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Sample records for activity log mal

  1. Using Rasch Analysis to Validate the Motor Activity Log and the Lower Functioning Motor Activity Log in Patients With Stroke.

    PubMed

    Chuang, I-Ching; Lin, Keh-Chung; Wu, Ching-Yi; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Liu, Chien-Ting; Chen, Chia-Ling

    2017-10-01

    The Motor Activity Log (MAL) and Lower-Functioning MAL (LF-MAL) are used to assess the amount of use of the more impaired arm and the quality of movement during activities in real-life situations for patients with stroke. This study used Rasch analysis to examine the psychometric properties of the MAL and LF-MAL in patients with stroke. This is a methodological study. The MAL and LF-MAL include 2 scales: the amount of use (AOU) and the quality of movement (QOM). Rasch analysis was used to examine the unidimensionality, item difficulty hierarchy, targeting, reliability, and differential item functioning (DIF) of the MAL and LF-MAL. A total of 403 patients with mild or moderate stroke completed the MAL, and 134 patients with moderate/severe stroke finished the LF-MAL. Evidence of disordered thresholds and poor model fit were found both in the MAL and LF-MAL. After the rating categories were collapsed and misfit items were deleted, all items of the revised MAL and LF-MAL exhibited ordering and constituted unidimensional constructs. The person-item map showed that these assessments were difficult for our participants. The person reliability coefficients of these assessments ranged from .79 to .87. No items in the revised MAL and LF-MAL exhibited bias related to patients' characteristics. One limitation is the recruited patients, who have relatively high-functioning ability in the LF-MAL. The revised MAL and LF-MAL are unidimensional scales and have good reliability. The categories function well, and responses to all items in these assessments are not biased by patients' characteristics. However, the revised MAL and LF-MAL both showed floor effect. Further study might add easy items for assessing the performance of activity in real-life situations for patients with stroke. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association

  2. The EXCITE Trial: Predicting a clinically meaningful motor activity log outcome.

    PubMed

    Park, Si-Woon; Wolf, Steven L; Blanton, Sarah; Winstein, Carolee; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S

    2008-01-01

    This study determined which baseline clinical measurements best predicted a predefined clinically meaningful outcome on the Motor Activity Log (MAL) and developed a predictive multivariate model to determine outcome after 2 weeks of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and 12 months later using the database from participants in the Extremity Constraint Induced Therapy Evaluation (EXCITE) Trial. A clinically meaningful CIMT outcome was defined as achieving higher than 3 on the MAL Quality of Movement (QOM) scale. Predictive variables included baseline MAL, Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), the sensory and motor portion of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), spasticity, visual perception, age, gender, type of stroke, concordance, and time after stroke. Significant predictors identified by univariate analysis were used to develop the multivariate model. Predictive equations were generated and odds ratios for predictors were calculated from the multivariate model. Pretreatment motor function measured by MAL QOM, WMFT, and FMA were significantly associated with outcome immediately after CIMT. Pretreatment MAL QOM, WMFT, proprioception, and age were significantly associated with outcome after 12 months. Each unit of higher pretreatment MAL QOM score and each unit of faster pretreatment WMFT log mean time improved the probability of achieving a clinically meaningful outcome by 7 and 3 times at posttreatment, and 5 and 2 times after 12 months, respectively. Patients with impaired proprioception had a 20% probability of achieving a clinically meaningful outcome compared with those with intact proprioception. Baseline clinical measures of motor and sensory function can be used to predict a clinically meaningful outcome after CIMT.

  3. The Motor Activity Log-28: assessing daily use of the hemiparetic arm after stroke.

    PubMed

    Uswatte, G; Taub, E; Morris, D; Light, K; Thompson, P A

    2006-10-10

    Data from monkeys with deafferented forelimbs and humans after stroke indicate that tests of the motor capacity of impaired extremities can overestimate their spontaneous use. Before the Motor Activity Log (MAL) was developed, no instruments assessed spontaneous use of a hemiparetic arm outside the treatment setting. To study the MAL's reliability and validity for assessing real-world quality of movement (QOM scale) and amount of use (AOU scale) of the hemiparetic arm in stroke survivors. Participants in a multisite clinical trial completed a 30-item MAL before and after treatment (n = 106) or an equivalent no-treatment period (n = 116). Participants also completed the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) and wore accelerometers that monitored arm movement for three consecutive days outside the laboratory. All were 3 to 12 months post-stroke and had mild to moderate paresis of an upper extremity. After an item analysis, two MAL tasks were eliminated. Revised participant MAL QOM scores were reliable (r =0.82). Validity was also supported. During the first observation period, the correlation between QOM and SIS Hand Function scale scores was 0.72. The corresponding correlation for QOM and accelerometry values was 0.52. Participant QOM and AOU scores were highly correlated (r = 0.92). The participant Motor Activity Log is reliable and valid in individuals with subacute stroke. It might be employed to assess the real-world effects of upper extremity neurorehabilitation and detect deficits in spontaneous use of the hemiparetic arm in daily life.

  4. The EXCITE Trial: Predicting a Clinically Meaningful Motor Activity Log Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Woon; Wolf, Steven L.; Blanton, Sarah; Winstein, Carolee; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective This study determined which baseline clinical measurements best predicted a predefined clinically meaningful outcome on the Motor Activity Log (MAL) and developed a predictive multivariate model to determine outcome after 2 weeks of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and 12 months later using the database from participants in the Extremity Constraint Induced Therapy Evaluation (EXCITE) Trial. Methods A clinically meaningful CIMT outcome was defined as achieving higher than 3 on the MAL Quality of Movement (QOM) scale. Predictive variables included baseline MAL, Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), the sensory and motor portion of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), spasticity, visual perception, age, gender, type of stroke, concordance, and time after stroke. Significant predictors identified by univariate analysis were used to develop the multivariate model. Predictive equations were generated and odds ratios for predictors were calculated from the multivariate model. Results Pretreatment motor function measured by MAL QOM, WMFT, and FMA were significantly associated with outcome immediately after CIMT. Pretreatment MAL QOM, WMFT, proprioception, and age were significantly associated with outcome after 12 months. Each unit of higher pretreatment MAL QOM score and each unit of faster pretreatment WMFT log mean time improved the probability of achieving a clinically meaningful outcome by 7 and 3 times at posttreatment, and 5 and 2 times after 12 months, respectively. Patients with impaired proprioception had a 20% probability of achieving a clinically meaningful outcome compared with those with intact proprioception. Conclusions Baseline clinical measures of motor and sensory function can be used to predict a clinically meaningful outcome after CIMT. PMID:18780883

  5. Clinimetric properties of the motor activity log for the assessment of arm use in hemiparetic patients.

    PubMed

    van der Lee, J H; Beckerman, H; Knol, D L; de Vet, H C W; Bouter, L M

    2004-06-01

    The Motor Activity Log (MAL) is a semistructured interview for hemiparetic stroke patients to assess the use of their paretic arm and hand (amount of use [AOU]) and quality of movement [QOM]) during activities of daily living. Scores range from 0 to 5. The following clinimetric properties of the MAL were quantified: internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), test-retest agreement (Bland and Altman method), cross-sectional construct validity (correlation between AOU and QOM and with the Action Research Arm [ARA] test), longitudinal construct validity (correlation of change on the MAL during the intervention with a global change rating [GCR] and with change on the ARA), and responsiveness (effect size). Two baseline measurements 2 weeks apart and 1 follow-up measurement immediately after 2 weeks of intensive exercise therapy either with or without immobilization of the unimpaired arm (forced use) were performed in 56 chronic stroke patients. Internal consistency was high (AOU: alpha=0.88; QOM: alpha=0.91). The limits of agreement were -0.70 to 0.85 and -0.61 to 0.71 for AOU and QOM, respectively. The correlation with the ARA score (Spearman rho) was 0.63 (AOU and QOM). However, the improvement on the MAL during the intervention was only weakly related to the GCR and to the improvement on the ARA, Spearman rho was between 0.16 and 0.22. The responsiveness ratio was 1.9 (AOU) and 2.0 (QOM). The MAL is internally consistent and relatively stable in chronic stroke patients not undergoing an intervention. The cross-sectional construct validity of the MAL is reasonable, but the results raise doubt about its longitudinal construct validity.

  6. Reliability and validity of the upper-extremity Motor Activity Log-14 for measuring real-world arm use.

    PubMed

    Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward; Morris, David; Vignolo, Mary; McCulloch, Karen

    2005-11-01

    In research on Constraint-Induced Movement (CI) therapy, a structured interview, the Motor Activity Log (MAL), is used to assess how stroke survivors use their more-impaired arm outside the laboratory. This article examines the psychometrics of the 14-item version of this instrument in 2 chronic stroke samples with mild-to-moderate upper-extremity hemiparesis. Participants (n=41) in the first study completed MALs before and after CI therapy or a placebo control procedure. In addition, caregivers independently completed a MAL on the participants. Participants (n=27) in the second study completed MALs and wore accelerometers that monitored their arm movements for 3 days outside the laboratory before and after an automated form of CI therapy. Validity of the participant MAL Quality of Movement (QOM) scale was supported. Correlations between pretreatment-to-posttreatment change scores on the participant QOM scale and caregiver MAL QOM scale, caregiver MAL amount of use (AOU) scale, and accelerometer recordings were 0.70, 0.73, and 0.91 (P<0.01), respectively. Internal consistency (alpha>0.81), test-retest reliability (r>0.91), stability, and responsiveness (ratio>3) of the participant QOM scale were also supported. The participant AOU and caregiver QOM and AOU scales were internally consistent, stable, and sensitive, but were not reliable. The participant MAL QOM scale can be used exclusively to reliably and validly measure real-world, upper-extremity rehabilitation outcome and functional status in chronic stroke patients with mild-to-moderate hemiparesis.

  7. Activating Metacognition through Online Learning Log (OLL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the activation process of metacognition of learners who systematically reflect on their learning using Online Learning Logs (OLL) which were designed to encourage them to think about learning. The study is qualitative and attempts to identify the metacognitive strategies of learners and their attitudes towards OLL.…

  8. Distinct mechanism of activation of two transcription factors, AmyR and MalR, involved in amylolytic enzyme production in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kuta; Tanaka, Mizuki; Konno, Yui; Ichikawa, Takanori; Ichinose, Sakurako; Hasegawa-Shiro, Sachiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-02-01

    The production of amylolytic enzymes in Aspergillus oryzae is induced in the presence of starch or maltose, and two Zn2Cys6-type transcription factors, AmyR and MalR, are involved in this regulation. AmyR directly regulates the expression of amylase genes, and MalR controls the expression of maltose-utilizing (MAL) cluster genes. Deletion of malR gene resulted in poor growth on starch medium and reduction in α-amylase production level. To elucidate the activation mechanisms of these two transcription factors in amylase production, the expression profiles of amylases and MAL cluster genes under carbon catabolite derepression condition and subcellular localization of these transcription factors fused with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) were examined. Glucose, maltose, and isomaltose induced the expression of amylase genes, and GFP-AmyR was translocated from the cytoplasm to nucleus after the addition of these sugars. Rapid induction of amylase gene expression and nuclear localization of GFP-AmyR by isomaltose suggested that this sugar was the strongest inducer for AmyR activation. In contrast, GFP-MalR was constitutively localized in the nucleus and the expression of MAL cluster genes was induced by maltose, but not by glucose or isomaltose. In the presence of maltose, the expression of amylase genes was preceded by MAL cluster gene expression. Furthermore, deletion of the malR gene resulted in a significant decrease in the α-amylase activity induced by maltose, but had apparently no effect on the expression of α-amylase genes in the presence of isomaltose. These results suggested that activation of AmyR and MalR is regulated in a different manner, and the preceding activation of MalR is essential for the utilization of maltose as an inducer for AmyR activation.

  9. Minimal detectable change of the actual amount of use test and the motor activity log: the EXCITE Trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuya; Wolf, Steven L; Zhang, Qin; Thompson, Paul A; Winstein, Carolee J

    2012-06-01

    Efficacy of task-oriented training can be reliably trusted only when the inherent measurement variability is determined. The Actual Amount of Use Test (AAUT) and the Motor Activity Log (MAL) have been used together as measures of spontaneous arm use after an intervention; however, the minimal detectable change (MDC) of AAUT and MAL has not been addressed. To compare the MDC₉₀ of the AAUT and the MAL in the context of a randomized controlled trial of a neurorehabilitation intervention, the Extremity Constraint-Induced Therapy Evaluation trial. A preplanned secondary analysis was conducted using pre-post test data from the control group. Estimated MDC₉₀ were normalized to the maximum value of the scale of the AAUT and the MAL for each subscale: amount of use (AAUTa, MALa) and quality of movement (AAUTq, MALq). . The MDC₉₀ of the AAUTq and the MALq were 14.4% and 15.4%, respectively. However, the MDC₉₀ required greater change for the AAUTa (24.2%) than the MALa (16.8%). The training-induced spontaneous arm use exceeded the MDC₉₀ for the MAL but fell below that for the AAUT immediately after the intervention and at 1-year follow-up visit. The greater variability and insensitivity to treatment effect for the AAUTa is likely because of the low resolution of its scoring system. As such, there is a considerable need to develop valid and reliable tools that capture purposeful arm use outside the laboratory, perhaps through leveraging new sensing technologies with objective activity monitoring.

  10. Minimal Detectable Change of the Actual Amount of Use Test and the Motor Activity Log: The EXCITE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuya; Wolf, Steven L.; Zhang, Qin; Thompson, Paul A.; Winstein, Carolee J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Efficacy of task-oriented training can be reliably trusted only when the inherent measurement variability is determined. The Actual Amount of Use Test (AAUT) and the Motor Activity Log (MAL) have been used together as measures of spontaneous arm use after an intervention; however, the minimal detectable change (MDC) of AAUT and MAL has not been addressed. Objective To compare the MDC90 of the AAUT and the MAL in the context of a randomized controlled trial of a neurorehabilitation intervention, the Extremity Constraint-Induced Therapy Evaluation trial. Methods A preplanned secondary analysis was conducted using pre–post test data from the control group. Estimated MDC90 were normalized to the maximum value of the scale of the AAUT and the MAL for each subscale: amount of use (AAUTa, MALa) and quality of movement (AAUTq, MALq). Results The MDC90 of the AAUTq and the MALq were 14.4% and 15.4%, respectively. However, the MDC90 required greater change for the AAUTa (24.2%) than the MALa (16.8%). The training-induced spontaneous arm use exceeded the MDC90 for the MAL but fell below that for the AAUT immediately after the intervention and at 1-year follow-up visit. Conclusions The greater variability and insensitivity to treatment effect for the AAUTa is likely because of the low resolution of its scoring system. As such, there is a considerable need to develop valid and reliable tools that capture purposeful arm use outside the laboratory, perhaps through leveraging new sensing technologies with objective activity monitoring. PMID:22275157

  11. Console Log Keeping Made Easier - Tools and Techniques for Improving Quality of Flight Controller Activity Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for International Space Station (ISS), each flight controller maintains detailed logs of activities and communications at their console position. These logs are critical for accurately controlling flight in real-time as well as providing a historical record and troubleshooting tool. This paper describes logging methods and electronic formats used at the POIC and provides food for thought on their strengths and limitations, plus proposes some innovative extensions. It also describes an inexpensive PC-based scheme for capturing and/or transcribing audio clips from communications consoles. Flight control activity (e.g. interpreting computer displays, entering data/issuing electronic commands, and communicating with others) can become extremely intense. It's essential to document it well, but the effort to do so may conflict with actual activity. This can be more than just annoying, as what's in the logs (or just as importantly not in them) often feeds back directly into the quality of future operations, whether short-term or long-term. In earlier programs, such as Spacelab, log keeping was done on paper, often using position-specific shorthand, and the other reader was at the mercy of the writer's penmanship. Today, user-friendly software solves the legibility problem and can automate date/time entry, but some content may take longer to finish due to individual typing speed and less use of symbols. File layout can be used to great advantage in making types of information easy to find, and creating searchable master logs for a given position is very easy and a real lifesaver in reconstructing events or researching a given topic. We'll examine log formats from several console position, and the types of information that are included and (just as importantly) excluded. We'll also look at when a summary or synopsis is effective, and when extensive detail is needed.

  12. The Myelin and Lymphocyte Protein MAL Is Required for Binding and Activity of Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Oo, Myat Lin; Anrather, Josef; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Alonso, Miguel A.; Fischetti, Vincent A.; McClain, Mark S.; Vartanian, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens ε-toxin (ETX) is a potent pore-forming toxin responsible for a central nervous system (CNS) disease in ruminant animals with characteristics of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and white matter injury. ETX has been proposed as a potential causative agent for Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a human disease that begins with BBB breakdown and injury to myelin forming cells of the CNS. The receptor for ETX is unknown. Here we show that both binding of ETX to mammalian cells and cytotoxicity requires the tetraspan proteolipid Myelin and Lymphocyte protein (MAL). While native Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are resistant to ETX, exogenous expression of MAL in CHO cells confers both ETX binding and susceptibility to ETX-mediated cell death. Cells expressing rat MAL are ~100 times more sensitive to ETX than cells expressing similar levels of human MAL. Insertion of the FLAG sequence into the second extracellular loop of MAL abolishes ETX binding and cytotoxicity. ETX is known to bind specifically and with high affinity to intestinal epithelium, renal tubules, brain endothelial cells and myelin. We identify specific binding of ETX to these structures and additionally show binding to retinal microvasculature and the squamous epithelial cells of the sclera in wild-type mice. In contrast, there is a complete absence of ETX binding to tissues from MAL knockout (MAL-/-) mice. Furthermore, MAL-/- mice exhibit complete resistance to ETX at doses in excess of 1000 times the symptomatic dose for wild-type mice. We conclude that MAL is required for both ETX binding and cytotoxicity. PMID:25993478

  13. The Myelin and Lymphocyte Protein MAL Is Required for Binding and Activity of Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin.

    PubMed

    Rumah, Kareem Rashid; Ma, Yinghua; Linden, Jennifer R; Oo, Myat Lin; Anrather, Josef; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Alonso, Miguel A; Fischetti, Vincent A; McClain, Mark S; Vartanian, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens ε-toxin (ETX) is a potent pore-forming toxin responsible for a central nervous system (CNS) disease in ruminant animals with characteristics of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and white matter injury. ETX has been proposed as a potential causative agent for Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a human disease that begins with BBB breakdown and injury to myelin forming cells of the CNS. The receptor for ETX is unknown. Here we show that both binding of ETX to mammalian cells and cytotoxicity requires the tetraspan proteolipid Myelin and Lymphocyte protein (MAL). While native Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are resistant to ETX, exogenous expression of MAL in CHO cells confers both ETX binding and susceptibility to ETX-mediated cell death. Cells expressing rat MAL are ~100 times more sensitive to ETX than cells expressing similar levels of human MAL. Insertion of the FLAG sequence into the second extracellular loop of MAL abolishes ETX binding and cytotoxicity. ETX is known to bind specifically and with high affinity to intestinal epithelium, renal tubules, brain endothelial cells and myelin. We identify specific binding of ETX to these structures and additionally show binding to retinal microvasculature and the squamous epithelial cells of the sclera in wild-type mice. In contrast, there is a complete absence of ETX binding to tissues from MAL knockout (MAL-/-) mice. Furthermore, MAL-/- mice exhibit complete resistance to ETX at doses in excess of 1000 times the symptomatic dose for wild-type mice. We conclude that MAL is required for both ETX binding and cytotoxicity.

  14. 78 FR 44957 - Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log, Filter Holder Log DHS Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log, Filter Holder Log DHS Form 9500 AGENCY: Office of Health Affairs, DHS. ACTION: 60-Day Notice and....: Daniel Yereb, [email protected] 703- 647-8052. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Following collection, the filter...

  15. The OTT-MAL fusion oncogene activates RBPJ-mediated transcription and induces acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in a knockin mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Mercher, Thomas; Raffel, Glen D.; Moore, Sandra A.; Cornejo, Melanie G.; Baudry-Bluteau, Dominique; Cagnard, Nicolas; Jesneck, Jonathan L.; Pikman, Yana; Cullen, Dana; Williams, Ifor R.; Akashi, Koichi; Shigematsu, Hirokazu; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Giovannini, Marco; Vainchenker, William; Levine, Ross L.; Lee, Benjamin H.; Bernard, Olivier A.; Gilliland, D. Gary

    2009-01-01

    Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) associated with a poor prognosis. The genetics and pathophysiology of AMKL are not well understood. We generated a knockin mouse model of the one twenty-two–megakaryocytic acute leukemia (OTT-MAL) fusion oncogene that results from the t(1;22)(p13;q13) translocation specifically associated with a subtype of pediatric AMKL. We report here that OTT-MAL expression deregulated transcriptional activity of the canonical Notch signaling pathway transcription factor recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin κ J region (RBPJ) and caused abnormal fetal megakaryopoiesis. Furthermore, cooperation between OTT-MAL and an activating mutation of the thrombopoietin receptor myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL) efficiently induced a short-latency AMKL that recapitulated all the features of human AMKL, including megakaryoblast hyperproliferation and maturation block, thrombocytopenia, organomegaly, and extensive fibrosis. Our results establish that concomitant activation of RBPJ (Notch signaling) and MPL (cytokine signaling) transforms cells of the megakaryocytic lineage and suggest that specific targeting of these pathways could be of therapeutic value for human AMKL. PMID:19287095

  16. PARduino: A Simple Device Measuring and Logging Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, H. R.; Findley, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) is one of the primary controls of forest carbon and water relations. In complex terrain, PAR has high spatial-variability. Given the high cost of commercial datalogging equipment, spatially-distributed measurements of PAR have been typically modeled using geographic coordinates and terrain indices. Here, we present a design for a low cost, field-deployable device for measuring and logging PAR built around an Arduino microcontroller (we named it PARduino). PARduino provides for widely distributed sensor arrays and tests the feasibility of using hobbyist-grade electronics for collecting scientific data. PARduino components include a LiCor quantum sensor, EME Systems signal converter/amplifier, and Sparkfun's Arduino Pro Mini microcontroller. Additional components include a real time clock, a microSD flash memory card, and a custom printed circuit board (PCB). We selected the components with an eye towards ease of assembly. Everything can be connected to the PCB using through-hole soldering techniques. Since the device will be deployed in remote research plots that lack easy access to line power, battery life was also a consideration in the design. Extended deployment is possible because PARduino's software keeps it in a low-power sleep mode until ready to make a measurement. PARduino will be open-source hardware for use and improvement by others.

  17. Effects of Adjuvant Mental Practice on Affected Upper Limb Function Following a Stroke: Results of Three-Dimensional Motion Analysis, Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity and Motor Activity Logs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun Seung; Kim, Eun Joo; Kim, Doo Young; Kim, Soo Jeong

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of adjuvant mental practice (MP) on affected upper limb function following a stroke using three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis. In this AB/BA crossover study, we studied 10 hemiplegic patients who had a stroke within the past 6 months. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups: one group received MP combined with conventional rehabilitation therapy for the first 3 weeks followed by conventional rehabilitation therapy alone for the final 3 weeks; the other group received the same therapy but in reverse order. The MP tasks included drinking from a cup and opening a door. MP was individually administered for 20 minutes, 3 days a week for 3 weeks. To assess the tasks, we used 3D motion analysis and three additional tests: the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the upper extremity (FMA-UE) and the motor activity logs for amount of use (MAL-AOU) and quality of movement (MAL-QOM). Assessments were performed immediately before treatment (T0), 3 weeks into treatment (T1), and 6 weeks into treatment (T2). Based on the results of the 3D motion analysis and the FMA-UE index (p=0.106), the MAL-AOU scale (p=0.092), and MAL-QOM scale (p=0.273), adjuvant MP did not result in significant improvements. Adjuvant MP had no significant effect on upper limb function following a stroke, according to 3D motion analysis and three clinical assessment tools (the FMA-UE index and the two MAL scales). The importance of this study is its use of objective 3D motion analysis to evaluate the effects of MP. Further studies will be needed to validate these findings.

  18. Evidence for tension-based regulation of Drosophila MAL and SRF during invasive cell migration.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Kálmán; Rørth, Pernille

    2004-07-01

    Cells migrating through a tissue exert force via their cytoskeleton and are themselves subject to tension, but the effects of physical forces on cell behavior in vivo are poorly understood. Border cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis is a useful model for invasive cell movement. We report that this migration requires the activity of the transcriptional factor serum response factor (SRF) and its cofactor MAL-D and present evidence that nuclear accumulation of MAL-D is induced by cell stretching. Border cells that cannot migrate lack nuclear MAL-D but can accumulate it if they are pulled by other migrating cells. Like mammalian MAL, MAL-D also responds to activated Diaphanous, which affects actin dynamics. MAL-D/SRF activity is required to build a robust actin cytoskeleton in the migrating cells; mutant cells break apart when initiating migration. Thus, tension-induced MAL-D activity may provide a feedback mechanism for enhancing cytoskeletal strength during invasive migration.

  19. Water Log.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents a Project WET water education activity. Students use a Water Log (journal or portfolio) to write or illustrate their observations, feelings, and actions related to water. The log serves as an assessment tool to monitor changes over time in knowledge of and attitudes toward the water. (LZ)

  20. Influence of environmental factors on activity patterns of Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in naturally infested logs.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Vernard R; Leighton, Shawn; Tabuchi, Robin; Baldwin, James A; Haverty, Michael I

    2013-02-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) activity patterns were measured from seven loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.] logs, five containing live western drywood termite [Incisitermes minor (Hagen)] infestations, and two without an active drywood termite infestation. AE activity, as well as temperature, were monitored every 3 min under unrestricted ambient conditions in a small wooden building, under unrestricted ambient conditions but in constant darkness, or in a temperature-controlled cabined under constant darkness. Logs with active drywood termite infestations displayed similar diurnal cycles of AE activity that closely followed temperature with a peak of AE activity late in the afternoon (1700-1800 hours). When light was excluded from the building, a circadian pattern continued and apparently was driven by temperature. When the seven logs were kept at a relatively constant temperature (approximately 23 +/- 0.9 degrees C) and constant darkness, the pattern of activity was closely correlated with temperature, even with minimal changes in temperature. Temperature is the primary driver of activity of these drywood termites, but the effects are different when temperature is increasing or decreasing. At constant temperature, AE activity was highly correlated with the number of termites in the logs. The possible implications of these findings on our understanding of drywood termite biology and how this information may affect inspections and posttreatment evaluations are discussed.

  1. 76 FR 24504 - Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder...) assigned responsibility for installing and removing filters from aerosol collection devices and transportation to local laboratories for sample analysis. A standard filter log form is completed for each sample...

  2. 76 FR 42130 - Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder...) assigned responsibility for installing and removing filters from aerosol collection devices and transportation to local laboratories for sample analysis. A standard filter log form is completed for each sample...

  3. Preliminary report on geophysical well-logging activity on the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, R.H.; Hodges, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project has culminated in a 10,564-ft deep test well, State 2-14 well, in the Imperial Valley of southern California. A comprehensive scientific program of drilling, coring, and downhole measurements, which was conducted for about 5 months, has obtained much scientific information concerning the physical and chemical processes associated with an active hydrothermal system. This report primarily focuses on the geophysical logging activities at the State 2-14 well and provides early dissemination of geophysical data to other investigators working on complementary studies. Geophysical-log data were obtained by a commercial logging company and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Most of the commercial logs were obtained during three visits to the site; only one commercial log was obtained below a depth of 6,000 ft. The commercial logs obtained were dual induction, natural gamma, compensated neutron formation density, caliper and sonic. The USGS logging effort consisted of four primary periods, with many logs extending below a depth of 6,000 ft. The USGS logs obtained were temperature, caliper, natural gamma, gamma spectral, epithermal neutron, acoustic velocity, full-waveform, and acoustic televiewer. Various problems occurred throughout the drilling phase of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project that made successful logging difficult: (1) borehole constrictions, possibly resulting from mud coagulation, (2) maximum temperatures of about 300 C, and (3) borehole conditions unfavorable for logging because of numerous zones of fluid loss, cement plugs, and damage caused by repeated trips in and out of the hole. These factors hampered and compromised logging quality at several open-hole intervals. The quality of the logs was dependent on the degree of probe sophistication and sensitivity to borehole-wall conditions. Digitized logs presented were processed on site and are presented in increments of 1,000 ft. A summary of the numerous

  4. Induction conductivity and natural gamma logs collected in 15 wells at Camp Stanley Storage Activity, Bexar County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Gregory P.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Camp Stanley Storage Activity conducted electromagnetic induction conductivity and natural gamma logging of 15 selected wells on the Camp Stanley Storage Activity, located in northern Bexar County, Texas, during March 28–30, 2005. In late 2004, a helicopter electromagnetic survey was flown of the Camp Stanley Storage Activity as part of a U.S. Geological Survey project to better define subsurface geologic units, the structure, and the catchment area of the Trinity aquifer. The electromagnetic induction conductivity and natural gamma log data in this report were collected to constrain the calculation of resistivity depth sections and to provide subsurface controls for interpretation of the helicopter electromagnetic data collected for the Camp Stanley Storage Activity. Logs were recorded digitally while moving the probe in an upward direction to maintain proper depth control. Logging speed was no greater than 30 feet per minute. During logging, a repeat section of at least 100 feet was recorded to check repeatability of log responses. Several of the wells logged were completed with polyvinyl chloride casing that can be penetrated by electromagnetic induction fields and allows conductivity measurement. However, some wells were constructed with steel centralizers and stainless steel screen that caused spikes on both conductivity and resulting resistivity log curves. These responses are easily recognizable and appear at regular intervals on several logs.

  5. Identification and Characterization of MalA in the Maltose/Maltodextrin Operon of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Hwang, Sungmin

    2013-01-01

    A putative maltose/maltodextrin operon was found in the Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639 genome. The gene cluster consisted of 7 genes (malA, trmB, amyA, malG, malF, malE, and malK). Here, we report the identification of MalA, which is responsible for the hydrolysis of maltose or maltodextrin to glucose in S. acidocaldarius. The transcription level of malA was increased 3-fold upon the addition of maltose or starch to the medium. Moreover, the α-glucosidase activity for maltose as a substrate in cell extracts of S. acidocaldarius DSM639 was also 11- and 10-fold higher during growth in YT medium (Brock's mineral salts, 0.1% [wt/vol] tryptone, and 0.005% [wt/vol] yeast extract) containing maltose or starch, respectively, than during growth on other sugars. The gene encoding MalA was cloned and expressed in S. acidocaldarius. The enzyme purified from the organism was a dodecamer in its active state and showed strong maltose-hydrolyzing activity at 100°C and pH 5.0. MalA was remarkably thermostable, with half-lives of 33.8 h, 10.6 h, and 1.8 h at 95°C, 100°C, and 105°C, respectively. Substrate specificity and kinetic studies of MalA with maltooligosaccharides indicated that MalA efficiently hydrolyzed maltose to maltopentaose, which is a typical characteristic of GH31-type α-glucosidases. However, glycogen or starch was not hydrolyzed. Reverse transcription-PCR, sugar uptake, and growth studies of the wild-type DSM639 and ΔmalEFG mutant on different sugars demonstrated that MalA located in the mal operon gene cluster is involved in maltose and starch metabolism in S. acidocaldarius. PMID:23396915

  6. A depth video sensor-based life-logging human activity recognition system for elderly care in smart indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Ahmad; Kamal, Shaharyar; Kim, Daijin

    2014-07-02

    Recent advancements in depth video sensors technologies have made human activity recognition (HAR) realizable for elderly monitoring applications. Although conventional HAR utilizes RGB video sensors, HAR could be greatly improved with depth video sensors which produce depth or distance information. In this paper, a depth-based life logging HAR system is designed to recognize the daily activities of elderly people and turn these environments into an intelligent living space. Initially, a depth imaging sensor is used to capture depth silhouettes. Based on these silhouettes, human skeletons with joint information are produced which are further used for activity recognition and generating their life logs. The life-logging system is divided into two processes. Firstly, the training system includes data collection using a depth camera, feature extraction and training for each activity via Hidden Markov Models. Secondly, after training, the recognition engine starts to recognize the learned activities and produces life logs. The system was evaluated using life logging features against principal component and independent component features and achieved satisfactory recognition rates against the conventional approaches. Experiments conducted on the smart indoor activity datasets and the MSRDailyActivity3D dataset show promising results. The proposed system is directly applicable to any elderly monitoring system, such as monitoring healthcare problems for elderly people, or examining the indoor activities of people at home, office or hospital.

