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of phthalates on overall locomotor activity of G. pulex and the impact of long term exposure on diel activity.

  19. Melanin-concentrating hormone is necessary for olanzapine-inhibited locomotor activity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Chee, Melissa J S; Douris, Nicholas; Forrow, Avery B; Monnard, Arnaud; Lu, Shuangyu; Flaherty, Stephen E; Adams, Andrew C; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2015-10-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), an atypical antipsychotic, can be effective in treating patients with restricting type anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively. Clinical improvements include weight gain and reduced pathological hyperactivity. However the neuronal populations and mechanisms underlying OLZ actions are not known. We studied the effects of OLZ on hyperactivity using male mice lacking the hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCHKO) that are lean and hyperactive. We compared the in vivo effects of systemic or intra-accumbens nucleus (Acb) OLZ administration on locomotor activity in WT and MCHKO littermates. Acute systemic OLZ treatment in WT mice significantly reduced locomotor activity, an effect that is substantially attenuated in MCHKO mice. Furthermore, OLZ infusion directly into the Acb of WT mice reduced locomotor activity, but not in MCHKO mice. To identify contributing neuronal mechanisms, we assessed the effect of OLZ treatment on Acb synaptic transmission ex vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal OLZ treatment reduced Acb GABAergic activity in WT but not MCHKO neurons. This effect was also seen in vitro by applying OLZ to acute brain slices. OLZ reduced the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic activity that was more robust in WT than MCHKO Acb. These findings indicate that OLZ reduced Acb GABAergic transmission and that MCH is necessary for the hypolocomotor effects of OLZ.

  20. Coordination of spinal locomotor activity in the lamprey: long-distance coupling of spinal oscillators.

    PubMed

    McClellan, A D; Hagevik, A

    1999-05-01

    The extent and strength of long-distance coupling between locomotor networks in the rostral and caudal spinal cord of larval lamprey were examined with in vitro brain/spinal cord preparations, in which spinal locomotor activity was initiated by chemical microstimulation in the brain, as well as with computer modeling. When locomotor activity and short-distance coupling were blocked in the middle spinal cord for at least 40 segments, burst activity in the rostral and caudal spinal cord was still coupled 1:1, indicating that long-distance coupling is extensive. However, in the absence of short-distance coupling, intersegmental phase lags were not constant but decreased significantly with increasing cycle times, suggesting that long-distance coupling maintains a relatively constant delay rather than a constant phase lag between rostral and caudal bursts. In addition, under these conditions, intersegmental phase lags, measured between rostral and caudal burst activity, were significantly less than normal, and the decrease was greater for longer distances between rostral and caudal locomotor networks. The above result could be mimicked by a computer model consisting of pairs of oscillators in the rostral, middle, and caudal spinal cord that were connected by short- and long-distance coupling. With short-distance coupling blocked in the middle spinal cord, strychnine was applied to either the rostral or caudal spinal cord to convert the pattern locally from right-left alternation to synchronous burst activity. Synchronous burst activity in the rostral spinal cord resulted in a reduction in right-left phase values for burst activity in the caudal cord. These results also could be mimicked by the computer model. Strychnine-induced synchronous burst activity in the caudal spinal cord did not appear to alter the right-left phase values of rostral burst activity. Taken together, the experimental and modeling results suggest that the descending and ascending components of long

  1. Pharmacological activation of locomotor patterns in larval and adult frog spinal cords.

    PubMed

    McClellan, A D; Farel, P B

    1985-04-15

    The effects of amino acids, catecholamines, and their agonists shown to elicit locomotor activity in several vertebrate species were examined in spinal animals and isolated nervous systems of developing tadpoles (Rana catesbiana) and adult frogs (R. catesbiana and pipiens). Elicited activity was correlated in spinal animals by video and electromyographic analysis, and in in vitro spinal cords by recordings of tail and hindlimb motor activity. Of the agents tested, only N-methyl-DL-aspartate (NMA), an amino acid agonist, was effective in eliciting motor activity in spinal animals. In isolated nervous systems, both NMA and D-glutamate added to the bath activated locomotor activity. NMA injected i.p. into tadpoles with high spinal cord transections elicited coordinated swimming motor activity in axial and hindlimb muscles that was roughly typical for the stage of development of the animal. In late stage tadpoles (st. XX), NMA also elicited wiping and alternating or synchronous (i.e. kicking or jumping) hindlimb movements. Addition of NMA or glutamate to a bath containing an in vitro tadpole spinal cord preparation elicited ventral root motor activity characteristic of swimming, but without a rostrocaudal phase lag. Rhythmic activity thought to underlie stepping and kicking was seen in lateral ventral rootlets innervating the hindlimbs. In adult frogs with high spinal cord transections, injection of NMA elicited a general sequence of spontaneous hindlimb motor functions: reflex wiping, stepping, and kicking or jumping. Isolated frog spinal cords were not responsive to bath applied NMA, under the present conditions. The activation by amino acids or their agonists of different motor functions in both larval and adult frogs, as well as in higher and lower vertebrates, suggests a general significance of amino acid-activated receptors in the neural networks controlling locomotor function. PMID:3888346

  2. Withdrawal from THC during adolescence: sex differences in locomotor activity and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Harte-Hargrove, Lauren C; Dow-Edwards, Diana L

    2012-05-16

    Research suggests that the use and abuse of marijuana can be especially harmful if it occurs during adolescence, a period of vast developmental changes throughout the brain. Due to the localization of cannabinoid receptors within the limbic system and the established effects of cannabinoids on emotional states and anxiety levels of rats and humans, we studied the sex- and dose-related effects of Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the main psychoactive component in marijuana) on behavior and anxiety during spontaneous withdrawal. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were administered 2, 7.5 or 15 mg/kg THC or vehicle from postnatal day 35-41 (approximating mid-adolescence in humans). Locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviors were measured during drug administration and abstinence. THC caused significant dose-dependent locomotor depression during drug administration. Locomotor depression initially abated upon drug cessation, but re-emerged by the end of the abstinence period and was greater in female than male rats. We found sensitization to the locomotor-depressing effects of THC in middle- and high-dose rats and the subsequent development of tolerance in high-dose rats. The high dose of THC increased anxiety-like behaviors while the low dose decreased anxiety-like behaviors during drug administration, with females more sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of THC than males. During abstinence, females were again especially sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of THC. This study demonstrates sexually-dimorphic effects of THC on anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity during and after THC administration during adolescence. This information may be useful in the development of therapeutic approaches for the treatment of marijuana withdrawal in adolescents.

  3. Reduced locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in CC chemokine receptor 4 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ambrée, Oliver; Klassen, Irene; Förster, Irmgard; Arolt, Volker; Scheu, Stefanie; Alferink, Judith

    2016-11-01

    Chemokines and their receptors are key regulators of immune cell trafficking and activation. Recent findings suggest that they may also play pathophysiological roles in psychiatric diseases like depression and anxiety disorders. The CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and its two ligands, CCL17 and CCL22, are functionally involved in neuroinflammation as well as anti-infectious and autoimmune responses. However, their influence on behavior remains unknown. Here we characterized the functional role of the CCR4-CCL17 chemokine-receptor axis in the modulation of anxiety-related behavior, locomotor activity, and object exploration and recognition. Additionally, we investigated social exploration of CCR4 and CCL17 knockout mice and wild type (WT) controls. CCR4 knockout (CCR4(-/-)) mice exhibited fewer anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze, diminished locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, and social exploration, while their recognition memory was not affected. In contrast, CCL17 deficient mice did not show an altered behavior compared to WT mice regarding locomotor activity, anxiety-related behavior, social exploration, and object recognition memory. In the dark-light and object recognition tests, CCL17(-/-) mice even covered longer distances than WT mice. These data demonstrate a mechanistic or developmental role of CCR4 in the regulation of locomotor and exploratory behaviors, whereas the ligand CCL17 appears not to be involved in the behaviors measured here. Thus, either CCL17 and the alternative ligand CCL22 may be redundant, or CCL22 is the main activator of CCR4 in these processes. Taken together, these findings contribute to the growing evidence regarding the involvement of chemokines and their receptors in the regulation of behavior.

  4. QRFP and Its Receptors Regulate Locomotor Activity and Sleep in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Audrey; Chiu, Cindy N.; Mosser, Eric A.; Kahn, Sohini; Spence, Rory

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus plays an important role in regulating sleep, but few hypothalamic sleep-promoting signaling pathways have been identified. Here we demonstrate a role for the neuropeptide QRFP (also known as P518 and 26RFa) and its receptors in regulating sleep in zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate. We show that QRFP is expressed in ∼10 hypothalamic neurons in zebrafish larvae, which project to the hypothalamus, hindbrain, and spinal cord, including regions that express the two zebrafish QRFP receptor paralogs. We find that the overexpression of QRFP inhibits locomotor activity during the day, whereas mutation of qrfp or its receptors results in increased locomotor activity and decreased sleep during the day. Despite the restriction of these phenotypes to the day, the circadian clock does not regulate qrfp expression, and entrained circadian rhythms are not required for QRFP-induced rest. Instead, we find that QRFP overexpression decreases locomotor activity largely in a light-specific manner. Our results suggest that QRFP signaling plays an important role in promoting sleep and may underlie some aspects of hypothalamic sleep control. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The hypothalamus is thought to play a key role in regulating sleep in vertebrate animals, but few sleep-promoting signaling pathways that function in the hypothalamus have been identified. Here we use the zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate, to functionally and anatomically characterize the neuropeptide QRFP. We show that QRFP is exclusively expressed in a small number of neurons in the larval zebrafish hypothalamus that project widely in the brain. We also show that QRFP overexpression reduces locomotor activity, whereas animals that lack QRFP signaling are more active and sleep less. These results suggest that QRFP signaling participates in the hypothalamic regulation of sleep. PMID:26865608

  5. Conditioned Reinforcement and Locomotor Activating Effects of Caffeine and Ethanol Combinations in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Megan L.T.; May, Christina E.; Griffin, William C.

    2013-01-01

    A growing trend among ethanol drinkers, especially young adults, is to combine caffeinated energy drinks with ethanol during a drinking episode. The primary active ingredient of these mixers is caffeine, which may significantly interact with ethanol. We tested the two hypotheses that caffeine would enhance ethanol-conditioned place preference and also enhance ethanol-stimulated locomotor activity. The interactive pharmacology of ethanol and caffeine was examined in C57BL/6J (B6) mice in a conditioned place preference procedure with 1.75 g/kg ethanol and 3 mg/kg caffeine. Additionally, we used B6 mice to evaluate ethanol/caffeine combinations on locomotor activity using 3 doses of ethanol (1.75, 2.5 and 3.25 g/kg) and 2 two doses of caffeine (3 and 15 mg/kg). Both ethanol and caffeine administered alone increased preference for the drug paired side, though the effect of caffeine was more modest than that of ethanol. The drug combination produced significant place preference itself, but this was not greater than that for ethanol alone. Additionally, the combination of caffeine and ethanol significantly increased locomotion compared to giving either drug alone. The effect was strongest with a stimulatory dose of ethanol (1.75 g/kg) and waned with increasing doses of ethanol. Thus, combinations of caffeine and ethanol had significant conditioned reinforcing and locomotor activating effects in mice. PMID:23872371

  6. Building Zebrafish Neurobehavioral Phenomics: Effects of Common Environmental Factors on Anxiety and Locomotor Activity.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Kaluyeva, Alexandra A; Poudel, Manoj K; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish are emerging as an important model organism for neurobehavioral phenomics research. Given the likely variation of zebrafish behavioral phenotypes between and within laboratories, in this study, we examine the influence and variability of several common environmental modifiers on adult zebrafish anxiety and locomotor activity. Utilizing the novel tank paradigm, this study assessed the role of various laboratory factors, including experimenter/handling, testing time and days, batch, and the order of testing, on the behavior of a large population of experimentally naive control fish. Although time of the day, experimenter identity, and order of testing had little effect on zebrafish anxiety and locomotor activity levels, subtle differences were found for testing days and batches. Our study establishes how zebrafish behaviors are modulated by common environmental/laboratory factors and outlines several implications for zebrafish neurobehavioral phenomics research. PMID:26244595

  7. Building Zebrafish Neurobehavioral Phenomics: Effects of Common Environmental Factors on Anxiety and Locomotor Activity.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Kaluyeva, Alexandra A; Poudel, Manoj K; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish are emerging as an important model organism for neurobehavioral phenomics research. Given the likely variation of zebrafish behavioral phenotypes between and within laboratories, in this study, we examine the influence and variability of several common environmental modifiers on adult zebrafish anxiety and locomotor activity. Utilizing the novel tank paradigm, this study assessed the role of various laboratory factors, including experimenter/handling, testing time and days, batch, and the order of testing, on the behavior of a large population of experimentally naive control fish. Although time of the day, experimenter identity, and order of testing had little effect on zebrafish anxiety and locomotor activity levels, subtle differences were found for testing days and batches. Our study establishes how zebrafish behaviors are modulated by common environmental/laboratory factors and outlines several implications for zebrafish neurobehavioral phenomics research.

  8. Chromosome 1 replacement increases brain orexins and antidepressive measures without increasing locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pingfu; Hu, Yufen; Vurbic, Drina; Akladious, Afaf; Strohl, Kingman P

    2014-12-01

    Decreased orexin level has been well demonstrated in patients suffering from narcolepsy, depression accompanied with suicide attempt; obstructive sleep apnea and comorbidity were also demonstrated in these diseases. As C57BL/6J (B6) mice are more "depressed" and have lower brain orexins than A/J mice, B6 mice having chromosome 1 replacement (B6A1 mice) might have restored orexin levels and less depressive behavior. We studied the behavior of 4-6 month old B6, A/J and B6A1 mice with forced swim, tail suspension, and locomotor activity tests. The animals were then sacrificed and hypothalamus and medullas dissected from brain tissue. Orexins-A and -B were determined by radioimmunoassay. Compared with A/J mice, B6 mice displayed several signs of depression, including increased immobility, increased locomotors activity, and decreased orexin A and -B levels in both the hypothalamus and medulla. Compared to B6 mice, B6A1 mice exhibited significantly higher levels of orexins-A and -B in both brain regions. B6A1 mice also exhibited antidepressive features in most of measured variables, including decreased locomotor activity, decreased immobility and increased swim in tail suspension test; compared with B6 mice, however. B6A1 mice also reversed immobility in the early phase of the swim test. In summary, B6 mice exhibited depressive attributes compared with A/J mice, including increased locomotor activity, greater immobility, and decreased brain orexins, these were largely reversed in B6A1 mice. We conclude that orexin levels modulate these B6 behaviors, likely due to expression of A/J alleles on Chromosome 1.

  9. Music and Methamphetamine: Conditioned Cue-induced Increases in Locomotor Activity and Dopamine Release in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Polston, J.E.; Rubbinaccio, H.Y.; Morra, J.T.; Sell, E.M.; Glick, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between drugs of abuse and cues facilitate the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Although significant research has been done to elucidate the role that simple discriminative or discrete conditioned stimuli (e.g., a tone or a light) play in addiction, less is known about complex environmental cues. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of a musical conditioned stimulus by assessing locomotor activity and in vivo microdialysis. Two groups of rats were given non-contingent injections of methamphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) or vehicle and placed in standard conditioning chambers. During these conditioning sessions both groups were exposed to a continuous conditioned stimulus, in the form of a musical selection (“Four” by Miles Davis) played repeatedly for ninety minutes. After seven consecutive conditioning days subjects were given one day of rest, and subsequently tested for locomotor activity or dopamine release in the absence of drug while the musical conditioned stimulus was continually present. The brain regions examined included the basolateral amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex. The results show that music is an effective contextual conditioned stimulus, significantly increasing locomotor activity after repeated association with methamphetamine. Furthermore, this musical conditioned stimulus significantly increased extracellular dopamine levels in the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens. These findings support other evidence showing the importance of these brain regions in conditioned learning paradigms, and demonstrate that music is an effective conditioned stimulus warranting further investigation. PMID:21145911

  10. Preferred locomotor phase of activity of lumbar interneurons during air-stepping in subchronic spinal cats.

    PubMed

    AuYong, Nicholas; Ollivier-Lanvin, Karen; Lemay, Michel A

    2011-03-01

    Spinal locomotor circuits are intrinsically capable of driving a variety of behaviors such as stepping, scratching, and swimming. Based on an observed rostrocaudal wave of activity in the motoneuronal firing during locomotor tasks, the traveling-wave hypothesis proposes that spinal interneuronal firing follows a similar rostrocaudal pattern of activation, suggesting the presence of spatially organized interneuronal modules within the spinal motor system. In this study, we examined if the spatial organization of the lumbar interneuronal activity patterns during locomotor activity in the adult mammalian spinal cord was consistent with a traveling-wave organizational scheme. The activity of spinal interneurons within the lumbar intermediate zone was examined during air-stepping in subchronic spinal cats. The preferred phase of interneuronal activity during a step cycle was determined using circular statistics. We found that the preferred phases of lumbar interneurons from both sides of the cord were evenly distributed over the entire step cycle with no indication of functional groupings. However, when units were subcategorized according to spinal hemicords, the preferred phases of units on each side largely fell around the period of extensor muscle activity on each side. In addition, there was no correlation between the preferred phases of units and their rostrocaudal locations along the spinal cord with preferred phases corresponding to both flexion and extension phases of the step cycle found at every rostrocaudal level of the cord. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that interneurons operate as part of a longitudinally distributed network rather than a rostrocaudally organized traveling-wave network.

  11. Increased methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity and behavioral sensitization in histamine-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yasuhiko; Ito, Chihiro; Sakurai, Eiichi; Sakurai, Eiko; Watanabe, Takehiko; Ohtsu, Hiroshi

    2002-11-01

    We have recently suggested that the brain histamine has an inhibitory role on the behavioral effects of methamphetamine by pharmacological studies. In this study, we used the histidine decarboxylase gene knockout mice and measured the spontaneous locomotor activity, the changes of locomotion by single and repeated administrations of methamphetamine, and the contents of brain monoamines and amino acids at 1 h after a single administration of methamphetamine. In the histidine decarboxylase gene knockout mice, spontaneous locomotor activity during the dark period was significantly lower than in the wild-type mice. Interestingly, methamphetamine-induced locomotor hyperactivity and behavioral sensitization were facilitated more in the histidine decarboxylase gene knockout mice. In the neurochemical study, noradrenaline and O-phosphoserine were decreased in the midbrain of the saline-treated histidine decarboxylase gene knockout mice. On the other hand, single administration of methamphetamine decreased GABA content of the midbrain of the wild-type mice, but did not alter that of histidine decarboxylase gene knockout mice. These results suggest that the histamine neuron system plays a role as an awakening amine in concert with the noradrenaline neuron system, whereas it has an inhibitory role on the behavioral effects of methamphetamine through the interaction with the GABAergic neuron system.

  12. Alterations in locomotor activity induced by radioprotective doses of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2

    SciTech Connect

    Landauer, M.R.; Walden, T.L.; Davis, H.D.; Dominitz, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DiPGE2) is an effective radioprotectant when administered before irradiation. A notable side effect of this compound is sedation. In separate experiments, the dose-response determinations of the time course of locomotor activity and 30-day survival after 10 Gy gamma irradiation (LD100) were made. Adult male CD2F1 mice were injected subcutaneously with vehicle or DiPGE2 in doses ranging from 0.01 to 40 micrograms per mouse. A dose of 0.01 micrograms did not result in alterations in locomotor behaviour or enhance survival. Doses greater than 1 microgram produced ataxia and enhanced radiation survival in a dose-dependent fashion. Full recovery of locomotor activity did not occur until 6 and 30 hr after injection for the 10 microgram and 40 microgram groups, respectively. Radioprotection was observed when DiPGE2 was administered preirradiation but not postirradiation. Doses of 1 and 10 micrograms were maximally effective as a radioprotectant if injected 5 min prior to irradiation (80%-90% survival). A dose of 40 micrograms resulted in 100% survival when injected 5-30 min before irradiation. Therefore, increasing doses of DiPGE2 resulted in an enhanced effectiveness as a radioprotectant. However, the doses that were the most radioprotective were also the most debilitating to the animal.

  13. Developmental Deltamethrin Exposure Causes Persistent Changes in Dopaminergic Gene Expression, Neurochemistry, and Locomotor Activity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Tiffany S.; Richardson, Jason R.; Cooper, Keith R.; White, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroids are commonly used insecticides that are considered to pose little risk to human health. However, there is an increasing concern that children are more susceptible to the adverse effects of pesticides. We used the zebrafish model to test the hypothesis that developmental exposure to low doses of the pyrethroid deltamethrin results in persistent alterations in dopaminergic gene expression, neurochemistry, and locomotor activity. Zebrafish embryos were treated with deltamethrin (0.25–0.50 μg/l), at concentrations below the LOAEL, during the embryonic period [3–72 h postfertilization (hpf)], after which transferred to fresh water until the larval stage (2-weeks postfertilization). Deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased transcript levels of the D1 dopamine (DA) receptor (drd1) and increased levels of tyrosine hydroxylase at 72 hpf. The reduction in drd1 transcripts persisted to the larval stage and was associated with decreased D2 dopamine receptor transcripts. Larval fish, exposed developmentally to deltamethrin, had increased levels of homovanillic acid, a DA metabolite. Since the DA system is involved in locomotor activity, we measured the swim activity of larval fish following a transition to darkness. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin significantly increased larval swim activity which was attenuated by concomitant knockdown of the DA transporter. Acute exposure to methylphenidate, a DA transporter inhibitor, increased swim activity in control larva, while reducing swim activity in larva developmentally exposed to deltamethrin. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin causes locomotor deficits in larval zebrafish, which is likely mediated by dopaminergic dysfunction. This highlights the need to understand the persistent effects of low-dose neurotoxicant exposure during development. PMID:25912032

  14. Analysis of Indonesian Spice Essential Oil Compounds That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muchtaridi; Diantini, Adjeng; Subarnas, Anas

    2011-01-01

    Some fragrance components of spices used for cooking are known to have an effect on human behavior. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum formacitratum L.) leaves, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates L.) herbs, ki lemo (Litsea cubeba L.) bark, and laja gowah (Alpinia malaccencis Roxb.) rhizomes on locomotor activity in mice and identify the active component(s) that might be responsible for the activity. The effect of the essential oils was studied by a wheel cage method and the active compounds of the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis. The essential oils were administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that the four essential oils had inhibitory effects on locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of the essential oils of basil leaves, lemongrass herbs, ki lemo bark, and laja gowah rhizomes showed the highest inhibitory activity at doses of 0.5 (57.64%), 0.1 (55.72%), 0.5 (60.75%), and 0.1 mL/cage (47.09%), respectively. The major volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, 4-terpineol, citronelol, citronelal, and methyl cinnamate were identified in blood plasma of mice after inhalation of the four oils. These compounds had a significant inhibitory effect on locomotion after inhalation. The volatile compounds of essential oils identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

  15. Effect of Environmental Conditions and Toxic Compounds on the Locomotor Activity of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, I; Toloza, A C; Gonzalez-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G A; Alvarez-Costa, A; Roca-Acevedo, G; Picollo, M I

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effect of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and light on the locomotor activity of Pediculus humanus capitis. In addition, we used selected conditions of temperature, humidity, and light to study the effects of cypermethrin and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) on the locomotor activity of head lice. Head lice increased their locomotor activity in an arena at 30°C compared with activity at 20°C. When we tested the influence of the humidity level, the locomotor activity of head lice showed no significant differences related to humidity level, both at 30°C and 20°C. Concerning light influence, we observed that the higher the intensity of light, the slower the movement of head lice. We also demonstrated that sublethal doses of toxics may alter locomotor activity in adults of head lice. Sublethal doses of cypermethrin induced hyperactivated responses in adult head lice. Sublethal doses of DEET evocated hypoactivated responses in head lice. The observation of stereotyped behavior in head lice elicited by toxic compounds proved that measuring locomotor activity in an experimental set-up where environmental conditions are controlled would be appropriate to evaluate compounds of biological importance, such as molecules involved in the host-parasite interaction and intraspecific relationships. PMID:26336260

  16. Effect of Environmental Conditions and Toxic Compounds on the Locomotor Activity of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, I; Toloza, A C; Gonzalez-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G A; Alvarez-Costa, A; Roca-Acevedo, G; Picollo, M I

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effect of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and light on the locomotor activity of Pediculus humanus capitis. In addition, we used selected conditions of temperature, humidity, and light to study the effects of cypermethrin and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) on the locomotor activity of head lice. Head lice increased their locomotor activity in an arena at 30°C compared with activity at 20°C. When we tested the influence of the humidity level, the locomotor activity of head lice showed no significant differences related to humidity level, both at 30°C and 20°C. Concerning light influence, we observed that the higher the intensity of light, the slower the movement of head lice. We also demonstrated that sublethal doses of toxics may alter locomotor activity in adults of head lice. Sublethal doses of cypermethrin induced hyperactivated responses in adult head lice. Sublethal doses of DEET evocated hypoactivated responses in head lice. The observation of stereotyped behavior in head lice elicited by toxic compounds proved that measuring locomotor activity in an experimental set-up where environmental conditions are controlled would be appropriate to evaluate compounds of biological importance, such as molecules involved in the host-parasite interaction and intraspecific relationships.

  17. The time of day differently influences fatigue and locomotor activity: is body temperature a key factor?

    PubMed

    Machado, Frederico Sander Mansur; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between exercise capacity and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) during the oscillation of core body temperature (Tb) that occurs during the light/dark cycle. Wistar rats (n=11) were kept at an animal facility under a light/dark cycle of 14/10h at an ambient temperature of 23°C and water and food ad libitum. Initially, in order to characterize the daily oscillation in SLA and Tb of the rats, these parameters were continuously recorded for 24h using an implantable telemetric sensor (G2 E-Mitter). The animals were randomly assigned to two progressive exercise test protocols until fatigue during the beginning of light and dark-phases. Fatigue was defined as the moment rats could not keep pace with the treadmill. We assessed the time to fatigue, workload and Tb changes induced by exercise. Each test was separated by 3days. Our results showed that exercise capacity and heat storage were higher during the light-phase (p<0.05). In contrast, we observed that both SLA and Tb were higher during the dark-phase (p<0.01). Notably, the correlation analysis between the amount of SLA and the running capacity observed at each phase of the daily cycle revealed that, regardless of the time of the day, both types of locomotor physical activity have an important inherent component (r=0.864 and r=0.784, respectively, p<0.01) without a direct relationship between them. This finding provides further support for the existence of specific control mechanisms for each type of physical activity. In conclusion, our data indicate that the relationship between the body temperature and different types of physical activity might be affected by the light/dark cycle. These results mean that, although exercise performance and spontaneous locomotor activity are not directly associated, both are strongly influenced by daily cycles of light and dark. PMID:25479573

  18. Serotonergic involvement in methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity: a detailed pharmacological study.

    PubMed

    Steed, Emily; Jones, Caitlin A; McCreary, Andrew C

    2011-06-20

    The mechanism by which the psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) increases locomotor activity may be attributable to indirect activation of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) receptors. In the present study, the ability of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine, 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonists WAY100635, GR127935, M100907 and SB242084, and the 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists WAY163909 and Ro 60-0175 or the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) to alter METH-induced hyperactivity was analysed. Further, for comparative purposes, the involvement of the DA D(1) and D(2) receptor antagonists SCH23390 and haloperidol, D(2) partial agonists terguride, (-)3PPP and aripiprazole and finally clozapine were assessed. Doses of pCPA that attenuated 5-HT levels reduced METH activity. The 5-HT(1B) antagonist GR127935 had no effect on METH-induced locomotor activity but blocked that induced by MDMA. The 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY100635 reduced activity but this did not reach significance. In contrast, M100907 (minimal effective dose; MED=0.125 mg/kg), WAY163909 (MED=3mg/kg), Ro 60-0175 (MED=3mg/kg), haloperidol (MED=0.1mg/kg), clozapine (MED=5mg/kg), aripiprazole (MED=1mg/kg), (-)3PPP (MED=3mg/kg), terguride (MED=0.2mg/kg) and SCH23390 (MED=0.001325 mg/kg) attenuated METH-induced locomotor activity. Administration of 20mg/kg fluvoxamine attenuated, while SB242084 (MED=0.25mg/kg) potentiated METH-induced activity. These results contribute significantly to the understanding of the mechanism of action of this psychostimulant and suggest for the first time, that METH-induced locomotor stimulation is modulated by 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors, but demonstrate that 5-HT(1B) receptors are not directly involved. The involvement of the dopaminergic system was also demonstrated.

  19. Pineal melatonin and locomotor activity of rats under gradual illuminance transitions.

    PubMed

    Laakso, M L; Leinonen, L; Joutsiniemi, S L; Porkka-Heiskanen, T; Stenberg, D

    1992-10-01

    The locomotor activity and pineal melatonin patterns of adult male rats were compared under two different lighting regimes. The animals were kept 8 days under 12/12 h light/dark cycles with abrupt or slowly decreasing and increasing transitions (twilight periods about 2 h). The onsets of high activity and melatonin rise were phase-locked in the two conditions and related to about half-maximal illuminance level of the gradual dusk. The high activity of the control rats stopped 30-60 min before the abrupt light onset and the rats under the gradual lighting transitions ceased the locomotor activity at about 1 hour before the half-maximal illuminance. The melatonin peak levels were found 4 h before the abrupt lights-on time. Under the slow illuminance transitions the average melatonin peak was related to the illuminance level between maximum and minimum in the morning. Thus, both the melatonin rhythm and the rest-activity rhythm under the gradual dawn and dusk were adjusted according to about half-maximal illuminances in the present conditions.

  20. Locomotor activity, object exploration and space preference in children with autism and Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kawa, Rafał; Pisula, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    There have been ambiguous accounts of exploration in children with intellectual disabilities with respect to the course of that exploration, and in particular the relationship between the features of explored objects and exploratory behaviour. It is unclear whether reduced exploratory activity seen with object exploration but not with locomotor activity is autism-specific or if it is also present in children with other disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to compare preschool children with autism with their peers with Down syndrome and typical development in terms of locomotor activity and object exploration and to determine whether the complexity of explored objects affects the course of exploration activity in children with autism. In total there were 27 children in the study. The experimental room was divided into three zones equipped with experimental objects providing visual stimulation of varying levels of complexity. Our results indicate that children with autism and Down syndrome differ from children with typical development in terms of some measures of object exploration (i.e. looking at objects) and time spent in the zone with the most visually complex objects.

  1. Orexin A enhances locomotor activity and induces anxiogenic-like action in the goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Nakamachi, Tomoya; Shibata, Haruki; Sakashita, Atsushi; Iinuma, Naoto; Wada, Kohei; Konno, Norifumi; Matsuda, Kouhei

    2014-07-01

    Orexin acts as an orexigenic factor for the regulation of appetite and rhythmicity in rodents. In goldfish, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of orexin A has been shown to affect not only food intake, but also locomotor activity. However, as there is still no information regarding the effect of orexin A on emotional behavior in goldfish, we investigated the effect of orexin A on psychomotor activity in this species. Intracerebroventricular administration of synthetic orexin A at 2 and 4pmol/g body weight (BW) enhanced locomotor activity, and this enhancement by orexin A at 4pmol/g BW was attenuated by treatment with the orexin receptor 1 antagonist, SB334867, at 10pmol/g BW. Since intact goldfish prefer a black to a white background area, or the lower to the upper area of a tank, we used two types of preference tests (black/white and upper/lower tests) for measuring anxiety-like behavior in goldfish. Intracerebroventricular administration of orexin A at 4pmol/g BW shortened the time spent in the white background area, and increased the time taken to move from the lower to the upper area. This action of orexin A mimicked that of the central-type benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist, FG-7142 (an anxiogenic agent), at 4pmol/g BW. The anxiogenic-like effect of orexin A was abolished by treatment with SB334867 at 10pmol/g BW. These results indicate that orexin A potently affects psychomotor activity in goldfish.

  2. [The behaviour and respiration features in rabbits with different pattern of their open field locomotor activity].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, I V; Levshina, I P; Venetsian, G L; Shuĭkin, N N; Ziablitseva, E A

    2005-09-01

    Behavior of 19 Chinchilla rabbits was tested in the open field. By the results of the first trial, animals were divided into three groups by the type of the exploratory locomotor activity (passive--37%; active--21; and medium--42%). During the repeated open field trials, the passive rabbits increased their activity and the active ones decreased it. Correlations were found between the open field behavior and patterns of the external respiration in the absence of movements. The longest respiratory cycles, expirations and respiratory breath holdings were observed in passive rabbits. Animals with prevailing right turnings in the open field displayed longer respiratory cycles and expirations than those with prevailing left turnings. It seems that the pattern of external respiration can predict the passive defensive strategy of rabbits in negative emotional situations.

  3. Effect of light-dark changes on the locomotor activity in open field in adult rats and opossums.

    PubMed

    Klejbor, I; Ludkiewicz, B; Turlejski, K

    2013-11-01

    There have been no reports on how the light-dark changes determine the locomotor activity of animals in the group of high reactivity (HR) and low reactivity (LR). In the present study we have compared selected parameters of the locomotor activity of the HR and the LR groups of the laboratory opossums and Wistar rats during consecutive, light and dark phases in the open field test. Sixty male Wistar adult rats, at an average weight of 350 g each, and 24 adult Monodelphis opossums of both sexes at an average weight of 120 g each were used. The animals' activity for 2 h daily between the hours of 17:30 and 19:30, in line with the natural light-dark cycle were recorded and then analysed using VideoTrack ver.2.0 (Vievpoint France). According to our results, we noted that a change of the experimental conditions from light to dark involves an increase in the locomotor activity in rats and opossums of the HR group, while there is no effect on the activity of the rats and opossums in the LR group. Locomotor activity in the HR rats, both in the light and dark conditions is characterised by a consistent pattern of change - higher activity in the first stage of the recording and a slowdown (habituation) in the second phase of the observation. The locomotor activity of the opossum, during both light and dark conditions, was observed to be at a consistently high level compared to the rats.

  4. Time-dependent effects of leptin on food intake and locomotor activity in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Y; Azpeleta, C; Feliciano, A; Velarde, E; Isorna, E; Delgado, M J; De Pedro, N

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigates the possible circadian dependence of leptin effects on food intake, locomotor activity, glycemia and plasma cortisol levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fish were maintained under 12L:12D photoperiod and subjected to two different feeding schedules, one group fed during photophase (10:00) and the other one during scotophase (22:00). Leptin or saline were intraperitoneally injected at two different times (10:00 or 22:00), coincident or not with the meal time. To eliminate the entraining effect of the light/dark cycle, goldfish maintained under 24h light (LL) were fed and leptin-injected at 10:00. A reduction in food intake and locomotor activity and an increase in glycemia were found in goldfish fed and leptin-injected at 10:00. No significant changes in circulating cortisol were observed. Those effects were not observed when leptin was administered during the scotophase, regardless the feeding schedule; neither in fish maintained under LL, suggesting that a day/night cycle would be necessary to observe the actions of leptin administered during the photophase. Changes in locomotor activity and glycemia were only observed in goldfish when leptin was injected at daytime, coincident with the feeding schedule, suggesting that these leptin actions could be dependent on the feeding time as zeitgeber. In view of these results it appears that the circadian dependence of leptin actions in goldfish can be determined by the combination of both zeitgebers, light/dark cycle and food. Our results point out the relevance of the administration time when investigating regulatory functions of hormones.

  5. Effects of cocaine on norepinephrine stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and locomotor activity in rat

    SciTech Connect

    Mosaddeghi, M.

    1989-01-01

    The function of {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors was determined by stimulating cortical tissue slices, which were pre-labeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol, with norepinephrine (NE) in the presence of 8 mM LiCl. Results of in vitro studies showed that cocaine 10 {mu}M potentiated maximal NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis by 30%. In addition, the EC{sub 50} was decreased from 3.93 {plus minus} 0.42 to 1.91 {plus minus} 0.31 {mu}M NE. Concentrations of 0.1-100 {mu}M and 0.1-10 {mu}M cocaine enhanced PI hydrolysis stimulated by 0.3 and 3 {mu}M NE, respectively. The concentration-effect curves for NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis were shifted to the right 100-fold in the presence of 0.1 {mu}M prazosin. Cocaine (10 {mu}M) did not potentiate NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis in the presence of 0.1 {mu}M prazosin. ({sup 3}H)Prazosin saturation and NE ({sup 3}H)prazosin competition binding studies using crude membrane preparations showed that 10 {mu}M cocaine did not alter binding parameters B{sub max}, K{sub d}, Hill slope, and IC{sub 50}. Together, these results implied that cocaine in vitro potentiated NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis by blocking NE reuptake. For in vivo studies, the locomotor activity was determined after an acute or chronic injections of either cocaine or saline. Cocaine or saline-treated rats were killed after measurement of the locomotor activity, and NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis was measured. Acute administration of cocaine 3.2-42 mg/kg (i.p.) produced an inverted U shaped dose-response curve on locomotor activity. The peak increase in locomotor activity was at 32 mg/kg cocaine. A dose of 42 mg/kg cocaine produced a significant depression of maximal NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis.

  6. Nicotine-induced locomotor activity is increased by preexposure of rats to prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    Koehl, M; Bjijou, Y; Le Moal, M; Cador, M

    2000-11-01

    Genetic factors are believed to play a predominant role in the individual differences observed in behavioral and pharmacological responses to drugs of abuse. An increasing literature indicates, however, that epigenetic factors can be involved as well. In this report we examined whether developmental changes induced by prenatal stress could alter the way animals respond to the psychostimulant effect of nicotine when adults. The results show that nicotine induces a dose-dependent increase of locomotor activity in both groups, and that prenatally-stressed animals exhibit a higher behavioral response at all doses. This study emphasizes the importance of early environment in the later development of drug-related behavior. PMID:11056199

  7. Dopamine exerts activation-dependent modulation of spinal locomotor circuits in the neonatal mouse.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Jennifer M; Whelan, Patrick J

    2012-12-01

    Monoamines can modulate the output of a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate networks, including the spinal cord networks that control walking. Here we examined the multiple changes in the output of locomotor networks induced by dopamine (DA). We found that DA can depress the activation of locomotor networks in the neonatal mouse spinal cord following ventral root stimulation. By examining disinhibited rhythms, where the Renshaw cell pathway was blocked, we found that DA depresses a putative recurrent excitatory pathway that projects onto rhythm-generating circuitry of the spinal cord. This depression was D(2) but not D(1) receptor dependent and was not due exclusively to depression of excitatory drive to motoneurons. Furthermore, the depression in excitation was not dependent on network activity. We next compared the modulatory effects of DA on network function by focusing on a serotonin and a N-methyl-dl-aspartate-evoked rhythm. In contrast to the depressive effects on a ventral root-evoked rhythm, we found that DA stabilized a drug-evoked rhythm, reduced the frequency of bursting, and increased amplitude. Overall, these data demonstrate that DA can potentiate network activity while at the same time reducing the gain of recurrent excitatory feedback loops from motoneurons onto the network.

  8. A computerized system for the simultaneous monitoring of place conditioning and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Brockwell, N T; Ferguson, D S; Beninger, R J

    1996-02-01

    Place conditioning is one of the most popular behavioral methods for assessing the rewarding properties of various substances. Many substances that are rewarding also influence motor activity. This report describes a computerized system designed to simultaneously monitor both place conditioning and locomotor activity. The system consists of 4 independent conditioning boxes, each equipped with 6 pairs of photosensors connected to an Experiment Controller, an electronic board containing a microprocessor, a programable timer, and 16 K of RAM used to store both instructions and data. The effects of the stimulant (+)-amphetamine were assessed using this system and found to produce a place preference comparable to that obtained from a previously utilized mechanical timer system. The computerized system also demonstrated that amphetamine increased unconditioned activity. There are a number of advantages and broader applications of the new methodology.

  9. Adult Female Rats Altered Diurnal Locomotor Activity Pattern Following Chronic Methylphenidate Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, T.; Kohllepin, S; Yang, P.B.; Burau, K.D.; Dafny, N.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed pharmacological agents and also used as cognitive enhancement and for recreational purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate the repetitive dose-response effects of MPD on rhythm locomotor activity pattern of female WKY rats and compare to prior study done on male. The hypothesis is that change in the circadian activity pattern indicates a long-lasting effect of the drug. Four animal groups (saline control, 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg MPD dose groups) were housed in a sound-controlled room at 12:12 light/dark cycle. All received saline injections on experimental day 1 (ED 1). On EDs 2-7, the control group received saline injection; the other groups received 0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg MPD, respectively. On ED 8-10, injections were withheld. On ED 11, each group received the same dose as EDs 2-7. Hourly histograms and cosine statistical analyses calculating the acrophase (ϕ), amplitude (A), and MESOR (M) were applied to assess the 24-hour circadian activity pattern. The 0.6 and 2.5 mg/kg MPD groups exhibited significant (p<0.05) change in their circadian activity pattern on ED 11. The 10.0 mg/kg MPD group exhibited tolerance on ED 11 and also a significant change in activity pattern on ED 8 compared to ED 1, consistent with withdrawal behavior (p<0.007). In conclusion, chronic MPD administration alters circadian locomotor activity of adult female WKY rats and confirms that chronic MPD use elicits long lasting effects PMID:23893293

  10. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  11. Sexual differences in post-hatching Saunders's gulls: size, locomotor activity, and foraging skill.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jongmin; Lee, Seung-Hee; Joo, Eun-Jin; Na, Ki-Jeong; Park, Shi-Ryong

    2013-04-01

    Various selection pressures induce the degree and direction of sexual size dimorphism in animals. Selection favors either larger males for contests over mates or resources, or smaller males are favored for maneuverability; whereas larger females are favored for higher fecundity, or smaller females for earlier maturation for reproduction. In the genus of Larus (seagulls), adult males are generally known to be larger in size than adult females. However, the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism is not well understood, compared to that in adults. The present study investigates the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism in Saunders's gulls (Larus saundersi) in captivity. We artificially incubated fresh eggs collected in Incheon, South Korea, and measured body size, locomotor activity, and foraging skill in post-hatching chicks in captivity. Our results indicated that the sexual differences in size and locomotor activity occurred with the post-hatching development. Also, larger males exhibited greater foraging skills for food acquisition than smaller females at 200 days of age. Future studies should assess how the adaptive significance of the sexual size dimorphism in juveniles is linked with sexual divergence in survival rates, intrasexual contests, or parental effort in sexes.

  12. Methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity and behavioral sensitization: are dopamine d3 receptors involved?

    PubMed

    Jones, C D; Bartee, J A; Leite-Browning, M L; Blackshear, M A

    2007-05-15

    Drug sensitization is a behavioral phenomenon that occurs following repeated administration of methamphetamine (METH) and similar CNS stimulants. The mechanism of drug sensitization is unknown, but is believed to be due to downregulation of dopamine D3 receptors. It is hypothesized that repeated administration of dopamine D3 agonists results in downregulation of D3 receptors in methamphetamine-induced (METH-IND) sensitization. Furthermore, repeated administration of dopamine D3 antagonists and METH cause upregulation of D3 receptors and block METH-IND sensitization. The objective of this study was to determine the role of D3 receptors in METH-IND sensitization. To test these hypotheses, male mice received chronic injections (i.p.) of 2 mg/kg of the dopamine D3 agonist, PD128907 plus 0.5 mg/kg of METH or 8 mg/kg of D3 antagonist, U99194A and 0.5 mg\\kg of METH daily for 7-days. Drugs were withdrawn on day 8, and METH-IND sensitization was determined on day 18. Locomotor activity was measured for 75 minutes immediately after METH administration in an activity monitor. Acute administration of PD128907 decreased METH-IND locomotion, p < 0. 01, and acute U99194A increased it. However, chronic administration of these drugs did not alter the locomotor effects of METH (p > 0.05). These findings support in-part the hypothesis that dopamine D3 receptors are downregulated in METH-IND sensitization.

  13. Brain and pineal 7α-hydroxypregnenolone stimulating locomotor activity: identification, mode of action and regulation of biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Haraguchi, Shogo; Fukada, Yoshitaka; Vaudry, Hubert

    2013-08-01

    Biologically active steroids synthesized in the central and peripheral nervous systems are termed neurosteroids. However, the biosynthetic pathways leading to the formation of neurosteroids are still incompletely elucidated. 7α-Hydroxypregnenolone, a novel bioactive neurosteroid stimulating locomotor activity, has been recently identified in the brain of newts and quail. Subsequently, the mode of action and regulation of biosynthesis of 7α-hydroxypregnenolone have been determined. Moreover, recent studies on birds have demonstrated that the pineal gland, an endocrine organ located close to the brain, is an important site of production of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol. 7α-Hydroxypregnenolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that stimulates locomotor activity in juvenile chickens, connecting light-induced gene expression with locomotion. This review summarizes the advances in our understanding of the identification, mode of action and regulation of biosynthesis of brain and pineal 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, a potent stimulator of locomotor activity.

  14. Behavioral and locomotor measurements using an open field activity monitoring system for skeletal muscle diseases.

    PubMed

    Tatem, Kathleen S; Quinn, James L; Phadke, Aditi; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-09-29

    The open field activity monitoring system comprehensively assesses locomotor and behavioral activity levels of mice. It is a useful tool for assessing locomotive impairment in animal models of neuromuscular disease and efficacy of therapeutic drugs that may improve locomotion and/or muscle function. The open field activity measurement provides a different measure than muscle strength, which is commonly assessed by grip strength measurements. It can also show how drugs may affect other body systems as well when used with additional outcome measures. In addition, measures such as total distance traveled mirror the 6 min walk test, a clinical trial outcome measure. However, open field activity monitoring is also associated with significant challenges: Open field activity measurements vary according to animal strain, age, sex, and circadian rhythm. In addition, room temperature, humidity, lighting, noise, and even odor can affect assessment outcomes. Overall, this manuscript provides a well-tested and standardized open field activity SOP for preclinical trials in animal models of neuromuscular diseases. We provide a discussion of important considerations, typical results, data analysis, and detail the strengths and weaknesses of open field testing. In addition, we provide recommendations for optimal study design when using open field activity in a preclinical trial.

  15. Behavioral and locomotor measurements using an open field activity monitoring system for skeletal muscle diseases.

    PubMed

    Tatem, Kathleen S; Quinn, James L; Phadke, Aditi; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-01-01

    The open field activity monitoring system comprehensively assesses locomotor and behavioral activity levels of mice. It is a useful tool for assessing locomotive impairment in animal models of neuromuscular disease and efficacy of therapeutic drugs that may improve locomotion and/or muscle function. The open field activity measurement provides a different measure than muscle strength, which is commonly assessed by grip strength measurements. It can also show how drugs may affect other body systems as well when used with additional outcome measures. In addition, measures such as total distance traveled mirror the 6 min walk test, a clinical trial outcome measure. However, open field activity monitoring is also associated with significant challenges: Open field activity measurements vary according to animal strain, age, sex, and circadian rhythm. In addition, room temperature, humidity, lighting, noise, and even odor can affect assessment outcomes. Overall, this manuscript provides a well-tested and standardized open field activity SOP for preclinical trials in animal models of neuromuscular diseases. We provide a discussion of important considerations, typical results, data analysis, and detail the strengths and weaknesses of open field testing. In addition, we provide recommendations for optimal study design when using open field activity in a preclinical trial. PMID:25286313

  16. Locomotor activity in a novel environment as a test of inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Matson, David J; Broom, Daniel C; Cortright, Daniel N

    2010-01-01

    Creating a robust and unbiased assay for the study of current and novel analgesics has been a daunting task. Traditional rodent models of pain and inflammation typically rely on a negative reaction to various forms of evoked stimuli to elicit a pain response and are subject to rater interpretation. Recently, models such as weight bearing and gait analysis have been developed to address these drawbacks while detecting a drug's analgesic properties. We have recently developed the Reduction of Spontaneous Activity by Adjuvant (RSAA) model as a quick, unbiased method for the testing of potential analgesics. Rats, following prior administration of an activity-decreasing inflammatory insult, will positively increase spontaneous locomotor exploration when given single doses of known analgesics. The RSAA model capitalizes on a rat's spontaneous exploratory behavior in a novel environment with the aid of computer tracking software to quantify movement and eliminate rater bias.

  17. Multiple monoaminergic modulation of posturo-locomotor network activity in the newborn rat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Beliez, Lauriane; Barrière, Gregory; Bertrand, Sandrine S.; Cazalets, Jean-René

    2014-01-01

    Studies devoted to understanding locomotor control have mainly addressed the functioning of the neural circuits controlling leg movements and relatively little is known of the operation of networks that activate trunk muscles in coordination with limb movements. The aim of the present work was (1) to identify the exogenous neurotransmitter cocktail that most strongly activates postural thoracic circuitry; (2) to investigate how the biogenic amines serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and noradrenaline (NA) modulate the coordination between limb and axial motor networks. Experiments were carried out on in vitro isolated spinal cord preparations from newborn rats. We recorded from ventral roots to monitor hindlimb locomotor and axial postural network activity. Each combination of the three amines with excitatory amino acids (EAAs) elicited coordinated rhythmic motor activity at all segmental levels with specific characteristics. The variability in cycle period was similar with 5-HT and DA while it was significantly higher with NA. DA elicited motor bursts of smaller amplitude in thoracic segments compared to 5-HT and NA, while both DA and NA elicited motor bursts of higher amplitude than 5-HT in the lumbar and sacral segments. The amines modulated the phase relationships of bursts in various segments with respect to the reference lumbar segment. At the thoracic level there was a phase lag between all recorded segments in the presence of 5-HT, while DA and NA elicited synchronous bursting. At the sacral level, 5-HT and DA induced an intersegmental phase shift while relationships became phase-locked with NA. Various combinations of EAAs with two or even all three amines elicited rhythmic motor output that was more variable than with one amine alone. Our results provide new data on the coordinating processes between spinal cord networks, demonstrating that each amine has a characteristic “signature” regarding its specific effect on intersegmental phase relationships

  18. The effect of 5-HT1A receptor agonists on locomotor activity in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Evenden, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    1. The present study examined the effects of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), flesinoxan, ipsapirone and buspirone, all agonists at the 5-HT1A receptor, on the locomotor activity of guinea-pigs. The effects of these drugs were contrasted with those of the non-selective 5-HT agonist, 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyl tryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and the dopamine D2 antagonist, raclopride. 2. 8-OH-DPAT, flesinoxan and 5-MeO-DMT markedly increased the locomotor activity of naive, unhabituated guinea-pigs in a dose-dependent manner. Buspirone also did so, although to a lesser extent and for a shorter time. The doses at which this effect was seen were higher than those normally employed in rats. Ipsapirone and raclopride had no significant effects on locomotor activity. 3. The locomotor activity increasing effect of 1.0 mg kg-1 8-OH-DPAT was blocked by the selective 5-HT1A antagonist (S)-UH-301 (3.0 and 10.0 mg kg-1), but not by (-)-alprenolol (15.0 mg kg-1). Ipsapirone (30.0 mg kg-1) and raclopride (3.0 mg kg-1) antagonized 8-OH-DPAT-induced locomotor activity but only to a small extent. The 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, zimelidine (10.0 mg kg-1) had no effect. 4. The effect of the 5-HT1A agonists in the guinea-pig contrasts with the effects of 8-OH-DPAT on the locomotor activity of unhabituated rats and mice tested in the same apparatus, but are similar to the effects of 8-OH-DPAT on habituated rats, which show a low baseline of activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921613

  19. The role of leg touchdown for the control of locomotor activity in the walking stick insect

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Joscha; Büschges, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    Much is known on how select sensory feedback contributes to the activation of different motoneuron pools in the locomotor control system of stick insects. However, even though activation of the stance phase muscles depressor trochanteris, retractor unguis, flexor tibiae and retractor coxae is correlated with the touchdown of the leg, the potential sensory basis of this correlation or its connection to burst intensity remains unknown. In our experiments, we are using a trap door setup to investigate how ground contact contributes to stance phase muscle activation and burst intensity in different stick insect species, and which afferent input is involved in the respective changes. While the magnitude of activation is changed in all of the above stance phase muscles, only the timing of the flexor tibiae muscle is changed if the animal unexpectedly steps into a hole. Individual and combined ablation of different force sensors on the leg demonstrated influence from femoral campaniform sensilla on flexor muscle timing, causing a significant increase in the latencies during control and air steps. Our results show that specific load feedback signals determine the timing of flexor tibiae activation at the swing-to-stance transition in stepping stick insects, but that additional feedback may also be involved in flexor muscle activation during stick insect locomotion. With respect to timing, all other investigated stance phase muscles appear to be under sensory control other than that elicited through touchdown. PMID:25652931

  20. The fungicide imazalil induces developmental abnormalities and alters locomotor activity during early developmental stages in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Zhu, Zhihong; Wang, Yueyi; Yang, Enlu; Feng, Xiayan; Fu, Zhengwei

    2016-06-01

    The fungicide imazalil (IMZ) is used extensively to protect vegetable fields, fruit plantations and post-harvest crops from rot. Likely due to its wide-spread use, IMZ is frequently detected in vegetable, fruit, soil and even surface water samples. Even though several previous studies have reported on the neurotoxicity of IMZ, its effects on the neurobehavior of zebrafish have received little attention to date. In this study, we show that the heartbeat and hatchability of zebrafish were significantly influenced by IMZ concentrations of 300 μg L(-1) or higher. Moreover, in zebrafish larvae, locomotor behaviors such as average swimming speed and swimming distance were significantly decreased after exposure to 300 μg L(-1) IMZ for 96 h, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression and activity were consistently inhibited in IMZ-treated fish. Our results further suggest that IMZ could act as a neuroendocrine disruptor by decreasing the expression of neurotoxicity-related genes such as Glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap), Myelin basic protein (Mbp) and Sonic hedgehog a (Shha) during early developmental stages of zebrafish. In conclusion, we show that exposure to IMZ has the potential to induce developmental toxicity and locomotor behavior abnormalities during zebrafish development. PMID:27035382

  1. [Comparative study of the pharmacological properties of sultopride sulpiride and other antipsychotic drugs: influence of sultopride, sulpiride and other antipsychotic drugs on spontaneous locomotor activity and changes in locomotor activity induced by apomorphine and clonidine in mice].

    PubMed

    Horikomi, K; Fujita, M

    1986-09-01

    To elucidate pharmacological properties of sultopride and sulpiride, their effects on spontaneous locomotor activity, apomorphine-induced hyper- and hypoactivity, and clonidine-induced hypoactivity in mice were examined by use of a photocell activity meter in comparison with the effects of other antipsychotic drugs. Sultopride did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity, whereas it potentiated apomorphine-induced hyperactivity at low doses and inhibited it at high doses. Sultopride also dose-dependently antagonized apomorphine-induced hypoactivity at limited doses. By contrast, sulpiride, in a wide range of doses, exhibited enhancement of apomorphine-induced hyperactivity and antagonization of apomorphine-induced hypoactivity. Furthermore, the activities of sulpiride were more potent than those of sultopride. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine inhibited spontaneous locomotor activity and apomorphine-induced hyperactivity and slightly antagonized apomorphine-induced hypoactivity. Pimozide increased spontaneous locomotor activity but inhibited it at high doses, while also potentiating apomorphine-induced hyperactivity at small doses and inhibiting it at large doses. Pimozide did not markedly affect apomorphine-induced hypoactivity. None of the drugs studied except for imipramine and yohimbine affected clonidine-induced hypoactivity. These results indicate that sultopride has somewhat different pharmacological properties from those of sulpiride and other antipsychotic drugs. These results also suggest that sultopride would have good therapeutic efficacy in schizophrenic disorders.

  2. Running behavior and its energy cost in mice selectively bred for high voluntary locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Enrico L; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Locomotion is central to behavior and intrinsic to many fitness-critical activities (e.g., migration, foraging), and it competes with other life-history components for energy. However, detailed analyses of how changes in locomotor activity and running behavior affect energy budgets are scarce. We quantified these effects in four replicate lines of house mice that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (S lines) and in their four nonselected control lines (C lines). We monitored wheel speeds and oxygen consumption for 24-48 h to determine daily energy expenditure (DEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), locomotor costs, and running behavior (bout characteristics). Daily running distances increased roughly 50%-90% in S lines in response to selection. After we controlled for body mass effects, selection resulted in a 23% increase in DEE in males and a 6% increase in females. Total activity costs (DEE - RMR) accounted for 50%-60% of DEE in both S and C lines and were 29% higher in S males and 5% higher in S females compared with their C counterparts. Energetic costs of increased daily running distances differed between sexes because S females evolved higher running distances by running faster with little change in time spent running, while S males also spent 40% more time running than C males. This increase in time spent running impinged on high energy costs because the majority of running costs stemmed from "postural costs" (the difference between RMR and the zero-speed intercept of the speed vs. metabolic rate relationship). No statistical differences in these traits were detected between S and C females, suggesting that large changes in locomotor behavior do not necessarily effect overall energy budgets. Running behavior also differed between sexes: within S lines, males ran with more but shorter bouts than females. Our results indicate that selection effects on energy budgets can differ dramatically between sexes and that energetic constraints in S

  3. Hepatic mTORC1 controls locomotor activity, body temperature, and lipid metabolism through FGF21.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Marion; Oppliger, Wolfgang; Albert, Verena; Robitaille, Aaron M; Trapani, Francesca; Quagliata, Luca; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; Terracciano, Luigi; Hall, Michael N

    2014-08-12

    The liver is a key metabolic organ that controls whole-body physiology in response to nutrient availability. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient-activated kinase and central controller of growth and metabolism that is negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1). To investigate the role of hepatic mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in whole-body physiology, we generated liver-specific Tsc1 (L-Tsc1 KO) knockout mice. L-Tsc1 KO mice displayed reduced locomotor activity, body temperature, and hepatic triglyceride content in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Ectopic activation of mTORC1 also caused depletion of hepatic and plasma glutamine, leading to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)-dependent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression in the liver. Injection of glutamine or knockdown of PGC-1α or FGF21 in the liver suppressed the behavioral and metabolic defects due to mTORC1 activation. Thus, mTORC1 in the liver controls whole-body physiology through PGC-1α and FGF21. Finally, mTORC1 signaling correlated with FGF21 expression in human liver tumors, suggesting that treatment of glutamine-addicted cancers with mTOR inhibitors might have beneficial effects at both the tumor and whole-body level.

  4. Locomotor activity and cocaine-seeking behavior during acquisition and reinstatement of operant self-administration behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Koeltzow, Timothy E; Vezina, Paul

    2005-05-28

    Recent studies indicate that administration of dopamine D2-like receptor agonists reinstates drug-seeking behavior in rodents, whereas dopamine D1-like receptor agonists do not. These effects have been related to the ability of these agonists to facilitate the expression of sensitized locomotor activity. Presently, we describe experiments in which locomotor activity was assessed concomitantly with operant performance during acquisition, extinction and reinstatement. We report that locomotor activity was inversely related to drug-seeking behavior during acquisition of cocaine self-administration under a Fixed Ratio (FR) 1 schedule of reinforcement. During a single trial extinction session, animals that had acquired cocaine self-administration exhibited a conditioned increase in drug-seeking behavior, but there was no evidence of a conditioned locomotor response. During reinstatement, cocaine (20 mg/kg) significantly increased both locomotor activity and drug-seeking behavior. The dopamine D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg) increased drug-seeking behavior, but did not significantly increase locomotor activity. In contrast, the dopamine D1-like receptor agonist SKF 81297 (0.5 mg/kg) failed to reinstate drug-seeking behavior, but produced significant locomotor activation. To determine whether the inability of SKF 81297 to promote reinstatement is related to the strength of operant conditioning, additional rats were trained to self-administer cocaine using an FR-3 schedule of reinforcement. Despite achieving response rates during training almost four times higher compared to the FR-1 condition, administration of SKF 81297 again failed to significantly increase drug-seeking behavior during reinstatement testing. These results extend previous findings, confirming the important role of D2-like, but not D1-like receptor activation in the reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. An understanding of the mechanisms by which D1- and D2-like agonists differentially

  5. [Locomotor activity and learning and memory abilities in Alzheimer's disease induced by aluminum in an acid environment in zebrafish].

    PubMed

    He, Xiong; Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Che, Yi

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the contribution of locomotor activity and learning and memory abilities to Alzheimer's disease induced by metal neurotoxicity. The metal neurotoxicity model was established by using locomotor activity tests and activity-avoidance conditioning paradigms, and observing changes in zebrafish behaviors after exposure to 50 μg/L of AlCl(3) with different pH values (pH 7.8, pH 6.8 and pH 5.8) for 24 hours and 96 hours. The results showed Alzheimer's disease-like behavior in locomotor activity tests and activity-avoidance conditioning paradigms by zebrafish receiving AlCl(3) in pH 5.8 significantly decreased compared to the control group and groups receiving AlCl(3) in pH 7.8 and pH 6.8 for 96 hours and 24 hours. These results provide evidences that exposure to AlCl( 3) in an acid environment can influence locomotor activity and learning and memory abilities in zebrafish. In addition, exposure time and concentration of Al induced neurotoxicity and damaged the brain area of memory, resulting in Alzheimer's disease-like behavior.

  6. Effects of caffeine and L-phenylisopropyladenosine on locomotor activity of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Buckholtz, N.S.; Middaugh, L.D.

    1987-10-01

    C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice were used to determine if possible differences in the behavioral response to caffeine might be related to differences in A1 adenosine receptors. Caffeine stimulated locomotor activity of both strains, but the dose-response relationship and time course of drug action differed according to strain. Although their response to caffeine differed, the strains did not differ in response to the A1 adenosine agonist L-phenylisopropyladenosine (PIA) nor in the binding of the A1 agonist (/sup 3/H)N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) in various brain regions. Thus, the behavioral differences in response to caffeine could not be accounted for by differences in adenosine binding. Of alternative mechanisms, strain differences in A2 receptors appear to be the most promising.

  7. Loss of circadian rhythmicity in body temperature and locomotor activity following suprachiasmatic lesions in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleh, M. A.; Haro, P. J.; Winget, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    In experiments on male and female ambulatory rats, the effect of bilateral suprachiasmatic lesions on deep body temperature and locomotor activity circadian rhythms was investigated. A L/D:12/12 cycle and 23 C ambient temperature were maintained. One-half of the rats received radiofrequency lesions in the suprachiasmic nucleus (SCN) while the second group were sham operated by lowering the radiofrequency electrode to the SCN without producing electrolytic lesions. Four weeks were allowed for recuperation. Autopsies were conducted to make sure that the lesions were restricted to SCN. The results show the complete disappearance of circadian rhythm in the SCN lesioned rats and only a slight diminution for the sham operated rats.

  8. Evaluation of harmonic direction-finding systems for detecting locomotor activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyarski, V.L.; Rodda, G.H.; Savidge, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a physical simulation experiment to test the efficacy of harmonic direction finding for remotely detecting locomotor activity in animals. The ability to remotely detect movement helps to avoid disturbing natural movement behavior. Remote detection implies that the observer can sense only a change in signal bearing. In our simulated movements, small changes in bearing (<5.7??) were routinely undetectable. Detectability improved progressively with the size of the simulated animal movement. The average (??SD) of reflector tag movements correctly detected for 5 observers was 93.9 ?? 12.8% when the tag was moved ???11.5??; most observers correctly detected tag movements ???20.1??. Given our data, one can assess whether the technique will be effective for detecting movements at an observation distance appropriate for the study organism. We recommend that both habitat and behavior of the organism be taken into consideration when contemplating use of this technique for detecting locomotion.

  9. Cardiovascular responses to locomotor activity and feeding in unrestrained three-toed sloths, Bradypus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Duarte, D P F; Jaguaribe, A M; Pedrosa, M A C; Clementino, A C C R; Barbosa, A A; Silva, A F V; Gilmore, D P; Da Costa, C P

    2004-10-01

    Heart rate (HR) and systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean (MBP) blood pressure were recorded by biotelemetry in nine conscious unrestrained sloths for 1 min every 15 min over a 24-h period. The animals were allowed to freely move in an acoustically isolated and temperature-controlled (24 +/- 1 degree C) experimental room with light-dark cycle (12/12 h). Behavior was closely monitored through a unidirectional visor and classified as resting (sitting or suspended), feeding (chewing and swallowing embauba leaves, Cecropia adenops), or locomotor activity around the tree trunk or on the room floor. Locomotor activity caused statistically significant increases in SBP (+8%, from 121 +/- 22 to 131 +/- 18 mmHg), DBP (+7%, from 86 +/- 17 to 92 +/- 10 mmHg), MBP (+8%, from 97 +/- 19 to 105 +/- 12 mmHg), and HR (+14%, from 84 +/- 15 to 96 +/- 15 bpm) compared to resting values, indicating a possible major influence of the autonomic nervous system on the modulation of cardiac function during this behavior. During feeding, the increase in blood pressure was even higher (SBP +27%, from 119 +/- 21 to 151 +/- 21 mmHg; DBP +21%, from 85 +/- 16 to 103 +/- 15 mmHg; MBP +24%, from 96 +/- 17 to 119 +/- 17 mmHg), while HR remained at 14% (from 84 +/- 15 to 96 +/- 10 bpm) above resting values. The proportionally greater increase in blood pressure than in HR during feeding suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance as part of the overall response to this behavior.

  10. Imidazenil and diazepam increase locomotor activity in mice exposed to protracted social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Pinna, Graziano; Agis-Balboa, Roberto C.; Zhubi, Adrian; Matsumoto, Kinzo; Grayson, Dennis R.; Costa, Erminio; Guidotti, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    In cortex and hippocampus, protracted (>4 weeks) social isolation of adult male mice alters the subunit expression of GABA type A receptors (GABAA-Rs) as follows: (i) the mRNAs encoding GABAA-R α1, α2, and γ2 subunits are decreased by ≈50%, whereas those encoding α4 and α5 subunits are increased by ≈100%; (ii) similarly, the synaptic membrane expression of the α1 subunit protein is down-regulated, and that of the α5 subunit protein is up-regulated; and (iii) the binding of [3H]flumazenil to hippocampal synaptic membranes is decreased. Behaviorally, socially isolated (SI) mice are resistant to the sedative effects of the positive allosteric GABAA-R modulators diazepam (DZP) and zolpidem. This resistance seems to be attributable to the decrease of α1-containing GABAA-Rs. Paradoxically, DZP, which, unlike zolpidem, acts at α5-containing GABAA-Rs, increases the locomotor activity of SI mice. Imidazenil, which fails to modulate α1-, α4-, and α6-containing GABAA-Rs but is a selective positive allosteric modulator of α5-containing GABAA-Rs, also increases locomotor activity in SI mice. Importantly, SI mice responded to muscimol, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3(2H)-one, and allopregnanolone similar to group-housed mice. These data suggest that a switch (a decrease in α1/α2 and γ2 and an increase in α4 and α5 subunits) in the composition of the heteropentameric GABAA-R subunit assembly without a change in total GABAA-R number occurs during social isolation. Thus, the repertoire of DZP and imidazenil actions in SI mice appears to be elicited by the allosteric modulation of GABAA-Rs overexpressing α5 subunits. Benzodiazepine response mediated by α1-containing GABAA-Rs is expected to be silent or reduced. PMID:16537521

  11. Evidence That GABA Mediates Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Pathways Associated with Locomotor Activity in Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clements, S.; Schreck, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the control of locomotor activity in juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by manipulating 3 neurotransmitter systems-gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), dopamine, and serotonin-as well as the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of CRH and the GABAAagonist muscimol stimulated locomotor activity. The effect of muscimol was attenuated by administration of a dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol. Conversely, the administration of a dopamine uptake inhibitor (4???,4??? -difluoro-3-alpha-[diphenylmethoxy] tropane hydrochloride [DUI]) potentiated the effect of muscimol. They found no evidence that CRH-induced hyperactivity is mediated by dopaminergic systems following concurrent injections of haloperidol or DUI with CRH. Administration of muscimol either had no effect or attenuated the locomotor response to concurrent injections of CRH and fluoxetine, whereas the GABAA antagonist bicuculline methiodide potentiated the effect of CRH and fluoxetine.

  12. Dose-dependent changes in the synaptic strength on dopamine neurons and locomotor activity after cocaine exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wanat, M.J.; Bonci, A.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in synaptic strength on ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons are thought to play a critical role in the development of addiction-related behaviors. However, it is unknown how a single injection of cocaine at different doses affects locomotor activity, behavioral sensitization, and glutamatergic synaptic strength on VTA dopamine neurons in mice. We observed that behavioral sensitization to a challenge cocaine injection scaled with the dose of cocaine received one day prior. Interestingly, the locomotor activity after the initial exposure to different doses of cocaine corresponded to the changes in glutamatergic strength on VTA dopamine neurons. These results in mice suggest that a single exposure to cocaine dose-dependently affects excitatory synapses on VTA dopamine neurons, and that this acute synaptic alteration is directly associated with the locomotor responses to cocaine and not to behavioral sensitization. PMID:18655120

  13. Dopamine transporter occupancy by RTI-55, inhibition of dopamine transport and stimulation of locomotor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gatley, S.J.; Gifford, A.N.; Volkow, N.D.

    1997-05-01

    Cocaine analogs such as RTI-55 (or {beta}CIT) with a higher affinity for the DAT are potentially useful as therapeutic drugs in cocaine abuse as well as for radiopharmaceutical use. Previously we showed that in mice RTI-55 (2 mg/Kg, i/p) reduced H-3 cocaine striatum-to-cerebellum ratios (St/Cb, {lg_bullet}) from 1.6 to 1.2 at 3 h after administration, with recovery by 12 h. In the present study we demonstrate a very similar time-course for transport {triangle} measured in striatal homo within 2 min of sacrifice. The maximum inhibition of uptake at about 1 h corresponded to about 80% of the control uptake rate, similar to the percent reduction in St/Cb. The time-course of the effect of this dose of RTI-55 on locomotor activity ({sq_bullet}) was complex, with a drop in the activity measure at 7 h, after a further injection of RTI-55, but activity remained higher than in saline controls. In spite of this complexity, which may be associated with stereotypies and/or exhaustion, the duration of increased activity is consistent with the duration of transporter blockade. These experiments support the notion that PET/SPECT measures of transporter occupancy accurately reflect transporter inhibition.

  14. Effect of 1 GeV/n Fe particles on cocaine-stimulated locomotor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, M.; Bruneus, M.; Gatley, J.; Russell, S.; Billups, A.

    Space travel beyond the Earth's protective magnetic field (for example, to Mars) will involve exposure of astronauts to irradiation by high-energy nuclei such as 56Fe (HZE radiation), which are a component of galactic cosmic rays. These particles have high linear energy transfer (LET) and are expected to irreversibly damage cells they traverse. Our working hypothesis is that long-term behavioral alterations are induced after exposure of the brain to 1 GeV/n iron particles with fluences of 1 to 8 particles/cell targets. Previous studies support this notion but are not definitive, especially with regard to long-term effects. Using the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) we expose C57 mice to 1 GeV/n 56Fe radiation (head only) at doses of 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 cGy. There were originally 19 mice per group. The ability of cocaine to increase locomotor activity in 16 of these animals in response to an intraperitoneal injection of cocaine has been measured so far at 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28 weeks. Cocaine-stimulated locomotor activity was chosen in part because it is a behavioral assay with which we have considerable experience. More importantly, the ability to respond to cocaine is a complex behavior involving many neurotransmitter systems and brain circuits. Therefore, the probability of alteration of this behavior by HZE particles was considered high. However, the central circuit is the nigrostriatal dopamine system, in which dopamine is released in striatum from nerve terminals whose cell bodies are located in the substantia nigra. Cocaine activates behavior by blocking dopamine transporters on striatal nerve terminals and therefore elevating the concentration of dopamine in the synapse. Dopamine activates receptors on striatal GABAergic cells that project via other brain regions to the thalamus. Activation of the motor cortex by glutamatergic projections from the thalamus leads ultimately to increased locomotion. The experimental paradigm involves

  15. Effects of 5,7-dihydroxytriptamine (5,7-DHT) on circadian locomotor activity of the blow fly, Calliphora vicina

    PubMed Central

    Cymborowski, Bronislaw

    2003-01-01

    The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It has been shown that serotonin, apart from its distinct effects on behavior, also plays a morphoregulatory role during the ontogeny of the insect's nervous system. The role of serotonin in modulating circadian locomotor activity of the blow fly, Calliphora vicina was explored. Injection of a specific neurotoxin, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT), into the hemolymph appeared to significantly reduced the level of locomotor activity and lengthened the period (τ) of circadian rhythmicity. After drug injection in constant darkness flies continued with their free-running rhythm of a locomotor activity, depending on the time of 5,7-DHT injection. This compound causes phase delay when administered in the early subjective day, and phase advance in the late subjective day. This effect is the opposite of the phase response curve obtained for 5-HT injections. This suggests that 5-HT might act as an entraining agent via the output pathway by feedback to clock neurons in the brain. Some of the injected insects regained their normal level of activity after a few days. These findings suggest a potential role for serotonin as modulator of circadian rhythms in insect including regulation of the level of locomotor activity. Abbreviation: 5-HT 5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin 5,7-DHT 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine PMID:15841230

  16. ROCK1 in AgRP neurons regulates energy expenditure and locomotor activity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hu; Lee, Seung Hwan; Ye, Chianping; Lima, Ines S; Oh, Byung-Chul; Lowell, Bradford B; Zabolotny, Janice M; Kim, Young-Bum

    2013-10-01

    Normal leptin signaling is essential for the maintenance of body weight homeostasis. Proopiomelanocortin- and agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-producing neurons play critical roles in regulating energy metabolism. Our recent work demonstrates that deletion of Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1) in the AgRP neurons of mice increased body weight and adiposity. Here, we report that selective loss of ROCK1 in AgRP neurons caused a significant decrease in energy expenditure and locomotor activity of mice. These effects were independent of any change in food intake. Furthermore, AgRP neuron-specific ROCK1-deficient mice displayed central leptin resistance, as evidenced by impaired Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 activation in response to leptin administration. Leptin's ability to hyperpolarize and decrease firing rate of AgRP neurons was also abolished in the absence of ROCK1. Moreover, diet-induced and genetic forms of obesity resulted in reduced ROCK1 activity in murine arcuate nucleus. Of note, high-fat diet also impaired leptin-stimulated ROCK1 activity in arcuate nucleus, suggesting that a defect in hypothalamic ROCK1 activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of central leptin resistance in obesity. Together, these data demonstrate that ROCK1 activation in hypothalamic AgRP neurons is required for the homeostatic regulation of energy expenditure and adiposity. These results further support previous work identifying ROCK1 as a key regulator of energy balance and suggest that targeting ROCK1 in the hypothalamus may lead to development of antiobesity therapeutics. PMID:23885017

  17. Attenuation of Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Activity in Male and Female Mice by Active Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Kosten, Therese A.; Shen, Xiaoyun Y.; Kinsey, Berma M.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Orson, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Immunotherapy for drug addiction is being investigated in several laboratories but most studies are conducted in animals of one sex. Yet, women show heightened immune responses and are more likely to develop autoimmune diseases than men. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an active anti-cocaine vaccine, succinyl-norcocaine conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, for its ability to elicit antibodies and alter cocaine-induced ambulatory activity in male versus female mice. Methods Male and female BALB/c mice were vaccinated (n=44) or served as non-vaccinated controls (n=34). Three weeks after initial vaccination, a booster was given. Ambulatory activity induced by cocaine (20 mg/kg) was assessed at 7-wk and plasma obtained at 8-wk to assess antibody levels. Results High antibody titers were produced in mice of both sexes. The vaccine reduced ambulatory activity cocaine-induced but this effect was greater in female compared to male mice. Discussion and conclusions The efficacy of this anti-cocaine vaccine is demonstrated in mice of both sexes but its functional consequences are greater in females than males. Scientific significance Results point to the importance of testing animals of both sexes in studies of immunotherapies for addiction. PMID:25251469

  18. Nicotine withdrawal: a behavioral assessment using schedule controlled responding, locomotor activity, and sensorimotor reactivity.

    PubMed

    Helton, D R; Modlin, D L; Tizzano, J P; Rasmussen, K

    1993-01-01

    Three different behavioral measures were used to assess the effects of abrupt cessation of chronic nicotine treatment. Nicotine (0, 3, or 6 mg/kg per day) was continuously administered for 12 days in rats by surgically implanting Alzet osmotic mini-pumps subcutaneously. Experiment 1 employed a light/dark discrimination task. There were no significant effects on number of responses or percent correct responding either during nicotine administration, or following cessation of nicotine. Experiment 2 examined ambulatory (locomotor) and nonambulatory activity. Chronic nicotine administration produced significant dose-dependent increases in both ambulatory and nonambulatory activity during the first 3 days of exposure. However, no significant alterations were seen in activity levels following nicotine cessation. Experiment 3 examined sensorimotor reactivity using the auditory startle response. During nicotine withdrawal, significant increases were seen in startle amplitude in both nicotine groups for 4 days. Nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, IP) administered before startle testing during the withdrawal phase attenuated the increased reactivity seen during nicotine cessation. These studies indicate that 1) rats display increased sensorimotor reactivity after cessation of chronic nicotine exposure, and 2) the expression of nicotine dependence and withdrawal is dependent on the behavioral task employed. PMID:7855182

  19. Acute effects of ethanol or d-amphetamine on the locomotor activity of larval zebrafish in a microtiter plate format.

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an effort to develop a rapid in vivo screen for EPA’s prioritization of toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. We are assessing the acute effects of prototypic drugs that are known to act on the central ...

  20. Effects of maternal low-protein diet on parameters of locomotor activity in a rat model of cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Kássia Oliveira Gomes da; Pereira, Sabrina da Conceição; Portovedo, Mariana; Milanski, Marciane; Galindo, Lígia Cristina Monteiro; Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Toscano, Ana Elisa

    2016-08-01

    Children with cerebral palsy have feeding difficulties that can contribute to undernutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early undernutrition on locomotor activity and the expression of the myofibrillar protein MuRF-1 in an experimental model of cerebral palsy (CP). In order to achieve this aim, pregnant rats were divided into two groups according to the diet provided: Normal Protein (NP, n=9) and Low Protein (LP, n=12) groups. After birth, the pups were divided into four groups: Normal Protein Sham (NPS, n=16), Normal Protein Cerebral Palsy (NPCP, n=21), Low Protein Sham (LPS, n=20) and Low Protein Cerebral Palsy (LPCP, n=18) groups. The experimental cerebral palsy protocol consisted of two episodes of anoxia at birth and during the first days of life. Each day, nitrogen flow was used (9l/min during 12min). After nitrogen exposure, sensorimotor restriction was performed 16h per day, from the 2nd to the 28th postnatal day (PND). Locomotor activity was evaluated at 8th, 14th, 17th, 21th and 28th PND. At PND 29, soleus muscles were collected to analyse myofibrillar protein MuRF-1. Our results show that CP animals decreased body weight (p<0.001), which were associated with alterations of various parameters of locomotor activity (p<0.05), compared to their control. Undernourished animals also showed a decrease (p<0.05) in body weight and locomotor activity parameters. Moreover, CP decreased MuRF-1 levels in nourished rats (p=0.015) but not in undernourished rats. In summary, perinatal undernutrition exacerbated the negative effects of cerebral palsy on locomotor activity and muscle atrophy, but it appears not be mediated by changes in MuRF-1 levels.

  1. Effect of clozapine on locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior in the neonatal mice administered MK-801.

    PubMed

    Pınar, Neslihan; Akillioglu, Kubra; Sefil, Fatih; Alp, Harun; Sagir, Mustafa; Acet, Ahmet

    2015-08-11

    Atypical antipsychotics have been used to treat fear and anxiety disturbance that are highly common in schizophrenic patients. It is suggested that disruptions of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated transmission of glutamate may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The present study was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of clozapine on the anxiety-related behavior and locomotor function of the adult brain, which had previously undergone NMDA receptor blockade during a developmental period. In order to block the NMDA receptor, male mice were administered 0.25 mg/kg of MK-801 on days 7 to 10 postnatal. In adulthood, they were administered intraperitoneally 0.5 mg/kg of clozapine and tested with open-field and elevated plus maze test, to assess their emotional behavior and locomotor activity. In the group receiving MK-801 in the early developmental period the elevated plus maze test revealed a reduction in the anxiety-related behavior (p<0.05), while the open-field test indicated a decrease in locomotor activity (p<0.01). Despite these reductions, clozapine could not reverse the NMDA receptor blockade. Also, as an atypical antipsychotic agent, clozapine could not reverse impairment in the locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior, induced by administration of the MK-801 in neonatal period.

  2. Effects of locomotor skill program on minority preschoolers' physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Ghazarian, Manneh; Roberts, Jasmin; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog

    2012-08-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of a teacher-taught, locomotor skill (LMS)-based physical activity (PA) program on the LMS and PA levels of minority preschooler-aged children. Eight low-socioeconomic status preschool classrooms were randomized into LMS-PA (LMS-oriented lesson plans) or control group (supervised free playtime). Interventions were delivered for 30 min/day, five days/week for six months. Changes in PA (accelerometer) and LMS variables were assessed with MANCOVA. LMS-PA group exhibited a significant reduction in during-preschool (F (1,16) = 6.34, p = .02, d = 0.02) and total daily (F (1,16) = 9.78, p = .01, d = 0.30) percent time spent in sedentary activity. LMS-PA group also exhibited significant improvement in leaping skills, F (1, 51) = 7.18, p = .01, d = 0.80). No other, significant changes were observed. The implementation of a teacher-taught, LMS-based PA program could potentially improve LMS and reduce sedentary time of minority preschoolers.

  3. Effect of permethrin plus antioxidants on locomotor activity and striatum in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Nasuti, Cinzia; Falcioni, Maria Letizia; Nwankwo, Innocent Ejike; Cantalamessa, Franco; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2008-09-29

    Pyrethroids are important insecticides used largely because of their high activity as an insecticide and their low mammalian toxicity. Some studies have demonstrated that these products show neurotoxic effects on the mammalian central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the propensity of permethrin to induce oxidative stress in adolescent rats and its possible attenuation by Vitamin E alone or+Coenzyme Q(10). Data indicated that adolescent rats exposed to permethrin exhibited alteration in the locomotor activity and plasma membrane fluidity of striatum. Vitamin E+Q(10) and Vitamin E alone supplementation reversed the negative effect on central nervous system. Permethrin alteration of striatum plasma membrane fluidity was restored by Vitamin E+Q(10). Data obtained from red blood cells showed that permethrin did not induce any modification of plasma membrane fluidity in adolescent rats, whereas antioxidants supplementation induced pro-oxidant effect. In summary some differences between antioxidant treatments were observed at striatum level: Coenzyme Q(10)+Vitamin E maintains plasma membrane fluidity, while Vitamin E is more effective to preserve GSH level.

  4. Effects of locomotor skill program on minority preschoolers' physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Ghazarian, Manneh; Roberts, Jasmin; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog

    2012-08-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of a teacher-taught, locomotor skill (LMS)-based physical activity (PA) program on the LMS and PA levels of minority preschooler-aged children. Eight low-socioeconomic status preschool classrooms were randomized into LMS-PA (LMS-oriented lesson plans) or control group (supervised free playtime). Interventions were delivered for 30 min/day, five days/week for six months. Changes in PA (accelerometer) and LMS variables were assessed with MANCOVA. LMS-PA group exhibited a significant reduction in during-preschool (F (1,16) = 6.34, p = .02, d = 0.02) and total daily (F (1,16) = 9.78, p = .01, d = 0.30) percent time spent in sedentary activity. LMS-PA group also exhibited significant improvement in leaping skills, F (1, 51) = 7.18, p = .01, d = 0.80). No other, significant changes were observed. The implementation of a teacher-taught, LMS-based PA program could potentially improve LMS and reduce sedentary time of minority preschoolers. PMID:22971559

  5. Locomotor activity in common spiny mice (Acomys cahirinuse): The effect of light and environmental complexity

    PubMed Central

    Eilam, David

    2004-01-01

    Background Rodents typically avoid illuminated and open areas, favoring dark or sheltered environments for activity. While previous studies focused on the effect of these environmental attributes on the level of activity, the present study tested whether the spatio-temporal structure of activity was also modified in illuminated compared with dark and complex compared with open arenas. For this, we tested common spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus) in empty or stone-containing arenas with lights on or lights off. Results In an illuminated or open arena, spiny mice moved in less frequent but longer trips with relatively long distances between consecutive stops. In contrast, in either a dark arena or an arena with stones, the animals took shorter and more frequent trips, with more stops per trip and shorter inter-stop distances. In illuminated arenas spiny mice remained mainly along the walls, whereas locomotion in the center was more prevalent in dark empty arenas, and was carried out along convoluted paths. Increasing environmental complexity by adding stones to either illuminated or dark arenas increased locomotion along straight trajectories and away from walls. Conclusions Earlier findings of reduced activity in illuminated or open areas have been extended in the present study by demonstrating changes in the spatio-temporal structure of locomotor behavior. In the more complex arenas (with stones) spiny mice traveled along short straight segments whereas in the open their trips were longer and took the shape of a zigzag path which is more effective against fast or nearby predators. Alternatively, the zigzag path may reflect a difficulty in navigation. PMID:15537426

  6. Impaired long-term habituation is dissociated from increased locomotor activity after sensorimotor cortex compression.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Tiago; Cebers, Gvido; Salehi, Mehdi; Wägner, Anna; Liljequist, Sture

    2006-02-15

    Behavioural habituation to a novel environment is a simple form of learning in rodents. We studied the habituation and locomotor activity (LMA) of Wistar rats subjected to unilateral, transient (30min) extradural compression (EC) of the right sensorimotor cortex. One group of rats was tested every 24h during the first 5 days (D1-D5) post-EC. Two other groups were tested for the first time in the LMA boxes on D3 and D6 post-EC and their performance was compared with the group tested on D1 (activity in a novel environment). Total and center locomotion, vertical activity and time spent in the center of the LMA box were reduced on D1 post-EC and normalized by D2. The EC-induced motor paresis was undetectable on the rotarod by D2 and on the beam-walking by D3. Total locomotion, vertical activity and time spent in the center of EC-rats significantly increased from D1 to D3. EC caused neurodegeneration in the cortex, caudate putamen and thalamus as detected by Fluoro-Jade staining. The size of the cortical damage decreased from D2 to D5 in the medial and caudal regions of the compressed hemisphere, in accordance with recovery of motor function. LMA provided additional information in the follow-up of recovery from brain injury and habituation to the environment. Thus, long-term, inter-session habituation was impaired from D1 to D3 but dissociated from increased LMA intra-session on D3, when the motor deficits provoked by EC were already undetectable in the rotarod and beam-walking tests. PMID:16337698

  7. Differences in Monoamine Oxidase Activity in the Brain of Wistar and August Rats with High and Low Locomotor Activity: A Cytochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Sergutina, A V; Rakhmanova, V I

    2016-06-01

    Monoamine oxidase activity was quantitatively assessed by cytochemical method in brain structures (layers III and V of the sensorimotor cortex, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampal CA3 field) of rats of August line and Wistar population with high and low locomotor activity in the open fi eld test. Monoamine oxidase activity (substrate tryptamine) predominated in the nucleus accumbens of Wistar rats with high motor activity in comparison with rats with low locomotor activity. In August rats, enzyme activity (substrates tryptamine and serotonin) predominated in the hippocampus of animals with high motor activity. Comparison of August rats with low locomotor activity and Wistar rats with high motor activity (i.e. animals demonstrating maximum differences in motor function) revealed significantly higher activity of the enzyme (substrates tryptamine and serotonin) in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. The study demonstrates clear-cut morphochemical specificity of monoaminergic metabolism based on the differences in the cytochemical parameter "monoamine oxidase activity", in the studied brain structures, responsible for the formation and realization of goal-directed behavior in Wistar and August rats.

  8. 3D QSAR investigations on locomotor activity of 5-cyano-N1,6-disubstituted 2-thiouracil derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kuchekar, B S; Pore, Y V

    2010-06-01

    Three dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D QSAR) investigations were carried out on a series of 5-cyano-N1,6-disubstituted 2-thiouracil derivatives for their locomotor activity. The structures of all compounds were built on a workspace of VlifeMDS3.5 molecular modeling software and 3D QSAR models were generated by applying a partial least square (PLS) linear regression analysis coupled with a stepwise variable selection method. Both derived models were found to be statistically significant in terms of regression and internal and external predictive ability (r(2) = 0.9414 and 0.8511, q(2) = 0.8582 and 0.6222, pred_r(2) = 0.5142 and 0.7917). The QSAR models indicated that both electrostatic and steric interaction energies were contributing significantly to locomotor activity of thiouracil derivatives. PMID:22491179

  9. 7alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone acts as a neuronal activator to stimulate locomotor activity of breeding newts by means of the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2004-12-01

    It is becoming clear that steroids can be synthesized de novo by the brain and other nervous systems. Such steroids are called neurosteroids, and de novo neurosteroidogenesis from cholesterol is a conserved property of vertebrate brains. In this study, we show that the newt brain actively produces 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, a previously undescribed amphibian neurosteroid that stimulates locomotor activity. 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone was identified as a most abundant amphibian neurosteroid in the newt brain by using biochemical techniques combined with HPLC, TLC, and GC-MS analyses. The production of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone in the diencephalon and rhombencephalon was higher than that in the telencephalon and peripheral steroidogenic glands. In addition, 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis in the brain showed marked changes during the annual breeding cycle, with a maximal level in the spring breeding period when locomotor activity of the newt increases. Behavioral analysis of newts in the nonbreeding period demonstrated that administration of this previously undescribed amphibian neurosteroid acutely increased locomotor activity. In vitro analysis further revealed that 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the release of dopamine from cultured brain tissue of nonbreeding newts. The effect of this neurosteroid on locomotion also was abolished by dopamine D(2)-like receptor antagonists. These results indicate that 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone acts as a neuronal activator to stimulate locomotor activity of breeding newts through the dopaminergic system. This study demonstrates a physiological function of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone that has not been described previously in any vertebrate class. This study also provides findings on the regulatory mechanism of locomotor activity from a unique standpoint.

  10. Larval ethanol exposure alters adult circadian free-running locomotor activity rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Seggio, Joseph A; Possidente, Bernard; Ahmad, S Tariq

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol consumption causes disruptions in a variety of daily rhythms, including the sleep-wake cycle. Few studies have explored the effect of alcohol exposure only during developmental stages preceding maturation of the adult circadian clock, and none have examined the effects of alcohol on clock function in Drosophila. This study investigates developmental and behavioral correlates between larval ethanol exposure and the adult circadian clock in Drosophila melanogaster, a well-established model for studying circadian rhythms and effects of ethanol exposure. We reared Drosophila larvae on 0%, 10%, or 20% ethanol-supplemented food and assessed effects upon eclosion and the free-running period of the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity. We observed a dose-dependent effect of ethanol on period, with higher doses resulting in shorter periods. We also identified the third larval instar stage as a critical time for the developmental effects of 10% ethanol on circadian period. These results demonstrate that developmental ethanol exposure causes sustainable shortening of the adult free-running period in Drosophila melanogaster, even after adult exposure to ethanol is terminated, and suggests that the third instar is a sensitive time for this effect. PMID:22217104

  11. Subchronic phencyclidine in rats: alterations in locomotor activity, maze performance, and GABA(A) receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Beninger, Richard J; Beuk, Jonathan; Banasikowski, Tomek J; van Adel, Michael; Boivin, Gregory A; Reynolds, James N

    2010-02-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP), an antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors, decreases gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibition, suggesting that changes in GABAergic receptor function underlie behavioral and cognitive deficits resulting from repeated administration of PCP. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with PCP (4.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, twice a day for 7 consecutive days) or saline were tested in behavioral and cognitive tasks 7 days after injections. The PCP group showed increased amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg)-stimulated locomotor activity, and exhibited a greater number of errors in the double Y-maze memory task, when compared with controls. Subchronic PCP treatment increased [H]muscimol-binding sites and decreased affinity for [H]muscimol binding in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum in comparison with controls. There were no changes in the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase or the GABA membrane transporter protein. These data show that subchronic PCP administration induces an impaired performance of a previously learned task and an enhanced response to amphetamine in the rat. The observed changes in GABAA receptors in the rat brain are consistent with the notion that alterations in GABAergic receptor function contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with repeated exposure to PCP. PMID:19949321

  12. Mouse aldehyde-oxidase-4 controls diurnal rhythms, fat deposition and locomotor activity

    PubMed Central

    Terao, Mineko; Barzago, Maria Monica; Kurosaki, Mami; Fratelli, Maddalena; Bolis, Marco; Borsotti, Andrea; Bigini, Paolo; Micotti, Edoardo; Carli, Mirjana; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bagnati, Renzo; Passoni, Alice; Pastorelli, Roberta; Brunelli, Laura; Toschi, Ivan; Cesari, Valentina; Sanoh, Seigo; Garattini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde-oxidase-4 (AOX4) is one of the mouse aldehyde oxidase isoenzymes and its physiological function is unknown. The major source of AOX4 is the Harderian-gland, where the enzyme is characterized by daily rhythmic fluctuations. Deletion of the Aox4 gene causes perturbations in the expression of the circadian-rhythms gene pathway, as indicated by transcriptomic analysis. AOX4 inactivation alters the diurnal oscillations in the expression of master clock-genes. Similar effects are observed in other organs devoid of AOX4, such as white adipose tissue, liver and hypothalamus indicating a systemic action. While perturbations of clock-genes is sex-independent in the Harderian-gland and hypothalamus, sex influences this trait in liver and white-adipose-tissue which are characterized by the presence of AOX isoforms other than AOX4. In knock-out animals, perturbations in clock-gene expression are accompanied by reduced locomotor activity, resistance to diet induced obesity and to hepatic steatosis. All these effects are observed in female and male animals. Resistance to obesity is due to diminished fat accumulation resulting from increased energy dissipation, as white-adipocytes undergo trans-differentiation towards brown-adipocytes. Metabolomics and enzymatic data indicate that 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and tryptophan are novel endogenous AOX4 substrates, potentially involved in AOX4 systemic actions. PMID:27456060

  13. Changes in locomotor-activity patterns as a measure of spontaneous morphine withdrawal: no effect of clonidine.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, J W; de Groot, G

    1988-10-01

    The anti-withdrawal action of clonidine was studied in a model of spontaneous morphine withdrawal in rats. After withdrawal the behaviour of the animals was registered continuously for several days. In the initial phase of induction of dependence the locomotor activity was enhanced during daytime. Partial tolerance to this increase developed in the course of 3 weeks. In morphine withdrawn animals the activity decreased strongly at night, and this effect was maximal on the second night after removal of morphine. After four nights the nightly activity was restored. Treatment with clonidine (100 micrograms/kg s.c. twice daily) changed neither the observed decrease in nightly locomotor activity nor other withdrawal symptoms such as a decrease in food intake and loss of body weight. In non-dependent animals clonidine induced a biphasic effect in locomotor activity, i.e. a decrease in the first few hours of the night and an increase in the second part of the night. The latter can be interpreted as a rebound phenomenon occurring after only three injections. It was concluded that clonidine was not effective as an anti-withdrawal compound in a model for spontaneous morphine abstinence. The low incidence of symptoms relating to a hyperactive sympathetic system during spontaneous withdrawal may be an explanation for the absence of an effect of clonidine.

  14. Zinc oxide nanoparticles alter hatching and larval locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Chen, Te-Hao; Lin, Chia-Chi; Meng, Pei-Jie

    2014-07-30

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) are extensively used in various consumer products such as sunscreens and cosmetics, with high potential of being released into aquatic environments. In this study, fertilized zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs were exposed to various concentrations of ZnO NP suspensions (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10mg/L) or their respective centrifuged supernatants (0.03, 0.01, 0.08, 0.17, 0.75, and 1.21mg/L dissolved Zn ions measured) until reaching free swimming stage. Exposure to ZnO NP suspensions and their respective centrifuged supernatants caused similar hatching delay, but did not cause larval mortality or malformation. Larval activity level, mean velocity, and maximum velocity were altered in the groups exposed to high concentrations of ZnO NP (5-10mg/L) but not in the larvae exposed to the supernatants. To evaluate possible mechanism of observed effects caused by ZnO NP, we also manipulated the antioxidant environment by co-exposure to an antioxidant compound (N-acetylcysteine, NAC) or an antioxidant molecule suppressor (buthionine sulfoximine, BSO) with 5mg/L ZnO NP. Co-exposure to NAC did not alter the effects of ZnO NP on hatchability, but co-exposure to BSO caused further hatching delay. For larval locomotor activity, co-exposure to NAC rescued the behavioral effect caused by ZnO NP, but co-exposure to BSO did not exacerbate the effect. Our data indicated that toxicity of ZnO NP cannot be solely explained by dissolved Zn ions, and oxidative stress may involve in ZnO NP toxicity. PMID:24424259

  15. The glial cell modulators, ibudilast and its amino analog, AV1013, attenuate methamphetamine locomotor activity and its sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    Snider, Sarah E; Vunck, Sarah A; van den Oord, Edwin J C G; Adkins, Daniel E; McClay, Joseph L; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2012-03-15

    Over 800,000 Americans abuse the psychomotor stimulant, methamphetamine, yet its abuse is without an approved medication. Methamphetamine induces hypermotor activity, and sensitization to this effect is suggested to represent aspects of the addiction process. Methamphetamine's regulation of 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels may be partially responsible for its behavioral effects, and compounds that inhibit phosphodiesterase (PDE), the enzyme that degrades cAMP, can alter methamphetamine-induced behaviors. Methamphetamine also activates glial cells and causes a subsequent increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Modulation of glial cell activation is associated with changes in behavioral responses, and substances that oppose inflammatory activity can attenuate drug-induced behaviors. Ibudilast (aka AV411; 3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo-[1,5-a]pyridine), inhibits both PDE and glial pro-inflammatory activity. Ibudilast's amino analog, AV1013, modulates similar glial targets but negligibly inhibits PDE. The present study determined whether ibudilast and AV1013 would attenuate methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity and its sensitization in C57BL/6J mice. Mice were treated b.i.d. with ibudilast (1.8-13 mg/kg), AV1013 (10-56 mg/kg) or their vehicles intraperitoneally for 7 days, beginning 48 h before 5 days of daily 1-h locomotor activity tests. Each test was initiated by either a methamphetamine (3 mg/kg) or a saline injection. Ibudilast significantly (P<0.05) reduced the acute, chronic, and sensitization effects of methamphetamine's locomotor activity without significantly affecting activity by itself. AV1013 had similar anti-methamphetamine effects, suggesting that glial cell activity, by itself, can modulate methamphetamine's effects and perhaps serve as a medication target for its abuse.

  16. Nicotine-induced place conditioning and locomotor activity in an adolescent animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Daniels, Carter W; Watterson, Lucas R; Mazur, Gabriel J; Brackney, Ryan J; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2015-09-15

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for tobacco use and dependence. This study examines the responsiveness to nicotine of an adolescent model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). The conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure was used to assess nicotine-induced locomotion and conditioned reward in SHR and the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) control strain over a range of nicotine doses (0.0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg). Prior to conditioning, SHRs were more active and less biased toward one side of the CPP chamber than WKY rats. Following conditioning, SHRs developed CPP to the highest dose of nicotine (0.6 mg/kg), whereas WKYs did not develop CPP to any nicotine dose tested. During conditioning, SHRs displayed greater locomotor activity in the nicotine-paired compartment than in the saline-paired compartment across conditioning trials. SHRs that received nicotine (0.1, 0.3, 0.6 mg/kg) in the nicotine-paired compartment showed an increase in locomotor activity between conditioning trials. Nicotine did not significantly affect WKY locomotor activity. These findings suggest that the SHR strain is a suitable model for studying ADHD-related nicotine use and dependence, but highlights potential limitations of the WKY control strain and the CPP procedure for modeling ADHD-related nicotine reward.

  17. Augmentation of Voluntary Locomotor Activity by Transcutaneous Spinal Cord Stimulation in Motor-Incomplete Spinal Cord-Injured Individuals.

    PubMed

    Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Krenn, Matthias; Danner, Simon M; Hofer, Christian; Kern, Helmut; McKay, William B; Mayr, Winfried; Minassian, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The level of sustainable excitability within lumbar spinal cord circuitries is one of the factors determining the functional outcome of locomotor therapy after motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Here, we present initial data using noninvasive transcutaneous lumbar spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) to modulate this central state of excitability during voluntary treadmill stepping in three motor-incomplete spinal cord-injured individuals. Stimulation was applied at 30 Hz with an intensity that generated tingling sensations in the lower limb dermatomes, yet without producing muscle reflex activity. This stimulation changed muscle activation, gait kinematics, and the amount of manual assistance required from the therapists to maintain stepping with some interindividual differences. The effect on motor outputs during treadmill-stepping was essentially augmentative and step-phase dependent despite the invariant tonic stimulation. The most consistent modification was found in the gait kinematics, with the hip flexion during swing increased by 11.3° ± 5.6° across all subjects. This preliminary work suggests that tSCS provides for a background increase in activation of the lumbar spinal locomotor circuitry that has partially lost its descending drive. Voluntary inputs and step-related feedback build upon the stimulation-induced increased state of excitability in the generation of locomotor activity. Thus, tSCS essentially works as an electrical neuroprosthesis augmenting remaining motor control.

  18. Dissociation between diurnal cycles in locomotor activity, feeding behavior and hepatic PERIOD2 expression in chronic alcohol-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Werner, John H; Lee, Donghoon; Sheppard, Aaron D; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Duffield, Giles E

    2015-06-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption contributes to fatty liver disease. Our studies revealed that the hepatic circadian clock is disturbed in alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis, and effects of chronic alcohol administration upon the clock itself may contribute to steatosis. We extended these findings to explore the effects of chronic alcohol treatment on daily feeding and locomotor activity patterns. Mice were chronically pair-fed ad libitum for 4 weeks using the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet, with calorie-controlled liquid and standard chow diets as control groups. Locomotor activity, feeding activity, and real-time bioluminescence recording of PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE expression in tissue explants were measured. Mice on liquid control and chow diets exhibited normal profiles of locomotor activity, with a ratio of 22:78% day/night activity and a peak during early night. This pattern was dramatically altered in alcohol-fed mice, marked by a 49:51% ratio and the absence of a distinct peak. While chow-diet fed mice had a normal 24:76% ratio of feeding activity, with a peak in the early night, this pattern was dramatically altered in both liquid-diet groups: mice had a 43:57% ratio, and an absence of a distinct peak. Temporal differences were also observed between the two liquid-diet groups during late day. Cosinor analysis revealed a ∼4-h and ∼6-h shift in the alcohol-fed group feeding and locomotor activity rhythms, respectively. Analysis of hepatic PER2 expression revealed that the molecular clock in alcohol-fed and control liquid-diet mice was shifted by ∼11 h and ∼6 h, respectively. No differences were observed in suprachiasmatic nucleus explants, suggesting that changes in circadian phase in the liver were generated independently from the central clock. These results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption and a liquid diet can differentially modulate the daily rhythmicity of locomotor and feeding behaviors, aspects that might contribute to disturbances in the circadian

  19. Developmental exposures to ethanol or dimethylsulfoxide at low concentrations alter locomotor activity in larval zebrafish: implications for behavioral toxicity bioassays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Te-Hao; Wang, Yen-Hsin; Wu, Yu-Hwan

    2011-04-01

    Ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are commonly used as carrier solvents for lipophilic chemicals in aquatic toxicity bioassays. However, very little information has been reported on the behavioral effects of these solvents. In this study, we examined the effects of ethanol and DMSO on development and locomotor activity by a zebrafish embryo-larval bioassay. The zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations (control, 0.01, 0.1, and 1%) of ethanol or DMSO from blastula stage to 144 hour-post-fertilization (hpf). Hatchability, survival, and abnormalities were monitored every 12h, and locomotor activity of the larvae was analyzed at 144 hpf. Hatchability was not affected by the ethanol or DMSO treatments. No effect on survival was observed except the 1% ethanol group suffered 89% mortality during 108-120 hpf. No developmental defects were observed in any of the solvents at the 0.01 and 0.1% concentrations, but significantly higher deformity rates occurred with 1% ethanol and DMSO groups. Hyperactivity and less tortuous swimming paths were observed in all ethanol and DMSO concentrations. Based on this study, we suggest that data of behavioral toxicity bioassays using ethanol or DMSO as carrier solvents should be interpreted cautiously, because the solvents at low concentrations could alter locomotor activity of larval zebrafish without causing any observable developmental defects. PMID:21356178

  20. Relationships between locomotor activation and alterations in brain temperature during selective blockade and stimulation of dopamine transmission.

    PubMed

    Brown, P L; Bae, D; Kiyatkin, E A

    2007-03-01

    It is well known that the dopamine (DA) system plays an essential role in the organization and regulation of brain activational processes. Various environmental stimuli that induce locomotor activation also increase DA transmission, while DA antagonists decrease spontaneous locomotion. Our previous work supports close relationships between locomotor activation and brain and body temperature increases induced by salient environmental challenges or occurring during motivated behavior. While this correlation was also true for psychomotor stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine and MDMA, more complex relationships or even inverted correlations were found for other drugs that are known to increase DA transmission (i.e. heroin and cocaine). In the present study we examined brain, muscle and skin temperatures together with conventional locomotion during selective interruption of DA transmission induced by a mixture of D1 and D2 antagonists (SCH-23390 and eticlopride at 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) and its selective activation by apomorphine (APO; 0.05 and 0.25 mg/kg, i.v.) in rats. While full DA receptor blockade decreased spontaneous locomotion, it significantly increased brain, muscle and skin temperatures, suggesting metabolic brain activation under conditions of vasodilatation (or weakening of normal vascular tone). In contrast, APO strongly decreased skin temperature but tended to decrease brain and muscle temperatures despite strong hyperlocomotion and stereotypy. The brain temperature response to APO was strongly dependent on basal brain temperature, with hypothermia at high basal temperatures and weak hyperthermia at low temperatures. While supporting the role of DA in locomotor activation, these data suggest more complex relationships between drug-induced alterations in DA transmission, behavioral activation and metabolic brain activation.

  1. Vitamin B12 affects non-photic entrainment of circadian locomotor activity rhythms in mice.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, S; Mano, N; Kurono, N; Komuro, G; Yoshimura, T

    1996-07-15

    Administration of vitamin B12 (VB12) has been reported to normalize human sleep-wake rhythm disorders such as non-24-h sleep-wake syndrome (HNS), delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) or insomnia. However, the mechanisms of the action of VB12 on the rhythm disorders are unknown. In the present study, therefore, effects of VB12 on circadian rhythms of locomotor activity were examined in mice. In the first experiment, CBA/J mice were maintained under continuous light condition (LL) or blinded, and after free-running rhythms became stable, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with either VB12 or saline at a fixed time every day. In all the mice with tau > 24 h, saline injections resulted in entrainment of circadian rhythms, whereas not all the mice with tau < 24 h entrained to the injection. In contrast to saline injections, VB12 injections did not always induce entrainment and about half of the mice with tau > 24 h free-ran during the injection. In the second experiment, the amount of phase advances of circadian rhythms induced by a single injection of saline at circadian time (CT) 11 under LL was compared between the mice with and without VB12 silastic tubes. The results showed that the amplitude of phase advances was smaller in the mice with VB12 than those without VB12. In the third experiment, daily injections of saline were given to the mice with VB12 silastic tubes maintained under LL. In this chronic treatment of VB12 as well, attenuating effects of VB12 on saline-induced entrainment were observed. These results suggest that VB12 affects the mechanisms implicated in non-photic entrainment of circadian rhythms in mice. PMID:8842380

  2. Conditioned place preference and locomotor activity in response to methylphenidate, amphetamine and cocaine in mice lacking dopamine D4 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Thanos, P.K.; Bermeo, C.; Rubinstein, M.; Suchland, K.L.; Wang, G.-J.; Grandy, D.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-05-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) and amphetamine (AMPH) are the most frequently prescribed medications for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both drugs are believed to derive their therapeutic benefit by virtue of their dopamine (DA)-enhancing effects, yet an explanation for the observation that some patients with ADHD respond well to one medication but not to the other remains elusive. The dopaminergic effects of MP and AMPH are also thought to underlie their reinforcing properties and ultimately their abuse. Polymorphisms in the human gene that codes for the DA D4 receptor (D4R) have been repeatedly associated with ADHD and may correlate with the therapeutic as well as the reinforcing effects of responses to these psychostimulant medications. Conditioned place preference (CPP) for MP, AMPH and cocaine were evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice and their genetically engineered littermates, congenic on the C57Bl/6J background, that completely lack D4Rs (knockout or KO). In addition, the locomotor activity in these mice during the conditioning phase of CPP was tested in the CPP chambers. D4 receptor KO and WT mice showed CPP and increased locomotor activity in response to each of the three psychostimulants tested. D4R differentially modulates the CPP responses to MP, AMPH and cocaine. While the D4R genotype affected CPP responses to MP (high dose only) and AMPH (low dose only) it had no effects on cocaine. Inasmuch as CPP is considered an indicator of sensitivity to reinforcing responses to drugs these data suggest a significant but limited role of D4Rs in modulating conditioning responses to MP and AMPH. In the locomotor test, D4 receptor KO mice displayed attenuated increases in AMPH-induced locomotor activity whereas responses to cocaine and MP did not differ. These results suggest distinct mechanisms for D4 receptor modulation of the reinforcing (perhaps via attenuating dopaminergic signalling) and locomotor properties of these stimulant drugs

  3. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD) cycle. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypetide (VIP) and its receptor (VPAC2) are highly expressed in the SCN. Recent studies indicate that VIPergic signaling plays an essential role in the maintenance of ongoing circadian rhythmicity by synchronizing SCN cells and by maintaining rhythmicity within individual neurons. To further increase the understanding of the role of VPAC2 signaling in circadian regulation, we implanted telemetric devices and simultaneously measured core body temperature, spontaneous activity, and heart rate in a strain of VPAC2-deficient mice and compared these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three parameters when placed under constant conditions (of either light or darkness). Furthermore, although 24-h rhythms for three parameters are retained in VPAC2-deficient mice during the LD cycle, the temperature rhythm displays markedly altered time course and profile, rising earlier and peaking ∼4-6 h prior to that of wild-type mice. The use of telemetric devices to measure circadian locomotor activity, temperature, and heart rate, together with the classical determination of circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, raises questions about how representative wheel-running activity may be of other behavioral parameters, especially when animals have altered circadian phenotype.

  4. Cathinone increases body temperature, enhances locomotor activity, and induces striatal c-fos expression in the Siberian hamster.

    PubMed

    Jones, S; Fileccia, E L; Murphy, M; Fowler, M J; King, M V; Shortall, S E; Wigmore, P M; Green, A R; Fone, K C F; Ebling, F J P

    2014-01-24

    Cathinone is a β-keto alkaloid that is the major active constituent of khat, the leaf of the Catha edulis plant that is chewed recreationally in East Africa and the Middle East. Related compounds, such as methcathinone and mephedrone have been increasing in popularity as recreational drugs, resulting in the recent proposal to classify khat as a Class C drug in the UK. There is still limited knowledge of the pharmacological effects of cathinone. This study examined the acute effects of cathinone on core body temperature, locomotor and other behaviors, and neuronal activity in Siberian hamsters. Adult male hamsters, previously implanted with radio telemetry devices, were treated with cathinone (2 or 5mg/kg i.p.), the behavioral profile scored and core body temperature and locomotor activity recorded by radio telemetry. At the end of the study, hamsters received vehicle or cathinone (5mg/kg) and neuronal activation in the brain was determined using immunohistochemical evaluation of c-fos expression. Cathinone dose-dependently induced significant (p<0.0001) increases in both temperature and locomotor activity lasting 60-90min. Cathinone (2mg/kg) increased rearing (p<0.02), and 5mg/kg increased both rearing (p<0.001) and lateral head twitches (p<0.02). Both cathinone doses decreased the time spent at rest (p<0.001). The number of c-fos immunopositive cells were significantly increased in the striatum (p<0.0001) and suprachiasmatic nucleus (p<0.05) following cathinone, indicating increased neuronal activity. There was no effect of cathinone on food intake or body weight. It is concluded that systemic administration of cathinone induces significant behavioral changes and CNS activation in the hamster.

  5. [Evaluation of locomotor activity after a local induction of toxic demyelination in the brainstem of Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Bondan, Eduardo Fernandes; Lallo, Maria Anete; Orsini, Heloísa; Bentubo, Henri Levi Donnaruma; Yazbek, Angela; Macrini, Daclê Juliani; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Graça, Dominguita Luhers

    2006-06-01

    Ethidium-bromide (EB)-induced lesions have been used to investigate the incomplete remyelination in the central nervous system, as well as to evaluate therapeutic strategies to accelerate the reconstruction of the lost myelin sheaths. Although many electrophysiologic studies were performed in situations of experimental demyelination and remyelination, their behavioural effects have not been properly analyzed. In this study, we investigated ultrastructurally the EB - demyelinating lesions as well as the locomotor activity of rats during the beam walking test after a focal induction of demyelination using the EB model in the ventral surface of the brainstem. It was observed the occurrence of locomotor deficits until 31 days post-injection, as well as that subsequent remyelination was related to the return of the lost function.

  6. [Evaluation of locomotor activity after a local induction of toxic demyelination in the brainstem of Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Bondan, Eduardo Fernandes; Lallo, Maria Anete; Orsini, Heloísa; Bentubo, Henri Levi Donnaruma; Yazbek, Angela; Macrini, Daclê Juliani; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Graça, Dominguita Luhers

    2006-06-01

    Ethidium-bromide (EB)-induced lesions have been used to investigate the incomplete remyelination in the central nervous system, as well as to evaluate therapeutic strategies to accelerate the reconstruction of the lost myelin sheaths. Although many electrophysiologic studies were performed in situations of experimental demyelination and remyelination, their behavioural effects have not been properly analyzed. In this study, we investigated ultrastructurally the EB - demyelinating lesions as well as the locomotor activity of rats during the beam walking test after a focal induction of demyelination using the EB model in the ventral surface of the brainstem. It was observed the occurrence of locomotor deficits until 31 days post-injection, as well as that subsequent remyelination was related to the return of the lost function. PMID:16917626

  7. Genetic variation in locomotor activity rhythm among populations of Leptopilina heterotoma (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae), a larval parasitoid of Drosophila species.

    PubMed

    Fleury, F; Allemand, R; Fouillet, P; Boulétreau, M

    1995-01-01

    The locomotor activity rhythm of Leptopilina heterotoma, a parasitoid insect of Drosophila larvae, was investigated under laboratory conditions. Under LD 12:12, the locomotor activity of females shows a clear rhythm which persists under continuous darkness (circadian rhythm). However, comparative study of five populations indicates that both the rate of activity and the profile of the rhythm vary according to the origin of females. The Mediterranean populations (Tunisia and Antibes) show two peaks of activity, at the beginning and at the end of the photophase, whereas more northern populations (Lyon and the Netherlands) are mostly active during the afternoon. Females originating from the area of Lyon have a very low level of activity. Reciprocal crosses (F1 hybrids and backcrosses) between the French and the Tunisian strains demonstrated the genetic basis of these variations and the biparental inheritance of the trait. This genetic variability is interpreted as a consequence of selective pressures and suggests a local adaptation of natural populations in host foraging behavior. The selective factors which could act on the daily organization of parasitoid behaviors are discussed. PMID:7755522

  8. The effects of lighting conditions and food restriction paradigms on locomotor activity of common spiny mice, Acomys cahirinus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An endogenous circadian clock controls locomotor activity in common spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus). However, little is known about the effects of constant light (LL) on this activity or about the existence of an additional food entrainable clock. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the effects of LL and DD on tau and activity levels. Methods Spiny mice were housed individually and their running wheel activity monitored. One group of mice was exposed to LD, DD and several intensities of LL. Another group was exposed to a restricted feeding (RF) paradigm in light: dark (LD) during one hour before the L to D transition. Significance of rhythmicity was assessed using Lomb-Scargle periodograms. Results In LD all animals exhibited nocturnal activity rhythms that persisted in DD. When animals were exposed to RF (during L), all of these animals (n = 11) demonstrated significant food anticipatory activity as well as an increase in diurnal activity. This increase in diurnal activity persisted in 4/11 animals during subsequent ad libitum conditions. Under LL conditions, the locomotor rhythms of 2/11 animals appeared to entrain to RF. When animals were exposed to sequentially increasing LL intensities, rhythmicity persisted and, while activity decreased significantly, the free-running period was relatively unaffected. In addition, the period in LL was significantly longer than the period in DD. Exposure to LL also induced long-term changes (after-effects) on period and activity when animals were again exposed to DD. Conclusions Overall these studies demonstrate clear and robust circadian rhythms of wheel-running in A. cahirinus. In addition, LL clearly inhibited activity in this species and induced after-effects. The results also confirm the presence of a food entrainable oscillator in this species. PMID:22958374

  9. Involvement of tissue plasminogen activator "tPA" in ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned-place preference.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Dreyer, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol is one of the most abused drugs in the western societies. It is well established that mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons mediate the rewarding properties of ethanol. In our previous studies we have shown that the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is involved in the rewarding properties of morphine and amphetamine. In the current study, we investigated the role of tPA in ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization and conditioned-place preference (CPP). Ethanol treatment dose-dependently induced tPA enzymatic activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In addition, ethanol-induced increase in tPA activity was completely inhibited by pre-treatment with the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and raclopride respectively. Furthermore, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation, behavioral sensitization and conditioned-place preference were enhanced following tPA over-expression in the NAc using a lentiviral vector. In contrast, tPA knock down in the NAc with specific shRNA blocked the rewarding properties of ethanol. The defect of locomotor stimulation in shRNA-injected mice was reversed by microinjections of exogenous recombinant tPA into the nucleus accumbens. Collectively, these results indicate, for the first time, that activation of tPA is effective in enhancing the rewarding effects of ethanol. Targeting the tissue plasminogen activator system would provide new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of alcoholism.

  10. Enhanced Locomotor Activity Is Required to Exert Dietary Restriction-Dependent Increase of Stress Resistance in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Saurav; Kim, Man Su

    2015-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is known to be one of the most effective interventions to increase stress resistance, yet the mechanisms remain elusive. One of the most obvious DR-induced changes in phenotype is an increase in locomotor activity. Although it is conceptually perceivable that nutritional scarcity should prompt enhanced foraging behavior to garner additional dietary resources, the significance of enhanced movement activity has not been associated with the DR-dependent increase of stress resistance. In this study, we confirmed that flies raised on DR exhibited enhanced locomotive activity and increased stress resistance. Excision of fly wings minimized the DR-induced increase in locomotive activity, which resulted in attenuation of the DR-dependent increase of stress resistance. The possibility that wing clipping counteracts the DR by coercing flies to have more intake was ruled out since it did not induce any weight gain. Rather it was found that elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is enhanced by DR-induced upregulation of expression of antioxidant genes was significantly reduced by wing clipping. Collectively, our data suggests that DR increased stress resistance by increasing the locomotor activity, which upregulated expression of protective genes including, but not limited to, ROS scavenger system.

  11. Cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in rats correlates with nucleus accumbens activity on manganese-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Perrine, Shane A; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Desai, Kirtan; Kohler, Robert J; Eapen, Ajay T; Lisieski, Michael J; Angoa-Perez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M; Bosse, Kelly E; Conti, Alana C; Bissig, David; Berkowitz, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    A long-standing goal of substance abuse research has been to link drug-induced behavioral outcomes with the activity of specific brain regions to understand the neurobiology of addiction behaviors and to search for drug-able targets. Here, we tested the hypothesis that cocaine produces locomotor (behavioral) sensitization that correlates with increased calcium channel-mediated neuroactivity in brain regions linked with drug addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAC), anterior striatum (AST) and hippocampus, as measured using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Rats were treated with cocaine for 5 days, followed by a 2-day drug-free period. The following day, locomotor sensitization was quantified as a metric of cocaine-induced neuroplasticity in the presence of manganese. Immediately following behavioral testing, rats were examined for changes in calcium channel-mediated neuronal activity in the NAC, AST, hippocampus and temporalis muscle, which was associated with behavioral sensitization using MEMRI. Cocaine significantly increased locomotor activity and produced behavioral sensitization compared with saline treatment of control rats. A significant increase in MEMRI signal intensity was determined in the NAC, but not AST or hippocampus, of cocaine-treated rats compared with saline-treated control rats. Cocaine did not increase signal intensity in the temporalis muscle. Notably, in support of our hypothesis, behavior was significantly and positively correlated with MEMRI signal intensity in the NAC. As neuronal uptake of manganese is regulated by calcium channels, these results indicate that MEMRI is a powerful research tool to study neuronal activity in freely behaving animals and to guide new calcium channel-based therapies for the treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence.