  7. A Depth Video Sensor-Based Life-Logging Human Activity Recognition System for Elderly Care in Smart Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Ahmad; Kamal, Shaharyar; Kim, Daijin

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in depth video sensors technologies have made human activity recognition (HAR) realizable for elderly monitoring applications. Although conventional HAR utilizes RGB video sensors, HAR could be greatly improved with depth video sensors which produce depth or distance information. In this paper, a depth-based life logging HAR system is designed to recognize the daily activities of elderly people and turn these environments into an intelligent living space. Initially, a depth imaging sensor is used to capture depth silhouettes. Based on these silhouettes, human skeletons with joint information are produced which are further used for activity recognition and generating their life logs. The life-logging system is divided into two processes. Firstly, the training system includes data collection using a depth camera, feature extraction and training for each activity via Hidden Markov Models. Secondly, after training, the recognition engine starts to recognize the learned activities and produces life logs. The system was evaluated using life logging features against principal component and independent component features and achieved satisfactory recognition rates against the conventional approaches. Experiments conducted on the smart indoor activity datasets and the MSRDailyActivity3D dataset show promising results. The proposed system is directly applicable to any elderly monitoring system, such as monitoring healthcare problems for elderly people, or examining the indoor activities of people at home, office or hospital. PMID:24991942

  8. The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, C.P.; Schweitzer, J.S.; McDowell, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. West Virginia wood waste from uncharted sources: log landings and active surface mines

    Treesearch

    Shawn T. Grushecky; Lawrence E. Osborn

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, biomass availability estimates from West Virginia have focused on primary and secondary mill byproducts and logging residues. Other sources of woody biomass are available that have not been surveyed. Through a series of field studies during 2010 and 2011, biomass availability estimates were developed for surface mine sites and log landings in West...

  10. The MAL: A Malware Analysis Lexicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    we feel that further exploration of the open source literature is a promising avenue for enlarging the corpus. 2.3 Publishing the MAL Early in the...MAL. We feel that the advantages of this format are well worth the small incremental cost. The distribution of the MAL in this format is under...dictionary. We feel that moving to a richer format such as WordNet or WordVis would greatly improve the usability of the lexicon. 3.5 Improved Hosting The

  11. Transaction Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of transaction logging in Okapi-related projects to allow search algorithms and user interfaces to be investigated, evaluated, and compared. A series of examples is presented, illustrating logging software for character-based and graphical user interface systems, and demonstrating the usefulness of relational database management…

  12. Reduced-impact logging and temporal activity of understorey bats in lowland Amazonia

    Treesearch

    Ivan Castro Arellano; Steven J. Presley; Michael R. Willig; Joseph M. Wunderle; Luiz N. Saldanha

    2009-01-01

    Because global timber demands continue to threaten tropical rain forests, identification of sustainable use forest management protocols that meet human needs while preserving biodiversity is critical. Reduced-impact logging (RIL) protocols are increasingly common in the tropics and may be a viable option for sustainable forest use; however, few studies have documented...

  13. Virus Characterization by FFF-MALS Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razinkov, Vladimer

    2009-03-01

    Adequate biophysical characterization of influenza virions is important for vaccine development. The influenza virus vaccines are produced from the allantoic fluid of developing chicken embryos. The process of viral replication produces a heterogeneous mixture of infectious and non-infectious viral particles with varying states of aggregation. The study of the relative distribution and behavior of different subpopulations and their inter-correlation can assist in the development of a robust process for a live virus vaccine. This report describes a field flow fractionation and multiangle light scattering (FFF-MALS) method optimized for the analysis of size distribution and total particle counts. A method using a combination of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AFFFF) and multiangle light scattering (MALS) techniques has been shown to improve the estimation of virus particle counts and the amount of aggregated virus in laboratory samples. The FFF-MALS method was compared with several other methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), size exclusion chromatography followed by MALS (SEC-MALS), quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT Q-PCR), median tissue culture dose (TCID(50)), and the fluorescent focus assay (FFA). The correlation between the various methods for determining total particle counts, infectivity and size distribution is reported. The pros and cons of each of the analytical methods are discussed.

  14. Maltase protein of Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha is a counterpart to the resurrected ancestor protein ancMALS of yeast maltases and isomaltases.

    PubMed

    Viigand, Katrin; Visnapuu, Triinu; Mardo, Karin; Aasamets, Anneli; Alamäe, Tiina

    2016-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae maltases use maltose, maltulose, turanose and maltotriose as substrates, isomaltases use isomaltose, α-methylglucoside and palatinose and both use sucrose. These enzymes are hypothesized to have evolved from a promiscuous α-glucosidase ancMALS through duplication and mutation of the genes. We studied substrate specificity of the maltase protein MAL1 from an earlier diverged yeast, Ogataea polymorpha (Op), in the light of this hypothesis. MAL1 has extended substrate specificity and its properties are strikingly similar to those of resurrected ancMALS. Moreover, amino acids considered to determine selective substrate binding are highly conserved between Op MAL1 and ancMALS. Op MAL1 represents an α-glucosidase in which both maltase and isomaltase activities are well optimized in a single enzyme. Substitution of Thr200 (corresponds to Val216 in S. cerevisiae isomaltase IMA1) with Val in MAL1 drastically reduced the hydrolysis of maltose-like substrates (α-1,4-glucosides), confirming the requirement of Thr at the respective position for this function. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) of the catalytically inactive mutant Asp199Ala of MAL1 in the presence of its substrates and selected monosaccharides suggested that the substrate-binding pocket of MAL1 has three subsites (-1, +1 and +2) and that binding is strongest at the -1 subsite. The DSF assay results were in good accordance with affinity (Km ) and inhibition (Ki ) data of the enzyme for tested substrates, indicating the power of the method to predict substrate binding. Deletion of either the maltase (MAL1) or α-glucoside permease (MAL2) gene in Op abolished the growth of yeast on MAL1 substrates, confirming the requirement of both proteins for usage of these sugars. © 2016 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Maltase protein of Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha is a counterpart to the resurrected ancestor protein ancMALS of yeast maltases and isomaltases

    PubMed Central

    Viigand, Katrin; Visnapuu, Triinu; Mardo, Karin; Aasamets, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Saccharomyces cerevisiae maltases use maltose, maltulose, turanose and maltotriose as substrates, isomaltases use isomaltose, α‐methylglucoside and palatinose and both use sucrose. These enzymes are hypothesized to have evolved from a promiscuous α‐glucosidase ancMALS through duplication and mutation of the genes. We studied substrate specificity of the maltase protein MAL1 from an earlier diverged yeast, Ogataea polymorpha (Op), in the light of this hypothesis. MAL1 has extended substrate specificity and its properties are strikingly similar to those of resurrected ancMALS. Moreover, amino acids considered to determine selective substrate binding are highly conserved between Op MAL1 and ancMALS. Op MAL1 represents an α‐glucosidase in which both maltase and isomaltase activities are well optimized in a single enzyme. Substitution of Thr200 (corresponds to Val216 in S. cerevisiae isomaltase IMA1) with Val in MAL1 drastically reduced the hydrolysis of maltose‐like substrates (α‐1,4‐glucosides), confirming the requirement of Thr at the respective position for this function. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) of the catalytically inactive mutant Asp199Ala of MAL1 in the presence of its substrates and selected monosaccharides suggested that the substrate‐binding pocket of MAL1 has three subsites (–1, +1 and +2) and that binding is strongest at the –1 subsite. The DSF assay results were in good accordance with affinity (K m) and inhibition (K i) data of the enzyme for tested substrates, indicating the power of the method to predict substrate binding. Deletion of either the maltase (MAL1) or α‐glucoside permease (MAL2) gene in Op abolished the growth of yeast on MAL1 substrates, confirming the requirement of both proteins for usage of these sugars. © 2016 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26919272

  16. The mean age of petit mal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Syeda, Afsarunnesa; Karim, Md Rezaul

    2016-01-01

    Petit mal epilepsy or absence seizures involve brief, sudden lapses of consciousness and most often occurs in people under age of 20 years. This study was done to find out the most likely significant age affected by petit mal epilepsy and whether they had higher rate of behavioral, educational, and social problems. We run tests on total 32 patients (male 16 and female 16) from newborns to 20 years of age. The most affected ages were from 4 to 9 years and both genders were equally affected. They have higher rate of behavioral, educational, and social problems, and most likely recovering ages from the disease were from 15 to 20 years. These findings could contribute in diagnosis and treatment of Petit Mal Epilepsy, as it often misinterpreted as daydreaming or inattention.

  17. Could LogP be a principal determinant of biological activity in 18-crown-6 ethers? Synthesis of biologically active adamantane-substituted diaza-crowns.

    PubMed

    Supek, Fran; Ramljak, Tatjana Šumanovac; Marjanović, Marko; Buljubašić, Maja; Kragol, Goran; Ilić, Nataša; Smuc, Tomislav; Zahradka, Davor; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Kralj, Marijeta

    2011-08-01

    18-crown-6 ethers are known to exert their biological activity by transporting K(+) ions across cell membranes. Using non-linear Support Vector Machines regression, we searched for structural features that influence antiproliferative activity in a diverse set of 19 known oxa-, monoaza- and diaza-18-crown-6 ethers. Here, we show that the logP of the molecule is the most important molecular descriptor, among ∼1300 tested descriptors, in determining biological potency (R(2)(cv) = 0.704). The optimal logP was at 5.5 (Ghose-Crippen ALOGP estimate) while both higher and lower values were detrimental to biological potency. After controlling for logP, we found that the antiproliferative activity of the molecule was generally not affected by side chain length, molecular symmetry, or presence of side chain amide links. To validate this QSAR model, we synthesized six novel, highly lipophilic diaza-18-crown-6 derivatives with adamantane moieties attached to the side arms. These compounds have near-optimal logP values and consequently exhibit strong growth inhibition in various human cancer cell lines and a bacterial system. The bioactivities of different diaza-18-crown-6 analogs in Bacillus subtilis and cancer cells were correlated, suggesting conserved molecular features may be mediating the cytotoxic response. We conclude that relying primarily on the logP is a sensible strategy in preparing future 18-crown-6 analogs with optimized biological activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification and characterization of the active hydrothermal deposits in Okinawa Trough, SW Japan: Estimates from logging-while-drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Sanada, Y.; Moe, K.; Kido, Y. N.; Hamada, Y.; Kumagai, H.; Nozaki, T.; Takai, K.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-12-01

    A scientific drilling expedition was conducted at an active hydrothermal field on the Iheya-North Knoll by D/V Chikyu in 2014 (Expedition 907) as a part of "Next-generation Technology for Ocean Resources Survey" of the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program. During the expedition logging while drilling (LWD) was deployed to constrain the area of the fluid reservoir beneath seafloor followed by three coring holes down to 150 meter below the seafloor (mbsf). The LWD system is composed of arcVISION for resistivity and natural gamma ray measurement and TeleScope for real-time transmission of drilling parameters and arcVISION data. Five sites (C9011-15) at the Iheya-North Original Site and one site (C9016) at Aki Site were drilled with LWD. At C9012 and C9016, the arcVISION detected temperature anomaly up to 84℃ at 234 mbsf and up to 39℃ at 80 mbsf, respectively. The temperature quickly increases at that depth and it would reflect the existence of high-temperature heat source along borehole. Due to the continuous fluid circulation during drilling, the measured temperature does not indicate in-situ temperature, but it reflects the heat disturbed by the cold circulated water instead. High quality resistivity and natural gamma ray data were acquired at six sites. The log curves at Site C9016 show characteristic response; the natural gamma ray log exhibits extremely high radiation (>500 gAPI) at 7-13 and 23-31 mbsf (Zone A). In the underlying interval of 31-40 mbsf, the resistivity log exhibits extremely low value (<0.2 ohm-m) (Zone B). Then the resistivity log exhibits higher value (~10 ohm-m) and the natural gamma ray log shows very low radiation (<50 gAPI) at the interval of 41-48 mbsf (Zone C). The log characteristics in Zone A, B, and C can be interpreted as a series of K-rich alteration zone, sulfide zone, and low-K hard (silicified) sediments, respectively. The LWD-based lithological interpretation was confirmed by the following core description

  19. Niche logging

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Rummer

    1997-01-01

    Logging is facing a world of change. A logger?s niche can be defined by terrain, climate, location, timber and product, local government, Federal government, landowners, and mills. The author offers strategies for survival and successful competition.

  20. MAL2 and tumor protein D52 (TPD52) are frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but differentially associated with histological subtype and patient outcome.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Jennifer A; Maleki, Sanaz; Hardy, Jayne R; Gloss, Brian S; Murali, Rajmohan; Scurry, James P; Fanayan, Susan; Emmanuel, Catherine; Hacker, Neville F; Sutherland, Robert L; Defazio, Anna; O'Brien, Philippa M

    2010-09-17

    The four-transmembrane MAL2 protein is frequently overexpressed in breast carcinoma, and MAL2 overexpression is associated with gain of the corresponding locus at chromosome 8q24.12. Independent expression microarray studies predict MAL2 overexpression in ovarian carcinoma, but these had remained unconfirmed. MAL2 binds tumor protein D52 (TPD52), which is frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but the clinical significance of MAL2 and TPD52 overexpression was unknown. Immunohistochemical analyses of MAL2 and TPD52 expression were performed using tissue microarray sections including benign, borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. Inmmunohistochemical staining intensity and distribution was assessed both visually and digitally. MAL2 and TPD52 were significantly overexpressed in high-grade serous carcinomas compared with serous borderline tumours. MAL2 expression was highest in serous carcinomas relative to other histological subtypes, whereas TPD52 expression was highest in clear cell carcinomas. MAL2 expression was not related to patient survival, however high-level TPD52 staining was significantly associated with improved overall survival in patients with stage III serous ovarian carcinoma (log-rank test, p < 0.001; n = 124) and was an independent predictor of survival in the overall carcinoma cohort (hazard ratio (HR), 0.498; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.728; p < 0.001; n = 221), and in serous carcinomas (HR, 0.440; 95% CI, 0.294-0.658; p < 0.001; n = 182). MAL2 is frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, and TPD52 overexpression is a favourable independent prognostic marker of potential value in the management of ovarian carcinoma patients.

  1. Characterization of recombinant Mal d 4 and its application for component-resolved diagnosis of apple allergy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Zuidmeer, L; Bohle, B; Bolhaar, S T H; Gadermaier, G; Gonzalez-Mancebo, E; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Knulst, A C; Himly, M; Asero, R; Ebner, C; van Ree, R; Ferreira, F; Breiteneder, H; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K

    2006-08-01

    Profilins are ubiquitous panallergens that have been extensively characterized; yet, their clinical relevance is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to produce recombinant apple profilin (rMal d 4) and to evaluate its allergenic activity and its potency for component-resolved allergy diagnosis. Complementary DNA-derived Mal d 4 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified via poly (l-proline) sepharose. A total of 28 sera from apple-allergic patients were used for IgE-ELISA, immunoblot, RAST and basophil histamine release (BHR) test. In addition, skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed in five patients. Four different complementary DNA coding for apple profilin, Mal d 4, each with an open reading frame of 393 nucleotides, were identified. One isoform Mal d 4.0101 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. Mass spectroscopy revealed the expected mass of 13.826 for rMal d 4.0101, and circular dichroism analysis data were typical for a folded protein and small-angle X-ray scattering measurement identified the protein as a monomer. All the serum samples displayed IgE binding to rMal d 4.0101 in IgE ELISA, immunoblot and RAST. In immunoblotting, IgE binding to natural Mal d 4 was partially/completely inhibited by preincubation with rMal d 4.0101, and RAST values to apple extract were significantly reduced upon serum pretreatment with rMal d 4.0101. SPTs and BHR assays using purified rMal d 4.0101 were positive. Purified rMal d 4.0101 was destroyed within seconds when subjected to pepsin digestion. Apple profilin complementary DNAs were identified. The physicochemical and allergenic properties of purified recombinant Mal d 4.0101 were evaluated showing that the recombinant protein was equal to the natural protein as shown by inhibition assays. Thus, Mal d 4 represents another example suitable for component-resolved diagnosis of food allergy.

  2. Predicting the impact of logging activities on soil erosion and water quality in steep, forested tropical islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Amelia S.; Atkinson, Scott; Santini, Talitha; Falinski, Kim; Hutley, Nicholas; Albert, Simon; Horning, Ned; Watson, James E. M.; Mumby, Peter J.; Jupiter, Stacy D.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing development in tropical regions provides new economic opportunities that can improve livelihoods, but it threatens the functional integrity and ecosystem services provided by terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems when conducted unsustainably. Given the small size of many islands, communities may have limited opportunities to replace loss and damage to the natural resources upon which they depend for ecosystem service provisioning, thus heightening the need for proactive, integrated management. This study quantifies the effectiveness of management strategies, stipulated in logging codes-of-practice, at minimizing soil erosion and sediment runoff as clearing extent increases, using Kolombangara Island, Solomon Islands as a case study. Further, we examine the ability of erosion reduction strategies to maintain sustainable soil erosion rates and reduce potential downstream impacts to drinking water and environmental water quality. We found that increasing land clearing—even with best management strategies in place—led to unsustainable levels of soil erosion and significant impacts to downstream water quality, compromising the integrity of the land for future agricultural uses, consistent access to clean drinking water, and important downstream ecosystems. Our results demonstrate that in order to facilitate sustainable development, logging codes of practice must explicitly link their soil erosion reduction strategies to soil erosion and downstream water quality thresholds, otherwise they will be ineffective at minimizing the impacts of logging activities. The approach taken here to explicitly examine soil erosion rates and downstream water quality in relation to best management practices and increasing land clearing should be applied more broadly across a range of ecosystems to inform decision-making about the socioeconomic and environmental trade-offs associated with logging, and other types of land use change.

  3. Portable device for detection of petit mal epilepsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. G.; Houge, J. C.; Webster, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    A portable device that analyzes the electroencephalogram to determine if petit mal epilepsy waveforms are present is developed and tested. Clinicians should find it useful in diagnosing seizure activity of their patients. The micropower, battery-operated, portable device indicates a seizure has occurred if three criteria are satisfied: (1) frequencies of 2.5-7 Hz, (2) large-amplitude waves, and (3) minimum number of waves per second. Levels and counts are adjustable, thus insuring high reliability against noise artifacts and permitting each subject to be individually fitted. The device has shown promise in giving the patient a possible mechanism of seizure control or suppression.

  4. Logging damage

    Treesearch

    Ralph D. Nyland

    1989-01-01

    The best commercial logging will damage at least some residual trees during all forms of partial cutting, no matter how carefully done. Yet recommendations at the end of this Note show there is much that you can do to limit damage by proper road and trail layout, proper training and supervision of crews, appropriate equipment, and diligence.

  5. Absence Seizure (Petit Mal Seizure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... people have many episodes daily, which interfere with school or daily activities. A child may have absence seizures for some time before an adult notices the seizures, because they're so brief. A decline in a child's learning ability may be the first sign of this ...

  6. iCalm: wearable sensor and network architecture for wirelessly communicating and logging autonomic activity.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Richard Ribon; Dobson, Kelly; Goodwin, Matthew S; Eydgahi, Hoda; Wilder-Smith, Oliver; Fernholz, David; Kuboyama, Yuta; Hedman, Elliott Bruce; Poh, Ming-Zher; Picard, Rosalind W

    2010-03-01

    Widespread use of affective sensing in healthcare applications has been limited due to several practical factors, such as lack of comfortable wearable sensors, lack of wireless standards, and lack of low-power affordable hardware. In this paper, we present a new low-cost, low-power wireless sensor platform implemented using the IEEE 802.15.4 wireless standard, and describe the design of compact wearable sensors for long-term measurement of electrodermal activity, temperature, motor activity, and photoplethysmography. We also illustrate the use of this new technology for continuous long-term monitoring of autonomic nervous system and motion data from active infants, children, and adults. We describe several new applications enabled by this system, discuss two specific wearable designs for the wrist and foot, and present sample data.

  7. Active tectonics of the northern Mojave Desert: The 2017 Desert Symposium field trip road log

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David; Reynolds, R.E.; Phelps, Geoffrey; Honke, Jeff; Cyr, Andrew J.; Buesch, David C.; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Losson, G.

    2017-01-01

    The 2017 Desert Symposium field trip will highlight recent work by the U.S. Geological Survey geologists and geophysicists, who have been mapping young sediment and geomorphology associated with active tectonic features in the least well-known part of the eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ). This area, stretching from Barstow eastward in a giant arc to end near the Granite Mountains on the south and the Avawatz Mountains on the north (Fig. 1-1), encompasses the two major structural components of the ECSZ—east-striking sinistral faults and northwest-striking dextral faults—as well as reverseoblique and normal-oblique faults that are associated with topographic highs and sags, respectively. In addition, folds and stepovers (both restraining stepovers that form pop-up structures and releasing stepovers that create narrow basins) have been identified. The ECSZ is a segment in the ‘soft’ distributed deformation of the North American plate east of the San Andreas fault (Fig. 1-1), where it takes up approximately 20-25% of plate motion in a broad zone of right-lateral shear (Sauber et al., 1994) The ECSZ (sensu strictu) begins in the Joshua Tree area and passes north through the Mojave Desert, past the Owens Valley-to-Death Valley swath and northward, where it is termed the Walker Lane. It has been defined as the locus of active faulting (Dokka and Travis, 1990), but when the full history from about 10 Ma forward is considered, it lies in a broader zone of right shear that passes westward in the Mojave Desert to the San Andreas fault (Mojave strike-slip province of Miller and Yount, 2002) and passes eastward to the Nevada state line or beyond (Miller, this volume).We will visit several accessible highlights for newly studied faults, signs of young deformation, and packages of syntectonic sediments. These pieces of a complex active tectonic puzzle have yielded some answers to longstanding questions such as: How is fault slip transfer in this area accommodated

  8. Structural and mutational analyses of Aes, an inhibitor of MalT in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schiefner, André; Gerber, Kinga; Brosig, Alexander; Boos, Winfried

    2014-02-01

    The acyl esterase Aes effectively inhibits the transcriptional activity of MalT-the central activator of maltose and maltodextrin utilizing genes in Escherichia coli. To provide better insight into the nature of the interaction between Aes and MalT, we determined two different crystal structures of Aes-in its native form and covalently modified by a phenylmethylsulfonyl moiety at its active site serine. Both structures show distinct space groups and were refined to a resolution of 1.8 Å and 2.3 Å, respectively. The overall structure of Aes resembles a canonical α/β-hydrolase fold, which is extended by a funnel-like cap structure that forms the substrate-binding site. The catalytic triad of Aes, comprising residues Ser165, His292, and Asp262, is located at the bottom of this funnel. Analysis of the crystal-packing contacts of the two different space groups as well as analytical size-exclusion chromatography revealed a homodimeric arrangement of Aes. The Aes dimer adopts an antiparallel contact involving both the hydrolase core and the cap, with its twofold axis perpendicular to the largest dimension of Aes. To identify the surface area of Aes that is responsible for the interaction with MalT, we performed a structure-based alanine-scanning mutagenesis to pinpoint Aes residues that are significantly impaired in MalT inhibition, but still exhibit wild-type expression and enzymatic activity. These residues map to a shallow slightly concave surface patch of Aes at the opposite site of the dimerization interface and indicate the surface area that interacts with MalT. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The potential of woody waste biomass from the logging activity at the natural forest of Berau District, East Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, D. R.; Ariyanto

    2018-04-01

    The fifth principles of Sustainable Forest Management of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is to encourage the efficient use of forest products and services to ensure economic viability and a wide range of environmental and social benefits, and one of the criteria is to minimize logging waste. Therefore, identification, calculations, and monitoring of logging waste should be done. The purpose of this study were to know the potential of logging waste in logging area and to know the estimated volume of waste based on the Annual Allowable Cut (AAC). This research was carried out at PT Karya Lestari, Berau District, East Kalimantan. It was found that the highest percentage of waste was in the form of the main trunk canopy, followed by the branches, stump, twigs and the rest of the bucking. It was also found that there was quite strong positive relationship between the volume of felled trees with its logging waste volume, and the estimated volume of logging waste based on AAC was 40,623 m3 per year. This result shows that the potential logging waste is high and it is recommended for the company to do logging on trees with small volumes or lower diameter class (40-89 cm).

  10. The ALFA (Activity Log Files Aggregation) toolkit: a method for precise observation of the consultation.

    PubMed

    de Lusignan, Simon; Kumarapeli, Pushpa; Chan, Tom; Pflug, Bernhard; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Jones, Beryl; Freeman, George K

    2008-09-08

    There is a lack of tools to evaluate and compare Electronic patient record (EPR) systems to inform a rational choice or development agenda. To develop a tool kit to measure the impact of different EPR system features on the consultation. We first developed a specification to overcome the limitations of existing methods. We divided this into work packages: (1) developing a method to display multichannel video of the consultation; (2) code and measure activities, including computer use and verbal interactions; (3) automate the capture of nonverbal interactions; (4) aggregate multiple observations into a single navigable output; and (5) produce an output interpretable by software developers. We piloted this method by filming live consultations (n = 22) by 4 general practitioners (GPs) using different EPR systems. We compared the time taken and variations during coded data entry, prescribing, and blood pressure (BP) recording. We used nonparametric tests to make statistical comparisons. We contrasted methods of BP recording using Unified Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams. We found that 4 channels of video were optimal. We identified an existing application for manual coding of video output. We developed in-house tools for capturing use of keyboard and mouse and to time stamp speech. The transcript is then typed within this time stamp. Although we managed to capture body language using pattern recognition software, we were unable to use this data quantitatively. We loaded these observational outputs into our aggregation tool, which allows simultaneous navigation and viewing of multiple files. This also creates a single exportable file in XML format, which we used to develop UML sequence diagrams. In our pilot, the GP using the EMIS LV (Egton Medical Information Systems Limited, Leeds, UK) system took the longest time to code data (mean 11.5 s, 95% CI 8.7-14.2). Nonparametric comparison of EMIS LV with the other systems showed a significant difference, with EMIS

  11. The ALFA (Activity Log Files Aggregation) Toolkit: A Method for Precise Observation of the Consultation

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a lack of tools to evaluate and compare Electronic patient record (EPR) systems to inform a rational choice or development agenda. Objective To develop a tool kit to measure the impact of different EPR system features on the consultation. Methods We first developed a specification to overcome the limitations of existing methods. We divided this into work packages: (1) developing a method to display multichannel video of the consultation; (2) code and measure activities, including computer use and verbal interactions; (3) automate the capture of nonverbal interactions; (4) aggregate multiple observations into a single navigable output; and (5) produce an output interpretable by software developers. We piloted this method by filming live consultations (n = 22) by 4 general practitioners (GPs) using different EPR systems. We compared the time taken and variations during coded data entry, prescribing, and blood pressure (BP) recording. We used nonparametric tests to make statistical comparisons. We contrasted methods of BP recording using Unified Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams. Results We found that 4 channels of video were optimal. We identified an existing application for manual coding of video output. We developed in-house tools for capturing use of keyboard and mouse and to time stamp speech. The transcript is then typed within this time stamp. Although we managed to capture body language using pattern recognition software, we were unable to use this data quantitatively. We loaded these observational outputs into our aggregation tool, which allows simultaneous navigation and viewing of multiple files. This also creates a single exportable file in XML format, which we used to develop UML sequence diagrams. In our pilot, the GP using the EMIS LV (Egton Medical Information Systems Limited, Leeds, UK) system took the longest time to code data (mean 11.5 s, 95% CI 8.7-14.2). Nonparametric comparison of EMIS LV with the other systems showed

  12. The α-Glucan Phosphorylase MalP of Corynebacterium glutamicum Is Subject to Transcriptional Regulation and Competitive Inhibition by ADP-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Clermont, Lina; Macha, Arthur; Müller, Laura M.; Derya, Sami M.; von Zaluskowski, Philipp; Eck, Alexander; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT α-Glucan phosphorylases contribute to degradation of glycogen and maltodextrins formed in the course of maltose metabolism in bacteria. Accordingly, bacterial α-glucan phosphorylases are classified as either glycogen or maltodextrin phosphorylase, GlgP or MalP, respectively. GlgP and MalP enzymes follow the same catalytic mechanism, and thus their substrate spectra overlap; however, they differ in their regulation: GlgP genes are constitutively expressed and the enzymes are controlled on the activity level, whereas expression of MalP genes are transcriptionally controlled in response to the carbon source used for cultivation. We characterize here the modes of control of the α-glucan phosphorylase MalP of the Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum. In accordance to the proposed function of the malP gene product as MalP, we found transcription of malP to be regulated in response to the carbon source. Moreover, malP transcription is shown to depend on the growth phase and to occur independently of the cell glycogen content. Surprisingly, we also found MalP activity to be tightly regulated competitively by the presence of ADP-glucose, an intermediate of glycogen synthesis. Since the latter is considered a typical feature of GlgPs, we propose that C. glutamicum MalP acts as both maltodextrin and glycogen phosphorylase and, based on these findings, we question the current system for classification of bacterial α-glucan phosphorylases. IMPORTANCE Bacterial α-glucan phosphorylases have been classified conferring to their purpose as either glycogen or maltodextrin phosphorylases. We found transcription of malP in C. glutamicum to be regulated in response to the carbon source, which is recognized as typical for maltodextrin phosphorylases. Surprisingly, we also found MalP activity to be tightly regulated competitively by the presence of ADP-glucose, an intermediate of glycogen synthesis. The latter is considered a typical feature of GlgPs. These findings

  13. NMR logging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  14. Validity, Responsiveness, Minimal Detectable Change, and Minimal Clinically Important Change of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Keh-chung; Chen, Hui-fang; Chen, Chia-ling; Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Hsieh, Yu-wei; Wu, Li-ling

    2012-01-01

    This study examined criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL) in children with cerebral palsy. Study participants were 41 children (age range: 28-113 months) and their parents. Criterion-related validity was evaluated by the associations between the PMAL and criterion measures at baseline and…

  15. Learning Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuser, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Just what do children get out of inquiry? Good inquiry activities help students hone their inquiry abilities and teach them about the nature of science. But inquiry is also a way to teach science content, and teachers need to know if this instruction is helping children gain these important ideas. So, how do teachers know what students are…

  16. Logging Activity in the Trinational Amazonian Region of Pando/Bolivia, Acre and Rond“nia/Brazil, and Madre de Dios/Peru: Analysis of Existing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, E.; Brilhante, S. H.; Brown, I.; Peralta, R.; Rivero, S.; Melendez, N.

    2002-12-01

    Logging activity in the trinational southwestern Amazonia will grow in importance as a driver of regional land-use change as expanding road access facilitates both timber extraction and transport to international markets. Official data on current activity in this ~50 million ha region are limited and inconsistent with differences as much as twenty-fold between official estimates; nevertheless, they serve as guides for understanding the relative magnitude of logging activities. For 2000, an estimated 5 million m3 of timber were commercialized in Rondonia, 400,000 m3 in Acre, Brazil, and 200,000 m3 for the combined departments of Pando, Bolivia and Madre de Dios, Peru. About 70% of this timber originates from clear cutting done for pasture and agriculture activities, nearly a third from unregulated selective logging, and only 2% from managed selective logging. Eight timber species are preferentially extracted. The total area for timber concessions in Acre, Pando and Madre de Dios extends to about 4 million ha for a potential timber supply of 65 million m3. About 150,000 m3/yr of illegal timber is confiscated by federal and state agencies in Acre, Pando and Madre de Dios. Problems of enforcement in the region are due principally to the lack of trained personnel and little cooperation among agencies of the three countries. Proposed development plans indicate a 3- to >10-fold increase in logging activity in the Acre and Pando regions during the coming decade. More detailed studies are urgently needed to guide sustainable development of this resource in southwestern Amazonia.

  17. Minichaperone (GroEL191-345) mediated folding of MalZ proceeds by binding and release of native and functional intermediates.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neha; Knowles, Timothy J; Lund, Peter A; Chaudhuri, Tapan K

    2018-06-02

    The isolated apical domain of GroEL consisting of residues 191-345 (known as "minichaperone") binds and assists the folding of a wide variety of client proteins without GroES and ATP, but the mechanism of its action is still unknown. In order to probe into the matter, we have examined minichaperone-mediated folding of a large aggregation prone protein Maltodextrin-glucosidase (MalZ). The key objective was to identify whether MalZ exists free in solution, or remains bound to, or cycling on and off the minichaperone during the refolding process. When GroES was introduced during refolding process, production of the native MalZ was inhibited. We also observed the same findings with a trap mutant of GroEL, which stably captures a predominantly non-native MalZ released from minichaperone during refolding process, but does not release it. Tryptophan and ANS fluorescence measurements indicated that refolded MalZ has the same structure as the native MalZ, but that its structure when bound to minichaperone is different. Surface plasmon resonance measurements provide an estimate for the equilibrium dissociation constant KD for the MalZ-minichaperone complex of 0.21 ± 0.04 μM, which are significantly higher than for most GroEL clients. This showed that minichaperone interacts loosely with MalZ to allow the protein to change its conformation and fold while bound during the refolding process. These observations suggest that the minichaperone works by carrying out repeated cycles of binding aggregation-prone protein MalZ in a relatively compact conformation and in a partially folded but active state, and releasing them to attempt to fold in solution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating the impacts of logging activities on erosion and suspended sediment transport in the Caspar Creek watersheds

    Treesearch

    Jack Lewis

    1998-01-01

    Suspended sediment has been sampled at both the North and South Fork weirs of Caspar Creek in northwestern California since 1963, and at 13 tributary locations in the North Fork since 1986. The North Fork gaging station (NFC) was used as a control to evaluate the effects of logging in the South Fork, in the 1970's, on annual sediment loads. In the most...

  19. Reduced-impact logging has little effect on temporal activity of frugivorous bats (Chiroptera) in lowland Amazonia

    Treesearch

    S.J. Presley; M.R. Willig; L.N. Saldanha; Jr. Wunderle; I. Castro-Arellano

    2009-01-01

    Reduced-impact logging (RIL) represents a viable option for sustainable use of Neotropical lowland forests while minimizing negative effects on local biodiversity. Many Neotropical bats of the family Phyllostomidae provide ecosystem services associated with pollination and seed dispersal that promote the regeneration of disturbed areas; therefore, effects of RIL on...

  20. Exposure to Glycolytic Carbon Sources Reveals a Novel Layer of Regulation for the MalT Regulon

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Sylvia A.; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria adapt to changing environments by means of tightly coordinated regulatory circuits. The use of synthetic lethality, a genetic phenomenon in which the combination of two nonlethal mutations causes cell death, facilitates identification and study of such circuitry. In this study, we show that the E. coli ompR malT con double mutant exhibits a synthetic lethal phenotype that is environmentally conditional. MalTcon, the constitutively active form of the maltose system regulator MalT, causes elevated expression of the outer membrane porin LamB, which leads to death in the absence of the osmoregulator OmpR. However, the presence and metabolism of glycolytic carbon sources, such as sorbitol, promotes viability and unveils a novel layer of regulation within the complex circuitry that controls maltose transport and metabolism. PMID:21912549

  1. Exposure to Glycolytic Carbon Sources Reveals a Novel Layer of Regulation for the MalT Regulon.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Sylvia A; Wolfe, Alan J

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria adapt to changing environments by means of tightly coordinated regulatory circuits. The use of synthetic lethality, a genetic phenomenon in which the combination of two nonlethal mutations causes cell death, facilitates identification and study of such circuitry. In this study, we show that the E. coli ompR malT(con) double mutant exhibits a synthetic lethal phenotype that is environmentally conditional. MalT(con), the constitutively active form of the maltose system regulator MalT, causes elevated expression of the outer membrane porin LamB, which leads to death in the absence of the osmoregulator OmpR. However, the presence and metabolism of glycolytic carbon sources, such as sorbitol, promotes viability and unveils a novel layer of regulation within the complex circuitry that controls maltose transport and metabolism.

  2. Selective logging and its relation to deforestation

    Treesearch

    Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Marco Lentini; Frank Merry; Souza Jr. Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Selective logging is a major contributor to the social, economic, and ecological dynamics of Brazilian Amazonia. Logging activities have expanded from low-volume floodplain harvests in past centuries to high-volume operations today that take about 25 million m3 of wood from the forest each year. The most common high-impact conventional and often illegal logging...

  3. Crystal structure of Toll-like receptor adaptor MAL/TIRAP reveals the molecular basis for signal transduction and disease protection

    PubMed Central

    Valkov, Eugene; Stamp, Anna; DiMaio, Frank; Baker, David; Verstak, Brett; Roversi, Pietro; Kellie, Stuart; Sweet, Matthew J.; Mansell, Ashley; Gay, Nicholas J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2011-01-01

    Initiation of the innate immune response requires agonist recognition by pathogen-recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptors are critical in orchestrating the signal transduction pathways after TLR and interleukin-1 receptor activation. Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) adaptor-like (MAL)/TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) is involved in bridging MyD88 to TLR2 and TLR4 in response to bacterial infection. Genetic studies have associated a number of unique single-nucleotide polymorphisms in MAL with protection against invasive microbial infection, but a molecular understanding has been hampered by a lack of structural information. The present study describes the crystal structure of MAL TIR domain. Significant structural differences exist in the overall fold of MAL compared with other TIR domain structures: A sequence motif comprising a β-strand in other TIR domains instead corresponds to a long loop, placing the functionally important “BB loop” proline motif in a unique surface position in MAL. The structure suggests possible dimerization and MyD88-interacting interfaces, and we confirm the key interface residues by coimmunoprecipitation using site-directed mutants. Jointly, our results provide a molecular and structural basis for the role of MAL in TLR signaling and disease protection. PMID:21873236

  4. Folding pathway of the pyridoxal 5′-phosphate C-S lyase MalY from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    MalY from Escherichia coli is a bifunctional dimeric PLP (pyridoxal 5′-phosphate) enzyme acting as a β-cystathionase and as a repressor of the maltose system. The spectroscopic and molecular properties of the holoenzyme, in the untreated and NaBH4-treated forms, and of the apoenzyme have been elucidated. A systematic study of the urea-induced unfolding of MalY has been monitored by gel filtration, cross-linking, ANS (8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulphonic acid) binding and by visible, near- and far-UV CD, fluorescence and NMR spectroscopies under equilibrium conditions. Unfolding proceeds in at least three stages. The first transition, occurring between 0 and 1 M urea, gives rise to a partially active dimeric species that binds PLP. The second equilibrium transition involving dimer dissociation, release of PLP and loss of lyase activity leads to the formation of a monomeric equilibrium intermediate. It is a partially unfolded molecule that retains most of the native-state secondary structure, binds significant amounts of ANS (a probe for exposed hydrophobic surfaces) and tends to self-associate. The self-associated aggregates predominate at urea concentrations of 2–4 M for holoMalY. The third step represents the complete unfolding of the enzyme. These results when compared with the urea-induced unfolding profiles of apoMalY and NaBH4-reduced holoenzyme suggest that the coenzyme group attached to the active-site lysine residue increases the stability of the dimeric enzyme. Both holo- and apo-MalY could be successfully refolded into the active enzyme with an 85% yield. Further refolding studies suggest that large misfolded soluble aggregates that cannot be refolded could be responsible for the incomplete re-activation. PMID:15823094

  5. Mal de Meleda with Congenital Cataract: A Novel Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Anisha; Janda, Jaspreet Kaur; Sharma, Nidhi; Malhotra, S K

    2015-01-01

    Mal de meleda (MdM), a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis is characterized by erythema and hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles with a sharp demarcation and that progress with age (progrediens) and extend to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet (transgrediens). It has been associated with various conditions albeit rarely with congenial cataract. Ocular lens and the skin have the same embryological origins. We hereby present this novel case report of Mal de meleda in association with congenital posterior subcapsular cataract which to the best of our knowledge has not been reported from India before.

  6. Log N-log S in inconclusive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  7. Montana Logging Utilization, 2002

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Timothy P. Spoelma; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Michael T. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    A study of logging utilization in Montana during 2002 provided logging and product utilization data for sawlog and veneer log harvests in Montana. Results of the study indicate a shift toward greater utilization of smaller diameter material, as 78 percent of the harvested volume in Montana during 2002 came from trees less than 17 inches diameter at breast height. The...

  8. LogScope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Smith, Margaret H.; Barringer, Howard; Groce, Alex

    2012-01-01

    LogScope is a software package for analyzing log files. The intended use is for offline post-processing of such logs, after the execution of the system under test. LogScope can, however, in principle, also be used to monitor systems online during their execution. Logs are checked against requirements formulated as monitors expressed in a rule-based specification language. This language has similarities to a state machine language, but is more expressive, for example, in its handling of data parameters. The specification language is user friendly, simple, and yet expressive enough for many practical scenarios. The LogScope software was initially developed to specifically assist in testing JPL s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) flight software, but it is very generic in nature and can be applied to any application that produces some form of logging information (which almost any software does).

  9. A mutant of the major apple allergen, Mal d 1, demonstrating hypo-allergenicity in the target organ by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge.

    PubMed

    Bolhaar, S T H P; Zuidmeer, L; Ma, Y; Ferreira, F; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; van Ree, R; Knulst, A C

    2005-12-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy for food allergy has been hindered by severe side-effects in the past. Well-characterized hypo-allergenic recombinant food allergens potentially offer a safe solution. To demonstrate hypo-allergenicity of a mutated major food allergen from apple, Mal d 1, in vitro and in vivo. A mutant of the major apple allergen, Mal d 1, was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis exchanging five amino acid residues. Fourteen patients with combined birch pollen-related apple allergy were included in the study. Hypo-allergenicity of the mutant rMal d 1 (rMal d 1mut) compared with rMal d 1 was assessed by in vitro methods, i.e. RAST (inhibition), immunoblotting and basophil histamine release (BHR) and in vivo by skin prick test and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). RAST analysis (n = 14) revealed that IgE reactivity to rMal d 1mut was twofold lower than that of the wild-type molecule (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.4). RAST inhibition (n = 6) showed a 7.8-fold decrease in IgE-binding potency (95% CI: 3.0-12.6). In contrast to this moderate decrease in IgE-binding potency, the biological activity of rMal d 1mut assessed by SPT and BHR decreased 10-200-fold. Hypo-allergenicity was confirmed by DBPCFC (n = 2) with both recombinant molecules. A moderate decrease in IgE-binding potency translates into a potent inhibition of biological activity. This is the first study that confirms by DBPCFC that a mutated recombinant major food allergen is clinically hypo-allergenic. This paves the way towards safer immunotherapy for the treatment of food-allergic patients.

  10. Logging utilization in Idaho: Current and past trends

    Treesearch

    Eric A. Simmons; Todd A. Morgan; Erik C. Berg; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Steven W. Hayes; Mike T. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    A study of commercial timber-harvesting activities in Idaho was conducted during 2008 and 2011 to characterize current tree utilization, logging operations, and changes from previous Idaho logging utilization studies. A two-stage simple random sampling design was used to select sites and felled trees for measurement within active logging sites. Thirty-three logging...

  11. Overruns - Southern Pine Logs

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Campbell

    1962-01-01

    Overrun and underrun data were collected for the four major southern pine species during a series of grade yield studies in the late 1950's in Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Each of the 1,491 logs was carefully scaled by the Doyle, Scribner Decimal C, and International ¼-inch log rule. All logs were sawed on. circle mills and the...

  12. Motives of Log Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Nicholas L.

    This thesis introduces two notions of motive associated to a log scheme. We introduce a category of log motives a la Voevodsky, and prove that the embedding of Voevodsky motives is an equivalence, in particular proving that any homotopy-invariant cohomology theory of schemes extends uniquely to log schemes. In the case of a log smooth degeneration, we give an explicit construction of the motivic Albanese of the degeneration, and show that the Hodge realization of this construction gives the Albanese of the limit Hodge structure.

  13. Brucella TIR-like protein TcpB/Btp1 specifically targets the host adaptor protein MAL/TIRAP to promote infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenna; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Yang, Mingjuan; Gao, Junguang; Zhan, Shaoxia; Xinying, Du; Huang, Liuyu; Li, Wenfeng; Chen, Zeliang; Li, Juan

    2016-08-26

    Brucella spp. are known to avoid host immune recognition and weaken the immune response to infection. Brucella like accomplish this by employing two clever strategies, called the stealth strategy and hijacking strategy. The TIR domain-containing protein (TcpB/Btp1) of Brucella melitensis is thought to be involved in inhibiting host NF-κB activation by binding to adaptors downstream of Toll-like receptors. However, of the five TIR domain-containing adaptors conserved in mammals, whether MyD88 or MAL, even other three adaptors, are specifically targeted by TcpB has not been identified. Here, we confirmed the effect of TcpB on B.melitensis virulence in mice and found that TcpB selectively targets MAL. By using siRNA against MAL, we found that TcpB from B.melitensis is involved in intracellular survival and that MAL affects intracellular replication of B.melitensis. Our results confirm that TcpB specifically targets MAL/TIRAP to disrupt downstream signaling pathways and promote intra-host survival of Brucella spp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ulysses log 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Raul Garcia

    1993-01-01

    The Ulysses Log tells the story of some intriguing problems that we (=The Spacecraft Team) have encountered. Ulysses was launched on 6 Oct. 1990, and it made the fastest trip to Jupiter (8 Feb. 1992). It is presently going out of the ecliptic. This paper presents log entries from the following areas: (1) ingenious maneuvers; (2) telecommunication problems; and (3) surprises.

  15. Analytical Characterization of the Hydrolysis of Barley Malt Macromolecules During Enzymatic Degradation Over Time Using AF4/MALS/RI.

    PubMed

    Rübsam, Heinrich; Becker, Thomas; Gastl, Martina

    2017-06-01

    The changes on the molecular weight distribution (MWD) and particle size distribution (PSD) during hydrolysis of barley malt in isothermal mashing procedures were determined using asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation coupled to multiangle laser light scattering and refractive index (AF4/MALS/RI). Mash/trials were focused on amylolytic starch degradation. Therefore, temperatures (65, 70, and 75 °C) were selected according to α- and β-amylases range of activity. Samples were produced by triplicate, tracking amylolytic processes over time periods from 10 to 90 min in each mash/trial. AF4/MALS/RI analysis demonstrated significant differences on the values of the MWD and PSD according to the temperature/time profile used. At mashing times over 30 min at a temperature of 65 °C, when α- and β-amylase are both active, the decrease over time of the MWD and PSD was significantly higher (P < 0.005) than at 70 °C when mainly α-amylase is active. At 75 °C, also the activity of α-amylase decreased and the MWD and PSD were significantly lower (P < 0.005) than at 70 or 65 °C at any time of the procedure. The MWD and PSD of beer components influence beer palate fullness, thus AF4/ MALS/RI would be a powerful tool for breweries to adapt their technological processes to obtain beers with particular sensorial attributes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Hyponatraemia and Moduretic-grand mal seizures: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, C; Webb, L; Daley, J; Spathis, G S

    1989-01-01

    Three cases are presented which emphasize the importance of hyponatraemia as a cause of grand mal seizures. The combination of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride appears to increase the risk of hyponatraemia. We discuss the aetiology and treatment of hyponatraemia and review the necessity for such combination therapy. We recommend caution in prescribing diuretics and preparations such as Moduretic should be used only in those few patients shown to need potassium supplementation. PMID:2506346

  17. Can we use digital life-log images to investigate active and sedentary travel behaviour? Results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Paul; Doherty, Aiden; Berry, Emma; Hodges, Steve; Batterham, Alan M; Foster, Charlie

    2011-05-20

    Active travel such as walking and cycling has potential to increase physical activity levels in sedentary individuals. Motorised car travel is a sedentary behaviour that contributes to carbon emissions. There have been recent calls for technology that will improve our ability to measure these travel behaviours, and in particular evaluate modes and volumes of active versus sedentary travel. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the potential efficacy of a new electronic measurement device, a wearable digital camera called SenseCam, in travel research. Participants (n = 20) were required to wear the SenseCam device for one full day of travel. The device automatically records approximately 3,600 time-stamped, first-person point-of-view images per day, without any action required by the wearer. Participants also completed a self-report travel diary over the same period for comparison, and were interviewed afterwards to assess user burden and experience. There were a total of 105 confirmed journeys in this pilot. The new SenseCam device recorded more journeys than the travel diary (99 vs. 94). Although the two measures demonstrated an acceptable correlation for journey duration (r = 0.92, p < 0.001) self-reported journey duration was over-reported (mean difference 154 s per journey; 95% CI = 89 to 218 s; 95% limits of agreement = 154 ± 598 s (-444 to 752 s)). The device also provided visual data that was used for directed interviews about sources of error. Direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images shows considerable potential in the field of travel research. Journey duration derived from direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images appears to suggest over-reporting of self-reported journey duration.

  18. Can we use digital life-log images to investigate active and sedentary travel behaviour? Results from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Active travel such as walking and cycling has potential to increase physical activity levels in sedentary individuals. Motorised car travel is a sedentary behaviour that contributes to carbon emissions. There have been recent calls for technology that will improve our ability to measure these travel behaviours, and in particular evaluate modes and volumes of active versus sedentary travel. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the potential efficacy of a new electronic measurement device, a wearable digital camera called SenseCam, in travel research. Methods Participants (n = 20) were required to wear the SenseCam device for one full day of travel. The device automatically records approximately 3,600 time-stamped, first-person point-of-view images per day, without any action required by the wearer. Participants also completed a self-report travel diary over the same period for comparison, and were interviewed afterwards to assess user burden and experience. Results There were a total of 105 confirmed journeys in this pilot. The new SenseCam device recorded more journeys than the travel diary (99 vs. 94). Although the two measures demonstrated an acceptable correlation for journey duration (r = 0.92, p < 0.001) self-reported journey duration was over-reported (mean difference 154 s per journey; 95% CI = 89 to 218 s; 95% limits of agreement = 154 ± 598 s (-444 to 752 s)). The device also provided visual data that was used for directed interviews about sources of error. Conclusions Direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images shows considerable potential in the field of travel research. Journey duration derived from direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images appears to suggest over-reporting of self-reported journey duration. PMID:21599935

  19. PIT-tagged particle study of bed mobility in a Maine salmon river impacted by logging activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. M.; Fixler, S. A.; Roberts, K. E.; McKenna, M.; Marshall, A. E.; Koenig, S.

    2017-12-01

    Presenting an interim report on a study on the Narraguagus River in Maine, which utilizes laser total stations cross-sectional surveys and tracking of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags embedded in glass spheres to document changes in channel-bed characteristics associated with large wood (LW) additions and natural spawning activities. In 2016, work was initiated to monitor changes in bed elevation and sediment mobility with the addition of LW to the Narraguagus River as part of a restoration effort. Ten cross-sections, spaced 5-m apart, were established and surveyed with a laser total station in each of three different study reaches. The study sites include a control reach, a section with anticipated spawning activities and a site with ongoing LW placement. A grid of 200 glass spheres embedded with PIT tags, with twenty alternating 25-mm and 40-mm size particles equally spaced along each of the ten transects, were placed to serve as point sensors to detect sediment mobilization within each reach. In 2017, the site was revisited to determine if differences in PIT-tagged tracer particle mobilization reflect locations were LW was added and places where Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) construct spawning redds. The positions of PIT-tagged tracer particles was recorded, but particles were not disturbed or uncovered to permit study of potential reworking of buried tracer particles the following year. Full tracer particle recovery will be determined in 2018 to determine if depths of tracer burial and changes in bed elevation vary among places near redds, LW and main channel locations. The data will be used to determine if salmon redds are preferentially located in either places with greater evidence of sediment reworking or alternatively in stable areas? The study will help determine the degree of bed disruption associated with spawning activities and whether LW placement encourages similar sediment mobilization processes.

  20. Logging truck noise near nesting northern goshawks

    Treesearch

    Teryl G. Grubb; Larry L. Pater; David K. Delaney

    1998-01-01

    We measured noise levels of four logging trucks as the trucks passed within approximately 500 m of two active northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) nests on the Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona in 1997. Neither a brooding adult female nor a lone juvenile exhibited any discernable behavioral response to logging truck noise, which peaked at 53.4 and...

  1. Internal log scanning: Research to reality

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2000-01-01

    Improved log breakdown into lumber has been an active research topic since the 1960's. Demonstrated economic gains have driven the search for a cost-effective method to scan logs internally, from which it is assumed one can chose a better breakdown strategy. X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been widely accepted as the most promising internal imaging technique....

  2. Enhanced characterization of faults and fractures at EGS sites by CO2 injection coupled with active seismic monitoring, pressure-transient testing, and well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Daley, T. M.; Borgia, A.; Zhang, R.; Doughty, C.; Jung, Y.; Altundas, B.; Chugunov, N.; Ramakrishnan, T. S.

    2016-12-01

    Faults and fractures in geothermal systems are difficult to image and characterize because they are nearly indistinguishable from host rock using traditional seismic and well-logging tools. We are investigating the use of CO2 injection and production (push-pull) in faults and fractures for contrast enhancement for better characterization by active seismic, well logging, and push-pull pressure transient analysis. Our approach consists of numerical simulation and feasibility assessment using conceptual models of potential enhanced geothermal system (EGS) sites such as Brady's Hot Spring and others. Faults in the deep subsurface typically have associated damage and gouge zones that provide a larger volume for uptake of CO2 than the slip plane alone. CO2 injected for push-pull well testing has a preference for flowing in the fault and fractures because CO2 is non-wetting relative to water and the permeability of open fractures and fault gouge is much higher than matrix. We are carrying out numerical simulations of injection and withdrawal of CO2 using TOUGH2/ECO2N. Simulations show that CO2 flows into the slip plane and gouge and damage zones and is driven upward by buoyancy during the push cycle over day-long time scales. Recovery of CO2 during the pull cycle is limited because of buoyancy effects. We then use the CO2 saturation field simulated by TOUGH2 in our anisotropic finite difference code from SPICE-with modifications for fracture compliance-that we use to model elastic wave propagation. Results show time-lapse differences in seismic response using a surface source. Results suggest that CO2 can be best imaged using time-lapse differencing of the P-wave and P-to-S-wave scattering in a vertical seismic profile (VSP) configuration. Wireline well-logging tools that measure electrical conductivity show promise as another means to detect and image the CO2-filled fracture near the injection well and potential monitoring well(s), especially if a saline-water pre

  3. Idaho-Montana Logging

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-16

    Logging operations have left a striking checkerboard pattern in the landscape along the Idaho-Montana border, sandwiched between Clearwater and Bitterroot National Forests as seen in this image acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  4. 1964 Oregon log production.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1965-01-01

    The production of logs in Oregon in 1964 was 9.4 billion board feet, or nearly 9 percent above 1963. This year, 1964, had the third highest level of log production in history, exceeded only in 1955 and in 1952. The proportion of total cut from private lands fell to 43 percent, even though the total private cut increased 6 percent over that in 1963. Forest industry,...

  5. Assessment of environmental enteropathy in the MAL-ED cohort study: theoretical and analytic framework.

    PubMed

    Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir

    2014-11-01

    Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Assessment of Environmental Enteropathy in the MAL-ED Cohort Study: Theoretical and Analytic Framework

    PubMed Central

    Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L.; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A.; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C.; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world. PMID:25305293

  7. 6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  8. Improved grading system for structural logs for log homes

    Treesearch

    D.W. Green; T.M. Gorman; J.W. Evans; J.F. Murphy

    2004-01-01

    Current grading standards for logs used in log home construction use visual criteria to sort logs into either “wall logs” or structural logs (round and sawn round timbers). The conservative nature of this grading system, and the grouping of stronger and weaker species for marketing purposes, probably results in the specification of logs with larger diameter than would...

  9. Structural complementarity of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains in Toll-like receptors and the adaptors Mal and MyD88.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Aisling; Ejdeback, Mikael; Ludidi, Phumzile L; O'Neill, Luke A J; Gay, Nicholas J

    2003-10-17

    The Toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain is a region found in the cytoplasmic tails of members of the Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 receptor superfamily. The domain is essential for signaling and is also found in the adaptor proteins Mal (MyD88 adaptor-like) and MyD88, which function to couple activation of the receptor to downstream signaling components. Experimental structures of two Toll/interleukin 1 receptor domains reveal a alpha-beta-fold similar to that of the bacterial chemotaxis protein CheY, and other evidence suggests that the adaptors can make heterotypic interactions with both the receptors and themselves. Here we show that the purified TIR domains of Mal and MyD88 can form stable heterodimers and also that Mal homodimers and oligomers are dissociated in the presence of ATP. To identify structural features that may contribute to the formation of signaling complexes, we produced models of the TIR domains from human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Mal, and MyD88. We found that although the overall fold is conserved the electrostatic surface potentials are quite distinct. Docking studies of the models suggest that Mal and MyD88 bind to different regions in TLRs 2 and 4, a finding consistent with a cooperative role of the two adaptors in signaling. Mal and MyD88 are predicted to interact at a third non-overlapping site, suggesting that the receptor and adaptors may form heterotetrameric complexes. The theoretical model of the interactions is supported by experimental data from glutathione S-transferase pull-downs and co-immunoprecipitations. Neither theoretical nor experimental data suggest a direct role for the conserved proline in the BB-loop in the association of TLR4, Mal, and MyD88. Finally we show a sequence relationship between the Drosophila protein Tube and Mal that may indicate a functional equivalence of these two adaptors in the Drosophila and vertebrate Toll pathways.

  10. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... part. (iii) An entry of each test and activation of the Emergency Alert System (EAS) pursuant to the... functions may be utilized to record entries in the station log Provided: (1) The recording devices do not...

  11. ExbBD-Dependent Transport of Maltodextrins through the Novel MalA Protein across the Outer Membrane of Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Heidi; Herrmann, Christina; Kammer, Winfried; Schwarz, Gerold; Nordheim, Alfred; Braun, Volkmar

    2005-01-01

    the C. crescentus malA mutant was slower than permeation through the outer membrane of an E. coli lamB mutant, which suggests a low porin activity in C. crescentus. The pores of the C. crescentus porins are slightly larger than those of E. coli K-12, since maltotetraose supported growth of the C. crescentus malA mutant but failed to support growth of the E. coli lamB mutant. The data are consistent with the proposal that binding of maltodextrins to MalA requires energy and MalA actively transports maltodextrins with Kd values 1,000-fold smaller than those for the LamB porin and 100-fold larger than those for the vitamin B12 and ferric siderophore outer membrane transporters. MalA is the first example of an outer membrane protein for which an ExbB/ExbD-dependent transport of a nutrient other than iron and vitamin B12 has been demonstrated. PMID:16321934

  12. 4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far left background), one-room log cabin (left of center background), log root cellar (center), post-and-beam center in foreground, and blacksmith shop (far right foreground). View to southeast. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  13. Log of Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  14. Alaska's Logging Camp School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    A visit to Ketchikan, Alaska, reveals a floating, one-teacher logging-camp school that uses multiage grouping and interdisciplinary teaching. There are 10 students. The school gym and playground, bunkhouse, fuel tanks, mess hall, and students' homes bob up and down and are often moved to other sites. (MLH)

  15. Logs Perl Module

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R. K.

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  16. Logging on to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A classroom lecture at Capistrano Connections Academy in Southern California involves booting up the home computer, logging on to a Web site, and observing a teacher conducting a PowerPoint presentation of that day's lesson entirely online. Through microphone headsets, students can watch on their home computers, respond to the teacher's questions,…

  17. Reducing logging damage

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Cosens

    1952-01-01

    Reducing logging damage to reproduction and residual stands is an important part of harvesting the old-growth forests of California. Much of the over mature timber: is on areas with an acceptable stocking of advance growth. When the old trees are harvested, the advance growth is scarred, deformed, broken, or killed outright. Insects and disease attack the broken and...

  18. Logging slash flammability

    Treesearch

    George R. Fahnestock

    1960-01-01

    Some of the most disastrous forest fires in North American history burned in slash left from logging and land clearing. In the era before organized fire control, the names Miramichi, Peshtigo, Hinckley, and Cloquet stand for millions of acres blackened and thousands of lives snuffed out. More recently the Half Moon Fire in Montana, the Tillamook Fire in Oregon, the...

  19. Log transfer and storage facilities in Southeast Alaska: a review.

    Treesearch

    Tamra L. Faris; Kenneth D. Vaughan

    1985-01-01

    The volume of timber harvested in southeast Alaska between 1909 and 1983 was 14,689 million board feet; nearly all was transported on water to various destinations for processing. In 1971 there were 69 active log transfer and storage facilities and 38 raft collecting and storage facilities in southeast Alaska. In 1983 there were 90 log transfer sites, 49 log storage...

  20. Validity, responsiveness, minimal detectable change, and minimal clinically important change of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keh-chung; Chen, Hui-fang; Chen, Chia-ling; Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Hsieh, Yu-wei; Wu, Li-ling

    2012-01-01

    This study examined criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL) in children with cerebral palsy. Study participants were 41 children (age range: 28-113 months) and their parents. Criterion-related validity was evaluated by the associations between the PMAL and criterion measures at baseline and posttreatment, including the self-care, mobility, and cognition subscale, the total performance of the Functional Independence Measure in children (WeeFIM), and the grasping and visual-motor integration of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. Responsiveness was examined using the paired t test and the standardized response mean, the minimal detectable change was captured at the 90% confidence level, and the minimal clinically important change was estimated using anchor-based and distribution-based approaches. The PMAL-QOM showed fair concurrent validity at pretreatment and posttreatment and predictive validity, whereas the PMAL-AOU had fair concurrent validity at posttreatment only. The PMAL-AOU and PMAL-QOM were both markedly responsive to change after treatment. Improvement of at least 0.67 points on the PMAL-AOU and 0.66 points on the PMAL-QOM can be considered as a true change, not measurement error. A mean change has to exceed the range of 0.39-0.94 on the PMAL-AOU and the range of 0.38-0.74 on the PMAL-QOM to be regarded as clinically important change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modelling pathogen log10 reduction values achieved by activated sludge treatment using naïve and semi naïve Bayes network models.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Guido; Roser, David J; Sisson, Scott A; Keegan, Alexandra; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-11-15

    Risk management for wastewater treatment and reuse have led to growing interest in understanding and optimising pathogen reduction during biological treatment processes. However, modelling pathogen reduction is often limited by poor characterization of the relationships between variables and incomplete knowledge of removal mechanisms. The aim of this paper was to assess the applicability of Bayesian belief network models to represent associations between pathogen reduction, and operating conditions and monitoring parameters and predict AS performance. Naïve Bayes and semi-naïve Bayes networks were constructed from an activated sludge dataset including operating and monitoring parameters, and removal efficiencies for two pathogens (native Giardia lamblia and seeded Cryptosporidium parvum) and five native microbial indicators (F-RNA bacteriophage, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, coliforms and enterococci). First we defined the Bayesian network structures for the two pathogen log10 reduction values (LRVs) class nodes discretized into two states (< and ≥ 1 LRV) using two different learning algorithms. Eight metrics, such as Prediction Accuracy (PA) and Area Under the receiver operating Curve (AUC), provided a comparison of model prediction performance, certainty and goodness of fit. This comparison was used to select the optimum models. The optimum Tree Augmented naïve models predicted removal efficiency with high AUC when all system parameters were used simultaneously (AUCs for C. parvum and G. lamblia LRVs of 0.95 and 0.87 respectively). However, metrics for individual system parameters showed only the C. parvum model was reliable. By contrast individual parameters for G. lamblia LRV prediction typically obtained low AUC scores (AUC < 0.81). Useful predictors for C. parvum LRV included solids retention time, turbidity and total coliform LRV. The methodology developed appears applicable for predicting pathogen removal efficiency in water treatment

  2. Log-Concavity and Strong Log-Concavity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Saumard, Adrien; Wellner, Jon A.

    2016-01-01

    We review and formulate results concerning log-concavity and strong-log-concavity in both discrete and continuous settings. We show how preservation of log-concavity and strongly log-concavity on ℝ under convolution follows from a fundamental monotonicity result of Efron (1969). We provide a new proof of Efron's theorem using the recent asymmetric Brascamp-Lieb inequality due to Otto and Menz (2013). Along the way we review connections between log-concavity and other areas of mathematics and statistics, including concentration of measure, log-Sobolev inequalities, convex geometry, MCMC algorithms, Laplace approximations, and machine learning. PMID:27134693

  3. Aspen for cabin logs

    Treesearch

    A.W. Sump

    1947-01-01

    A plentiful supply of pine and cedar logs provided the early settlers of this country with a cheap and durable material for the construction of their homes and farm buildings. Only the axe and the ingenuity of the pioneer were needed to erect a shelter against the elements of nature. Early in the 19th century, the circular saw came into use resulting in a change in...

  4. Well logging evaporative thermal protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Lamers, M.D.; Martelli, V.P.

    1981-02-03

    An evaporative thermal protection system for use in hostile environment well logging applications, the system including a downhole thermal protection cartridge disposed within a well logging sonde or tool to keep a payload such as sensors and support electronics cool, the cartridge carrying either an active evaporative system for refrigeration or a passive evaporative system, both exhausting to the surface through an armored flexible fluidic communication mechanical cable.

  5. Camphor: an herbal medicine causing grand mal seizures

    PubMed Central

    MacKinney, Theodore G; Soti, Kamal Raj; Shrestha, Poojan; Basnyat, Buddha

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is usually used in the USA to repel insects, but it is widely used in other countries as an herb. We report the case of a 52-year-old previously healthy Nepali man who ingested approximately 10 g of pure camphor with therapeutic intention. He developed grand mal seizures, and was evaluated in an emergency room. He failed to recall the camphor ingestion initially, and was treated with phenytoin for new-onset idiopathic seizures. Examining physicians only later found out about his camphor ingestion. Finding the cause of new-onset seizures is often challenging for emergency room physicians, internists and neurologists. In addition to other well-reported causes of secondary seizures, herbal medications and supplements must also be explored. PMID:26065546

  6. Non-Essential Role for TLR2 and Its Signaling Adaptor Mal/TIRAP in Preserving Normal Lung Architecture in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruwanpura, Saleela M.; McLeod, Louise; Lilja, Andrew R.; Brooks, Gavin; Dousha, Lovisa F.; Seow, Huei J.; Bozinovski, Steven; Vlahos, Ross; Hertzog, Paul J.; Anderson, Gary P.; Jenkins, Brendan J.