  12. Rat locomotor spinal circuits in vitro are activated by electrical stimulation with noisy waveforms sampled from human gait

    PubMed Central

    Dose, Francesco; Menosso, Rachele; Taccola, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    Noisy waveforms, sampled from an episode of fictive locomotion (FL) and delivered to a dorsal root (DR), are a novel electrical stimulating protocol demonstrated as the most effective for generating the locomotor rhythm in the rat isolated spinal cord. The present study explored if stimulating protocols constructed by sampling real human locomotion could be equally efficient to activate these locomotor networks in vitro. This approach may extend the range of usable stimulation protocols and provide a wide palette of noisy waveforms for this purpose. To this end, recorded electromyogram (EMG) from leg muscles of walking adult volunteers provided a protocol named ReaListim (Real Locomotion-induced stimulation) that applied to a single DR successfully activated FL. The smoothed kinematic profile of the same gait failed to do so like nonphasic noisy patterns derived from standing and isometric contraction. Power spectrum analysis showed distinctive low-frequency domains in ReaListim, along with the high-frequency background noise. The current study indicates that limb EMG signals (recorded during human locomotion) applied to DR of the rat spinal cord are more effective than EMG traces taken during standing or isometric contraction of the same muscles to activate locomotor networks. Finally, EMGs recorded during various human motor tasks demonstrated that noisy waves of the same periodicity as ReaListim, could efficiently activate the in vitro central pattern generator (CPG), regardless of the motor task from which they had been sampled. These data outline new strategies to optimize functional stimulation of spinal networks after injury. PMID:24303112

  13. Effect of intra-cisternal application of kainic acid on the spinal cord and locomotor activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Nilesh K; Goh, Tiffanie EW; Bala Krishnan, Thalisha; Nadarajah, Vishna D; Vasavaraj, Arun K; Soga, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of idiopathic etiology. Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the proposed hypotheses causing progressive death of motor neurons. We aimed to develop an experimental animal model of this disease to enhance the knowledge of pathophysiological mechanism of ALS. Male Wistar rats were infused with Kainic acid (KA) intra-cisternally for 5 days at the dosage of 50 fmol/day and 150 fmol/day. Locomotor activity, sensory function and histological changes in cervical and lumbar sections of spinal cord were evaluated. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and Neurofilament Protein (NFP) were used as immunohistochemical marker for reactive astrogliosis and neuronal damage respectively. Specific Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity of spinal cord was estimated. The locomotor activity in the parameter of observed mean action time remained reduced on 14th day after administration of KA. Spinal motor neurons under Nissl stain showed pyknosis of nucleus and vacuolation of neuropil. GFAP expression increased significantly in the lumbar section of the spinal cord with high dose of KA treatment (p<0.05). NFP was expressed in axonal fibres around the neurons in KA-treated rats. A significant increase in specific SOD activity in both cervical and lumbar sections of the spinal cord was found with low dose of KA treatment (p<0.05). This study concludes that spinal cord damage with some features similar to ALS can be produced by low dose intra-cisternal administration of KA. PMID:23923068

  14. Spontaneous locomotor activity and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia are not linked in 6-OHDA parkinsonian rats

    PubMed Central

    Sgroi, Stefania; Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Capper-Loup, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Bradykinesia (slowness of movement) and other characteristic motor manifestations of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are alleviated by treatment with L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). Long-term L-DOPA treatment, however, is associated with complications such as motor fluctuations and dyskinesia that severely impair the quality of life. It is unclear whether the effect of L-DOPA on spontaneous motor activity and its dyskinesia-inducing effect share a common mechanism. To investigate the possible connection between these two effects, we analyzed the spontaneous locomotor activity of parkinsonian rats before surgery (unilateral injection of 6-OHDA in the right medial forebrain bundle), before treatment with L-DOPA, during L-DOPA treatment (the “ON” phase), and after the end of L-DOPA treatment (the “OFF” phase). We correlated the severity of dyskinesia (AIM scores) with locomotor responses in the ON/OFF phases of chronic L-DOPA treatment at two different doses. We treated three groups of parkinsonian animals with chronic injections of 8 mg/kg L-DOPA, 6 mg/kg L-DOPA, and saline solution and one group of non-lesioned animals with 8 mg/kg L-DOPA. At the end of the experiment, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity was analyzed in the striatum of all parkinsonian rats. We found no correlation between the severity of dyskinesia and spontaneous locomotor activity in the ON or OFF phase of L-DOPA treatment. The only observed correlation was between the pathological rotation induced by L-DOPA at the highest dose and locomotor activity in the ON phase of L-DOPA treatment. In addition, a L-DOPA withdrawal effect was observed, with worse motor performance in the OFF phase than before the start of L-DOPA treatment. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms underlie the effect of L-DOPA on spontaneous motor activity and its dyskinesia-inducing effect, with a different dose-response relationship for each of these two effects. PMID:25324746

  15. The sublethal effects of endosulfan on the circadian rhythms and locomotor activity of two sympatric parasitoid species.

    PubMed

    Delpuech, Jean-Marie; Bussod, Sophie; Amar, Aurelien

    2015-08-01

    The organochlorine insecticide endosulfan is dispersed worldwide and significantly contributes to environmental pollution. It is an antagonist of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is also indirectly involved in photoperiodic time measurement. In this study, we show that endosulfan at a dose as low as LC 0.1 modified the rhythm of locomotor activity of two sympatric parasitoid species, Leptopilina boulardi and Leptopilina heterotoma. The insecticide strongly increased the nocturnal activity of both species and synchronized their diurnal activity; these activities were not synchronized under control conditions. Parasitoids are important species in ecosystems because they control the populations of other insects. In this paper, we discuss the possible consequences of these sublethal effects and highlight the importance of such effects in evaluating the consequences of environmental pollution due to insecticides. PMID:25898969

  16. Further characterization and high-resolution mapping of quantitative trait loci for ethanol-induced locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Demarest, K; Koyner, J; McCaughran, J; Cipp, L; Hitzemann, R

    2001-01-01

    Differential sensitivity to the stimulant effects of ethanol on locomotor activity is determined in part by genetic differences. Among inbred strains of mice, moderate doses of ethanol (1-2 g/kg) stimulate locomotor activity in some strains, e.g., the DBA/2J (D2), but only mildly affect activity in other strains, e.g., C57BL/6J (B6) (Crabbe et al., 1982, 1983; Crabbe, 1986; Dudek and Phillips, 1990; Dudek et al., 1991; Dudek and Tritto, 1994). Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the acute ethanol (1.5 g/kg) locomotor response has been identified in the BXD recombinant inbred (RI) series (N = 25 strains), a C57BL/6J x DBA/2J (B6D2) F2 intercross (N = 1800), and heterogeneous stock (HS) mice (N = 550). QTLs detected (p < .01) in the RI series were found on chromosomes 1, 2, and 6 and these QTLs were expressed in a time-dependent fashion. The QTLs on chromosomes 1 and 2 were confirmed in the F2 intercross at p < 10(-7) or better. HS mice from G32 to G35 were used to fine-map the chromosome 2 QTL. Compared to the consensus map, the genetic map in the HS animals was expanded 10- to 15-fold. Over the region flanked by D2Mit94 to D2Mit304, three separate QTLs were detected in the HS animals. The data obtained confirm the usefulness of HS mice for the fine-mapping of QTLs to a resolution of 2 cM or less.

  17. Mice expressing markedly reduced striatal dopamine transporters exhibit increased locomotor activity, dopamine uptake turnover rate, and cocaine responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rao, Anjali; Sorkin, Alexander; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2013-10-01

    Variations in the expression levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT) can influence responsiveness to psychostimulant drugs like cocaine. To better understand this relationship, we studied a new DAT-low expresser (DAT-LE) mouse model and performed behavioral and biochemical studies with it. Immunoblotting and [(3) H]WIN 35,428 binding analyses revealed that these mice express ∼35% of wildtype (WT) mouse striatal DAT levels. Compared to WT mice, DAT-LE mice were hyperactive in a novel open-field environment. Despite their higher basal locomotor activity, cocaine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) induced greater locomotor activation in DAT-LE mice than in WT mice. The maximal velocity (Vmax ) of DAT-mediated [(3) H]DA uptake into striatal synaptosomes was reduced by 46% in DAT-LE mice, as compared to WT. Overall, considering the reduced number of DAT binding sites (Bmax ) along with the reduced Vmax in DAT-LE mice, a 2-fold increase in DA uptake turnover rate (Vmax /Bmax ) was found, relative to WT mice. This suggests that neuroadaptive changes have occurred in the DAT-LE mice that would help to compensate for their low DAT numbers. Interestingly, these changes do not include a reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase levels, as was previously reported in DAT knockout homozygous and heterozygous animals. Further, these changes are not sufficient to prevent elevated novelty- and cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Hence, these mice represent a unique model for studying changes of in vivo DAT function and regulation that result from markedly reduced levels of DAT expression. PMID:23564231

  18. Orexin as an input of circadian system in goldfish: Effects on clock gene expression and locomotor activity rhythms.

    PubMed

    Nisembaum, Laura G; de Pedro, Nuria; Delgado, María J; Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Isorna, Esther

    2014-02-01

    Orexins are neuropeptides mainly known for regulating feeding behavior and sleep-wakefulness cycle in vertebrates. Daily variations of orexin-A expression have been reported in fish, with the highest levels preceding feeding time. However, it is unknown if such variations could be related with daily rhythms of clock genes, which form the molecular core of circadian oscillators. The aim of the present study was to identify the possible role of orexin as an input element of the goldfish circadian system. It was investigated the effects of orexin-A (10ng/gbw) intracerebroventricular injections on the expression of clock genes, NPY and ghrelin, as well as on daily locomotor activity rhythms. Goldfish held under 12L:12D photoperiod and injected at midday with orexin or saline, were sacrificed at 1 and 3h post-injection. The analysis of genes expression by qReal Time PCR showed an increment of Per genes in hypothalamus and foregut at 3h post-injection, but not in hindgut and liver. The gBmal1a expression remained unaltered in all the studied tissues. Orexin induced NPY in the hypothalamus and ghrelin in the foregut. Locomotor activity was studied in fish daily injected with orexin for several consecutive days under different experimental conditions. Orexin synchronized locomotor activity in goldfish maintained in 24L and fasting conditions. Present results support a cross-talking between orexin-A and other feeding regulators at central and peripheral level, and suggest, for the first time, a role of this peptide as an input of the circadian system in fish.

  19. Evaluation of spatial memory and locomotor activity during hypercortisolism induced by the administration of dexamethasone in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Tevfik; Gedikli, Öznur; Yildirim, Mehmet

    2015-01-21

    In neurosurgery practice glucocorticoids are commonly used. Steroids may have central nervous system side effects affecting whole body, including steroid-induced mental agitation and psychosis. In experimental and clinical studies conducted by using dexamethasone (DEX), it has been reported that DEX adversely affects learning and memory skills. Unfortunately, there are yet no clinically accepted clinical approaches to prevent DEX-induced cognitive dysfunction. In this experimental study it was aimed to investigate the effect of chronic DEX administration on learning-memory and locomotor behaviors in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. In addition, it was also aimed to explore the potential favorable contribution of melatonin (MEL) and vitamin C (Vit C) having antioxidant and neuroprotective properties to the effects of DEX on learning-memory and locomotor behaviors. For this purpose, rats were injected 10mg/kg DEX intraperitoneally, both alone and in combination with MEL (40 mg/kg) and Vit C (100mg/kg), for 9 days, and the animals were tested using the radial arm maze and open field apparatus. The test results revealed that DEX caused a significant decrease in spatial memory and locomotor activities and MEL and Vit C failed to reverse losses in these activities. Furthermore, DEX led to a gradual weight loss that reached 30% of the initial weight at 9th day of the injection. DEX administration causes a generalized loss of behavioral activity of rats. Experimental studies devised to investigate effects of DEX should take into account this DEX-induced generalized behavioral loss when assessing the effects of DEX on learning and memory skills. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory.

  20. Mice expressing markedly reduced striatal dopamine transporters exhibit increased locomotor activity, dopamine uptake turnover rate, and cocaine responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rao, Anjali; Sorkin, Alexander; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2013-10-01

    Variations in the expression levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT) can influence responsiveness to psychostimulant drugs like cocaine. To better understand this relationship, we studied a new DAT-low expresser (DAT-LE) mouse model and performed behavioral and biochemical studies with it. Immunoblotting and [(3) H]WIN 35,428 binding analyses revealed that these mice express ∼35% of wildtype (WT) mouse striatal DAT levels. Compared to WT mice, DAT-LE mice were hyperactive in a novel open-field environment. Despite their higher basal locomotor activity, cocaine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) induced greater locomotor activation in DAT-LE mice than in WT mice. The maximal velocity (Vmax ) of DAT-mediated [(3) H]DA uptake into striatal synaptosomes was reduced by 46% in DAT-LE mice, as compared to WT. Overall, considering the reduced number of DAT binding sites (Bmax ) along with the reduced Vmax in DAT-LE mice, a 2-fold increase in DA uptake turnover rate (Vmax /Bmax ) was found, relative to WT mice. This suggests that neuroadaptive changes have occurred in the DAT-LE mice that would help to compensate for their low DAT numbers. Interestingly, these changes do not include a reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase levels, as was previously reported in DAT knockout homozygous and heterozygous animals. Further, these changes are not sufficient to prevent elevated novelty- and cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Hence, these mice represent a unique model for studying changes of in vivo DAT function and regulation that result from markedly reduced levels of DAT expression.

  1. Chronic food shortage and seasonal modulations of daily torpor and locomotor activity in the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

    PubMed

    Giroud, Sylvain; Blanc, Stéphane; Aujard, Fabienne; Bertrand, Frédéric; Gilbert, Caroline; Perret, Martine

    2008-06-01

    The extent to which seasonal plasticity in torpor displayed by one of the smallest Malagasy primates (Microcebus murinus) will help survival in the context of ongoing global change-induced chronic food shortage, is unknown. Body temperature (Tb) and locomotor activity were measured by telemetry in short- (SD, winter-acclimated) and long-days (LD, summer-acclimated) males (n = 24) during an experimental 35-day calorie restriction of 40 or 80%. Under SD exposure, regardless of calorie restriction intensity, mouse lemurs immediately increased torpor depth and duration by 4.6-fold, and showed greater phase-advanced entry into torpor (2.4-fold). Tb adjustments were efficient under 40% calorie restriction to maintain body mass, whereas they did not prevent a 0.71 +/- 0.11 g/day mass loss during 80% calorie restriction. The 40% food-deprived LD animals combined an early shallow deepening of torpor (1 degrees C) and a late 18% decrease in locomotor activity, resulting in a moderate 6% mass loss. After 15 days of 80% calorie restriction, LD animals exhibited a SD phenotype by increasing their torpor duration and phase-advancing the entry of torpor (16 min/day). Those adjustments had no impact on mass loss (0.93 +/- 0.07 g/day) as locomotor activity increased four-fold. Daily torpor allows M. murinus to face moderate food shortage whatever the photoperiod but poorly mitigates energy imbalance during severe food deprivation, especially under LD exposure. Although the behavioral thermoregulation role warrants further investigation in energy savings, M. murinus survival would be impaired during long-term food shortage in summer. PMID:18434438

  2. Impairment of locomotor activity induced by the novel N-acylhydrazone derivatives LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Silva, G.A.P.; Kummerle, A.E.; Antunes, F.; Fraga, C.A.M.; Barreiro, E.J.; Zapata-Sudo, G.; Sudo, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    The N-acylhydrazone (NAH) analogues N-methyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-785) and N-benzyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-786) were prepared from 2-thienylidene 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-294). The ability of LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 to decrease central nervous system activity was investigated in male Swiss mice. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip) reduced locomotor activity from 209 ± 26 (control) to 140 ± 18 (P < 0.05) or 146 ± 15 crossings/min (P < 0.05), respectively. LASSBio-785 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) also reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 116 ± 29 (P < 0.05) or 60 ± 16 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Likewise, LASSBio-786 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 127 ± 10 (P < 0.01) or 96 ± 14 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Pretreatment with flumazenil (20 mg/kg, ip) prevented the locomotor impairment induced by NAH analogues (15 mg/kg, iv), providing evidence that the benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor is involved. This finding was supported by the structural similarity of NAH analogues to midazolam. However, LASSBio-785 showed weak binding to the BDZ receptor. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip, n = 10) increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time from 42 ± 5 (DMSO) to 66 ± 6 (P < 0.05) or 75 ± 4 min (P < 0.05), respectively. The dose required to achieve 50% hypnosis (HD50) following iv injection of LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 was 15.8 or 9.5 mg/kg, respectively. These data suggest that both NAH analogues might be useful for the development of new neuroactive drugs for the treatment of insomnia or for use in conjunction with general anesthesia. PMID:23558854

  3. The hippocampus and appetitive Pavlovian conditioning: effects of excitotoxic hippocampal lesions on conditioned locomotor activity and autoshaping.

    PubMed

    Ito, Rutsuko; Everitt, Barry J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2005-01-01

    The hippocampus (HPC) is known to be critically involved in the formation of associations between contextual/spatial stimuli and behaviorally significant events, playing a pivotal role in learning and memory. However, increasing evidence indicates that the HPC is also essential for more basic motivational processes. The amygdala, by contrast, is important for learning about the motivational significance of discrete cues. This study investigated the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the rat HPC and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) on the acquisition of a number of appetitive behaviors known to be dependent on the formation of Pavlovian associations between a reward (food) and discrete stimuli or contexts: (1) conditioned/anticipatory locomotor activity to food delivered in a specific context and (2) autoshaping, where rats learn to show conditioned discriminated approach to a discrete visual CS+. While BLA lesions had minimal effects on conditioned locomotor activity, hippocampal lesions facilitated the development of both conditioned activity to food and autoshaping behavior, suggesting that hippocampal lesions may have increased the incentive motivational properties of food and associated conditioned stimuli, consistent with the hypothesis that the HPC is involved in inhibitory processes in appetitive conditioning.

  4. Cutaneous inputs from the back abolish locomotor-like activity and reduce spastic-like activity in the adult cat following complete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Frigon, Alain; Thibaudier, Yann; Johnson, Michael D.; Heckman, C.J.; Hurteau, Marie-France

    2012-01-01

    Spasticity is a condition that can include increased muscle tone, clonus, spasms, and hyperreflexia. In this study, we report the effect of manually stimulating the dorsal lumbosacral skin on spontaneous locomotor-like activity and on a variety of reflex responses in 5 decerebrate chronic spinal cats treated with clonidine. Cats were spinalized 1 month before the terminal experiment. Stretch reflexes were evoked by stretching the left triceps surae muscles. Crossed reflexes were elicited by electrically stimulating the right tibial or superficial peroneal nerves. Windup of reflex responses was evoked by electrically stimulating the left tibial or superficial peroneal nerves. We found that pinching the skin of the back abolished spontaneous locomotor-like activity. We also found that back pinch abolished the rhythmic activity observed during reflex testing without eliminating the reflex responses. Some of the rhythmic episodes of activity observed during reflex testing were consistent with clonus with an oscillation frequency greater than 3 Hz. Pinching the skin of the back effectively abolished rhythmic activity occurring spontaneously or evoked during reflex testing, irrespective of oscillation frequency. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that locomotion and clonus are produced by common central pattern-generators. Stimulating the skin of the back could prove helpful in managing undesired rhythmic activity in spinal cord-injured humans. PMID:22487200

  5. Zebrafish locomotor capacity and brain acetylcholinesterase activity is altered by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De Lu; Hu, Chun Xiang; Li, Dun Hai; Liu, Yong Ding

    2013-08-15

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (A. flos-aquae) is a source of neurotoxins known as aphantoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) that present a major threat to the environment and to human health. Generally, altered neurological function is reflected in behavior. Although the molecular mechanism of action of PSPs is well known, its neurobehavioral effects on adult zebrafish and its relationship with altered neurological functions are poorly understood. Aphantoxins purified from a natural isolate of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were analyzed by HPLC. The major analogs found in the toxins were the gonyautoxins 1 and 5 (GTX1 and GTX5; 34.04% and 21.28%, respectively) and the neosaxitoxin (neoSTX, 12.77%). Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were intraperitoneally injected with 5.3 and 7.61 μg STXeq/kg (low and high dose, respectively) of A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins. The swimming activity was investigated by observation combined with video at 6 timepoints from 1 to 24 h post-exposure. Both aphantoxin doses were associated with delayed touch responses, reduced head-tail locomotory abilities, inflexible turning of head, and a tailward-shifted center of gravity. The normal S-pattern (or undulating) locomotor trajectory was replaced by a mechanical motor pattern of swinging the head after wagging the tail. Finally, these fish principally distributed at the top and/or bottom water of the aquarium, and showed a clear polarized distribution pattern at 12 h post-exposure. Further analysis of neurological function demonstrated that both aphantoxin doses inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase activity. All these changes were dose- and time-dependent. These results demonstrate that aphantoxins can alter locomotor capacity, touch responses and distribution patterns by damaging the cholinergic system of zebrafish, and suggest that zebrafish locomotor behavior and acetylcholinesterase can be used as indicators for investigating aphantoxins and blooms in nature. PMID:23792258

  6. The Role of Storage Lipids in the Relation between Fecundity, Locomotor Activity, and Lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster Longevity-Selected and Control Lines

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri Moghadam, Neda; Holmstrup, Martin; Manenti, Tommaso; Brandt Mouridsen, Marie; Pertoldi, Cino; Loeschcke, Volker

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of insect fat body to multiple processes, such as development, metamorphosis, activity, and reproduction results in trade-offs between life history traits. In the present study, age-induced modulation of storage lipid composition in Drosophila melanogaster longevity-selected (L) and non-selected control (C) lines was studied and the correlation between total body fat mass and lifespan assessed. The trade-offs between fecundity, locomotor activity, and lifespan were re-evaluated from a lipid-related metabolic perspective. Fewer storage lipids in the L lines compared to the C lines supports the impact of body fat mass on extended lifespan. The higher rate of fecundity and locomotor activity in the L lines may increase the lipid metabolism and enhance the lipolysis of storage lipids, reducing fat reserves. The correlation between neutral lipid fatty acids and fecundity, as well as locomotor activity, varied across age groups and between the L and C lines. The fatty acids that correlated with egg production were different from the fatty acids that correlated with locomotor activity. The present study suggests that fecundity and locomotor activity may positively affect the lifespan of D. melanogaster through the inhibition of fat accumulation. PMID:26115349

  7. Prenatal nicotine exposure: effects on locomotor activity and central [125I]alpha-BT binding in rats.

    PubMed

    Tizabi, Y; Russell, L T; Nespor, S M; Perry, D C; Grunberg, N E

    2000-07-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy or in utero exposure of the fetus to nicotine may result in learning difficulties and hyperactivity in the child. To elucidate possible involvement of the alpha(7) nicotinic receptor subtype in these behavioral impairments, pregnant dams were treated with nicotine (9 mg/kg/day) via osmotic minipumps throughout gestation. Male offspring were weaned at postnatal day 18, and were tested for locomotor activity at postnatal days 20-24. Pups were sacrificed on postnatal day 36-38 and 18 discrete brain areas were analyzed for [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BT) binding by quantitative autoradiography. Prenatal nicotine caused an elevation in locomotor activity (vertical movements) in offspring. [125I]alpha-BT binding was significantly reduced in the hippocampal CA1 region (29%), dentate gyrus (22%), and medial geniculate nucleus (29%). These findings suggest that some of the behavioral abnormalities induced by prenatal nicotine exposure may be due to a reduction of alpha(7) nicotinic receptors in discrete brain regions.

  8. Dendritic growth gated by a steroid hormone receptor underlies increases in activity in the developing Drosophila locomotor system

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, Maarten F.; Randlett, Owen; Evers, Jan Felix; Landgraf, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    As animals grow, their nervous systems also increase in size. How growth in the central nervous system is regulated and its functional consequences are incompletely understood. We explored these questions, using the larval Drosophila locomotor system as a model. In the periphery, at neuromuscular junctions, motoneurons are known to enlarge their presynaptic axon terminals in size and strength, thereby compensating for reductions in muscle excitability that are associated with increases in muscle size. Here, we studied how motoneurons change in the central nervous system during periods of animal growth. We find that within the central nervous system motoneurons also enlarge their postsynaptic dendritic arbors, by the net addition of branches, and that these scale with overall animal size. This dendritic growth is gated on a cell-by-cell basis by a specific isoform of the steroid hormone receptor ecdysone receptor-B2, for which functions have thus far remained elusive. The dendritic growth is accompanied by synaptic strengthening and results in increased neuronal activity. Electrical properties of these neurons, however, are independent of ecdysone receptor-B2 regulation. We propose that these structural dendritic changes in the central nervous system, which regulate neuronal activity, constitute an additional part of the adaptive response of the locomotor system to increases in body and muscle size as the animal grows. PMID:24043825

  9. Cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes and neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Jinquan; Wang, Dong; Wu, Yang; Li, Yan; Lu, Zhisong; Yu, Samuel C T; Li, Rui; Yang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have shown increasing promise in the field of biomedicine, especially in applications related to the nervous system. However, there are limited studies available on the neurotoxicity of SWCNTs used in vivo. In this study, neurobehavioral changes caused by SWCNTs in mice and oxidative stress were investigated. The results of ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open-field test), brain histopathological examination, and assessments of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS], malondialdehyde [MDA], and glutathione [GSH]), inflammation (nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β), and apoptosis (cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in brains showed that 6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg/day SWCNTs in mice could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, brain histopathological alterations, and increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mouse brains; however, 3.125 mg/kg/day SWCNTs had zero or minor adverse effects in mice, and these effects were blocked by concurrent administration of ascorbic acid. Down-regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were proposed to explain the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid. This work suggests SWCNTs could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, and provides a strategy to avoid the adverse effects. PMID:24596461

  10. Cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes and neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Jinquan; Wang, Dong; Wu, Yang; Li, Yan; Lu, Zhisong; Yu, Samuel C T; Li, Rui; Yang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have shown increasing promise in the field of biomedicine, especially in applications related to the nervous system. However, there are limited studies available on the neurotoxicity of SWCNTs used in vivo. In this study, neurobehavioral changes caused by SWCNTs in mice and oxidative stress were investigated. The results of ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open-field test), brain histopathological examination, and assessments of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS], malondialdehyde [MDA], and glutathione [GSH]), inflammation (nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β), and apoptosis (cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in brains showed that 6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg/day SWCNTs in mice could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, brain histopathological alterations, and increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mouse brains; however, 3.125 mg/kg/day SWCNTs had zero or minor adverse effects in mice, and these effects were blocked by concurrent administration of ascorbic acid. Down-regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were proposed to explain the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid. This work suggests SWCNTs could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, and provides a strategy to avoid the adverse effects.

  11. Simulated shift work in rats perturbs multiscale regulation of locomotor activity

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Escobar, Carolina; Yugay, Tatiana; Lo, Men-Tzung; Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Shea, Steven A.; Buijs, Ruud M.; Hu, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Motor activity possesses a multiscale regulation that is characterized by fractal activity fluctuations with similar structure across a wide range of timescales spanning minutes to hours. Fractal activity patterns are disturbed in animals after ablating the master circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and in humans with SCN dysfunction as occurs with aging and in dementia, suggesting the crucial role of the circadian system in the multiscale activity regulation. We hypothesized that the normal synchronization between behavioural cycles and the SCN-generated circadian rhythms is required for multiscale activity regulation. To test the hypothesis, we studied activity fluctuations of rats in a simulated shift work protocol that was designed to force animals to be active during the habitual resting phase of the circadian/daily cycle. We found that these animals had gradually decreased mean activity level and reduced 24-h activity rhythm amplitude, indicating disturbed circadian and behavioural cycles. Moreover, these animals had disrupted fractal activity patterns as characterized by more random activity fluctuations at multiple timescales from 4 to 12 h. Intriguingly, these activity disturbances exacerbated when the shift work schedule lasted longer and persisted even in the normal days (without forced activity) following the shift work. The disrupted circadian and fractal patterns resemble those of SCN-lesioned animals and of human patients with dementia, suggesting a detrimental impact of shift work on multiscale activity regulation. PMID:24829282

  12. Simulated shift work in rats perturbs multiscale regulation of locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Escobar, Carolina; Yugay, Tatiana; Lo, Men-Tzung; Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Scheer, Frank A J L; Shea, Steven A; Buijs, Ruud M; Hu, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Motor activity possesses a multiscale regulation that is characterized by fractal activity fluctuations with similar structure across a wide range of timescales spanning minutes to hours. Fractal activity patterns are disturbed in animals after ablating the master circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and in humans with SCN dysfunction as occurs with aging and in dementia, suggesting the crucial role of the circadian system in the multiscale activity regulation. We hypothesized that the normal synchronization between behavioural cycles and the SCN-generated circadian rhythms is required for multiscale activity regulation. To test the hypothesis, we studied activity fluctuations of rats in a simulated shift work protocol that was designed to force animals to be active during the habitual resting phase of the circadian/daily cycle. We found that these animals had gradually decreased mean activity level and reduced 24-h activity rhythm amplitude, indicating disturbed circadian and behavioural cycles. Moreover, these animals had disrupted fractal activity patterns as characterized by more random activity fluctuations at multiple timescales from 4 to 12 h. Intriguingly, these activity disturbances exacerbated when the shift work schedule lasted longer and persisted even in the normal days (without forced activity) following the shift work. The disrupted circadian and fractal patterns resemble those of SCN-lesioned animals and of human patients with dementia, suggesting a detrimental impact of shift work on multiscale activity regulation.

  13. Inhibition of Cdk5 in the nucleus accumbens enhances the locomotor-activating and incentive-motivational effects of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jane R; Lynch, Wendy J; Sanchez, Hayde; Olausson, Peter; Nestler, Eric J; Bibb, James A

    2007-03-01

    Neuronal adaptations in striatal dopamine signaling have been implicated in enhanced responses to addictive drugs. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) regulates striatal dopamine signaling and is a downstream target gene of the transcription factor DeltaFosB, which accumulates in striatal neurons after chronic cocaine exposure. Here we investigated the role of Cdk5 activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) on cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, responding for reward-associated stimuli (conditioned reinforcement), and cocaine self-administration under a progressive ratio schedule. Repeated infusions of the Cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine into the NAc before cocaine injections augmented both the development and expression of cocaine sensitization without having any intrinsic stimulant actions of its own. Additionally, repeated intra-NAc infusions of roscovitine to saline-injected rats enhanced locomotor responses to a subsequent cocaine challenge. Similar effects were found after infusions of another Cdk5 inhibitor, olomoucine, but not its inactive congener, iso-olomoucine. Repeated inhibition of Cdk5 within the NAc also robustly enhanced the incentive-motivational effects of cocaine, similar to the effect of prior repeated cocaine exposure. The enhanced responding with conditioned reinforcement induced by cocaine persisted at least 2 weeks after the final roscovitine infusion. NAc infusions of olomoucine also produced acute and enduring increases in "breakpoints" achieved on a progressive ratio schedule for cocaine reinforcement. These results demonstrate profound and persistent effects of NAc Cdk5 inhibition on locomotor sensitization and incentive-motivational processes and provide direct evidence for a role for striatal Cdk5-induced alterations in the brain's long-term adaptations to cocaine.

  14. The Effects of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Work Schedule Regime on Locomotor Activity Circadian Rhythms, Sleep and Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeRoshia, Charles W.; Colletti, Laura C.; Mallis, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed human adaptation to a Mars sol by evaluating sleep metrics obtained by actigraphy and subjective responses in 22 participants, and circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity in 9 participants assigned to Mars Exploration Rover (MER) operational work schedules (24.65 hour days) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 2004. During MER operations, increased work shift durations and reduced sleep durations and time in bed were associated with the appearance of pronounced 12-hr (circasemidian) rhythms with reduced activity levels. Sleep duration, workload, and circadian rhythm stability have important implications for adaptability and maintenance of operational performance not only of MER operations personnel but also in space crews exposed to a Mars sol of 24.65 hours during future Mars missions.

  15. A high-fat diet rich in corn oil reduces spontaneous locomotor activity and induces insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Kin; Botta, Amy; Pither, Jason; Dai, Chuanbin; Gibson, William T; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2015-04-01

    Over the last few decades, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), especially n-6 PUFA, and monounsaturated fatty acid content in 'Western diets' has increased manyfold. Such a dietary shift also parallels rising sedentary behavior and diabetes in the Western world. We queried if a shift in dietary fats could be linked to physical inactivity and insulin insensitivity in mice. Eight-week old female C57/Bl6 mice were fed either high-fat (HF) diets [40% energy corn oil (CO) or isocaloric olive oil (OO) diets] or chow (n=10/group) for 6 weeks, followed by estimation of spontaneous locomotor activity, body composition and in vivo metabolic outcomes. Although lean mass and resting energy expenditure stayed similar in both OO- and CO-fed mice, only CO-fed mice demonstrated reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. Such depressed activity in CO-fed mice was accompanied by a lower respiratory ratio, hyperinsulinemia and impaired glucose disposal following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests compared to OO-fed mice. Unlike the liver, where both HF diets increased expression of fat oxidation genes like PPARs, the skeletal muscle of CO-fed mice failed to up-regulate such genes, thereby supporting the metabolic insufficiencies observed in these mice. In summary, this study demonstrates a specific contribution of n-6 PUFA-rich oils like CO to the loss of spontaneous physical activity and insulin sensitivity in mice. If these data hold true for humans, this study could provide a novel link between recent increases in dietary n-6 PUFA to sedentary behavior and the development of insulin resistance in the Western world.

  16. l-5-hydroxytryptophan resets the circadian locomotor activity rhythm of the nocturnal Indian pygmy field mouse, Mus terricolor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Priyoneel; Singaravel, Muniyandi; Haldar, Chandana

    2012-03-01

    We report that l-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a serotonin precursor, resets the overt circadian rhythm in the Indian pygmy field mouse, Mus terricolor, in a phase- and dose-dependent manner. We used wheel running to assess phase shifts in the free-running locomotor activity rhythm. Following entrainment to a 12:12 h light-dark cycle, 5-HTP (100 mg/kg in saline) was intraperitoneally administered in complete darkness at circadian time (CT)s 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21, and the ensuing phase shifts in the locomotor activity rhythm were calculated. The results show that 5-HTP differentially shifts the phase of the rhythm, causing phase advances from CT 0 to CT 12 and phase delays from CT 12 to CT 21. Maximum advance phase shift was at CT 6 (1.18 ± 0.37 h) and maximum delay was at CT 18 (-2.36 ± 0.56 h). No extended dead zone is apparent. Vehicle (saline) at any CT did not evoke a significant phase shift. Investigations with different doses (10, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of 5-HTP revealed that the phase resetting effect is dose-dependent. The shape of the phase-response curve (PRC) has a strong similarity to PRCs obtained using some serotonergic agents. There was no significant increase in wheel-running activity after 5-HTP injection, ruling out behavioral arousal-dependent shifts. This suggests that this phase resetting does not completely depend on feedback of the overt rhythmic behavior on the circadian clock. A mechanistic explanation of these shifts is currently lacking.

  17. Neonatal olfactory bulbectomy enhances locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and binding of NMDA receptors in pre-pubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Flores, G; Ibañez-Sandoval, O; Silva-Gómez, A B; Camacho-Abrego, I; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Morales-Medina, J C

    2014-02-14

    In this study, we investigated the effect of neonatal olfactory bulbectomy (nOBX) on behavioral paradigms related to olfaction such as exploratory behavior, locomotor activity in a novel environment and social interaction. We also studied the effect of nOBX on the activity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors during development. The behavioral effects of nOBX (postnatal day 7, PD7) were investigated in pre- (PD30) and post-pubertal (PD60) Wistar rats. NMDA receptor activity was measured with [(125)I]MK-801 in the brain regions associated with the olfactory circuitry. A significant increase in the novelty-induced locomotion was seen in the pre-pubertal nOBX rats. Although the locomotor effect was less marked than in pre-pubertal rats, the nOBX rats tested post-pubertally failed to habituate to the novel situation as quickly as the sham- and normal- controls. Pre-pubertally, the head-dipping behavior was enhanced in nOBX rats compared with sham-operated and normal controls, while normal exploratory behavior was observed between groups in adulthood. In contrast, social interaction was increased in post-pubertal animals that underwent nOBX. Both pre- and post-pubertal nOBX rats recovered olfaction. Interestingly, pre-pubertal rats showed a significant increase in the [(125)I]MK-801 binding in the piriform cortex, dorsal hippocampus, inner and outer layers of the frontal cortex and outer layer of the cingulate cortex. At post-pubertal age, no significant differences in [(125)I]MK-801 binding were observed between groups at any of the brain regions analyzed. These results suggest that nOBX produces pre-pubertal behavioral disturbances and NMDA receptor changes that are transitory with recovery of olfaction early in adulthood. PMID:24295633

  18. Neonatal olfactory bulbectomy enhances locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and binding of NMDA receptors in pre-pubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Flores, G; Ibañez-Sandoval, O; Silva-Gómez, A B; Camacho-Abrego, I; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Morales-Medina, J C

    2014-02-14

    In this study, we investigated the effect of neonatal olfactory bulbectomy (nOBX) on behavioral paradigms related to olfaction such as exploratory behavior, locomotor activity in a novel environment and social interaction. We also studied the effect of nOBX on the activity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors during development. The behavioral effects of nOBX (postnatal day 7, PD7) were investigated in pre- (PD30) and post-pubertal (PD60) Wistar rats. NMDA receptor activity was measured with [(125)I]MK-801 in the brain regions associated with the olfactory circuitry. A significant increase in the novelty-induced locomotion was seen in the pre-pubertal nOBX rats. Although the locomotor effect was less marked than in pre-pubertal rats, the nOBX rats tested post-pubertally failed to habituate to the novel situation as quickly as the sham- and normal- controls. Pre-pubertally, the head-dipping behavior was enhanced in nOBX rats compared with sham-operated and normal controls, while normal exploratory behavior was observed between groups in adulthood. In contrast, social interaction was increased in post-pubertal animals that underwent nOBX. Both pre- and post-pubertal nOBX rats recovered olfaction. Interestingly, pre-pubertal rats showed a significant increase in the [(125)I]MK-801 binding in the piriform cortex, dorsal hippocampus, inner and outer layers of the frontal cortex and outer layer of the cingulate cortex. At post-pubertal age, no significant differences in [(125)I]MK-801 binding were observed between groups at any of the brain regions analyzed. These results suggest that nOBX produces pre-pubertal behavioral disturbances and NMDA receptor changes that are transitory with recovery of olfaction early in adulthood.

  19. Prolactin increases the synthesis of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, a key factor for induction of locomotor activity, in breeding male Newts.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Shogo; Koyama, Teppei; Hasunuma, Itaru; Vaudry, Hubert; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2010-05-01

    We recently found that the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, actively produces 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, a previously undescribed amphibian neurosteroid. 7alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone stimulates locomotor activity of male newts. Locomotor activity of male newts increases during the breeding period as in other wild animals, but the molecular mechanism for such a change in locomotor activity is poorly understood. Here we show that the adenohypophyseal hormone prolactin (PRL) stimulates 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis in the brain, thus increasing locomotor activity of breeding male newts. In this study, cytochrome P450(7alpha) (CYP7B), a steroidogenic enzyme catalyzing the formation of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, was first identified to analyze seasonal changes in 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis. Only males exhibited marked seasonal changes in 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis and CYP7B expression in the brain, with a maximum level in the spring breeding period when locomotor activity of males increases. Subsequently we identified PRL as a key component of the mechanism regulating 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis. Hypophysectomy decreased 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis in the male brain, whereas administration of PRL but not gonadotropins to hypophysectomized males caused a dose-dependent increase in 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis. To analyze the mode of PRL action, CYP7B and the receptor for PRL were localized in the male brain. PRL receptor was expressed in the neurons expressing CYP7B in the magnocellular preoptic nucleus. Thus, PRL appears to act directly on neurosteroidogenic magnocellular preoptic nucleus neurons to regulate 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis, thus inducing seasonal locomotor changes in male newts. This is the first report describing the regulation of neurosteroidogenesis in the brain by an adenohypophyseal hormone in any vertebrate.

  20. Individual differences in cocaine-induced locomotor activity of male Sprague-Dawley rats are not explained by plasma corticosterone levels

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Anna M.; Kleschen, Melissa J.; Zahniser, Nancy R.

    2010-01-01

    Humans differ in their initial response to, and subsequent abuse of, addictive drugs like cocaine. Rodents also exhibit marked individual differences in responsiveness to cocaine. Previously, we classified male Sprague-Dawley rats as either low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs, respectively), based on their acute low-dose cocaine-induced locomotor activity, and found that with repeated drug exposure LCRs exhibit greater cocaine locomotor sensitization, reward and reinforcement than HCRs. Differential cocaine-induced increases in striatal dopamine help to explain the LCR/HCR phenotypes. Differential levels of stress and/or anxiety could also contribute but have not been explored. Here we measured open-field activity and plasma corticosterone levels both pre- and post-cocaine treatment in LCRs, HCRs, and saline-treated controls. The three groups did not differ in baseline locomotor activity or corticosterone levels. Importantly, LCR/HCR differences in corticosterone levels were also not observed following acute cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), when cocaine induced approximately 3.5-fold greater locomotor activity in HCRs than LCRs. Additionally, there were no LCR/HCR differences in plasma corticosterone levels following five days of once-daily cocaine, during which time LCRs developed locomotor sensitization such that their cocaine-induced locomotor activity no longer differed from that of HCRs. Likewise, there were no group activity differences in any of four concentric zones within the open-field chamber. In summary, neither plasma corticosterone levels nor thigmotaxis-type anxiety appears to be a factor that contributes to the observed cocaine-induced LCR/HCR behavioral differences. PMID:20302913

  1. Locomotor activity influences muscle architecture and bone growth but not muscle attachment site morphology

    PubMed Central

    Rabey, Karyne N.; Green, David J.; Taylor, Andrea B.; Begun, David R.; Richmond, Brian G.; McFarlin, Shannon C.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to make behavioural inferences from skeletal remains is critical to understanding the lifestyles and activities of past human populations and extinct animals. Muscle attachment site (enthesis) morphology has long been assumed to reflect muscle strength and activity during life, but little experimental evidence exists to directly link activity patterns with muscle development and the morphology of their attachments to the skeleton. We used a mouse model to experimentally test how the level and type of activity influences forelimb muscle architecture of spinodeltoideus, acromiodeltoideus, and superficial pectoralis, bone growth rate and gross morphology of their insertion sites. Over an 11-week period, we collected data on activity levels in one control group and two experimental activity groups (running, climbing) of female wild-type mice. Our results show that both activity type and level increased bone growth rates influenced muscle architecture, including differences in potential muscular excursion (fibre length) and potential force production (physiological cross-sectional area). However, despite significant influences on muscle architecture and bone development, activity had no observable effect on enthesis morphology. These results suggest that the gross morphology of entheses is less reliable than internal bone structure for making inferences about an individual’s past behaviour. PMID:25467113

  2. Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Root Stimulation on the Generation of Locomotor-Like Activity in the Neonatal Mouse Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated whether dorsal (DR) and ventral root (VR) stimulus trains engage common postsynaptic components to activate the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion in the neonatal mouse spinal cord. VR stimulation did not activate the first order interneurons mediating the activation of the locomotor CPG by sacrocaudal afferent stimulation. Simultaneous stimulation of adjacent dorsal or ventral root pairs, subthreshold for evoking locomotor-like activity, did not summate to activate the CPG. This suggests that locomotor-like activity is triggered when a critical class of efferent or afferent axons is stimulated and does not depend on the number of stimulated axons or activated postsynaptic neurons. DR- and VR-evoked episodes exhibited differences in the coupling between VR pairs. In DR-evoked episodes, the coupling between the ipsilateral and contralateral flexor/extensor roots was similar and stronger than the bilateral extensor roots. In VR-evoked episodes, ipsilateral flexor/extensor coupling was stronger than both the contralateral flexor/extensor and the bilateral extensor coupling. For both types of stimulation, the coupling was greatest between the bilateral L1/L2 flexor-dominated roots. This indicates that the recruitment and/or the firing pattern of motoneurons differed in DR and VR-evoked episodes. However, the DR and VR trains do not appear to activate distinct CPGs because trains of DR and VR stimuli at frequencies too low to evoke locomotor-like activity did so when they were interleaved. These results indicate that the excitatory actions of VR stimulation converge onto the CPG through an unknown pathway that is not captured by current models of the locomotor CPG. PMID:27419215

  3. Synchronization to light and mealtime of the circadian rhythms of self-feeding behavior and locomotor activity of white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Santos, Aline Dos Anjos; López-Olmeda, José Fernando; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Fortes-Silva, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    The role of light and feeding cycles in synchronizing self-feeding and locomotor activity rhythms was studied in white shrimps using a new self-feeding system activated by photocell trigger. In experiment 1, shrimps maintained under a 12:12h light/dark (LD) photoperiod were allowed to self-feed using feeders connected to a photoelectric cell, while locomotor activity was recorded with a second photocell. On day 30, animals were subjected to constant darkness (DD) for 12days to check the existence of endogenous circadian rhythms. In the experiment 2, shrimps were exposed to both a 12:12h LD photoperiod and a fixed meal schedule in the middle of the dark period (MD, 01:00h). On day 20, shrimps were exposed to DD conditions and the same fixed feeding. On day 30, they were maintained under DD and fasted for 7days. The results revealed that under LD, shrimps showed a clear nocturnal feeding pattern and locomotor activity (81.9% and 67.7% of total daily food-demands and locomotor activity, respectively, at nighttime). Both feeding and locomotor rhythms were endogenously driven and persisted under DD with an average period length (τ) close to 24h (circadian) (τ=24.18±0.13 and 23.87±0.14h for locomotor and feeding, respectively). Moreover, Shrimp showed a daily food intake under LD condition (1.1±0.2gday(-1) in the night phase vs. 0.2±0.1gday(-1) in the light phase). Our findings might be relevant for some important shrimp aquaculture aspects, such as developing suitable feeding management on shrimp farms.

  4. Synchronization to light and mealtime of the circadian rhythms of self-feeding behavior and locomotor activity of white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Santos, Aline Dos Anjos; López-Olmeda, José Fernando; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Fortes-Silva, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    The role of light and feeding cycles in synchronizing self-feeding and locomotor activity rhythms was studied in white shrimps using a new self-feeding system activated by photocell trigger. In experiment 1, shrimps maintained under a 12:12h light/dark (LD) photoperiod were allowed to self-feed using feeders connected to a photoelectric cell, while locomotor activity was recorded with a second photocell. On day 30, animals were subjected to constant darkness (DD) for 12days to check the existence of endogenous circadian rhythms. In the experiment 2, shrimps were exposed to both a 12:12h LD photoperiod and a fixed meal schedule in the middle of the dark period (MD, 01:00h). On day 20, shrimps were exposed to DD conditions and the same fixed feeding. On day 30, they were maintained under DD and fasted for 7days. The results revealed that under LD, shrimps showed a clear nocturnal feeding pattern and locomotor activity (81.9% and 67.7% of total daily food-demands and locomotor activity, respectively, at nighttime). Both feeding and locomotor rhythms were endogenously driven and persisted under DD with an average period length (τ) close to 24h (circadian) (τ=24.18±0.13 and 23.87±0.14h for locomotor and feeding, respectively). Moreover, Shrimp showed a daily food intake under LD condition (1.1±0.2gday(-1) in the night phase vs. 0.2±0.1gday(-1) in the light phase). Our findings might be relevant for some important shrimp aquaculture aspects, such as developing suitable feeding management on shrimp farms. PMID:27155052

  5. Effects of the imidazobenzodiazepine R015-4513 on the stimulant and depressant actions of ethanol on spontaneous locomotor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the imidazobenzodiazepine R015-4513, a partial inverse agonist at benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors, on the stimulant and depressant actions of ethanol in mice. For comparative purposes, another BDZ inverse agonist, FG-7142, was examined as well. Neither R015-4513 nor FG-7142 influenced the low-dose excitatory effects of ethanol on spontaneous locomotor activity. However, both R015-4513 and FG-7142 significantly antagonized the depressant effects of ethanol, and this antagonism was completely reversed by pretreatment with the BDZ receptor antagonist, R015-1788. These data suggest that R015-4513 is capable of antagonizing only some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, and in particular, those responses to ethanol that are mediated by modulation of the GABA/BDZ-chloride channel receptor complex.

  6. Normal inhibitory avoidance learning and anxiety, but increased locomotor activity in mice devoid of PrP(C).

    PubMed

    Roesler, R; Walz, R; Quevedo, J; de-Paris, F; Zanata, S M; Graner, E; Izquierdo, I; Martins, V R; Brentani, R R

    1999-08-25

    Prions are the causative agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The transmissible agent (PrP(Sc)) is an abnormal form of PrP(C), a normal neuronal protein. The physiological role of PrP(C) remains unclear. In the present report, we evaluated behavioral parameters in Prnp(0/0) mice devoid of PrP(C). Prnp(0/0) mice showed normal short- and long-term retention of a step-down inhibitory avoidance task and normal behavior in an elevated plus maze test of anxiety. During a 5-min exploration of an open field, Prnp(0/0) mice showed normal number of rearings, defecation, and latency to initiate locomotion, but a significant increase in the number of crossings. The results suggest that Prnp(0/0) mice show normal fear-motivated memory, anxiety and exploratory behavior, and a slight increase in locomotor activity during exploration of a novel environment.

  7. Identification of compounds in the essential oil of nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) that inhibit locomotor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Muchtaridi; Subarnas, Anas; Apriyantono, Anton; Mustarichie, Resmi

    2010-11-23

    The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed essential oil on the locomotor activity of mice in a wheel cage. Active compounds in the essential oil were identified by off-line solid phase extraction (SPE-C18) and GC/MS analysis. The essential oil was administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that inhalation of nutmeg seed essential oil at a dose of 0.5 mL/cage decreased locomotion by 68.62%; and inhalation of 0.1 and 0.3 mL/cage inhibited locomotion by 62.81% and 65.33%, respectively. Generally, larger doses and longer administrations of nutmeg seed essential oil exhibited greater locomotor inhibition. Subsequently, the plasma concentrations of essential oil compounds were measured. The most concentrated compound in the plasma was myristicin. Half an hour after the addition of 1 mL/cage of nutmeg seed oil, the plasma concentration of myristicin was 3.7 μg/mL; one and two hours after the addition, the blood levels of myristicin were 5.2 μg/mL and 7.1 μg/mL, respectively. Other essential oil compounds identified in plasma were safrole (two-hour inhalation: 1.28 μg/mL), 4-terpineol (half-hour inhalation: 1.49 μg/mL, one-hour inhalation: 2.95 μg/mL, two-hour inhalation: 6.28 μg/mL) and fatty esters. The concentrations of the essential oil compounds in the blood plasma were relatively low (μg/mL or ppm). In conclusion, the volatile compounds of nutmeg seed essential oil identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

  8. Identification of compounds in the essential oil of nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) that inhibit locomotor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Muchtaridi; Subarnas, Anas; Apriyantono, Anton; Mustarichie, Resmi

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed essential oil on the locomotor activity of mice in a wheel cage. Active compounds in the essential oil were identified by off-line solid phase extraction (SPE-C18) and GC/MS analysis. The essential oil was administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that inhalation of nutmeg seed essential oil at a dose of 0.5 mL/cage decreased locomotion by 68.62%; and inhalation of 0.1 and 0.3 mL/cage inhibited locomotion by 62.81% and 65.33%, respectively. Generally, larger doses and longer administrations of nutmeg seed essential oil exhibited greater locomotor inhibition. Subsequently, the plasma concentrations of essential oil compounds were measured. The most concentrated compound in the plasma was myristicin. Half an hour after the addition of 1 mL/cage of nutmeg seed oil, the plasma concentration of myristicin was 3.7 μg/mL; one and two hours after the addition, the blood levels of myristicin were 5.2 μg/mL and 7.1 μg/mL, respectively. Other essential oil compounds identified in plasma were safrole (two-hour inhalation: 1.28 μg/mL), 4-terpineol (half-hour inhalation: 1.49 μg/mL, one-hour inhalation: 2.95 μg/mL, two-hour inhalation: 6.28 μg/mL) and fatty esters. The concentrations of the essential oil compounds in the blood plasma were relatively low (μg/mL or ppm). In conclusion, the volatile compounds of nutmeg seed essential oil identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation. PMID:21151471

  9. Identification of Compounds in the Essential Oil of Nutmeg Seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muchtaridi; Subarnas, Anas; Apriyantono, Anton; Mustarichie, Resmi

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed essential oil on the locomotor activity of mice in a wheel cage. Active compounds in the essential oil were identified by off-line solid phase extraction (SPE-C18) and GC/MS analysis. The essential oil was administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that inhalation of nutmeg seed essential oil at a dose of 0.5 mL/cage decreased locomotion by 68.62%; and inhalation of 0.1 and 0.3 mL/cage inhibited locomotion by 62.81% and 65.33%, respectively. Generally, larger doses and longer administrations of nutmeg seed essential oil exhibited greater locomotor inhibition. Subsequently, the plasma concentrations of essential oil compounds were measured. The most concentrated compound in the plasma was myristicin. Half an hour after the addition of 1 mL/cage of nutmeg seed oil, the plasma concentration of myristicin was 3.7 μg/mL; one and two hours after the addition, the blood levels of myristicin were 5.2 μg/mL and 7.1 μg/mL, respectively. Other essential oil compounds identified in plasma were safrole (two-hour inhalation: 1.28 μg/mL), 4-terpineol (half-hour inhalation: 1.49 μg/mL, one-hour inhalation: 2.95 μg/mL, two-hour inhalation: 6.28 μg/mL) and fatty esters. The concentrations of the essential oil compounds in the blood plasma were relatively low (μg/mL or ppm). In conclusion, the volatile compounds of nutmeg seed essential oil identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation. PMID:21151471

  10. Dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions counteract decreases in locomotor activity in male Syrian hamsters transferred from long to short day lengths.

    PubMed

    Jarjisian, Stephan G; Butler, Matthew P; Paul, Matthew J; Place, Ned J; Prendergast, Brian J; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Zucker, Irving

    2015-02-01

    The dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) of the hypothalamus has been implicated in seasonal control of reproduction. Syrian hamsters with DMN lesions, unlike control hamsters, do not undergo testicular regression after transfer from a long day length (14 h of light per day; LD) to a short day length (8 h of light per day; SD). SDs also markedly reduce hamster locomotor activity (LMA). To assess whether the DMN is a component of the neural circuitry that mediates seasonal variation in LMA, neurologically intact males (controls) and hamsters that had sustained lesions of the DMN (DMNx) were housed in an LD or SD photoperiod for 26 weeks. DMNx that prevented testicular regression counteracted decreases in LMA during 8 to10 weeks of SD treatment; steroid-independent effects of SDs did not override high levels of LMA in DMNx males. As in previous studies, testosterone (T) restoration increased LMA in LD but not SD castrated control males. In the present study, T also failed to increase LMA in SD-DMNx hamsters. The DMN is not necessary to maintain decreased responsiveness of locomotor activity systems to T in SDs, which presumably is mediated by other central nervous system androgen target tissues. Finally, DMNx did not interfere with the spontaneous increase in LMA exhibited by photorefractory hamsters after 26 weeks of SD treatment. We propose that DMN is an essential part of the substrate that mediates seasonal decreases in LMA as day length decreases but is not required to sustain decreased SD responsiveness to T or for development of refractoriness to SDs.

  11. Variable Maternal Stress in Rats Alters Locomotor Activity, Social Behavior, and Recognition Memory in the Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Christina A.; Terry, Alvin V.

    2013-01-01

    Rats repeatedly exposed to variable prenatal stress (PNS) exhibit behavioral signs that are similar to those manifested in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as deficits in attention and inhibitory control, and impairments in memory-related task performance. The purpose of the study described here was to conduct a comprehensive battery of tests to further characterize the behavioral phenotype of PNS rats as well as to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to therapeutic interventions (i.e., to compounds previously shown to have therapeutic potential in neuropsychiatric disorders). The results of this study indicated that PNS in rats is associated with: 1) increased locomotor activity and stereotypic behaviors, 2) elevated sensitivity to the psychostimulant amphetamine, 3) increased aggressive behaviors toward both adult and juvenile rats and 4) delay-dependent deficits in recognition memory. There was no evidence that PNS rats exhibited deficits in other areas of motor function/learning, sensorimotor gating, spatial learning and memory, social withdrawal, or anhedonia. In addition, the results revealed that the second generation antipsychotic risperidone attenuated amphetamine-related increases in locomotor activity in PNS rats; however, the effect was not sustained over time. Furthermore, deficits in recognition memory in PNS rats were attenuated by the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine, but not by the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, GTS-21. This study supports the supposition that important phenomenological similarities exist between rats exposed to PNS and patients afflicted with neuropsychiatric disorders thus further establishing the face validity of the model for evaluating potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:23287801

  12. Ventral Tegmental Area Neurotensin Signaling Links the Lateral Hypothalamus to Locomotor Activity and Striatal Dopamine Efflux in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Christa M.; Wong, Jenny-Marie T.; Leinninger, Gina M.; Allison, Margaret B.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Kasper, Chelsea L.; Gonzalez, Ian E.; Mackenzie, Alexander; Jones, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    Projections from the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) innervate components of the mesolimbic dopamine (MLDA) system, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), to modulate motivation appropriately for physiologic state. Neurotensin (NT)-containing LHA neurons respond to multiple homeostatic challenges and project to the VTA, suggesting that these neurons could link such signals to MLDA function. Indeed, we found that pharmacogenetic activation of LHA NT neurons promoted prolonged DA-dependent locomotor activity and NAc DA efflux, suggesting the importance of VTA neurotransmitter release by LHA NT neurons for the control of MLDA function. Using a microdialysis-mass spectrometry technique that we developed to detect endogenous NT in extracellular fluid in the mouse brain, we found that activation of LHA NT cells acutely increased the extracellular concentration of NT (a known activator of VTA DA cells) in the VTA. In contrast to the prolonged elevation of extracellular NAc DA, however, VTA NT concentrations rapidly returned to baseline. Intra-VTA infusion of NT receptor antagonist abrogated the ability of LHA NT cells to increase extracellular DA in the NAc, demonstrating that VTA NT promotes NAc DA release. Thus, transient LHA-derived NT release in the VTA couples LHA signaling to prolonged changes in DA efflux and MLDA function. PMID:25734363

  13. Octopamine and tyramine influence the behavioral profile of locomotor activity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Fussnecker, Brendon L; Smith, Brian H; Mustard, Julie A

    2006-10-01

    The biogenic amines octopamine and tyramine are believed to play a number of important roles in the behavior of invertebrates including the regulation of motor function. To investigate the role of octopamine and tyramine in locomotor behavior in honey bees, subjects were injected with a range of concentrations of octopamine, tyramine, mianserin or yohimbine. Continuous observation of freely moving worker bees was used to examine the effects of these treatments on the amount of time honey bees spent engaged in different locomotor behaviors such as walking, grooming, fanning and flying. All treatments produced significant shifts in behavior. Decreases in time spent walking and increases in grooming or stopped behavior were observed for every drug. However, the pattern of the shift depended on drug, time after injection and concentration. Flying behavior was differentially affected with increases in flying seen in octopamine treated bees, whereas those receiving tyramine showed a decrease in flying. Taken together, these data provide evidence that octopamine and tyramine modulate motor function in the honey bee perhaps via interaction with central pattern generators or through effects on sensory perception.