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and MyD88-adaptor like (Mal)/Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) play a critical role in transducing signals downstream of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. While genetic ablation of the TLR4/MyD88 signaling axis in mice leads to pulmonary cell death and oxidative stress culminating in emphysema, the involvement of Mal, as well as TLR2 which like TLR4 also signals via MyD88 and Mal, in the pathogenesis of emphysema has not been studied. By employing an in vivo genetic approach, we reveal here that unlike the spontaneous pulmonary emphysema which developed in Tlr4−/− mice by 6 months of age, the lungs of Tlr2−/− mice showed no physiological or morphological signs of emphysema. A more detailed comparative analysis of the lungs from these mice confirmed that elevated oxidative protein carbonylation levels and increased numbers of alveolar cell apoptosis were only detected in Tlr4−/− mice, along with up-regulation of NADPH oxidase 3 (Nox3) mRNA expression. With respect to Mal, the architecture of the lungs of Mal−/− mice was normal. However, despite normal oxidative protein carbonylation levels in the lungs of emphysema-free Mal−/− mice, these mice displayed increased levels of apoptosis comparable to those observed in emphysematous Tlr4−/− mice. In conclusion, our data provide in vivo evidence for the non-essential role for TLR2, unlike the related TLR4, in maintaining the normal architecture of the lung. In addition, we reveal that Mal differentially facilitates the anti-apoptotic, but not oxidant suppressive, activities of TLR4 in the lung, both of which appear to be essential for TLR4 to prevent the onset of emphysema. PMID:24205107

  7. 2. Onroom log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), tworoom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. On-room log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), two-room log cabin (left), and post-and-beam garage (background). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  8. Identification of endogenous inducers of the mal regulon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrmann, M; Boos, W

    1987-01-01

    The expression of the maltose regulon in Escherichia coli is induced when maltose or maltodextrins are present in the growth medium. Mutations in malK, which codes for a component of the transport system, result in the elevated expression of the remaining mal genes. Uninduced expression in the wild type, as well as elevated expression in malK mutants, is strongly repressed at high osmolarity. In the absence of malQ-encoded amylomaltase, expression remains high at high osmolarity. We found that uninduced expression in the wild type and elevated expression in malK mutants were paralleled by the appearance of two types of endogenous carbohydrates. One, produced primarily at high osmolarity, was identified as comprising maltodextrins that are derived from glycogen or glycogen-synthesizing enzymes. The other, produced primarily at low osmolarity, consisted of an oligosaccharide that was not derived from glycogen. We isolated a mutant that no longer synthesized this oligosaccharide. The gene carrying this mutation, termed malI, was mapped at min 36 on the E. coli linkage map. A Tn10 insertion in malI also resulted in the loss of constitutivity at low osmolarity and delayed the induction of the maltose regulon by exogenous inducers. Images PMID:3038842

  9. A collection of log rules

    Treesearch

    Frank Freese

    1973-01-01

    A log rule may be defined as a table or formula showing the estimated net yield for logs of a given diameter and length. Ordinarily the yield is expressed in terms of board feet of finished lumber, though a few rules give the cubic volume of the log or some fraction of it. Built into each log rule are allowances for losses due to such things as slabs, saw kerf, edgings...

  10. Configuration of Appalachian logging roads

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    1971-01-01

    The configuration - the curvature and grade - of logging roads in southern Appalachia is seldom severe, according to a recent Forest Service study. To improve the efficiency of logging roads, we must first define the characteristics of these roads; and in this report we provide a quantitative description of the configuration of over 200 miles of logging roads.

  11. Estimates of biomass in logging residue and standing residual inventory following tree-harvest activity on timberland acres in the southern region

    Treesearch

    Roger C. Conner; Tony G. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This report provides estimates of biomass (green tons) in logging residue and standing residual inventory on timberland acres with evidence of tree cutting. Biomass as defined by Forest Inventory and Analysis is the aboveground dry weight of wood in the bole and limbs of live trees ≥ 1-inch diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), and excludes tree foliage, seedlings, and...

  12. CLARET user's manual: Mainframe Logs. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Frobose, R.H.

    1984-11-12

    CLARET (Computer Logging and RETrieval) is a stand-alone PDP 11/23 system that can support 16 terminals. It provides a forms-oriented front end by which operators enter online activity logs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's OCTOPUS computer network. The logs are stored on the PDP 11/23 disks for later retrieval, and hardcopy reports are generated both automatically and upon request. Online viewing of the current logs is provided to management. As each day's logs are completed, the information is automatically sent to a CRAY and included in an online database system. The terminal used for the CLARET system is amore » dual-port Hewlett Packard 2626 terminal that can be used as either the CLARET logging station or as an independent OCTOPUS terminal. Because this is a stand-alone system, it does not depend on the availability of the OCTOPUS network to run and, in the event of a power failure, can be brought up independently.« less

  13. Automated lithology prediction from PGNAA and other geophysical logs.

    PubMed

    Borsaru, M; Zhou, B; Aizawa, T; Karashima, H; Hashimoto, T

    2006-02-01

    Different methods of lithology predictions from geophysical data have been developed in the last 15 years. The geophysical logs used for predicting lithology are the conventional logs: sonic, neutron-neutron, gamma (total natural-gamma) and density (backscattered gamma-gamma). The prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is another established geophysical logging technique for in situ element analysis of rocks in boreholes. The work described in this paper was carried out to investigate the application of PGNAA to the lithology interpretation. The data interpretation was conducted using the automatic interpretation program LogTrans based on statistical analysis. Limited test suggests that PGNAA logging data can be used to predict the lithology. A success rate of 73% for lithology prediction was achieved from PGNAA logging data only. It can also be used in conjunction with the conventional geophysical logs to enhance the lithology prediction.

  14. Logged In and Zoned Out.

    PubMed

    Ravizza, Susan M; Uitvlugt, Mitchell G; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2017-02-01

    Laptop computers are widely prevalent in university classrooms. Although laptops are a valuable tool, they offer access to a distracting temptation: the Internet. In the study reported here, we assessed the relationship between classroom performance and actual Internet usage for academic and nonacademic purposes. Students who were enrolled in an introductory psychology course logged into a proxy server that monitored their online activity during class. Past research relied on self-report, but the current methodology objectively measured time, frequency, and browsing history of participants' Internet usage. In addition, we assessed whether intelligence, motivation, and interest in course material could account for the relationship between Internet use and performance. Our results showed that nonacademic Internet use was common among students who brought laptops to class and was inversely related to class performance. This relationship was upheld after we accounted for motivation, interest, and intelligence. Class-related Internet use was not associated with a benefit to classroom performance.

  15. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  16. Assessment of allelic diversity in intron-containing Mal d 1 genes and their association to apple allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhongshan; Weg, Eric W van de; Matos, Catarina I; Arens, Paul; Bolhaar, Suzanne THP; Knulst, Andre C; Li, Yinghui; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Gilissen, Luud JWJ

    2008-01-01

    Background Mal d 1 is a major apple allergen causing food allergic symptoms of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) in birch-pollen sensitised patients. The Mal d 1 gene family is known to have at least 7 intron-containing and 11 intronless members that have been mapped in clusters on three linkage groups. In this study, the allelic diversity of the seven intron-containing Mal d 1 genes was assessed among a set of apple cultivars by sequencing or indirectly through pedigree genotyping. Protein variant constitutions were subsequently compared with Skin Prick Test (SPT) responses to study the association of deduced protein variants with allergenicity in a set of 14 cultivars. Results From the seven intron-containing Mal d 1 genes investigated, Mal d 1.01 and Mal d 1.02 were highly conserved, as nine out of ten cultivars coded for the same protein variant, while only one cultivar coded for a second variant. Mal d 1.04, Mal d 1.05 and Mal d 1.06 A, B and C were more variable, coding for three to six different protein variants. Comparison of Mal d 1 allelic composition between the high-allergenic cultivar Golden Delicious and the low-allergenic cultivars Santana and Priscilla, which are linked in pedigree, showed an association between the protein variants coded by the Mal d 1.04 and -1.06A genes (both located on linkage group 16) with allergenicity. This association was confirmed in 10 other cultivars. In addition, Mal d 1.06A allele dosage effects associated with the degree of allergenicity based on prick to prick testing. Conversely, no associations were observed for the protein variants coded by the Mal d 1.01 (on linkage group 13), -1.02, -1.06B, -1.06C genes (all on linkage group 16), nor by the Mal d 1.05 gene (on linkage group 6). Conclusion Protein variant compositions of Mal d 1.04 and -1.06A and, in case of Mal d 1.06A, allele doses are associated with the differences in allergenicity among fourteen apple cultivars. This information indicates the involvement of

  17. 3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of center), equipment shed (center), and workshop (far right). View to northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  18. Ceramic vacuum tubes for geothermal well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.D.

    1977-01-12

    The results of investigations carried out into the availability and suitability of ceramic vacuum tubes for the development of logging tools for geothermal wells are summarized. Design data acquired in the evaluation of ceramic vacuum tubes for the development of a 500/sup 0/C instrumentation amplifier are presented. The general requirements for ceramic vacuum tubes for application to the development of high temperature well logs are discussed. Commercially available tubes are described and future contract activities that specifically relate to ceramic vacuum tubes are detailed. Supplemental data is presented in the appendix. (MHR)

  19. Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Sky, Melissa A Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-17

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  20. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US–Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms. PMID:24743552

  1. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  2. Management of mal de debarquement syndrome as vestibular migraines.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Yaser; Haidar, Yarah M; Ziai, Kasra N; Moshtaghi, Omid; Bhatt, Jay; Lin, Harrison W; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2017-07-01

    Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a balance disorder that typically starts after an extended exposure to passive motion, such as a boat or plane ride. Management is typically supportive (e.g. physical therapy), and symptoms that persist beyond 6 months have been described as unlikely to remit. This study was conducted to evaluate the response of patients with MdDS to management with migraine prophylaxis, including lifestyle changes and medical therapy. Prospective review. Ambulatory setting at a tertiary care medical center. Clinical history, detailed questionnaires, and audiograms were used to diagnose patients with MdDS. Those patients with the diagnosis of the MdDS were placed on our institutional vestibular migraine management protocol. Treatment response was assessed with a quality-of-life (QOL) survey and visual analog scale. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with MdDS, with a predominance of females (73%) and a mean age of 50 ± 13 years. Eleven patients (73%) responded well to management with a vestibular migraine protocol, which included lifestyle changes, as well as pharmacotherapy with verapamil, nortriptyline, topiramate, or a combination thereof. In comparison, a retrospective control group of 17 patients demonstrated a lower rate of improvement when treated with vestibular rehabilitation and physical therapy. Management of MdDS as vestibular migraine can improve patients' symptoms and increase the QOL. Nearly all the patients suffering from MdDS had a personal or family history of migraine headaches or had signs or symptoms suggestive of atypical migraine. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1670-1675, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. A brief history of typical absence seizures - Petit mal revisited.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Lattanzi, Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have traced back the history of typical absence seizures, from their initial clinical description to the more recent nosological position. The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 and Tissot in 1770. In 1824, Calmeil introduced the term "absences", and in 1838, Esquirol for the first time used the term petit mal. Reynolds instead used the term "epilepsia mitior" (milder epilepsy) and provided a comprehensive description of absence seizures (1861). In 1854, Delasiauve ranked absences as the seizure type with lower severity and introduced the concept of idiopathic epilepsy. Otto Binswanger (1899) discussed the role of cortex in the pathophysiology of "abortive seizures", whereas William Gowers (1901) emphasized the importance of a detailed clinical history to identify nonmotor seizures or very mild motor phenomena which otherwise may go unnoticed or considered not epileptic. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the term pyknolepsy was introduced, but initially was not universally considered as a type of epilepsy; it was definitely recognized as an epileptic entity only in 1945, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Hans Berger, the inventor of the EEG, made also the first EEG recording of an atypical absence (his results were published only in 1933), whereas the characteristic EEG pattern was reported by neurophysiologists of the Harvard Medical School in 1935. The discovery of EEG made it also possible to differentiate absence seizures from so called "psychomotor" seizures occurring in temporal lobe epilepsy. Penfield and Jasper (1938) considered absences as expression of "centrencephalic epilepsy". Typical absences seizures are now classified by the International League Against Epilepsy among generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A qRT-PCR assay for the expression of all Mal d 1 isoallergen genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A considerable number of individuals suffer from oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to apple, resulting in the avoidance of apple consumption. Apple cultivars differ greatly in their allergenic properties, but knowledge of the causes for such differences is incomplete. Mal d 1 is considered the major apple allergen. For Mal d 1, a wide range of isoallergens and variants exist, and they are encoded by a large gene family. To identify the specific proteins/genes that are potentially involved in the allergy, we developed a PCR assay to monitor the expression of each individual Mal d 1 gene. Gene-specific primer pairs were designed for the exploitation of sequence differences among Mal d 1 genes. The specificity of these primers was validated using both in silico and in vitro techniques. Subsequently, this assay was applied to the peel and flesh of fruits from the two cultivars ‘Florina’ and ‘Gala’. Results We successfully developed gene-specific primer pairs for each of the 31 Mal d 1 genes and incorporated them into a qRT-PCR assay. The results from the application of the assay showed that 11 genes were not expressed in fruit. In addition, differential expression was observed among the Mal d 1 genes that were expressed in the fruit. Moreover, the expression levels were tissue and cultivar dependent. Conclusion The assay developed in this study facilitated the first characterisation of the expression levels of all known Mal d 1 genes in a gene-specific manner. Using this assay on different fruit tissues and cultivars, we obtained knowledge concerning gene relevance in allergenicity. This study provides new perspectives for research on both plant breeding and immunotherapy. PMID:23522122

  5. Effects of log defects on lumber recovery.

    Treesearch

    James M. Cahill; Vincent S. Cegelka

    1989-01-01

    The impact of log defects on lumber recovery and the accuracy of cubic log scale deductions were evaluated from log scale and product recovery data for more than 3,000 logs. Lumber tally loss was estimated by comparing the lumber yield of sound logs to that of logs containing defects. The data were collected at several product recovery studies; they represent most of...

  6. Functional expression and molecular characterization of Culex quinquefasciatus salivary α-glucosidase (MalI).

    PubMed

    Suthangkornkul, Rungarun; Sirichaiyakul, Phanthila; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Thepouyporn, Apanchanid; Svasti, Jisnuson; Arthan, Dumrongkiet

    2015-06-01

    Salivary α-glucosidases (MalI) have been much less characterized when compared with midgut α-glucosidases, which have been studied in depth. Few studies have been reported on the partial characterization of MalI, but no clear function has been ascribed. The aim of this study is to purify and characterize the recombinant Culex quinquefasciatus (CQ) α-glucosidase expressed in Pichia pastoris. The cDNA encoding mature Cx. quinquefasciatus α-glucosidase gene with polyhistidine tag (rCQMalIHis) was successfully cloned into the expression vector, pPICZαB, designated as pPICZαB/CQMalIHis. The activity of recombinant rCQMalIHis expressed in P. pastoris could be detected at 3.75U/ml, under optimal culture conditions. The purified rCQMalIHis showed a single band of molecular weight of approximately 92kDa on SDS-PAGE. After Endoglycosidase H digestion, a single band at 69kDa was found on SDS-PAGE analysis, suggesting that rCQMalIHis is a glycoprotein. Additionally, tryptic digestion and LC-MALDI MS/MS analysis suggested that the 69kDa band corresponds to the Cx. quinquefasciatus α-glucosidase. Thus, rCQMalIHis is a glycoprotein. The rCQMalIHis exhibited optimum pH and temperature at 5.5 and 35°C, respectively. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the purified rCQMalIHis for maltotriose is higher than those for sucrose, maltotetraose, maltose and p-nitrophenyl-α-glucoside, indicating that the enzyme prefers maltotriose. Additionally, the rCQMalIHis is significantly inhibited by d-gluconic acid δ-lactone, but not by Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and EDTA. The rCQMalIHis is strongly inhibited by acarbose with IC50 67.8±5.6nM, but weakly inhibited by glucose with IC50 115.9±7.3mM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Protecting log cabins from decay

    Treesearch

    R. M. Rowell; J. M. Black; L. R. Gjovik; W. C. Feist

    1977-01-01

    This report answers the questions most often asked of the Forest Service on the protection of log cabins from decay, and on practices for the exterior finishing and maintenance of existing cabins. Causes of stain and decay are discussed, as are some basic techniques for building a cabin that will minimize decay. Selection and handling of logs, their preservative...

  8. Sawing SHOLO logs: three methods

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. Coleman; Hugh W. Reynolds

    1973-01-01

    Three different methods of sawing the SHOLO log were compared on a board-foot yield basis. Using sawmill simulation, all three methods of sawing were performed on the same sample of logs, eliminating differences due to sapling. A statistical test was made to determine whether or not there were any real differences between the board-foot yields. Two of the sawing...

  9. Review of log sort yards

    Treesearch

    John Rusty Dramm; Gerry L. Jackson; Jenny Wong

    2002-01-01

    This report provides a general overview of current log sort yard operations in the United States, including an extensive literature review and information collected during on-site visits to several operations throughout the nation. Log sort yards provide many services in marketing wood and fiber by concentrating, merchandising, processing, sorting, and adding value to...

  10. Logging slash and forest protection.

    Treesearch

    Raphael Zon; Russell N. Cunningham

    1931-01-01

    What to do with the brush after logging? This question has been debated in Wisconsin throughout the entire history of lumbering. In the popular mind, the occurrence of severe forest conflagrations has invariably been associated with the presence of logging slash on the ground. The occurrence of vast forest fires was noted by explorers and fur traders long before...

  11. MalE of Group A Streptococcus Participates in the Rapid Transport of Maltotriose and Longer Maltodextrins▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shelburne, Samuel A.; Fang, Han; Okorafor, Nnaja; Sumby, Paul; Sitkiewicz, Izabela; Keith, David; Patel, Payal; Austin, Celest; Graviss, Edward A.; Musser, James M.; Chow, Dar-Chone

    2007-01-01

    Study of the maltose/maltodextrin binding protein MalE in Escherichia coli has resulted in fundamental insights into the molecular mechanisms of microbial transport. Whether gram-positive bacteria employ a similar pathway for maltodextrin transport is unclear. The maltodextrin binding protein MalE has previously been shown to be key to the ability of group A Streptococcus (GAS) to colonize the oropharynx, the major site of GAS infection in humans. Here we used a multifaceted approach to elucidate the function and binding characteristics of GAS MalE. We found that GAS MalE is a central part of a highly efficient maltodextrin transport system capable of transporting linear maltodextrins that are up to at least seven glucose molecules long. Of the carbohydrates tested, GAS MalE had the highest affinity for maltotriose, a major breakdown product of starch in the human oropharynx. The thermodynamics and fluorescence changes induced by GAS MalE-maltodextrin binding were essentially opposite those reported for E. coli MalE. Moreover, unlike E. coli MalE, GAS MalE exhibited no specific binding of maltose or cyclic maltodextrins. Our data show that GAS developed a transport system optimized for linear maltodextrins longer than two glucose molecules that has several key differences from its well-studied E. coli counterpart. PMID:17259319

  12. Geography, population, demography, socioeconomic, anthropometry, and environmental status in the MAL-ED cohort and case-control study Sites in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Aldo A M; Oriá, Reinaldo B; Soares, Alberto M; Filho, José Q; de Sousa, Francisco; Abreu, Cláudia B; Bindá, Alexandre; Lima, Ila; Quetz, Josiane; Moraes, Milena; Maciel, Bruna; Costa, Hilda; Leite, Alvaro M; Lima, Noélia L; Mota, Francisco S; Di Moura, Alessandra; Scharf, Rebecca; Barrett, Leah; Guerrant, Richard L

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort in the study's Fortaleza, Brazil, catchment area has a population of approximately 82 300 inhabitants. Most of the households (87%) have access to clean water, 98% have electricity, and 69% have access to improved toilet/sanitation. Most childbirths occur at the hospital, and the under-5 mortality rate is 20 per 1000 live births. The MAL-ED case-control study population, identified through the Institute for the Promotion of Nutrition and Human Development (IPREDE), serves 600 000 inhabitants from areas totaling about 42% of the city of Fortaleza. IPREDE receives referrals from throughout the state of Ceará for infant nutrition, and provides services including teaching activities and the training of graduate students and health professionals, while supporting research projects on child nutrition and health. In this article, we describe the geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and environmental status of the MAL-ED cohort and case-control study populations in Fortaleza, Brazil. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Structure of the Major Apple Allergen Mal d 1

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    More than 70% of birch pollen-allergic patients develop allergic cross-reactions to the major allergen found in apple fruits (Malus domestica), the 17.5 kDa protein Mal d 1. Allergic reactions against this protein result from initial sensitization to the major allergen from birch pollen, Bet v 1. Immunologic cross-reactivity of Bet v 1-specific IgE antibodies with Mal d 1 after apple consumption can subsequently provoke severe oral allergic syndromes. This study presents the three-dimensional NMR solution structure of Mal d 1 (isoform Mal d 1.0101, initially cloned from ‘Granny Smith’ apples). This protein is composed of a seven-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and three α-helices that form a large internal cavity, similar to Bet v 1 and other cross-reactive food allergens. The Mal d 1 structure provides the basis for elucidating the details of allergic cross-reactivity between birch pollen and apple allergens on a molecular level. PMID:28161953

  14. Social, societal, and economic burden of mal de debarquement syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macke, Allison; LePorte, Andrew; Clark, Brian C

    2012-07-01

    Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a disorder of phantom perception of self-motion of unknown cause. The purpose of this work was to describe the quality of life (QOL) of patients with MdDS and to estimate the economic costs associated with this disorder. A modified version of a QOL survey used for another neurological disease (multiple sclerosis; MSQOL-54) was used to assess the impact of MdDS on QOL in 101 patients. The estimated economic costs were based on self-reported direct and indirect costs of individuals living in the United States using Medicare reimbursement payment rates for 2011 in 79 patients. Patients with MdDS reported a poor overall QOL as indicated by a mean composite QOL score of 59.26 ± 1.89 (out of 100). The subcategories having the lowest QOL rating were role limitations due to physical problems (18.32 ± 3.20), energy (34.24 ± 1.47), and emotional problems (36.30 ± 4.00). The overall physical health composite score including balance was 49.40 ± 1.69, and the overall mental health composite score was 52.40 ± 1.83. The cost to obtain a diagnosis was $2,997 ± 337, which included requiring an average of 19 physician visits per patient. The direct cost of MdDS medical care was $826 ± 140 per patient per year, which mainly included diagnostic imaging and physician visits. The indirect costs (i.e., lost wages) were $9,781 ± 2,347 per patient per year. Among 65 patients who were gainfully employed when they acquired MdDS, the indirect costs were $11,888 ± 2,786 per patient per year. Thus, the total annual cost of the disorder ranged from $11,493 ± 2,341 to $13,561 ± 2,778 per patient per year depending on employment status prior to developing MdDS. MdDS negatively and dramatically impacts QOL, and also imposes a substantial economic burden on MdDS patients. These findings underscore the need for further basic and clinical research on MdDS.

  15. MAL73, a novel regulator of maltose fermentation, is functionally impaired by single nucleotide polymorphism in sake brewing yeast.

    PubMed

    Ohdate, Takumi; Omura, Fumihiko; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Zhou, Yan; Takagi, Masami; Goshima, Tetsuya; Akao, Takeshi; Ono, Eiichiro

    2018-01-01

    For maltose fermentation, budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae operates a mechanism that involves transporters (MALT), maltases (MALS) and regulators (MALR) collectively known as MAL genes. However, functional relevance of MAL genes during sake brewing process remains largely elusive, since sake yeast is cultured under glucose-rich condition achieved by the co-culture partner Aspergillus spp.. Here we isolated an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized sake yeast strain exhibiting enhanced maltose fermentation compared to the parental strain. The mutant carried a single nucleotide insertion that leads to the extension of the C-terminal region of a previously uncharacterized MALR gene YPR196W-2, which was renamed as MAL73. Introduction of the mutant allele MAL73L with extended C-terminal region into the parental or other sake yeast strains enhanced the growth rate when fed with maltose as the sole carbon source. In contrast, disruption of endogenous MAL73 in the sake yeasts decreased the maltose fermentation ability of sake yeast, confirming that the original MAL73 functions as a MALR. Importantly, the MAL73L-expressing strain fermented more maltose in practical condition compared to the parental strain during sake brewing process. Our data show that MAL73(L) is a novel MALR gene that regulates maltose fermentation, and has been functionally attenuated in sake yeast by single nucleotide deletion during breeding history. Since the MAL73L-expressing strain showed enhanced ability of maltose fermentation, MAL73L might also be a valuable tool for enhancing maltose fermentation in yeast in general.

  16. Logging utilization in Oregon and Washington, 2011–2015

    Treesearch

    Eric A. Simmons; Todd A. Morgan; Erik C. Berg; Steven W. Hayes; Glenn A. Christensen

    2016-01-01

    A study of commercial timber harvesting activities in Oregon and Washington was conducted from 2011 through 2015 to characterize current tree utilization, logging operations, and assist with estimating the amount of woody biomass left onsite after harvesting. Sample logging sites were selected within major geographic regions proportional to regional 5-year timber...

  17. Log production in Washington and Oregon: an historical perspective.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1972-01-01

    In the history of the Pacific Northwest, log production and conversion have been major economic activities. The long-term trends in timber harvesting have been upward, and most of the harvest has come from large old-growth forest inventories. National and international demands for timber have been a major element in putting upward pressure on log production levels....

  18. Michigan Saw Log Production and Sawmill Industry, 1978

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Jack Zollner; W. Brad Smith

    1982-01-01

    Michigan's saw log production climbed to 563 million board feet in 1978 from 514 million board feet in 1977. Eight percent was shipped to out-of-state mills. Michigan's 341 active sawmills received 525 million board feet of logs; only 1 percent came from other States.

  19. Temperature and volume estimation of under-seafloor fluid from the logging-while-drilling data beneath an active hydrothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Y.; Saito, S.; Sanada, Y.; Masaki, Y.; Moe, K.; Kido, Y. N.; Kumagai, H.; Takai, K.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-12-01

    In July of 2014, offshore drillings on Iheya-North Knoll, Okinawa Trough, was executed as part of Next-generation technology for ocean resources survey, which is a research program in Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP). In this expedition, logging-while- drilling (LWD) and measuring-while-drilling (MWD) were inserted into 6 holes (C9011 - C9016) to investigate spatial distribution of hydrothermal deposit and geothermal fluid reservoir. Both of these tools included annular pressure-while-drilling (APWD). Annular pressure and temperature were monitored by the APWD to detect possible exceedingly-high-temperature geofluid. In addition, drilling fluid was continuously circulated at sufficient flow rate to protect LWD tools against high temperature (non-stop driller system). At C9012 and C9016, the LWD tool clearly detected pressure and temperature anomaly at 234 meter below the seafloor (mbsf) and 80 mbsf, respectively. Annular pressure and temperature quickly increases at that depth and it would reflect the injection of high-temperature fluid. During the drilling, however, drilling water was continuously circulated at high flow-rate (2600L/min) and the measured temperature is not exactly in-situ temperature. To investigate the detail of the heat source, such as in-situ temperature and quantity of heat, we performed numerical analyses of thermal fluid and energy-balance assuming injection of high-temperature fluid. We combined pressure loss theory of double cylinders and temperature equation to replicate the fluid flow and its temperature between borehole wall and drilling pipe during the thermofluid injection. As the result, we estimated the temperature and the volume of injected fluid to be 115oC~ and 17.3 m3, respectively (at C9012) from the calculation. This temperature is lower than that of a hydrothermall vent which had been found near the hole (300oC).

  20. Structural Basis for the Interconversion of Maltodextrins by MalQ, the Amylomaltase of Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Simon C.; Skerra, Arne; Schiefner, André

    2015-01-01

    Amylomaltase MalQ is essential for the metabolism of maltose and maltodextrins in Escherichia coli. It catalyzes transglycosylation/disproportionation reactions in which glycosyl or dextrinyl units are transferred among linear maltodextrins of various lengths. To elucidate the molecular basis of transglycosylation by MalQ, we have determined three crystal structures of this enzyme, i.e. the apo-form, its complex with maltose, and an inhibitor complex with the transition state analog acarviosine-glucose-acarbose, at resolutions down to 2.1 Å. MalQ represents the first example of a mesophilic bacterial amylomaltase with known structure and exhibits an N-terminal extension of about 140 residues, in contrast with previously described thermophilic enzymes. This moiety seems unique to amylomaltases from Enterobacteriaceae and folds into two distinct subdomains that associate with different parts of the catalytic core. Intriguingly, the three MalQ crystal structures appear to correspond to distinct states of this enzyme, revealing considerable conformational changes during the catalytic cycle. In particular, the inhibitor complex highlights the requirement of both a 3-OH group and a 4-OH group (or α1–4-glycosidic bond) at the acceptor subsite +1 for the catalytically competent orientation of the acid/base catalyst Glu-496. Using an HPLC-based MalQ enzyme assay, we could demonstrate that the equilibrium concentration of maltodextrin products depends on the length of the initial substrate; with increasing numbers of glycosidic bonds, less glucose is formed. Thus, both structural and enzymatic data are consistent with the extremely low hydrolysis rates observed for amylomaltases and underline the importance of MalQ for the metabolism of maltodextrins in E. coli. PMID:26139606

  1. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  2. Modelling tropical forests response to logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

  3. Explorations in statistics: the log transformation.

    PubMed

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2018-06-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This thirteenth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the log transformation, an established technique that rescales the actual observations from an experiment so that the assumptions of some statistical analysis are better met. A general assumption in statistics is that the variability of some response Y is homogeneous across groups or across some predictor variable X. If the variability-the standard deviation-varies in rough proportion to the mean value of Y, a log transformation can equalize the standard deviations. Moreover, if the actual observations from an experiment conform to a skewed distribution, then a log transformation can make the theoretical distribution of the sample mean more consistent with a normal distribution. This is important: the results of a one-sample t test are meaningful only if the theoretical distribution of the sample mean is roughly normal. If we log-transform our observations, then we want to confirm the transformation was useful. We can do this if we use the Box-Cox method, if we bootstrap the sample mean and the statistic t itself, and if we assess the residual plots from the statistical model of the actual and transformed sample observations.

  4. Kinematic measures of Arm-trunk movements during unilateral and bilateral reaching predict clinically important change in perceived arm use in daily activities after intensive stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao-ling; Lin, Keh-chung; Liing, Rong-jiuan; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling

    2015-09-21

    Kinematic analysis has been used to objectively evaluate movement patterns, quality, and strategies during reaching tasks. However, no study has investigated whether kinematic variables during unilateral and bilateral reaching tasks predict a patient's perceived arm use during activities of daily living (ADL) after an intensive intervention. Therefore, this study investigated whether kinematic measures during unilateral and bilateral reaching tasks before an intervention can predict clinically meaningful improvement in perceived arm use during ADL after intensive poststroke rehabilitation. The study was a secondary analysis of 120 subjects with chronic stroke who received 90-120 min of intensive intervention every weekday for 3-4 weeks. Reaching kinematics during unilateral and bilateral tasks and the Motor Activity Log (MAL) were evaluated before and after the intervention. Kinematic variables explained 22 and 11 % of the variance in actual amount of use (AOU) and quality of movement (QOM), respectively, of MAL improvement during unilateral reaching tasks. Kinematic variables also explained 21 and 31 % of the variance in MAL-AOU and MAL-QOM, respectively, during bilateral reaching tasks. Selected kinematic variables, including endpoint variables, trunk involvement, and joint recruitment and interjoint coordination, were significant predictors for improvement in perceived arm use during ADL (P < 0.05). Arm-trunk kinematics may be used to predict clinically meaningful improvement in perceived arm use during ADL after intensive rehabilitation. Involvement of interjoint coordination and trunk control variables as predictors in bilateral reaching models indicates that a high level of motor control (i.e., multijoint coordination) and trunk stability may be important in obtaining treatment gains in arm use, especially for bilateral daily activities, in intensive rehabilitation after stroke.

  5. Rising Mal-Employment and the Great Recession: The Growing Disconnection between Recent College Graduates and the College Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the phenomenon of mal-employment among college graduates in the United States, beginning with an overview of labor-market trends and the effects of the Great Recession on the job-market experiences of young people, including recent college graduates. It then defines "mal-employment" and examines its incidence over…

  6. Change in Myself-as-a-Learner Scale (MALS) Scores as Pupils Transfer to and Progress through Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norgate, Roger; Osborne, Cara; Warhurst, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal changes in pupils' academic self-perception (as measured by Myself-As-a-Learner Scale [MALS]) were investigated between Year 6 and Year 10. The possibility of there being gender and attainment differences was also explored. There was a significant drop in mean MALS scores between Years 6 and 7. There was a further drop between Years 7…

  7. Acoustic sorting models for improved log segregation

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Steve Verrill; Eini Lowell; Robert J. Ross; Vicki L. Herian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined three individual log measures (acoustic velocity, log diameter, and log vertical position in a tree) for their ability to predict average modulus of elasticity (MOE) and grade yield of structural lumber obtained from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb. Franco]) logs. We found that log acoustic velocity only had a...

  8. Ceramic vacuum tubes for geothermal well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Useful design data acquired in the evaluation of ceramic vacuum tubes for the development of a 500/sup 0/C instrumentation amplifier are presented. The general requirements for ceramic vacuum tubes are discussed for application to the development of high temperature well logs. Commercially available tubes are described and future contract activities that specifically relate to ceramic vacuum tubes are detailed. Supplemental data are presented in the appendix.

  9. Idiopathic generalized epilepsies with pure grand mal: clinical data and genetics.

    PubMed

    Unterberger, I; Trinka, E; Luef, G; Bauer, G

    2001-04-01

    To analyze the clinical features and family history of patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), with pure grand mal (GM), divided into epilepsies with GM occurring exclusively on awakening (GMA) and random GM (RGM). We studied retrospectively 98 patients from a large epilepsy outpatient clinic. All patients had a full clinical examination and computed cerebral tomography scans (CCT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) when feasible. We analyzed seizure type, seizure frequency, provocative factors, prognosis, electroencephalography (EEG) findings and family history. Sixty-eight patients had GMA and 30 had RGM. The mean age at seizure onset was 16.6 years (+/-6.3 S.D., range: 5-41) and 16.7 years in those with RGM (+/-7.5 S.D., range: 4-42, NSD). Patients with GMA had a longer course of active epilepsy (median 8.5 years) compared to RGM (median 2 years). Seizure-provoking factors, especially sleep deprivation, were significantly (P=0.001) more common in patients with GMA (52/68, 77%) than in the group with RGM (13/30, 43%). Of all patients, 23% (23/98) reported first degree relatives with seizures or epilepsy. Pure GM was found in 41% (12/29) of affected first degree relatives, other idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes were less frequently observed (4/29, 14%). The concordance rate was high within the syndrome - none of the patients with RGM had an affected relative with GMA and vice versa only two of affected relatives of GMA patients had RGM. GMA seems to be associated with a longer duration of active epilepsy, a higher relapse rate and a stronger tendency to be precipitated by seizure provoking factors. The different concordance rates between the syndromes suggest a genetically different background.

  10. A Guide to Hardwood Log Grading

    Treesearch

    Everette D. Rast; David L. Sonderman; Glenn L. Gammon

    1973-01-01

    A guide to hardwood log grading (revised) was developed as a teaching aid and field reference in grading hardwood logs. Outlines basic principles and gives detailed practical applications, with illustrations, in grading hardwood logs. Includes standards for various use classes.

  11. Log Truck-Weighing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    ELDEC Corp., Lynwood, Wash., built a weight-recording system for logging trucks based on electronic technology the company acquired as a subcontractor on space programs such as Apollo and the Saturn launch vehicle. ELDEC employed its space-derived expertise to develop a computerized weight-and-balance system for Lockheed's TriStar jetliner. ELDEC then adapted the airliner system to a similar product for logging trucks. Electronic equipment computes tractor weight, trailer weight and overall gross weight, and this information is presented to the driver by an instrument in the cab. The system costs $2,000 but it pays for itself in a single year. It allows operators to use a truck's hauling capacity more efficiently since the load can be maximized without exceeding legal weight limits for highway travel. Approximately 2,000 logging trucks now use the system.

  12. Mail LOG: Program operating instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The operating instructions for the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, are provided. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG program has the following four modes of operation: (1) INPUT - putting new records into the data base (2) REVISE - changing or modifying existing records in the data base (3) SEARCH - finding special records existing in the data base (4) ARCHIVE - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the INPUT and SEARCH modes. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: Incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; Design Information Releases and Releases and Reports; and Drawings and Engineering orders.

  13. Design, Development, and Formative Evaluation of a Smartphone Application for Recording and Monitoring Physical Activity Levels: The 10,000 Steps "iStepLog"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirwan, Morwenna; Duncan, Mitch J.; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Limited research exists addressing the development of health-related smartphone apps, a new and potentially effective health promotion delivery strategy. This article describes the development and formative evaluation of a smartphone app associated with a physical activity promotion website. Methods: A combination of qualitative and…

  14. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast

    1980-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  15. Postfire logging in riparian areas.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gordon H; Bisson, Peter A; Rieman, Bruce E; Benda, Lee E

    2006-08-01

    We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend to rebound relatively quickly, usually within a decade after a wildfire. Additionally, fire and subsequent erosion events contribute wood and coarse sediment that can create and maintain productive aquatic habitats over time. The potential effects of postfire logging in riparian areas depend on the landscape context and disturbance history of a site; however available evidence suggests two key management implications: (1) fire in riparian areas creates conditions that may not require intervention to sustain the long-term productivity of the aquatic network and (2) protection of burned riparian areas gives priority to what is left rather than what is removed. Research is needed to determine how postfire logging in riparian areas has affected the spread of invasive species and the vulnerability of upland forests to insect and disease outbreaks and how postfire logging will affect the frequency and behavior of future fires. The effectiveness of using postfire logging to restore desired riparian structure and function is therefore unproven, but such projects are gaining interest with the departure of forest conditions from those that existed prior to timber harvest, fire suppression, and climate change. In the absence of reliable information about the potential consequence of postfire timber harvest, we conclude that providing postfire riparian zones with the same environmental protections they received before they burned isjustified ecologically Without a commitment to monitor management experiments, the effects of postfire riparian logging will remain unknown and highly contentious.

  16. High temperature increases the masculinization rate of the all-female (XX) rainbow trout "Mal" population.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, Karina; Jouanno, Elodie; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Galiana-Arnoux, Delphine; Guyomard, René; Helary, Louise; Mourot, Brigitte; Fostier, Alexis; Quillet, Edwige; Guiguen, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Salmonids are generally considered to have a robust genetic sex determination system with a simple male heterogamety (XX/XY). However, spontaneous masculinization of XX females has been found in a rainbow trout population of gynogenetic doubled haploid individuals. The analysis of this masculinization phenotype transmission supported the hypothesis of the involvement of a recessive mutation (termed mal). As temperature effect on sex differentiation has been reported in some salmonid species, in this study we investigated in detail the potential implication of temperature on masculinization in this XX mal-carrying population. Seven families issued from XX mal-carrying parents were exposed from the time of hatching to different rearing water temperatures ((8, 12 and 18°C), and the resulting sex-ratios were confirmed by histological analysis of both gonads. Our results demonstrate that masculinization rates are strongly increased (up to nearly two fold) at the highest temperature treatment (18°C). Interestingly, we also found clear differences between temperatures on the masculinization of the left versus the right gonads with the right gonad consistently more often masculinized than the left one at lower temperatures (8 and 12°C). However, the masculinization rate is also strongly dependent on the genetic background of the XX mal-carrying families. Thus, masculinization in XX mal-carrying rainbow trout is potentially triggered by an interaction between the temperature treatment and a complex genetic background potentially involving some part of the genetic sex differentiation regulatory cascade along with some minor sex-influencing loci. These results indicate that despite its rather strict genetic sex determinism system, rainbow trout sex differentiation can be modulated by temperature, as described in many other fish species.

  17. Impact of sulfur and vitamin C on the allergenicity of Mal d 2 from apple (Malus domestica).

    PubMed

    Marzban, Gorji; Kinaciyan, Tamar; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Brunner, Richard; Gruber, Clemens; Hahn, Rainer; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Laimer, Margit

    2014-07-30

    Mal d 2 is a minor allergen from apple which shows a high conformational stability due to its eight conserved disulfide bridges. Chemical reduction of disulfide bridges and linearization of Mal d 2 lead to enhanced IgE reactivity in vitro and indicate a higher potential for allergenicity. Since food preservatives such as sulfur and vitamin C are reducing and denaturing agents, their influence on Mal d 2 allergenicity was verified by simulated food processing conditions. The immunoreactivity of purified Mal d 2 was investigated after different treatments in vitro and in vivo using IgG/IgE Western blotting, mediator-releasing cell assay, and skin prick and oral smear tests. The conformational changes of Mal d 2 upon addition of 1% and 5% vitamin C were also monitored by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show no positive skin and oral smear test reactivity to native, heated, or vitamin C-treated purified Mal d 2. Furthermore, the results confirm that sulfur in combination with heat treatment can influence the structural integrity and thus the allergenicity of Mal d 2, while vitamin C is too weak as a reducing agent to change allergenicity.

  18. Antigen presenting cell-mediated expansion of human umbilical cord blood yields log-scale expansion of natural killer cells with anti-myeloma activity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nina; Martin-Antonio, Beatriz; Yang, Hong; Ku, Stephanie; Lee, Dean A; Cooper, Laurence J N; Decker, William K; Li, Sufang; Robinson, Simon N; Sekine, Takuya; Parmar, Simrit; Gribben, John; Wang, Michael; Rezvani, Katy; Yvon, Eric; Najjar, Amer; Burks, Jared; Kaur, Indreshpal; Champlin, Richard E; Bollard, Catherine M; Shpall, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are important mediators of anti-tumor immunity and are active against several hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). Umbilical cord blood (CB) is a promising source of allogeneic NK cells but large scale ex vivo expansion is required for generation of clinically relevant CB-derived NK (CB-NK) cell doses. Here we describe a novel strategy for expanding NK cells from cryopreserved CB units using artificial antigen presenting feeder cells (aAPC) in a gas permeable culture system. After 14 days, mean fold expansion of CB-NK cells was 1848-fold from fresh and 2389-fold from cryopreserved CB with >95% purity for NK cells (CD56(+)/CD3(-)) and less than 1% CD3(+) cells. Though surface expression of some cytotoxicity receptors was decreased, aAPC-expanded CB-NK cells exhibited a phenotype similar to CB-NK cells expanded with IL-2 alone with respect to various inhibitory receptors, NKG2C and CD94 and maintained strong expression of transcription factors Eomesodermin and T-bet. Furthermore, CB-NK cells formed functional immune synapses with and demonstrated cytotoxicity against various MM targets. Finally, aAPC-expanded CB-NK cells showed significant in vivo activity against MM in a xenogenic mouse model. Our findings introduce a clinically applicable strategy for the generation of highly functional CB-NK cells which can be used to eradicate MM.

  19. Outdoor Education Student Log Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barbara; And Others.

    A student log book for outdoor education was developed to aid Oakland County (Michigan) teachers and supervisors of outdoor education in preparing student campers for their role and responsibilities in the total program. A sample letter to sixth graders explains the purpose of the booklet. General camp rules (10) are presented, followed by 6 woods…

  20. Logging residue in southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Theodore S. Setzer

    1989-01-01

    Detailed information on logging residues in southeast Alaska is provided as input to economic and technical assessments of its use for products or site amenities. Two types of information are presented. Ratios are presented that can be used to generate an estimate, based on volume or acres harvested, of the cubic-foot volume of residue for any particular area of...

  1. Log exports by port, 1987.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1989-01-01

    Volumes and average values of log exports by port have been compiled by quarter for 1987. The tables show the four Northwest customs districts by ports, species, and destinations. These data were received from the U.S. Department of Commerce too late to be published in the 1987 quarterly reports, "Production, Prices, Employment, and Trade in Northwest Forest...

  2. Postfire logging in riparian areas.

    Treesearch

    Gordon H. Reeves; Peter A. Bisson; Bruce E. Rieman; Lee E. Benda

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend...

  3. The formula Scribner log rule.

    Treesearch

    George R. Staebler

    1952-01-01

    The Scribner Decimal C is the accepted log rule in the Pacific Northwest. Usually volume, growth and yield tables are expressed by this rule to give them practical meaning. Yet in the research required for such studies, the rule is unsatisfactory because of rounded values and irregular jumps in volume from diameter to diameter and length to length.

  4. Logging Work Injuries in Appalachia

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Wolf; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1978-01-01

    Logging accidents are costly. They may bring pain to injured workers, hardship to their families, and higher insurance premiums and lower productivity to their employers. Our analysis of 1,172 injuries in central Appalachia reveals that nearly half of all time lost-and almost all fatalities-resulted from accidents during felling and unloading. The largest proportion of...

  5. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

  6. Soil Wetness Influences Log Skidding

    Treesearch

    William N. Darwin

    1960-01-01

    One of the least explored variables in timber harvesting is the effect of ground conditions on log production . The Southern Hardwoods Laboratory is studying this variable and its influence on performance of skidding vehicles in Southern bottom lands. The test reported here was designed to evaluate the effects of bark features on skidding coefficients, but it also...

  7. A New Approach to Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Donna

    2001-01-01

    In response to high numbers of preventable fatal accidents in the logging industry, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed a week-long logger safety training program that includes hands-on learning of safety techniques in the woods. Reaching small operators has been challenging; outreach initiatives in Maine, North…

  8. MAL facilitates the incorporation of exocytic uroplakin-delivering vesicles into the apical membrane of urothelial umbrella cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ge; Liang, Feng-Xia; Romih, Rok; Wang, Zefang; Liao, Yi; Ghiso, Jorge; Luque-Garcia, Jose L.; Neubert, Thomas A.; Kreibich, Gert; Alonso, Miguel A.; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Sun, Tung-Tien

    2012-01-01

    The apical surface of mammalian bladder urothelium is covered by large (500–1000 nm) two-dimensional (2D) crystals of hexagonally packed 16-nm uroplakin particles (urothelial plaques), which play a role in permeability barrier function and uropathogenic bacterial binding. How the uroplakin proteins are delivered to the luminal surface is unknown. We show here that myelin-and-lymphocyte protein (MAL), a 17-kDa tetraspan protein suggested to be important for the apical sorting of membrane proteins, is coexpressed with uroplakins in differentiated urothelial cell layers. MAL depletion in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells did not affect, however, the apical sorting of uroplakins, but it decreased the rate by which uroplakins were inserted into the apical surface. Moreover, MAL knockout in vivo led to the accumulation of fusiform vesicles in mouse urothelial superficial umbrella cells, whereas MAL transgenic overexpression in vivo led to enhanced exocytosis and compensatory endocytosis, resulting in the accumulation of the uroplakin-degrading multivesicular bodies. Finally, although MAL and uroplakins cofloat in detergent-resistant raft fractions, they are associated with distinct plaque and hinge membrane subdomains, respectively. These data suggest a model in which 1) MAL does not play a role in the apical sorting of uroplakins; 2) the propensity of uroplakins to polymerize forming 16-nm particles and later large 2D crystals that behave as detergent-resistant (giant) rafts may drive their apical targeting; 3) the exclusion of MAL from the expanding 2D crystals of uroplakins explains the selective association of MAL with the hinge areas in the uroplakin-delivering fusiform vesicles, as well as at the apical surface; and 4) the hinge-associated MAL may play a role in facilitating the incorporation of the exocytic uroplakin vesicles into the corresponding hinge areas of the urothelial apical surface. PMID:22323295

  9. Nondestructive evaluation for sorting red maple logs

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; David W. Green; Karl Englund; Michael Wolcott

    2000-01-01

    Existing log grading procedures in the United States make only visual assessments of log quality. These procedures do not incorporate estimates of the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of logs. It is questionable whether the visual grading procedures currently used for logs adequately assess the potential quality of structural products manufactured from them, especially...

  10. When is hardwood cable logging economical?

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1985-01-01

    Using cable logging to harvest eastern hardwood logs on steep terrain can result in low production rates and high costs per unit of wood produced. Logging managers can improve productivity and profitability by knowing how the interaction of site-specific variables and cable logging equipment affect costs and revenues. Data from selected field studies and forest model...

  11. A method of estimating log weights.

    Treesearch

    Charles N. Mann; Hilton H. Lysons

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents a practical method of estimating the weights of logs before they are yarded. Knowledge of log weights is required to achieve optimum loading of modern yarding equipment. Truckloads of logs are weighed and measured to obtain a local density index (pounds per cubic foot) for a species of logs. The density index is then used to estimate the weights of...

  12. Hardwood log supply: a broader perspective

    Treesearch

    Iris Montague; Adri Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs Buehlmann

    2015-01-01

    At regional and state meetings we talk with others in our business about the problems we face: log exports, log quality, log markets, logger shortages, cash flow problems, the weather. These are familiar talking points and real and persistent problems. But what is the relative importance of these problems for log procurement in different regions of...

  13. SwampLog II: A Structured Journal for Personal and Professional Inquiry within a Collaborative Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicassio, Frank J.

    SwampLog is a type of journal keeping that records the facts of daily activities as experienced and perceived by practitioners. The label, "SwampLog," was inspired by Donald Schon's metaphor used to distinguish the "swamplands of practice" from the "high, hard ground of research." Keeping a SwampLog consists of recording four general types of…

  14. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  15. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  16. Audit Log for Forensic Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  17. Log-periodic crashes revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Raul; da Silva, Sergio; Figueiredo, Annibal; Gleria, Iram

    2006-05-01

    We revisit the finding that crashes can be deterministic and governed by log-periodic formulas [D. Sornette, A. Johansen, Significance of log-periodic precursors to financial crashes, Quant. Finance 1 (2001) 452-471; D. Sornette, W.X. Zhou, The US 2000-2002 market descent: how much longer and deeper?, Quant. Finance 2 (2002) 468-481]. One- and two-harmonic equations are usually employed to fit daily data during bubble episodes. But a three-harmonics has been shown to fit anti-bubbles [A. Johansen, D. Sornette, Financial “anti-bubbles”: log-periodicity in gold and Nikkei collapses, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 10 (1999) 563-575]. Here we show that the three-harmonic formula can work for bubble episodes as well as anti-bubbles. This is illustrated with daily data from the Brazilian real-US dollar exchange rate. And we also show that the three-harmonics can fit an intraday data set from that foreign exchange rate.

  18. Accurately determining log and bark volumes of saw logs using high-resolution laser scan data

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Accurately determining the volume of logs and bark is crucial to estimating the total expected value recovery from a log. Knowing the correct size and volume of a log helps to determine which processing method, if any, should be used on a given log. However, applying volume estimation methods consistently can be difficult. Errors in log measurement and oddly shaped...

  19. House log drying rates in southeast Alaska for covered and uncovered softwood logs

    Treesearch

    David Nicholls; Allen Brackley

    2009-01-01

    Log moisture content has an important impact on many aspects of log home construction, including log processing, transportation costs, and dimensional stability in use. Air-drying times for house logs from freshly harvested trees can depend on numerous factors including initial moisture content, log diameter, bark condition, and environmental conditions during drying....

  20. From badge of pride to cause of stigma: combatting mal del pinto in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Ana María

    2013-03-01

    Mal del pinto is a dermatological disease characterized by discoloured patches of skin on the face and body. It has been present in what is now the territory of Mexico from before the Spanish conquest up to recent times. Though early concerns for mal del pinto as a public health problem can be traced back to the late 19th century, no campaign to combat the disease was undertaken until the second half of the 20th. Thanks to the effectiveness of treatment with penicillin, the fight against this illness--which was once assumed as a symbol of pride--enjoyed a broader acceptance among the population that other health campaigns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Delayed surgical treatment for neglected or mal-reduced talar fractures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng-Ju; Cheng, Yuh-Min

    2005-10-01

    From 1993 to 2002, we treated nine patients for neglected or mal-reduced talar fractures. Average patient age was 39 (20-64) years and average follow-up 53 months. The time interval between injury and index operation ranged from 4 weeks to 4 years. Surgical procedures included open reduction with or without bone grafting in six cases, open reduction combined with ankle fusion in one case, talar neck osteotomy in one case, and talar neck osteotomy combined with subtalar fusion in one case. All cases had solid bone union. One patient developed avascular necrosis of the talus needing subsequent ankle arthrodesis. In six patients, adjacent hindfoot arthrosis occurred. The overall AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score was in average 77.4. We conclude that in neglected and mal-reduced talar fractures, surgical treatment can lead to a favourable outcome if the hindfoot joints are not arthritic.

  2. SmartMal: a service-oriented behavioral malware detection framework for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wu, Zhizhong; Li, Xi; Zhou, Xuehai; Wang, Aili; Hung, Patrick C K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents SmartMal--a novel service-oriented behavioral malware detection framework for vehicular and mobile devices. The highlight of SmartMal is to introduce service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and behavior analysis into the malware detection paradigms. The proposed framework relies on client-server architecture, the client continuously extracts various features and transfers them to the server, and the server's main task is to detect anomalies using state-of-art detection algorithms. Multiple distributed servers simultaneously analyze the feature vector using various detectors and information fusion is used to concatenate the results of detectors. We also propose a cycle-based statistical approach for mobile device anomaly detection. We accomplish this by analyzing the users' regular usage patterns. Empirical results suggest that the proposed framework and novel anomaly detection algorithm are highly effective in detecting malware on Android devices.

  3. Une localisation exceptionnelle de la tuberculose vertébrale Mal de Pott sous-occipital

    PubMed Central

    Yahyaoui, Sana; Majdoub, Senda; Zaghouani, Houneida; Fradj, Hosni Ben; Bakir, Dejla; Bouajina, Elyes; Kraiem, Chakib

    2013-01-01

    Le mal de Pott est la forme la plus commune de la tuberculose osseuse touchant essentiellement le rachis dorso-lombaire. La localisation sous-occipitale reste exceptionnelle. Le diagnostic de cette entité est le plus souvent tardif ce qui expose à des complications graves. Les radiographies standard ne sont parlantes qu’à un stade tardif de la maladie, d'où l'intérêt de l'imagerie moderne notamment la tomodensitométrie (TDM) et l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) qui permettent un diagnostic précoce. Nous rapportons un nouveau cas de tuberculose sous-occipitale. Le diagnostic était posé sur l'imagerie en coupe et confirmé histologiquement à la biopsie transorale. Sont rappelés les aspects en imagerie de cette localisation particulière du mal de Pott. PMID:23819005

  4. Ferromagnetic coupling in the three-dimensional malonato-bridged gadoliniumIII complex [Gd2(mal)3(H2O)6] (H2mal = malonic acid).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Molina, María; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; López, Trinidad; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2003-09-08

    The novel gadolinium(III) complex of formula [Gd(2)(mal)(3)(H(2)O)(6)] (1) (H(2)mal = 1,3-propanedioic acid) has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystal data for 1: monoclinic, space group I2/a, a = 11.1064(10) A, b = 12.2524(10) A, c =13.6098(2) A, beta = 92.925(10) degrees, U = 1849.5(3) A(3), Z = 4. Compound 1 is a three-dimensional network made up of malonate-bridged gadolinium(III) ions where the malonate exhibits two bridging modes, eta(5)-bidentate + unidentate and eta(3):eta(3) + bis(unidentate). The gadolinium atom is nine-coordinate with three water molecules and six malonate oxygen atoms from three malonate ligands forming a distorted monocapped square antiprism. The shortest metal-metal separations are 4.2763(3) A [through the oxo-carboxylate bridge] and 6.541(3) A [through the carboxylate in the anti-syn coordination mode]. The value of the angle at the oxo-carboxylate atom is 116.8(2) degrees. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal the occurrence of a significant ferromagnetic interaction through the oxo-carboxylate pathway (J = +0.048(1) cm(-1), H = -JS(Gd(1)) x S(Gd(1a))).

  5. Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem

  6. The importance of correct patient positioning in theatres and implications of mal-positioning.

    PubMed

    Adedeji, Rimi; Oragui, Emeka; Khan, Wasim; Maruthainar, Nimalan

    2010-04-01

    Patient positioning in theatre pertains to how a patient is transferred and positioned for a specific procedure. Patient safety is a central focus of care within the NHS and every healthcare practitioner must ensure that patients are protected from harm where possible. Mal-positioning of the patient has important implications in terms of associated problems of pressure sores, nerve compressions, deep vein thrombosis and compartment syndrome, and should be avoided.

  7. Hybrid (laparoscopy + stent) treatment of celiac trunk compression syndrome (Dunbar syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS)).

    PubMed

    Michalik, Maciej; Dowgiałło-Wnukiewicz, Natalia; Lech, Paweł; Majda, Kaja; Gutowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Celiac trunk (CT) compression syndrome caused by the median arcuate ligament (MAL) is a rarely diagnosed disease because of its nonspecific symptoms, which cause a delay in the correct diagnosis. Intestinal ischemia occurs, which causes symptoms of abdominal angina. One method of treatment for this disease is surgical release of the CT - the intersection of the MAL. Laparoscopy is the first step of the hybrid technique combined with percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of the CT. To demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of the laparoscopic approach in the treatment of Dunbar syndrome. Between 2013 and 2016 in the General and Minimally Invasive Surgery Department of the Medical Sciences Faculty of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 6 laparoscopic procedures were performed because of median arcuate ligament syndrome. During the laparoscopy the MAL was cut with a harmonic scalpel. One month after laparoscopy 5 patients had Doppler percutaneous angioplasty of the CT with stent implantation in the Vascular Surgery Department in Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. In one case, there was a conversion of laparoscopic surgery to open due to unmanageable intraoperative bleeding. In one case, postoperative ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity demonstrated the presence of a large hematoma in the retroperitoneal space. All patients reported relief of symptoms in the first days after the operation. The hybrid method, combining laparoscopy and angioplasty, seems to be a long-term solution, which increases the comfort of the patient, brings the opportunity for normal functioning and minimizes the risk of restenosis.

  8. Repair of a mal-repaired biliary injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aldumour, Awad; Aseni, Paolo; Alkofahi, Mohmmad; Lamperti, Luca; Aldumour, Elias; Girotti, Paolo; De Carlis, Luciano-Gregorio

    2009-05-14

    Iatrogenic bile-duct injury post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains a major serious complication with unpredictable long-term results. We present a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstones, in which the biliary injury was recognized intraoperatively. The surgical procedure was converted to an open one. The first surgeon repaired the injury over a T-tube without recognizing the anatomy and type of the biliary lesion, which led to an unusual biliary mal-repair. Immediately postoperatively, the abdominal drain brought a large amount of bile. A T-tube cholangiogram was performed. Despite the contrast medium leaking through the abdominal drain, the mal-repair was unrecognized. The patient was referred to our hospital for biliary leak. Ultrasound and cholangiography was repeated, which showed an unanatomical repair (right to left hepatic duct anastomosis over the T-tube), with evidence of contrast medium coming out through the abdominal drain. Eventually the patient was subjected to a definitive surgical treatment. The biliary continuity was re-established by a Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy, over transanastomotic external biliary stents. The patient is now doing well 4 years after the second surgical procedure. In reviewing the literature, we found a similar type of injury but we did not find a similar surgical mal-repair. We propose an algorithm for the treatment of early and late biliary injuries.

  9. Repair of a mal-repaired biliary injury: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Aldumour, Awad; Aseni, Paolo; Alkofahi, Mohmmad; Lamperti, Luca; Aldumour, Elias; Girotti, Paolo; Carlis, Luciano Gregorio De

    2009-01-01

    Iatrogenic bile-duct injury post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains a major serious complication with unpredictable long-term results. We present a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstones, in which the biliary injury was recognized intraoperatively. The surgical procedure was converted to an open one. The first surgeon repaired the injury over a T-tube without recognizing the anatomy and type of the biliary lesion, which led to an unusual biliary mal-repair. Immediately postoperatively, the abdominal drain brought a large amount of bile. A T-tube cholangiogram was performed. Despite the contrast medium leaking through the abdominal drain, the mal-repair was unrecognized. The patient was referred to our hospital for biliary leak. Ultrasound and cholangiography was repeated, which showed an unanatomical repair (right to left hepatic duct anastomosis over the T-tube), with evidence of contrast medium coming out through the abdominal drain. Eventually the patient was subjected to a definitive surgical treatment. The biliary continuity was re-established by a Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy, over transanastomotic external biliary stents. The patient is now doing well 4 years after the second surgical procedure. In reviewing the literature, we found a similar type of injury but we did not find a similar surgical mal-repair. We propose an algorithm for the treatment of early and late biliary injuries. PMID:19437572

  10. Data Mining of Network Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  11. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices

    PubMed Central

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S.; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging. PMID:25994673

  12. Linking log quality with product performance

    Treesearch

    D. W. Green; Robert Ross

    1997-01-01

    In the United States, log grading procedures use visual assessment of defects, in relation to the log scaling diameter, to estimate the yield of lumber that maybe expected from the log. This procedure was satisfactory when structural grades were based only on defect size and location. In recent years, however, structural products have increasingly been graded using a...

  13. Pacific Rim log trade: determinants and trends.

    Treesearch

    Donald F. Flora; Andrea L. Anderson; Wendy J. McGinnls

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Rim trade in softwood logs amounts to about $3 billion annually, of which the U.S. share is about $2 billion. Log exporting is a significant part of the forest economy in the Pacific Northwest. The 10 major Pacific Rim log-trading client and competitor countries differ widely in their roles in trade and in their policies affecting the industry.

  14. Hardwood log grading scale stick improved

    Treesearch

    M. D. Ostrander; G. H. Englerth

    1953-01-01

    In February 1952 the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station described ( Research Note 13) a new log-grading scale stick developed by the Station for use as a visual aid in grading hardwood factory logs. It was based on the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's log-grade specifications.

  15. How much scarification from summer logging?

    Treesearch

    David A. Marquis; John C. Bjorkbom

    1960-01-01

    Scarification of the soil creates seedbeds that are favorable for the establishment of both paper birch and yellow birch. Logging in the summer often has been recommended as a method of obtaining these seedbeds. However, our observations on experimental logging jobs have shown that logging alone does not provide scarification over enough of the area to assure...

  16. Balloon logging with the inverted skyline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    There is a gap in aerial logging techniques that has to be filled. The need for a simple, safe, sizeable system has to be developed before aerial logging will become effective and accepted in the logging industry. This paper presents such a system designed on simple principles with realistic cost and ecological benefits.

  17. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Treesearch

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  18. Challenges in converting among log scaling methods.

    Treesearch

    Henry Spelter

    2003-01-01

    The traditional method of measuring log volume in North America is the board foot log scale, which uses simple assumptions about how much of a log's volume is recoverable. This underestimates the true recovery potential and leads to difficulties in comparing volumes measured with the traditional board foot system and those measured with the cubic scaling systems...

  19. Mitigating Hillslope Erosion After Post-fire Salvage Logging Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, P. R.; Bone, E. D.; Brown, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    In the past decades, wildfires around the world have continued to increase in size, severity, and cost. Major concerns after wildfires are the increased runoff and erosion due to loss of the protective forest floor layer, loss of water storage, and creation of water repellent soil conditions. Salvage logging is often a post-fire forest management action to recoup the economic loss of the burned timber, yet concerns arise on the impacts of this activity on water quality. Recently, several studies have been conducted to determine the effect of salvage logging on hillslope erosion. Logging skid trails have been cited as being the cause of high erosion during and after salvage operations. We investigated the impacts of adding operational logging slash to skid trails to reduce hillslope erosion after salvage operations on the 2015 North Star Fire, Washington. We implemented well-designed rapid response approach to compare slash treatment effectiveness by monitoring sediment yield and runoff response from hillslopes with a concentrated flow (rill) experiment. Various runoff amounts are incrementally added to 4 m hillslope plots with and without slash treatments. Our initial results suggest that adding logging slash increased ground cover significantly which contributed to an order of magnitude decrease in hillslope erosion. Integrating erosion mitigation strategies into salvage logging operations should be commonplace when hillslope erosion is a concern.

  20. Tropical forests are thermally buffered despite intensive selective logging.

    PubMed

    Senior, Rebecca A; Hill, Jane K; Benedick, Suzan; Edwards, David P

    2018-03-01

    Tropical rainforests are subject to extensive degradation by commercial selective logging. Despite pervasive changes to forest structure, selectively logged forests represent vital refugia for global biodiversity. The ability of these forests to buffer temperature-sensitive species from climate warming will be an important determinant of their future conservation value, although this topic remains largely unexplored. Thermal buffering potential is broadly determined by: (i) the difference between the "macroclimate" (climate at a local scale, m to ha) and the "microclimate" (climate at a fine-scale, mm to m, that is distinct from the macroclimate); (ii) thermal stability of microclimates (e.g. variation in daily temperatures); and (iii) the availability of microclimates to organisms. We compared these metrics in undisturbed primary forest and intensively logged forest on Borneo, using thermal images to capture cool microclimates on the surface of the forest floor, and information from dataloggers placed inside deadwood, tree holes and leaf litter. Although major differences in forest structure remained 9-12 years after repeated selective logging, we found that logging activity had very little effect on thermal buffering, in terms of macroclimate and microclimate temperatures, and the overall availability of microclimates. For 1°C warming in the macroclimate, temperature inside deadwood, tree holes and leaf litter warmed slightly more in primary forest than in logged forest, but the effect amounted to <0.1°C difference between forest types. We therefore conclude that selectively logged forests are similar to primary forests in their potential for thermal buffering, and subsequent ability to retain temperature-sensitive species under climate change. Selectively logged forests can play a crucial role in the long-term maintenance of global biodiversity. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, J.C.; Payne, J.J.