  14. Behaviour and Locomotor Activity of a Migratory Catostomid during Fishway Passage

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana T.; Hatry, Charles; Thiem, Jason D.; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Hatin, Daniel; Zhu, David Z.; W. Dawson, Jeffery; Katopodis, Christos; J. Cooke, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Fishways have been developed to restore longitudinal connectivity in rivers. Despite their potential for aiding fish passage, fishways may represent a source of significant energetic expenditure for fish as they are highly turbulent environments. Nonetheless, our understanding of the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage of fish is still limited. We examined swimming behaviour and activity of silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum) during its upriver spawning migration in a vertical slot fishway. We used an accelerometer-derived instantaneous activity metric (overall dynamic body acceleration) to estimate location-specific swimming activity. Silver redhorse demonstrated progressive increases in activity during upstream fishway passage. Moreover, location-specific passage duration decreased with an increasing number of passage attempts. Turning basins and the most upstream basin were found to delay fish passage. No relationship was found between basin-specific passage duration and activity and the respective values from previous basins. The results demonstrate that successful fishway passage requires periods of high activity. The resultant energetic expenditure may affect fitness, foraging behaviour and increase susceptibility to predation, compromising population sustainability. This study highlights the need to understand the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage to improve future designs and interpretation of biological evaluations. PMID:25853245

  15. Behaviour and locomotor activity of a migratory catostomid during fishway passage.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana T; Hatry, Charles; Thiem, Jason D; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Hatin, Daniel; Zhu, David Z; Dawson, Jeffery W; Katopodis, Christos; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Fishways have been developed to restore longitudinal connectivity in rivers. Despite their potential for aiding fish passage, fishways may represent a source of significant energetic expenditure for fish as they are highly turbulent environments. Nonetheless, our understanding of the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage of fish is still limited. We examined swimming behaviour and activity of silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum) during its upriver spawning migration in a vertical slot fishway. We used an accelerometer-derived instantaneous activity metric (overall dynamic body acceleration) to estimate location-specific swimming activity. Silver redhorse demonstrated progressive increases in activity during upstream fishway passage. Moreover, location-specific passage duration decreased with an increasing number of passage attempts. Turning basins and the most upstream basin were found to delay fish passage. No relationship was found between basin-specific passage duration and activity and the respective values from previous basins. The results demonstrate that successful fishway passage requires periods of high activity. The resultant energetic expenditure may affect fitness, foraging behaviour and increase susceptibility to predation, compromising population sustainability. This study highlights the need to understand the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage to improve future designs and interpretation of biological evaluations. PMID:25853245

  16. Greater Ethanol-Induced Locomotor Activation in DBA/2J versus C57BL/6J Mice Is Not Predicted by Presynaptic Striatal Dopamine Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jamie H.; Calipari, Erin S.; Mathews, Tiffany A.; Jones, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research has aimed to determine the neurochemical factors driving differential sensitivity to ethanol between individuals in an attempt to find predictors of ethanol abuse vulnerability. Here we find that the locomotor activating effects of ethanol are markedly greater in DBA/2J compared to C57BL/6J mice, although it is unclear as to what neurochemical differences between strains mediate this behavior. Dopamine elevations in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen regulate locomotor behavior for most drugs, including ethanol; thus, we aimed to determine if differences in these regions predict strain differences in ethanol-induced locomotor activity. Previous studies suggest that ethanol interacts with the dopamine transporter, potentially mediating its locomotor activating effects; however, we found that ethanol had no effects on dopamine uptake in either strain. Ex vivo voltammetry allows for the determination of ethanol effects on presynaptic dopamine terminals, independent of drug-induced changes in firing rates of afferent inputs from either dopamine neurons or other neurotransmitter systems. However, differences in striatal dopamine dynamics did not predict the locomotor-activating effects of ethanol, since the inhibitory effects of ethanol on dopamine release were similar between strains. There were differences in presynaptic dopamine function between strains, with faster dopamine clearance in the caudate-putamen of DBA/2J mice; however, it is unclear how this difference relates to locomotor behavior. Because of the role of the dopamine system in reinforcement and reward learning, differences in dopamine signaling between the strains could have implications for addiction-related behaviors that extend beyond ethanol effects in the striatum. PMID:24349553

  17. Brief light stimulation during the mouse nocturnal activity phase simultaneously induces a decline in core temperature and locomotor activity followed by EEG-determined sleep

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, Keith M.; Gompf, Heinrich S.

    2013-01-01

    Light exerts a variety of effects on mammals. Unexpectedly, one of these effects is the cessation of nocturnal locomotion and the induction of behavioral sleep (photosomnolence). Here, we extend the initial observations in several ways, including the fundamental demonstration that core body temperature (Tc) drops substantially (about 1.5°C) in response to the light stimulation at CT15 or CT18 in a manner suggesting that the change is a direct response to light rather than simply a result of the locomotor suppression. The results show that 1) the decline of locomotion and Tc begin soon after nocturnal light stimulation; 2) the variability in the magnitude and onset of light-induced locomotor suppression is very large, whereas the variability in Tc is very small; 3) Tc recovers from the light-induced decline in advance of the recovery of locomotion; 4) under entrained and freerunning conditions, the daily late afternoon Tc increase occurs in advance of the corresponding increase in wheel running; and 5) toward the end of the subjective night, the nocturnally elevated Tc persists longer than does locomotor activity. Finally, EEG measurements confirm light-induced sleep and, when Tc or locomotion was measured, show their temporal association with sleep onset. Both EEG- and immobility-based sleep detection methods confirm rapid induction of light-induced sleep. The similarities between light-induced loss of locomotion and drop in Tc suggest a common cause for parallel responses. The photosomnolence response may be contingent upon both the absence of locomotion and a simultaneous low Tc. PMID:23364525

  18. The night-time temporal window of locomotor activity in the Namib Desert long-distance wandering spider, Leucorchestris arenicola.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Henschel, Joh R; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2006-04-01

    Even though being active exclusively after sunset, the male Leucorchestris arenicola spiders are able to return to their point of departure by following bee-line routes of up to several hundreds of meters in length. While performing this kind of long-distance path integration they must rely on external cues to adjust for navigational errors. Many external cues which could be used by the spiders change dramatically or disappear altogether in the transition period from day to night. Hence, it is therefore imperative to know exactly when after sunset the spiders navigate in order to find out how they do it. To explore this question, we monitored their locomotor activity with data loggers equipped with infrared beam sensors. Our results show that the male spiders are most active in the period between the end and the beginning of the astronomical twilight period. Moreover, they prefer the moonless, i.e. darkest times at night. Hence, we conclude that the males are truly-and extremely-nocturnal. We further show that they are able to navigate under the very dim light conditions prevailing on moonless nights, and thus do not have to rely on the moon or on moon-related patterns of polarised light as potential compass cues. PMID:16283328

  19. Tetrabenazine inhibition of monoamine uptake and methamphetamine behavioral effects: Locomotor activity, drug discrimination and self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, AC; Horton, DB; Neugebauer, NM; Wooters, TE; Nickell, JR; Dwoskin, LP; Bardo, MT

    2013-01-01

    Tetrabenazine (TBZ), a benzoquinolizine derivative, binds with high affinity to the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2), inhibiting uptake of cytosolic monoamines. The current study aimed to provide preclinical evidence supporting the potential use of TBZ as a treatment for methamphetamine abuse. Effects of TBZ on function of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) in striatal and hippocampal synaptosomes, respectively, and on VMAT2 function in isolated striatal synaptic vesicles were determined. Effect of TBZ (acute, 0.1 - 3.0 mg/kg, s.c.; repeated, 1.0 mg/kg for 7 days) on locomotor activity in methamphetamine-sensitized rats was assessed. Ability of TBZ (0.1 -3.0 mg/kg; s.c.) or vehicle to decrease the discriminative effect of methamphetamine also was determined. Ability of TBZ (acute, 0.1 - 1.0 mg/kg, s.c.; repeated, 0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg for 7 days) to specifically decrease methamphetamine self-administration was determined; for comparison, a separate group of rats was assessed for effects of TBZ on food-maintained responding. Results show that TBZ was 11-fold more potent inhibiting DAT than SERT, and 2.5-fold more potent inhibiting VMAT2 than DAT. Results from behavioral studies showed that the lowest dose of TBZ transiently increased methamphetamine self-administration, whereas higher TBZ doses decreased methamphetamine self-administration. Also, TBZ at high doses decreased methamphetamine locomotor sensitization and discriminative stimulus effects, as well as food-maintained responding. Thus, despite acting as a potent VMAT2 inhibitor, these preclinical results indicate that TBZ lacks behavioral specificity as an inhibitor of methamphetamine-induced reinforcement, diminishing its viability as a suitable treatment for methamphetamine abuse. PMID:21669212

  20. Tetrabenazine inhibition of monoamine uptake and methamphetamine behavioral effects: locomotor activity, drug discrimination and self-administration.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A C; Horton, D B; Neugebauer, N M; Wooters, T E; Nickell, J R; Dwoskin, L P; Bardo, M T

    2011-09-01

    Tetrabenazine (TBZ), a benzoquinolizine derivative, binds with high affinity to the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2), inhibiting uptake of cytosolic monoamines. The current study aimed to provide preclinical evidence supporting the potential use of TBZ as a treatment for methamphetamine abuse. Effects of TBZ on function of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) in striatal and hippocampal synaptosomes, respectively, and on VMAT2 function in isolated striatal synaptic vesicles were determined. Effect of TBZ (acute, 0.1-3.0 mg/kg, s.c.; repeated, 1.0 mg/kg for 7 days) on locomotor activity in methamphetamine-sensitized rats was assessed. Ability of TBZ (0.1-3.0 mg/kg; s.c.) or vehicle to decrease the discriminative effect of methamphetamine also was determined. Ability of TBZ (acute, 0.1-1.0 mg/kg, s.c.; repeated, 0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg for 7 days) to specifically decrease methamphetamine self-administration was determined; for comparison, a separate group of rats was assessed for effects of TBZ on food-maintained responding. Results show that TBZ was 11-fold more potent inhibiting DAT than SERT, and 2.5-fold more potent inhibiting VMAT2 than DAT. Results from behavioral studies showed that the lowest dose of TBZ transiently increased methamphetamine self-administration, whereas higher TBZ doses decreased methamphetamine self-administration. Also, TBZ at high doses decreased methamphetamine locomotor sensitization and discriminative stimulus effects, as well as food-maintained responding. Thus, despite acting as a potent VMAT2 inhibitor, these preclinical results indicate that TBZ lacks behavioral specificity as an inhibitor of methamphetamine-induced reinforcement, diminishing its viability as a suitable treatment for methamphetamine abuse.

  1. Comparison between intraperitoneal and subcutaneous phencyclidine administration in Sprague-Dawley rats: a locomotor activity and gene induction study.

    PubMed

    Kalinichev, Mikhail; Robbins, Melanie J; Hartfield, Elizabeth M; Maycox, Peter R; Moore, Susan H; Savage, Kevin M; Austin, Nigel E; Jones, Declan N C

    2008-02-15

    In a putative model of acute phencyclidine (PCP)-induced psychosis we evaluated effects of the drug on locomotor activity (LMA) and immediate early gene (IEG) induction in the rat using two routes of drug administration, intraperitoneal (i.p.) and subcutaneous (s.c.). Adult male rats received saline or PCP (1.0-5.0 mg/kg) either i.p or s.c. and were assessed for LMA for 60 min. At the end of the LMA testing animals were culled and blood and brain samples were collected for PCP concentration analysis. Separate cohorts of animals received 5.0 mg/kg PCP (i.p. or s.c.) and were used to investigate (1) the pharmacokinetics of PCP or (2) induction of IEG (Arc, c-fos, BDNF, junB, Krox-20, sgk-1, NURR1, fra-2, Krox-24, and egr-3) mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Administration of PCP resulted in locomotor hyperactivity which was more robust and longer-lasting in animals dosed s.c. compared to i.p.-treated-animals. Differences in hyperlocomotion were paralleled by higher concentrations of PCP in the blood and in the brain of s.c.-treated animals compared to i.p.-treated animals. The differences in the concentration of PCP between the two routes of administration were detected 30 min after dosing and persisted for up to 4 h. Administration of PCP via the s.c. route resulted in induction of more IEGs and consistently larger magnitudes of induction than that via the i.p. route. Therefore, we have outlined the dosing conditions to induce rapid and robust effect of acute PCP on behaviour, gene induction, and pharmacokinetic profile, to allow investigation of this as a potential animal model of acute psychosis.

  2. Locomotor exercise induces long-lasting impairments in the capacity of the human motor cortex to voluntarily activate knee extensor muscles.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Simranjit K; Bentley, David J; Carroll, Timothy J

    2009-02-01

    Muscle fatigue is a reduction in the capacity to exert force and may involve a "central" component originating in the brain and/or spinal cord. Here we examined whether supraspinal factors contribute to impaired central drive after locomotor endurance exercise. On 2 separate days, 10 moderately active individuals completed a locomotor cycling exercise session or a control session. Brief (2 s) and sustained (30 s) isometric knee extension contractions were completed before and after locomotor exercise consisting of eight, 5-min bouts of cycling at 80% of maximum workload. In the control session, subjects completed the isometric contractions in a rested state. Twitch responses to supramaximal motor nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation were obtained to assess peripheral force-generating capacity and voluntary activation. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force during brief contractions decreased by 23 +/- 6.3% after cycling exercise and remained 12 +/- 2.8% below baseline 45 min later (F(1,9) > 15.5; P < 0.01). Resting twitch amplitudes declined by approximately 45% (F(1,9) = 28.3; P < 0.001). Cortical voluntary activation declined from 90.6 +/- 1.6% at baseline to 80.6 +/- 2.1% after exercise (F(1,9) = 28.0; P < 0.001) and remained significantly reduced relative to control 30-45 min later (80.6 +/- 3.4%; F(1,9) = 10.7; P < 0.01). Thus locomotor exercise caused a long-lasting impairment in the capacity of the motor cortex to drive the knee extensors. Force was reduced more during sustained MVC after locomotor exercise than in the control session. Peripheral mechanisms contributed relatively more to this force reduction in the control session, whereas supraspinal fatigue played a greater role in sustained MVC reduction after locomotor exercise. PMID:19056999

  3. Dopamine D4 receptors linked to protein kinase G are required for changes in dopamine release followed by locomotor activity after repeated cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Dong Kun; Shim, Yoon-Bo; Ryu, In Soo; Seo, Su Yeon; Kim, Jieun; Yang, Ju Hwan; Cho, Hyun-Wook; Choe, Eun Sang

    2015-05-01

    We previously found that the dopamine D2-type receptors (D2 and D3 receptors), coupled to protein kinase G (PKG), upregulate locomotor activity after repeated cocaine administration. In this study, D4 receptors, another type of D2 receptor also coupled to PKG, were examined to determine their requirement in the regulation of locomotor activity after repeated cocaine administration. The results demonstrated that repeated injections of cocaine (20 mg/kg), given once a day for seven consecutive days, significantly increased extracellular dopamine concentrations. Intra-caudate infusion of the D4 receptor agonist, PD168077 (10 nmol), and the PKG inhibitor, KT5823 (2 nmol), significantly decreased the repeated cocaine-induced increase in dopamine levels and locomotor activity. However, intra-caudate infusion of KT5823, but not PD168077, decreased ∆FosB immunoreactivity elevated by repeated cocaine administration. These findings suggest that D4 receptors linked to PKG could be a key modulator for dopamine release required for changes in locomotor activity caused by repeated cocaine exposure. PMID:25702161

  4. An enriched environment reduces the stress level and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine treatment and by saline after chronic morphine treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Sun, Jinling; Xue, Zhaoxia; Li, Xinwang

    2014-06-18

    This study investigated the relationships among an enriched environment, stress levels, and drug addiction. Mice were divided randomly into four treatment groups (n=12 each): enriched environment without restraint stress (EN), standard environment without restraint stress (SN), enriched environment with restraint stress (ES), and standard environment with restraint stress (SS). Mice were reared in the respective environment for 45 days. Then, the ES and SS groups were subjected to restraint stress daily (2 h/day) for 14 days, whereas the EN and SN groups were not subjected to restraint stress during this stage. The stress levels of all mice were tested in the elevated plus maze immediately after exposure to restraint stress. After the 2-week stress testing period, mice were administered acute or chronic morphine (5 mg/kg) treatment for 7 days. Then, after a 7-day withdrawal period, the mice were injected with saline (1 ml/kg) or morphine (5 mg/kg) daily for 2 days to observe locomotor activity. The results indicated that the enriched environment reduced the stress and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine administration or saline after chronic morphine treatment. However, the enriched environment did not significantly inhibit locomotor activity induced by morphine challenge. In addition, the stress level did not mediate the effect of the enriched environment on drug-induced locomotor activity after acute or chronic morphine treatment.

  5. Control of locomotor activity in humans and animals in the absence of supraspinal influences.

    PubMed

    Gerasimenko, Yu P; Makarovskii, A N; Nikitin, O A

    2002-01-01

    Electrical epidural stimulation of the dorsal surface of the spinal cord at the level of the second lumbar segment induced step-like movements accompanied by the corresponding electromyographic activity in the leg muscles in patients lacking supraspinal influences as a result of vertebral trauma. Triggering of stepping movements was shown to occur with particular stimulation parameters. The results provide evidence that in humans, as in other mammals, the spinal cord contains a network of interneurons acting as generators of stepping movements and producing coordinated patterns of movement activity. Experiments on chronic spinal cats demonstrated the leading role of the propriospinal system of the spinal cord inactivating the spinal generators of stepping in response to epidural stimuli.

  6. Altered feeding response as a cause for the altered heartbeat rate and locomotor activity of Schistosoma mansoni-infected biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Williams, C L; Gilbertson, D E

    1983-08-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni for 33 days fed more often than uninfected snails. Whereas uninfected snails had nocturnal increases in feeding, snails with a 33-day-old infection of S. mansoni fed as often during the day as in the night. Using direct observation and film analysis, we found that feeding increased the heartbeat rate and locomotor activity of B. glabrata. When snails were allowed to feed ad lib., infected snails had higher heartbeat rates than uninfected snails both during the day (P less than 0.01) and the night (P less than 0.001). However, when the snails were deprived of food for 24 hr, infected snails had slightly higher heartbeat rates than uninfected snails only during the day (P less than 0.05). There was no difference between the heartbeat rates of feeding, infected snails and the heartbeat rates of uninfected snails that were starved for 8 hr, and then allowed to feed. Uninfected snails had nocturnal increases in heartbeat rate regardless of feeding schedule, but infected snails had greater nighttime heartbeat rate than daytime heartbeat rate only when they were not allowed to feed. Infected snails had less nocturnal locomotor activity than uninfected snails when feeding, but there was no difference between the locomotor activity of infected and uninfected snails when the snails were deprived of food for 24 hr. Absence of food also resulted in an increased nighttime to daytime ratio of locomotor activity of infected snails. These results suggest that the increased heartbeat rate and altered rhythms of heartbeat rate and locomotor activity in B. glabrata infected with S. mansoni for 33 days were caused by the altered feeding response of these snails.

  7. Suppression of Locomotor Activity in Female C57Bl/6J Mice Treated with Interleukin-1β: Investigating a Method for the Study of Fatigue in Laboratory Animals.

    PubMed

    Bonsall, David R; Kim, Hyunji; Tocci, Catherine; Ndiaye, Awa; Petronzio, Abbey; McKay-Corkum, Grace; Molyneux, Penny C; Scammell, Thomas E; Harrington, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a disabling symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's Disease, and is also common in patients with traumatic brain injury, cancer, and inflammatory disorders. Little is known about the neurobiology of fatigue, in part due to the lack of an approach to induce fatigue in laboratory animals. Fatigue is a common response to systemic challenge by pathogens, a response in part mediated through action of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). We investigated the behavioral responses of mice to IL-1β. Female C57Bl/6J mice of 3 ages were administered IL-1β at various doses i.p. Interleukin-1β reduced locomotor activity, and sensitivity increased with age. Further experiments were conducted with middle-aged females. Centrally administered IL-1β dose-dependently reduced locomotor activity. Using doses of IL-1β that caused suppression of locomotor activity, we measured minimal signs of sickness, such as hyperthermia, pain or anhedonia (as measured with abdominal temperature probes, pre-treatment with the analgesic buprenorphine and through sucrose preference, respectively), all of which are responses commonly reported with higher doses. We found that middle-aged orexin-/- mice showed equivalent effects of IL-1β on locomotor activity as seen in wild-type controls, suggesting that orexins are not necessary for IL-1β -induced reductions in wheel-running. Given that the availability and success of therapeutic treatments for fatigue is currently limited, we examined the effectiveness of two potential clinical treatments, modafinil and methylphenidate. We found that these treatments were variably successful in restoring locomotor activity after IL-1β administration. This provides one step toward development of a satisfactory animal model of the multidimensional experience of fatigue, a model that could allow us to determine possible pathways through which inflammation induces fatigue, and could lead to novel treatments for

  8. Suppression of Locomotor Activity in Female C57Bl/6J Mice Treated with Interleukin-1β: Investigating a Method for the Study of Fatigue in Laboratory Animals

    PubMed Central

    Bonsall, David R.; Kim, Hyunji; Tocci, Catherine; Ndiaye, Awa; Petronzio, Abbey; McKay-Corkum, Grace; Molyneux, Penny C.; Scammell, Thomas E.; Harrington, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a disabling symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s Disease, and is also common in patients with traumatic brain injury, cancer, and inflammatory disorders. Little is known about the neurobiology of fatigue, in part due to the lack of an approach to induce fatigue in laboratory animals. Fatigue is a common response to systemic challenge by pathogens, a response in part mediated through action of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). We investigated the behavioral responses of mice to IL-1β. Female C57Bl/6J mice of 3 ages were administered IL-1β at various doses i.p. Interleukin-1β reduced locomotor activity, and sensitivity increased with age. Further experiments were conducted with middle-aged females. Centrally administered IL-1β dose-dependently reduced locomotor activity. Using doses of IL-1β that caused suppression of locomotor activity, we measured minimal signs of sickness, such as hyperthermia, pain or anhedonia (as measured with abdominal temperature probes, pre-treatment with the analgesic buprenorphine and through sucrose preference, respectively), all of which are responses commonly reported with higher doses. We found that middle-aged orexin-/- mice showed equivalent effects of IL-1β on locomotor activity as seen in wild-type controls, suggesting that orexins are not necessary for IL-1β -induced reductions in wheel-running. Given that the availability and success of therapeutic treatments for fatigue is currently limited, we examined the effectiveness of two potential clinical treatments, modafinil and methylphenidate. We found that these treatments were variably successful in restoring locomotor activity after IL-1β administration. This provides one step toward development of a satisfactory animal model of the multidimensional experience of fatigue, a model that could allow us to determine possible pathways through which inflammation induces fatigue, and could lead to novel treatments for

  9. A comparison of cocaine and its metabolite norcocaine: effects on locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Elliott, P J; Rosen, G M; Nemeroff, C B

    1987-03-01

    Intraventricular and intraperitoneal administration of cocaine and its metabolite norcocaine were studied in adult male rats. Norcocaine (10-100 micrograms) had no behavioral activity following central infusion but proved to be toxic at high doses (50-100 mg/kg) when given peripherally. Cocaine at high doses (100 micrograms), produced possible hypoactivity after central injections but produced significant hyperactivity after peripheral administration (20 mg/kg).

  10. Effects of chronic and acute methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) administration on locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalizations, and neuromotor development in 3- to 11-day-old CD-1 mouse pups.

    PubMed

    Penner, M R; McFadyen, M P; Carrey, N; Brown, R E

    2001-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of chronic and acute treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) on isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations, spontaneous locomotor activity, and neuromotor coordination in 3- to 11-day-old CD-1 mouse pups. In Experiment 1, 3- to 11-day-old pups received daily injections of saline, 5 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg of methylphenidate hydrochloride, or no injection and were tested on postnatal Days 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. Both doses of methylphenidate resulted in significant increases in locomotor activity at all ages, but had no significant effect on body weight, neuromotor development, or emission of ultrasonic vocalizations. In Experiment 2, pups were given a single dose of methylphenidate (5 or 20 mg/kg), saline, or no injection on one of postnatal Days 5, 7, 9, or 11. This acute methylphenidate treatment increased locomotor activity, but had no significant effects on ultrasonic vocalizations or neuromotor coordination. These results indicate that short-term, chronic methylphenidate treatment elevates locomotor responses, but has no immediate effects on anxietylike responses or on the development of neuromotor behavior of CD-1 mice in the first 11 days of life.

  11. Timekeeping through social contacts: social synchronization of circadian locomotor activity rhythm in the carpenter ant Camponotus paria.

    PubMed

    Lone, Shahnaz Rahman; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2011-12-01

    In ant colonies a large proportion of individuals remain inside nests for most of their lives and come out only when necessary. It is not clear how, in a nest of several thousand individuals, information about local time is communicated among members of the colony. Central to this seem to be circadian clocks, which have an intrinsic ability to keep track of local time by entraining to environmental light-dark, temperature, and social cycles. Here, the authors report the results of their study aimed at understanding the role of cyclic social interactions in circadian timekeeping of a day-active species of carpenter ant Camponotus paria. The authors found that daily social interactions with visitors (worker ants) was able to synchronize the circadian locomotor activity rhythm of host worker ants and queens, in one-on-one (pair-wise) and multi-individual (group-wise) interactions. Interestingly, the outcome of cyclic social interactions was context specific; when visitor workers socially interacted with host workers one-on-one, host workers considered the time of interaction as subjective day, but when visitor workers interacted with a group of workers and queens, the hosts considered the time of interaction as subjective night. These results can be taken to suggest that members of the ant species C. paria keep track of local time by socially interacting with workers (foragers) who shuttle in and out of the colony in search of food. (Author correspondence: vsharma@jncasr.ac.in ).

  12. Circadian locomotor activity of Musca flies: Recording method and effects of 10 Hz square-wave electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, W.; Hellrung, W.; Johnsson, A.

    1996-05-01

    Musca domestica flies that were exposed to a uniform vertical 10 Hz electric square-wave field of 1 kVm{sup {minus}1} changed the period length of their circadian locomotor activity rhythm. Under constant conditions, the clock of short-period flies was slowed down by the field, whereas the clock of long-period flies either was affected only scarcely (experiments at about 19 C) or ran faster (experiments at 25 C). It the field was applied for only 12 h daily, then 30--40% of the flies were synchronized. Thus, the field could function as a weak Zeitgeber (synchronizer). If the field was increased to 10 kVm{sup {minus}1}, then 50--70% of the flies were synchronized. Flies avoided becoming active around the onset of the 12 h period of exposure to a 10 Hz field. The results of these experiments are discussed with respect to similar experiments by Wever on the effects of exposure to a 10 Hz field on the circadian system of man.

  13. Circadian locomotor activity of Musca flies: recording method and effects of 10 Hz square-wave electric fields.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, W; Hellrung, W; Johnsson, A

    1996-01-01

    Musca domestica flies that were exposed to a uniform vertical 10 Hz electric square-wave field of 1 kVm(-1) changed the period length of their circadian locomotor activity rhythm. Under constant conditions, the clock of short-period flies was slowed down by the field, whereas the clock of long-period flies either was affected only scarcely (experiments at about 19 degrees C) or ran faster (experiments at 25 degrees C). If the field was applied for only 12 h daily, then 30-40 percent of the flies were synchronized. Thus, the field could function as a weak "Zeitgeber" (synchronizer). If the field was increased to 10 kVm(-1), then 50-70 percent of the flies were synchronized. Flies avoided becoming active around the onset of the 12 h period of exposure to a 10 Hz field. The results of these experiments are discussed with respect to similar experiments by Wever on the effects of exposure to a 10 Hz field on the circadian system of man. PMID:9139632

  14. Timekeeping through social contacts: social synchronization of circadian locomotor activity rhythm in the carpenter ant Camponotus paria.

    PubMed

    Lone, Shahnaz Rahman; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2011-12-01

    In ant colonies a large proportion of individuals remain inside nests for most of their lives and come out only when necessary. It is not clear how, in a nest of several thousand individuals, information about local time is communicated among members of the colony. Central to this seem to be circadian clocks, which have an intrinsic ability to keep track of local time by entraining to environmental light-dark, temperature, and social cycles. Here, the authors report the results of their study aimed at understanding the role of cyclic social interactions in circadian timekeeping of a day-active species of carpenter ant Camponotus paria. The authors found that daily social interactions with visitors (worker ants) was able to synchronize the circadian locomotor activity rhythm of host worker ants and queens, in one-on-one (pair-wise) and multi-individual (group-wise) interactions. Interestingly, the outcome of cyclic social interactions was context specific; when visitor workers socially interacted with host workers one-on-one, host workers considered the time of interaction as subjective day, but when visitor workers interacted with a group of workers and queens, the hosts considered the time of interaction as subjective night. These results can be taken to suggest that members of the ant species C. paria keep track of local time by socially interacting with workers (foragers) who shuttle in and out of the colony in search of food. (Author correspondence: vsharma@jncasr.ac.in ). PMID:22080731

  15. Caffeine stimulates locomotor activity in the mammalian spinal cord via adenosine A1 receptor-dopamine D1 receptor interaction and PKA-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, JeanMarie; Santana-Almansa, Alexandra; Matos-Vergara, Nikol; Marrero-Cordero, Luis René; Cabezas-Bou, Ernesto; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Caffeine is a potent psychostimulant that can have significant and widely variable effects on the activity of multiple neuronal pathways. The most pronounced caffeine-induced behavioral effect seen in rodents is to increase locomotor activity which has been linked to a dose-dependent inhibition of A1 and A(2A) receptors. The effects of caffeine at the level of the lumbar spinal central pattern generator (CPG) network for hindlimb locomotion are lacking. We assessed the effects of caffeine to the locomotor function of the spinal CPG network via extracellular ventral root recordings using the isolated neonatal mouse spinal cord preparation. Addition of caffeine and of an A1 receptor antagonist significantly decreased the cycle period accelerating the ongoing locomotor rhythm, while decreasing burst duration reversibly in most preparations suggesting the role of A1 receptors as the primary target of caffeine. Caffeine and an A1 receptor antagonist failed to stimulate ongoing locomotor activity in the absence of dopamine or in the presence of a D1 receptor antagonist supporting A1/D1 receptor-dependent mechanism of action. The use of caffeine or an A1 receptor blocker failed to stimulate an ongoing locomotor rhythm in the presence of a blocker of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) supporting the need of this intracellular pathway for the modulatory effects of caffeine to occur. These results support a stimulant effect of caffeine on the lumbar spinal network controlling hindlimb locomotion through the inhibition of A1 receptors and subsequent activation of D1 receptors via a PKA-dependent intracellular mechanism.

  16. Spinal neuronal activation during locomotor-like activity enabled by epidural stimulation and 5-HT agonists in spinal rats

    PubMed Central

    Duru, Paul O.; Tillakaratne, Niranjala J.K.; Kim, Jung A.; Zhong, Hui; Stauber, Stacey M.; Pham, Trinh T.; Xiao, Mei S.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Roy, Roland R.

    2015-01-01

    The neural networks that generate stepping in complete spinal adult rats remain poorly defined. To address this problem we used c-fos (an activity-dependent marker) to identify active interneurons and motoneurons in the lumbar spinal cord of adult spinal rats during a 30-minute bout of bipedal stepping. Spinal rats were either step trained (30 min/day, 3 days/week for 7.5 weeks) or not step-trained. Stepping was enabled by epidural stimulation and the administration of the serotonergic agonists quipazine and 8-OHDPAT. A third group of spinal rats served as untreated (no stimulation, drugs, or stepping) controls. The number of activated cholinergic central canal cluster cells and partition neurons was higher in both step-trained and non-trained than untreated rats, and higher in non-trained than step-trained rats. The latter finding suggests that daily treatment with epidural stimulation plus serotonergic agonist treatment without step training enhanced the excitability of a broader cholinergic interneuronal population than step training. The number of activated interneurons in laminae II-VI of lumbar cross sections was higher in both step-trained and non-trained than untreated rats, and highest in step-trained rats. This finding suggests that this population of interneurons was responsive to epidural stimulation plus serotonergic treatment and that load-bearing induced when stepping had an additive effect. The number of activated motoneurons of all size categories was higher in the step-trained than the other two groups, reflecting a strong effect of loading on motoneuron recruitment. In general, these results indicate that the spinal networks for locomotion are similar with and without brain input. PMID:25789848

  17. Fmrp Interacts with Adar and Regulates RNA Editing, Synaptic Density and Locomotor Activity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Porath, Hagit T.; Barak, Michal; Pinto, Yishay; Wachtel, Chaim; Zilberberg, Alona; Lerer-Goldshtein, Tali; Efroni, Sol; Levanon, Erez Y.; Appelbaum, Lior

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequent inherited form of mental retardation. The cause for this X-linked disorder is the silencing of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene and the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (Fmrp). The RNA-binding protein Fmrp represses protein translation, particularly in synapses. In Drosophila, Fmrp interacts with the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (Adar) enzymes. Adar enzymes convert adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) and modify the sequence of RNA transcripts. Utilizing the fmr1 zebrafish mutant (fmr1-/-), we studied Fmrp-dependent neuronal circuit formation, behavior, and Adar-mediated RNA editing. By combining behavior analyses and live imaging of single axons and synapses, we showed hyperlocomotor activity, as well as increased axonal branching and synaptic density, in fmr1-/- larvae. We identified thousands of clustered RNA editing sites in the zebrafish transcriptome and showed that Fmrp biochemically interacts with the Adar2a protein. The expression levels of the adar genes and Adar2 protein increased in fmr1-/- zebrafish. Microfluidic-based multiplex PCR coupled with deep sequencing showed a mild increase in A-to-I RNA editing levels in evolutionarily conserved neuronal and synaptic Adar-targets in fmr1-/- larvae. These findings suggest that loss of Fmrp results in increased Adar-mediated RNA editing activity on target-specific RNAs, which, in turn, might alter neuronal circuit formation and behavior in FXS. PMID:26637167

  18. The effect of night illumination, red and infrared light, on locomotor activity, behaviour and melatonin of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) broodstock.

    PubMed

    Carazo, I; Norambuena, F; Oliveira, C; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J; Duncan, N J

    2013-06-13

    The present study aimed to determine a non-invasive nocturnal lighting system for the behavioural observation of a highly light sensitive species, Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Locomotor activity, four types of behaviour and plasma melatonin were analysed in groups of 12 adult Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) reared in captivity and held under four night illumination treatments: total darkness (control), high 50lux intensity red light (group RH), low 5lux intensity red light (group RL) and infrared light (group IR). All groups experienced the same conditions during the day (lights on from 07:00 to 19:00) with white lighting of 125lux. Clarity of video images taken at night for the observation of fish behaviour were ranked as follows: group RH>RL>IR>control. All treatments presented a daily rhythm in locomotor activity with high activity from 14:00 to 18:00 and low activity from 21:00 to 12:00. The sole exposed to the high intensity red light at night appeared to be disturbed as during the low nocturnal locomotor activity period group RH presented higher activity and significantly higher nocturnal behaviour related to escape or fear than was observed in the other groups. The groups control, RL and IR exhibited similar levels of nocturnal locomotor activity and nocturnal behaviour related to escape or fear. Plasma melatonin, at mid-dark was not significantly different between the control and groups RL and IR, while melatonin was significantly lower in group RH compared to the control. The authors recommended low intensity red night illumination for the non-invasive study of nocturnal behaviour of Senegalese sole adults.

  19. Pharmacological Effects of a Monoclonal Antibody against 6-Monoacetylmorphine upon Heroin-Induced Locomotor Activity and Pharmacokinetics in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kvello, Anne Marte Sjursen; Andersen, Jannike Mørch; Øiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Mørland, Jørg; Bogen, Inger Lise

    2016-08-01

    Immunotherapy can provide a supplemental treatment strategy against heroin use on the principle of sequestering the active drug in the bloodstream, thereby reducing its distribution to the brain. Previous studies have shown that heroin's first metabolite, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), is the main mediator of acute heroin effects. The objective of the present study was to characterize the pharmacological potential of a monoclonal antibody against 6-MAM (anti-6-MAM mAb) to counteract the heroin response. The individual contributions from heroin and 6-MAM to heroin effects were also examined by pretreating mice with anti-6-MAM mAb (10-100 mg/kg) prior to either heroin or 6-MAM injection (1.25-2.5 μmol/kg). The opioid-induced behavioral response was assessed in a locomotor activity test, followed by opioid and antibody quantification in blood and brain tissue. Pretreatment with mAb caused a profound reduction of heroin- and 6-MAM-induced behavior, accompanied by correspondingly decreased levels of 6-MAM in brain tissue. mAb pretreatment was more efficient against 6-MAM injection than against heroin, leading to an almost complete blockade of 6-MAM-induced effects. mAb pretreatment was unable to block the immediate (5-minute) transport of active metabolites across the blood-brain barrier after heroin injection, indicating that heroin itself appears to enhance the immediate delivery of 6-MAM to the brain. The current study provides additional evidence that 6-MAM sequestration is crucial for counteracting the acute heroin response, and demonstrates the pharmacological potential of immunotherapy against heroin use. PMID:27217591

  20. Different effects of bifeprunox, aripiprazole, and haloperidol on body weight gain, food and water intake, and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Michael; Pan, Bo; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    Following on the success of Aripiprazole with its high clinical efficacy and minimal side effects, further antipsychotic drugs (such as Bifeprunox) have been developed based on the same dopamine D2 partial agonist pharmacological profile as Aripiprazole. However clinical trials of Bifeprunox have found differing results to that of its predecessor, without the same significant clinical efficacy. This study has therefore investigated the different effects of 10 week treatment with Aripiprazole (0.75 mg/kg, 3 times per day), Bifeprunox (0.8 mg/kg, 3 times per day) and Haloperidol (0.1mg/kg, 3 times per day) on body weight gain, food and water intake, white fat mass, and 8 week treatment on locomotor activity. Treatment with Bifeprunox was found to significantly reduce all of the measured parameters except white fat mass compared to the control group. However, Aripiprazole and Haloperidol treatment reduced water intake compared to the control, without any significant effects on the other measured parameters. These findings further demonstrate the potential pharmacological differences between Aripiprazole and Bifeprunox, and identify potential weight loss side effects and increased anxiety behaviour with Bifeprunox treatment.

  1. An action potential-driven model of soleus muscle activation dynamics for locomotor-like movements

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hojeong; Sandercock, Thomas G.; Heckman, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically plausible, computationally robust model for the muscle activation dynamics (A(t)) under physiologically relevant excitation and movement. Approach The interaction of excitation and movement on A(t) was investigated comparing the force production between a cat soleus muscle and its Hill-type model. For capturing A(t) under excitation and movement variation, a modular modeling framework was proposed comprising of 3 compartments: (1) spikes-to-[Ca2+]; (2) [Ca2+]-to-A; and (3) A-to-force transformation. The individual signal transformations were modeled based on physiological factors so that the parameter values could be separately determined for individual modules directly based on experimental data. Main results The strong dependency of A(t) on excitation frequency and muscle length was found during both isometric and dynamically-moving contractions. The identified dependencies of A(t) under the static and dynamic conditions could be incorporated in the modular modeling framework by modulating the model parameters as a function of movement input. The new modeling approach was also applicable to cat soleus muscles producing waveforms independent of those used to set the model parameters. Significance This study provides a modeling framework for spike-driven muscle responses during movement, that is suitable not only for insights into molecular mechanisms underlying muscle behaviors but also for large scale simulations. PMID:26087477

  2. An action potential-driven model of soleus muscle activation dynamics for locomotor-like movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hojeong; Sandercock, Thomas G.; Heckman, C. J.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically plausible, computationally robust model for muscle activation dynamics (A(t)) under physiologically relevant excitation and movement. Approach. The interaction of excitation and movement on A(t) was investigated comparing the force production between a cat soleus muscle and its Hill-type model. For capturing A(t) under excitation and movement variation, a modular modeling framework was proposed comprising of three compartments: (1) spikes-to-[Ca2+]; (2) [Ca2+]-to-A; and (3) A-to-force transformation. The individual signal transformations were modeled based on physiological factors so that the parameter values could be separately determined for individual modules directly based on experimental data. Main results. The strong dependency of A(t) on excitation frequency and muscle length was found during both isometric and dynamically-moving contractions. The identified dependencies of A(t) under the static and dynamic conditions could be incorporated in the modular modeling framework by modulating the model parameters as a function of movement input. The new modeling approach was also applicable to cat soleus muscles producing waveforms independent of those used to set the model parameters. Significance. This study provides a modeling framework for spike-driven muscle responses during movement, that is suitable not only for insights into molecular mechanisms underlying muscle behaviors but also for large scale simulations.

  3. Atrazine and its main metabolites alter the locomotor activity of larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Yueyi; Zhu, Zhihong; Yang, Enlu; Feng, Xiayan; Fu, Zhengwei; Jin, Yuanxiang

    2016-04-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) and its main chlorometabolites, i.e., diaminochlorotriazine (DACT), deisopropylatrazine (DIP), and deethylatrazine (DE), have been widely detected in aquatic systems near agricultural fields. However, their possible effects on aquatic animals are still not fully understood. In this study, it was observed that several developmental endpoints such as the heart beat, hatchability, and morphological abnormalities were influenced by ATZ and its metabolites in different developmental stages. In addition, after 5 days of exposure to 30, 100, 300 μg L(-1) ATZ and its main chlorometabolites, the swimming behaviors of larval zebrafish were significantly disturbed, and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were consistently inhibited. Our results also demonstrate that ATZ and its main chlorometabolites are neuroendocrine disruptors that impact the expression of neurotoxicity-related genes such as Ache, Gap43, Gfap, Syn2a, Shha, Mbp, Elavl3, Nestin and Ngn1 in early developmental stages of zebrafish. According to our results, it is possible that not only ATZ but also its metabolites (DACT, DIP and DE) have the same or even more toxic effects on different endpoints of the early developmental stages of zebrafish.

  4. Acute injection of ASP in the third ventricle inhibits food intake and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, Christian; Roy, Marie-Claude; Gauvreau, Danny; Poulin, Anne-Marie; Tom, Fun-Qun; Timofeeva, Elena; Richard, Denis; Cianflone, Katherine

    2011-07-01

    Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP; also known as C3adesArg) stimulates triglyceride synthesis and glucose transport via interaction with its receptor C5L2, which is expressed peripherally (adipose tissue, muscle) and centrally. Previous studies have shown that ASP-deficient mice (C3KO) and C5L2-deficient mice (C5L2KO) are hyperphagic (59 to 229% increase, P < 0.0001), which is counterbalanced by increased energy expenditure measured as oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) and a lower RQ. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ASP's effect on food intake, energy expenditure, and neuropeptide expression. Male rats were surgically implanted with intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulas directed toward the third ventricle. After a 5-h fast, rats were injected, and food intake was assessed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 16, 24, and 48 h, with a 5- to 7-day washout period between each injection. Acute icv injections of ASP (0.3-1,065 pmol) had a time-dependent effect on decreasing food intake by 20 to 57% (P < 0.05). Decreases were detected by 30 min (maximum 57%, P < 0.01) and at the highest dose effects extended to 48 h (19%, P < 0.05, 24- to 48-h period). Daily body weight gain was decreased by 131% over the first 24 h and 29% over the second 24 h (P < 0.05). A conditioned taste aversion test indicated that there was no malaise. Furthermore, acute ASP injection affected energy substrate usage, demonstrated by decreased Vo(2) and RQ (P < 0.05; implicating greater fatty acid usage), with a 49% decrease in total activity over 24 h (P < 0.05). ASP administration also increased anorexic neuropeptide POMC expression (44%) in the arcuate nucleus, with no change in NPY. Altogether ASP may have central in addition to peripheral effects.

  5. Astrocytic IL-6 mediates locomotor activity, exploration, anxiety, learning and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Erta, Maria; Giralt, Mercedes; Esposito, Flavia Lorena; Fernandez-Gayol, Olaya; Hidalgo, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine in the central nervous system, secreted by different brain cells and with roles in a number of physiological functions. We herewith confirm and expand the importance of astrocytic production of and response to IL-6 by using transgenic mice deficient in astrocytic IL-6 (Ast-IL-6 KO) or in its receptor (Ast-IL-6R KO) in full C57Bl/6 genetic background. A major prosurvival effect of astrocytic IL-6 at early ages was clearly demonstrated. Robust effects were also evident in the control of activity and anxiety in the hole-board and elevated plus-maze, and in spatial learning in the Morris water-maze. The results also suggest an inhibitory role of IL-6 in the mechanism controlling the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning. Less robust effects of astrocytic IL-6 system were also observed in despair behavior in the tail suspension test, and social behavior in the dominance and resident-intruder tests. The behavioral phenotype was highly dependent on age and/or sex in some cases. The phenotype of Ast-IL-6R KO mice mimicked only partially that of Ast-IL-6KO mice, which indicates both a role of astrocytes in behavior and the participation of other cells besides astrocytes. No evidences of altered function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis were observed. These results demonstrate that astrocytic IL-6 (acting at least partially in astrocytes) regulates normal behavior in mice.

  6. Risperidone-induced weight gain and reduced locomotor activity in juvenile female rats: The role of histaminergic and NPY pathways.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jiamei; De Santis, Michael; He, Meng; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) such as risperidone are increasingly prescribed (mostly for off-label use) to children and adolescents for treating various mental disorders. SGAs cause serious weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects. This study aimed to establish an animal model of risperidone-induced weight gain in female juvenile rats, and to investigate the effects of risperidone on the expression of hypothalamic histaminergic H1 receptors (H1R) and neuropeptides, and their association with weight gain. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with risperidone (0.3mg/kg, 3 times/day) or vehicle (control) starting from postnatal day (PD) 23 (±1 day) for 3 weeks (a period corresponding to the childhood-adolescent period in humans). In the female juvenile rats, risperidone treatment increased food intake and body weight gain, which started to appear after 12 days' treatment. Risperidone also significantly decreased the locomotor activity of the female rats. Consistently, risperidone significantly elevated mRNA expression of hypothalamic H1R, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) compared to controls, and H1R and NPY levels were correlated with risperidone enhanced weight gain and food intake in the female juvenile rats. However, risperidone did not affect hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggested that risperidone elevated appetite and body weight gain in juveniles via regulation of the hypothalamic H1R, NPY and AgRP pathways, as well as by reducing activity.

  7. The dopamine uptake inhibitor 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane reduces cocaine-induced early-gene expression, locomotor activity, and conditioned reward.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Ferragud, Antonio; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Nácher, Amparo; Merino, Virginia; Cardá, Miguel; Murga, Juan; Canales, Juan J

    2009-11-01

    Benztropine (BZT) analogs, a family of high-affinity dopamine transporter ligands, are molecules that exhibit pharmacological and behavioral characteristics predictive of significant therapeutic potential in cocaine addiction. Here, we examined in mice the effects of 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane (AHN-1055) on motor activity, conditioned place preference (CPP) and c-Fos expression in the striatum. AHN-1055 produced mild attenuation of spontaneous locomotor activity at a low dose (1 mg/kg) and weak stimulation at a higher dose (10 mg/kg). In parallel, the BZT analog significantly increased c-Fos expression in the dorsolateral caudoputamen at the high dose, whereas producing marginal decreases at low and moderate doses (1, 3 mg/kg) in both dorsal and ventral striatum. Interaction assays showed that cocaine's ability to stimulate locomotor activity was decreased by AHN-1055 treatment, but not by treatment with D-amphetamine. Such reduced ability did not result from an increase in stereotyped behavior. Another dopamine uptake inhibitor, nomifensine, decreased cocaine-induced locomotor activity but evoked by itself intense motor stereotypies. Remarkably, the BZT analog dose-dependently blocked cocaine-induced CPP without producing CPP when given alone, and blocked in conditioned mice cocaine-stimulated early-gene activation in the nucleus accumbens and dorsomedial striatum. These observations provide evidence that AHN-1055 does not behave as a classical psychomotor stimulant and that some of its properties, including attenuation of cocaine-induced striatal c-Fos expression, locomotor stimulation, and CPP, support its candidacy, and that of structurally related molecules, as possible pharmacotherapies in cocaine addiction.

  8. The dopamine uptake inhibitor 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane reduces cocaine-induced early-gene expression, locomotor activity, and conditioned reward.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Ferragud, Antonio; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Nácher, Amparo; Merino, Virginia; Cardá, Miguel; Murga, Juan; Canales, Juan J

    2009-11-01

    Benztropine (BZT) analogs, a family of high-affinity dopamine transporter ligands, are molecules that exhibit pharmacological and behavioral characteristics predictive of significant therapeutic potential in cocaine addiction. Here, we examined in mice the effects of 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane (AHN-1055) on motor activity, conditioned place preference (CPP) and c-Fos expression in the striatum. AHN-1055 produced mild attenuation of spontaneous locomotor activity at a low dose (1 mg/kg) and weak stimulation at a higher dose (10 mg/kg). In parallel, the BZT analog significantly increased c-Fos expression in the dorsolateral caudoputamen at the high dose, whereas producing marginal decreases at low and moderate doses (1, 3 mg/kg) in both dorsal and ventral striatum. Interaction assays showed that cocaine's ability to stimulate locomotor activity was decreased by AHN-1055 treatment, but not by treatment with D-amphetamine. Such reduced ability did not result from an increase in stereotyped behavior. Another dopamine uptake inhibitor, nomifensine, decreased cocaine-induced locomotor activity but evoked by itself intense motor stereotypies. Remarkably, the BZT analog dose-dependently blocked cocaine-induced CPP without producing CPP when given alone, and blocked in conditioned mice cocaine-stimulated early-gene activation in the nucleus accumbens and dorsomedial striatum. These observations provide evidence that AHN-1055 does not behave as a classical psychomotor stimulant and that some of its properties, including attenuation of cocaine-induced striatal c-Fos expression, locomotor stimulation, and CPP, support its candidacy, and that of structurally related molecules, as possible pharmacotherapies in cocaine addiction. PMID:19606084

  9. Identification of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, a novel bioactive amphibian neurosteroid stimulating locomotor activity, and its physiological roles in the regulation of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Haraguchi, Shogo; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Koyama, Teppei; Do Rego, Jean-Luc; Vaudry, Hubert

    2010-09-01

    We now know that steroids can be synthesized de novo by the brain and the peripheral nervous system. Such steroids are called neurosteroids and de novo neurosteroidogenesis from cholesterol is a conserved property of vertebrate brains. Our studies over the past decade have demonstrated that the brain expresses several kinds of steroidogenic enzymes and produces a variety of neurosteroids in sub-mammalian species. However, neurosteroid biosynthetic pathways in amphibians, as well as other vertebrates may still not be fully mapped. We first found that the newt brain actively produces 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, a previously undescribed amphibian neurosteroid. We then demonstrated that 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone acts as a novel bioactive neurosteroid to stimulate locomotor activity of newt by means of the dopaminergic system. Subsequently, we analyzed the physiological roles of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone in the regulation of locomotor activity of newt. This paper summarizes the advances made in our understanding of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, a newly discovered bioactive amphibian neurosteroid stimulating locomotor activity, and its physiological roles in the regulation of locomotion in newt.

  10. The expression of methiopropamine-induced locomotor sensitization requires dopamine D2, but not D1, receptor activation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung Shin; Cai, Wen Ting; Lee, Young Hun; Park, Kyung Tae; Lee, Yong Sup; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-09-15

    Methiopropamine (MPA) is a structural analog to methamphetamine and is categorized as a novel psychoactive substance that needs to be controlled. However, no study has been performed to determine whether MPA actually develops an addiction-like behavior similar to those arising from other psychomotor stimulants. Thus, we attempted to determine whether MPA produces locomotor sensitization in a manner similar to amphetamine. In the first experiment, rats were pre-exposed to either saline or one of three different doses of MPA (0.2, 1.0, or 5.0mg/kg, IP) with a total of four injections, respectively. After a 2-week withdrawal period, when they were challenged with the same dose of MPA, only the group that was pre-exposed to high dose of MPA (5.0mg/kg) showed sensitized locomotor activity. In the second experiment, all rats were pre-exposed to MPA (5.0mg/kg) only. Interestingly, the expression of MPA-induced locomotor sensitization was inhibited by a pre-injection of a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, eticlopride (0.05mg/kg, IP), though not by a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.01mg/kg, IP). These results suggest that repeated injection of MPA in the rat provokes certain neuronal changes involving specific, likely D2, dopamine receptor-mediated pathways that contribute to the expression of MPA-induced locomotor sensitization. PMID:27265782

  11. A versatile telemetry system for continuous measurement of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity in free-ranging ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Signer, Claudio; Ruf, Thomas; Schober, Franz; Fluch, Gerhard; Paumann, Thomas; Arnold, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Summary 1. Measuring physiological and behavioural parameters in free-ranging animals – and therefore under fully natural conditions – is of general biological concern but difficult to perform. 2. We have developed a minimally invasive telemetry system for ruminants that is capable of measuring heart rate (HR), body temperature (Tb) and locomotor activity (LA). A ruminal transmitter unit was per os placed into the reticulum and therefore located in close proximity to the heart. The unit detected HR by the use of an acceleration sensor and also measured Tb. HR and Tb signals were transmitted via short-distance UHF link to a repeater system located in a collar unit. The collar unit decoded and processed signals received from the ruminal unit, measured LA with two different activity sensors and transmitted pulse interval-modulated VHF signals over distances of up to 10 km. 3. HR data measured with the new device contained noise caused by reticulum contractions and animal movements that triggered the acceleration sensor in the ruminal unit. We have developed a software filter to remove this noise. Hence, the system was only capable of measuring HR in animals that showed little or no activity and in the absence of rumen contractions. Reliability of this ‘stationary HR’ measurement was confirmed with a second independent measurement of HR detected by an electrocardiogram in a domestic sheep (Ovis aries). 4. In addition, we developed an algorithm to correctly classify an animal as ‘active’ or ‘at rest’ during each 3-min interval from the output of the activity sensors. Comparison with direct behavioural observations on free-ranging Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) showed that 87% of intervals were classified correctly. 5. First results from applications of this new technique in free-ranging Alpine ibex underlined its suitability for reliable and long-term monitoring of physiological and behavioural parameters in ruminants under harsh field conditions. With the

  12. Medial hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptors regulate neuroendocrine responses to stress and exploratory locomotor activity: application of recombinant adenovirus containing 5-HT1A sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Holmes, Andrew; Ma, Li; Van de Kar, Louis D; Garcia, Francisca; Murphy, Dennis L

    2004-12-01

    Our previous studies found that serotonin transporter (SERT) knock-out mice showed increased sensitivity to minor stress and increased anxiety-like behavior but reduced locomotor activity. These mice also showed decreased density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1A) receptors in the hypothalamus, amygdala, and dorsal raphe. To evaluate the contribution of hypothalamic 5-HT1A receptors to these phenotypes of SERT knock-out mice, two studies were conducted. Recombinant adenoviruses containing 5-HT1A sense and antisense sequences (Ad-1AP-sense and Ad-1AP-antisense) were used to manipulate 5-HT1A receptors in the hypothalamus. The expression of the 5-HT1A genes is controlled by the 5-HT1A promoter, so that they are only expressed in 5-HT1A receptor-containing cells. (1) Injection of Ad-1AP-sense into the hypothalamus of SERT knock-out mice restored 5-HT1A receptors in the medial hypothalamus; this effect was accompanied by elimination of the exaggerated adrenocorticotropin responses to a saline injection (minor stress) and reduced locomotor activity but not by a change in increased exploratory anxiety-like behavior. (2) To further confirm the observation in SERT-/- mice, Ad-1AP-antisense was injected into the hypothalamus of normal mice. The density and the function of 5-HT1A receptors in the medial hypothalamus were significantly reduced in Ad-1AP-antisense-treated mice. Compared with the control group (injected with Ad-track), Ad-1A-antisense-treated mice showed a significant reduction in locomotor activity, but again no changes in exploratory anxiety-like behaviors, tested by elevated plus-maze and open-field tests. Thus, the present results demonstrate that medial hypothalamic 5-HT1A receptors regulate stress responses and locomotor activity but may not regulate exploratory anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:15574737

  13. Sex-specific 24-h acetylcholine release profile in the medial prefrontal cortex: simultaneous measurement of spontaneous locomotor activity in behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Takase, K; Kimura, F; Yagami, T; Mitsushima, D

    2009-03-01

    The difference in visual object recognition by males and females suggests a sex-specific function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the present study, we performed an in vivo microdialysis study in three groups of rats (males, diestrous females, and proestrous females) to examine the potential sex difference in acetylcholine (ACh) release in the mPFC. The dialysate was automatically collected from the mPFC every 20 min for 24 h under freely moving conditions and the spontaneous locomotor activity was simultaneously monitored. Although ACh release in the mPFC during the dark phase was significantly greater than during the light phase in both sexes, the female rats consistently exhibited a significantly greater mean ACh release than the males. Spontaneous locomotor activity during the dark phase was also significantly greater than during the light phase in both sexes, but the females exhibited significantly greater spontaneous locomotor activity than the males. In addition, both sexes of rats were found to have significant positive correlations between ACh release and spontaneous locomotor activity, but females were found to have significantly greater correlation coefficients than males. Stereological methods were used to examine the number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and the horizontal diagonal band of Broca. The number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis was also greater in females than males, suggesting a contribution to the higher ACh release in females. In contrast, no sex difference in the choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells was observed in the horizontal diagonal band of Broca. This is the first report to show a sex difference in the 24-h ACh release profile in the mPFC of behaving rats.

  14. Sex-specific 24-h acetylcholine release profile in the medial prefrontal cortex: simultaneous measurement of spontaneous locomotor activity in behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Takase, K; Kimura, F; Yagami, T; Mitsushima, D

    2009-03-01

    The difference in visual object recognition by males and females suggests a sex-specific function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the present study, we performed an in vivo microdialysis study in three groups of rats (males, diestrous females, and proestrous females) to examine the potential sex difference in acetylcholine (ACh) release in the mPFC. The dialysate was automatically collected from the mPFC every 20 min for 24 h under freely moving conditions and the spontaneous locomotor activity was simultaneously monitored. Although ACh release in the mPFC during the dark phase was significantly greater than during the light phase in both sexes, the female rats consistently exhibited a significantly greater mean ACh release than the males. Spontaneous locomotor activity during the dark phase was also significantly greater than during the light phase in both sexes, but the females exhibited significantly greater spontaneous locomotor activity than the males. In addition, both sexes of rats were found to have significant positive correlations between ACh release and spontaneous locomotor activity, but females were found to have significantly greater correlation coefficients than males. Stereological methods were used to examine the number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and the horizontal diagonal band of Broca. The number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis was also greater in females than males, suggesting a contribution to the higher ACh release in females. In contrast, no sex difference in the choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells was observed in the horizontal diagonal band of Broca. This is the first report to show a sex difference in the 24-h ACh release profile in the mPFC of behaving rats. PMID:19162130

  15. Sheltering Behavior and Locomotor Activity in 11 Genetically Diverse Common Inbred Mouse Strains Using Home-Cage Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; van der Sluis, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Functional genetic analyses in mice rely on efficient and in-depth characterization of the behavioral spectrum. Automated home-cage observation can provide a systematic and efficient screening method to detect unexplored, novel behavioral phenotypes. Here, we analyzed high-throughput automated home-cage data using existing and novel concepts, to detect a plethora of genetic differences in spontaneous behavior in a panel of commonly used inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, DBA/2J, NOD/LtJ, FVB/NJ, WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ and CAST/EiJ). Continuous video-tracking observations of sheltering behavior and locomotor activity were segmented into distinguishable behavioral elements, and studied at different time scales, yielding a set of 115 behavioral parameters of which 105 showed highly significant strain differences. This set of 115 parameters was highly dimensional; principal component analysis identified 26 orthogonal components with eigenvalues above one. Especially novel parameters of sheltering behavior and parameters describing aspects of motion of the mouse in the home-cage showed high genetic effect sizes. Multi-day habituation curves and patterns of behavior surrounding dark/light phase transitions showed striking strain differences, albeit with lower genetic effect sizes. This spontaneous home-cage behavior study demonstrates high dimensionality, with a strong genetic contribution to specific sets of behavioral measures. Importantly, spontaneous home-cage behavior analysis detects genetic effects that cannot be studied in conventional behavioral tests, showing that the inclusion of a few days of undisturbed, labor extensive home-cage assessment may greatly aid gene function analyses and drug target discovery. PMID:25264768

  16. Sheltering behavior and locomotor activity in 11 genetically diverse common inbred mouse strains using home-cage monitoring.