    1996-09-03

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time. 18 figs.

  2. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, Jeffrey C.; Payne, John J.

    1996-01-01

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  3. Co-expression of the Thermotoga neapolitana aglB gene with an upstream 3'-coding fragment of the malG gene improves enzymatic characteristics of recombinant AglB cyclomaltodextrinase.

    PubMed

    Lunina, Natalia A; Agafonova, Elena V; Chekanovskaya, Lyudmila A; Dvortsov, Igor A; Berezina, Oksana V; Shedova, Ekaterina N; Kostrov, Sergey V; Velikodvorskaya, Galina A

    2007-07-01

    A cluster of Thermotoga neapolitana genes participating in starch degradation includes the malG gene of sugar transport protein and the aglB gene of cyclomaltodextrinase. The start and stop codons of these genes share a common overlapping sequence, aTGAtg. Here, we compared properties of expression products of three different constructs with aglB from T. neapolitana. The first expression vector contained the aglB gene linked to an upstream 90-bp 3'-terminal region of the malG gene with the stop codon overlapping with the start codon of aglB. The second construct included the isolated coding sequence of aglB with two tandem potential start codons. The expression product of this construct in Escherichia coli had two tandem Met residues at its N terminus and was characterized by low thermostability and high tendency to aggregate. In contrast, co-expression of aglB and the 3'-terminal region of malG (the first construct) resulted in AglB with only one N-terminal Met residue and a much higher specific activity of cyclomaltodextrinase. Moreover, the enzyme expressed by such a construct was more thermostable and less prone to aggregation. The third construct was the same as the second one except that it contained only one ATG start codon. The product of its expression had kinetic and other properties similar to those of the enzyme with only one N-terminal Met residue.

  4. Hybrid (laparoscopy + stent) treatment of celiac trunk compression syndrome (Dunbar syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS))

    PubMed Central

    Michalik, Maciej; Lech, Paweł; Majda, Kaja; Gutowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Celiac trunk (CT) compression syndrome caused by the median arcuate ligament (MAL) is a rarely diagnosed disease because of its nonspecific symptoms, which cause a delay in the correct diagnosis. Intestinal ischemia occurs, which causes symptoms of abdominal angina. One method of treatment for this disease is surgical release of the CT – the intersection of the MAL. Laparoscopy is the first step of the hybrid technique combined with percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of the CT. Aim To demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of the laparoscopic approach in the treatment of Dunbar syndrome. Material and methods Between 2013 and 2016 in the General and Minimally Invasive Surgery Department of the Medical Sciences Faculty of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 6 laparoscopic procedures were performed because of median arcuate ligament syndrome. During the laparoscopy the MAL was cut with a harmonic scalpel. One month after laparoscopy 5 patients had Doppler percutaneous angioplasty of the CT with stent implantation in the Vascular Surgery Department in Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. Results In one case, there was a conversion of laparoscopic surgery to open due to unmanageable intraoperative bleeding. In one case, postoperative ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity demonstrated the presence of a large hematoma in the retroperitoneal space. All patients reported relief of symptoms in the first days after the operation. Conclusions The hybrid method, combining laparoscopy and angioplasty, seems to be a long-term solution, which increases the comfort of the patient, brings the opportunity for normal functioning and minimizes the risk of restenosis. PMID:28194242

  5. Cloning and Molecular Characterization of an Alpha-Glucosidase (MalH) from the Halophilic Archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi.

    PubMed

    Cuebas-Irizarry, Mara F; Irizarry-Caro, Ricardo A; López-Morales, Carol; Badillo-Rivera, Keyla M; Rodríguez-Minguela, Carlos M; Montalvo-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2017-11-21

    We report the heterologous expression and molecular characterization of the first extremely halophilic alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) from the archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi . A 2349 bp region ( Hqrw_2071 ) from the Hqr. walsbyi C23 annotated genome was PCR-amplified and the resulting amplicon ligated into plasmid pET28b(+), expressed in E. coli Rosetta cells, and the resulting protein purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein showed an estimated molecular mass of 87 kDa, consistent with the expected value of the annotated protein, and an optimal activity for the hydrolysis of α-PNPG was detected at 40 °C, and at pH 6.0. Enzyme activity values were the highest in the presence of 3 M NaCl or 3-4 M KCl. However, specific activity values were two-fold higher in the presence of 3-4 M KCl when compared to NaCl suggesting a cytoplasmic localization. Phylogenetic analyses, with respect to other alpha-glucosidases from members of the class Halobacteria, showed that the Hqr. walsbyi MalH was most similar (up to 41%) to alpha-glucosidases and alpha-xylosidases of Halorubrum . Moreover, computational analyses for the detection of functional domains, active and catalytic sites, as well as 3D structural predictions revealed a close relationship with an E. coli YicI-like alpha-xylosidase of the GH31 family. However, the purified enzyme did not show alpha-xylosidase activity. This narrower substrate range indicates a discrepancy with annotations from different databases and the possibility of specific substrate adaptations of halophilic glucosidases due to high salinity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of an alpha-glucosidase from the halophilic Archaea, which could serve as a new model to gain insights into carbon metabolism in this understudied microbial group.

  6. Geomicrobial Optical Logging Detectors (GOLD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramall, N. E.; Stoker, C. R.; Price, P. B.; Coates, J. D.; Allamandola, L. J.; Mattioda, A. L.

    2008-12-01

    We will present concepts for downhole instrumentation that could be used in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). We envision optical borehole-logging instruments that could monitor bacterial concentration, mineralogy, aromatic organics, temperature and oxygen concentration, allowing for the in situ monitoring of time-dependent microbial and short-scale geologic processes and provide valuable in situ data on stratigraphy to supplement core analyses, especially where instances of missing or damaged core sections make such studies difficult. Incorporated into these instruments will be a sampling/inoculation tool to allow for the recovery and/or manipulation of particularly interesting sections of the borehole wall for further study, enabling a series of microbiological studies. The borehole tools we will develop revolve around key emerging technologies and methods, some of which are briefly described below: 1) Autofluorescence Spectroscopy: Building on past instruments, we will develop a new borehole logger that searches for microbial life and organics using fluorescence spectroscopy. Many important organic compounds (e.g. PAHs) and biomolecules (e.g. aromatic amino acids, proteins, methanogenic coenzymes) fluoresce when excited with ultraviolet and visible light. Through the careful selection of excitation wavelength(s) and temporal gating parameters, a borehole logging instrument can detect and differentiate between these different compounds and the mineral matrix in which they exist. 2) Raman Spectroscopy: Though less sensitive than fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy is more definitive: it can provide important mineral phase distribution/proportions and other chemical data enabling studies of mineralogy and microbe-mineral interactions (when combined with fluorescence). 3) Borehole Camera: Imaging of the borehole wall with extended information in the UV, visible, and NIR for a more informative view can provide a lot of insight

  7. Log-odds sequence logos

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-Kuo; Capra, John A.; Stojmirović, Aleksandar; Landsman, David; Altschul, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: DNA and protein patterns are usefully represented by sequence logos. However, the methods for logo generation in common use lack a proper statistical basis, and are non-optimal for recognizing functionally relevant alignment columns. Results: We redefine the information at a logo position as a per-observation multiple alignment log-odds score. Such scores are positive or negative, depending on whether a column’s observations are better explained as arising from relatedness or chance. Within this framework, we propose distinct normalized maximum likelihood and Bayesian measures of column information. We illustrate these measures on High Mobility Group B (HMGB) box proteins and a dataset of enzyme alignments. Particularly in the context of protein alignments, our measures improve the discrimination of biologically relevant positions. Availability and implementation: Our new measures are implemented in an open-source Web-based logo generation program, which is available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/logoddslogo/index.html. A stand-alone version of the program is also available from this site. Contact: altschul@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25294922

  8. Characterization and functional analysis of the MAL and MPH Loci for maltose utilization in some ale and lager yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Vidgren, Virve; Ruohonen, Laura; Londesborough, John

    2005-12-01

    Maltose and maltotriose are the major sugars in brewer's wort. Brewer's yeasts contain multiple genes for maltose transporters. It is not known which of these express functional transporters. We correlated maltose transport kinetics with the genotypes of some ale and lager yeasts. Maltose transport by two ale strains was strongly inhibited by other alpha-glucosides, suggesting the use of broad substrate specificity transporters, such as Agt1p. Maltose transport by three lager strains was weakly inhibited by other alpha-glucosides, suggesting the use of narrow substrate specificity transporters. Hybridization studies showed that all five strains contained complete MAL1, MAL2, MAL3, and MAL4 loci, except for one ale strain, which lacked a MAL2 locus. All five strains also contained both AGT1 (coding a broad specificity alpha-glucoside transporter) and MAL11 alleles. MPH genes (maltose permease homologues) were present in the lager but not in the ale strains. During growth on maltose, the lager strains expressed AGT1 at low levels and MALx1 genes at high levels, whereas the ale strains expressed AGT1 at high levels and MALx1 genes at low levels. MPHx expression was negligible in all strains. The AGT1 sequences from the ale strains encoded full-length (616 amino acid) polypeptides, but those from both sequenced lager strains encoded truncated (394 amino acid) polypeptides that are unlikely to be functional transporters. Thus, despite the apparently similar genotypes of these ale and lager strains revealed by hybridization, maltose is predominantly carried by AGT1-encoded transporters in the ale strains and by MALx1-encoded transporters in the lager strains.

  9. Modeling environmental influences on child growth in the MAL-ED cohort study: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Richard, Stephanie A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Miller, Mark A; Caulfield, Laura E; Checkley, William

    2014-11-01

    Although genetics, maternal undernutrition and low birth weight status certainly play a role in child growth, dietary insufficiency and infectious diseases are key risk factors for linear growth faltering during early childhood. A primary goal of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is to identify specific risk factors associated with growth faltering during the first 2 years of life; however, growth in early childhood is challenging to characterize because growth may be inherently nonlinear with age. In this manuscript, we describe some methods for analyzing longitudinal growth to evaluate both short- and long-term associations between risk factors and growth trajectories over the first 2 years of life across 8 resource-limited settings using harmonized protocols. We expect there will be enough variability within and between sites in the prevalence of risk factors and burden of linear growth faltering to allow us to distinguish some of the key pathways to linear growth faltering in the MAL-ED study. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Methods of analysis of enteropathogen infection in the MAL-ED Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, James A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Kosek, Margaret; Pan, William K; Checkley, William; Houpt, Eric R

    2014-11-01

    Studies of diarrheal etiology in low- and middle-income countries have typically focused on children presenting with severe symptoms to health centers and thus are best equipped to describe the pathogens capable of leading to severe diarrheal disease. The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study was designed to evaluate, via intensive community surveillance, the hypothesis that repeated exposure to enteropathogens has a detrimental effect on growth, vaccine response, and cognitive development, which are the primary outcome measures for this study. In the setting of multiple outcomes of interest, a longitudinal cohort design was chosen. Because many or even the majority of enteric infections are asymptomatic, the collection of asymptomatic surveillance stools was a critical element. However, capturing diarrheal stools additionally allowed for the determination of the principle causes of diarrhea at the community level as well as for a comparison between those enteropathogens associated with diarrhea and those that are associated with poor growth, diminished vaccine response, and impaired cognitive development. Here, we discuss the analytical methods proposed for the MAL-ED study to determine the principal causes of diarrhea at the community level and describe the complex interplay between recurrent exposure to enteropathogens and these critical long-term outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions and difficulties, including harmful interference. Such entries should include, whenever... operations. (c) Stations maintaining written logs must also enter the signature of each operator, with the...

  12. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions and difficulties, including harmful interference. Such entries should include, whenever... operations. (c) Stations maintaining written logs must also enter the signature of each operator, with the...

  13. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions and difficulties, including harmful interference. Such entries should include, whenever... operations. (c) Stations maintaining written logs must also enter the signature of each operator, with the...

  14. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions and difficulties, including harmful interference. Such entries should include, whenever... operations. (c) Stations maintaining written logs must also enter the signature of each operator, with the...

  15. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions and difficulties, including harmful interference. Such entries should include, whenever... operations. (c) Stations maintaining written logs must also enter the signature of each operator, with the...

  16. Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

  17. A Green Protocol for Synthesis of MAl2O4, [M=Cu and Co] Spinels Under Microwave Irradiation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvasravana, R.; George, P. P.

    Nanosized metal aluminates MAl2O4, [M=Cu and Co] are synthesized from their nitrates solution by using pomegranate peel extract as fuel in microwave combustion. MAl2O4 [M=Cu and Co] nanoparticles are grown in microwave assisted synthesis followed by annealing at 700∘C. The nanoparticles have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-VIS spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PXRD analysis has confirmed their spinel composition. The green protocol and microwave combustion route for spinel synthesis are rapid, simple, without any hazardous chemicals as reducing or stabilizing agents and economical.

  18. An ecosystem model for tropical forest disturbance and selective logging

    Treesearch

    Maoyi Huang; Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Joseph A. Berry

    2008-01-01

    [1] A new three-dimensional version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) ecosystem model (CASA-3D) was developed to simulate regional carbon cycling in tropical forest ecosystems after disturbances such as logging. CASA-3D has the following new features: (1) an alternative approach for calculating absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) using new...

  19. Wetherbee with the ship's log in the middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-17

    STS102-E-5234 (17 March 2001) --- On Discovery's mid deck, astronauts William M. (Bill) Shepherd (left) and James D. Wetherbee discuss events of the joint activities among shuttle and station crew members. Wetherbee, STS-102 commander, looks over the ship's log with the outgoing station commander. The image was recorded with a digital still camera.

  20. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record, the bearing hooks, the engineer's bell book, and any records generated by automated data logging equipment...

  1. The use of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) in the treatment of a severe mal perforant ulcer in the foot of a person with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Orcajo, Beatriz; Muruzabal, Francisco; Isasmendi, María Concepción; Gutierrez, Nerea; Sánchez, Mikel; Orive, Gorka; Anitua, Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A 71 year old person with diabetes with a severe mal perforant ulcer in the right foot was treated twice with autologous plasma-rich in growth factors (PRGF) obtained from her own blood. After PRGF treatment the severe mal perforant ulcer completely healed in 10 weeks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Logs of Paleoseismic Excavations Across the Central Range Fault, Trinidad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosby, Christopher J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Weber, John; Ragona, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This publication makes available maps and trench logs associated with studies of the Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. Our studies were conducted in 2001 and 2002. We mapped geomorphic features indicative of active faulting along the right-lateral, Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. We excavated trenches at two sites, the Samlalsingh and Tabaquite sites. At the Samlalsingh site, sediments deposited after the most recent fault movement bury the fault, and the exact location of the fault was unknown until we exposed it in our excavations. At this site, we excavated a total of eleven trenches, six of which exposed the fault. The trenches exposed fluvial sediments deposited over a strath terrace developed on Miocene bedrock units. We cleaned the walls of the excavations, gridded the walls with either 1 m X 1 m or 1 m X 0.5 m nail and string grid, and logged the walls in detail at a scale of 1:20. Additionally, we described the different sedimentary units in the field, incorporating these descriptions into our trench logs. We mapped the locations of the trenches using a tape and compass. Our field logs were scanned, and unit contacts were traced in Adobe Illustrator. The final drafted logs of all the trenches are presented here, along with photographs showing important relations among faults and Holocene sedimentary deposits. Logs of south walls were reversed in Illustrator, so that all logs are drafted with the view direction to the north. We collected samples of various materials exposed in the trench walls, including charcoal samples for radiocarbon dating from both faulted and unfaulted deposits. The locations of all samples collected are shown on the logs. The ages of seventeen of the charcoal samples submitted for radiocarbon analysis at the University of Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory in Tucson, Ariz., are given in Table 1. Samples found in

  3. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    Treesearch

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  4. Logging deck organization with a bundler

    Treesearch

    Dana. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    The original John Deere 1490D Slash Bundler is mounted on a forwarder so that it can collect woody biomass scattered throughout a tract. However, typical logging operations in the southeastern United States delimb and top at the landing, so logging residues are concentrated at the landing. In a current study by researchers at Auburn...

  5. Reduced-impact logging: challenges and opportunities

    Treesearch

    F.E. Putz; P. Sist; T. Fredericksen; D. Dykstra

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades, sets of timber harvesting guidelines designed to mitigate the deleterious environmental impacts of tree felling, yarding, and hauling have become known as "reduced-impact logging" (RIL) techniques. Although none of the components of RIL are new, concerns about destructive logging practices and worker safety in the tropics stimulated...

  6. Measuring Reading Instruction with Teacher Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Brian; Correnti, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that the criticisms of their earlier article on teacher logs ("Educational Researcher," March 2009) by Smagorinsky and Willis do not address, much less undermine, the evidence they presented as part of their validation argument about the teacher logs. Moreover, they argue that their method for studying classrooms is not nearly as…

  7. Logging methods and peeling of Aspen

    Treesearch

    T. Schantz-Hansen

    1948-01-01

    The logging of forest products is influenced by many factors, including the size of the trees, density of the stand, the soundness of the trees, size of the area logged, topography and soil, weather conditions, the degree of utilization, the skill of the logger and the equipment used, the distance from market, etc. Each of these factors influences not only the method...

  8. Utilization and cost for animal logging operations

    Treesearch

    Suraj P. Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford

    2001-01-01

    Forest harvesting with animals is a labor-intensive operation. Due to the development of efficient machines and high volume demands from the forest products industry, mechanization of logging developed very fast, leaving behind the traditional horse and mule logging. It is expensive to use machines on smaller woodlots, which require frequent moves if mechanically...

  9. An analysis technique for testing log grades

    Treesearch

    Carl A. Newport; William G. O' Regan

    1963-01-01

    An analytical technique that may be used in evaluating log-grading systems is described. It also provides means of comparing two or more grading systems, or a proposed change with the system from which it was developed. The total volume and computed value of lumber from each sample log are the basic data used.

  10. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection...

  11. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the...

  12. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the...

  13. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records the...

  14. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records the...

  15. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the...

  16. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection...

  17. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records the...

  18. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection...

  19. Mathematical model of a smoldering log.

    Treesearch

    Fernando de Souza Costa; David Sandberg

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed describing the natural smoldering of logs. It is considered the steady one dimensional propagation of infinitesimally thin fronts of drying, pyrolysis, and char oxidation in a horizontal semi-infinite log. Expressions for the burn rates, distribution profiles of temperature, and positions of the drying, pyrolysis, and smoldering fronts...

  20. Recovery from simulated sawn logs with sweep.

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Monserud; Dean L. Parry; Christine L. Todoroki

    2004-01-01

    A sawing simulator, AUTOSAW, was used to examine the effect of increasing sweep on lumber recovery. Sample material consisted of 51 logs from 22 western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. ) trees in western Oregon, United States. All knots on the 4.9-m logs were measured, mapped, and converted into 3-dimensional digital formats. The digital...

  1. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain...

  2. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain...

  3. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain...

  4. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain...

  5. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain...

  6. A handy aid for hardwood log graders

    Treesearch

    M. D. Ostrander

    1952-01-01

    In hardwood log grading, the beginner encounters a formidable task: to memorize the specifications, exceptions to general rules, etc., as set down in the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's "Hardwood Log Grades for Standard Lumber." He must refer to this text repeatedly until he becomes familiar with all the ins and outs of the job. This slows him down...

  7. Log sort yard economics, planning, and feasibility

    Treesearch

    John Rusty Dramm; Robert Govett; Ted Bilek; Gerry L. Jackson

    2004-01-01

    This publication discusses basic marketing and economic concepts, planning approach, and feasibility methodology for assessing log sort yard operations. Special attention is given to sorting small diameter and underutilized logs from forest restoration, fuels reduction, and thinning operations. A planned programming approach of objectively determining the feasibility...

  8. Synthetic rope applications in Appalachian logging

    Treesearch

    Ben D. Spong; Jingxin Wang

    2008-01-01

    New ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene rope has shown good results as a replacement for wire rope in logging applications in the western United States. A single case study trial was performed in Appalachian forest conditions to assess the appropriateness of this technology for hardwood logging applications. The study focused on use of the rope in West Virginia...

  9. Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

  10. Impacts of extended working hours in logging

    Treesearch

    Dana Mitchell; Tom Gallagher

    2008-01-01

    Last year at the 2007 AIM in Minneapolis, MN, the authors presented the human factors impacts to consider when implementing extended working hours in the logging industry. In a continuation of this project, we have researched existing literature to identify possible actions that logging business owners can take to reduce the impact of extended working hours on their...

  11. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the...

  12. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records the...

  13. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the...

  14. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection...

  15. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records the...

  16. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection...

  17. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N

    2005-10-21

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of approximately 0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.

  18. Designing and Piloting a Leadership Daily Practice Log: Using Logs to Study the Practice of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Zuberi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to validate the Leadership Daily Practice (LDP) log, an instrument for conducting research on leadership in schools. Research Design: Using a combination of data sources--namely, a daily practice log, observations, and open-ended cognitive interviews--the authors evaluate the validity of the LDP log. Participants: Formal…

  19. An Analysis of the Differences among Log Scaling Methods and Actual Log Volume

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Log rules estimate the volume of green lumber that can be expected to result from the sawing of a log. As such, this ability to reliably predict lumber recovery forms the foundation of log sales and purchase. The more efficient a sawmill, the less the scaling methods reflect the actual volume recovery and the greater the overrun factor. Using high-resolution scanned...

  20. Pathogenicity of Phytophthora austrocedrae on Austrocedrus chilensis and its relation with mal del ciprés in Patagonia

    Treesearch

    A. G. Greslebin; E. M. Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Field observations, isolations and pathogenicity tests were performed on Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae) trees to determine the pathogenicity of Phytophthora austrocedrae and its role in the aetiology of the cypress disease mal del ciprés (MDC) in Argentina. It was found that P. austrocedrae...

  1. The Decline of Austrocedrus Forests in Patagonia (Mal del Ciprés): Another Phytophthora-Caused Forest Disease

    Treesearch

    Alina Greslebin; Everett Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Austrocedrus chilensis, an indigenous Cupressaceae of the Patagonian Andes forests, is suffering a disease that has been called "Mal del Ciprés" (MDC). This disease was first reported more than 50 years ago but, in spite of many studies, its causes remained unclear until recently. The disease begins in the root system, the distribution...

  2. Data extraction for complex meta-analysis (DECiMAL) guide.

    PubMed

    Pedder, Hugo; Sarri, Grammati; Keeney, Edna; Nunes, Vanessa; Dias, Sofia

    2016-12-13

    As more complex meta-analytical techniques such as network and multivariate meta-analyses become increasingly common, further pressures are placed on reviewers to extract data in a systematic and consistent manner. Failing to do this appropriately wastes time, resources and jeopardises accuracy. This guide (data extraction for complex meta-analysis (DECiMAL)) suggests a number of points to consider when collecting data, primarily aimed at systematic reviewers preparing data for meta-analysis. Network meta-analysis (NMA), multiple outcomes analysis and analysis combining different types of data are considered in a manner that can be useful across a range of data collection programmes. The guide has been shown to be both easy to learn and useful in a small pilot study.

  3. Une tachycardie à QRS large mal tolérée chez un nourrisson

    PubMed Central

    Affangla, Désiré Alain; Leye, Mohamed; Simo, Angèle Wabo; D’Almeida, Franck; Sarr, Thérèse Yandé; Phiri, Adamson; Kane, Adama

    2017-01-01

    Les tachycardies à QRS large mal tolérées du nourrisson posent le problème de leur diagnostic et de la prise en charge en urgence. Nous rapportons un cas de tachycardie à QRS large chez un nourrisson de 35 jours reçu pour détresse cardio-circulatoire. Le cœur était morphologiquement normal à l’échographie cardiaque Doppler. Un traitement par une dose charge d’Amiodarone n’a pas permis de réduire cette tachycardie. Un retour en rythme sinusal a été obtenu après cardioversion par un défibrillateur externe semi-automatique type Lifeline. Un traitement d’entretien par Amiodarone per os est institué et le patient est en rythme sinusal à 03 mois. PMID:28904685

  4. malERA: An updated research agenda for malaria elimination and eradication

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Regina N.; Drakeley, Chris; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.; Hall, B. Fenton; Hay, Simon I.; Hemingway, Janet; Noor, Abdisalan; Okumu, Fredros; Steketee, Richard; Tanner, Marcel; Wells, Timothy N. C.; Whittaker, Maxine A.; Alonso, Pedro L.

    2017-01-01

    Achieving a malaria-free world presents exciting scientific challenges as well as overwhelming health, equity, and economic benefits. WHO and countries are setting ambitious goals for reducing the burden and eliminating malaria through the “Global Technical Strategy” and 21 countries are aiming to eliminate malaria by 2020. The commitment to achieve these targets should be celebrated. However, the need for innovation to achieve these goals, sustain elimination, and free the world of malaria is greater than ever. Over 180 experts across multiple disciplines are engaged in the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Refresh process to address problems that need to be solved. The result is a research and development agenda to accelerate malaria elimination and, in the longer term, transform the malaria community’s ability to eradicate it globally. PMID:29190300

  5. SmartMal: A Service-Oriented Behavioral Malware Detection Framework for Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhizhong; Li, Xi; Zhou, Xuehai; Wang, Aili; Hung, Patrick C. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents SmartMal—a novel service-oriented behavioral malware detection framework for vehicular and mobile devices. The highlight of SmartMal is to introduce service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and behavior analysis into the malware detection paradigms. The proposed framework relies on client-server architecture, the client continuously extracts various features and transfers them to the server, and the server's main task is to detect anomalies using state-of-art detection algorithms. Multiple distributed servers simultaneously analyze the feature vector using various detectors and information fusion is used to concatenate the results of detectors. We also propose a cycle-based statistical approach for mobile device anomaly detection. We accomplish this by analyzing the users' regular usage patterns. Empirical results suggest that the proposed framework and novel anomaly detection algorithm are highly effective in detecting malware on Android devices. PMID:25165729

  6. malERA: An updated research agenda for malaria elimination and eradication.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Regina N; Drakeley, Chris; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Hall, B Fenton; Hay, Simon I; Hemingway, Janet; Kaslow, David C; Noor, Abdisalan; Okumu, Fredros; Steketee, Richard; Tanner, Marcel; Wells, Timothy N C; Whittaker, Maxine A; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Wirth, Dyann F; Whitfield, Kate; Alonso, Pedro L

    2017-11-01

    Achieving a malaria-free world presents exciting scientific challenges as well as overwhelming health, equity, and economic benefits. WHO and countries are setting ambitious goals for reducing the burden and eliminating malaria through the "Global Technical Strategy" and 21 countries are aiming to eliminate malaria by 2020. The commitment to achieve these targets should be celebrated. However, the need for innovation to achieve these goals, sustain elimination, and free the world of malaria is greater than ever. Over 180 experts across multiple disciplines are engaged in the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Refresh process to address problems that need to be solved. The result is a research and development agenda to accelerate malaria elimination and, in the longer term, transform the malaria community's ability to eradicate it globally.

  7. Epidemiology of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli infections and associated outcomes in the MAL-ED birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Guerrant, Richard L.; Havt, Alexandre; Lima, Ila F. N.; Medeiros, Pedro H. Q. S.; Seidman, Jessica C.; McCormick, Benjamin J. J.; Babji, Sudhir; Hariraju, Dinesh; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Shrestha, Jasmin; Anania, Japhat; Maro, Athanasia; Samie, Amidou; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Qureshi, Shahida; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Bessong, Pascal O.; Kosek, Margaret N.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Lang, Dennis R.; Gottlieb, Michael; Houpt, Eric R.; Lima, Aldo A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) have been associated with mildly inflammatory diarrhea in outbreaks and in travelers and have been increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens in young children with and without overt diarrhea. We examined the risk factors for EAEC infections and their associations with environmental enteropathy biomarkers and growth outcomes over the first two years of life in eight low-resource settings of the MAL-ED study. Methods EAEC infections were detected by PCR gene probes for aatA and aaiC virulence traits in 27,094 non-diarrheal surveillance stools and 7,692 diarrheal stools from 2,092 children in the MAL-ED birth cohort. We identified risk factors for EAEC and estimated the associations of EAEC with diarrhea, enteropathy biomarker concentrations, and both short-term (one to three months) and long-term (to two years of age) growth. Results Overall, 9,581 samples (27.5%) were positive for EAEC, and almost all children had at least one detection (94.8%) by two years of age. Exclusive breastfeeding, higher enrollment weight, and macrolide use within the preceding 15 days were protective. Although not associated with diarrhea, EAEC infections were weakly associated with biomarkers of intestinal inflammation and more strongly with reduced length at two years of age (LAZ difference associated with high frequency of EAEC detections: -0.30, 95% CI: -0.44, -0.16). Conclusions Asymptomatic EAEC infections were common early in life and were associated with linear growth shortfalls. Associations with intestinal inflammation were small in magnitude, but suggest a pathway for the growth impact. Increasing the duration of exclusive breastfeeding may help prevent these potentially inflammatory infections and reduce the long-term impact of early exposure to EAEC. PMID:28742106

  8. malERA: An updated research agenda for characterising the reservoir and measuring transmission in malaria elimination and eradication

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarises key advances in defining the infectious reservoir for malaria and the measurement of transmission for research and programmatic use since the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) publication in 2011. Rapid and effective progress towards elimination requires an improved understanding of the sources of transmission as well as those at risk of infection. Characterising the transmission reservoir in different settings will enable the most appropriate choice, delivery, and evaluation of interventions. Since 2011, progress has been made in a number of areas. The extent of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections is better understood, as are the biological parameters governing transmission of sexual stage parasites. Limitations of existing transmission measures have been documented, and proof-of-concept has been established for new innovative serological and molecular methods to better characterise transmission. Finally, there now exists a concerted effort towards the use of ensemble datasets across the spectrum of metrics, from passive and active sources, to develop more accurate risk maps of transmission. These can be used to better target interventions and effectively monitor progress toward elimination. The success of interventions depends not only on the level of endemicity but also on how rapidly or recently an area has undergone changes in transmission. Improved understanding of the biology of mosquito–human and human–mosquito transmission is needed particularly in low-endemic settings, where heterogeneity of infection is pronounced and local vector ecology is variable. New and improved measures of transmission need to be operationally feasible for the malaria programmes. Outputs from these research priorities should allow the development of a set of approaches (applicable to both research and control programmes) that address the unique challenges of measuring and monitoring transmission in near-elimination settings and defining

  9. Methods of generating synthetic acoustic logs from resistivity logs for gas-hydrate-bearing sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    1999-01-01

    Methods of predicting acoustic logs from resistivity logs for hydrate-bearing sediments are presented. Modified time average equations derived from the weighted equation provide a means of relating the velocity of the sediment to the resistivity of the sediment. These methods can be used to transform resistivity logs into acoustic logs with or without using the gas hydrate concentration in the pore space. All the parameters except the unconsolidation constants, necessary for the prediction of acoustic log from resistivity log, can be estimated from a cross plot of resistivity versus porosity values. Unconsolidation constants in equations may be assumed without rendering significant errors in the prediction. These methods were applied to the acoustic and resistivity logs acquired at the Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well drilled at the Mackenzie Delta, northern Canada. The results indicate that the proposed method is simple and accurate.

  10. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  11. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-12-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  12. Linking hunter knowledge with forest change to understand changing deer harvest opportunities in intensively logged landscapes

    Treesearch

    Tidd J. Brinkman; Terry Chapin; Gary Kofinas; David K. Person

    2009-01-01

    The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the...

  13. Expansion of industrial logging in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Nadine T; Stabach, Jared A; Grosch, Robert; Lin, Tiffany S; Goetz, Scott J

    2007-06-08

    Industrial logging has become the most extensive land use in Central Africa, with more than 600,000 square kilometers (30%) of forest currently under concession. With use of a time series of satellite imagery for the period from 1976 to 2003, we measured 51,916 kilometers of new logging roads. The density of roads across the forested region was 0.03 kilometer per square kilometer, but areas of Gabon and Equatorial Guinea had values over 0.09 kilometer per square kilometer. A new frontier of logging expansion was identified within the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains 63% of the remaining forest of the region. Tree felling and skid trails increased disturbance in selectively logged areas.