    PubMed

    Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; van der Sluis, Sophie; Verhage, Matthijs; Smit, August B

    2014-01-01

    Functional genetic analyses in mice rely on efficient and in-depth characterization of the behavioral spectrum. Automated home-cage observation can provide a systematic and efficient screening method to detect unexplored, novel behavioral phenotypes. Here, we analyzed high-throughput automated home-cage data using existing and novel concepts, to detect a plethora of genetic differences in spontaneous behavior in a panel of commonly used inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, DBA/2J, NOD/LtJ, FVB/NJ, WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ and CAST/EiJ). Continuous video-tracking observations of sheltering behavior and locomotor activity were segmented into distinguishable behavioral elements, and studied at different time scales, yielding a set of 115 behavioral parameters of which 105 showed highly significant strain differences. This set of 115 parameters was highly dimensional; principal component analysis identified 26 orthogonal components with eigenvalues above one. Especially novel parameters of sheltering behavior and parameters describing aspects of motion of the mouse in the home-cage showed high genetic effect sizes. Multi-day habituation curves and patterns of behavior surrounding dark/light phase transitions showed striking strain differences, albeit with lower genetic effect sizes. This spontaneous home-cage behavior study demonstrates high dimensionality, with a strong genetic contribution to specific sets of behavioral measures. Importantly, spontaneous home-cage behavior analysis detects genetic effects that cannot be studied in conventional behavioral tests, showing that the inclusion of a few days of undisturbed, labor extensive home-cage assessment may greatly aid gene function analyses and drug target discovery. PMID:25264768

  17. Waterborne citalopram has anxiolytic effects and increases locomotor activity in the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Kellner, M; Porseryd, T; Hallgren, S; Porsch-Hällström, I; Hansen, S H; Olsén, K H

    2016-04-01

    Citalopram is an antidepressant drug, which acts by inhibiting the re-uptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft into the pre-synaptic nerve ending. It is one of the most common drugs used in treatment of depression, it is highly lipophilic and frequently found in sewage treatment plant effluents and surface waters around the world. Citalopram and other selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have, at concentrations that occur in nature, been shown to have behavioural as well as physiological effects on fish and other animals. This study is the result of several different experiments, intended to analyse different aspects of behavioural effects of chronic citalopram exposure in fish. Our model species the three-spine stickleback is common in the entire northern hemisphere and is considered to be a good environmental sentinel species. Female three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 0, 1.5 and 15μg/l nominal concentrations of citalopram for 21 days and subjected to the novel tank (NT) diving test. In the NT test, the fish exposed to 1.5μg/l, but not the 15μg/l fish made a significantly higher number of transitions to the upper half and stayed there for significantly longer time than the fish exposed to 0μg/l. The 15μg/l group, however, displayed a significantly lower number of freeze bouts and a shorter total freezing time. The test for locomotor activity included in the NT test showed that fish treated with 1.5 and 15μg/l displayed a significantly higher swimming activity than control fish both 5-7 and 15-17min after the start of the experiment. In the next experiment we compared fish exposed to 1.5μg/l and 0.15μg/l to pure water controls with regard to shoaling intensity and found no effect of treatment. In the final experiment the propensity of fish treated with 1.5μg/l to approach an unknown object and aggressive behaviour was investigated using the Novel Object test and a mirror test, respectively. The exposed fish ventured close to the unknown object

  18. Rhythmic 24 h variation of core body temperature and locomotor activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the tuco-tuco.

    PubMed

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents.

  19. Rhythmic 24 h Variation of Core Body Temperature and Locomotor Activity in a Subterranean Rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco

    PubMed Central

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents. PMID:24454916

  20. Locomotor activity measures in the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-analyses and new findings

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Lourdes García; Cortese, Samuele; Anderson, David; Martino, Adriana Di; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to assess differences in movement measures in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) vs. typically developing (TD) controls. Methods We performed meta-analyses of published studies on motion measures contrasting ADHD with controls. We also conducted a case-control study with children/adolescents (n=61 TD, n=62 ADHD) and adults (n=30 TD, n=19 ADHD) using the McLean Motion Activity Test, semi-structured diagnostic interviews and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function and Conners (Parent, Teacher; Self) Rating Scales. Results Meta-analyses revealed medium-to-large effect sizes for actigraph (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 0.64, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.43, 0.85) and motion tracking systems (SDM: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.20) measures in differentiating individuals with ADHD from controls. Effects sizes were similar in studies of children/adolescents ([SMD]:0.75, 95% CI: 0.50, 1.01) and of adults ([SMD]: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.00). In our sample, ADHD groups differed significantly in number of Head Movements (p=0.02 in children; p=0.002 in adults), Displacement (p=0.009/p<0.001), Head Area (p=0.03/p<0.001), Spatial Complexity (p=0.06/p=0.02) and Temporal Scaling (p=0.05/p=0.04). Mean effect sizes were non-significantly larger (d=0.83, 95% CI: 0.20, 1.45) in adults vs. children/adolescents with ADHD (d=0.45, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.82). In the concurrent go/no-go task, reaction time variability was significantly greater in ADHD (p<0.05 in both age groups) than controls. Conclusions Locomotor hyperactivity remains core to the construct of ADHD even in adults. Our results suggest that objective locomotion measures may be particularly useful in evaluating adults with possible ADHD. PMID:25770940

  1. In vivo Effects of Abused ‘Bath Salt' Constituent 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in Mice: Drug Discrimination, Thermoregulation, and Locomotor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fantegrossi, William E; Gannon, Brenda M; Zimmerman, Sarah M; Rice, Kenner C

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, synthetic analogues of naturally occurring cathinone have emerged as psychostimulant-like drugs of abuse in commercial ‘bath salt' preparations. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a common constituent of these illicit products, and its structural similarities to the more well-known drugs of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and methamphetamine (METH) suggest that it may have similar in vivo effects to these substances. In these studies, adult male NIH Swiss mice were trained to discriminate 0.3 mg/kg MDPV from saline, and the interoceptive effects of a range of substitution doses of MDPV, MDMA, and METH were then assessed. In separate groups of mice, surgically implanted radiotelemetry probes simultaneously monitored thermoregulatory and locomotor responses to various doses of MDPV and MDMA, as a function of ambient temperature. We found that mice reliably discriminated the MDPV training dose from saline and that cumulative doses of MDPV, MDMA, and METH fully substituted for the MDPV training stimulus. All three drugs had similar ED50 values in this procedure. Stimulation of motor activity was observed following administration of a wide range of MDPV doses (1–30 mg/kg), and the warm ambient temperature potentiated motor activity and elicited profound stereotypy and self-injurious behavior at 30 mg/kg. In contrast, MDPV-induced hyperthermic effects were observed in only the warm ambient environment. This pattern of effects is in sharp contrast to MDMA, where ambient temperature interacts with thermoregulation, but not locomotor activity. These studies suggest that although the interoceptive effects of MDPV are similar to those of MDMA and METH, direct effects on thermoregulatory processes and locomotor activity are likely mediated by different mechanisms than those of MDMA. PMID:23212455

  2. Fenproporex increases locomotor activity and alters energy metabolism, and mood stabilizers reverse these changes: a proposal for a new animal model of mania.

    PubMed

    Rezin, Gislaine T; Furlanetto, Camila B; Scaini, Giselli; Valvassori, Samira S; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Jeremias, Isabela C; Resende, Wilson R; Cardoso, Mariane R; Varela, Roger B; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2014-04-01

    Fenproporex (Fen) is converted in vivo into amphetamine, which is used to induce mania-like behaviors in animals. In the present study, we intend to present a new animal model of mania. In order to prove through face, construct, and predictive validities, we evaluated behavioral parameters (locomotor activity, stereotypy activity, and fecal boli amount) and brain energy metabolism (enzymes citrate synthase; malate dehydrogenase; succinate dehydrogenase; complexes I, II, II-III, and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; and creatine kinase) in rats submitted to acute and chronic administration of fenproporex, treated with lithium (Li) and valproate (VPA). The administration of Fen increased locomotor activity and decreased the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, and creatine kinase, in most brain structures evaluated. In addition, treatment with mood stabilizers prevented and reversed this effect. Our results are consistent with the literature that demonstrates behavioral changes and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by psychostimulants. These findings suggest that chronic administration of Fen may be a potential animal model of mania. PMID:24126971

  3. Effects of an aqueous extract of Orbignya phalerata Mart on locomotor activity and motor coordination in mice and as antioxidant in vitro.

    PubMed

    Silva, A P dos S; Cerqueira, G S; Nunes, L C C; de Freitas, R M

    2012-03-01

    The antioxidant activities of aqueous extract (AE) of Orbignya phalerata were assessed in vitro as well as its effect on locomotor activity and motor coordination in mice. AE does not possesses a strong antioxidant potential according to the scavenging assays; it also did not present scavenger activity in vitro. Following oral administration, AE (1, 2 and 3 g/kg) did not significantly change the motor activity of animals when compared with the control group, up to 24 h after administration and did not alter the remaining time of the animals on the Rota-rod apparatus. Further studies currently in progress will enable us to understand the mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of Orbignya phalerata widely used in Brazilian flok medicine.

  4. Chronic low-level arsenic exposure causes gender-specific alterations in locomotor activity, dopaminergic systems, and thioredoxin expression in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bardullas, U.; Limon-Pacheco, J.H.; Giordano, M.; Carrizales, L.; Mendoza-Trejo, M.S.; Rodriguez, V.M.

    2009-09-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid widely present in the environment. Human exposure to As has been associated with the development of skin and internal organ cancers and cardiovascular disorders, among other diseases. A few studies report decreases in intelligence quotient (IQ), and sensory and motor alterations after chronic As exposure in humans. On the other hand, studies of rodents exposed to high doses of As have found alterations in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, and oxidative stress. In the present study both male and female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of As such as 0.05, 0.5, 5.0, or 50 mg As/L of drinking water for 4 months, and locomotor activity was assessed every month. Male mice presented hyperactivity in the group exposed to 0.5 mg As/L and hypoactivity in the group exposed to 50 mg As/L after 4 months of As exposure, whereas female mice exposed to 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 mg As/L exhibited hyperactivity in every monthly test during As exposure. Furthermore, striatal and hypothalamic dopamine content was decreased only in female mice. Also decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and cytosolic thioredoxin (Trx-1) mRNA expression in striatum and nucleus accumbens were observed in male and female mice, respectively. These results indicate that chronic As exposure leads to gender-dependent alterations in dopaminergic markers and spontaneous locomotor activity, and down-regulation of the antioxidant capacity of the brain.

  5. Nanomolar oxytocin synergizes with weak electrical afferent stimulation to activate the locomotor CpG of the rat spinal cord in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dose, Francesco; Zanon, Patrizia; Coslovich, Tamara; Taccola, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Synergizing the effect of afferent fibre stimulation with pharmacological interventions is a desirable goal to trigger spinal locomotor activity, especially after injury. Thus, to better understand the mechanisms to optimize this process, we studied the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (previously shown to stimulate locomotor networks) on network and motoneuron properties using the isolated neonatal rat spinal cord. On motoneurons oxytocin (1 nM-1 μM) generated sporadic bursts with superimposed firing and dose-dependent depolarization. No desensitization was observed despite repeated applications. Tetrodotoxin completely blocked the effects of oxytocin, demonstrating the network origin of the responses. Recording motoneuron pool activity from lumbar ventral roots showed oxytocin mediated depolarization with synchronous bursts, and depression of reflex responses in a stimulus and peptide-concentration dependent fashion. Disinhibited bursting caused by strychnine and bicuculline was accelerated by oxytocin whose action was blocked by the oxytocin antagonist atosiban. Fictive locomotion appeared when subthreshold concentrations of NMDA plus 5HT were coapplied with oxytocin, an effect prevented after 24 h incubation with the inhibitor of 5HT synthesis, PCPA. When fictive locomotion was fully manifested, oxytocin did not change periodicity, although cycle amplitude became smaller. A novel protocol of electrical stimulation based on noisy waveforms and applied to one dorsal root evoked stereotypic fictive locomotion. Whenever the stimulus intensity was subthreshold, low doses of oxytocin triggered fictive locomotion although oxytocin per se did not affect primary afferent depolarization evoked by dorsal root pulses. Among the several functional targets for the action of oxytocin at lumbar spinal cord level, the present results highlight how small concentrations of this peptide could bring spinal networks to threshold for fictive locomotion in combination with other

  6. Central D-Ala2-Met5-enkephalinamide mu/delta-opioid receptor activation reverses the anxiogenic-like properties of cholecystokinin on locomotor and rearing activity in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Hebb, Andrea L O; Zacharko, Robert M

    2003-04-25

    There is evidence to suggest an antagonistic interaction between the anxiogenic peptide, cholecystokinin (CCK) and the anxiolytic opioid peptide, enkephalin in mesolimbic sites following stressor applications in humans and animals which may define specific behavioral symptom subsets and alter the course of anxiety-like behavior. Locomotor and rearing behavior were decreased following a central CCK-8S (50 ng) injection among independent groups of mice relative to saline-treated animals. Central administration of DALA not only ameliorated the CCK-induced behavioral deficits but exaggerated behavioral activity of CCK and saline control mice (SAL). Locomotor activity and rearing behavior were depressed 24 h following DALA administration yet returned to basal values 168 h following drug applications. Eighteen days following the initial 50 ng CCK-8S and intervening DALA challenge, mice were administered 5 ng CCK-8S. An intervening dose of DALA in mice following the original 50 ng CCK-8S administration on Day 1 was associated with elevated locomotor activity in mice in response to the 5 ng CCK-8S challenge on Day 18. In contrast to locomotor activity, mice administered DALA following the original 50 ng CCK-8S administration on Day 1 demonstrated decreased rearing behavior to both 5 ng CCK-8S challenge and SAL on Day 18. Moreover, administration of 5 ng CCK-8S on Day 18 was associated with decreased rearing behavior in mice previously administered SAL on Day 1. These data imply that while CCK induces relatively protracted behavioral disturbances, mu/delta receptor activation may change the course of psychopathology.

  7. Repeated exposure to corticosterone increases depression-like behavior in two different versions of the forced swim test without altering nonspecific locomotor activity or muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Marks, Wendie; Fournier, Neil M; Kalynchuk, Lisa E

    2009-08-01

    We have recently shown that repeated high dose injections of corticosterone (CORT) reliably increase depression-like behavior on a modified one-day version of the forced swim test. The main purpose of this experiment was to compare the effect of these CORT injections on our one-day version of the forced swim test and the more traditional two-day version of the test. A second purpose was to determine whether altered behavior in the forced swim test could be due to nonspecific changes in locomotor activity or muscle strength. Separate groups of rats received a high dose CORT injection (40 mg/kg) or a vehicle injection once per day for 21 consecutive days. Then, half the rats from each group were exposed to the traditional two-day forced swim test and the other half were exposed to our one-day forced swim test. After the forced swim testing, all the rats were tested in an open field and in a wire suspension grip strength test. The CORT injections significantly increased the time spent immobile and decreased the time spent swimming in both versions of the forced swim test. However, they had no significant effect on activity in the open field or grip strength in the wire suspension test. These results show that repeated CORT injections increase depression-like behavior regardless of the specific parameters of forced swim testing, and that these effects are independent of changes in locomotor activity or muscle strength.

  8. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity.

  9. Generation of Locomotor-Like Activity in the Isolated Rat Spinal Cord Using Intraspinal Electrical Microstimulation Driven by a Digital Neuromorphic CPG.

    PubMed

    Joucla, Sébastien; Ambroise, Matthieu; Levi, Timothée; Lafon, Thierry; Chauvet, Philippe; Saïghi, Sylvain; Bornat, Yannick; Lewis, Noëlle; Renaud, Sylvie; Yvert, Blaise

    2016-01-01

    Neural prostheses based on electrical microstimulation offer promising perspectives to restore functions following lesions of the central nervous system (CNS). They require the identification of appropriate stimulation sites and the coordination of their activation to achieve the restoration of functional activity. On the long term, a challenging perspective is to control microstimulation by artificial neural networks hybridized to the living tissue. Regarding the use of this strategy to restore locomotor activity in the spinal cord, to date, there has been no proof of principle of such hybrid approach driving intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS). Here, we address a first step toward this goal in the neonatal rat spinal cord isolated ex vivo, which can display locomotor-like activity while offering an easy access to intraspinal circuitry. Microelectrode arrays were inserted in the lumbar region to determine appropriate stimulation sites to elicit elementary bursting patterns on bilateral L2/L5 ventral roots. Two intraspinal sites were identified at L1 level, one on each side of the spinal cord laterally from the midline and approximately at a median position dorso-ventrally. An artificial CPG implemented on digital integrated circuit (FPGA) was built to generate alternating activity and was hybridized to the living spinal cord to drive electrical microstimulation on these two identified sites. Using this strategy, sustained left-right and flexor-extensor alternating activity on bilateral L2/L5 ventral roots could be generated in either whole or thoracically transected spinal cords. These results are a first step toward hybrid artificial/biological solutions based on electrical microstimulation for the restoration of lost function in the injured CNS. PMID:27013936

  10. Anti-cocaine antibody and butyrylcholinesterase-derived cocaine hydrolase exert cooperative effects on cocaine pharmacokinetics and cocaine-induced locomotor activity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Brimijoin, Stephen; Orson, Frank; Kosten, Tom; Kinsey, Berma; Shen, Xiao Yun; White, Sarah J.; Gao, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We are investigating treatments for cocaine abuse based on viral gene transfer of a cocaine hydrolase (CocH) derived from human butyrylcholinesterase, which can reduce cocaine-stimulated locomotion and cocaine-primed reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in rats for many months. Here, in mice, we explored the possibility that anti-cocaine antibodies can complement the actions of CocH to reduce cocaine uptake in brain and block centrally-evoked locomotor stimulation. Direct injections of test proteins showed that CocH (0.3 or 1 mg/kg) was effective by itself in reducing drug levels in plasma and brain of mice given cocaine (10 mg/kg, s.c., or 20 mg/kg, i.p). Administration of cocaine antibody per se at a low dose (8 mg/kg, i.p.) exerted little effect on cocaine distribution. However, a higher dose of antibody (12 mg/kg) caused peripheral trapping (increased plasma drug levels), which led to increased cocaine metabolism by CocH, as evidenced by a 6-fold rise in plasma benzoic acid. Behavioral tests with small doses of CocH and antibody (1 and 8 mg/kg, respectively) showed that neither agent alone reduced mouse locomotor activity triggered by a very large cocaine dose (100 mg/kg, i.p.). However, dual treatment completely suppressed the locomotor stimulation. Altogether, we found cooperative and possibly synergistic actions that warrant further exploration of dual therapies for treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:22960160

  11. Injection of Cocaine-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide into the nucleus accumbens does not inhibit caffeine-induced locomotor activity: Implications for CART peptide mechanism.

    PubMed

    Job, Martin O

    2016-09-01

    Much evidence suggests that intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) CART peptide (CART 55-102) injection inhibits locomotor activity (LMA) when there is an increase in the release and activity of dopamine (DA) in the NAc. However, this hypothesis has not been fully tested. One way to examine this is to determine if there is a lack of effect of intra-NAc CART peptide on LMA that does not involve increases in DA release in the NAc. Several studies have suggested that caffeine-induced LMA does not involve extracellular DA release in the NAc core. Therefore, in this study, we have examined the effect of injections of CART peptide (2.5μg) into the NAc core on the locomotor effects of caffeine in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Several LMA relevant doses of caffeine were used (0, 10, 20mg/kg i.p.), and an inverted U response curve was found as expected. We determined, in the same animals, that intra-NAc CART peptide had no effect on caffeine-induced LMA whereas it blunted cocaine-mediated LMA, as shown by other reports. We also extended a previous observation in mice by showing that at a LMA activating dose of caffeine there is no alteration of CART peptide levels in the NAc of rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that the inhibitory effects of CART peptide in the NAc may be exerted only under conditions of increased extracellular DA release and activity in this region. Our results also suggest that intra-NAc CART 55-102 does not generally inhibit increases in LMA due to all drugs, but has a more specific inhibitory effect on dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:27168116

  12. Circadian Disruption Alters the Effects of Lipopolysaccharide Treatment on Circadian and Ultradian Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Rhythms of Female Siberian Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Cable, Erin J; Stevenson, Tyler J; Onishi, Kenneth G; Zucker, Irving; Kay, Leslie M

    2015-12-01

    The effect of circadian rhythm (CR) disruption on immune function depends on the method by which CRs are disrupted. Behavioral and thermoregulatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment were assessed in female Siberian hamsters in which circadian locomotor activity (LMA) rhythms were eliminated by exposure to a disruptive phase-shifting protocol (DPS) that sustains arrhythmicity even when hamsters are housed in a light-dark cycle. This noninvasive treatment avoids genome manipulations and neurological damage associated with other models of CR disruption. Circadian rhythmic (RHYTH) and arrhythmic (ARR) hamsters housed in a 16L:8D photocycle were injected with bacterial LPS near the onset of the light (zeitgeber time 1; ZT1) or dark (ZT16) phase. LPS injections at ZT16 and ZT1 elicited febrile responses in both RHYTH and ARR hamsters, but the effect was attenuated in the arrhythmic females. In ZT16, LPS inhibited LMA in the dark phase immediately after injection but not on subsequent nights in both chronotypes; in contrast, LPS at ZT1 elicited more enduring (~4 day) locomotor hypoactivity in ARR than in RHYTH hamsters. Power and period of dark-phase ultradian rhythms (URs) in LMA and Tb were markedly altered by LPS treatment, as was the power in the circadian waveform. Disrupted circadian rhythms in this model system attenuated responses to LPS in a trait- and ZT-specific manner; changes in UR period and power are novel components of the acute-phase response to infection that may affect energy conservation.

  13. Cocaine-and-Amphetamine-Regulated-Transcript (CART) peptide attenuates dopamine- and cocaine-mediated locomotor activity in both male and female rats: lack of sex differences

    PubMed Central

    Job, Martin O.; Perry, JoAnna; Shen, Li L.; Kuhar, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript peptide (CART peptide) is known for having an inhibitory effect on dopamine (DA)- and cocaine-mediated actions and is postulated to be a homeostatic, regulatory factor in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Some sex differences in cocaine-mediated LMA and in the expression and function of CART peptide have been reported. However, it is not known if the inhibitory effect of CART peptide on cocaine-mediated locomotor activity (LMA) is sexually dimorphic. In this study, the effect of CART 55-102 on LMA due to intra-NAc DA and i.p. cocaine were determined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The results show that CART 55-102 blunted or reduced both the DA- and cocaine-induced LMA in both males and females. In conclusion, CART peptide is effective in blunting DA- and cocaine-mediated LMA in both males and females. PMID:24630272

  14. Inhibition of GABA synthesis in the prefrontal cortex increases locomotor activity but does not affect attention in the 5-choice serial reaction time task.

    PubMed

    Asinof, Samuel K; Paine, Tracie A

    2013-02-01

    Attention deficits are a core cognitive symptom of schizophrenia; the neuropathology underlying these deficits is not known. Attention is regulated, at least in part, by the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain area in which pathology of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons has been consistently observed in post-mortem analysis of the brains of people with schizophrenia. Specifically, expression of the 67-kD isoform of the GABA synthesis enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) is reduced in parvalbumin-containing fast-spiking GABA interneurons. Thus it is hypothesized that reduced cortical GABA synthesis and release may contribute to the attention deficits in schizophrenia. Here the effect of reducing cortical GABA synthesis with l-allylglycine (LAG) on attention was tested using three different versions of the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT). Because 5CSRTT performance can be affected by locomotor activity, we also measured this behavior in an open field. Finally, the expression of Fos protein was used as an indirect measure of reduced GABA synthesis. Intra-cortical LAG (10 μg/0.5 μl/side) infusions increased Fos expression and resulted in hyperactivity in the open field. Intra-cortical LAG infusions did not affect attention in any version of the 5CSRTT. These results suggest that a general decrease in GABA synthesis is not sufficient to cause attention deficits. It remains to be tested whether a selective decrease in GABA synthesis in parvalbumin-containing GABA neurons could cause attention deficits. Decreased cortical GABA synthesis did increase locomotor activity; this may reflect the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.

  15. Effects of (+)-methamphetamine on path integration and spatial learning, but not locomotor activity or acoustic startle, align with the stress hyporesponsive period in rats.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Skelton, Matthew R; Grace, Curtis E; Schaefer, Tori L; Graham, Devon L; Braun, Amanda A; Williams, Michael T

    2009-05-01

    Rats treated with (+)-methamphetamine (MA) on postnatal days (P) 11-20 exhibit long-term spatial and path integration (Morris water maze (MWM) and Cincinnati water maze (CWM)) learning deficits whereas those treated on P1-10 do not. MA treatment increases corticosterone release in an age-dependent U-shaped pattern that corresponds to the stress hyporesponsive period (SHRP; P4-15). Here we tested the hypothesis that the cognitive effects induced by MA are associated with treatment that begins within the SHRP. Three treatment regimens were compared, P1-10, P6-15, and P11-20. One male/female pair/litter received 0, 10, or 25mg/kg MA/dose (four doses/day at 2h intervals given s.c. with 19-21 litters/regimen). Locomotor activity and acoustic startle were tested as behaviors not predicted to be associated with the SHRP. Cincinnati and Morris water maze findings were consistent with the hypothesis in that MA-treated animals exposed from P6-15 or P11-20 showed impaired learning compared to those exposed from P1-10; however, on probe trials in the Morris water maze, MA-induced memory impairments were not regimen-specific and were contributed to by all treatment regimens. All MA treatment regimens induced reductions in locomotor activity and acoustic startle facilitation as expected. No differential effect on prepulse trials was seen suggesting no impairment in sensory gating. Cognitive deficits from neonatal MA treatment are associated with the SHRP and may be the product of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation during critical periods of brain development.

  16. Diverging frequency-modulated 50-kHz vocalization, locomotor activity and conditioned place preference effects in rats given repeated amphetamine treatment.

    PubMed

    Taracha, Ewa; Kaniuga, Ewelina; Chrapusta, Stanisław J; Maciejak, Piotr; Sliwa, Lech; Hamed, Adam; Krząścik, Paweł

    2014-08-01

    Behavioral sensitization and tolerance to repetitive exposure to addictive drugs are commonly used for the assessment of the early stages of the drug dependence progress in animals. The orchestra of tools for studying the progress of drug dependence in laboratory rodents has been considerably enriched in the 1980s by the introduction of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) detection and characterization. However, the relationship between the results of this technology and those of traditional behavioral tests is not clear. We attempted to elucidate some of the respective ambiguities by comparing the effects of an intermittent amphetamine treatment, which was aimed both at the induction of sensitization and tolerance to this drug and at testing the persistence of these effects, on the locomotor activity and 50-kHz USV responses to both the drug and the context of drug exposure in adult male rats showing diverging susceptibility for sensitization to amphetamine. Categorization of the rats into low and high responders/callers based on sensitization of their frequency-modulated 50-kHz USV responsiveness showed some correspondence with conditioned place preference effects, but not with responses to amphetamine. The study showed distinct changes in the rate and latency of the frequency-modulated 50-kHz USV responses to repetitive amphetamine treatment, which were reminiscent of classical behavioral signs of sensitization and tolerance. These results show the utility of the appetitive USV for monitoring of early phases of complex processes leading to drug dependence. However, USV, locomotor activity and conditioned place preference seem to reflect different aspects of these phenomena.

  17. GR 127935 reduces basal locomotor activity and prevents RU 24969-, but not D-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, in the Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive (WKHA) rat.

    PubMed

    Chaouloff, F; Courvoisier, H; Moisan, M P; Mormède, P

    1999-01-01

    The hyperlocomotor effect of the serotonin (5-HT)1A,B receptor agonist 5-methoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H-indole (RU 24969) has been repeatedly reported. However, 5-HT1A receptors, 5-HT1B receptors (or both) have been claimed to mediate this effect of RU 24969. These contradictory data possibly arise from protocol differences, especially those related to animal species, drugs, and activity assessment. Herein, the influence of a pretreatment with the selective 5-HT1B,D receptor antagonist N-[4-methoxy3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)phenyl]-2'-methyl-4'-(5me thyl-1,2,4-oxadiozol-3-yl)-biphenyl-4-carboxamide (GR 127935; 1, 3.3 and 10 mg/kg IP) on the hyperlocomotor effect of a 5 mg/kg (IP) dose of RU 24969 was studied in Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rats. In a first series of experiments, it was confirmed that RU 24969 (2.5 and 5 mg/kg), administered 10 min after the onset of activity recordings, increases locomotion dose-dependently (cage crossings). In a second series of experiments, administration of GR 127935 10 min after the onset of activity recordings promoted a dose-dependent decrease in basal activity (and rearings) and prevented (3.3 and 10 mg/kg) RU 24969-elicited locomotor activity. On the other hand, GR 127935 was ineffective against RU 24969-induced inhibition of rearings. Lastly, it was observed that 3.3 mg/kg GR 127935 did not affect the number of cage crossings and rearings displayed by rats administered 1.5 mg/kg D-amphetamine. This study shows that 5-HT1B receptors play a major role in the hyperlocomotor effect of RU 24969, at least under our experimental setting. Whether these receptors also play a tonic role in the high locomotor activity displayed by WKHA rats remains to be determined.

  18. Spontaneous locomotor activity correlates with the degranulation of mast cells in the meninges rather than in the thalamus: disruptive effect of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Larson, Alice A; Thomas, Mark J; McElhose, Alex; Kovács, Katalin J

    2011-06-13

    Mast cells are located in the central nervous system (CNS) of many mammals and stress induces their degranulation. We postulated that mast cells are associated with wakefulness and stimulatory tone in the CNS, as reflected by spontaneous motor activity. Because stress also precipitates drug-seeking behavior in cocaine addicts, we also postulated that cocaine manifests its effects through this relationship. We investigated the influence of single and repeated injections of cocaine on circulating corticosterone, motor activity and degranulation of mast cells in both the thalamus and meninges of mice. Mice were subjected to 5 consecutive days of cocaine or saline followed by a single injection of cocaine or saline 11 days later. Spontaneous locomotor activity was measure for 1h after the final injection before death. Neither a single injection nor prior treatment with cocaine increased motor activity compared to saline-injected controls, however, repeated administration of cocaine induced a significant sensitization to its behavioral effect when delivered 11 days later. In mice that received only saline, motor activity correlated positively with mast cell degranulation in the meninges but not in the thalamus. Cocaine, regardless of the treatment schedule, disrupted this correlation. The concentration of corticosterone did not differ amongst groups and did not correlate with either behavior or mast cell parameters in any group. The correlation between behavioral activity and the mast cell degranulation in the meninges suggests that these parameters are linked. The disruptive effect of cocaine on this relationship indicates a role downstream from mast cells in the regulation of motor activity.

  19. Systemic administration of D-penicillamine prevents the locomotor activation after intra-VTA ethanol administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Martí-Prats, Lucía; Sánchez-Catalán, María José; Hipólito, Lucía; Orrico, Alejandro; Zornoza, Teodoro; Polache, Ana; Granero, Luis

    2010-10-11

    Although recently published studies seem to confirm the important role displayed by acetaldehyde (ACH), the main metabolite of ethanol, in the behavioral effects of ethanol, the origin of ACH is still a matter of debate. While some authors confer more importance to the central (brain metabolism) origin of ACH, others indicate that the hepatic origin could be more relevant. In this study we have addressed this topic using an experimental approach that combines local microinjections of ethanol into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) (which guarantees the brain origin of the ACH) to induce motor activation in rats together with systemic administration (i.p.) of several doses (0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) of D-penicillamine (DP), a sequestering agent of ACH with contrasted efficiency to abolish the behavioral effects of the drug. Our results clearly show that DP prevented in a dose-dependent manner the motor activation induced by intra-VTA ethanol, being the 50 mg/kg dose the most efficient. DP per se did not affect the basal activity of the rats. In order to determine the specificity of the DP action, we also studied the effects of DP 50 mg/kg on the DAMGO-induced motor activation after the intra-VTA administration of this mu-opioid receptors agonist. DP did not significantly modify the motor activation induced by DAMGO thus confirming the specificity of the DP effects. Our results clearly suggest that the brain-derived ACH is necessary to manifest the activating effects resulting from ethanol administration. PMID:20691754

  20. The novel recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a potent psychomotor stimulant: self-administration and locomotor activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Aarde, S. M.; Huang, P.K.; Creehan, K.M.; Dickerson, T. J.; Taffe, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recreational use of the cathinone derivative 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; “bath salts”) has increased worldwide in past years, accompanied by accounts of health and legal problems in the popular media and efforts to criminalize possession in numerous jurisdictions. Minimal information exists on the effects of MDPV in laboratory models. This study determined the effects of MDPV, alongside those of the better studied stimulant d-methamphetamine (METH), using rodent models of intravenous self-administration (IVSA), thermoregulation and locomotor activity. Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer MDPV or METH (0.05 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) or were prepared with radiotelemetry implants for the assessment of body temperature and activity responses to MDPV or METH (0–5.6 mg/kg s.c.). METH and MDPV were consistently self-administered within 10 training sessions (mg/kg/hour; METH Mean=0.4 and Max = 1.15; MDPV Mean=0.9 and Max = 5.8). Dose-substitution studies demonstrated that behavior was sensitive to dose for both drugs, but MDPV (0.01–0.50 mg/kg/inf) showed greater potency and efficacy than METH (0.1–0.25 mg/kg/inf). In addition, both MDPV and METH increased locomotor activity at lower doses (0.5–1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) and transiently decreased activity at the highest dose (5.6 mg/kg, s.c.). Body temperature increased monotonically with increasing doses of METH but MDPV had a negligible effect on temperature. Stereotypy was associated with relatively high self-administered cumulative doses of MDPV (~1.5 mg/kg/hr) as well as with non-contingent MDPV administration wherein the intensity and duration of stereotypy increased as MDPV dose increased. Thus, MDPV poses a substantial threat for compulsive use that is potentially greater than that for METH. PMID:23597511

  1. Effects of Arc/Arg3.1 gene deletion on rhythmic synchronization of hippocampal CA1 neurons during locomotor activity and sleep.

    PubMed

    Malkki, Hemi A I; Mertens, Paul E C; Lankelma, Jan V; Vinck, Martin; van Schalkwijk, Frank J; van Mourik-Donga, Laura B; Battaglia, Francesco P; Mahlke, Claudia; Kuhl, Dietmar; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2016-05-01

    The activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein/activity regulated gene (Arc/Arg3.1) is crucial for long-term synaptic plasticity and memory formation. However, the neurophysiological substrates of memory deficits occurring in the absence of Arc/Arg3.1 are unknown. We compared hippocampal CA1 single-unit and local field potential (LFP) activity in Arc/Arg3.1 knockout and wild-type mice during track running and flanking sleep periods. Locomotor activity, basic firing and spatial coding properties of CA1 cells in knockout mice were not different from wild-type mice. During active behavior, however, knockout animals showed a significantly shifted balance in LFP power, with a relative loss in high-frequency (beta-2 and gamma) bands compared to low-frequency bands. Moreover, during track-running, knockout mice showed a decrease in phase locking of spiking activity to LFP oscillations in theta, beta and gamma bands. Sleep architecture in knockout mice was not grossly abnormal. Sharp-wave ripples, which have been associated with memory consolidation and replay, showed only minor differences in dynamics and amplitude. Altogether, these findings suggest that Arc/Arg3.1 effects on memory formation are not only manifested at the level of molecular pathways regulating synaptic plasticity, but also at the systems level. The disrupted power balance in theta, beta and gamma rhythmicity and concomitant loss of spike-field phase locking may affect memory encoding during initial storage and memory consolidation stages. PMID:27038743

  2. Identification and time dependence of quantitative trait loci for basal locomotor activity in the BXD recombinant inbred series and a B6D2 F2 intercross.

    PubMed

    Koyner, J; Demarest, K; McCaughran, J; Cipp, L; Hitzemann, R

    2000-05-01

    A complimentary two-phase strategy was used to detect and map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the basal locomotor response to a saline challenge (10 ml/kg). In phase 1, putative QTLs, significant at p < 0.01 or better, were identified by analysis of the strain means for 25 strains of the B x D recombinant inbred series. QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 9, 10, 16, and 18. Some of these QTLs were detected across the entire experimental period (0-20 min), while others were associated with specific 5-min blocks. Eighteen hundred C57BL/6J (B6) x DBA/2J (D2) F2 intercross animals were phenotyped for the basal locomotor response, and of this group, 500 to 700 individuals, pseudo-randomly selected, were used for a genomewide scan to confirm the RI-generated QTLs and to detect new QTLs. No new QTLs were detected but the QTLs on chromosome 1 were confirmed at p < 10(-5) to p < 10(-9), depending on the time interval. In addition, the QTLs on chromosomes 5 and 9 were confirmed at p < 0.001, providing a combined probability (RI + F2) which exceeds the threshold for a significant association. Two additional phenotypes which showed significant RI strain differences were examined--adaptation and thigmotaxis. Adaptation mapped to the same region of chromosome 9 and thigmotaxis to the same region of chromosome 1 as the distance-traveled QTL. Overall, the data presented here and elsewhere (Flint et al., 1995; Gershenfeld et al., 1997) illustrate that QTLs for basal activity are both robust and reliable.

  3. [Influence of melatonin and diclofenac on circadian rhythm of locomotor activity in rats with local inflammatory arthritis].

    PubMed

    Popov, A V; Naumov, S S; Arushanian, É B

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory arthritis is accompanied by disorganization of the circadian rhythm of locomotion in rats. Control saline injections increased the rhythm disturbances. Chronic administration of melatonin (5 mg/kg) attenuated these chronopathological shifts. Diclofenac demonstrated much lower positive chronopharmacological activity than did melatonin.

  4. Localization of genes influencing ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor activity in BXD recombinant inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C L

    1995-07-01

    Genetic differences in ethanol's ability to induce conditioned place preference were studied in 20 BXD Recombinant Inbred (RI) mouse strains and in the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J progenitor strains. Male mice from each strain were exposed to a Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which a distinctive floor stimulus (CS+) was paired four times with ethanol (2 g/kg). A different floor stimulus (CS-) was paired with saline. Control mice were injected only with saline. Floor preference testing without ethanol revealed significant genetic differences in conditioned place preference, with some strains spending nearly 80% time on the ethanol-paired floor while others spent only 50% (i.e., no preference). Control mice showed genetic differences in unconditioned preference for the floor cues, but unconditioned preference was not genetically correlated with conditioned preference. There were also substantial genetic differences in ethanol-stimulated activity, but contrary to psychomotor stimulant theory, ethanol-induced activity on conditioning trials was not positively correlated with strength of conditioned place preference. However, there was a significant negative genetic correlation (r = -0.42) between test session activity and preference. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses showed strong associations (P < 0.01) between conditioned place preference and marker loci on chromosomes 4, 8, 9, 18 and 19. Weaker associations (0.01 < P < 0.05) were identified on several other chromosomes. Analysis also yielded several significant QTL for unconditioned preference, ethanol-stimulated activity, and sensitization. Overall, these data support the conclusion that genotype influences ethanol-induced conditioned place preference, presumably via genetic differences in sensitivity to ethanol's rewarding effects. Moreover, several chromosomal regions containing candidate genes of potential relevance to ethanol-induced conditioned place preference have been identified.

  5. Selective expression of a dominant-negative type Iα PKA regulatory subunit in striatal medium spiny neurons impairs gene expression and leads to reduced feeding and locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linghai; Gilbert, Merle L; Zheng, Ruimao; McKnight, G Stanley

    2014-04-01

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) mediate many of the physiological effects of dopamine, including the regulation of feeding and motor behaviors. Dopaminergic inputs from the midbrain modulate MSN excitability through pathways that involve cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA), but the physiological role of specific PKA isoforms in MSN neurons remains poorly understood. One of the major PKA regulatory (R) subunit isoforms expressed in MSNs is RIIβ, which localizes the PKA holoenzyme primarily to dendrites by interaction with AKAP5 and other scaffolding proteins. However, RI (RIα and RIβ) subunits are also expressed in MSNs and the RI holoenzyme has a weaker affinity for most scaffolding proteins and tends to localize in the cell body. We generated mice with selective expression of a dominant-negative RI subunit (RIαB) in striatal MSNs and show that this dominant-negative RIαB localizes to the cytoplasm and specifically inhibits type I PKA activity in the striatum. These mice are normal at birth; however, soon after weaning they exhibit growth retardation and the adult mice are hypophagic, lean, and resistant to high-fat diet-induced hyperphagia and obesity. The RIαB-expressing mice also exhibit decreased locomotor activity and decreased dopamine-regulated CREB phosphorylation and c-fos gene expression in the striatum. Our results demonstrate a critical role for cytoplasmic RI-PKA holoenzyme in gene regulation and the overall physiological function of MSNs. PMID:24695708

  6. Involvement of the TRPV1 channel in the modulation of spontaneous locomotor activity, physical performance and physical exercise-induced physiological responses

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, A.S.R.; Kunstetter, A.C.; Damasceno, W.C.; Wanner, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise triggers coordinated physiological responses to meet the augmented metabolic demand of contracting muscles. To provide adequate responses, the brain must receive sensory information about the physiological status of peripheral tissues and organs, such as changes in osmolality, temperature and pH. Most of the receptors involved in these afferent pathways express ion channels, including transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which are usually activated by more than one type of stimulus and are therefore considered polymodal receptors. Among these TRP channels, the TRPV1 channel (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 or capsaicin receptor) has well-documented functions in the modulation of pain sensation and thermoregulatory responses. However, the TRPV1 channel is also expressed in non-neural tissues, suggesting that this channel may perform a broad range of functions. In this review, we first present a brief overview of the available tools for studying the physiological roles of the TRPV1 channel. Then, we present the relationship between the TRPV1 channel and spontaneous locomotor activity, physical performance, and modulation of several physiological responses, including water and electrolyte balance, muscle hypertrophy, and metabolic, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and inflammatory responses. Altogether, the data presented herein indicate that the TPRV1 channel modulates many physiological functions other than nociception and thermoregulation. In addition, these data open new possibilities for investigating the role of this channel in the acute effects induced by a single bout of physical exercise and in the chronic effects induced by physical training. PMID:27191606

  7. Involvement of the TRPV1 channel in the modulation of spontaneous locomotor activity, physical performance and physical exercise-induced physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Hudson, A S R; Kunstetter, A C; Damasceno, W C; Wanner, S P

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise triggers coordinated physiological responses to meet the augmented metabolic demand of contracting muscles. To provide adequate responses, the brain must receive sensory information about the physiological status of peripheral tissues and organs, such as changes in osmolality, temperature and pH. Most of the receptors involved in these afferent pathways express ion channels, including transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which are usually activated by more than one type of stimulus and are therefore considered polymodal receptors. Among these TRP channels, the TRPV1 channel (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 or capsaicin receptor) has well-documented functions in the modulation of pain sensation and thermoregulatory responses. However, the TRPV1 channel is also expressed in non-neural tissues, suggesting that this channel may perform a broad range of functions. In this review, we first present a brief overview of the available tools for studying the physiological roles of the TRPV1 channel. Then, we present the relationship between the TRPV1 channel and spontaneous locomotor activity, physical performance, and modulation of several physiological responses, including water and electrolyte balance, muscle hypertrophy, and metabolic, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and inflammatory responses. Altogether, the data presented herein indicate that the TPRV1 channel modulates many physiological functions other than nociception and thermoregulation. In addition, these data open new possibilities for investigating the role of this channel in the acute effects induced by a single bout of physical exercise and in the chronic effects induced by physical training. PMID:27191606

  8. Involvement of the TRPV1 channel in the modulation of spontaneous locomotor activity, physical performance and physical exercise-induced physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Hudson, A S R; Kunstetter, A C; Damasceno, W C; Wanner, S P

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise triggers coordinated physiological responses to meet the augmented metabolic demand of contracting muscles. To provide adequate responses, the brain must receive sensory information about the physiological status of peripheral tissues and organs, such as changes in osmolality, temperature and pH. Most of the receptors involved in these afferent pathways express ion channels, including transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which are usually activated by more than one type of stimulus and are therefore considered polymodal receptors. Among these TRP channels, the TRPV1 channel (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 or capsaicin receptor) has well-documented functions in the modulation of pain sensation and thermoregulatory responses. However, the TRPV1 channel is also expressed in non-neural tissues, suggesting that this channel may perform a broad range of functions. In this review, we first present a brief overview of the available tools for studying the physiological roles of the TRPV1 channel. Then, we present the relationship between the TRPV1 channel and spontaneous locomotor activity, physical performance, and modulation of several physiological responses, including water and electrolyte balance, muscle hypertrophy, and metabolic, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and inflammatory responses. Altogether, the data presented herein indicate that the TPRV1 channel modulates many physiological functions other than nociception and thermoregulation. In addition, these data open new possibilities for investigating the role of this channel in the acute effects induced by a single bout of physical exercise and in the chronic effects induced by physical training.

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids from Fish Oil Lower Anxiety, Improve Cognitive Functions and Reduce Spontaneous Locomotor Activity in a Non-Human Primate

    PubMed Central

    Vinot, Nina; Jouin, Mélanie; Lhomme-Duchadeuil, Adrien; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are major components of brain cells membranes. ω3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory) that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. ω3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in rodents, while very few data are available in primates. In humans, little is known about the association between anxiety and ω3 fatty acids supplementation and data are divergent about their impact on cognitive functions. Therefore, the development of nutritional studies in non-human primates is needed to disclose whether a long-term supplementation with long-chain ω3 PUFA has an impact on behavioural and cognitive parameters, differently or not from rodents. We address the hypothesis that ω3 PUFA supplementation could lower anxiety and improve cognitive performances of the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus), a nocturnal Malagasy prosimian primate. Adult male mouse lemurs were fed for 5 months on a control diet or on a diet supplemented with long-chain ω3 PUFA (n = 6 per group). Behavioural, cognitive and motor performances were measured using an open field test to evaluate anxiety, a circular platform test to evaluate reference spatial memory, a spontaneous locomotor activity monitoring and a sensory-motor test. ω3-supplemented animals exhibited lower anxiety level compared to control animals, what was accompanied by better performances in a reference spatial memory task (80% of successful trials vs 35% in controls, p<0.05), while the spontaneous locomotor activity was reduced by 31% in ω3-supplemented animals (p<0.001), a parameter that can be linked with lowered anxiety. The long-term dietary ω3 PUFA supplementation positively impacts on anxiety and cognitive performances in the adult mouse lemur. The supplementation of human food with ω3 fatty acids may

  10. Tolerance to the locomotor-activating effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) predicts escalation of MDMA self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement of MDMA seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kevin T; Slane, Mylissa

    2014-11-01

    Pre-clinical studies of individual differences in addiction vulnerability have been increasing over recent years, but the amphetamine derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) has received relatively little attention in this regard. Previously, we reported large individual differences both in rats' initial behavioral response to experimenter-administered MDMA and their degree of behavioral sensitization to repeated administration. To determine whether these differences could predict subsequent patterns of MDMA-taking or -seeking behaviors we used the self-administration-extinction-reinstatement model to examine addiction-like behavior (i.e., escalation of MDMA self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement of MDMA seeking) in rats a priori characterized for either locomotor sensitization or tolerance to MDMA. Rats that developed tolerance to the locomotor-activating effects of MDMA had a significantly larger locomotor response to the first MDMA injection relative to rats that developed sensitization. Importantly, rats that developed tolerance subsequently displayed an escalation of MDMA self-administration over days, as well as clear cue-induced reinstatement of MDMA seeking following extinction. Conversely, rats that developed locomotor sensitization to MDMA subsequently maintained relatively stable levels of MDMA self-administration over days and showed no cue-induced reinstatement of MDMA seeking. These results show that differences in the level of psychomotor activation following acute and repeated MDMA administration can reliably predict two important addiction-like behaviors in rats, which may have implications in the prediction of compulsive MDMA use in humans.

  11. Blockade of D1 dopamine receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex attenuates amphetamine- and methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hall, Darien A; Powers, John P; Gulley, Joshua M

    2009-12-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a component of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system involved in psychostimulant-induced hyperactivity and previous studies have shown that altering DA transmission or D2 receptors within the mPFC can decrease this stimulant effect. The goal of this study was to investigate a potential modulatory role for D1 receptors in the mPFC in amphetamine (AMPH)- and methamphetamine (METH)-induced hyperactivity. Locomotor activity in an open-field arena was measured in male, Sprague-Dawley rats given an intra-mPFC infusion of vehicle or the D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (0.25 or 1.0 microg) prior to systemic (i.p.) injection of saline, AMPH (1 mg/kg), or METH (1 mg/kg). We found that SCH 23390 produced a dose-dependent decrease in AMPH- and METH-induced locomotion and rearing but had no significant effect on spontaneous behavior that occurred following systemic saline injections. Because SCH 23390 has been shown to have agonist-like properties at 5-HT(2C) receptors, a follow-up experiment was performed to determine if this contributed to the attenuation of METH-induced activity that we observed. Rats were given intra-mPFC infusions of both SCH 23390 (1.0 microg) and the 5-HT(2C) antagonist RS 102221 (0.25 microg) prior to METH (1 mg/kg, i.p.). The addition of the 5-HT(2C) antagonist failed to alter SCH 23390-induced decreases in METH-induced locomotion and rearing; infusion of RS 102221 alone had no significant effects on locomotion and produced a non-significant decrease in rearing. The results of these studies suggest that D1 activation in the mPFC plays a significant role in AMPH- and METH-induced hyperactivity.

  12. Assessment of long-range correlation in animal behavior time series: The temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Flesia, Ana Georgina; Gleiser, Raquel M.; Perillo, María A.; Marin, Raul H.

    2013-12-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a method that has been frequently used to determine the presence of long-range correlations in human and animal behaviors. However, according to previous authors using statistical model systems, in order to correctly use DFA different aspects should be taken into account such as: (1) the establishment by hypothesis testing of the absence of short term correlation, (2) an accurate estimation of a straight line in the log-log plot of the fluctuation function, (3) the elimination of artificial crossovers in the fluctuation function, and (4) the length of the time series. Taking into consideration these factors, herein we evaluated the presence of long-range correlation in the temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus). In our study, modeling the data with the general autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model, we rejected the hypothesis of short-range correlations (d=0) in all cases. We also observed that DFA was able to distinguish between the artificial crossover observed in the temporal pattern of locomotion of Japanese quail and the crossovers in the correlation behavior observed in mosquito larvae locomotion. Although the test duration can slightly influence the parameter estimation, no qualitative differences were observed between different test durations.

  13. ETHANOL-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENT RATS AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE AND CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, María Belén; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent rats exhibit ethanol-induced locomotor activity (LMA), which is considered an index of ethanol’s motivational properties likely to predict ethanol self-administration, but few studies have reported or correlated ethanol-induced LMA with conditioned place preference by ethanol at this age. The present study assessed age-related differences in ethanol’s motor stimulating effects and analysed the association between ethanol-induced LMA and conventional measures of ethanol-induced reinforcement. Experiment 1 compared ethanol-induced LMA in adolescent and adult rats. Subsequent experiments analyzed ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and conditioned taste aversion in adolescent rats evaluated for ethanol-induced LMA. Adolescent rats exhibit a robust LMA after high-dose ethanol. Ethanol-induced LMA was fairly similar across adolescents and adults. As expected, adolescents were sensitive to ethanol’s aversive reinforcement, but they also exhibited conditioned place preference. These measures of ethanol reinforcement, however, were not related to ethanol-induced LMA. Spontaneous LMA in an open field was, however, negatively associated with ethanol-induced CTA. PMID:22592597

  14. Intra-accumbal administration of shRNAs against CART peptides cause increases in body weight and cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Job, M O; Licata, J; Hubert, G W; Kuhar, M J

    2012-10-30

    In order to examine the effect of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) peptide depletion in adult rats, CART shRNAs or scrambled control shRNAs were administered bilaterally into the nucleus accumbens (NAc). There was an increase in body weight of the shRNA injected rats compared with the rats injected with the scrambled RNA. This is compatible with the data showing a role for the peptide in body weight and food intake. Also at this time, there was about a two-and-a-half fold increase in cocaine-mediated locomotion in the shRNA injected rats compared to the control rats. This finding is critical support for the hypothesis that endogenous CART peptides in the NAc inhibit the actions of cocaine and other psychostimulants. In immunohistochemical experiments on these same animals, there was a decrease in the staining density of CART peptide in the NAc of the shRNA injected rats. These data show that shRNA can reduce CART peptides in the NAc and that endogenous CART peptides influence body weight and cocaine-induced locomotor activity (LMA).

  15. Quantitative genetic analysis of causal relationships among feather pecking, feather eating, and general locomotor activity in laying hens using structural equation models.

    PubMed

    Lutz, V; Kjaer, J B; Iffland, H; Rodehutscord, M; Bessei, W; Bennewitz, J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze the relationship between feather pecking (FP) and feather eating (FE) as well as general locomotor activity (GLA) using structural equation models, which allow that one trait can be treated as an explanatory variable of another trait. This provides an opportunity to infer putative causal links among the traits. For the analysis, 897 F2-hens set up from 2 lines divergently selected for high and low FP were available. The FP observations were Box-Cox transformed, and FE and GLA observations were log and square root transformed, respectively. The estimated heritabilities of FE, GLA, and FP were 0.36, 0.29, and 0.20, respectively. The genetic correlation between FP and FE (GLA) was 0.17 (0.04). A high genetic correlation of 0.47 was estimated between FE and GLA. The recursive effect from FE to FP was [Formula: see text], and from GLA to FP [Formula: see text] These results imply that an increase of FE leads to an increased FP behavior and that an increase in GLA results in a higher FP value. Furthermore, the study showed that the genetic correlation among the traits is mainly caused by indirect effects. PMID:27252366

  16. Dmp53, basket and drICE gene knockdown and polyphenol gallic acid increase life span and locomotor activity in a Drosophila Parkinson’s disease model

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Arellano, Hector Flavio; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism(s) by which dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons are eroded in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is critical for effective therapeutic strategies. By using the binary tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Gal4/UAS-X RNAi Drosophila melanogaster system, we report that Dmp53, basket and drICE gene knockdown in dopaminergic neurons prolong life span (p < 0.05; log-rank test) and locomotor activity (p < 0.05; χ2 test) in D. melanogaster lines chronically exposed to (1 mM) paraquat (PQ, oxidative stress (OS) generator) compared to untreated transgenic fly lines. Likewise, knockdown flies displayed higher climbing performance than control flies. Amazingly, gallic acid (GA) significantly protected DAergic neurons, ameliorated life span, and climbing abilities in knockdown fly lines treated with PQ compared to flies treated with PQ only. Therefore, silencing specific gene(s) involved in neuronal death might constitute an excellent tool to study the response of DAergic neurons to OS stimuli. We propose that a therapy with antioxidants and selectively “switching off” death genes in DAergic neurons could provide a means for pre-clinical PD individuals to significantly ameliorate their disease condition. PMID:24385865

  17. Serotonin 1A, 1B, and 7 receptors of the rat medial nucleus accumbens differentially regulate feeding, water intake, and locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Clissold, Kara A; Choi, Eugene; Pratt, Wayne E

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) signaling has been widely implicated in the regulation of feeding behaviors in both humans and animal models. Recently, we reported that co-stimulation of 5-HT1&7 receptors of the anterior medial nucleus accumbens with the drug 5-CT caused a dose-dependent decrease in food intake, water intake, and locomotion in rats (Pratt et al., 2009). The current experiments sought to determine which of three serotonin receptor subtypes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, or 5-HT7) might be responsible for these consummatory and locomotor effects. Food-deprived rats were given 2-h access to rat chow after stimulation of nucleus accumbens 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, or 5-HT7 receptors, or blockade of the 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors. Stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors with 8-OH-DPAT (at 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) caused a dose-dependent decrease in food and water intake, and reduced rearing behavior but not ambulation. In contrast, rats that received the 5-HT1B agonist CP 93129 (at 0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in water intake only; stimulation of 5-HT7 receptors (AS 19; at 0.0, 1.0, and 5.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) decreased ambulatory activity but did not affect food or water consumption. Blockade of 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors had no lasting effects on measures of food consumption. These data suggest that the food intake, water intake, and locomotor effects seen after medial nucleus accumbens injections of 5-CT are due to actions on separate serotonin receptor subtypes, and contribute to growing evidence for selective roles of individual serotonin receptors within the nucleus accumbens on motivated behavior.

  18. Testicular Steroidogenesis and Locomotor Activity Are Regulated by Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone in Male European Sea Bass

    PubMed Central

    Paullada-Salmerón, José A.; Cowan, Mairi; Aliaga-Guerrero, María; López-Olmeda, José F.; Mañanós, Evaristo L.; Zanuy, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neurohormone that suppresses reproduction by acting at both the brain and pituitary levels. In addition to the brain, GnIH may also be produced in gonads and can regulate steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. However, the function of GnIH in gonadal physiology has received little attention in fish. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of peripheral sbGnih-1 and sbGnih-2 implants on gonadal development and steroidogenesis during the reproductive cycle of male sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Both Gnihs decreased testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) plasma levels in November and December (early- and mid-spermatogenesis) but did not affect plasma levels of the progestin 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP). In February (spermiation), fish treated with sbGnih-1 and sbGnih-2 exhibited testicles with abundant type A spermatogonia and partial spermatogenesis. In addition, we determined the effects of peripheral Gnih implants on plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) levels, as well as on brain and pituitary expression of the main reproductive hormone genes and their receptors during the spermiation period (February). Treatment with sbGnih-2 increased brain gnrh2, gnih, kiss1r and gnihr transcript levels. Whereas, both Gnihs decreased lhbeta expression and plasma Lh levels, and sbGnih-1 reduced plasmatic Fsh. Finally, through behavioral recording we showed that Gnih implanted animals exhibited a significant increase in diurnal activity from late spermatogenic to early spermiogenic stages. Our results indicate that Gnih may regulate the reproductive axis of sea bass acting not only on brain and pituitary hormones but also on gonadal physiology and behavior. PMID:27788270

  19. Effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury on dopamine-mediated locomotor activity and dopamine D2 receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Daré, Elisabetta; Fetissov, Serguei; Hökfelt, Tomas; Hall, Håkan; Ogren, Sven Ove; Ceccatelli, Sandra

    2003-05-01

    In the present study we have investigated the neurotoxic effects of the exposure to a low dose (0.5 mg/kg/day) of methylmercury (MeHg) on the developing nervous system. Pregnant rats were treated with MeHg from day 7 of pregnancy to day 7 of lactation. At postnatal day 20 the offspring did not display prominent functional cerebellar alterations, as evaluated by the Rotarod performance. Motor activity (locomotion, rearing and motility) was tested in the 21-day-old rats after administration of apomorphine, an agonist of D(1), D(2), and D(3) dopamine receptors. A low dose of apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg) induced a significantly stronger increase in motility and locomotion in MeHg-treated rats as compared to controls. The same effect was also observed in rats injected with 1 mg/kg apomorphine. No changes were observed in rearing at either doses of the dopamine receptor agonist. The data suggest that changes in dopaminergic transmission are induced by exposure to MeHg in early life. The expression of the striatal dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors was examined by in situ hybridization in the striatum of the 21-day-old rats. The analysis did not reveal any significant changes at the mRNA level. Ligand autoradiography experiments showed a significant reduction in dopamine D(2) receptor binding in the caudate putamen of MeHg-treated rats. Spatial learning ability was tested in 2-month-old rats using the Morris swim maze test. Changes in retention were shown in MeHg-treated rats, indicating that MeHg induced memory alterations. Taken together, these findings show that exposure to a very low dose of MeHg during development exerts neurotoxic effects on the dopaminergic system and that alterations of brain functions persist in adult life.

  20. Simvastatin inhibits neural cell apoptosis and promotes locomotor recovery via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kai; Shen, Zhaoliang; Yuan, Yajiang; Han, Donghe; Song, Changwei; Guo, Yue; Mei, Xifan

    2016-07-01

    Statins exhibit neuroprotective effects after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the molecular mechanism underlying these effects remains unknown. This study demonstrates that the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor simvastatin (Simv) exhibits neuroprotective effects on neuronal apoptosis and supports functional recovery in a rat SCI model by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In specific, Simv administration after SCI significantly up-regulated the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 phosphorylation and β-catenin protein, increased the mRNA expression of lymphoid enhancer factor-1 and T-cell factor-1, and suppressed the expression of β-catenin phosphorylation in the spinal cord neurons. Simv enhanced motor neuronal survival in the spinal cord anterior horn and decreased the lesion of spinal cord tissues after SCI. Simv administration after SCI also evidently reduced the expression levels of Bax, active caspase-3, and active caspase-9 in the spinal cord neurons and the proportion of transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive neuron cells, but increased the expression level of Bcl-2 in the spinal cord neurons. However, the anti-apoptotic effects of Simv were reduced in cultured spinal cord nerve cells when the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was suppressed in the lipopolysaccharide-induced model. Furthermore, the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores indicated that Simv treatment significantly improved the locomotor functions of rats after SCI. This study is the first to report that Simv exerts neuroprotective effects by reducing neuronal apoptosis, and promoting functional and pathological recovery after SCI by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We verified the neuroprotective properties associated with simvastatin following spinal cord injury (SCI). Simvastatin reduced neuronal apoptosis, improved the functional and pathological recovery via activating Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway

  1. Capacity of novelty-induced locomotor activity and the hole-board test to predict sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Arenas, M Carmen; Daza-Losada, Manuel; Vidal-Infer, Antonio; Aguilar, Maria A; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2014-06-22

    Novelty-seeking in rodents, defined as enhanced specific exploration of novel situations, is considered to predict the response of animals to drugs of abuse and, thus, allow "drug-vulnerable" individuals to be identified. The main objective of this study was to assess the predictive ability of two well-known paradigms of the novelty-seeking trait - novelty-induced locomotor activity (which distinguishes High- and Low-Responder mice, depending on their motor activity) and the hole-board test (which determines High- and Low-Novelty Seeker mice depending on the number of head dips they perform) - to identify subjects that would subsequently be more sensitive to the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine in a population of young adult (PND 56) and adolescent (PND 35) OF1 mice of both sexes. Conditioned place preference (CPP), a useful tool for evaluating the sensitivity of individuals to the incentive properties of addictive drugs, was induced with a sub-threshold dose of cocaine (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Our results showed that novelty-induced motor activity had a greater predictive capacity to identify "vulnerable-drug" individuals among young-adult mice (PND 56), while the hole-board test was more effective in adolescents (PND 35). High-NR young-adults, which presented higher motor activity in the first ten minutes of the test (novelty-reactivity), were 3.9 times more likely to develop cocaine-induced CPP than Low-NR young-adults. When total activity (1h) was evaluated (novelty-habituation), only High-R (novelty-non-habituating) young-adult male and Low-R (novelty-habituating) female mice produced a high conditioning score. However, only High-Novelty Seeker male and female adolescents and Low-Novelty Seeker female young-adult animals (according to the hole-board test), acquired cocaine-induced CPP. These findings should contribute to the development of screening methods for identifying at-risk human drug users and prevention strategies for those with specific

  2. The rate of behavioral tolerance development to repeated lipopolysaccharide treatments depends upon the time of injection during the light-dark cycle: a multivariable examination of locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Andrew E; Engeland, Christopher G; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2007-06-18

    Recent evidence suggests that sickness behaviors following lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treatment may be modulated by environmental factors such as the light-dark (LD) cycle. The present study characterized LPS-induced hypoactivity and behavioral tolerance development across individual phases of the light-dark cycle and the transitions between phases. On days 1, 4 and 7, male rats were treated with LPS (200microg/kg i.p.) or saline 30min prior to the onset of either the dark period (dark-tested group) or the light period (light-tested group). Following treatment, rats were placed in non-novel automated open-fields where various aspects of locomotor activity were monitored for 16h. On day 1, LPS-treated rats in both the dark and light tested groups showed significant hypoactivity. However, temporal differences in the onset of hypoactivity were observed between the groups. In dark tested animals significant hypoactivity started 60min after LPS treatment and continued until the light period when hypoactivity was diminished. In contrast, the light tested LPS-treated animals did not exhibit a prolonged period of hypoactivity until the transition between the light and dark periods, 750min following LPS injection. On days 4 and 7, light tested animals showed complete tolerance to LPS as evidenced by the absence of significant activity reductions, whereas dark tested animals continued to show significant periods of hypoactivity. These results indicate that there are day-night differences in both the initial LPS-induced hypoactivity response as well as behavioral tolerance development. The rate of tolerance development to LPS may be a critical factor to survival and the prevention of sepsis, as organisms are repeatedly exposed to pathogens across the life cycle.

  3. Combined damage to entorhinal cortex and cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, two early neurodegenerative features accompanying Alzheimer's disease: effects on locomotor activity and memory functions in rats.

    PubMed

    Traissard, Natalia; Herbeaux, Karine; Cosquer, Brigitte; Jeltsch, Hélène; Ferry, Barbara; Galani, Rodrigue; Pernon, Anne; Majchrzak, Monique; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2007-04-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), cognitive decline is linked to cholinergic dysfunctions in the basal forebrain (BF), although the earliest neuronal damage is described in the entorhinal cortex (EC). In rats, selective cholinergic BF lesions or fiber-sparing EC lesions may induce memory deficits, but most often of weak magnitude. This study investigated, in adult rats, the effects on activity and memory of both lesions, alone or in combination, using 192 IgG-saporin (OX7-saporin as a control) and L-N-methyl-D-aspartate to destroy BF and EC neurons, respectively. Rats were tested for locomotor activity in their home cage and for working- and/or reference-memory in various tasks (water maze, Hebb-Williams maze, radial maze). Only rats with combined lesions showed diurnal and nocturnal hyperactivity. EC lesions impaired working memory and induced anterograde memory deficits in almost all tasks. Lesions of BF cholinergic neurons induced more limited deficits: reference memory was impaired in the probe trial of the water-maze task and in the radial maze. When both lesions were combined, performance never improved in the water maze and the number of errors in the Hebb-Williams and the radial mazes was always larger than in any other group. These results (i) indicate synergistic implications of BF and EC in memory function, (ii) suggest that combined BF cholinergic and fiber-sparing EC lesions may model aspects of anterograde memory deficits and restlessness as seen in AD, (iii) challenge the cholinergic hypothesis of cognitive dysfunctions in AD, and (iv) contribute to open theoretical views on AD-related memory dysfunctions going beyond the latter hypothesis.

  4. Acute stress increases the synthesis of 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, a new key neurosteroid stimulating locomotor activity, through corticosterone action in newts.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Shogo; Koyama, Teppei; Hasunuma, Itaru; Okuyama, Shin-ichiro; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Kikuyama, Sakae; Do Rego, Jean-Luc; Vaudry, Hubert; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2012-02-01

    7α-Hydroxypregnenolone (7α-OH PREG) is a newly identified bioactive neurosteroid stimulating locomotor activity in the brain of newt, a wild animal, which serves as an excellent model to investigate the biosynthesis and biological action of neurosteroids. Here, we show that acute stress increases 7α-OH PREG synthesis in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) through corticosterone (CORT) action in newts. A 30-min restraint stress increased 7α-OH PREG synthesis in the brain tissue concomitant with the increase in plasma CORT concentrations. A 30-min restraint stress also increased the expression of cytochrome P450(7α) (CYP7B), the steroidogenic enzyme of 7α-OH PREG formation, in the DMH. Decreasing plasma CORT concentrations by hypophysectomy or trilostane administration decreased 7α-OH PREG synthesis in the diencephalon, whereas administration of CORT to these animals increased 7α-OH PREG synthesis. Glucocorticoid receptor was present in DMH neurons expressing CYP7B. Thus, CORT appears to act directly on DMH neurons to increase 7α-OH PREG synthesis. We further investigated the biological action of 7α-OH PREG in the brain under stress. A 30-min restraint stress or central administration of 7α-OH PREG increased serotonin concentrations in the diencephalon. Double immunolabeling further showed colocalization of CYP7B and serotonin in the DMH. These results indicate that acute stress increases the synthesis of 7α-OH PREG via CORT action in the DMH, and 7α-OH PREG activates serotonergic neurons in the DMH that may coordinate behavioral responses to stress. This is the first demonstration of neurosteroid biosynthesis regulated by peripheral steroid hormone and of neurosteroid action in the brain under stress in any vertebrate class.

  5. Spontaneous alternation and locomotor activity in three species of marine crabs: green crab (Carcinus maenas), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and fiddler crab (Uca pugnax).

    PubMed

    Balcı, Fuat; Ramey-Balcı, Patricia A; Ruamps, Perrine

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous alternation refers to the tendency of organisms to explore places that they have least recently visited. Our previous work showed that alternation performance of Carcinus maenas (invasive European green crab) was significantly higher than Callinectes sapidus (native blue crab), and chance level performance (Ramey, P. A., Teichman, E., Oleksiak, J., & Balcı, F. [2009]. Spontaneous alternation in marine crabs: Invasive versus native species. Behavioural Processes, 82, 51-55.). In the current study, we first tested the robustness of these findings in the absence of visual cues, longer test durations, and wider maze dimensions. These manipulations enabled us to determine whether these two crab species relied on the visual cues provided during the spontaneous alternation task in our prior work, and allowed for better characterization of their exploratory activity in the maze. Our original findings were reproduced in the present study under these new task conditions, suggesting no role for visual cues during alternation, and emphasizing the robustness and generalizability of the corresponding interspecies differences in alternation performance. We also tested whether the lower alternation performance of C. sapidus also applied to another native crab species, Uca pugnax (fiddler crab). Spontaneous alternation performance of U. pugnax was significantly lower than C. maenas but indistinguishable from C. sapidus. Finally, we examined whether the potentially higher inherent risk-sensitivity of C. sapidus could have contributed to their lower alternation performance by testing C. maenas in the presence of a larger natural predator (stressor). Higher risk sensitivity presumably induced by the stressor led to locomotor activity patterns that better resembled those of C. sapidus, however the resultant reduction in alternation performance was not statistically significant. PMID:24060243

  6. Spontaneous alternation and locomotor activity in three species of marine crabs: green crab (Carcinus maenas), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and fiddler crab (Uca pugnax).

    PubMed

    Balcı, Fuat; Ramey-Balcı, Patricia A; Ruamps, Perrine

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous alternation refers to the tendency of organisms to explore places that they have least recently visited. Our previous work showed that alternation performance of Carcinus maenas (invasive European green crab) was significantly higher than Callinectes sapidus (native blue crab), and chance level performance (Ramey, P. A., Teichman, E., Oleksiak, J., & Balcı, F. [2009]. Spontaneous alternation in marine crabs: Invasive versus native species. Behavioural Processes, 82, 51-55.). In the current study, we first tested the robustness of these findings in the absence of visual cues, longer test durations, and wider maze dimensions. These manipulations enabled us to determine whether these two crab species relied on the visual cues provided during the spontaneous alternation task in our prior work, and allowed for better characterization of their exploratory activity in the maze. Our original findings were reproduced in the present study under these new task conditions, suggesting no role for visual cues during alternation, and emphasizing the robustness and generalizability of the corresponding interspecies differences in alternation performance. We also tested whether the lower alternation performance of C. sapidus also applied to another native crab species, Uca pugnax (fiddler crab). Spontaneous alternation performance of U. pugnax was significantly lower than C. maenas but indistinguishable from C. sapidus. Finally, we examined whether the potentially higher inherent risk-sensitivity of C. sapidus could have contributed to their lower alternation performance by testing C. maenas in the presence of a larger natural predator (stressor). Higher risk sensitivity presumably induced by the stressor led to locomotor activity patterns that better resembled those of C. sapidus, however the resultant reduction in alternation performance was not statistically significant.

  7. Combined damage to entorhinal cortex and cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, two early neurodegenerative features accompanying Alzheimer's disease: effects on locomotor activity and memory functions in rats.

    PubMed

    Traissard, Natalia; Herbeaux, Karine; Cosquer, Brigitte; Jeltsch, Hélène; Ferry, Barbara; Galani, Rodrigue; Pernon, Anne; Majchrzak, Monique; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2007-04-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), cognitive decline is linked to cholinergic dysfunctions in the basal forebrain (BF), although the earliest neuronal damage is described in the entorhinal cortex (EC). In rats, selective cholinergic BF lesions or fiber-sparing EC lesions may induce memory deficits, but most often of weak magnitude. This study investigated, in adult rats, the effects on activity and memory of both lesions, alone or in combination, using 192 IgG-saporin (OX7-saporin as a control) and L-N-methyl-D-aspartate to destroy BF and EC neurons, respectively. Rats were tested for locomotor activity in their home cage and for working- and/or reference-memory in various tasks (water maze, Hebb-Williams maze, radial maze). Only rats with combined lesions showed diurnal and nocturnal hyperactivity. EC lesions impaired working memory and induced anterograde memory deficits in almost all tasks. Lesions of BF cholinergic neurons induced more limited deficits: reference memory was impaired in the probe trial of the water-maze task and in the radial maze. When both lesions were combined, performance never improved in the water maze and the number of errors in the Hebb-Williams and the radial mazes was always larger than in any other group. These results (i) indicate synergistic implications of BF and EC in memory function, (ii) suggest that combined BF cholinergic and fiber-sparing EC lesions may model aspects of anterograde memory deficits and restlessness as seen in AD, (iii) challenge the cholinergic hypothesis of cognitive dysfunctions in AD, and (iv) contribute to open theoretical views on AD-related memory dysfunctions going beyond the latter hypothesis. PMID:16760925

  8. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  9. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The material presented is designed to help students explore geometric patterns involving Fibonnaci numbers and the golden ratio, and to aid in review of basic geometry skills. Worksheet masters intended for duplication are provided. Suggestions are made of possible classroom extensions to the initial activities. (MP)

  10. Normabaric Hyperoxia Treatment Improved Locomotor Activity of C57BL/6J Mice through Enhancing Dopamine Genes Following Fluid-Percussion Injury in Striatum.

    PubMed

    Muthuraju, Sangu; Taha, Syed; Pati, Soumya; Rafique, Mohamed; Jaafar, Hasnan; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2013-12-01

    Closed traumatic brain injury (CTBI) leads to increase mortality rates in developing countries. However, a sustainable therapeutic approach has not been established yet. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the impact of normabaric hyperoxia treatment (NBOT) on striatum associated Locomotor Activity (LA) in IntelliCage after Fluid-Percussion Injury (FPI). Animals were divided in four groups: Group I control (n=24), Group II sham (n=24), Group III FPI (n=24) and Group IV FPI with NBOT (n=24). Animals were habituated in IntelliCage for 4 days following transponder implanted in mice neck region on day 5. Then the LA of all groups was assessed 6hr daily for 5 days before inducing FPI. On day 6, cannula was implanted on the striatum, on day 7 FPI was performed in Group III (kept in normal environment) and IV (immediately exposed to NBOT for 3 hr). LA (in terms of number of visits in all four corners) was assessed 6 hr at days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following FPI. After the animals were sacrificed to study the neuronal damage, dopamine receptors and transporters expression in striatum. The results suggested that the LA of FPI impaired mice as compared to the control and sham showed less number of visits in all four corners in IntelliCage. Morphological results revealed that FPI induced neuronal damage as compared to sham and control. Dopamine receptors and transporters were down regulated in the FPI group as compared to the control. Immediate exposure to NBOT improved LA in terms of increased number of visits in all four corners, reduced number of cell death and improved receptor expression as compared to FPI. In conclusion, NBOT exposure could improve the LA of mice following FPI through prevention of neuronal damage, improved dopamine receptors and transporters. PMID:24711754

  11. Long-Term Blockade of Cocaine Self-Administration and Locomotor Activation in Rats by an Adenoviral Vector-Delivered Cocaine Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Smethells, John R; Swalve, Natashia; Brimijoin, Stephen; Gao, Yang; Parks, Robin J; Greer, Adam; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2016-05-01

    A promising approach in treating cocaine abuse is to metabolize cocaine in the blood using a mutated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) that functions as a cocaine hydrolase (CocH). In rats, a helper-dependent adenoviral (hdAD) vector-mediated delivery of CocH abolished ongoing cocaine use and cocaine-primed reinstatement of drug-seeking for several months. This enzyme also metabolizes ghrelin, an effect that may be beneficial in maintaining healthy weights. The effect of a single hdAD-CocH vector injection was examined in rats on measures of anxiety, body weight, cocaine self-administration, and cocaine-induced locomotor activity. To examine anxiety, periadolescent rats were tested in an elevated-plus maze. Weight gain was then examined under four rodent diets. Ten months after CocH-injection, adult rats were trained to self-administer cocaine intravenously and, subsequently, cocaine-induced locomotion was tested. Viral gene transfer produced sustained plasma levels of CocH for over 13 months of testing. CocH-treated rats did not differ from controls in measures of anxiety, and only showed a transient reduction in weight gain during the first 3 weeks postinjection. However, CocH-treated rats were insensitive to cocaine. At 10 months postinjection, none of the CocH-treated rats initiated cocaine self-administration, unlike 90% of the control rats. At 13 months postinjection, CocH-treated rats showed no cocaine-induced locomotion, whereas control rats showed a dose-dependent enhancement of locomotion. CocH vector produced a long-term blockade of the rewarding and behavioral effects of cocaine in rats, emphasizing its role as a promising therapeutic intervention in cocaine abuse.

  12. Chronic exposure to low levels of inorganic arsenic causes alterations in locomotor activity and in the expression of dopaminergic and antioxidant systems in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Verónica Mireya; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge Humberto; Carrizales, Leticia; Mendoza-Trejo, María Soledad; Giordano, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have associated chronic arsenicism with decreases in IQ and sensory and motor alterations in humans. Likewise, studies of rodents exposed to inorganic arsenic ((i)As) have found changes in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, oxidative stress, and in sensory and motor nerves. In the current study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of (i)As (0.05, 0.5 mg (i)As/L) and to a high dose (50 mg (i)As/L) in drinking water for one year. Hypoactivity and increases in the striatal dopamine content were found in the group treated with 50 mg (i)As/L. Exposure to 0.5 and 50 mg (i)As/L increased the total brain content of As. Furthermore, (i)As exposure produced a dose-dependent up-regulation of mRNA for Mn-SOD and Trx-1 and a down-regulation of DAR-D₂ mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens. DAR-D₁ and Nrf2 mRNA expression were down-regulated in nucleus accumbens in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L. Trx-1 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the cortex in an (i)As dose-dependent manner, while DAR-D₁ mRNA expression was increased in striatum in the 0.5 mg (i)As/L group. These results show that chronic exposure to low levels of arsenic causes subtle but region-specific changes in the nervous system, especially in antioxidant systems and dopaminergic elements. These changes became behaviorally evident only in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L.

  13. Normabaric Hyperoxia Treatment Improved Locomotor Activity of C57BL/6J Mice through Enhancing Dopamine Genes Following Fluid-Percussion Injury in Striatum.

    PubMed

    Muthuraju, Sangu; Taha, Syed; Pati, Soumya; Rafique, Mohamed; Jaafar, Hasnan; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2013-12-01

    Closed traumatic brain injury (CTBI) leads to increase mortality rates in developing countries. However, a sustainable therapeutic approach has not been established yet. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the impact of normabaric hyperoxia treatment (NBOT) on striatum associated Locomotor Activity (LA) in IntelliCage after Fluid-Percussion Injury (FPI). Animals were divided in four groups: Group I control (n=24), Group II sham (n=24), Group III FPI (n=24) and Group IV FPI with NBOT (n=24). Animals were habituated in IntelliCage for 4 days following transponder implanted in mice neck region on day 5. Then the LA of all groups was assessed 6hr daily for 5 days before inducing FPI. On day 6, cannula was implanted on the striatum, on day 7 FPI was performed in Group III (kept in normal environment) and IV (immediately exposed to NBOT for 3 hr). LA (in terms of number of visits in all four corners) was assessed 6 hr at days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following FPI. After the animals were sacrificed to study the neuronal damage, dopamine receptors and transporters expression in striatum. The results suggested that the LA of FPI impaired mice as compared to the control and sham showed less number of visits in all four corners in IntelliCage. Morphological results revealed that FPI induced neuronal damage as compared to sham and control. Dopamine receptors and transporters were down regulated in the FPI group as compared to the control. Immediate exposure to NBOT improved LA in terms of increased number of visits in all four corners, reduced number of cell death and improved receptor expression as compared to FPI. In conclusion, NBOT exposure could improve the LA of mice following FPI through prevention of neuronal damage, improved dopamine receptors and transporters.

  14. Long-Term Blockade of Cocaine Self-Administration and Locomotor Activation in Rats by an Adenoviral Vector-Delivered Cocaine Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Smethells, John R; Swalve, Natashia; Brimijoin, Stephen; Gao, Yang; Parks, Robin J; Greer, Adam; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2016-05-01

    A promising approach in treating cocaine abuse is to metabolize cocaine in the blood using a mutated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) that functions as a cocaine hydrolase (CocH). In rats, a helper-dependent adenoviral (hdAD) vector-mediated delivery of CocH abolished ongoing cocaine use and cocaine-primed reinstatement of drug-seeking for several months. This enzyme also metabolizes ghrelin, an effect that may be beneficial in maintaining healthy weights. The effect of a single hdAD-CocH vector injection was examined in rats on measures of anxiety, body weight, cocaine self-administration, and cocaine-induced locomotor activity. To examine anxiety, periadolescent rats were tested in an elevated-plus maze. Weight gain was then examined under four rodent diets. Ten months after CocH-injection, adult rats were trained to self-administer cocaine intravenously and, subsequently, cocaine-induced locomotion was tested. Viral gene transfer produced sustained plasma levels of CocH for over 13 months of testing. CocH-treated rats did not differ from controls in measures of anxiety, and only showed a transient reduction in weight gain during the first 3 weeks postinjection. However, CocH-treated rats were insensitive to cocaine. At 10 months postinjection, none of the CocH-treated rats initiated cocaine self-administration, unlike 90% of the control rats. At 13 months postinjection, CocH-treated rats showed no cocaine-induced locomotion, whereas control rats showed a dose-dependent enhancement of locomotion. CocH vector produced a long-term blockade of the rewarding and behavioral effects of cocaine in rats, emphasizing its role as a promising therapeutic intervention in cocaine abuse. PMID:26968195

  15. The effects of feedback lighting on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity and the reproductive maturation of the male Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, J. S.

    1988-01-01

    The non-parametric model of entrainment suggests that brief pulses of light, delivered between dusk and dawn can simulate the phasing effects of full photoperiods or even constant light (LL). Feedback lighting (LDFB) is a lighting condition where individual animals, otherwise in constant darkness (DD), are exposed to light in response to a monitored behavior. The specific purpose of this type of illumination is to expose the circadian cycle to light only during the subjective night. LDFB has been used to support this hypothesis in several species of nocturnal rodents and one species of diurnal primate by producing similar free-running periods in LDFB as in LL. This lighting condition has also been used to test the hypothesis that exposing the subjective night to even short duration light pulses will maintain reproductive function in long day breeders. In the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), however, LDFB is not as photostimulatory as LL despite extensive light exposure during the subjective night. In the experiments presented here, a group of immature male Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were placed in individual light-tight sound attenuated chambers where they had free access to food, water and an activity wheel. The animals were exposed to one of four lighting conditions [DD, LL, LDFB or a neighbor control of feedback lighting (LDFB NC)] for approximately 30 days shortly after weaning. LDFB NC is a lighting condition where a neighbor control hamster receives the identical lighting regime as a paired animal exposing itself to LDFB, yet the neighbor has no control over it. A fifth group was exposed to a light-dark cycle of 16 hours of light and 8 hours of dark (LD16:8). This group was housed in cages in a colony room and did not have access to a running wheel. The free-running periods of the locomotor activity rhythms for hamsters exposed to LDFB and LL were not similar, unlike the results for rats, Syrian hamsters, mice, monkeys and even mature

  16. Daily rhythms of core temperature and locomotor activity indicate different adaptive strategies to cold exposure in adult and aged mouse lemurs acclimated to a summer-like photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Terrien, Jeremy; Zizzari, Philippe; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perret, Martine; Aujard, Fabienne

    2009-07-01

    Daily variations in core temperature (Tc) within the normothermic range imply thermoregulatory processes that are essential for optimal function and survival. Higher susceptibility towards cold exposure in older animals suggests that these processes are disturbed with age. In the mouse lemur, a long-day breeder, we tested whether aging affected circadian rhythmicity of Tc, locomotor activity (LA), and energy balance under long-day conditions when exposed to cold. Adult (N = 7) and aged (N = 5) mouse lemurs acclimated to LD14/10 were exposed to 10-day periods at 25 and 12 degrees C. Tc and LA rhythms were recorded by telemetry, and caloric intake (CI), body mass changes, and plasma IGF-1 were measured. During exposure to 25 degrees C, both adult and aged mouse lemurs exhibited strong daily variations in Tc. Aged animals exhibited lower levels of nocturnal LA and nocturnal and diurnal Tc levels in comparison to adults. Body mass and IGF-1 levels remained unchanged with aging. Under cold exposure, torpor bout occurrence was never observed whatever the age category. Adult and aged mouse lemurs maintained their Tc in the normothermic range and a positive energy balance. All animals exhibited increase in CI and decrease in IGF-1 in response to cold. The decrease in IGF-1 was delayed in aged mouse lemurs compared to adults. Moreover, both adult and aged animals responded to cold exposure by increasing their diurnal LA compared to those under Ta = 25 degrees C. However, aged animals exhibited a strong decrease in nocturnal LA and Tc, whereas cold effects were only slight in adults. The temporal organization and amplitude of the daily phase of low Tc were particularly well preserved under cold exposure in both age groups. Sexually active mouse lemurs exposed to cold thus seemed to prevent torpor exhibition and temporal disorganization of daily rhythms of Tc, even during aging. However, although energy balance was not impaired with age in mouse lemurs after cold exposure

  17. Enhanced effects of amphetamine but reduced effects of the hallucinogen, 5-MeO-DMT, on locomotor activity in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice: implications for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    van den Buuse, Maarten; Ruimschotel, Emma; Martin, Sally; Risbrough, Victoria B; Halberstadt, Adam L

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin-1A (5-HT(1A)) receptors may play a role in schizophrenia and the effects of certain antipsychotic drugs. However, the mechanism of interaction of 5-HT(1A) receptors with brain systems involved in schizophrenia, remains unclear. Here we show that 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice display enhanced locomotor hyperactivity to acute treatment with amphetamine, a widely used animal model of hyperdopaminergic mechanisms in psychosis. In contrast, the effect of MK-801 on locomotor activity, modeling NMDA receptor hypoactivity, was unchanged in the knockouts. The effect of the hallucinogen 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) was markedly reduced in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice. There were no changes in apomorphine-induced disruption of PPI, a model of sensory gating deficits seen in schizophrenia. Similarly, there were no major changes in density of dopamine transporters (DAT) or dopamine D(1) or D(2) receptors which could explain the behavioural changes observed in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice. These results extend our insight into the possible role of these receptors in aspects of schizophrenia. As also suggested by previous studies using agonist and antagonist drugs, 5-HT(1A) receptors may play an important role in hallucinations and to modulate dopaminergic activity in the brain.

  18. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno Ávila, Claudia Leticia; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge H; Giordano, Magda; Rodríguez, Verónica M

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced hypoactivity at six months and other behaviors such as rearing and on-wall rearing and barbering showed both increases and decreases. No alterations on aggressive behavior or monoamines levels in striatum or frontal cortex were observed. A significant decrease in the expression of mRNA for D2 receptors was found in striatum of mice exposed to 5.0 mg As/L. This study provides evidence for the use of dopamine receptor D2 as potential target of arsenic toxicity in the dopaminergic system.

  19. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno Ávila, Claudia Leticia; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge H; Giordano, Magda; Rodríguez, Verónica M

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced hypoactivity at six months and other behaviors such as rearing and on-wall rearing and barbering showed both increases and decreases. No alterations on aggressive behavior or monoamines levels in striatum or frontal cortex were observed. A significant decrease in the expression of mRNA for D2 receptors was found in striatum of mice exposed to 5.0 mg As/L. This study provides evidence for the use of dopamine receptor D2 as potential target of arsenic toxicity in the dopaminergic system. PMID:27375740

  20. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Ávila, Claudia Leticia

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced hypoactivity at six months and other behaviors such as rearing and on-wall rearing and barbering showed both increases and decreases. No alterations on aggressive behavior or monoamines levels in striatum or frontal cortex were observed. A significant decrease in the expression of mRNA for D2 receptors was found in striatum of mice exposed to 5.0 mg As/L. This study provides evidence for the use of dopamine receptor D2 as potential target of arsenic toxicity in the dopaminergic system. PMID:27375740

  1. Decreased Caffeine-Induced Locomotor Activity via Microinjection of CART Peptide into the Nucleus Accumbens Is Linked to Inhibition of the pCaMKIIa-D3R Interaction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Dong, Yun; Huang, Yonghong; Yang, Jianhua; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hu, Zhenzhen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the inhibitory modulation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides, particularly with respect to the function of the D3 dopamine receptor (D3R), which is activated by its interaction with phosphorylated CaMKIIα (pCaMKIIα) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). After repeated oral administration of caffeine (30 mg/kg) for five days, microinjection of CART peptide (0.08 μM/0.5 μl/hemisphere) into the NAc affected locomotor behavior. The pCaMKIIα-D3R interaction, D3R phosphorylation and cAMP/PKA/phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) signaling pathway activity were measured in NAc tissues, and Ca2+ influx and pCaMKIIα levels were measured in cultured NAc neurons. We found that CART attenuated the caffeine-mediated enhancement of depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx and CaMKIIα phosphorylation in cultured NAc neurons. Repeated microinjection of CART peptides into the NAc decreased the caffeine-induced enhancement of Ca2+ channels activity, pCaMKIIα levels, the pCaMKIIα-D3R interaction, D3R phosphorylation, cAMP levels, PKA activity and pCREB levels in the NAc. Furthermore, behavioral sensitization was observed in rats that received five-day administration of caffeine following microinjection of saline but not in rats that were treated with caffeine following microinjection of CART peptide. These results suggest that caffeine-induced CREB phosphorylation in the NAc was ameliorated by CART peptide due to its inhibition of D3R phosphorylation. These effects of CART peptides may play a compensatory role by inhibiting locomotor behavior in rats. PMID:27404570

  2. Decreased Caffeine-Induced Locomotor Activity via Microinjection of CART Peptide into the Nucleus Accumbens Is Linked to Inhibition of the pCaMKIIa-D3R Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Dong, Yun; Huang, Yonghong; Yang, Jianhua; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hu, Zhenzhen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the inhibitory modulation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides, particularly with respect to the function of the D3 dopamine receptor (D3R), which is activated by its interaction with phosphorylated CaMKIIα (pCaMKIIα) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). After repeated oral administration of caffeine (30 mg/kg) for five days, microinjection of CART peptide (0.08 μM/0.5 μl/hemisphere) into the NAc affected locomotor behavior. The pCaMKIIα-D3R interaction, D3R phosphorylation and cAMP/PKA/phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) signaling pathway activity were measured in NAc tissues, and Ca2+ influx and pCaMKIIα levels were measured in cultured NAc neurons. We found that CART attenuated the caffeine-mediated enhancement of depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx and CaMKIIα phosphorylation in cultured NAc neurons. Repeated microinjection of CART peptides into the NAc decreased the caffeine-induced enhancement of Ca2+ channels activity, pCaMKIIα levels, the pCaMKIIα-D3R interaction, D3R phosphorylation, cAMP levels, PKA activity and pCREB levels in the NAc. Furthermore, behavioral sensitization was observed in rats that received five-day administration of caffeine following microinjection of saline but not in rats that were treated with caffeine following microinjection of CART peptide. These results suggest that caffeine-induced CREB phosphorylation in the NAc was ameliorated by CART peptide due to its inhibition of D3R phosphorylation. These effects of CART peptides may play a compensatory role by inhibiting locomotor behavior in rats. PMID:27404570

  3. Stereoselective Effects of Abused “Bath Salt” Constituent 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone in Mice: Drug Discrimination, Locomotor Activity, and Thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, Brenda M.; Williamson, Adrian; Suzuki, Masaki; Rice, Kenner C.

    2016-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a common constituent of illicit “bath salts” products. MDPV is a chiral molecule, but the contribution of each enantiomer to in vivo effects in mice has not been determined. To address this, mice were trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg cocaine from saline, and substitutions with racemic MDPV, S(+)-MDPV, and R(−)-MDPV were performed. Other mice were implanted with telemetry probes to monitor core temperature and locomotor responses elicited by racemic MDPV, S(+)-MDPV, and R(−)-MDPV under a warm (28°C) or cool (20°C) ambient temperature. Mice reliably discriminated the cocaine training dose from saline, and each form of MDPV fully substituted for cocaine, although marked potency differences were observed such that S(+)-MDPV was most potent, racemic MDPV was less potent than the S(+) enantiomer, and R(−)-MDPV was least potent. At both ambient temperatures, locomotor stimulant effects were observed after doses of S(+)-MDPV and racemic MDPV, but R(−)-MDPV did not elicit locomotor stimulant effects at any tested dose. Interestingly, significant increases in maximum core body temperature were only observed after administration of racemic MDPV in the warm ambient environment; neither MDPV enantiomer altered core temperature at any dose tested, at either ambient temperature. These studies suggest that all three forms of MDPV induce biologic effects, but R(−)-MDPV is less potent than S(+)-MDPV and racemic MDPV. Taken together, these data suggest that the S(+)-MDPV enantiomer is likely responsible for the majority of the biologic effects of the racemate and should be targeted in therapeutic efforts against MDPV overdose and abuse. PMID:26769917

  4. Respiratory gas transport, metabolic status, and locomotor capacity of the Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis assessed in the field with respect to dichotomous seasonal activity levels.

    PubMed

    Adamczewska, A M; Morris, S

    2000-05-01

    Red crabs, Gecarcoidea natalis, exhibit seasonal activity patterns: low activity during the dry season when they shelter in burrows to avoid dehydration, and high activity during the wet season. Red crabs were examined in situ in the rainforest of Christmas Island to determine if there were underlying seasonal differences in the capacity for exercise and associated metabolism. During both seasons, free-ranging (FR) crabs engaged in their normal activities and, together with crabs induced to exercise for 5 min, were sampled for haemolymph and muscle tissue. Respiratory gases in the haemolymph and key metabolites were measured to assess differences in metabolic status of FR and exercised crabs. Actively foraging FR crabs during the wet season exhibited a relative haemolymph hypoxia (2.9 kPa) and accumulated an extra 3 mmol. litre(-1) of CO(2) compared to the relatively inactive FR crabs during the dry season. Wet-season crabs appeared to be in a state of relative respiratory acidosis compared to dry-season animals. This hypercapnia may arise as a consequence of a relative hypoventilation in animals with a relatively higher metabolic rate during the wet season. Oxygenation of pulmonary and arterial haemolymph was similar and remained high after 5 min of exercise, indicating that the gills and lungs functioned similarly in gas exchange in both FR and exercised crabs. During exercise, venous O(2) reserves decreased and red crabs experienced a mixed respiratory/metabolic acidosis. Similar changes, after 5 min of enforced exercise, in metabolite concentrations, pH and respiratory gas status in the haemolymph during both sampling seasons suggest that the crabs maintain similar capacity to increase exercise during the wet and the dry seasons, despite the differences in underlying physiological status. This is important since after prolonged inactivity during the dry season, with the arrival of moonsoonal rains, red crabs must engage in their annual breeding migration.

  5. Altered Function of the DnaJ Family Cochaperone DNJ-17 Modulates Locomotor Circuit Activity in a Caenorhabditis elegans Seizure Model

    PubMed Central

    Takayanagi-Kiya, Seika; Jin, Yishi

    2016-01-01

    The highly conserved cochaperone DnaJ/Hsp40 family proteins are known to interact with molecular chaperone Hsp70, and can regulate many cellular processes including protein folding, translocation, and degradation. In studies of Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion mutants, we identified a gain-of-function (gf) mutation in dnj-17 closely linked to the widely used e156 null allele of C. elegans GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase) unc-25. dnj-17 encodes a DnaJ protein orthologous to human DNAJA5. In C. elegans DNJ-17 is a cytosolic protein and is broadly expressed in many tissues. dnj-17(gf) causes a single amino acid substitution in a conserved domain, and behaves as a hypermorphic mutation. The effect of this dnj-17(gf) is most prominent in mutants lacking GABA synaptic transmission. In a seizure model caused by a mutation in the ionotropic acetylcholine receptor acr-2(gf), dnj-17(gf) exacerbates the convulsion phenotype in conjunction with absence of GABA. Null mutants of dnj-17 show mild resistance to aldicarb, while dnj-17(gf) is hypersensitive. These results highlight the importance of DnaJ proteins in regulation of C. elegans locomotor circuit, and provide insights into the in vivo roles of DnaJ proteins in humans. PMID:27185401

  6. A functional variant in the 5'-flanking region of the chicken serotonin transporter gene is associated with increased body weight and locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Phi-van, Loc; Holtz, Marlis; Kjaer, Joergen B; van Phi, Valerie D; Zimmermann, Katrin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we identified a polymorphism in the 5'-flanking region of the chicken serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene. Sequencing analysis revealed that in comparison with the wild-type variant (W), a deleted variant (D) is generated by deletion of four nucleotides (5'-AATT-3') and a single nucleotide change (A→T). Using a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system, we found that the 360-bp DNA fragment containing the W variant with the wild-type sequence 5'-AATTAATT-3' shows intrinsic DNA curvature while the 356-bp fragment containing the D variant lacking the four base pairs AATT is not curved. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and ELISA demonstrated that the expression of 5-HTT in D/D chickens was higher than that in W/W and W/D chickens. In addition, transient transfection experiments with chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene constructs revealed increased 5-HTT promoter activity mediated by the D variant and a silencer activity of the W variant. Interestingly, females and males with D/D genotype showed significant greater increase in body weight from 6 weeks and 16 weeks of age, respectively, and higher body mass index. Moreover, we found that D/D chickens of both genders were physically more active than W/W and W/D chickens.

  7. Effects of the pyrethroid insecticide Cypermethrin on the locomotor activity of the wolf spider Pardosa amentata: quantitative analysis employing computer-automated video tracking.

    PubMed

    Baatrup, E; Bayley, M

    1993-10-01

    Wildlife in areas surrounding arable land is almost inevitably exposed to pesticide spray. Even at doses far below the lethal level, this presents a threat to vulnerable species. The widely used pyrethroid insecticides, including Cypermethrin, are known for their direct effect on the locomotor apparatus of animals, inducing varying degrees of paresis. Quantitative measurements of the voluntary locomotion of animals express an integrated response to changes in biochemical and physiological processes. In the present study, the effect of Cypermethrin on the voluntary locomotion of the wolf spider Pardosa amentata was quantified in an open field setup, using computer-automated video tracking. Each spider was recorded for 24 hr prior to pesticide exposure. After topical application of 4.6 ng of Cypermethrin, the animal was recorded for a further 48 hr. Finally, after 9 days of recovery, the spider was tracked for 24 hr. Initially, Cypermethrin induced an almost instant paralysis of the hind legs and a lack of coordination in movement seen in the jagged and circular track appearance. This phase culminated in total quiescence, lasting approximately 12 hr in males and 24-48 hr in females. Following paresis, the effects of Cypermethrin were evident in reduced path length, average velocity, and maximum velocity and an increase in the time spent in quiescence. Also, the pyrethroid disrupted the consistent distributions of walking velocity and periods of quiescence seen prior to pesticide application. Our results suggest that normal locomotion had returned 9 days after Cypermethrin application, but that recovery of high velocities was still incomplete.

  8. Increased Locomotor Activity and Non-Selective Attention and Impaired Learning Ability in SD Rats after Lentiviral Vector-Mediated RNA Interference of Homer 1a in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Qin; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Min; Pan, Xiao-Qin; Guo, Mei; Fei, Li; Tong, Mei-Ling; Chen, Rong-Hua; Guo, Xi-Rong; Chi, Xia

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies found that Homer 1a, a scaffolding protein localized at the post-synaptic density (PSD) of glutamatergic excitatory synapses, is significantly down-regulated in the brain of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, a first-line treatment drug for ADHD, methylphenidate, can up-regulate the expression of Homer 1a. To investigate the possible role of Homer 1a in the etiology and pathogenesis of ADHD, a lentiviral vector containing miRNA specific for Homer 1a was constructed in this study. Intracerebroventricular injection of this vector into the brain of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats significantly decreased Homer 1a mRNA and protein expression levels. Compared to their negative controls, these rats displayed a range of abnormal behaviors, including increased locomotor activity and non-selective attention and impaired learning ability. Our results indicated that Homer 1a down-regulation results in deficits in control over behavioral output and learning similar to ADHD. PMID:23289010

  9. Short-term effects of a perinatal exposure to the HBCDD α-isomer in rats: Assessment of early motor and sensory development, spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety in pups.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Nicolas; Olry, Jean-Charles; Cariou, Ronan; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno; Travel, Angélique; Jondreville, Catherine; Schroeder, Henri

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the developmental neurotoxicity of an early exposure to α-HBCDD through the ingestion of contaminated hen's egg in pregnant and lactating Wistar female rats. Hens were given α-HBCDD-contaminated feed (40 ng/g fresh matter) for 5 and 10 days, which produced eggs with HBCDD content of 33 and 102 ng/glipid weight, respectively. Female rats were administered daily p.o. with an appropriate volume of the whole egg from the day of fertilization (GD0) to the weaning day for pups (PND21). Fetuses and pups were thus exposed continuously to α-HBCDD via the dam over a whole 42-day period that included both gestation and lactation. The administered egg volume was calculated on the basis of daily egg consumption in humans (0.7 egg/person/day) and duration of gestation and lactation in both species, which led animals to be exposed to α-HBCDD at levels of 22 and 66 ng/kg/day, respectively. Neurobehavioral development of pups was investigated from PND3 to PND25 using various tasks including the righting reflex (PND4), the grasping reflex (PND5), the negative geotaxis (PND9), the forelimb grip strength test (PND10) and the locomotor coordination test (PND20). Pup ultrasonic vocalizations were also recorded daily from PND4 to PND14. After weaning, behaviors related to spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety were examined in the open-field (PND25) and in an elevated-plus maze (PND26), respectively. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight of pups exposed to the lower HBCDD level from PND3 to PND28, whereas the weight of rat pups given 66 ng/kg/day of HBCDD was not different from controls. During the first 3 weeks of life, impairments in motor maturation of pups were observed in a dose-dependent manner depending on the test, whereas no significant differences were reported between male and female pups. At PND26, the anxiety level of female rats exposed to the lowest dose of HBCDD (22 ng/kg/day) was significantly reduced whereas it

  10. Cognitive performances and locomotor activity following dentate granule cell damage in rats: role of lesion extent and type of memory tested.

    PubMed

    Jeltsch, H; Bertrand, F; Lazarus, C; Cassel, J C

    2001-07-01

    Intradentate injection of colchicine is one of the techniques used to destroy granule cells. This study compared the behavioral effects of various amounts of colchicine (1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 microg; Col 1, Col 3, and Col 6, respectively) injected into the dentate gyrus of adult Long-Evans male rats. Starting 10 days after lesion surgery, behavioral testing assessed home-cage and open-field locomotion, alternation in a T-maze, water-maze, and radial-maze learning according to protocols placing emphasis on reference, and working memory. All of these tasks are sensitive to hippocampal disruption. Histological verifications showed that the extent of the lesions depends on the dose of colchicine (index of dentate gyrus shrinkage: -33% in Col 1, -54% in Col 3, and -67% in Col 6 rats). Colchicine dose-dependently increased nocturnal home cage activity (an effect found 10 days but not 5 months after surgery), but had no significant effect on open-field locomotion or T-maze alternation. A dose-dependent reference memory impairment was found during the acquisition of spatial navigation in the water maze; Col 3 and Col 6 rats were more impaired than Col 1 rats. During the probe trial (platform removed), control rats spent a longer distance swimming over the platform area than all rats with colchicine lesions. In the working memory version of the test, all rats with colchicine lesions showed significant deficits. The deficits were larger in Col 3 and Col 6 rats compared to Col 1 rats. The lesions had no effect on swimming speed. In the radial-maze test, there was also a dose-dependent working memory impairment. However, reference memory was disrupted in a manner that did not differ among the three groups of lesioned rats. Our data are in line with the view that the dentate gyrus plays an important role in the acquisition of new information and is an integral neural substrate for spatial reference and spatial working memory. They also suggest that damage to granule cells might

  11. Locomotor exercise in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W.; Whitmore, H.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements for exercise in space by means of locomotion are established and addressed with prototype treadmills for use during long-duration spaceflight. The adaptation of the human body to microgravity is described in terms of 1-G locomotor biomechanics, the effects of reduced activity, and effective activity-replacement techniques. The treadmill is introduced as a complement to other techniques of force replacement with reference given to the angle required for exercise. A motor-driven unit is proposed that can operate at a variety of controlled speeds and equivalent grades. The treadmills permit locomotor exercise as required for long-duration space travel to sustain locomotor and cardiorespiratory capacity at a level consistent with postflight needs.

  12. Low doses of paraquat and polyphenols prolong life span and locomotor activity in knock-down parkin Drosophila melanogaster exposed to oxidative stress stimuli: implication in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Ramirez, Leonardo; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2013-01-10

    Previous studies have shown that polyphenols might be potent neuroprotective agents in Drosophila melanogaster wild type Canton-S acutely or chronically treated with paraquat (PQ), a selective toxin for elimination of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons by oxidative stress (OS), as model of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study reports for the first time that knock-down (K-D) parkin Drosophila melanogaster (TH-GAL4; UAS-RNAi-parkin) chronically exposed to PQ (0.1-0.25 mM), FeSO(4) (Fe, 0.1mM), deferoxamine (DFO, 0.01 mM) alone or (0.1mM) PQ in combination with polyphenols propyl gallate (PG, 0.1mM) and epigallocathecin gallate (EGCG, 0.1, 0.5mM) showed significantly higher life span and locomotor activity than untreated K-D flies or treated with (1, 5, 20mM) PQ alone. Whilst gallic acid (GA, 0.1, 0.5mM) alone or in the presence of PQ provoked no effect on K-D flies, epicathecin (EC, 0.5mM) only showed a positive effect on prolonging K-D flies' life span. It is shown that PG (and EGCG) protected protocerebral posterolateral 1 (PPL1) DAergic neurons against PQ. Interestingly, the protective effect of low PQ concentrations, DFO and iron might be explained by a phenomenon known as "hormesis." However, pre-fed K-D flies with (0.1mM) PQ for 7 days and then exposed to (0.25 mM) for additional 8 days affect neither survival nor climbing of K-D Drosophila compared to flies treated with (0.25 mM) PQ alone. Remarkably, K-D flies treated with 0.1mM PQ (7 days) and then with (0.25 mM) PQ plus PG (8 days) behaved almost as flies treated with (0.25 mM) PQ. Taken these data suggest that antioxidant supplements that synergistically act with low pro-oxidant stimuli to prolong and increase locomotor activity become inefficient once a threshold of OS has been reached in K-D flies. Our present findings support the notion that genetically altered Drosophila melanogaster as suitable model to study genetic and environmental factors as causal and/or modulators in the development of autosomal

  13. Serotonin Reuptake Transporter Deficiency Modulates the Acute Thermoregulatory and Locomotor Activity Response to 3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and Attenuates Depletions in Serotonin Levels in SERT-KO Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Lucina E.; Phan, Andy V.; Cholanians, Aram B.; Herndon, Joseph M.; Lau, Serrine S.; Monks, Terrence J.

    2014-01-01

    3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a ring-substituted amphetamine derivative with potent psychostimulant properties. The neuropharmacological effects of MDMA are biphasic in nature, initially causing synaptic monoamine release, primarily of serotonin (5-HT), inducing thermogenesis and hyperactivity (5-HT syndrome). The long-term effects of MDMA manifest as a prolonged depletion in 5-HT, and structural damage to 5-HT nerve terminals. MDMA toxicity is in part mediated by an ability to inhibit the presynaptic 5-HT reuptake transporter (SERT). Using a SERT-knockout (SERT-KO) rat model, we determined the impact of SERT deficiency on thermoregulation, locomotor activity, and neurotoxicity in SERT-KO or Wistar-based wild-type (WT) rats exposed to MDMA. WT and SERT-KO animals exhibited the highest thermogenic responses to MDMA (four times 10 mg/kg, sc at 12 h intervals) during the diurnal (first and third) doses according to peak body temperature and area under the curve (∑°C × h) analysis. Although no differences in peak body temperature were observed between MDMA-treated WT and SERT-KO animals, ∑°C × h following the first MDMA dose was reduced in SERT-KO rats. Exposure to a single dose of MDMA stimulated horizontal velocity in both WT and SERT-KO rats, however, this effect was delayed and attenuated in the KO animals. Finally, SERT-KO rats were insensitive to MDMA-induced long-term (7 days) depletions in 5-HT and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, in both cortex and striatum. In conclusion, SERT deficiency modulated MDMA-mediated thermogenesis, hyperactivity and neurotoxicity in KO rats. The data confirm that the SERT is essential for the manifestation of the acute and long-term toxicities of MDMA. PMID:24595820

  14. Locomotor Behaviour of Blattella germanica Modified by DEET

    PubMed Central

    Sfara, Valeria; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón A.; Zerba, Eduardo N.; Alzogaray, Raúl A.

    2013-01-01

    N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is the active principle of most insect repellents used worldwide. However, its toxicity on insects has not been widely studied. The aim of this work is to study the effects of DEET on the locomotor activity of Blattella germanica. DEET has a dose-dependent repellent activity on B. germanica. Locomotor activity was significantly lower when insects were pre-exposed to 700 µg/cm2 of DEET for 20 or 30 minutes, but it did not change when pre-exposure was shorter. Locomotor activity of insects that were pre-exposed to 2.000 µg/cm2 of DEET for 10 minutes was significantly lower than the movement registered in controls. No differences were observed when insects were pre-exposed to lower concentrations of DEET. A 30-minute pre-exposure to 700 µg/cm2 of DEET caused a significant decrease in locomotor activity. Movement was totally recovered 24 h later. The locomotor activity measured during the exposure to different concentrations of DEET remained unchanged. Insects with decreased locomotor activity were repelled to the same extent than control insects by the same concentration of DEET. We demonstrated that the repellency and modification of locomotor activity elicited by DEET are non-associated phenomena. We also suggested that the reduction in locomotor activity indicates toxicity of DEET, probably to insect nervous system. PMID:24376701

  15. Effect of arousing stimuli on circulating corticosterone and the circadian rhythms of luteinizing hormone (LH) surges and locomotor activity in estradiol-treated ovariectomized (ovx+EB) Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Legan, S J; Peng, X; Yun, C; Duncan, M J

    2015-06-01

    In most proestrous hamsters, novel wheel exposure phase advances activity rhythms and blocks the preovulatory LH surge, which occurs 2h earlier the next day. Because wheel immobilization does not prevent these effects we hypothesized that arousal alone blocks and phase advances the LH surge. Ovariectomized (ovx) hamsters received a jugular vein cannula and estradiol benzoate (EB) or vehicle was injected sc. The next day (Day 1), at zeitgeber time (ZT) 4-5 (ZT 12 = lights off), after obtaining a blood sample, each hamster was exposed to constant darkness (DD), and either remained in her home cage or was transferred to a new cage and exposed to a running wheel or a 2-hour arousal paradigm. Blood samples were obtained in dim red light and activity was recorded hourly until ~ZT 10-11 on Days 1 and 2. For the next 1-2 weeks, activity was monitored in DD. Plasma LH and corticosterone were assessed by RIA. Novel wheel exposure or arousal at ZT 4 greatly attenuated the Day 1 LH surge in ovx+EB hamsters, and phase advanced the Day 2 LH surge by about 2h. In proestrous hamsters, novel wheel exposure led to a prolonged (>2h) increase in corticosterone levels only when LH surges were blocked. Phase advances in activity rhythms were enhanced by estradiol and arousal. The results suggest that estradiol modulates the effectiveness of non-photic stimuli. The role of the increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis associated with novel wheel-induced attenuation of LH surges in ovx+EB hamsters remains to be determined.

  16. Effect of arousing stimuli on circulating corticosterone and the circadian rhythms of luteinizing hormone (LH) surges and locomotor activity in estradiol-treated ovariectomized (ovx+EB) Syrian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Legan, S.J.; Peng, X.; Yun, C.; Duncan, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    In most proestrous hamsters, novel wheel exposure phase advances activity rhythms and blocks the preovulatory LH surge, which occurs 2 h earlier the next day. Because wheel immobilization does not prevent these effects we hypothesized that arousal alone blocks and phase advances the LH surge. Ovariectomized (ovx) hamsters received a jugular vein cannula and estradiol benzoate (EB) or vehicle was injected sc. The next day (Day 1), at zeitgeber time (ZT) 4-5 (ZT 12=lights off), after obtaining a blood sample, each hamster was exposed to constant darkness (DD), and either remained in her home cage or was transferred to a new cage and exposed to a running wheel or a 2-h arousal paradigm. Blood samples were obtained in dim red light and activity was recorded hourly until ~ZT 10-11 on Days 1 and 2. For the next 1-2 weeks, activity was monitored in DD. Plasma LH and corticosterone were assessed by RIA. Novel wheel exposure or arousal at ZT 4 greatly attenuated the Day 1 LH surge in ovx+EB hamsters, and phase advanced the Day 2 LH surge by about 2 hours. In proestrous hamsters, novel wheel exposure led to a prolonged (>2 h) increase in corticosterone levels only when LH surges were blocked. Phase advances in activity rhythms were enhanced by estradiol and arousal. The results suggest that estradiol modulates the effectiveness of non-photic stimuli. The role of the increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis associated with novel wheel-induced attenuation of LH surges in ovx+EB hamsters remains to be determined. PMID:25958077

  17. Statistical Analysis of Zebrafish Locomotor Response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Carmer, Robert; Zhang, Gaonan; Venkatraman, Prahatha; Brown, Skye Ashton; Pang, Chi-Pui; Zhang, Mingzhi; Ma, Ping; Leung, Yuk Fai

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish larvae display rich locomotor behaviour upon external stimulation. The movement can be simultaneously tracked from many larvae arranged in multi-well plates. The resulting time-series locomotor data have been used to reveal new insights into neurobiology and pharmacology. However, the data are of large scale, and the corresponding locomotor behavior is affected by multiple factors. These issues pose a statistical challenge for comparing larval activities. To address this gap, this study has analyzed a visually-driven locomotor behaviour named the visual motor response (VMR) by the Hotelling's T-squared test. This test is congruent with comparing locomotor profiles from a time period. Different wild-type (WT) strains were compared using the test, which shows that they responded differently to light change at different developmental stages. The performance of this test was evaluated by a power analysis, which shows that the test was sensitive for detecting differences between experimental groups with sample numbers that were commonly used in various studies. In addition, this study investigated the effects of various factors that might affect the VMR by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The results indicate that the larval activity was generally affected by stage, light stimulus, their interaction, and location in the plate. Nonetheless, different factors affected larval activity differently over time, as indicated by a dynamical analysis of the activity at each second. Intriguingly, this analysis also shows that biological and technical repeats had negligible effect on larval activity. This finding is consistent with that from the Hotelling's T-squared test, and suggests that experimental repeats can be combined to enhance statistical power. Together, these investigations have established a statistical framework for analyzing VMR data, a framework that should be generally applicable to other locomotor data with similar structure. PMID:26437184

  18. Agmatine blocks ethanol-induced locomotor hyperactivity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Onder; Kayir, Hakan; Ozturk, Yusuf; Uzbay, Tayfun

    2011-05-20

    Ethanol-induced locomotor activity is associated to rewarding effects of ethanol and ethanol dependence. Agmatine is a novel endogenous ligand at α2-adrenoceptors, imidazoline and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, as well as a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. There is no evidence presented for the relationship between the acute locomotor stimulating effect of ethanol and agmatine. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of agmatine on acute ethanol-induced locomotor hyperactivity in mice. Adult male Swiss-Webster mice (26-36g) were used as subjects. Locomotor activity of the mice was recorded for 30min immediately following intraperitoneal administration of ethanol (0.5, 1 and 2g/kg) or saline (n=8 for each group). Agmatine (5, 10 and 20mg/kg) or saline was administered intraperitoneally to another four individual groups (n=8 for each group) of the mice 20min before the ethanol injection. In these groups, locomotor activity was also recorded immediately following ethanol (0.5g/kg) injection for 30min. Ethanol (0.5g/kg) produced some significant increases in locomotor activity of the mice. Agmatine (5-20mg/kg) significantly blocked the ethanol (0.5g/kg)-induced locomotor hyperactivity. These doses of agmatine did not affect the locomotor activity in naive mice when they were administered alone. Our results suggest that agmatine has an important role in ethanol-induced locomotor hyperactivity in mice. There may be a relationship between the addictive psychostimulant effects of the ethanol and central agmatinergic system.

  19. Degradation of mouse locomotor pattern in the absence of proprioceptive sensory feedback

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Turgay; Tourtellotte, Warren G.; Arber, Silvia; Jessell, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian locomotor programs are thought to be directed by the actions of spinal interneuron circuits collectively referred to as “central pattern generators.” The contribution of proprioceptive sensory feedback to the coordination of locomotor activity remains less clear. We have analyzed changes in mouse locomotor pattern under conditions in which proprioceptive feedback is attenuated genetically and biomechanically. We find that locomotor pattern degrades upon elimination of proprioceptive feedback from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs. The degradation of locomotor pattern is manifest as the loss of interjoint coordination and alternation of flexor and extensor muscles. Group Ia/II sensory feedback from muscle spindles has a predominant influence in patterning the activity of flexor muscles, whereas the redundant activities of group Ia/II and group Ib afferents appear to determine the pattern of extensor muscle firing. These findings establish a role for proprioceptive feedback in the control of fundamental aspects of mammalian locomotor behavior. PMID:25389309

  20. Degradation of mouse locomotor pattern in the absence of proprioceptive sensory feedback.

    PubMed

    Akay, Turgay; Tourtellotte, Warren G; Arber, Silvia; Jessell, Thomas M

    2014-11-25

    Mammalian locomotor programs are thought to be directed by the actions of spinal interneuron circuits collectively referred to as "central pattern generators." The contribution of proprioceptive sensory feedback to the coordination of locomotor activity remains less clear. We have analyzed changes in mouse locomotor pattern under conditions in which proprioceptive feedback is attenuated genetically and biomechanically. We find that locomotor pattern degrades upon elimination of proprioceptive feedback from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs. The degradation of locomotor pattern is manifest as the loss of interjoint coordination and alternation of flexor and extensor muscles. Group Ia/II sensory feedback from muscle spindles has a predominant influence in patterning the activity of flexor muscles, whereas the redundant activities of group Ia/II and group Ib afferents appear to determine the pattern of extensor muscle firing. These findings establish a role for proprioceptive feedback in the control of fundamental aspects of mammalian locomotor behavior.

  1. Active-R filter

    DOEpatents

    Soderstrand, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational amplifier-type active filter in which the only capacitor in the circuit is the compensating capacitance of the operational amplifiers, the various feedback and coupling elements being essentially solely resistive.

  2. Adenosine kinase inhibitors: polar 7-substitutent of pyridopyrimidine derivatives improving their locomotor selectivity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guo Zhu; Mao, Yue; Lee, Chih-Hung; Pratt, John K; Koenig, John R; Perner, Richard J; Cowart, Marlon D; Gfesser, Gregory A; McGaraughty, Steve; Chu, Katharine L; Zhu, Chang; Yu, Haixia; Kohlhaas, Kathy; Alexander, Karen M; Wismer, Carol T; Mikusa, Joseph; Jarvis, Michael F; Kowaluk, Elizabeth A; Stewart, Andrew O

    2003-09-15

    We have discovered that polar 7-substituents of pyridopyrimidine derivatives affect not only whole cell AK inhibitory potency, but also selectivity in causing locomotor side effects in vivo animal models. We have identified compound, 1o, which has potent whole cell AK inhibitory potency, analgesic activity and minimal reduction of locomotor activity.