  14. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  15. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-01-30

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  16. Salvage logging, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, D B; Noss, R F

    2006-08-01

    We summarize the documented and potential impacts of salvage logging--a form of logging that removes trees and other biological material from sites after natural disturbance. Such operations may reduce or eliminate biological legacies, modify rare postdisturbance habitats, influence populations, alter community composition, impair natural vegetation recovery, facilitate the colonization of invasive species, alter soil properties and nutrient levels, increase erosion, modify hydrological regimes and aquatic ecosystems, and alter patterns of landscape heterogeneity These impacts can be assigned to three broad and interrelated effects: (1) altered stand structural complexity; (2) altered ecosystem processes and functions; and (3) altered populations of species and community composition. Some impacts may be different from or additional to the effects of traditional logging that is not preceded by a large natural disturbance because the conditions before, during, and after salvage logging may differ from those that characterize traditional timber harvesting. The potential impacts of salvage logging often have been overlooked, partly because the processes of ecosystem recovery after natural disturbance are still poorly understood and partly because potential cumulative effects of natural and human disturbance have not been well documented. Ecologically informed policies regarding salvage logging are needed prior to major natural disturbances so that when they occur ad hoc and crisis-mode decision making can be avoided. These policies should lead to salvage-exemption zones and limits on the amounts of disturbance-derived biological legacies (e.g., burned trees, logs) that are removed where salvage logging takes place. Finally, we believe new terminology is needed. The word salvage implies that something is being saved or recovered, whereas from an ecological perspective this is rarely the case.

  17. Veneer recovery from Douglas-fir logs.

    Treesearch

    E.H. Clarke; A.C. Knauss

    1957-01-01

    During 1956, the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station made a series of six veneer-recovery studies in the Douglas-fir region of Oregon and Washington. The net volume of logs involved totaled approximately 777 M board-feet. Purpose of these studies was to determine volume recovery, by grade of veneer, from the four principal grades of Douglas-fir logs...

  18. Hispanic logging worker safety in the south

    Treesearch

    Brandon O' Neal; Bob Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Hispanic (Spanish-speaking) workers have entered the logging workforce in the South in significant numbers during the past ten years. According to the U.S. Labor Department, Hispanic workers in the construction and agriculture industries have significantly higher injury rates than non–Hispanics do. In view of that trend, of logging workers’ generally high exposure to...

  19. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  20. Log Analysis Using Splunk Hadoop Connect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    running a logging service puts a performance tax on the system and may cause the degradation of performance. More thorough 8 logging will cause a...several nodes. For example, a disk failure would affect all the tasks running on a particular node and generate an alert message not only for the disk...the commands that were executed from the " Run " command. The keylogger installation did not create any registry keys for the program itself. However

  1. Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

  2. Closure of logging wounds after 10 years

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller; Thomas M. Schuler

    1994-01-01

    Closure of logging wounds on 96 sample trees was evaluated after 2, 5, and 10 years for Appalachian hardwood trees in north-central West Virginia. For yellow-poplar, northern red oak, black cherry, and white oak, many small wounds, 1 to 50 square inches in size, closed between 5 and 10 years after logging. For larger wounds, 50 to 200 square inches, it appears that...

  3. Computer analysis of digital well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive system of computer programs has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for analyzing digital well logs. The programs are operational on a minicomputer in a research well-logging truck, making it possible to analyze and replot the logs while at the field site. The minicomputer also serves as a controller of digitizers, counters, and recorders during acquisition of well logs. The analytical programs are coordinated with the data acquisition programs in a flexible system that allows the operator to make changes quickly and easily in program variables such as calibration coefficients, measurement units, and plotting scales. The programs are designed to analyze the following well-logging measurements: natural gamma-ray, neutron-neutron, dual-detector density with caliper, magnetic susceptibility, single-point resistance, self potential, resistivity (normal and Wenner configurations), induced polarization, temperature, sonic delta-t, and sonic amplitude. The computer programs are designed to make basic corrections for depth displacements, tool response characteristics, hole diameter, and borehole fluid effects (when applicable). Corrected well-log measurements are output to magnetic tape or plotter with measurement units transformed to petrophysical and chemical units of interest, such as grade of uranium mineralization in percent eU3O8, neutron porosity index in percent, and sonic velocity in kilometers per second.

  4. Logging legacies affect insect pollinator communities in southern Appalachian forests

    Treesearch

    Michelle M. Jackson; Monica G. Turner; Scott M. Pearson

    2014-01-01

    Many temperate deciduous forests are recovering from past logging, but the effects of logging legacies and environmental gradients on forest insect pollinators have not been well studied. In this study, we asked how pollinator abundance and community composition varied with distance from logging roads and elevation in old (logged >90 years ago) and young (logged 20–...

  5. Automated method for measuring the extent of selective logging damage with airborne LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendy, L.; Hagen, S. C.; Sullivan, F. B.; Pearson, T. R. H.; Walker, S. M.; Ellis, P.; Kustiyo; Sambodo, Ari Katmoko; Roswintiarti, O.; Hanson, M. A.; Klassen, A. W.; Palace, M. W.; Braswell, B. H.; Delgado, G. M.

    2018-05-01

    Selective logging has an impact on the global carbon cycle, as well as on the forest micro-climate, and longer-term changes in erosion, soil and nutrient cycling, and fire susceptibility. Our ability to quantify these impacts is dependent on methods and tools that accurately identify the extent and features of logging activity. LiDAR-based measurements of these features offers significant promise. Here, we present a set of algorithms for automated detection and mapping of critical features associated with logging - roads/decks, skid trails, and gaps - using commercial airborne LiDAR data as input. The automated algorithm was applied to commercial LiDAR data collected over two logging concessions in Kalimantan, Indonesia in 2014. The algorithm results were compared to measurements of the logging features collected in the field soon after logging was complete. The automated algorithm-mapped road/deck and skid trail features match closely with features measured in the field, with agreement levels ranging from 69% to 99% when adjusting for GPS location error. The algorithm performed most poorly with gaps, which, by their nature, are variable due to the unpredictable impact of tree fall versus the linear and regular features directly created by mechanical means. Overall, the automated algorithm performs well and offers significant promise as a generalizable tool useful to efficiently and accurately capture the effects of selective logging, including the potential to distinguish reduced impact logging from conventional logging.

  6. Surface covering of downed logs: drivers of a neglected process in dead wood ecology.

    PubMed

    Dynesius, Mats; Gibb, Heloise; Hjältén, Joakim

    2010-10-07

    Many species use coarse woody debris (CWD) and are disadvantaged by the forestry-induced loss of this resource. A neglected process affecting CWD is the covering of the surfaces of downed logs caused by sinking into the ground (increasing soil contact, mostly covering the underside of the log), and dense overgrowth by ground vegetation. Such cover is likely to profoundly influence the quality and accessibility of CWD for wood-inhabiting organisms, but the factors affecting covering are largely unknown. In a five-year experiment we determined predictors of covering rate of fresh logs in boreal forests and clear-cuts. Logs with branches were little covered because they had low longitudinal ground contact. For branchless logs, longitudinal ground contact was most strongly related to estimated peat depth (positive relation). The strongest predictor for total cover of branchless logs was longitudinal ground contact. To evaluate the effect on cover of factors other than longitudinal ground contact, we separately analyzed data from only those log sections that were in contact with the ground. Four factors were prominent predictors of percentage cover of such log sections: estimated peat depth, canopy shade (both increasing cover), potential solar radiation calculated from slope and slope aspect, and diameter of the log (both reducing cover). Peat increased cover directly through its low resistance, which allowed logs to sink and soil contact to increase. High moisture and low temperatures in pole-ward facing slopes and under a canopy favor peat formation through lowered decomposition and enhanced growth of peat-forming mosses, which also proved to rapidly overgrow logs. We found that in some boreal forests, peat and fast-growing mosses can rapidly cover logs lying on the ground. When actively introducing CWD for conservation purposes, we recommend that such rapid covering is avoided, thereby most likely improving the CWD's longevity as habitat for many species.

  7. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate

  8. Carbon emissions performance of commercial logging in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Griscom, Bronson; Ellis, Peter; Putz, Francis E

    2014-03-01

    Adoption of reduced-impact logging (RIL) methods could reduce CO2 emissions by 30-50% across at least 20% of remaining tropical forests. We developed two cost effective and robust indices for comparing the climate benefits (reduced CO2 emissions) due to RIL. The indices correct for variability in the volume of commercial timber among concessions. We determined that a correction for variability in terrain slope was not needed. We found that concessions certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC, N = 3), when compared with noncertified concessions (N = 6), did not have lower overall CO2 emissions from logging activity (felling, skidding, and hauling). On the other hand, FSC certified concessions did have lower emissions from one type of logging impact (skidding), and we found evidence of a range of improved practices using other field metrics. One explanation of these results may be that FSC criteria and indicators, and associated RIL practices, were not designed to achieve overall emissions reductions. Also, commonly used field metrics are not reliable proxies for overall logging emissions performance. Furthermore, the simple distinction between certified and noncertified concessions does not fully represent the complex history of investments in improved logging practices. To clarify the relationship between RIL and emissions reductions, we propose the more explicit term 'RIL-C' to refer to the subset of RIL practices that can be defined by quantified thresholds and that result in measurable emissions reductions. If tropical forest certification is to be linked with CO2 emissions reductions, certification standards need to explicitly require RIL-C practices. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 55. VIEW OF STEAMOPERATED LOG HOIST TO PUT IN COMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. VIEW OF STEAM-OPERATED LOG HOIST TO PUT IN COMING LOGS INTO RALPH HULL LUMBER CO. LOG POND. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1942. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  10. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be...

  11. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be...

  12. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be...

  13. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be...

  14. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be...

  15. FORGE Milford Digitized Geophysical Logs from Acord 1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jones, Clay G.; Moore, Joseph N.

    2016-03-31

    This submission includes digitalized versions of the following: McCulloch Geothermal Corp Acord 1-26 Cover Letter McCulloch Geothermal Corp Acord 1-26 Drilling Plan McCulloch Geothermal Corp Acord 1-26 Bond Documents Division of Water Rights Permission to Drill Drillers Log Geothermal Data (Mud) Log Compensated Densilog - Neutron Log Dual Induction Focused Log BHC Acoustilog Differential Temperature Log Dual Induction Focused Log Gamma Ray Neutron Log Temperature Log Caliper Temperature Log (Run 3) Densilog Gamma Ray Neutron Log Temperature Log (Run 4) Compensated Densilog Sample Log (Page 1 of 2) Report of Well Driller Stratigraphic Report (J.E. Welsh) Photographs and Negatives of Acord 1-26 Well Site (7) Petrography Report (M.J. Sweeney) Cuttings Samples (21 Boxes at Utah Core Research Center)

  16. Minnesota logging utilization factors, 1975-1976--development, use, implications.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1979-01-01

    Discusses Minnesota saw log and pulpwood logging utilization factors developed during 1975-1976 and their implications. Compares factors for several species groups and shows their use in estimating growing stock cut for pulpwood and saw logs.

  17. Challenges and Developments in the Assessment of (Mal)adaptive Personality and Pathological States in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gina; Videler, Arjan; van Alphen, S P J

    2018-04-01

    Since older adults often show an atypical presentation of (mal)adaptive personality traits and pathological states, the articles in this special issue will concisely discuss some perennial issues in clinical assessment in older adults and thus outline the main challenges this domain faces. By bringing empirical work and meta-analytic studies from leading scholars in the field of geropsychology, the articles will also address these challenges by reporting the latest developments in the field. This way, we hope to reshape the way clinicians and researchers assess (mal)adaptive personality and pathological states in older adults into a more reliable and valid assessment method that integrates the specific biopsychosocial context of older age.

  18. Ablative fractional laser enhances MAL-induced PpIX accumulation: Impact of laser channel density, incubation time and drug concentration.

    PubMed

    Haak, C S; Christiansen, K; Erlendsson, A M; Taudorf, E H; Thaysen-Petersen, D; Wulf, H C; Haedersdal, M

    2016-06-01

    Pretreatment of skin with ablative fractional laser enhances accumulation of topical provided photosensitizer, but essential information is lacking on the interaction between laser channel densities and pharmacokinetics. Hence our objectives were to investigate how protoporphyrin accumulation was affected by laser densities, incubation time and drug concentration. We conducted the study on the back of healthy male volunteers (n=11). Test areas were pretreated with 2940nm ablative fractional Er:YAG laser, 11.2mJ per laser channel using densities of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15% (AFL 1-15%). Control areas received pretreatment with curettage or no pretreatment. Methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) was applied under occlusion in concentrations of 0, 80 and 160mg/g. MAL-induced protoporphyrin fluorescence was quantified with a handheld photometer after 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180min incubation. The individual fluorescence intensity reached from the highest density (15%) and longest MAL 160mg/g incubation time (180min) was selected as reference (100%) for other interventional measurements. A low laser density of 1% markedly enhanced fluorescence intensities from 34% to 75% (no pretreatment vs. AFL 1%, MAL 160mg/g, 180min; p<0.001). Furthermore, fluorescence intensities increased substantially by enhancing densities up to 5% (p≤0.0195). Accumulation of protoporphyrins was accelerated by laser exposure. Thus, laser exposure of 5% density and a median incubation time of 80min MAL (range 46-133min) induced fluorescence levels similar to curettage and 180min incubation. Furthermore, MAL 80 and 160mg/g induced similar fluorescence intensities in skin exposed to laser densities of 1, 2 and 5% (p>0.0537, 30-180min). MAL-induced protoporphyrin accumulation is augmented by enhancing AFL densities up to 5%. Further, this model indicates that incubation time as well as drug concentration of MAL may be reduced with laser pretreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spreadsheet log analysis in subsurface geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doveton, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the direct knowledge of the geology of the subsurface is gained from the examination of core and drill-cuttings recovered from boreholes drilled by the petroleum and water industries. Wireline logs run in these same boreholes generally have been restricted to tasks of lithostratigraphic correlation and thee location of hydrocarbon pay zones. However, the range of petrophysical measurements has expanded markedly in recent years, so that log traces now can be transformed to estimates of rock composition. Increasingly, logs are available in a digital format that can be read easily by a desktop computer and processed by simple spreadsheet software methods. Taken together, these developments offer accessible tools for new insights into subsurface geology that complement the traditional, but limited, sources of core and cutting observations.

  20. Recombinant Mal d 1 facilitates sublingual challenge tests of birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy.

    PubMed

    Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B; Faustmann, S; Kopp, S; Wolkersdorfer, M; Bohle, B

    2016-02-01

    It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy. The dose of 1.6 μg induced oral allergy syndromes in 26.4%, 3.2 μg in 15.3%, 6.3 μg in 27.8%, 12.5 μg in 8.3%, 25 μg in 11.1%, and 50 μg in 4.2% of the patients. No severe reactions occurred. None of the patients reacted to 0.9% NaCl alone. Sublingual administration of 50 μg of rMal d 1 induced no reactions in three nonallergic individuals. Our approach allows straight forward, dose-defined sublingual challenge tests in a high number of birch pollen-allergic patients that inter alia can be applied to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of birch pollen AIT on birch pollen-related food allergy. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Modern analytics for synthetically derived complex drug substances: NMR, AFFF-MALS, and MS tests for glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    Rogstad, Sarah; Pang, Eric; Sommers, Cynthia; Hu, Meng; Jiang, Xiaohui; Keire, David A; Boyne, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a mixture of synthetic copolymers consisting of four amino acids (glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine) with a labeled molecular weight range of 5000 to 9000 Da. GA is marketed as Copaxone™ by Teva for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Here, the agency has evaluated the structure and composition of GA and a commercially available comparator, Copolymer-1. Modern analytical technologies which can characterize these complex mixtures are desirable for analysis of their comparability and structural "sameness." In the studies herein, a molecular fingerprinting approach is taken using mass-accurate mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1D-(1)H-NMR, 1D-(13)C-NMR, and 2D NMR), and asymmetric field flow fractionation (AFFF) coupled with multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for an in-depth characterization of three lots of the marketplace drug and a formulated sample of the comparator. Statistical analyses were applied to the MS and AFFF-MALS data to assess these methods' ability to detect analytical differences in the mixtures. The combination of multiple orthogonal measurements by liquid chromatography coupled with MS (LC-MS), AFFF-MALS, and NMR on the same sample set was found to be fit for the intended purpose of distinguishing analytical differences between these complex mixtures of peptide chains.

  2. Fatal injuries caused by logs rolling off trucks: Kentucky 1994-1998.

    PubMed

    Struttmann, T W; Scheerer, A L

    2001-02-01

    Logging is one of the most hazardous occupations and fatality rates are consistently among the highest of all industries. A review of fatalities caused by logs rolling off trucks is presented. The Kentucky Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation Project is a statewide surveillance system for occupational fatalities. Investigations are conducted on selected injuries with an emphasis on prevention strategy development. Logging was an area of high priority for case investigation. During 1994-1998, we identified seven incidents in which a worker was killed by a log rolling off a truck at a sawmill, accounting for 15% of the 45 deaths related to logging activities. These cases were reviewed to identify similar characteristics and risk factors. Investigations led to recommendations for behavioral, administrative, and engineering controls. Potential interventions include limiting load height on trucks, installing unloading cages at sawmills and prohibiting overloaded trucks on public roadways. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Comparison of logging residue from lump sum and log scale timber sales.

    Treesearch

    James O Howard; Donald J. DeMars

    1985-01-01

    Data from 1973 and 1980 logging residues studies were used to compare the volume of residue from lump sum and log scale timber sales. Covariance analysis was used to adjust the mean volume for each data set for potential variation resulting from differences in stand conditions. Mean residue volumes from the two sale types were significantly different at the 5-percent...

  4. The Causes of Logging Truck Delays on Two West Virginia Logging Operations

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras

    1978-01-01

    Logging truck downtime increases timber harvesting costs. To determine the extent and causes of truck delays, four logging trucks on two separate operations were monitored for a 7-month period by recording speedometers and with tallies of delay causes. The results show the number of truck delays per shift, their duration, and the total delay time per shift for eight...

  5. Relationships between log N-log S and celestial distribution of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, J.; Yamagami, T.

    1985-01-01

    The apparent conflict between log N-log S curve and isotropic celestial distribution of the gamma ray bursts is discussed. A possible selection effect due to the time profile of each burst is examined. It is shown that the contradiction is due to this selection effect of the gamma ray bursts.

  6. Financial feasibility of a log sort yard handling small-diameter logs: A preliminary study

    Treesearch

    Han-Sup Han; E. M. (Ted) Bilek; John (Rusty) Dramm; Dan Loeffler; Dave Calkin

    2011-01-01

    The value and use of the trees removed in fuel reduction thinning and restoration treatments could be enhanced if the wood were effectively evaluated and sorted for quality and highest value before delivery to the next manufacturing destination. This article summarizes a preliminary financial feasibility analysis of a log sort yard that would serve as a log market to...

  7. Incidence of Russian log export tax: A vertical log-lumber model

    Treesearch

    Ying Lin; Daowei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    In 2007, Russia imposed an ad valorem tax on its log exports that lasted until 2012. In this paper, weuse a Muth-type equilibrium displacement model to investigate the market and welfare impacts of this tax, utilizing a vertical linkage between log and lumber markets and considering factor substitution. Our theoretical analysis indicates...

  8. RAYSAW: a log sawing simulator for 3D laser-scanned hardwood logs

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Laser scanning of hardwood logs provides detailed high-resolution imagery of log surfaces. Characteristics such as sweep, taper, and crook, as well as most surface defects, are visible to the eye in the scan data. In addition, models have been developed that predict interior knot size and position based on external defect information. Computerized processing of...

  9. LogSafe and Smart: Minnesota OSHA's LogSafe Program Takes Root.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honerman, James

    1999-01-01

    Logging is now the most dangerous U.S. occupation. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed specialized safety training for the logging industry but has been challenged to reach small operators. An OSHA-approved state program in Minnesota provides annual safety seminars to about two-thirds of the state's full-time…

  10. MAIL LOG, program summary and specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The summary and specifications to obtain the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS are provided. The MAIL LOG program has four modes of operation: (1) input - putting new records into the data base; (2) revise - changing or modifying existing records in the data base; (3) search - finding special records existing in the data base; and (4) archive - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the input and search modes.

  11. Breaking the vicious circle of illegal logging in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Linkie, Matthew; Sloan, Sean; Kasia, Rahmad; Kiswayadi, Dedy; Azmi, Wahdi

    2014-08-01

    The government of Indonesia, which presides over 10% of the world's tropical forests, has set ambitious targets to cut its high deforestation rates through an REDD+ scheme (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation). This will require strong law enforcement to succeed. Yet, strategies that have accomplished this are rare and, along with past failures, tend not to be documented. We evaluated a multistakeholder approach that seeks to tackle illegal logging in the carbon-rich province of Aceh, Sumatra. From 2008 to 2009, Fauna & Flora International established and supported a community-based informant network for the 738,000 ha Ulu Masen ecosystem. The network reported 190 forest offenses to local law enforcement agencies, which responded with 86 field operations that confiscated illicit vehicles, equipment, and timber, and arrested 138 illegal logging suspects. From 45 cases subsequently monitored, 64.4% proceeded to court, from which 90.0% of defendants received a prison sentence or a verbal warning for a first offense. Spatial analyses of illegal logging and timber storage incidents predicted that illegal activities would be more effectively deterred by law enforcement operations that targeted the storage sites. Although numerous clusters of incidents were identified, they were still widespread reflecting the ubiquity of illegal activities. The multistakeholder results were promising, but illegal logging still persisted at apparently similar levels at the project's end, indicating that efforts need to be further strengthened. Nevertheless, several actions contributed to the law enforcement achievements: strong political will; strong stakeholder support; and funding that could be promptly accessed. These factors are highlighted as prerequisites for achieving Indonesia's ambitious REDD+ goals. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Comparison of formation and fluid-column logs in a heterogeneous basalt aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Williams, J.H.; Oki, D.S.; Knutson, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    Deep observation boreholes in the vicinity of active production wells in Honolulu, Hawaii, exhibit the anomalous condition that fluid-column electrical conductivity logs and apparent profiles of pore-water electrical conductivity derived from induction conductivity logs are nearly identical if a formation factor of 12.5 is assumed. This condition is documented in three boreholes where fluid-column logs clearly indicate the presence of strong borehole flow induced by withdrawal from partially penetrating water-supply wells. This result appears to contradict the basic principles of conductivity-log interpretation. Flow conditions in one of these boreholes was investigated in detail by obtaining flow profiles under two water production conditions using the electromagnetic flowmeter. The flow-log interpretation demonstrates that the fluid-column log resembles the induction log because the amount of inflow to the borehole increases systematically upward through the transition zone between deeper salt water and shallower fresh water. This condition allows the properties of the fluid column to approximate the properties of water entering the borehole as soon as the upflow stream encounters that producing zone. Because this condition occurs in all three boreholes investigated, the similarity of induction and fluid-column logs is probably not a coincidence, and may relate to aquifer response under the influence of pumping from production wells.

  13. Comparison of formation and fluid-column logs in a heterogeneous basalt aquifer.

    PubMed

    Paillet, F L; Williams, J H; Oki, D S; Knutson, K D

    2002-01-01

    Deep observation boreholes in the vicinity of active production wells in Honolulu, Hawaii, exhibit the anomalous condition that fluid-column electrical conductivity logs and apparent profiles of pore-water electrical conductivity derived from induction conductivity logs are nearly identical if a formation factor of 12.5 is assumed. This condition is documented in three boreholes where fluid-column logs clearly indicate the presence of strong borehole flow induced by withdrawal from partially penetrating water-supply wells. This result appears to contradict the basic principles of conductivity-log interpretation. Flow conditions in one of these boreholes was investigated in detail by obtaining flow profiles under two water production conditions using the electromagnetic flowmeter. The flow-log interpretation demonstrates that the fluid-column log resembles the induction log because the amount of inflow to the borehole increases systematically upward through the transition zone between deeper salt water and shallower fresh water. This condition allows the properties of the fluid column to approximate the properties of water entering the borehole as soon as the upflow stream encounters that producing zone. Because this condition occurs in all three boreholes investigated, the similarity of induction and fluid-column logs is probably not a coincidence, and may relate to aquifer response under the influence of pumping from production wells.

  14. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... protected by a personal flotation device meeting the requirements of § 1918.105(b)(2). (c) Footwear. The employer shall provide each employee that is working logs with appropriate footwear, such as spiked shoes or caulked sandals, and shall ensure that each employee wears appropriate footwear to climb or walk...

  15. Information needs for increasing log transport efficiency

    Treesearch

    Timothy P. McDonald; Steven E. Taylor; Robert B. Rummer; Jorge Valenzuela

    2001-01-01

    Three methods of dispatching trucks to loggers were tested using a log transport simulation model: random allocation, fixed assignment of trucks to loggers, and dispatch based on knowledge of the current status of trucks and loggers within the system. This 'informed' dispatch algorithm attempted to minimize the difference in time between when a logger would...

  16. Choosing methods and equipment for logging

    Treesearch

    Fred C. Simmons

    1948-01-01

    A logging job is one of the most difficult types of business to manage efficiently. In practically everything the logger does he is compelled to make a choice between several methods of operation and types of equipment. The conditions under which he works are constantly changing, particularly when he is forced to move fairly often from one timber tract to another. But...

  17. Identifying unstable sites on logging roads

    Treesearch

    R. M. Rice; J. Lewis

    1986-01-01

    Logging roads are an important source of forestry-related erosion. The amount of erosion on a forest road is determined by the interaction between how the road is constructed and maintained and the environment in which it is built. The roads in this study were constructed with large bulldozers, and most excavated material was sidecast. The roads studied were...

  18. Potential for shared log transport services

    Treesearch

    Tim McDonald; Steve Taylor; Jorge Valenzuela

    2001-01-01

    A simulation model of a log transport logistics network was developed. The model could be structured to either share truck capacity among a group of loggers, or to assign a fixed number of trucks to individual loggers. Another variation of the model allowed the use of a staging yard to set out loaded trailers and deliver them to destinations using dedicated shuttle...

  19. Stream macroinvertebrate response to clearcut logging

    Treesearch

    J. Bruce Wallace; Damon Ely

    2014-01-01

    Why study response of stream invertebrates to watershed disturbances such as clearcut logging? Stream invertebrates can be excellent integrators of changes in such ecosystem phenomena as changes in the food base of ecosystems. For example, a number of invertebrate taxa appear to track changes in food resources. Many taxa also exhibit substrate-specific as well as taxon...

  20. MAIL LOG, program theory, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    Information relevant to the MAIL LOG program theory is documented. The L-files for mail correspondence, design information release/report, and the drawing/engineering order are given. In addition, sources for miscellaneous external routines and special support routines are documented along with a glossary of terms.

  1. Modeling Basic Writing Processes from Keystroke Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Hongwen; Deane, Paul D.; van Rijn, Peter W.; Zhang, Mo; Bennett, Randy E.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study is to model pauses extracted from writing keystroke logs as a way of characterizing the processes students use in essay composition. Low-level timing data were modeled, the interkey interval and its subtype, the intraword duration, thought to reflect processes associated with keyboarding skills and composition fluency.…

  2. Disturbance during logging stimulates regeneration of koa

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Robert E. Nelson

    1976-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of Acacia koa regeneration after logging were studied on a 500-acre (202-ha) tract of koa forest heavily infested with Passiflora mollissima vines on the island of Hawaii. Koa seedling density was about three times greater in disturbed areas than in undisturbed ones. Most of the koa seedlings in...

  3. Alaska midgrade logs: supply and offshore demand.

    Treesearch

    Donald F. Flora; Wendy J. McGinnis

    1989-01-01

    The outlook for shipments and prices of export logs from Alaska differs significantly by grade (quality class). For the majority lying in the middle of the value range, the trend of prices is projected to increase $200 per thousand board feet, or about 55 percent, by 2000. Shipments are expected to rise about 30 percent by 1995 and then subside about 10 percent. These...

  4. There's Life in Those Dead Logs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Devin; Miller, Todd; Hall, Dee

    2006-01-01

    Although it is unspectacular in appearance, dead wood is one of the most ecologically important resources in forests. Fallen logs, dead standing trees, stumps, and even cavities in live trees fulfill a wide range of roles. Prominent among these is that they provide habitat for many organisms, especially insects. Fourth-grade students at Fox…

  5. The Design Log: A New Informational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivak, Mayer

    1978-01-01

    The design log is a record of observations, diagnoses, prescriptions, and performance specifications for each space in a structure. It is a systematic approach to design that integrates information about user needs with traditional architectural programming and design. (Author/MLF)

  6. Changes in the Logging Labor Force

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Wolf; Jean W. Nolley

    1977-01-01

    Employment in the logging industry dropped 28 percent between 1950 and 1970, while output of industrial roundwood increased 31 percent. Today's loggers are older, better educated, and more skilled. A large proportion are self-employed, many work less than a full year, and a substantial number have incomes below the poverty level. Mechanization of timber harvesting...

  7. Critical care procedure logging using handheld computers

    PubMed Central

    Carlos Martinez-Motta, J; Walker, Robin; Stewart, Thomas E; Granton, John; Abrahamson, Simon; Lapinsky, Stephen E

    2004-01-01

    Introduction We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing an internet-linked handheld computer procedure logging system in a critical care training program. Methods Subspecialty trainees in the Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care at the University of Toronto received and were trained in the use of Palm handheld computers loaded with a customized program for logging critical care procedures. The procedures were entered into the handheld device using checkboxes and drop-down lists, and data were uploaded to a central database via the internet. To evaluate the feasibility of this system, we tracked the utilization of this data collection system. Benefits and disadvantages were assessed through surveys. Results All 11 trainees successfully uploaded data to the central database, but only six (55%) continued to upload data on a regular basis. The most common reason cited for not using the system pertained to initial technical problems with data uploading. From 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2003, a total of 914 procedures were logged. Significant variability was noted in the number of procedures logged by individual trainees (range 13–242). The database generated by regular users provided potentially useful information to the training program director regarding the scope and location of procedural training among the different rotations and hospitals. Conclusion A handheld computer procedure logging system can be effectively used in a critical care training program. However, user acceptance was not uniform, and continued training and support are required to increase user acceptance. Such a procedure database may provide valuable information that may be used to optimize trainees' educational experience and to document clinical training experience for licensing and accreditation. PMID:15469577

  8. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  9. Stress wave sorting of red maple logs for structural quality

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; David W. Green; Brian Brashaw; Karl Englund; Michael Wolcott

    2004-01-01

    Existing log grading procedures in the United States make only visual assessments of log quality. These procedures do not incorporate estimates of the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of logs. It is questionable whether the visual grading procedures currently used for logs adequately assess the potential quality of structural products manufactured from them, especially...

  10. Veneer Log Production and Receipts in the Southeast, 1969

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Welch

    1971-01-01

    In 1969, production of veneer logs was almost 657 million board feet in the Southeast, while receipts of domestic logs at the 136 mills in the area were over 690 million board feet. Pine log production now amounts to 40 percent of the total, while hardwood log production is down 17 percent from that of 1963.

  11. Performance of sampling methods to estimate log characteristics for wildlife.

    Treesearch

    Lisa J. Bate; Torolf R. Torgersen; Michael J. Wisdom; Edward O. Garton

    2004-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the characteristics of log resources, or coarse woody debris (CWD), is critical to effective management of wildlife and other forest resources. Despite the importance of logs as wildlife habitat, methods for sampling logs have traditionally focused on silvicultural and fire applications. These applications have emphasized estimates of log volume...

  12. Lumber yield and log values of Shasta red fir.

    Treesearch

    John B. Grantham; Douglas L. Hunt

    1963-01-01

    The value of lumber produced from each of 362 Shasta red fir logs of southern Oregon was determined through a cooperative study in 1960. Lumber grade yield from each log provided the basis for calculating the comparative value of each log grade-log diameter class, in accordance with grading and scaling practices used both east and west of the...

  13. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING CEDAR LOGS FROM TRUCKS AT LOG DUMP, ADJACENT TO MILL; TRUCKS FORMERLY USED TRIP STAKES, THOUGH FOR SAFER HANDLING OF LOGS WELDED STAKES ARE NOW REQUIRED; AS A RESULT LOADING IS NOW DONE WITH A CRANE - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  14. Tradeoffs and interdependence in the Alaska cant and log markets.

    Treesearch

    Donald Flora; Una Woller; Michael Neergaard

    1990-01-01

    During the 1980s, log exports from Alaska have risen while cant (lumber) exports have declined. Eight explanations for the difference between cant and log market behavior are explored. It seems that declining demand for wood products in Japan and a surge of private-sector log harvests in Alaska are enough to account for the apparent substitution of logs for cants. It...

  15. Using Web Server Logs in Evaluating Instructional Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Albert L.

    2000-01-01

    Web server logs contain a great deal of information about who uses a Web site and how they use it. This article discusses the analysis of Web logs for instructional Web sites; reviews the data stored in most Web server logs; demonstrates what further information can be gleaned from the logs; and discusses analyzing that information for the…

  16. Luminescent properties of MAl(SO4)2 Br:Eu(3+) (M = Sr or Mg) red phosphors for near-UV light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Priti B; Puppalwar, S P; Dhoble, N S; Dhoble, S J

    2015-02-01

    Eu(3+) -activated MAl(SO4 )2 Br phosphors (where M = Mg or Sr) are successfully prepared using a wet chemical reaction technique. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. The XRD pattern revealed that both the samples are microcrystalline in nature. PL of Eu(3+) -doped SrAl(SO4 )2 Br and MgAl(SO4 )2 Br phosphors exhibited characteristic red emission coming from the (5) D0  → (7) F2 (616 nm) electron transition, when excited by 396 nm wavelength of light. The maximum intensity of luminescence was observed at a concentration of 1 mol% Eu(3+) . The intensity of the electric dipole transition at 616 nm is greater than that of the magnetic dipole transition at 594 nm. The results showed that MAl(SO4 )2 Br:Eu(3+) , (M = Mg, Sr) phosphors have potential application in near-UV light-emitting diodes as efficient red-emitting phosphor. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Early childhood growth and cognitive outcomes: Findings from the MAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Rebecca J; Rogawski, Elizabeth T; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Maphula, Angelina; Svensen, Erling; Tofail, Fahmida; Rasheed, Muneera; Abreu, Claudia; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; Shrestha, Rita; Pendergast, Laura; Mduma, Estomih; Koshy, Beena; Conaway, Mark R; Platts-Mills, James A; Guerrant, Richard L; DeBoer, Mark D

    2018-02-02

    Although many studies around the world hope to measure or improve developmental progress in children to promote community flourishing and productivity, growth is sometimes used as a surrogate because cognitive skills are more difficult to measure. Our objective was to assess how childhood measures of anthropometry correlate with measures of child development in low-income settings with high prevalence of poor nutrition and enteric disease, to inform studies considering growth outcomes in the absence of direct child developmental skill assessment. Children from the MAL-ED study were followed from birth to 24 months of age in field sites in 8 low- and middle-income countries across 3 continents. Monthly weight, length, and head circumference measurements were performed. At 24 months, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development was administered. We correlated cognitive measures at 24 months with anthropometric measurements from birth to 2 years comparing 3 constructs: absolute attained monthly measures, summative difference in measures from the mean growth curve, and rate of change in measures. Growth faltering at multiple time periods is related to Bayley cognitive outcomes at 24 months. Birthweight, overall growth by 18-24 months, and rate of growth in the 6- to 18-month period were most associated with 24-month developmental scores. In this study, head circumference measurements, compared with length, was more closely linked to cognitive scores at 24 months. Notably, all studies between growth and cognitive outcomes exhibited low r 2 values (0.001-0.049). Anthropometric measures, particularly head circumference, were related to cognitive development, although explaining a low percent of variance. When feasible, direct measures of child development may be more useful. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Isolation of Mal d 1 and Api g 1 - specific recombinant antibodies from mouse IgG Fab fragment libraries - Mal d 1-specific antibody exhibits cross-reactivity against Bet v 1.

    PubMed

    Haka, Jaana; Niemi, Merja H; Iljin, Kristiina; Reddy, Vanga Siva; Takkinen, Kristiina; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena

    2015-05-27

    Around 3-5% of the population suffer from IgE-mediated food allergies in Western countries and the number of food-allergenic people is increasing. Individuals with certain pollen allergies may also suffer from a sensitisation to proteins in the food products. As an example a person sensitised to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, is often sensitised to its homologues, such as the major allergens of apple, Mal d 1, and celery, Api g 1, as well. Development of tools for the reliable, sensitive and quick detection of allergens present in various food products is essential for allergic persons to prevent the consumption of substances causing mild and even life-threatening immune responses. The use of monoclonal antibodies would ensure the specific detection of the harmful food content for a sensitised person. Mouse IgG antibody libraries were constructed from immunised mice and specific recombinant antibodies for Mal d 1 and Api g 1 were isolated from the libraries by phage display. More detailed characterisation of the resulting antibodies was carried out using ELISA, SPR experiments and immunoprecipitation assays. The allergen-specific Fab fragments exhibited high affinity towards the target recombinant allergens. Furthermore, the Fab fragments also recognised native allergens from natural sources. Interestingly, isolated Mal d 1-specific antibody bound also to Bet v 1, the main allergen eliciting the cross-reactivity syndrome between the birch pollen and apple. Despite the similarities in Api g 1 and Bet v 1 tertiary structures, the isolated Api g 1-specific antibodies showed no cross-reactivity to Bet v 1. Here, high-affinity allergen-specific recombinant antibodies were isolated with interesting binding properties. With further development, these antibodies can be utilised as tools for the specific and reliable detection of allergens from different consumable products. This study gives new preliminary insights to elucidate the mechanism behind the pollen

  19. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are mademore » between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.« less

  20. Stochastic theory of log-periodic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canessa, Enrique

    2000-12-01

    We introduce an analytical model based on birth-death clustering processes to help in understanding the empirical log-periodic corrections to power law scaling and the finite-time singularity as reported in several domains including rupture, earthquakes, world population and financial systems. In our stochastic theory log-periodicities are a consequence of transient clusters induced by an entropy-like term that may reflect the amount of co-operative information carried by the state of a large system of different species. The clustering completion rates for the system are assumed to be given by a simple linear death process. The singularity at t0 is derived in terms of birth-death clustering coefficients.

  1. No chiral truncation of quantum log gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald

    2010-03-01

    At the classical level, chiral gravity may be constructed as a consistent truncation of a larger theory called log gravity by requiring that left-moving charges vanish. In turn, log gravity is the limit of topologically massive gravity (TMG) at a special value of the coupling (the chiral point). We study the situation at the level of linearized quantum fields, focussing on a unitary quantization. While the TMG Hilbert space is continuous at the chiral point, the left-moving Virasoro generators become ill-defined and cannot be used to define a chiral truncation. In a sense, the left-moving asymptotic symmetries are spontaneously broken at the chiral point. In contrast, in a non-unitary quantization of TMG, both the Hilbert space and charges are continuous at the chiral point and define a unitary theory of chiral gravity at the linearized level.

  2. Log polar image sensor in CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Danny; Dierickx, Bart; Pardo, Fernando; Vlummens, Jan; Meynants, Guy; Hermans, Lou

    1996-08-01

    We report on the design, design issues, fabrication and performance of a log-polar CMOS image sensor. The sensor is developed for the use in a videophone system for deaf and hearing impaired people, who are not capable of communicating through a 'normal' telephone. The system allows 15 detailed images per second to be transmitted over existing telephone lines. This framerate is sufficient for conversations by means of sign language or lip reading. The pixel array of the sensor consists of 76 concentric circles with (up to) 128 pixels per circle, in total 8013 pixels. The interior pixels have a pitch of 14 micrometers, up to 250 micrometers at the border. The 8013-pixels image is mapped (log-polar transformation) in a X-Y addressable 76 by 128 array.

  3. New technology applied to well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Stremel, K.

    1984-11-01

    Remote locations and increasingly complex geology require a higher level of sophistication in well-logging equipment and services. Applying technological advancements, well-logging contractors have developed a variety of new products and services designed to provide better quality data at reasonable prices. One of the most significant technological breakthroughs has been in satellite communications. Denver-based Western Tele-Communications Inc. is one of the few companies offering voice and data transmission services via satellite. Up to 9600 bits per second of realtime data is transmitted from terminals at remote wellsites through a main station in Denver to locations throughout the world. Because management inmore » separate offices can review well data simultaneously, critical operations decisions can be made more quickly.« less

  4. Using Web Logs in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duplichan, Staycle C.

    2009-01-01

    As educators we must ask ourselves if we are meeting the needs of today's students. The science world is adapting to our ever-changing society; are the methodology and philosophy of our educational system keeping up? In this article, you'll learn why web logs (also called blogs) are an important Web 2.0 tool in your science classroom and how they…

  5. The application of PGNAA borehole logging for copper grade estimation at Chuquicamata mine.

    PubMed

    Charbucinski, J; Duran, O; Freraut, R; Heresi, N; Pineyro, I

    2004-05-01

    The field trials of a prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNAA) spectrometric logging method and instrumentation (SIROLOG) for copper grade estimation in production holes of a porphyry type copper ore mine, Chuquicamata in Chile, are described. Examples of data analysis, calibration procedures and copper grade profiles are provided. The field tests have proved the suitability of the PGNAA logging system for in situ quality control of copper ore.

  6. Quantitative Literacy: Working with Log Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawl, S.

    2013-04-01

    The need for working with and understanding different types of graphs is a common occurrence in everyday life. Examples include anything having to do investments, being an educated juror in a case that involves evidence presented graphically, and understanding many aspect of our current political discourse. Within a science class graphs play a crucial role in presenting and interpreting data. In astronomy, where the range of graphed values is many orders of magnitude, log-axes must be used and understood. Experience shows that students do not understand how to read and interpret log-axes or how they differ from linear. Alters (1996), in a study of college students in an algebra-based physics class, found little understanding of log plotting. The purpose of this poster is to show the method and progression I have developed for use in my “ASTRO 101” class, with the goal being to help students better understand the H-R diagram, mass-luminosity relationship, and digital spectra.

  7. Improving Website Hyperlink Structure Using Server Logs

    PubMed Central

    Paranjape, Ashwin; West, Robert; Zia, Leila; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    Good websites should be easy to navigate via hyperlinks, yet maintaining a high-quality link structure is difficult. Identifying pairs of pages that should be linked may be hard for human editors, especially if the site is large and changes frequently. Further, given a set of useful link candidates, the task of incorporating them into the site can be expensive, since it typically involves humans editing pages. In the light of these challenges, it is desirable to develop data-driven methods for automating the link placement task. Here we develop an approach for automatically finding useful hyperlinks to add to a website. We show that passively collected server logs, beyond telling us which existing links are useful, also contain implicit signals indicating which nonexistent links would be useful if they were to be introduced. We leverage these signals to model the future usefulness of yet nonexistent links. Based on our model, we define the problem of link placement under budget constraints and propose an efficient algorithm for solving it. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by evaluating it on Wikipedia, a large website for which we have access to both server logs (used for finding useful new links) and the complete revision history (containing a ground truth of new links). As our method is based exclusively on standard server logs, it may also be applied to any other website, as we show with the example of the biomedical research site Simtk. PMID:28345077

  8. A composite lithology log while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, E.; Sutcliffe, B.; Franks, A.

    A new method for producing a computerized composite lithology log (CLL) while drilling by integrating MWD (measurement while drilling) and surface data is described. At present, lithology logs are produced at the well site by mud loggers. They provide basic description and relative amounts of lithologies. Major difficulties are encountered in relating the cuttings to their original formations due to mixing in the drilling mud while transporting to the surface, sloughing shales, flawed sampling, etc. This results in a poor control on the stratigraphic sequence and on the depth of formation boundaries. A composite log can be produced after drillingmore » this additional inputs such as wireline, petrography, and paleontology. This process is labor intensive and expensive. The CLL integrates three types of data (MWD mechanical, MWD geophysical, and surface cuttings) acquired during drilling, in three time stages: (1) Real Time. MWD drilling mechanical data including the rate of penetration and the downhole torque. This stage would provide bed boundaries and some inferred lithology. This would assist the driller with immediate drilling decisions and determine formation tops for coring, casing point, and correlation. (2) MWD Time. Recomputation of the above by adding MWD geophysical data (gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron-density). This stage would upgrade the lithology inference, and give higher resolution to bed boundaries, (3) Lag Time. Detailed analysis of surface cuttings to confirm the inferred lithologies. This last input results in a high-quality CLL with accurate lithologies and bed boundaries.« less

  9. A composite lithology log while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, E.; Sutcliffe, B.; Franks, A.

    A new method for producing a computerized composite lithology log (CLL) while drilling by integrating MWD (measurement while drilling) and surface data is described. The CLL integrates three types of data (MWD mechanical, MWD geophysical, and surface cuttings) acquired during drilling, in three time stages: (1) Real Time. MWD drilling mechanical data including the rate of penetration and the downhole torque. This stage would provide bed boundaries and some inferred lithology. This would assist the driller with immediate drilling decisions and determine formation tops for coring, casing point, and correlation. (2) MWD Time. Recomputation of the above by adding MWDmore » geophysical data (gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron-density). This stage would upgrade the lithology inference, and give higher resolution of bed boundaries. (3) Lag Time. Detailed analysis of surface cuttings to confirm the inferred lithologies. This last input will result in a high-quality CLL with accurate lithologies and bed boundaries. The log will serve the geologist as well as the driller, petrophysicist, and reservoir engineer. It will form the basis for more comprehensive formation evaluation while drilling by adding hydrocarbon and MWD log data.« less

  10. [Molecular aspects of allergy to plant products. Part II. Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), apple allergenicity governed by Mal d 1 gene].

    PubMed

    Bokszczanin, Kamila Ł; Przybyła, Andrzej A

    2012-03-01

    Of the plant allergens listed in the Official Allergen Database of the International Union of Immunological Societies, approximately 25% belong to the group of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). They have been classified into 17 PR families based on similarities in their amino acid sequence, enzymatic activities, or other functional properties. Plant-derived allergens have been identified with sequence similarities to PR families 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, and 14. The main birch allergen in northern Europe is a class 10 (PR-10) protein from the European white birch (Betula pendula) termed Bet v 1. Pollen of other Fagales species contains PR-10 homologues that share epitopes with Bet v 1, as do several fruits, nuts and vegetables. Among the plant food fruits of the Rosaceae family are the most frequently responsible for allergenic reactions. It is documented, that approximately 2% of European population is allergic to apples. The article presents molecular characterization of PR-10 proteins with regard to their structure and function as well as apple Mal d 1 gene-determined allergenicity.

  11. Functional and biochemical properties of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (Fijivirus, Reoviridae) P9-1 viroplasm protein show further similarities to animal reovirus counterparts.

    PubMed

    Maroniche, Guillermo A; Mongelli, Vanesa C; Peralta, Andrea V; Distéfano, Ana J; Llauger, Gabriela; Taboga, Oscar A; Hopp, Esteban H; del Vas, Mariana

    2010-09-01

    Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) is a plant virus of the genus Fijivirus within the family Reoviridae that infects several monocotyledonous species and is transmitted by planthoppers in a persistent and propagative manner. Other members of the family replicate in viral inclusion bodies (VIBs) termed viroplasms that are formed in the cytoplasm of infected plant and insect cells. In this study, the protein coded by the first ORF of MRCV segment S9 (P9-1) was shown to establish cytoplasmic inclusion bodies resembling viroplasms after transfection of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. In accordance, MRCV P9-1 self-associates giving rise to high molecular weight complexes when expressed in bacteria. Strong self-interaction was also evidenced by yeast two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, biochemical characterization showed that MRCV P9-1 bound single stranded RNA and had ATPase activity. Finally, the MRCV P9-1 region required for the formation of VIB-like structures was mapped to the protein carboxy-terminal half. This extensive functional and biochemical characterization of MRCV P9-1 revealed further similarities between plant and animal reovirus viroplasm proteins. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An unconventional interaction between Dis1/TOG and Mal3/EB1 in fission yeast promotes the fidelity of chromosome segregation.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yuzy; Maurer, Sebastian P; Yukawa, Masashi; Zakian, Silva; Singleton, Martin R; Surrey, Thomas; Toda, Takashi

    2016-12-15

    Dynamic microtubule plus-ends interact with various intracellular target regions such as the cell cortex and the kinetochore. Two conserved families of microtubule plus-end-tracking proteins, the XMAP215, ch-TOG or CKAP5 family and the end-binding 1 (EB1, also known as MAPRE1) family, play pivotal roles in regulating microtubule dynamics. Here, we study the functional interplay between fission yeast Dis1, a member of the XMAP215/TOG family, and Mal3, an EB1 protein. Using an in vitro microscopy assay, we find that purified Dis1 autonomously tracks growing microtubule ends and is a bona fide microtubule polymerase. Mal3 recruits additional Dis1 to microtubule ends, explaining the synergistic enhancement of microtubule dynamicity by these proteins. A non-canonical binding motif in Dis1 mediates the interaction with Mal3. X-ray crystallography shows that this new motif interacts in an unconventional configuration with the conserved hydrophobic cavity formed within the Mal3 C-terminal region that typically interacts with the canonical SXIP motif. Selectively perturbing the Mal3-Dis1 interaction in living cells demonstrates that it is important for accurate chromosome segregation. Whereas, in some metazoans, the interaction between EB1 and the XMAP215/TOG family members requires an additional binding partner, fission yeast relies on a direct interaction, indicating evolutionary plasticity of this critical interaction module. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. EJERCICIO Y LA DETECCION DEL MAL AGUDO DE MONTAÑA GRAVE

    PubMed Central

    Garófoli, Adrián; Montoya, Paola; Elías, Carlos; Benzo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    El Mal Agudo de Montaña (MAM) es un conjunto de síntomas inespecíficos padecidos por sujetos que ascienden rápidamente desde baja a alta altura sin adecuada aclimatación. Usualmente es autolimitado, pero las formas graves (edema pulmonar y cerebral) pueden causar la muerte. La hipoxemia exagerada en reposo está relacionada con el desarrollo de MAM pero su valor predictivo es limitado. Dado que el ejercicio en altura se acompaña de mayor hipoxemia y síntomas, postulamos el valor predictivo de un simple test de ejercicio para pronosticar MAM grave. Se estudió el valor predictivo de la saturación de oxígeno en reposo y ejercicio submáximo a 2 700m y 4 300m en 63 sujetos que ascendían al cerro Aconcagua (6 962m). Se consideró desaturación de oxígeno con ejercicio a una disminución >=5% respecto al reposo. Se utilizó la escala de Lake-Louise para establecer la presencia de MAM grave. 6 sujetos presentaron MAM grave (9.5%) y requirieron evacuación. La saturación de oxígeno en reposo a 2 700m no fue significativa para clasificar sujetos que luego desarrollaron MAM grave. Por el contrario, la asociación de desaturación durante el ejercicio a 2 700m más la saturación inapropiada en reposo a 4 300m fue significativa para clasificar a los sujetos que desarrollaron MAM grave con un valor predictivo positivo de 80% y un valor predictivo negativo del 97%. Nuestros resultados son relevantes para el montañismo y sugieren la adición de un simple test de ejercicio en la predicción del MAM grave. PMID:20228017

  14. Tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (mal de Pott exclu): à propos de 120 cas à Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Koné, Samba; Ouali, Boubacar; Djaha, Kouassi Jean -Mermoz; Akoli, Ekoya Ondzala; Nseng, Ingrid Nseng; Eti, Edmond; Daboiko, Jean Claude; Touré, Stanislas André; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (TOA) représente 2 à 5% de l'ensemble des tuberculoses. Elle demeure d'actualité surtout dans les pays à forte endémicité tuberculeuse. L'objectif était de déterminer la prévalence, les aspects topographiques, radiologiques de la TOA en milieu hospitalier ivoirien. Méthodes Les auteurs rapportent une expérience de 11 ans, à travers une étude rétrospective de 120 dossiers de patients atteints de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (le mal de Pott est exclu de cette étude). N'ont pas été inclus dans l’étude les dossiers ne comportant pas d'imagerie. Résultats L'atteinte extra vertébrale représentait 09,2% de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire. Il s'agissait de 54 hommes et 66 femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,13 ans. On notait 123 cas d'ostéoarthrites, et 8 cas d'ostéites des os plats. L'atteinte des membres inférieurs prédominait dans 91,87% des cas. La hanche était la première localisation (45,04%), suivie du genou (25,19%). Les atteintes étaient multifocales dans 20% des cas. L'atteinte osseuse était associée à une tuberculose pulmonaire dans 05,83% des cas. Des localisations inhabituelles ont été rapportées: poignet (n = 2), branches ischiopubiennes (n = 4), atteinte sternoclaviculaire (n = 4), médiopieds (n = 2). Les lésions radiologiques étaient avancées (stades III et IV) dans 55,73% des cas. A la TDM, la prévalence des abcès était de 77%. Un geste chirurgical a été réalisé sur 16 articulations (2 épaules, 13 genoux, une cheville). Conclusion La TOA des membres est peu fréquente contrairement à l'atteinte vertébrale. La hanche est la principale localisation. Le retard au diagnostic explique l’étendue des lésions anatomoradiologiques. PMID:26587129

  15. Effects of persistent Mal de debarquement syndrome on balance, psychological traits, and motor cortex exctiability.

    PubMed

    Clark, Brian C; LePorte, Andrew; Clark, Shawn; Hoffman, Richard L; Quick, Adam; Wilson, Thad E; Thomas, James S

    2013-03-01

    Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a poorly characterized and understood disorder of perceived motion. We sought to characterize postural control and the psychological impact of MdDS. Additionally, we explored whether patients with MdDS exhibit altered corticospinal and intracortical excitability. In a case-control study we compared patients with MdDS to age- and sex-matched controls (n=8/group). Postural stability (σr) was quantified from plane phase plots based on center or pressure, and psychological indices of depression, fatigue and kinesiophobia were obtained. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess corticospinal excitability by quantifying the motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude of the flexor carpi radialis, and intracortical excitability was assessed by quantifying indices of intracortical facilitation (ICF), and short-interval and long-interval intracortical inhibition using a paired-pulse TMS paradigm. The patients with MdDS exhibited greater mean (±standard error of the mean) σr during semi-tandem stance (10.9 ± 1.5 compared to 7.1 ± 0.7, p=0.04), higher levels of kinesiophobia (41.6 ± 2.8 compared to 27.3 ± 2.2), and higher levels of fatigue (27.0 ± 4.1 compared to 48.4 ± 1.0). Patients with MdDS exhibited a higher mean motor threshold (MT) (58.1 ± 2.5 compared to 47.4 ± 2.7% of stimulator output), and larger MEP (13.1 ± 3.1 compared to 5.1 ± 1.2% of maximal compound muscle action potential) but there was no difference in measures of intracortical excitability. These findings suggest that patients with MdDS exhibit impaired postural stability, and high levels of kinesiophobia and fatigue. Additionally, we observed that patients with MdDS exhibit higher MT and large MEP amplitudes, but do not exhibit differences in measures of intracortical excitability, compared to controls. These findings help characterize MdDS, and provide insight into the physiology of MdDS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Geophysical Logs of Selected Test Wells at the Diaz Chemical Superfund Site in Holley, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Anderson, J. Alton

    2007-01-01

    In June and July 2006, geophysical logs were collected and analyzed along with rock-core samples to define the bedrock stratigraphy and flow zones penetrated by four test wells at the Diaz Chemical Superfund site at Holley in eastern Orleans County, New York. The work was completed as a preliminary part of the investigation of contamination by organic compounds in the shale, mudstone, and sandstone bedrock. The geophysical logs included natural-gamma, caliper, borehole image, fluid properties, and flowmeter data. The orientation of fractures in the boreholes was inferred from the log data and summarized in stereo and tadpole plots; the transmissivity and hydraulic head was also determined for fracture zones that were observed to be hydraulically active through the flowmeter logs. The data are intended in part for use in the remediation of the site.

  17. On coincident loop transient electromagnetic induction logging

    SciTech Connect

    Swidinsky, Andrei; Weiss, Chester J.

    Coincident loop transient induction wireline logging is examined as the borehole analog of the well-known land and airborne time-domain electromagnetic (EM) method. The concept of whole-space late-time apparent resistivity is modified from the half-space version commonly used in land and airborne geophysics and applied to the coincident loop voltages produced from various formation, borehole, and invasion models. Given typical tool diameters, off-time measurements with such an instrument must be made on the order of nanoseconds to microseconds — much more rapidly than for surface methods. Departure curves of the apparent resistivity for thin beds, calculated using an algorithm developed tomore » model the transient response of a loop in a multilayered earth, indicate that the depth of investigation scales with the bed thickness. Modeled resistivity logs are comparable in accuracy and resolution with standard frequency-domain focused induction logs. However, if measurement times are longer than a few microseconds, the thicknesses of conductors can be overestimated, whereas resistors are underestimated. Thin-bed resolution characteristics are explained by visualizing snapshots of the EM fields in the formation, where a conductor traps the electric field while two current maxima are produced in the shoulder beds surrounding a resistor. Radial profiling is studied using a concentric cylinder earth model. Results found that true formation resistivity can be determined in the presence of either oil- or water-based mud, although in the latter case, measurements must be taken several orders of magnitude later in time. Lastly, the ability to determine true formation resistivity is governed by the degree that the EM field heals after being distorted by borehole fluid and invasion, a process visualized and particularly evident in the case of conductive water-based mud.« less

  18. On coincident loop transient electromagnetic induction logging

    DOE PAGES

    Swidinsky, Andrei; Weiss, Chester J.

    2017-05-31

    Coincident loop transient induction wireline logging is examined as the borehole analog of the well-known land and airborne time-domain electromagnetic (EM) method. The concept of whole-space late-time apparent resistivity is modified from the half-space version commonly used in land and airborne geophysics and applied to the coincident loop voltages produced from various formation, borehole, and invasion models. Given typical tool diameters, off-time measurements with such an instrument must be made on the order of nanoseconds to microseconds — much more rapidly than for surface methods. Departure curves of the apparent resistivity for thin beds, calculated using an algorithm developed tomore » model the transient response of a loop in a multilayered earth, indicate that the depth of investigation scales with the bed thickness. Modeled resistivity logs are comparable in accuracy and resolution with standard frequency-domain focused induction logs. However, if measurement times are longer than a few microseconds, the thicknesses of conductors can be overestimated, whereas resistors are underestimated. Thin-bed resolution characteristics are explained by visualizing snapshots of the EM fields in the formation, where a conductor traps the electric field while two current maxima are produced in the shoulder beds surrounding a resistor. Radial profiling is studied using a concentric cylinder earth model. Results found that true formation resistivity can be determined in the presence of either oil- or water-based mud, although in the latter case, measurements must be taken several orders of magnitude later in time. Lastly, the ability to determine true formation resistivity is governed by the degree that the EM field heals after being distorted by borehole fluid and invasion, a process visualized and particularly evident in the case of conductive water-based mud.« less

  19. Nuclear Tools For Oilfield Logging-While-Drilling Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijonen, Jani

    2011-06-01

    Schlumberger is an international oilfield service company with nearly 80,000 employees of 140 nationalities, operating globally in 80 countries. As a market leader in oilfield services, Schlumberger has developed a suite of technologies to assess the downhole environment, including, among others, electromagnetic, seismic, chemical, and nuclear measurements. In the past 10 years there has been a radical shift in the oilfield service industry from traditional wireline measurements to logging-while-drilling (LWD) analysis. For LWD measurements, the analysis is performed and the instruments are operated while the borehole is being drilled. The high temperature, high shock, and extreme vibration environment of LWD imposes stringent requirements for the devices used in these applications. This has a significant impact on the design of the components and subcomponents of a downhole tool. Another significant change in the past few years for nuclear-based oilwell logging tools is the desire to replace the sealed radioisotope sources with active, electronic ones. These active radiation sources provide great benefits compared to the isotopic sources, ranging from handling and safety to nonproliferation and well contamination issues. The challenge is to develop electronic generators that have a high degree of reliability for the entire lifetime of a downhole tool. LWD tool testing and operations are highlighted with particular emphasis on electronic radiation sources and nuclear detectors for the downhole environment.

  20. New radio meteor detecting and logging software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    A new piece of software ``Meteor Logger'' for the radio observation of meteors is described. It analyses an incoming audio stream in the frequency domain to detect a radio meteor signal on the basis of its signature, instead of applying an amplitude threshold. For that reason the distribution of the three frequencies with the highest spectral power are considered over the time (3f method). An auto notch algorithm is developed to prevent the radio meteor signal detection from being jammed by a present interference line. The results of an exemplary logging session are discussed.

  1. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, W.

    1985-02-08

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifer circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedstock loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  2. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  3. Deformation-Aware Log-Linear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, Tobias; Deselaers, Thomas; Ney, Hermann

    In this paper, we present a novel deformation-aware discriminative model for handwritten digit recognition. Unlike previous approaches our model directly considers image deformations and allows discriminative training of all parameters, including those accounting for non-linear transformations of the image. This is achieved by extending a log-linear framework to incorporate a latent deformation variable. The resulting model has an order of magnitude less parameters than competing approaches to handling image deformations. We tune and evaluate our approach on the USPS task and show its generalization capabilities by applying the tuned model to the MNIST task. We gain interesting insights and achieve highly competitive results on both tasks.

  4. Calibration Tests of a German Log Rodmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.; Stillman, Everette R.

    1949-01-01

    A German log rodmeter of the pitot static type was calibrated in Langley tank no. 1 at speeds up to 34 knots and angles of yaw from 0 deg to plus or minus 10 3/4 degrees. The dynamic head approximated the theoretical head at 0 degrees yaw but decreased as the yaw was increased. The static head was negative and in general became more negative with increasing speed and yaw. Cavitation occurred at speeds above 31 knots at 0 deg yaw and 21 knots at 10 3/4 deg yaw.

  5. 4. WEST SIDE ELEVATION SHOWING WEATHERBOARD LOG COVERING, DOOR CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST SIDE ELEVATION SHOWING WEATHERBOARD LOG COVERING, DOOR CUT INTO WEST WALL TO ENTER DOG TROT, AND UPROOTED TREE WHERE LATER SECOND PEN WAS LOCATED (4 x 5 negative) - Thomas Jefferson Walling Log Cabin, Henderson, Rusk County, TX

  6. 5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing Dutch door and square notching at wall corner. View to east. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Draft Horse Barn, 290 feet southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  7. Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio

    Treesearch

    S.M. Bratkovich

    1991-01-01

    Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.

  8. 2. VIEW OF BLOCK AND TACKLE FOR MOVING CEDAR LOGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BLOCK AND TACKLE FOR MOVING CEDAR LOGS FROM POND TO JACK LADDER--AN ENDLESS CHAIN CONVEYOR THAT MOVES LOGS INTO MILL - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  9. 8. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG DOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG DOCK AND PARTIALLY DEMOLISHED JACKSLIP USED FOR HAULING LOGS UP TO SAWMILL. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  10. 6. SOUTHWEST CORNER DETAIL (FRONT AND LEFT SIDE) SHOWING LOG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SOUTHWEST CORNER DETAIL (FRONT AND LEFT SIDE) SHOWING LOG JOINERY AND WEATHERBOARDING (copy negative, original 35 mm negative in field records) - Thomas Jefferson Walling Log Cabin, Henderson, Rusk County, TX

  11. 7. NORTHEAST CORNER DETAIL SHOWING LOG JOINERY. AT RIGHT IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTHEAST CORNER DETAIL SHOWING LOG JOINERY. AT RIGHT IS REAR SHED ROOM ADDITION (copy negative, original 35 mm negative in field records) - Thomas Jefferson Walling Log Cabin, Henderson, Rusk County, TX

  12. malERA: An updated research agenda for basic science and enabling technologies in malaria elimination and eradication

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Basic science holds enormous power for revealing the biological mechanisms of disease and, in turn, paving the way toward new, effective interventions. Recognizing this power, the 2011 Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication included key priorities in fundamental research that, if attained, could help accelerate progress toward disease elimination and eradication. The Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Consultative Panel on Basic Science and Enabling Technologies reviewed the progress, continuing challenges, and major opportunities for future research. The recommendations come from a literature of published and unpublished materials and the deliberations of the malERA Refresh Consultative Panel. These areas span multiple aspects of the Plasmodium life cycle in both the human host and the Anopheles vector and include critical, unanswered questions about parasite transmission, human infection in the liver, asexual-stage biology, and malaria persistence. We believe an integrated approach encompassing human immunology, parasitology, and entomology, and harnessing new and emerging biomedical technologies offers the best path toward addressing these questions and, ultimately, lowering the worldwide burden of malaria. PMID:29190277

  13. Veneer-log production and receipts in the Southeast, 1988

    Treesearch

    Cecil C. Hutchins

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, almost 1.4 billion board feet of veneer logs were harvested in the Southeast, and the region's veneer mills processed approximately 1.5 billion board feet of logs. Almost 78 percent of veneer-log production and 76 percent of veneer-log receipts were softwood. There were 79 veneer mills operating in 1988. Softwood plywood was the major product. Almost all...

  14. Log and tree sawing times for hardwood mills

    Treesearch

    Everette D. Rast

    1974-01-01

    Data on 6,850 logs and 1,181 trees were analyzed to predict sawing times. For both logs and trees, regression