  3. Locomotor patterns in cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Martino, G; Ivanenko, Y P; Serrao, M; Ranavolo, A; d'Avella, A; Draicchio, F; Conte, C; Casali, C; Lacquaniti, F

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated how cerebellar ataxia (CA) affects gait, resulting in deficits in multijoint coordination and stability. Nevertheless, how lesions of cerebellum influence the locomotor muscle pattern generation is still unclear. To better understand the effects of CA on locomotor output, here we investigated the idiosyncratic features of the spatiotemporal structure of leg muscle activity and impairments in the biomechanics of CA gait. To this end, we recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 12 unilateral lower limb muscles and analyzed kinematic and kinetic parameters of 19 ataxic patients and 20 age-matched healthy subjects during overground walking. Neuromuscular control of gait in CA was characterized by a considerable widening of EMG bursts and significant temporal shifts in the center of activity due to overall enhanced muscle activation between late swing and mid-stance. Patients also demonstrated significant changes in the intersegmental coordination, an abnormal transient in the vertical ground reaction force and instability of limb loading at heel strike. The observed abnormalities in EMG patterns and foot loading correlated with the severity of pathology [International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), a clinical ataxia scale] and the changes in the biomechanical output. The findings provide new insights into the physiological role of cerebellum in optimizing the duration of muscle activity bursts and the control of appropriate foot loading during locomotion.

  4. Active turbulence in active nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, S. P.; Yeomans, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    Dense, active systems show active turbulence, a state characterised by flow fields that are chaotic, with continually changing velocity jets and swirls. Here we review our current understanding of active turbulence. The development is primarily based on the theory and simulations of active liquid crystals, but with accompanying summaries of related literature.

  5. Activity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Larry C.; Weiner, Michael J.

    This twenty-four item scale assesses students' actual and desired political-social activism in terms of physical participation, communication activities, and information-gathering activities. About ten minutes are required to complete the instrument. The scale is divided into two subscales. The first twelve items (ACT-A) question respondents on…

  6. Limitations to the generality of cocaine locomotor sensitization.

    PubMed

    Marusich, Julie A; Branch, Marc N; Dallery, Jesse

    2008-08-01

    Repeated exposure to cocaine often leads to tolerance to effects on operant behavior, whereas sensitization often develops to effects on locomotor activity. The purpose of the present set of experiments was to examine if locomotor sensitization to cocaine would develop in the presence or absence of an operant contingency in rats. In Experiment 1, rats lever pressed on an FR schedule of reinforcement, and were administered chronic cocaine. Tolerance to effects of cocaine on lever pressing developed in most subjects. No subjects developed locomotor sensitization even when the operant contingency was removed. Experiment 2 examined effects of chronic cocaine administration in rats with no exposure to an operant contingency. Tolerance developed to locomotor effects of cocaine in some subjects, but none developed sensitization. In Experiment 3, rats were exposed to a shorter drug regimen, and given time off before a sensitization-test session. Some, but not all subjects showed locomotor sensitization during the test session. The present results, therefore, show that locomotor sensitization to cocaine is not an inevitable consequence of repeated exposure to the drug.

  7. Proteasome Activators

    PubMed Central

    Stadtmueller, Beth M.; Hill, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Proteasomes degrade a multitude of protein substrates in the cytosol and nucleus, and thereby are essential for many aspects of cellular function. Because the proteolytic sites are sequestered in a closed barrel-shaped structure, activators are required to facilitate substrate access. Structural and biochemical studies of two activator families, 11S and Blm10, have provided insights to proteasome activation mechanisms, although the biological functions of these factors remain obscure. Recent advances have improved our understanding of the third activator family, including the 19S activator, which targets polyubiquitylated proteins for degradation. PMID:21211719

  8. Active ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelani, L.; Costanzo, A.; Di Leonardo, R.

    2011-12-01

    We analyze self-propelling organisms, or active particles, in a periodic asymmetric potential. Unlike standard ratchet effect for Brownian particles requiring external forcing, in the case of active particles asymmetric potential alone produces a net drift speed (active ratchet effect). By using theoretical models and numerical simulations we demonstrate the emergence of the rectification process in the presence of an asymmetric piecewise periodic potential. The broken spatial symmetry (external potential) and time symmetry (active particles) are sufficient ingredients to sustain unidirectional transport. Our findings open the way to new mechanisms to move in directional manner motile organisms by using external periodic static fields.

  9. Locomotor behavior and long bone morphology in individual free-ranging chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Kristian J; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M; Hunt, Kevin D; Nishida, Toshisada; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Boesch, Christophe

    2006-04-01

    We combine structural limb data and behavioral data for free-ranging chimpanzees from Taï (Ivory Coast) and Mahale National Parks (Tanzania) to begin to consider the relationship between individual variation in locomotor activity and morphology. Femoral and humeral cross sections of ten individuals were acquired via computed tomography. Locomotor profiles of seven individuals were constructed from 3387 instantaneous time-point observations (87.4 hours). Within the limited number of suitable chimpanzees, individual variation in locomotor profiles displayed neither clear nor consistent trends with diaphyseal cross-sectional shapes. The percentages of specific locomotor modes did not relate well to diaphyseal shapes since neither infrequent nor frequent locomotor modes varied consistently with shapes. The percentage of arboreal locomotion, rather than estimated body mass, apparently had comparatively greater biological relevance to variation in diaphyseal shape. The mechanical consequences of locomotor modes on femoral and humeral diaphyseal shapes (e.g., orientation of bending strains) may overlap between naturalistic modes more than currently is recognized. Alternatively, diaphyseal shape may be unresponsive to mechanical demands of these specific locomotor modes. More data are needed in order to discern between these possibilities. Increasing the sample to include additional free-ranging chimpanzees, or primates in general, as well as devoting more attention to the mechanics of a greater variety of naturalistic locomotor modes would be fruitful to understanding the behavioral basis of diaphyseal shapes.

  10. Astronomy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid

    This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

  11. Faculty Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Blending scholarship and activism, whether domestic or international, takes some real work. Two scholar-activists reflect on why and how activism can be more than academic labor in this feature of the "Academe" journal. This feature includes the following brief reflections on political work, both local and global that demonstrates how on campus…

  12. Catalyst activator

    DOEpatents

    McAdon, Mark H.; Nickias, Peter N.; Marks, Tobin J.; Schwartz, David J.

    2001-01-01

    A catalyst activator particularly adapted for use in the activation of metal complexes of metals of Group 3-10 for polymerization of ethylenically unsaturated polymerizable monomers, especially olefins, comprising two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms and a ligand structure including at least one bridging group connecting ligands on the two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms.

  13. Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    Twenty-four activities suitable for outdoor use by elementary school children are outlined. Activities designed to make children aware of their environment include soil painting, burr collecting, insect and pond water collecting, studies of insect galls and field mice, succession studies, and a model of natural selection using dyed toothpicks. A…

  14. Modulation of the locomotor response to amphetamine by corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Cador, M; Dulluc, J; Mormède, P

    1993-10-01

    In the present experiments, we investigated the influence of chronic modifications of circulating levels of corticosterone on the locomotor response to amphetamine. Different groups of rats were adrenalectomized and implanted subcutaneously with pellets releasing different amounts of corticosterone (0-200 mg). A wide range of corticosterone concentrations was reached in order to saturate selectively either the type I (mineralocorticoid) or the type II (glucocorticoid) corticosteroid receptors. The locomotor response to d-amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg) was studied 10-14 days later. We found that adrenalectomy reduced the response to d-amphetamine by 33% and that a normal response was restored with pellets releasing physiological concentrations of corticosterone (50-mg pellets), and was potentiated in animals with pellets releasing high amounts of corticosterone mimicking chronic stress situations (200-mg pellets). The correlation between plasma corticosterone concentration, locomotor activity following d-amphetamine and thymus weight, which is a reliable indicator of glucocorticoid action, shows that the influence of the locomotor response to d-amphetamine administration is likely to be mediated via a type II receptor. Since the locomotor activating effect of peripheral administration of d-amphetamine has been shown to depend on the integrity of the dopaminergic innervation of the nucleus accumbens, the effect of d-amphetamine at different doses (0, 1, 3, 10 micrograms/microliter) injected directly into the nucleus accumbens was studied. The results demonstrated that removing the circulating corticosterone induced a similar decrease of the locomotor activity elicited by d-amphetamine injection in the nucleus accumbens. This response was restored in animals with the 50- and 200-mg pellets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8284048

  15. Activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alfassi, Z.B. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains 16 chapters on the application of activation analysis in the fields of life sciences, biological materials, coal and its effluents, environmental samples, archaeology, material science, and forensics. Each chapter is processed separately for the data base.

  16. Differential Effects of Sex Pheromone Compounds on Adult Female Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Locomotor Patterns.

    PubMed

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Goheen, Benjamin B; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2016-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor activity plays a critical role in ensuring reproductive success, especially in semelparous species. The goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of individual chemical signals, or pheromones, on the locomotor activity in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). In their native habitat, adult preovulated females (POF) and ovulated females (OF) are exposed to sex pheromone compounds that are released from spermiated males and attract females to nests during their migration and spawning periods. In this study, locomotor activity of individual POF and OF was measured hourly in controlled laboratory conditions using an automated video-tracking system. Differences in the activity between a baseline day (no treatment exposure) and a treatment day (sex pheromone compound or control exposure) were examined for daytime and nighttime periods. Results showed that different pheromone compound treatments affected both POF and OF sea lamprey (p < 0.05) but in different ways. Spermiated male washings (SMW) and one of its main components, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24 sulfate (3kPZS), decreased activity of POF during the nighttime. SMW also reduced activity in POF during the daytime. In contrast, SMW increased activity of OF during the daytime, and an additional compound found in SMW, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), decreased the activity during the nighttime. In addition, we examined factors that allowed us to infer the overall locomotor patterns. SMW increased the maximum hourly activity during the daytime, decreased the maximum hourly activity during the nighttime, and reduced the percentage of nocturnal activity in OF. Our findings suggest that adult females have evolved to respond to different male compounds in regards to their locomotor activity before and after final maturation. This is a rare example of how species-wide chemosensory stimuli can affect not only the amounts of activity but also the overall locomotor

  17. Locomotor, feeding and melatonin daily rhythms in sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo).

    PubMed

    Vera, L M; Madrid, J A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2006-06-15

    Sharpsnout seabream is a marine teleost of increasing interest for Mediterranean aquaculture, but there is still a lack of information regarding its circadian organization. In this study, we have investigated sharpsnout seabream locomotor activity, feeding and plasma melatonin daily rhythms under a 12:12-h LD cycle, as well as the persistence of locomotor activity circadian rhythmicity under constant light (LL) conditions. When submitted to an LD cycle, most sharpsnout seabream displayed a diurnal locomotor pattern, with an average 74% of activity recorded during daytime. However, along the experiment 40% of fish spontaneously changed their locomotor rhythm phasing and became nocturnal. Feeding behaviour, nevertheless, remained strictly diurnal in all cases, with 97% of food demands being made during the light period. Free-running locomotor rhythms were recorded in one third of the fish kept under LL. Daily plasma melatonin levels displayed a rhythmic profile, with low daytime values (111 pg/ml) and high nighttime concentrations (791 pg/ml). Taken together, these results evidence a high degree of plasticity for sharpsnout seabream activity patterns, as well as phasing independence of locomotor and feeding rhythms. Finally, the existence of a well-defined daily rhythm of plasma melatonin was found. PMID:16682061

  18. Integrin activation

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion is important for development, immune responses, hemostasis and wound healing. Integrins also function as signal transducing receptors that can control intracellular pathways that regulate cell survival, proliferation, and cell fate. Conversely, cells can modulate the affinity of integrins for their ligands a process operationally defined as integrin activation. Analysis of activation of integrins has now provided a detailed molecular understanding of this unique form of “inside-out” signal transduction and revealed new paradigms of how transmembrane domains (TMD) can transmit long range allosteric changes in transmembrane proteins. Here, we will review how talin and mediates integrin activation and how the integrin TMD can transmit these inside out signals. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(12): 655-659] PMID:25388208

  19. Active Cytokinins

    PubMed Central

    Mornet, René; Theiler, Jane B.; Leonard, Nelson J.; Schmitz, Ruth Y.; Moore, F. Hardy; Skoog, Folke

    1979-01-01

    Four series of azidopurines have been synthesized and tested for cytokinin activity in the tobacco callus bioassay: 2- and 8-azido-N6-benzyladenines, -N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenines, and -zeatins, and N6-(2- and 4-azidobenzyl)adenines. The compounds having 2-azido substitution on the adenine ring are as active as the corresponding parent compounds, while those with 8-azido substitution are about 10 or more times as active. The 8-azidozeatin, which is the most active cytokinin observed, exhibited higher than minimal detectable activity at 1.2 × 10−5 micromolar, the lowest concentration tested. The shape of the growth curve indicates that even a concentration as low as 5 × 10−6 micromolar would probably be effective. By comparison, the lowest active concentration ever reported for zeatin has been 5 × 10−5 micromolar, representing a sensitivity rarely attained. All of the azido compounds have been submitted to photolysis in aqueous ethanol, and the photoproducts have been detected and identified by low and high resolution mass spectrometry. They are rationalized as products of abstraction and insertion reactions of the intermediate nitrenes. The potential of the major released products as cytokinins was also assessed by bioassay. 2-Azido-N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine competed with [14C]kinetin for the cytokinin-binding protein isolated from wheat germ. When the azido compound was photolysed in the presence of this protein, its attachment effectively blocked the binding of [14C]kinetin. PMID:16661017

  20. Active microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the use of active microwaves in remote sensing, presented during plenary and poster sessions, is summarized. The main highlights are: calibration techniques are well understood; innovative modeling approaches have been developed which increase active microwave applications (segmentation prior to model inversion, use of ERS-1 scatterometer, simulations); polarization angle and frequency diversity improves characterization of ice sheets, vegetation, and determination of soil moisture (X band sensor study); SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry potential is emerging; use of multiple sensors/extended spectral signatures is important (increase emphasis).

  1. Two components of nocturnal locomotor suppression by light.

    PubMed

    Morin, Lawrence P; Lituma, Pablo J; Studholme, Keith M

    2010-06-01

    In nocturnal rodents, millisecond light ("flash") stimuli can induce both a large circadian rhythm phase shift and an associated state change from highly active to quiescence followed by behavioral sleep. Suppression of locomotion ("negative masking") is an easily measured correlate of the state change. The present mouse studies used both flashes and longer light stimuli ("pulses") to distinguish initiation from maintenance effects of light on locomotor suppression and to determine whether the locomotor suppression exhibits temporal integration as is thought to be characteristic of phase shift responses to pulse, but not flash, stimuli. In experiment 1, locomotor suppression increased with irradiance (0.01-100 microW/cm( 2)), in accordance with previous reports. It also increased with stimulus duration (3-3000 sec), but interpretation of this result is complicated by the ability of light to both initiate and maintain locomotor suppression. In experiment 2, an irradiance response curve was determined using a stimulus series of 10 flashes, 2 msec each, with total flash energy varying from 0.0025 to 110.0 J/m(2). This included a test for temporal integration in which the effects of two equal energy series of flashes that differed in the number of flashes per series (10 vs 100), were compared. The 10 flash series more effectively elicited locomotor suppression than the 100 flash series, a result consistent with prior observations involving flash-induced phase shifts. In experiment 3, exposure of mice to an 11-h light stimulus yielded irradiance-dependent locomotor suppression that was maintained for the entire stimulus duration by a 100-microW/cm(2) stimulus. Light has the ability to initiate a time-limited (30-40 min) interval of locomotor suppression (initiation effect) that can be extended by additional light (maintenance effect). Temporal integration resembling that seen in phase-shifting responses to light does not exist for either phase shift or locomotor

  2. Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S W

    2008-08-11

    This report is aimed to show the author's activities to support the LDRD. The title is 'Investigation of the Double-C Behavior in the Pu-Ga Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagram' The sections are: (1) Sample Holder Test; (2) Calculation of x-ray diffraction patterns; (3) Literature search and preparing publications; (4) Tasks Required for APS Experiments; and (5) Communications.

  3. Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Frances R.

    This pamphlet suggests activities that may be used in the elementary school classroom. Chapter I lists various short plays that children can easily perform which encourage their imagination. Chapter II details a few quiet classroom games such as "I Saw,""Corral the Wild Horse,""Who Has Gone from the Room," and "Six-Man-Football Checkers." A number…

  4. Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Tom, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a flow chart for naming inorganic compounds. Although it is not necessary for students to memorize rules, preliminary skills needed before using the chart are outlined. Also presents an activity in which the mass of an imaginary atom is determined using lead shot, Petri dishes, and a platform balance. (JN)

  5. Leaf Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine…

  6. Get Active

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifting small weights – you can even use bottled water or cans of food as weights Watch these videos for muscle strengthening exercises to do at home or at the gym. If you do muscle-strengthening activities with weights, check out the do’s and don’ ...

  7. Activated Sludge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Investigation into stereoselective pharmacological activity of phenotropil.

    PubMed

    Zvejniece, Liga; Svalbe, Baiba; Veinberg, Grigory; Grinberga, Solveiga; Vorona, Maksims; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Dambrova, Maija

    2011-11-01

    Phenotropil [N-carbamoylmethyl-4-aryl-2-pyrrolidone (2-(2-oxo-4-phenyl-pyrrolidin-1-yl) acetamide; carphedon)] is clinically used in its racemic form as a nootropic drug that improves physical condition and cognition. The aim of this study was to compare the stereoselective pharmacological activity of R- and S-enantiomers of phenotropil in different behavioural tests. Racemic phenotropil and its enantiomers were tested for locomotor, antidepressant and memory-improving activity and influence on the central nervous system (CNS) using general pharmacological tests in mice. After a single administration, the amount of compound in brain tissue extracts was determined using an ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method in a positive ion electrospray mode. In the open-field test, a significant increase in locomotor activity was observed after a single administration of R-phenotropil at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg and S-phenotropil at a dose of 50 mg/kg. In the forced swim test, R-phenotropil induced an antidepressant effect at doses of 100 and 50 mg/kg, and S-phenotropil was active at a dose of 100 mg/kg. R-phenotropil significantly enhanced memory function in a passive avoidance response test at a dose of 1 mg/kg; the S-enantiomer did not show any activity in this test. However, the concentrations of R- and S-phenotropils in brain tissue were similar. In conclusion, the antidepressant and increased locomotor activity relies on both R- and S-phenotropils, but the memory-improving activity is only characteristic of R-phenotropil. These results may be important for the clinical use of optically pure isomers of phenotropil.

  9. Glucokinase activators.

    PubMed

    Filipski, Kevin J; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Stevens, Benjamin D

    2012-07-01

    In this review we highlight recently disclosed progress in the field of small-molecule activators of the human glucokinase enzyme. Several of the reported chemotypes possess structural features that diverge from known leads; some of these modifications appear to be specifically designed to modulate tissue selectivity or discrete parameters of enzyme function (e.g., S0.5 v Vmax). This review will inform the reader of the extent of continued effort being directed toward discovery of a first-in-class drug for Type II diabetes mellitus that functions through this target. Patents were selected from those published in December 2009 up to November 2011; foreign filings were translated where possible to understand the claims and biological techniques utilized to characterize the reported glucokinase activators. Overall, there appears to be a recent trend leading to reduced patent filings for small-molecule glucokinase activators. There are many possible explanations for this trend; however, it is likely that the field has reached maturity and that the downturn of new disclosures represents the transition of many of these programs to the clinic.

  10. Fluctuation-Driven Neural Dynamics Reproduce Drosophila Locomotor Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Cruchet, Steeve; Gustafson, Kyle; Benton, Richard; Floreano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The neural mechanisms determining the timing of even simple actions, such as when to walk or rest, are largely mysterious. One intriguing, but untested, hypothesis posits a role for ongoing activity fluctuations in neurons of central action selection circuits that drive animal behavior from moment to moment. To examine how fluctuating activity can contribute to action timing, we paired high-resolution measurements of freely walking Drosophila melanogaster with data-driven neural network modeling and dynamical systems analysis. We generated fluctuation-driven network models whose outputs—locomotor bouts—matched those measured from sensory-deprived Drosophila. From these models, we identified those that could also reproduce a second, unrelated dataset: the complex time-course of odor-evoked walking for genetically diverse Drosophila strains. Dynamical models that best reproduced both Drosophila basal and odor-evoked locomotor patterns exhibited specific characteristics. First, ongoing fluctuations were required. In a stochastic resonance-like manner, these fluctuations allowed neural activity to escape stable equilibria and to exceed a threshold for locomotion. Second, odor-induced shifts of equilibria in these models caused a depression in locomotor frequency following olfactory stimulation. Our models predict that activity fluctuations in action selection circuits cause behavioral output to more closely match sensory drive and may therefore enhance navigation in complex sensory environments. Together these data reveal how simple neural dynamics, when coupled with activity fluctuations, can give rise to complex patterns of animal behavior. PMID:26600381

  11. Emergence of Motor Circuit Activity

    PubMed Central

    Law, Chris; Paquet, Michel; Kania, Artur

    2014-01-01

    In the developing nervous system, ordered neuronal activity patterns can occur even in the absence of sensory input and to investigate how these arise, we have used the model system of the embryonic chicken spinal motor circuit, focusing on motor neurons of the lateral motor column (LMC). At the earliest stages of their molecular differentiation, we can detect differences between medial and lateral LMC neurons in terms of expression of neurotransmitter receptor subunits, including CHRNA5, CHRNA7, GRIN2A, GRIK1, HTR1A and HTR1B, as well as the KCC2 transporter. Using patch-clamp recordings we also demonstrate that medial and lateral LMC motor neurons have subtly different activity patterns that reflect the differential expression of neurotransmitter receptor subunits. Using a combination of patch-clamp recordings in single neurons and calcium-imaging of motor neuron populations, we demonstrate that inhibition of nicotinic, muscarinic or GABA-ergic activity, has profound effects of motor circuit activity during the initial stages of neuromuscular junction formation. Finally, by analysing the activity of large populations of motor neurons at different developmental stages, we show that the asynchronous, disordered neuronal activity that occurs at early stages of circuit formation develops into organised, synchronous activity evident at the stage of LMC neuron muscle innervation. In light of the considerable diversity of neurotransmitter receptor expression, activity patterns in the LMC are surprisingly similar between neuronal types, however the emergence of patterned activity, in conjunction with the differential expression of transmitter systems likely leads to the development of near-mature patterns of locomotor activity by perinatal ages. PMID:24722186

  12. Physical Activities for the Mentally Retarded; Ideas for Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    A viewpoint regarding physical education and recreation for the retarded is presented, and the development of fundamental motor skills, including postural orientation, locomotor, and other skills, is detailed. Teaching techniques are suggested, and activities are outlined on three levels: level 1, basic movement patterns, fundamental motor skills,…

  13. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  14. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time. PMID:26803804

  15. Has iprindole an alpha adrenergic activity?

    PubMed

    Ganry, H; Bourin, M

    1993-05-01

    1. Acute administration of iprindole potentiated the toxicity of 1-norepinephrine and increased the intensity of oxotremorine-induced tremors. 2. On the forced swimming test combination iprindole with imipramine reduced the duration of immobility. 3. The action of yohimbine on the locomotor activity was antagonized by a pre-injection of iprindole. 4. Iprindole increased and prolonged exophthalmia and loss of righting reflex induced by xylazine. 5 All these results seems indicate that iprindole has an indirect alpha 1 and alpha 2 adrenergic activity.

  16. Active tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This study is part of a series of Studies in Geophysics that have been undertaken for the Geophysics Research Forum by the Geophysics Study Committee. One purpose of each study is to provide assessments from the scientific community to aid policymakers in decisions on societal problems that involve geophysics. An important part of such assessments is an evaluation of the adequacy of current geophysical knowledge and the appropriateness of current research programs as a source of information required for those decisions. The study addresses our current scientific understanding of active tectonics --- particularly the patterns and rates of ongoing tectonic processes. Many of these processes cannot be described reasonably using the limited instrumental or historical records; however, most can be described adequately for practical purposes using the geologic record of the past 500,000 years. A program of fundamental research focusing especially on Quaternary tectonic geology and geomorphology, paleoseismology, neotectonics, and geodesy is recommended to better understand ongoing, active tectonic processes. This volume contains 16 papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the Energy Database.

  17. Differential roles of GABAB1 subunit isoforms on locomotor responses to acute and repeated administration of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Laura H; Sweeney, Fabian F; Kaupmann, Klemens; O'Leary, Olivia F; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard; Cryan, John F

    2016-02-01

    GABAB receptors are crucial modulators of the behavioural effects of drug abuse, and agonists and positive allosteric modulators show promise as pharmacological strategies for anti-addiction therapeutics. GABAB receptors are functional heterodimers of GABAB1 and GABAB2 subunits. The predominant neuronal GABAB1 subunit isoforms are GABAB1a and GABAB1b. Selective ablation of these isoforms in mice revealed differential behavioural responses in fear, cognition and stress sensitivity. However, the influence of the two GABAB1 isoforms on responses to drugs of abuse is unclear. Therefore we examined the responses of GABAB1 subunit isoform null mice to cocaine in acute locomotor activity and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms. During habituation for the acute locomotor activity assay, GABAB1b(-/-) mice showed higher levels of locomotor activity relative to wild-type (WT) and GABAB1a(-/-) mice, in accordance with previous studies. Acute cocaine (10 mg/kg) increased locomotor activity in habituated mice of all three genotypes, with GABAB1a(-/-) mice showing sustained hyperlocomotor responses 30 min after cocaine relative to WT and GABAB1b(-/-) mice. No genotypes demonstrated a cocaine-induced place preference, however, GABAB1a(-/-) mice demonstrated enhanced locomotor sensitisation to chronic cocaine in the CPP paradigm in comparison to WT mice, whereas GABAB1b(-/-) mice failed to develop locomotor sensitisation, despite higher levels of basal locomotor activity. These findings indicate that GABAB1a and GABAB1b isoforms differentially regulate behavioural responses to cocaine, with deletion of GABAB1a enhancing cocaine-induced locomotor activity and deletion of GABAB1b protecting from cocaine-induced sensitisation.

  18. Relations among physical activity patterns, lifestyle activities, and fundamental movement skills for Finnish students in grade 7.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Timo; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jutila, Ari; Virtanen, Petri; Watt, Anthony

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the relations among leisure time physical activity and in sport clubs, lifestyle activities, and the locomotor, balance manipulative skills of Grade 7 students participating in Finnish physical education at a secondary school in central Finland completed self-report questionnaires on their physical activity patterns at leisure time and during sport club participation, and time spent watching television and using the computer and other electronic media. Locomotor skills were analyzed by the leaping test, balance skills by the flamingo standing test, and manipulative skills by the accuracy throwing test. Analysis indicated physical activity in sport clubs positively explained scores on balance and locomotor tests but not on accuracy of throwing. Leisure time physical activity and lifestyle activities were not statistically significant predictors of performance on any movement skill tests. Girls scored higher on the static balance skill and boys higher on the throwing task. Overall, physical activity in sport clubs was more strongly associated with performance on the fundamental movement tasks than was physical activity during leisure. PMID:19425451

  19. Role of tissue plasminogen activator/plasmin cascade in delayed neuronal death after transient forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Nagai, Nobuo; Urano, Tetsumei

    We studied the possible involvement of the tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)/plasmin system on both delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus and the associated enhancement of locomotor activity in rats, after transient forebrain ischemia induced by a four-vessel occlusion (FVO). Seven days after FVO, locomotor activity was abnormally increased and, after 10 days, pyramidal cells were degraded in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. FVO increased the t-PA antigen level and its activity in the hippocampus, which peaked at 4 h. Both the enhanced locomotor activity and the degradation of pyramidal cells were significantly suppressed by intracerebroventricular injection of aprotinin, a plasmin inhibitor, at 4 h but not during FVO. These results suggest the importance of the t-PA/plasmin cascade during the early pathological stages of delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus following transient forebrain ischemia.

  20. CNS activity of Calotropis gigantea roots.

    PubMed

    Argal, Ameeta; Pathak, Anupam Kumar

    2006-06-15

    Alcoholic extract of peeled roots of Calotropis gigantea R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae) was tested orally in albino rats at the dose level of 250 and 500 mg/kg bodyweight for CNS activity. Prominent analgesic activity was observed in Eddy's hot plate method and acetic acid induced writhings. The paw licking time was delayed and the numbers of writhings were greatly reduced. Significant anticonvulsant activity was seen as there was a delay in the onset of pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions as well as decrease in its severity. The extract treated rats spent more time in the open arm of EPM showing its antianxiety activity. There was a decrease in the locomotor activity. The fall off time (motor coordination) was also decreased. A potentiation in the pentobarbitone-induced sleep due to the sedative effect of the extract was observed. No mortality was seen upto the dose of 1 g/kg. These results show the analgesic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and sedative effect of the extract.

  1. DAVIC activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    DAVIC (Digital Audio Visual Council) is the defacto standardization organization established in Mar. 1994, based on international consensus for digital audio visual services. After completion of MPEG2 standardization, the broadcasting industry, the communication industry, the computer industry, and consumer electronics industry have started development of concrete services and products. Especially the interactive digital audio visual services, such as Video On Demand (VOD) or Near Video On Demand (NVOD), have become hot topics all over the world. Such interactive digital audio visual services are combined technologies of multi-media coding, digital transmission and computer networking. Therefore more than 150 organizations from all industry sectors have participated in DAVIC and are contributing from their own industrial contexts. DAVIC's basic policy is to use the available technologies specified by the other standards bodies as much as possible. So DAVIC's standardization activities have close relationship with ISO IEC/JTC1/SC29, ITU-T SG 9, ATM-Forum, IETF, IMA, DVB, etc. DAVIC is trying to specify Applications, Reference Models, Security, Usage Information Control, and the interfaces and protocols among the Content Provider, the Server, the core network, the access network, and the Set Top Unit. DAVIC's first goal is to specify DAVIC1.0 based on CFP1 (Call for Proposal) and CFP2 by Dec. 1995, and the next direction is under preparation for further progress based on CFP3 and CFP4.

  2. Yawning and locomotor behavior induced by dopamine receptor agonists in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Min; Collins, Gregory T; Paul, Noel M; Grundt, Peter; Newman, Amy H; Xu, Ming; Grandy, David K; Woods, James H; Katz, Jonathan L

    2010-05-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) agonist-induced yawning in rats seems to be mediated by DA D3 receptors, and low doses of several DA agonists decrease locomotor activity, an effect attributed to presynaptic D2 receptors. Effects of several DA agonists on yawning and locomotor activity were examined in rats and mice. Yawning was reliably produced in rats, and by the cholinergic agonist, physostigmine, in both the species. However, DA agonists were ineffective in producing yawning in Swiss-Webster or DA D2R and DA D3R knockout or wild-type mice. The drugs significantly decreased locomotor activity in rats at one or two low doses, with activity returning to control levels at higher doses. In mice, the drugs decreased locomotion across a 1000-10 000-fold range of doses, with activity at control levels (U-91356A) or above control levels [(+/-)-7-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin HBr, quinpirole] at the highest doses. Low doses of agonists decreased locomotion in all mice except the DA D2R knockout mice, but were not antagonized by DA D2R or D3R antagonists (L-741 626, BP 897, or PG01037). Yawning does not provide a selective in-vivo indicator of DA D3R agonist activity in mice. Decreases in mouse locomotor activity by the DA agonists seem to be mediated by D2 DA receptors.

  3. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, T; Foldspang, A; Vestergaard, E; Ingemann-Hansen, T

    1999-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate active knee flexion and active knee extension in athletes and to investigate the potential association of each to different types of sports activity. Active knee extension and active knee flexion was measured in 339 athletes. Active knee extension was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly hours of soccer, European team handball and swimming. The results point to sport-specific adaptation of active knee flexion and active knee extension.

  4. IASS Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  5. Sex differences in tolerance to the locomotor depressant effects of lobeline in periadolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Harrod, Steven B.; Van Horn, M. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Lobeline is being tested in clinical trials as a pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine abuse and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Preclinical research demonstrates that lobeline produces locomotor hypoactivity apart from its therapeutic effects; however, the hypothesis that there are sex differences in hypoactivity or in the development of tolerance to its locomotor depressant effects has not been investigated. Periadolescent rats were injected with saline to determine baseline locomotor activity. Animals received saline or lobeline (1.0–10 mg/kg) daily for 7 consecutive days (post natal days 29–35), and were challenged with saline 24 h later to assess baseline activity. Lobeline produced hypoactivity in total horizontal activity and center distance travelled. Tolerance developed to the lobeline-induced hypoactivity and sex differences in lobeline tolerance were observed on both measures. Females acquired tolerance to lobeline 5.6 mg/kg at a slower rate than males. Saline challenge revealed a linear dose-dependent trend of hyperactivity on both measures, which indicates that rats exhibited altered locomotor behavior 24 h after the final lobeline treatment. These findings demonstrate sex differences in the hypoactive response to lobeline prior to puberty and suggest that females may experience more locomotor depressant effects than males. Chronic lobeline may induce hyperactivity following cessation of treatment. PMID:19766134

  6. Independence of blood pressure and locomotor hyperactivity in normotensive and genetically hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Whitehorn, D; Atwater, D G; Low, W C; Gellis, J E; Hendley, E D

    1983-03-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) exhibits locomotor hyperactivity in comparison to its normotensive progenitor Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) strain. We asked whether the hyperactive behavior was a direct consequence of elevated blood pressure in the hypertensive rat. Three experimental protocols were used to chronically alter blood pressure. In the first protocol, a group of adult SHRs was given hydralazine (20 mg/kg/day) in their drinking water to lower blood pressure. These animals exhibited a significant decrease in blood pressure, but no change in locomotor activity. In the second protocol, young SHRs (4 weeks of age) were treated with the same dosage of hydralazine until 16 weeks of age. Blood pressure was significantly decreased in these animals with no change in locomotor activity. In the third protocol, normotensive WKY and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were made hypertensive with unilateral renal clips. The resulting increase in blood pressure in these animals did not alter locomotor activity. These results suggest that locomotor hyperactivity is an inherent property of the SHR and is independent of blood pressure.

  7. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  8. Long-term imaging of circadian locomotor rhythms of a freely crawling C. elegans population

    PubMed Central

    Winbush, Ari; Gruner, Matthew; Hennig, Grant W.; van der Linden, Alexander M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Locomotor activity is used extensively as a behavioral output to study the underpinnings of circadian rhythms. Recent studies have required a populational approach for the study of circadian rhythmicity in Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion. New method We describe an imaging system for long-term automated recording and analysis of locomotion data of multiple free-crawling C. elegans animals on the surface of an agar plate. We devised image analysis tools for measuring specific features related to movement and shape to identify circadian patterns. Results We demonstrate the utility of our system by quantifying circadian locomotor rhythms in wild-type and mutant animals induced by temperature cycles. We show that 13 °C:18 °C (12:12 h) cycles are sufficient to entrain locomotor activity of wild-type animals, which persist but are rapidly damped during 13 °C free-running conditions. Animals with mutations in tax-2, a cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channel, significantly reduce locomotor activity during entrainment and free-running. Comparison with existing method(s) Current methods for measuring circadian locomotor activity is generally restricted to recording individual swimming animals of C. elegans, which is a distinct form of locomotion from crawling behavior generally observed in the laboratory. Our system works well with up to 20 crawling adult animals, and allows for a detailed analysis of locomotor activity over long periods of time. Conclusions Our population-based approach provides a powerful tool for quantification of circadian rhythmicity of C. elegans locomotion, and could allow for a screening system of candidate circadian genes in this model organism. PMID:25911068

  9. Alpha-asarone improves striatal cholinergic function and locomotor hyperactivity in Fmr1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guozhen; Chen, Shengqiang; Guo, Jialing; Wu, Jie; Yi, Yong-Hong

    2016-10-01

    Hyperactivity is a symptom found in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Fragile X syndrome (FXS). The animal model of FXS, fragile X mental retardation gene (Fmr1) knockout (KO) mouse, exhibits robust locomotor hyperactivity. Alpha (α)-asarone, a major bioactive component isolated from Acorus gramineus, has been shown in previous studies to improve various disease conditions including central nervous system disorders. In this study, we show that treatment with α-asarone alleviates locomotor hyperactivity in Fmr1 KO mice. To elucidate the mechanism underlying this improvement, we evaluated the expressions of various cholinergic markers, as well as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and acetylcholine (ACh) levels, in the striatum of Fmr1 KO mice. We also analyzed the AChE-inhibitory activity of α-asarone. Striatal samples from Fmr1 KO mice showed decreased m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m1 mAChR) expression, increased AChE activity, and reduced ACh levels. Treatment with α-asarone improved m1 mAChR expression and ACh levels, and attenuated the increased AChE activity. In addition, α-asarone dose-dependently inhibited AChE activity in vitro. These results indicate that direct inhibition of AChE activity and up-regulation of m1 mAChR expression in the striatum might contribute to the beneficial effects of α-asarone on locomotor hyperactivity in Fmr1 KO mice. These findings might improve understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for locomotor hyperactivity.

  10. Development of a spinal locomotor rheostat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Issberner, Jon; Sillar, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    Locomotion in immature animals is often inflexible, but gradually acquires versatility to enable animals to maneuver efficiently through their environment. Locomotor activity in adults is produced by complex spinal cord networks that develop from simpler precursors. How does complexity and plasticity emerge during development to bestow flexibility upon motor behavior? And how does this complexity map onto the peripheral innervation fields of motorneurons during development? We show in postembryonic Xenopus laevis frog tadpoles that swim motorneurons initially form a homogenous pool discharging single action potential per swim cycle and innervating most of the dorsoventral extent of the swimming muscles. However, during early larval life, in the prelude to a free-swimming existence, the innervation fields of motorneurons become restricted to a more limited sector of each muscle block, with individual motorneurons reaching predominantly ventral, medial, or dorsal regions. Larval motorneurons then can also discharge multiple action potentials in each cycle of swimming and differentiate in terms of their firing reliability during swimming into relatively high-, medium-, or low-probability members. Many motorneurons fall silent during swimming but can be recruited with increasing locomotor frequency and intensity. Each region of the myotome is served by motorneurons spanning the full range of firing probabilities. This unfolding developmental plan, which occurs in the absence of movement, probably equips the organism with the neuronal substrate to bend, pitch, roll, and accelerate during swimming in ways that will be important for survival during the period of free-swimming larval life that ensues. PMID:21709216

  11. Plasticity and modular control of locomotor patterns in neurological disorders with motor deficits

    PubMed Central

    Ivanenko, Y. P.; Cappellini, G.; Solopova, I. A.; Grishin, A. A.; MacLellan, M. J.; Poppele, R. E.; Lacquaniti, F.

    2013-01-01

    Human locomotor movements exhibit considerable variability and are highly complex in terms of both neural activation and biomechanical output. The building blocks with which the central nervous system constructs these motor patterns can be preserved in patients with various sensory-motor disorders. In particular, several studies highlighted a modular burst-like organization of the muscle activity. Here we review and discuss this issue with a particular emphasis on the various examples of adaptation of locomotor patterns in patients (with large fiber neuropathy, amputees, stroke and spinal cord injury). The results highlight plasticity and different solutions to reorganize muscle patterns in both peripheral and central nervous system lesions. The findings are discussed in a general context of compensatory gait mechanisms, spatiotemporal architecture and modularity of the locomotor program. PMID:24032016

  12. V3 spinal neurons establish a robust and balanced locomotor rhythm during walking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Narayan, Sujatha; Geiman, Eric; Lanuza, Guillermo M.; Velasquez, Tomoko; Shanks, Bayle; Akay, Turgay; Dyck, Jason; Pearson, Keir; Gosgnach, Simon; Fan, Chen-Ming; Goulding, Martyn

    2009-01-01

    Summary A robust and well-organized rhythm is a key feature of many neuronal networks, including those that regulate essential behaviors such as circadian rhythmogenesis, breathing and locomotion. Here we show that excitatory V3-derived neurons are necessary for a robust and organized locomotor rhythm during walking. When V3-mediated neurotransmission is selectively blocked by the expression of the Tetanus toxin light chain subunit (TeNT), the regularity and robustness of the locomotor rhythm is severely perturbed. A similar degeneration in the locomotor rhythm occurs when the excitability of V3-derived neurons is reduced acutely by ligand-induced activation of the allatostatin receptor. The V3-derived neurons additionally function to balance the locomotor output between both halves of the spinal cord, thereby ensuring a symmetrical pattern of locomotor activity during walking. We propose that the V3 neurons establish a robust and balanced motor rhythm by distributing excitatory drive between both halves of the spinal cord. PMID:18940590

  13. Locomotor adaptation to a soleus EMG-controlled antagonistic exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Keith E; Kinnaird, Catherine R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2013-04-01

    Locomotor adaptation in humans is not well understood. To provide insight into the neural reorganization that occurs following a significant disruption to one's learned neuromuscular map relating a given motor command to its resulting muscular action, we tied the mechanical action of a robotic exoskeleton to the electromyography (EMG) profile of the soleus muscle during walking. The powered exoskeleton produced an ankle dorsiflexion torque proportional to soleus muscle recruitment thus limiting the soleus' plantar flexion torque capability. We hypothesized that neurologically intact subjects would alter muscle activation patterns in response to the antagonistic exoskeleton by decreasing soleus recruitment. Subjects practiced walking with the exoskeleton for two 30-min sessions. The initial response to the perturbation was to "fight" the resistive exoskeleton by increasing soleus activation. By the end of training, subjects had significantly reduced soleus recruitment resulting in a gait pattern with almost no ankle push-off. In addition, there was a trend for subjects to reduce gastrocnemius recruitment in proportion to the soleus even though only the soleus EMG was used to control the exoskeleton. The results from this study demonstrate the ability of the nervous system to recalibrate locomotor output in response to substantial changes in the mechanical output of the soleus muscle and associated sensory feedback. This study provides further evidence that the human locomotor system of intact individuals is highly flexible and able to adapt to achieve effective locomotion in response to a broad range of neuromuscular perturbations. PMID:23307949

  14. Evidence for a role of endogenous neurotensin in the development of sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effect of morphine.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Karine; Lamarche, Caroline; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2008-10-10

    This experiment was aimed at exploring the role of endogenous neurotensin in the development of sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effect of morphine. During the induction phase (Days 1, 3, 5 and 7), male Long-Evans adult rats were treated with the neurotensin antagonist SR-48692 (160, 320 or 640 microg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle, followed by morphine (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle, and their locomotor activity (ambulatory, non-ambulatory and vertical activity) was measured for 2 h. One week after the last injection, each group received a single injection of morphine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) and their locomotor activity was again measured for 2 h (sensitization test, day 14). Results show that SR-48692 alone did not change locomotion. Morphine stimulated locomotor activity, an effect that was stronger on day 7 than on day 1. The two higher doses of SR-48692 attenuated the acute stimulant effect of morphine and prevented the observed increase from day 1 to day 7. The sensitization test on day 14 showed that rats pre-treated with morphine alone displayed significantly stronger ambulatory and vertical activity than vehicle pre-treated rats, a sensitization effect that was attenuated by SR-48692. The present results suggest that endogenous neurotensin contributes to the acute locomotor stimulant effect of morphine and to the induction of its sensitization. PMID:18706409

  15. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... fitness. Your fitness routine should include aerobic and strength-training activities, and may also include stretching activities. Aerobic ... Examples include walking, jogging, bicycling, swimming, and tennis. Strength-training activities These activities increase the strength and endurance ...

  16. Ambulatory physical activity during United States Army basic combat training.

    PubMed

    Knapik, J J; Darakjy, S; Hauret, K G; Canada, S; Marin, R; Jones, B H

    2007-02-01

    Electronic pedometers were used to quantify locomotor physical activity during an entire 9-week United States Army Basic Combat Training (BCT) cycle. Pedometers were worn on the hips of 4 trainees in each of 10 BCT companies during all BCT activities. Investigators obtained pedometer readings (steps) on a daily basis, and estimated travel distances were obtained by multiplying steps by the average individual step length. A short questionnaire was administered daily to assure trainees wore the pedometers and trained with their companies all day. Trainees performed an average +/- SD of 16 311 +/- 5826 steps/day and traveled an estimated 11.7 +/- 4.4 kilometers/day. The highest daily locomotor activity was during the field training exercise in which trainees took an average +/- SD of 22 372 +/- 12 517 steps/day traveling an estimated 16.2 +/- 9.7 kilometers/day. Differences among the 10 companies ranged from 14 720 +/- 6649 steps/day to 18 729 +/- 6328 steps/day. This survey provided the first examination of locomotor physical activity during an entire BCT cycle.

  17. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, T; Ervin, R B; Duan, H; Bogue, M A; Zamboni, W C; Cook, S; Chung, W; Zou, F; Tarantino, L M

    2015-03-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC.

  18. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Wiltshire, T.; Ervin, R. B.; Duan, H.; Bogue, M. A.; Zamboni, W. C.; Cook, S.; Chung, W.; Zou, F.; Tarantino, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC. PMID:25727211

  19. Modulatory effects by CB1 receptors on rat spinal locomotor networks after sustained application of agonists or antagonists.

    PubMed

    Veeraraghavan, P; Nistri, A

    2015-09-10

    Sustained administration of cannabinoid agonists acting on neuronal CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) are proposed for treating spasticity and chronic pain. The impact of CB1Rs on mammalian locomotor networks remains, however, incompletely understood. To clarify how CB1Rs may control synaptic activity and locomotor network function, we used the rat spinal cord in vitro which is an advantageous model to investigate locomotor circuit mechanisms produced by the local central pattern generator. Neither the CB1 agonist anandamide (AEA) nor the CB1R antagonist AM-251 evoked early (<3h) changes in mono or polysynaptic reflexes or in locomotor rhythms. Application of AEA (24h) significantly decreased the ability of dorsal root (DR) afferents to elicit oscillatory cycles, and left synaptic responses unchanged. Similar application of LY 2183240, or JZL 184, inhibitors of endocannabinoid uptake processes, produced analogous results. Application of the antagonist AM-251 (or rimonabant) for >3-24h largely impaired locomotor network activity induced by DR stimuli or neurochemicals, and depressed disinhibited bursting without changing reflex amplitude or inducing neurotoxicity even if CB1R immunoreactivity was lowered in the central region. Since CB1R activation usually inhibits cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis, we investigated how a 24-h application of AEA or AM-251 affected basal or forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels. While AEA decreased them in an AM-251-sensitive manner, AM-251 per se did not change resting or stimulated cAMP. Our data suggest that CB1Rs may control the circuit gateway regulating the inflow of sensory afferent inputs into the locomotor circuits, indicating a potential site of action for restricting peripheral signals disruptive for locomotor activity.

  20. Determinants of locomotor disability in people aged 55 years and over: the Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Odding, E; Valkenburg, H A; Stam, H J; Hofman, A

    2001-01-01

    Locomotor disability, as defined by difficulties in activities of daily living related to lower limb function, can be the consequence of diseases and impairments of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, nervous, sensory and musculoskeletal system. We estimated the associations between specific diseases and impairments and locomotor disability, and the proportion of disability attributable to each condition, controlling for age and comorbidity. The Rotterdam Study is a prospective follow-up study among people aged 55 years and over in the general population. Locomotor disability in 1219 men and 1856 women was assessed with the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire. Diseases and impairments were radiological osteoarthritis, pain of the hips and knees, morning stiffness, fractures, hypertension, vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, stroke, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), depression, Parkinson's disease, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, overweight, and low vision. Adjusted odds ratios, etiologic and attributable fractions were calculated for locomotor disability. The occurrence of locomotor disability can partly be ascribed to joint pain, COPD, morning stiffness, diabetes and heart failure in both men and women. In addition in women osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low vision, fractures, stroke and Parkinson's disease are significant etiologic fractions. In men with morning stiffness, joint pain, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and COPD a significant proportion of their disability is attributable to this impairment. In women this was the case for Parkinson's disease, morning stiffness, low vision, heart failure, joint pain, diabetes, radiological osteoarthritis, stroke, COPD, osteoporosis, and fractures of the lower limbs, in that order. We conclude that locomotor complaints, heart failure, COPD and diabetes mellitus contribute considerably to locomotor disability in non-institutionalized elderly people. PMID:12380718

  1. Longitudinal assessment of leg motor activity and sleep patterns in infants with and without Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    McKay, Sandra M; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M

    2006-04-01

    Whether infants with Down syndrome (DS) perform leg movements with the same frequency and quality as their typical development (TD) counterparts is equivocal. Furthermore, the relationship between these early leg movements and later onset of locomotor milestones has only been partially explored. The aims of this study were two-fold: (1) to describe the longitudinal leg activity in infants with and without DS (3-6 months), and (2) to examine sleeping patterns and leg activity during the night. In addition, the relationships between leg activities and sleep patterns with locomotor development were explored. An activity monitor was placed monthly on the infant's ankle for 48 h. Data were analyzed to separate day-night, high-low activity, and sleep fragmentation. The results indicate that infants with DS produced more low intensity activity and more fragmented sleep. These findings are discussed in relation to the influence of early motor activity on achievement of functional motor behavior.

  2. Pharmacological evaluation of Pachyrrhizus erosus (L) seeds for central nervous system depressant activity.

    PubMed

    Abid, Mohd; Hrishikeshavan, H J; Asad, Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    The research work deals with the screening of ethanol and chloroform extracts of Pachyrrhizus erosus seeds for central nervous system (CNS) depressant activity. The Pachyrrhizus erosus seed is known to contain rotinoids, flavonoids and phenylfuranocoumarin derivatives as chemical components and is reported to have antifungal, antisecretory, insecticides, antibacterial and spasmolytic activity. Since seeds of Pachyrrhizus erosus is used as folk medicine in treatment of insomnia, we made an attempt to study its CNS depressant effect. The different activities studied were potentiation of pentobarbitone-induced sleep, test for locomotor activity, effect on muscle co-ordination, antiaggressive and antianxiety activities. The result of the study reflected that ethanol extract of the seeds (150 mg/kg, p.o) decreased locomotor activity, produced muscle relaxation and showed antianxiety and antiaggressive activity. PMID:17051733

  3. Relationships between fundamental movement skills and objectively measured physical activity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Smith, Leif M; McKeen, Kim

    2009-11-01

    Gender differences in cross-sectional relationships between fundamental movement skill (FMS) subdomains (locomotor skills, object-control skills) and physical activity were examined in preschool children. Forty-six 3- to 5-year-olds (25 boys) had their FMS video assessed (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and their physical activity objectively monitored (Actigraph 7164 accelerometers). Among boys, object-control skills were associated with physical activity and explained 16.9% (p = .024) and 13.7% (p = .049) of the variance in percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total physical activity, respectively, after controlling for age, SES and z-BMI. Locomotor skills were inversely associated with physical activity among girls, and explained 19.2% (p = .023) of the variance in percent of time in MVPA after controlling for confounders. Gender and FMS subdomain may influence the relationship between FMS and physical activity in preschool children. PMID:20128363

  4. [Adapting physical activities for an active retirement].

    PubMed

    Renaudie, François

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of doing adapted physical exercise for elderly people have been proven. For more than thirty years, the French Federation for an Active Retirement has been striving to help people age well by proposing multiple activities to remain in good health after the age of 50. Doctors, activity leaders and federal instructors are attentive to each individual's capacities. PMID:27449307

  5. Predator and prey activity levels jointly influence the outcome of long-term foraging bouts.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Kayla; Cusack, Brian; Armagost, Fawn; O'Brien, Timothy; Keiser, Carl N; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2013-09-01

    Consistent interindividual differences in behavior (i.e., "behavioral types") may be a key factor in determining the outcome of species interactions. Studies that simultaneously account for the behavioral types of individuals in multiple interacting species, such as predator-prey systems, may be particularly strong predictors of ecological outcomes. Here, we test the predator-prey locomotor crossover hypothesis, which predicts that active predators are more likely to encounter and consume prey with the opposing locomotor tendency. We test this hypothesis using intraspecific behavioral variation in both a predator and prey species as predictors of foraging outcomes. We use the old field jumping spider, Phidippus clarus (Araneae, Salticidae), and the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae), as a model predator-prey system in laboratory mesocosm trials. Stable individual differences in locomotor tendencies were identified in both P. clarus and A. domesticus, and the outcome of foraging bouts depended neither on the average activity level of the predator nor on the average activity level of prey. Instead, an interaction between the activity level of spiders and crickets predicted spider foraging success and prey survivorship. Consistent with the locomotor crossover hypothesis, predators exhibiting higher activity levels consumed more prey when in an environment containing low-activity prey items and vice versa. This study highlights 1) the importance of intraspecific variation in determining the outcome of predator-prey interactions and 2) that acknowledging behavioral variation in only a single species may be insufficient to characterize the performance consequences of intraspecific trait variants. PMID:23935257

  6. Learning as Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2002-01-01

    Integrates contemporary theories of learning into a theory of learning as activity. Explains ecological psychology, changes in understanding of learning, activity systems and activity theory (including the integration of consciousness and activity), and activity structure; and discusses learning as a cognitive and social process. (LRW)

  7. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  8. Facts about Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  9. Conjunctive Processing of Locomotor Signals by the Ventral Tegmental Area Neuronal Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong V.; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2011-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays an essential role in reward and motivation. How the dopamine (DA) and non-DA neurons in the VTA engage in motivation-based locomotor behaviors is not well understood. We recorded activity of putative DA and non-DA neurons simultaneously in the VTA of awake mice engaged in motivated voluntary movements such as wheel running. Our results revealed that VTA non-DA neurons exhibited significant rhythmic activity that was correlated with the animal's running rhythms. Activity of putative DA neurons also correlated with the movement behavior, but to a lesser degree. More importantly, putative DA neurons exhibited significant burst activation at both onset and offset of voluntary movements. These findings suggest that VTA DA and non-DA neurons conjunctively process locomotor-related motivational signals that are associated with movement initiation, maintenance and termination. PMID:21304590

  10. Enzyme activities in activated sludge flocs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guang-Hui; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2007-12-01

    This study quantified the activities of enzymes in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and in pellets. Seven commonly adopted extraction schemes were utilized to extract from aerobic flocs the contained EPS, which were further categorized into loosely bound (LB) and tightly bound (TB) fractions. Ultrasonication effectively extracted the EPS from sludge flocs. Enzyme assay tests showed that the protease activity was localized mainly on the pellets, alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase activities were largely bound with LB-EPS, and few protease, alpha-amylase, or alpha-glucosidase activities were associated with the TB-EPS fraction. There exists no correlation between the biochemical compositions of EPS and the distribution of enzyme activities in the sludge matrix. The 44-65% of alpha-amylase and 59-100% of alpha-glucosidase activities noted with the LB-EPS indicate heterogeneous hydrolysis patterns in the sludge flocs with proteins and carbohydrates.

  11. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira de Almeida, Welinton Alessandro; Maculano Esteves, Andrea; Leite de Almeida-Júnior, Canuto; Lee, Kil Sun; Kannebley Frank, Miriam; Oliveira Mariano, Melise; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Tulio de Mello, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder) symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL) and drug (Pramipexole—PPX) groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions. PMID:26483930

  12. Integrated Locomotor Function Tests for Countermeasure Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Landsness, E. C.; Black, F. O.

    2005-01-01

    Following spaceflight crewmembers experience locomotor dysfunction due to inflight adaptive alterations in sensorimotor function. Countermeasures designed to mitigate these postflight gait alterations need to be assessed with a new generation of tests that evaluate the interaction of various sensorimotor sub-systems central to locomotor control. The goal of the present study was to develop new functional tests of locomotor control that could be used to test the efficacy of countermeasures. These tests were designed to simultaneously examine the function of multiple sensorimotor systems underlying the control of locomotion and be operationally relevant to the astronaut population. Traditionally, gaze stabilization has been studied almost exclusively in seated subjects performing target acquisition tasks requiring only the involvement of coordinated eye-head movements. However, activities like walking involve full-body movement and require coordination between lower limbs and the eye-head-trunk complex to achieve stabilized gaze during locomotion. Therefore the first goal of this study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full-body sensorimotor gaze stabilization subsystems are functionally coordinated during locomotion. In an earlier study we investigated how alteration in gaze tasking changes full-body locomotor control strategies. Subjects walked on a treadmill and either focused on a central point target or read numeral characters. We measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. In comparison to the point target fixation condition, the results of the number reading task showed that compensatory head pitch movements increased, peak head acceleration was reduced and knee flexion at heel-strike was increased. In a more recent study we investigated the

  13. Active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  14. Home Activities for Fours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    These home learning activity guides have been developed for parents to use with their 4-year-old children. Most of the activities require only household items that are often thrown away and can be recycled for learning activities. Some require no materials at all. The guides frequently begin with a discussion of home activities; progress through…

  15. [Positive Activities Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This packet contains four pamphlets that are part of a campaign to encourage adults to provide and promote positive activities for youth and to serve as role models for young people. "Positive Activities: A Campaign for Youth" includes information on what positive activities are, how to get involved in helping to provide positive activities for…

  16. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  17. Sodium butyrate improves locomotor impairment and early mortality in a rotenone-induced Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, R; O'Brien, L M; Ahmad, S T

    2013-08-29

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting the dopaminergic neurons in the nigrastriatal pathway resulting in debilitating motor impairment in both familial and sporadic cases. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been recently implicated as a therapeutic candidate because of their ability to correct the disrupted HDAC activity in PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Sodium butyrate (SB), an HDAC inhibitor, reduces degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in a mutant alpha-synuclein Drosophila transgenic model of familial PD. Chronic exposure to the pesticide rotenone also causes selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and causes locomotor impairment and early mortality in a Drosophila model of chemically induced PD. This study investigated the effects of sodium butyrate on locomotor impairment and early mortality in a rotenone-induced PD model. We show that treatment with 10mM SB-supplemented food rescued the rotenone-induced locomotor impairment and early mortality in flies. Additionally, flies with the genetic knockdown of HDAC activity through Sin3A loss-of-function mutation (Sin3A(lof)) were resistant to rotenone-induced locomotor impairment and early mortality. Furthermore, SB-supplemented Sin3A(lof) flies had a modest additive effect for improving locomotor impairment. We also show SB-mediated improvement of rotenone-induced locomotor impairment was associated with elevated dopamine levels in the brain. However, the possibility of SB-mediated protective role through mechanisms independent from dopamine system is also discussed. These findings demonstrate that HDAC inhibitors like SB can ameliorate locomotor impairment in a rotenone-induced PD model.

  18. Monitoring Neural Activity with Bioluminescence during Natural Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, Eva A.; Kampff, Adam R.; Prober, David A.; Schier, Alexander F.; Engert, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Existing techniques for monitoring neural activity in awake, freely behaving vertebrates are invasive and difficult to target to genetically identified neurons. Here we describe the use of bioluminescence to non-invasively monitor the activity of genetically specified neurons in freely behaving zebrafish. Transgenic fish expressing the Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein GFP-apoAequorin (GA) in most neurons generated large and fast bioluminescent signals related to neural activity, neuroluminescence, that could be recorded continuously for many days. To test the limits of this technique, GA was specifically targeted to the hypocretin-positive neurons of the hypothalamus. We found that neuroluminescence generated by this group of ~20 neurons was associated with periods of increased locomotor activity and identified two classes of neural activity corresponding to distinct swim latencies. Thus, our neuroluminescence assay can report, with high temporal resolution and sensitivity, the activity of small subsets of neurons during unrestrained behavior. PMID:20305645

  19. Bimodal Respiratory-Locomotor Neurons in the Neonatal Rat Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, Jean-Patrick; Juvin, Laurent; Cardoit, Laura; Morin, Didier

    2016-01-20

    Neural networks that can generate rhythmic motor output in the absence of sensory feedback, commonly called central pattern generators (CPGs), are involved in many vital functions such as locomotion or respiration. In certain circumstances, these neural networks must interact to produce coordinated motor behavior adapted to environmental constraints and to satisfy the basic needs of an organism. In this context, we recently reported the existence of an ascending excitatory influence from lumbar locomotor CPG circuitry to the medullary respiratory networks that is able to depolarize neurons of the parafacial respiratory group during fictive locomotion and to subsequently induce an increased respiratory rhythmicity (Le Gal et al., 2014b). Here, using an isolated in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation from neonatal rat in which the respiratory and the locomotor networks remain intact, we show that during fictive locomotion induced either pharmacologically or by sacrocaudal afferent stimulation, the activity of both thoracolumbar expiratory motoneurons and interneurons is rhythmically modulated with the locomotor activity. Completely absent in spinal inspiratory cells, this rhythmic pattern is highly correlated with the hindlimb ipsilateral flexor activities. Furthermore, silencing brainstem neural circuits by pharmacological manipulation revealed that this locomotor-related drive to expiratory motoneurons is solely dependent on propriospinal pathways. Together these data provide the first evidence in the newborn rat spinal cord for the existence of bimodal respiratory-locomotor motoneurons and interneurons onto which both central efferent expiratory and locomotor drives converge, presumably facilitating the coordination between the rhythmogenic networks responsible for two different motor functions. Significance statement: In freely moving animals, distant regions of the brain and spinal cord controlling distinct motor acts must interact to produce the best

  20. "Oh, Chute??" A Fully Illustrated Booklet of Parachute Activities for Fun and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Doug

    Exercise and games performed with a parachute are outlined in this booklet. At school the parachute can be used on the playground or in the gymnasium. It may be used to teach locomotor and fundamental movements; to develop rhythm, coordination, and physical fitness; and encourage creative play. This activity is designed for groups, enhancing…

  1. Development of Activity, Conventional Play, and Vocalization in Infants and Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routh, Donald K.; Padan-Belkin, Efrat

    This study was designed to provide observations of the vocalizations and language of infants and young children and of changes in the subjects' pattern of play with toys, as well as their locomotor activity in a playroom. One hundred infants and children ranging from 10 months to five years of age were observed for two 15-minute periods, one with…

  2. Evaluation of sedative and anticonvulsant activities of Unmadnashak Ghrita.

    PubMed

    Achliya, Girish S; Wadodkar, Sudhir G; Dorle, Avinash K

    2004-09-01

    'Unmadnashak Ghrita' (UG) is a ayurvedic formulation containing Ferula narthex (6 g), Gardenia gummifera (6 g), Ellataria cardamom (6 g), Bacopa monneri (6 g), and cow's ghee (clarified butter fat) (76 g). In the present study, neuropharmacological activities of UG were evaluated for its gross behavioural effect, pentobarbitone sleeping time, spontaneous locomotor activity, antagonism to amphetamine induced hyperlocomotor activity, analgesic activity by tail flick test, rota-rod performance (motor coordination test), maximal electroshock (MES) induced seizures, and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced convulsions in mice. The formulation showed CNS-depressant activity in gross behavioural test, potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time and there was significant decrease in spontaneous locomotor count in mice. The formulation also antagonized the behavioral effects of CNS-stimulant drug amphetamine, and showed analgesic effect in mice. UG failed to affect the motor coordination test. The formulation also protected mice from MES and PTZ induced convulsions. These results suggest that UG has CNS-depressant and anticonvulsant activity in mice. PMID:15261966

  3. [Seasonal peculiarities of the ground squirrel (Spermophilus undulatus) and Wistar rats circadian activity].

    PubMed

    Semenova, T P; Spiridonova, L A; Zakharova, N M

    2014-09-01

    The seasonal peculiarities of the circadian activity of hibernator, Yakutian long tail ground squirrels (S. undulatus) (n = 35) and non hibernator, Wistar rats (n = 35), were studied. The locomotor activity was registered in each subject individually during 5-17 days by means of "Animex" in the different periods of annual cycle. It was shown that ground squirrels were animals with daily type of activity. On the contrary, the Wistar rats demonstrated nocturne type of locomotors activity. The active period in rats was longer than in ground squirrels. It included not only at night, but morning time in spring, and daytime--in summer. The circadian differences between hibernators and non-hibernators were kept during all annual cycle at night time, but in daytime--only in spring and summer time.

  4. Lack of effect of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on bromocriptine-induced locomotor sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    Kayir, Hakan; Ceyhan, Mert; Yavuz, Oğuzhan; Uzbay, I Tayfun

    2007-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitory agent, on bromocriptine-induced locomotor sensitization in mice. Adult male Swiss-Webster mice (26-32 g) were the subjects. Saline or L-NAME (15-60 mg/kg) was injected to mice intraperitoneally 30 min before bromocriptine (5 mg/kg), and locomotor activity was recorded for 240 min in an open field activity monitoring system. This procedure lasted for 2 weeks, once in 2 days from Monday to Friday, six sessions in total. After a 2-day drug-free period, a challenge injection of bromocriptine (5 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered by all groups of mice. Other groups of mice treated with bromocriptine according to the aforementioned procedure except L-NAME pretreatments were challenged with saline or L-NAME (15-60 mg/kg) plus bromocriptine (5 mg/kg) after a 2-day drug-free period. Bromocriptine produced a significant locomotor sensitization. L-NAME (15-60 mg/kg) did not have any significant effect on the development and expression of bromocriptine-induced locomotor sensitization in mice. Meanwhile, the data also imply that NO-related mechanisms may not be responsible for bromocriptine-induced locomotor sensitization in mice.

  5. Restraint stress attenuates nicotine’s locomotor stimulant but not discriminative stimulus effects in rats

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Andrew C.; Mattson, Christina; Shelley, David; LeSage, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Stress enhances the locomotor stimulant and discriminative stimulus effects of several addictive drugs (e.g., morphine) in rodents, yet interactions between stress and nicotine’s effects in these behavioral models have not been well established. To this end, the current studies examined the effects of restraint stress on nicotine-induced locomotor activity and nicotine discrimination in rats. We used a novel approach in which onset of stress and nicotine administration occurred concurrently (i.e., simultaneous exposure) to simulate effects of stress on ongoing tobacco use, as well as a more traditional approach in which a delay was imposed between stress and nicotine administration (i.e., sequential exposure). Simultaneous exposure to stress reduced the rate of locomotor sensitization induced by daily injections of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.). A lower dose of nicotine (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) produced modest effects on activity that were generally unaffected by simultaneous exposure to stress. Sequential exposure to stress and nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.) slightly suppressed nicotine-induced activity, but did not influence rate of locomotor sensitization. Neither simultaneous nor sequential exposure to stress influenced the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (0.01 – 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.). These data show that restraint stress reduces nicotine’s locomotor stimulant effects, particularly when onset of stress and nicotine exposure occurs simultaneously, but does not influence nicotine discrimination. These findings contrast with the ability of stress to enhance the effects of other drugs in these models. This study also suggests that studying the influence of simultaneous stress exposure on drug effects may be useful for understanding the role of stress in addiction. PMID:24867077

  6. Argon prevents the development of locomotor sensitization to amphetamine and amphetamine-induced changes in mu opioid receptor in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    David, Hélène N; Dhilly, Martine; Poisnel, Géraldine; Degoulet, Mickael; Meckler, Cédric; Vallée, Nicolas; Blatteau, Jean-Éric; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Lemaire, Marc; Debruyne, Danièle; Abraini, Jacques H

    2014-01-01

    Systemic administration of γ-amino-butyric acid type A (GABA-A) and benzodiazepine receptor agonists has been reported to block the development of locomotor sensitization to amphetamine. Here, we investigated whether the non-anesthetic noble gas argon, shown to possess agonistic properties at these receptors, may block the acquisition of amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization and mu opioid receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens. Rats were pretreated with saline solution or amphetamine (1 mg/kg) from day 1 to day 3 and then exposed, immediately after injection of amphetamine, to medicinal air or argon at 75 vol% (with the remainder being oxygen). After a 3-day period of withdrawal, rats were challenged with amphetamine on day 7. Rats pretreated with amphetamine and argon had lower locomotor activity (U = 5, P < 0.005) and mu opioid receptor activity in the nucleus accumbens (U = 0, P < 0.001) than rats pretreated with amphetamine and air. In contrast, argon had effect on locomotor and mu receptor activity neither in rats pretreated with saline and challenged with amphetamine (acute amphetamine) nor in rats pretreated and challenged with saline solution (controls). These results indicate that argon inhibits the development of both locomotor sensitization and mu opioid receptor activation induced by repeated administration of amphetamine.

  7. Locomotor activity during the frenzy swim: analysing early swimming behaviour in hatchling sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla M; Booth, David T; Limpus, Colin J

    2011-12-01

    Swimming effort of hatchling sea turtles varies across species. In this study we analysed how swim thrust is produced in terms of power stroke rate, mean maximum thrust per power stroke and percentage of time spent power stroking throughout the first 18 h of swimming after entering the water, in both loggerhead and flatback turtle hatchlings and compared this with previous data from green turtle hatchlings. Loggerhead and green turtle hatchlings had similar power stroke rates and percentage of time spent power stroking throughout the trial, although mean maximum thrust was always significantly higher in green hatchlings, making them the most vigorous swimmers in our three-species comparison. Flatback hatchlings, however, were different from the other two species, with overall lower values in all three swimming variables. Their swimming effort dropped significantly during the first 2 h and kept decreasing significantly until the end of the trial at 18 h. These results support the hypothesis that ecological factors mould the swimming behaviour of hatchling sea turtles, with predator pressure being important in determining the strategy used to swim offshore. Loggerhead and green turtle hatchlings seem to adopt an intensely vigorous and energetically costly frenzy swim that would quickly take them offshore into the open ocean in order to reduce their exposure to near-shore aquatic predators. Flatback hatchlings, however, are restricted in geographic distribution and remain within the continental shelf region where predator pressure is probably relatively constant. For this reason, flatback hatchlings might use only part of their energy reserves during a less vigorous frenzy phase, with lower overall energy expenditure during the first day compared with loggerhead and green turtle hatchlings. PMID:22071188

  8. Assessing Locomotor Activity in Larval Zebrafish: Influence of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Variables

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. We are exploring methods to detect developmentally neurotoxic chemicals using zebrafish behavior at 6 days of age. The behavioral paradig...

  9. Social Interactions and the Circadian Rhythm in Locomotor Activity in the Cockroach Leucophaea maderae

    PubMed Central

    Knadler, Joseph J.; Page, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    The role of social interactions in entrainment has not been extensively studied in the invertebrates. Leucophaea maderae is a gregarious species of cockroach that exhibits extensive social interactions. Social interactions associated with copulation between the sexes have been shown to be regulated by the circadian system. We show here that social interactions between males are also under circadian control. We examined the question of whether or not these rhythmic social contacts could function as zeitgebers capable of regulating circadian phase and period. Animals initially in phase that were housed as groups or pairs of single sex or mixed sex in constant darkness for 2–7 weeks were found to drift out of phase. Their behavior was not significantly different from individual animals maintained in isolation. Further, animals that were initially out of phase by 12 hours housed as groups or pairs were not significantly different in phase from animals that were isolated. The results show that the circadian clocks of cockroaches are remarkably insensitive to the extensive social interactions that occur between individuals. PMID:19360487

  10. Effects of a thyrotropin releasing hormone analogue on locomotor and other motor activity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Clarke, K A; Parker, A J

    1985-04-01

    In the present experiments, locomotion has been studied in rats after injection of TRH analogue RX77368 (10 mg/kg i.p.). The measure used was the frequency of the cyclic shifts of weight from side to side (WTF) which accompany the progress of locomotion. It therefore provides an indirect measure of stepping frequency. After injection of RX77368 there was a shift in WTFs towards higher frequencies, i.e. when the rat walked it was taking more steps per second. These results suggest that RX77368 stimulates basic motor patterns associated with locomotion. The results obtained in these experiments are compared with those obtained using different quantification methods for locomotion and there is speculation concerning the possible modes of action of RX77368 including interactions with other neurotransmitter systems. PMID:3923383

  11. Locomotor activity during the frenzy swim: analysing early swimming behaviour in hatchling sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla M; Booth, David T; Limpus, Colin J

    2011-12-01

    Swimming effort of hatchling sea turtles varies across species. In this study we analysed how swim thrust is produced in terms of power stroke rate, mean maximum thrust per power stroke and percentage of time spent power stroking throughout the first 18 h of swimming after entering the water, in both loggerhead and flatback turtle hatchlings and compared this with previous data from green turtle hatchlings. Loggerhead and green turtle hatchlings had similar power stroke rates and percentage of time spent power stroking throughout the trial, although mean maximum thrust was always significantly higher in green hatchlings, making them the most vigorous swimmers in our three-species comparison. Flatback hatchlings, however, were different from the other two species, with overall lower values in all three swimming variables. Their swimming effort dropped significantly during the first 2 h and kept decreasing significantly until the end of the trial at 18 h. These results support the hypothesis that ecological factors mould the swimming behaviour of hatchling sea turtles, with predator pressure being important in determining the strategy used to swim offshore. Loggerhead and green turtle hatchlings seem to adopt an intensely vigorous and energetically costly frenzy swim that would quickly take them offshore into the open ocean in order to reduce their exposure to near-shore aquatic predators. Flatback hatchlings, however, are restricted in geographic distribution and remain within the continental shelf region where predator pressure is probably relatively constant. For this reason, flatback hatchlings might use only part of their energy reserves during a less vigorous frenzy phase, with lower overall energy expenditure during the first day compared with loggerhead and green turtle hatchlings.

  12. Comparison of Infant and Adult Rats in Exploratory Activity, Diurnal Patterns, and Responses to Novel and Anxiety-Provoking Environments

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kiersten S.; Morrell, Joan I.

    2008-01-01

    Infant rats emerge from the maternal nest at Postnatal Day 17–18 to have their first critical environmental experiences; they may be particularly sensitive to experiences or experimental interventions that can affect their adult capacity. The authors address open questions on 2 components of normative environmental exploration, locomotor activity and response to anxiety-provoking locations, in Postnatal Day 18 infant and Postnatal Day 60 adult rats. The authors compare diurnal patterns of locomotor activity, wheel running, novel and familiar open-field activity, and 2 measures of anxiety. Infants have an equivalent capacity to adults for locomotor activity and wheel running and a fundamentally adult-like diurnal rhythm, except that they do not anticipate light–dark transitions, are more perturbable at their most somnolent, and are more or less active during specific limited phases than adults. Infants initially have a lower rate of locomotor activity in novel environments and have a greater willingness to be active in anxiety-provoking locations. Such differences may allow enhanced gathering of environmental information by the infant and are important to consider in the design of experiments using infants. PMID:17592936

  13. The dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer exerts tonic inhibitory effect on the expression of amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Maurice Y.F.; Perreault, Melissa L.; Fan, Theresa; George, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    A role for the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer in the regulation of reward and addiction-related processes has been previously implicated. In the present study, we examined the effects of D1-D2 heteromer stimulation by the agonist SKF 83959 and its disruption by a selective TAT-D1 peptide on amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization, a behavioural model widely used to study the neuroadaptations associated with psychostimulant addiction. D1-D2 heteromer activation by SKF 83959 did not alter the acute locomotor effects of amphetamine but significantly inhibited amphetamine-induced locomotor responding across the 5 day treatment regimen. In addition, a single injection of SKF 83959 was sufficient to abolish the expression of locomotor sensitization induced by a priming injection of amphetamine after a 72-hour withdrawal. Conversely, inhibition of D1-D2 heteromer activity by the TAT-D1 peptide enhanced subchronic amphetamine-induced locomotion and the expression of amphetamine locomotor sensitization. Treatment solely with the TAT-D1 disrupting peptide during the initial 5 day treatment phase was sufficient to induce a sensitized locomotor phenotype in response to the priming injection of amphetamine. Together these findings demonstrate that the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer exerts tonic inhibitory control on neurobiological processes involved in sensitization to amphetamine, indicating that the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer may be a novel molecular substrate in addiction processes involving psychostimulants. PMID:25444866

  14. Virucidal activity of an activated sludge supernatant.

    PubMed

    Rehn, Y; Schwartzbrod, L

    1993-09-01

    The virucidal activity of the activated sludge aqueous phase was studied from the time of initial inoculation with a poliovirus type 1 suspension and for durations of three and nine days. The mixtures were incubated in presence of a nutritive medium at 26 degrees C and samples were drawn at regular intervals of time for viral titration. The activated sludge supernatant (ASS) caused an important decrease of the titer of the poliovirus type 1 suspension especially after nine days of incubation. There was an average reduction of the viral titer of 79% after three days and 97% after nine days. When incubating the ASS with a nutritive medium before inoculating it, the viral decrease was much greater than when incubating without nutritive medium. When sterilizing the ASS before incubation and then inoculating it, no significant virucidal activity was observed (0% to 6%). Furthermore, when the ASS was subjected to a sterilization by filtration after incubation and was then inoculated, there existed a lower but not negligible viral inactivation (53% to 64%). The virucidal activity potentiality of the ASS is therefore due to microorganisms acting both directly as a support for viral particles adsorption and indirectly via the synthesis of substances with virucidal activity. When freezing and thawing the incubated ASS, and then sterilizing it by filtration before inoculation, the viral decrease reached 87% to 94%. This proves that the virucidal substances are only partly excreted by the microorganisms.

  15. Brain activity during stepping: a novel MRI-compatible device.

    PubMed

    Hollnagel, Christoph; Brügger, Mike; Vallery, Heike; Wolf, Peter; Dietz, Volker; Kollias, Spyros; Riener, Robert

    2011-09-30

    Little is known about the impact of supraspinal centers on the control of human locomotion. Analyzing brain activity can help to clarify their impact and to improve the effects of locomotor training. A fMRI-compatible pneumatic robotic device is presented that can generate freely programmable, highly repetitive periodic active and passive leg movements comprised by hip, knee, and ankle joint displacements. Forces of up to 400N can be applied to each foot while the subject is lying in a supine position. Magnetic interference of the device with the magnetic field of the scanner is measurable, but does not affect the image quality as obtained by a usual image analysis procedure. In a first experiment, brain activity of one healthy subject was acquired during nine different gait-like movement conditions. Brain activity in the somatosensory and motor function related areas increased more when the subject actively moved the legs than when the legs were passively moved by the device. In almost all conditions, mean head motion could be limited to 2mm within the duration of one fMRI scan by a specifically developed head and trunk fixation system. Based on these results, it is concluded that our device will significantly contribute to a better understanding of human locomotor control and related therapeutic effects in spinal cord injured and stroke patients, and thereby, to improve training approaches. PMID:21827788

  16. Modanifil activates the histaminergic system through the orexinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomoko; Murotani, Tomotaka; Yamatodani, Atsushi

    2010-10-15

    Modafinil is a drug used to treat hypersomnolence of narcolepsy. We previously reported that modafinil increases hypothalamic histamine release in rats but did not increase locomotor activity in histamine-depleted mice, suggesting that modafinil-induced locomotor activity involves the histaminergic system. Modafinil is also thought to express its effect through the orexinergic neurons, and orexin increases hypothalamic histamine release. These findings led us to investigate whether modafinil activates the histaminergic system via the orexinergic system. In the present study, we performed in vivo microdialysis and c-Fos immunohistochemistry to investigate whether the orexinergic system mediates the activation of the histaminergic system by modafinil using orexin neuron-deficient mice. Two hours after the injection, modafinil (150 mg/kg) caused a significant increase of histamine release compared to the basal release in wild type mice. However, modafinil had no effect on the histamine release in orexin neuron-deficient mice. By immunohistochemical study, we found that there was no neuronal activation in the tuberomammillary nucleus where the cell bodies of the histaminergic neurons exclusively exist in orexin neuron-deficient mice. These findings indicate that modafinil-induced increment of histamine release requires intact orexinergic neurons.

  17. [Exercises in patients with myositis--active treatment intervention?].

    PubMed

    Babić-Naglić, Durdica

    2012-01-01

    Polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis are rare inflammatory myopathies characterized by muscle weakness. Regardless of pharmacological treatment in most patients remain muscle weakness and inability to perform daily activities. Until recently, the prevailing opinion was that active exercises can exacerbate the inflammatory activity in the muscles and is now known that active exercise and exercise with resistance improve strength and endurance of muscles, aerobic capacity and overall functional ability. Exercises are prescribed according to the disease activity, manual muscle test or dynamometer measurements, range of motion, cardiorespiratory capacity and clinical status of the locomotor system. Each of the components can be influenced by targeted exercises and should be a integral part of myositis therapy.

  18. Active magnetic regenerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  19. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  20. Balance Food and Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Health Professionals Tools and Resources Promotional Materials Programming Materials Weight Management Nutrition Physical Activity Reduce Screen ... Training For Health Professionals Tools & Resources Promotional ... Programming Materials Weight Management Nutrition Physical Activity Reduce Screen ...

  1. Population Education. Awareness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Deborah E.

    1990-01-01

    Described are awareness activities that deal with human population growth, resources, and the environment. Activities include simulations, mathematical exercises, and discussions of the topic. Specific examples of what individuals can do to help are listed. (KR)

  2. Major operations and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  3. Active Fire Mapping Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS ... Data Web Services Latest Detected Fire Activity Other MODIS Products Frequently Asked Questions About Active Fire Maps ...

  4. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  5. Effects of light, food, and methamphetamine on the circadian activity rhythm in mice.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, Julie S; Yamazaki, Shin

    2014-04-10

    The circadian rhythm of locomotor activity in mice is synchronized to environmental factors such as light and food availability. It is well-known that entrainment of the activity rhythm to the light-dark cycle is attained by the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Locomotor activity is also controlled by two extra-SCN oscillators; periodic food availability entrains the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) and constant consumption of low-dose methamphetamine reveals the output of the methamphetamine-sensitive circadian oscillator (MASCO). In this study, we sought to investigate the relationship between the SCN, FEO, and MASCO by examining the combinatorial effects of light, food restriction, and/or methamphetamine on locomotor activity. To investigate coupling between the SCN and FEO, we tested whether food anticipatory activity, which is the output of the FEO, shifted coordinately with phase shifts of the light-dark cycle. We found that the phase of food anticipatory activity was phase-delayed or phase-advanced symmetrically with the respective shift of the light-dark cycle, suggesting that the FEO is strongly coupled to the SCN and the phase angle between the SCN and FEO is maintained during ad libitum feeding. To examine the effect of methamphetamine on the output of the FEO, we administered methamphetamine to mice undergoing restricted feeding and found that food-entrained activity was delayed by methamphetamine treatment. In addition, restricted feeding induced dissociation of the MASCO and SCN activity rhythms during short-term methamphetamine treatment, when these rhythms are typically integrated. In conclusion, our data suggest that the outputs of the SCN, FEO and MASCO collectively drive locomotor activity.

  6. Green Schools Activity Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacramento Tree Foundation, CA.

    This collection of interdisciplinary hands-on activities covers a variety of topics related to trees and conservation. Twenty-four activities integrate the subjects of social studies, fine arts, science, language arts, math, geography, and music. Although activity instructions are not consistent they usually contain details on objectives and…

  7. Activity Sheets. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Power Company, Educational Services Dept., Charlotte, NC.

    This document consists of energy vocabulary activities, three games, worksheets, laboratory activities/exercises, and an introductory classroom exercise designed to introduce energy concepts to students. Vocabulary activities focus on coal and energy consumption. The three games (with instructions) focus on various aspects of energy and energy…

  8. Bonus Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Provides on-task activities to fill in unexpected extra moments in elementary classes. The activities require little preparation and take 5-15 minutes to complete. There are activities for math, language arts, social science, science, critical thinking, and computer. An outer space board game is also included. (SM)

  9. Climate Change: An Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Garry

    1995-01-01

    Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, Climate Change, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's climate. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to…

  10. Active Learning Crosses Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Diane K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the benefits of intergenerational programs, highlighting a child care program that offers age-appropriate and mutually beneficial activities for children and elders within a nearby retirement community. The program has adopted High/Scope's active learning approach to planning and implementing activities that involve both generations. The…

  11. Activity Theory and Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  12. Highlights of 1981 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The highlights of NASA's 1981 activities are presented, including the results of the two flights of the space shuttle Columbia and the Voyager 2 encounter with Saturn. Accomplishments in the areas of space transportation operations; space science; aeronautical, energy, and space research and development; as well as space tracking, international activities, and 1981 launch activities are discussed.

  13. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  14. FL Activities & Festivals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Hastings-on-Hudson, NY.

    A collection of student, class, and school foreign language activities suggests a variety of projects and describes three specific school efforts. The suggested activities include: (1) individual student efforts such as writing to pen-pals; (2) group activities such as a foreign language auction or sing-along; (3) group projects for the school…

  15. Technology Learning Activities I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This guide contains 30 technology learning activities. Activities may contain all or some of the following: an introduction, objectives, materials and equipment, challenges, limitations, notes and investigations, resources and references used, and evaluation ideas. Activity titles are: (1) Occupations in Construction Technology; (2) Designing a…

  16. Woodsy Owl Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide offers teachers and after-school group leaders 12 fun and engaging activities. Activities feature lessons on trees, water, wind, the earth, food, and waste. The activities are designed to help children aged 5-8 become more aware of the natural environment and fundamental conservation principles. Titles of children's books are embedded…

  17. Sedative effects of inhaled essential oil components of traditional fragrance Pogostemon cablin leaves and their structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ken; Akahoshi, Yasuko; Ito, Michiho; Kaneko, Shuji

    2016-04-01

    Plants rich in essential oils, such as Pogostemon cablin (P. cablin; guǎng huò xiāng), have been used for aromas and as herbal medicines since ancient times because of their sedative effects. We investigated the sedative effects of hexane extract from P. cablin using locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of P. cablin hexane extract exhibited significant sedative activity in a dose-dependent manner. In order to isolate the active constituents, the extract was fractionated and diacetone alcohol was identified as an active compound. Inhalation of diacetone alcohol significantly reduced murine locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was not observed in olfaction-impaired mice. We examined the structure-activity relationship of diacetone alcohol and similar compounds. The ketone group at the two-position and number of carbons may play important roles in the sedative activity of diacetone alcohol. PMID:27114936

  18. Sedative effects of inhaled essential oil components of traditional fragrance Pogostemon cablin leaves and their structure–activity relationships

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Ken; Akahoshi, Yasuko; Ito, Michiho; Kaneko, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Plants rich in essential oils, such as Pogostemon cablin (P. cablin; 廣藿香 guǎng huò xiāng), have been used for aromas and as herbal medicines since ancient times because of their sedative effects. We investigated the sedative effects of hexane extract from P. cablin using locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of P. cablin hexane extract exhibited significant sedative activity in a dose-dependent manner. In order to isolate the active constituents, the extract was fractionated and diacetone alcohol was identified as an active compound. Inhalation of diacetone alcohol significantly reduced murine locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was not observed in olfaction-impaired mice. We examined the structure–activity relationship of diacetone alcohol and similar compounds. The ketone group at the two-position and number of carbons may play important roles in the sedative activity of diacetone alcohol. PMID:27114936

  19. Muscle spindle and fusimotor activity in locomotion.

    PubMed

    Ellaway, Peter H; Taylor, Anthony; Durbaba, Rade

    2015-08-01

    Mammals may exhibit different forms of locomotion even within a species. A particular form of locomotion (e.g. walk, run, bound) appears to be selected by supraspinal commands, but the precise pattern, i.e. phasing of limbs and muscles, is generated within the spinal cord by so-called central pattern generators. Peripheral sense organs, particularly the muscle spindle, play a crucial role in modulating the central pattern generator output. In turn, the feedback from muscle spindles is itself modulated by static and dynamic fusimotor (gamma) neurons. The activity of muscle spindle afferents and fusimotor neurons during locomotion in the cat is reviewed here. There is evidence for some alpha-gamma co-activation during locomotion involving static gamma motoneurons. However, both static and dynamic gamma motoneurons show patterns of modulation that are distinct from alpha motoneuron activity. It has been proposed that static gamma activity may drive muscle spindle secondary endings to signal the intended movement to the central nervous system. Dynamic gamma motoneuron drive appears to prime muscle spindle primary endings to signal transitions in phase of the locomotor cycle. These findings come largely from reduced animal preparations (decerebrate) and require confirmation in freely moving intact animals. PMID:26047022

  20. Muscle spindle and fusimotor activity in locomotion.

    PubMed

    Ellaway, Peter H; Taylor, Anthony; Durbaba, Rade

    2015-08-01

    Mammals may exhibit different forms of locomotion even within a species. A particular form of locomotion (e.g. walk, run, bound) appears to be selected by supraspinal commands, but the precise pattern, i.e. phasing of limbs and muscles, is generated within the spinal cord by so-called central pattern generators. Peripheral sense organs, particularly the muscle spindle, play a crucial role in modulating the central pattern generator output. In turn, the feedback from muscle spindles is itself modulated by static and dynamic fusimotor (gamma) neurons. The activity of muscle spindle afferents and fusimotor neurons during locomotion in the cat is reviewed here. There is evidence for some alpha-gamma co-activation during locomotion involving static gamma motoneurons. However, both static and dynamic gamma motoneurons show patterns of modulation that are distinct from alpha motoneuron activity. It has been proposed that static gamma activity may drive muscle spindle secondary endings to signal the intended movement to the central nervous system. Dynamic gamma motoneuron drive appears to prime muscle spindle primary endings to signal transitions in phase of the locomotor cycle. These findings come largely from reduced animal preparations (decerebrate) and require confirmation in freely moving intact animals.

  1. Tea enhances insulin activity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard A; Polansky, Marilyn M

    2002-11-20

    The most widely known health benefits of tea relate to the polyphenols as the principal active ingredients in protection against oxidative damage and in antibacterial, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, and antimutagenic activities, but polyphenols in tea may also increase insulin activity. The objective of this study was to determine the insulin-enhancing properties of tea and its components. Tea, as normally consumed, was shown to increase insulin activity >15-fold in vitro in an epididymal fat cell assay. Black, green, and oolong teas but not herbal teas, which are not teas in the traditional sense because they do not contain leaves of Camellia senensis, were all shown to increase insulin activity. High-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of tea extracts utilizing a Waters SymmetryPrep C18 column showed that the majority of the insulin-potentiating activity for green and oolong teas was due to epigallocatechin gallate. For black tea, the activity was present in several regions of the chromatogram corresponding to, in addition to epigallocatechin gallate, tannins, theaflavins, and other undefined compounds. Several known compounds found in tea were shown to enhance insulin with the greatest activity due to epigallocatechin gallate followed by epicatechin gallate, tannins, and theaflavins. Caffeine, catechin, and epicatechin displayed insignificant insulin-enhancing activities. Addition of lemon to the tea did not affect the insulin-potentiating activity. Addition of 5 g of 2% milk per cup decreased the insulin-potentiating activity one-third, and addition of 50 g of milk per cup decreased the insulin-potentiating activity approximately 90%. Nondairy creamers and soy milk also decreased the insulin-enhancing activity. These data demonstrate that tea contains in vitro insulin-enhancing activity and the predominant active ingredient is epigallocatechin gallate. PMID:12428980

  2. Impact of Tail Loss on the Behaviour and Locomotor Performance of Two Sympatric Lampropholis Skink Species

    PubMed Central

    Cromie, Gillian L.; Chapple, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Caudal autotomy is an anti-predator behaviour that is used by many lizard species. Although there is an immediate survival benefit, the subsequent absence of the tail may inhibit locomotor performance, alter activity and habitat use, and increase the individuals' susceptibility to future predation attempts. We used laboratory experiments to examine the impact of tail autotomy on locomotor performance, activity and basking site selection in two lizard species, the delicate skink (Lampropholis delicata) and garden skink (L. guichenoti), that occur sympatrically throughout southeastern Australia and are exposed to an identical suite of potential predators. Post-autotomy tail movement did not differ between the two Lampropholis species, although a positive relationship between the shed tail length and distance moved, but not the duration of movement, was observed. Tail autotomy resulted in a substantial decrease in sprint speed in both species (28–39%), although this impact was limited to the optimal performance temperature (30°C). Although L. delicata was more active than L. guichenoti, tail autotomy resulted in decreased activity in both species. Sheltered basking sites were preferred over open sites by both Lampropholis species, although this preference was stronger in L. delicata. Caudal autotomy did not alter the basking site preferences of either species. Thus, both Lampropholis species had similar behavioural responses to autotomy. Our study also indicates that the impact of tail loss on locomotor performance may be temperature-dependent and highlights that future studies should be conducted over a broad thermal range. PMID:22523555

  3. The effect of early environmental manipulation on locomotor sensitivity and methamphetamine conditioned place preference reward.

    PubMed

    Hensleigh, E; Pritchard, L M

    2014-07-15

    Early life stress leads to several effects on neurological development, affecting health and well-being later in life. Instances of child abuse and neglect are associated with higher rates of depression, risk taking behavior, and an increased risk of drug abuse later in life. This study used repeated neonatal separation of rat pups as a model of early life stress. Rat pups were either handled and weighed as controls or separated for 180 min per day during postnatal days 2-8. In adulthood, male and female rats were tested for methamphetamine conditioned place preference reward and methamphetamine induced locomotor activity. Tissue samples were collected and mRNA was quantified for the norepinephrine transporter in the prefrontal cortex and the dopamine transporter in the nucleus accumbens. Results indicated rats given methamphetamine formed a conditioned place preference, but there was no effect of early separation or sex. Separated males showed heightened methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity, but there was no effect of early separation for females. Overall females were more active than males in response to both saline and methamphetamine. No differences in mRNA levels were observed across any conditions. These results suggest early neonatal separation affects methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity in a sex-dependent manner but has no effects on methamphetamine conditioned place preference. PMID:24713150

  4. Dexamethasone suppresses the locomotor response of neonatal rats to novel environment.

    PubMed

    Menshanov, Petr N; Bannova, Anita V; Dygalo, Nikolay N

    2014-09-01

    Locomotion of animals in the novel environment is determined by two main factors-the intrinsic motor activity and the specific locomotor response to novelty. Glucocorticoids alter neurobehavioral development of mammals and its locomotor manifestations. However, it remains unclear whether the intrinsic and/or the novelty-induced activity are affected by glucocorticoids during early life. Here, the principal component analysis was used to determine the main factors that underlie alterations in locomotion of rat pups treated with dexamethasone. It was shown that neonatal rats exhibited an enhanced locomotion in the novel environment beginning from postnatal day (PD) 5. We found for the first time that this reaction was significantly suppressed by dexamethasone. The effect was specific to the novelty-induced component of behavior, while the intrinsic locomotor activity was not affected by glucocorticoid treatment. The suppression of the behavioral response to novelty was maximal at PD7 and vanquished at PD10-11. In parallel with the hormonal effect on the behavior, dexamethasone upregulated the main cell death executor-active caspase-3 in the prefrontal cortex of 7-day old rats. Thus, dexamethasone-induced alterations in the novelty-related behavior may be the earliest visible signs of the brain damage that could lead to forthcoming depressive state or schizophrenia, emerging as a result of neonatal stress or glucocorticoid treatment.

  5. Locomotor Dysfunction after Spaceflight: Characterization and Countermeasure Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Cohen, H. S.; Peters, B. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2007-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight show disturbances in locomotor control manifested by changes in various sub-systems including head-trunk coordination, dynamic visual acuity, lower limb muscle activation patterning and kinematics (Glasauer, et al., 1995; Bloomberg, et al., 1997; McDonald, et al., 1996; 1997; Layne, et al., 1997; 1998, 2001, 2004; Newman, et al., 1997; Bloomberg and Mulavara, 2003). These post flight changes in locomotor performance, due to neural adaptation to the microgravity conditions of space flight, affect the ability of crewmembers especially after a long duration mission to egress their vehicle and perform extravehicular activities soon after landing on Earth or following a landing on the surface of the Moon or Mars. At present, no operational training intervention is available pre- or in- flight to mitigate post flight locomotor disturbances. Our laboratory is currently developing a gait adaptability training program that is designed to facilitate recovery of locomotor function following a return to a gravitational environment. The training program exploits the ability of the sensorimotor system to generalize from exposure to multiple adaptive challenges during training so that the gait control system essentially "learns to learn" and therefore can reorganize more rapidly when faced with a novel adaptive challenge. Ultimately, the functional goal of an adaptive generalization countermeasure is not necessarily to immediately return movement patterns back to "normal". Rather the training regimen should facilitate the reorganization of available sensorimotor sub-systems to achieve safe and effective locomotion as soon as possible after space flight. We have previously confirmed that subjects participating in adaptive generalization training programs, using a variety of visuomotor distortions and different motor tasks from throwing to negotiating an obstacle course as the dependent measure, can learn to enhance their ability to adapt to a

  6. Isolation-induced locomotor hyperactivity and hypoalgesia in rats are prevented by handling and reversed by resocialization.

    PubMed

    Gentsch, C; Lichtsteiner, M; Frischknecht, H R; Feer, H; Siegfried, B

    1988-01-01

    Differences in locomotor activity in the open field were found between individually and group-housed rats (isol greater than soc). Daily handling, initiated at postnatal day 1, was without effect in group-housed rats but prevented the isolation-induced hyperactivity. For tail-flick latency, strikingly similar differences (isol greater than soc; prevention by handling) have been observed. The isolation-induced aberrations in both locomotor reactivity in a novel environment and in pain sensitivity could be reversed by subsequent resocialization. This indicates that the altered sensitivities to external stimuli are caused by the environmental manipulation. PMID:3413245

  7. Vestibular activation of sympathetic nerve activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.; Carter, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The vestibulosympathetic reflex refers to sympathetic nerve activation by the vestibular system. Animal studies indicate that the vestibular system assists in blood pressure regulation during orthostasis. Although human studies clearly demonstrate activation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during engagement of the otolith organs, the role of the vestibulosympathetic reflex in maintaining blood pressure during orthostasis is not well-established. Examination of the vestibulosympathetic reflex with other cardiovascular reflexes indicates that it is a powerful and independent reflex. Ageing, which is associated with an increased risk for orthostatic hypotension, attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex. The attenuated reflex is associated with a reduction in arterial pressure. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the vestibulosympathetic reflex assists in blood pressure regulation in humans, but future studies examining this reflex in other orthostatically intolerant populations are necessary to address this hypothesis.

  8. Effects of repeated walking in a perturbing environment: a 4-day locomotor learning study.

    PubMed

    Blanchette, Andreanne; Moffet, Helene; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Bouyer, Laurent J

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that when subjects repeatedly walk in a perturbing environment, initial movement error becomes smaller, suggesting that retention of the adapted locomotor program occurred (learning). It has been proposed that the newly learned locomotor program may be stored separately from the baseline program. However, how locomotor performance evolves with repeated sessions of walking with the perturbation is not yet known. To address this question, 10 healthy subjects walked on a treadmill on 4 consecutive days. Each day, locomotor performance was measured using kinematics and surface electromyography (EMGs), before, during, and after exposure to a perturbation, produced by an elastic tubing that pulled the foot forward and up during swing, inducing a foot velocity error in the first strides. Initial movement error decreased significantly between days 1 and 2 and then remained stable. Associated changes in medial hamstring EMG activity stabilized only on day 3, however. Aftereffects were present after perturbation removal, suggesting that daily adaptation involved central command recalibration of the baseline program. Aftereffects gradually decreased across days but were still visible on day 4. Separation between the newly learned and baseline programs may take longer than suggested by the daily improvement in initial performance in the perturbing environment or may never be complete. These results therefore suggest that reaching optimal performance in a perturbing environment should not be used as the main indicator of a completed learning process, as central reorganization of the motor commands continues days after initial performance has stabilized. PMID:22496521

  9. Chemogenetic ablation of dopaminergic neurons leads to transient locomotor impairments in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Rafael; Noble, Sandra; Yoon, Kevin; Anisman, Hymie; Ekker, Marc

    2015-10-01

    To determine the impact of a controlled loss of dopaminergic neurons on locomotor function, we generated transgenic zebrafish, Tg(dat:CFP-NTR), expressing a cyan fluorescent protein-nitroreductase fusion protein (CFP-NTR) under the control of dopamine transporter (dat) cis-regulatory elements. Embryonic and larval zebrafish express the transgene in several groups of dopaminergic neurons, notably in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, diencephalon and caudal hypothalamus. Administration of the pro-drug metronidazole (Mtz) resulted in activation of caspase 3 in CFP-positive neurons and in a reduction in dat-positive cells by 5 days post-fertilization (dpf). Loss of neurons coincided with impairments in global locomotor parameters such as swimming distance, percentage of time spent moving, as well as changes in tail bend parameters such as time to maximal bend and angular velocity. Dopamine levels were transiently decreased following Mtz administration. Recovery of some of the locomotor parameters was observed by 7 dpf. However, the total numbers of dat-expressing neurons were still decreased at 7, 12, or 14 dpf, even though there was evidence for production of new dat-expressing cells. Tg(dat:CFP-NTR) zebrafish provide a model to correlate altered dopaminergic neuron numbers with locomotor function and to investigate factors influencing regeneration of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:26118896

  10. Functional Organization of Locomotor Interneurons in the Ventral Lumbar Spinal Cord of the Newborn Rat

    PubMed Central

    Antri, Myriam; Mellen, Nicholas; Cazalets, Jean-René

    2011-01-01

    Although the mammalian locomotor CPG has been localized to the lumbar spinal cord, the functional-anatomical organization of flexor and extensor interneurons has not been characterized. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flexor and extensor interneuronal networks for walking are physically segregated in the lumbar spinal cord. For this purpose, we performed optical recordings and lesion experiments from a horizontally sectioned lumbar spinal cord isolated from neonate rats. This ventral hemi spinal cord preparation produces well-organized fictive locomotion when superfused with 5-HT/NMDA. The dorsal surface of the preparation was visualized using the Ca2+ indicator fluo-4 AM, while simultaneously monitoring motor output at ventral roots L2 and L5. Using calcium imaging, we provided a general mapping view of the interneurons that maintained a stable phase relationship with motor output. We showed that the dorsal surface of L1 segment contains a higher density of locomotor rhythmic cells than the other segments. Moreover, L1 segment lesioning induced the most important changes in the locomotor activity in comparison with lesions at the T13 or L2 segments. However, no lesions led to selective disruption of either flexor or extensor output. In addition, this study found no evidence of functional parcellation of locomotor interneurons into flexor and extensor pools at the dorsal-ventral midline of the lumbar spinal cord of the rat. PMID:21698092

  11. Development of a Countermeasure to Mitigate Postflight Locomotor Dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Warren, L. E.; Ruttley, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight experience locomotor dysfunction following their return to Earth. Our laboratory is currently developing a gait adaptability training program that is designed to facilitate recovery of locomotor function following a return to a gravitational environment. The training program exploits the ability of the sensorimotor system to generalize from exposure to multiple adaptive challenges during training so that the gait control system essentially learns to learn and therefore can reorganize more rapidly when faced with a novel adaptive challenge. Evidence for the potential efficacy of an adaptive generalization gait training program can be obtained from numerous studies in the motor learning literature which have demonstrated that systematically varying the conditions of training enhances the ability of the performer to learn and retain a novel motor task. These variable practice training approaches have been used in applied contexts to improve motor skills required in a number of different sports. The central nervous system (CNS) can produce voluntary movement in an almost infinite number of ways. For example, locomotion can be achieved with many different combinations of joint angles, muscle activation patterns and forces. The CNS can exploit these degrees of freedom to enhance motor response adaptability during periods of adaptive flux like that encountered during a change in gravitational environment. Ultimately, the functional goal of an adaptive generalization countermeasure is not necessarily to immediately return movement patterns back to normal. Rather the training regimen should facilitate the reorganization of available sensory and motor subsystems to achieve safe and effective locomotion as soon as possible after long duration space flight. Indeed, this approach has been proposed as a basic feature underlying effective neurological rehabilitation. We have previously confirmed that subjects participating in an adaptive

  12. Acute and chronic cocaine behavioral effects in novel versus familiar environments: open-field familiarity differentiates cocaine locomotor stimulant effects from cocaine emotional behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    Carey, Robert J; DePalma, Gail; Damianopoulos, Ernest

    2005-03-30

    Cocaine is a potent stimulant drug, but its stimulant effects can be substantially modulated by environmental novelty versus familiarity. In this report, we varied exposures to a novel environment as a way to assess the impact of environmental familiarity versus novelty upon the locomotor activation induced by acute and chronic cocaine treatments. In experiment 1, the effects of 1 (PE1) versus 0 (PE0) pre-exposures to the test environment were compared for their impact upon the locomotor stimulant, central zone entry and grooming effects induced by an acute cocaine (10 mg/kg) treatment. In experiment 2, the effects of 10 (PE10) versus 0 (PE0) pre-exposures upon the cocaine effects were compared. Experiment 3 assessed the effects of nine cocaine treatments (10.0 mg/kg) initiated in a novel environment (PE0) versus familiar environment (PE10). In all experiments, cocaine had a potent locomotor stimulant effect in a novel environment, which was attenuated by environmental familiarity such that in PE10 groups, cocaine did not reliably induce an acute locomotor stimulant effect. Environmental novelty/familiarity, however, did not reliably alter cocaine effects upon central zone penetration, grooming behavior, or the neurochemical effects induced by cocaine. In the chronic treatment regimen, the PE0 group exhibited a tolerance-like decrease in locomotor activation, but the PE10 group exhibited a sensitization-like increase in locomotor activation. Despite the marked directional changes in the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine treatments, initiated in a novel (PE0) versus familiar (PE10) environment, the same asymptotic levels of locomotor activation were achieved. In contrast, the behavioral measures of central zone activity progressively increased with repeated treatments regardless of whether the environment was initially novel (PE0) or familiar (PE10). Thus, habituation factors can profoundly alter the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine and can induce pseudo

  13. Monitoring Locomotor Load in Soccer: Is Metabolic Power, Powerful?

    PubMed

    Buchheit, M; Manouvrier, C; Cassirame, J; Morin, J-B

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of metabolic power (P) estimated from locomotor demands during soccer-specific drills. 14 highly-trained soccer players performed a soccer-specific circuit with the ball (3×1-min bouts, interspersed with 30-s passive recovery) on 2 different occasions. Locomotor activity was monitored with 4-Hz GPSs, while oxygen update (VO2) was collected with a portable gas analyzer. P was calculated using either net VO2 responses and traditional calorimetry principles (PVO2, W.kg(-1)) or locomotor demands (PGPS, W.kg(-1)). Distance covered into different speed, acceleration and P zones was recorded. While PGPS was 29±10% lower than PVO2 (d<- 3) during the exercise bouts, it was 85±7% lower (d<- 8) during recovery phases. The typical error between PGPS vs. PVO2 was moderate: 19.8%, 90% confidence limits: (18.4;21.6). The correlation between both estimates of P was small: 0.24 (0.14;0.33). Very large day-to-day variations were observed for acceleration, deceleration and > 20 W.kg(-1) distances (all CVs > 50%), while average Po2 and PGPS showed CVs < 10%. ICC ranged from very low- (acceleration and > 20 W.kg(-1) distances) to-very high (PVO2). PGPS largely underestimates the energy demands of soccer-specific drills, especially during the recovery phases. The poor reliability of PGPS >20 W.kg(-1) questions its value for monitoring purposes in soccer.

  14. Physical Activity and Albuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Emily S.; Fisher, Naomi D.; Forman, John P.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2010-01-01

    Higher urinary albumin excretion predicts future cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. Physical activity improves endothelial function so activity may reduce albuminuria. Among diabetics, physical activity decreases albuminuria. In nondiabetics, prior studies have shown no association. The authors explored the cross-sectional association between physical activity and albuminuria in 3,587 nondiabetic women in 2 US cohorts, the Nurses’ Health Study I in 2000 and the Nurses’ Health Study II in 1997. Physical activity was expressed as metabolic equivalents per week. The outcome was the top albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) decile. Multivariate logistic regression was used. Secondary analyses explored the ACR association with strenuous activity and walking. The mean age was 58.6 years. Compared with women in the lowest physical activity quintile, those in the highest quintile had a multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for the top ACR decile of 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.93). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for the top ACR decile for those with greater than 210 minutes per week of strenuous activity compared with no strenuous activity was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.99), and for those in the highest quintile of walking compared with the lowest quintile, it was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.02). Greater physical activity is associated with a lower ACR in nondiabetic women. PMID:20133515

  15. Activated carbon from biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocha, S.; Manocha, L. M.; Joshi, Parth; Patel, Bhavesh; Dangi, Gaurav; Verma, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon are unique and versatile adsorbents having extended surface area, micro porous structure, universal adsorption effect, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Activated carbons are synthesized from variety of materials. Most commonly used on a commercial scale are cellulosic based precursors such as peat, coal, lignite wood and coconut shell. Variation occurs in precursors in terms of structure and carbon content. Coir having very low bulk density and porous structure is found to be one of the valuable raw materials for the production of highly porous activated carbon and other important factor is its high carbon content. Exploration of good low cost and non conventional adsorbent may contribute to the sustainability of the environment and offer promising benefits for the commercial purpose in future. Carbonization of biomass was carried out in a horizontal muffle furnace. Both carbonization and activation were performed in inert nitrogen atmosphere in one step to enhance the surface area and to develop interconnecting porosity. The types of biomass as well as the activation conditions determine the properties and the yield of activated carbon. Activated carbon produced from biomass is cost effective as it is easily available as a waste biomass. Activated carbon produced by combination of chemical and physical activation has higher surface area of 2442 m2/gm compared to that produced by physical activation (1365 m2/gm).

  16. Physiologic activities of the contact activation system.

    PubMed

    Schmaier, Alvin H

    2014-05-01

    The plasma contact activation (CAS) and kallikrein/kinin (KKS) systems consist of 4 proteins: factor XII, prekallikrein, high molecular weight kininogen, and the bradykinin B2 receptor. Murine genetic deletion of factor XII (F12(-/-)), prekallikrein (Klkb1(-/-)), high molecular weight kininogen (Kgn1(-/-)) and the bradykinin B2 receptor (Bdkrb2(-/-)) yield animals protected from thrombosis. With possible exception of F12(-/-) and Kgn1(-/-) mice, the mechanism(s) for thrombosis protection is not reduced contact activation. Bdkrb2(-/-) mice are best characterized and they are protected from thrombosis through over expression of components of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) leading to elevated prostacyclin with vascular and platelet inhibition. Alternatively, prolylcarboxypeptidase, a PK activator and degrader of angiotensin II, when deficient in the mouse leads to a prothrombotic state. Its mechanism for increased thrombosis also is mediated in part by components of the RAS. These observations suggest that thrombosis in mice of the CAS and KKS are mediated in part through the RAS and independent of reduced contact activation. PMID:24759141

  17. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  18. Schedule-induced polydipsia experience decreases locomotor response to amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Tazi, A; Dantzer, R; Le Moal, M

    1988-04-01

    To investigate the influence of schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) on central dopaminergic systems, rats trained in a SIP procedure were challenged with the psychostimulant and dopaminergic agonist, D-amphetamine. In a first experiment, rats that had access to water and developed SIP (SIP-positive) displayed a lower response to amphetamine than rats that had access to water but did not develop SIP (SIP-negative) and rats that had no access to water. There was no difference in the spontaneous activity of these different groups of animals. In a second experiment, SIP-positive rats displayed the same reduced response to amphetamine following only 10 min of SIP drinking. In addition, SIP-positive rats that were tested without access to water during the SIP test displayed an increased locomotor activity both after saline and amphetamine treatments. These results suggest that SIP has stress-reducing properties. PMID:3370459

  19. Lightning Activities and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2016-04-01

    The lightning activity is one of the key parameters to understand the atmospheric electric fields and/or currents near the Earth's surface as well as the lithosphere-atmosphere coupling during the earthquake preparation period. In this study, to see whether or not lightning activities are related to earthquakes, we statistically examine lightning activities 30 days before and after 78 land and 230 sea M>5.0 earthquakes in Taiwan during the 12-year period of 1993-2004. Lightning activities versus the location, depth, and magnitude of earthquakes are investigated. Results show that lightning activities tend to appear around the forthcoming epicenter and are significantly enhanced a few, especially 17-19, days before the M>6.0 shallow (depth D< 20 km) land earthquakes. Moreover, the size of the area around the epicenter with the statistical significance of lightning activity enhancement is proportional to the earthquake magnitude.

  20. Seasonal variations in daily rhythms of activity in athletic horses.

    PubMed

    Bertolucci, C; Giannetto, C; Fazio, F; Piccione, G

    2008-07-01

    Circadian rhythms reflect extensive programming of biological activity that meets and exploits the challenges and opportunities offered by the periodic nature of the environment. In the present investigation, we recorded the total activity of athletic horses kept at four different times of the year (vernal equinox, summer solstice, autumn equinox and winter solstice), to evaluate the presence of seasonal variations of daily activity rhythms. Athletic Thoroughbred horses were kept in individual boxes with paddock. Digitally integrated measure of total activity of each mare was continuously recorded by actigraphy-based data loggers. Horse total activities were not evenly distributed over the day, but they were mainly diurnal during the year. Daily activity rhythms showed clear seasonal variations, with the highest daily amount of activity during the vernal equinox and the lowest during the winter solstice. Interestingly, the amount of activity during either photophase or scotophase changed significantly throughout the year. Circadian analysis of horse activities showed that the acrophase, the estimated time at which the peak of the rhythm occurs, did not change during the year, it always occurred in the middle of the photoperiod. Analysing the time structure of long-term and continuously measured activity and feeding could be a useful method to critically evaluate athletic horse management systems in which spontaneous locomotor activity and feeding are severely limited. Circadian rhythms are present in several elements of sensory motor and psychomotor functions and these would be taken into consideration to plan the training schedules and competitions in athletic horses. PMID:22443706

  1. Thermally Activated Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Space-qualified, precise, large-force, thermally activated driver (TAD) developed for use in space on astro-physics experiment to measure abundance of rare actinide-group elements in cosmic rays. Actinide cosmic rays detected using thermally activated driver as heart of event-thermometer (ET) system. Thermal expansion and contraction of silicone oil activates driver. Potential applications in fluid-control systems where precise valve controls are needed.

  2. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  3. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  4. Active unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Luz, J G; de Rezende, J R; de Araújo, V C; Chilvarquer, I

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of active unilateral condylar hyperplasia which were treated with condylectomy alone are presented. The first case was an adult form and the other a juvenile form. Both were classified as active by using 99Tc bone scintigraphy. Clinical and radiographic features of both cases conformed to the hemimandibular hypertrophy type. Satisfactory facial symmetry and dental occlusion were achieved. Histopathological data confirmed the activity of the articular cartilage layers. PMID:8181091

  5. Activity in distant comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, Jane X.

    1992-01-01

    Activity in distant comets remains a mystery in the sense that we still have no complete theory to explain the various types of activity exhibited by different comets at large distances. This paper explores the factors that should play a role in determining activity in a distant comet, especially in the cases of comet P/Tempel 2, comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, and 2060 Chiron.

  6. Crew activities in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluford, G. S., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    One of the mission requirements of the Space Shuttle is to serve as a working platform for experiments in space. Many of these experiments will be performed by crewmembers (mission specialists and payload specialists) in a general purpose laboratory called Spacelab. All nonexperiment-related activities or housekeeping activities will be done in the Orbiter, while most of the mission-related activities (experiments) will be done in Spacelab. In order for experimenters to design their experiments to best utilize the capabilities of the Orbiter, the Spacelab, and the crew, the working environment in the Orbiter and in Spacelab is described. In addition, the housekeeping activities required of the crew are summarized.

  7. Physical Activity and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of scientists, ranging from experts in basic biological science to those with expertise in community behavioral interventions to increase physical activity. This combination of scientists and expertise will ...

  8. NASA metrication activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlannes, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

  9. EMG activity across gait and incline: The impact of muscular activity on human morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wall-Scheffler, Cara M.; Chumanov, Elizabeth; Steudel-Numbers, Karen; Heiderscheit, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The study of human evolution depends upon a fair assessment of the ability of hominin individuals to gain access to necessary resources. We expect that the morphology of extant and extinct populations represents a successful locomotory system that allowed individuals to move across the environment gaining access to food, water and mates while still maintaining excess energy to allocate to reproduction. Our assessment of locomotor morphology must then incorporate tests of fitness within realistic environments—environments that themselves vary in terrain and whose negotiation requires a variety of gait and speeds. This study assesses muscular activity (measured as the integrated signal from surface electromyography) of seven thigh and hip muscle groups during walking and running across a wide range of speeds and inclines, in order to systematically assess the role that morphology can play in minimizing muscular activity and thus energy expenditure. Our data suggest that humans are better adapted to walking than running at any slope, as evidenced by small confidence intervals and even trends across speed and incline. We find that while increasing task intensity unsurprisingly increases muscular activity in the lower limb, individuals with longer limbs show significantly reduced activity during both walking and running, especially in the hip adductors, gluteus maximus and hamstring muscles. People with a broader pelvis show significantly reduced activity while walking in the hip adductor and hamstring muscles. PMID:20623603

  10. Endogenous extracellular serotonin modulates the spinal locomotor network of the neonatal mouse.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Mary J; Tran, Michelle A; Whelan, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) can potently activate and modulate spinal locomotor circuits in a variety of species. Many of these findings have been obtained by applying serotonin exogenously to the isolated spinal cord of in vitro preparations, which has the drawback of indiscriminately activating extrasynaptic receptors and neurons. To investigate the role of endogenously released serotonin in modulating locomotor networks, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram was used. Fictive locomotion was elicited by either electrical stimulation of the brainstem or the sacral 4 (S4) dorsal root. The addition of 20 microm of citalopram caudal to thoracic segment 5 (T5) had an overall inhibitory effect on the lumbar central pattern generator (CPG). Left-right and flexor-extensor coupling were significantly decreased, and there was also a phase shift in the flexor-extensor relationship. In addition, there was a significant decrease in burst amplitude. These effects were observed during both afferent and brainstem evoked fictive locomotion. When citalopram was added in the presence of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) antagonists, the inhibitory effects were largely reversed. The remaining excitatory effects were mediated by 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(2) receptors. These results suggest that endogenous 5-HT release can modulate locomotor-like activity early in neonatal development.

  11. Home cage locomotor changes in non-human primates after prolonged welding-fume exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong Yong; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Chung, Yong Hyun; Park, Jung Duck; Han, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jong Seong; Heo, Jeong Doo; Yu, Il Je

    2013-12-01

    To define the relationship between the brain concentration of manganese and neurological signs, such as locomotion, after prolonged welding-fume exposure, cynomolgus monkeys were acclimated for 1 month and then divided into three concentration groups: unexposed, low concentration (31 mg/m(3) total suspended particulate (TSP), 0.9 mg/m(3) of Mn), and high concentration (62 mg/m(3) TSP, 1.95 mg/m(3) of Mn) of TSP. The monkeys were exposed to manual metal-arc stainless steel (MMA-SS) welding fumes for 2 h per day over 8 months in an inhalation chamber system equipped with an automatic fume generator. The home cage locomotor activity and patterns were determined using a camera system over 2-4 consecutive days. After 25 and 32 weeks of exposure, the home cage locomotor activity of the high-concentration primates was found to be 5-6 times higher than that of the unexposed primates, and this increased locomotor activity was maintained for 7 weeks after ceasing the welding-fume exposure, eventually subsiding to three times higher after 13 weeks of recovery. Therefore, the present results, along with our previous observations of a high magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1 signal in the globus pallidus and increased blood Mn concentration, indicate that prolonged welding-fume exposure can cause neurobehavioral changes in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:24304306

  12. Home cage locomotor changes in non-human primates after prolonged welding-fume exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong Yong; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Chung, Yong Hyun; Park, Jung Duck; Han, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jong Seong; Heo, Jeong Doo; Yu, Il Je

    2013-12-01

    To define the relationship between the brain concentration of manganese and neurological signs, such as locomotion, after prolonged welding-fume exposure, cynomolgus monkeys were acclimated for 1 month and then divided into three concentration groups: unexposed, low concentration (31 mg/m(3) total suspended particulate (TSP), 0.9 mg/m(3) of Mn), and high concentration (62 mg/m(3) TSP, 1.95 mg/m(3) of Mn) of TSP. The monkeys were exposed to manual metal-arc stainless steel (MMA-SS) welding fumes for 2 h per day over 8 months in an inhalation chamber system equipped with an automatic fume generator. The home cage locomotor activity and patterns were determined using a camera system over 2-4 consecutive days. After 25 and 32 weeks of exposure, the home cage locomotor activity of the high-concentration primates was found to be 5-6 times higher than that of the unexposed primates, and this increased locomotor activity was maintained for 7 weeks after ceasing the welding-fume exposure, eventually subsiding to three times higher after 13 weeks of recovery. Therefore, the present results, along with our previous observations of a high magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1 signal in the globus pallidus and increased blood Mn concentration, indicate that prolonged welding-fume exposure can cause neurobehavioral changes in cynomolgus monkeys.

  13. Moonstruck primates: owl monkeys (Aotus) need moonlight for nocturnal activity in their natural environment.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; de la Iglesia, Horacio; Erkert, Hans G

    2010-01-01

    Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans), nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai) of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6-18 months) 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n =  10 individuals) to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking e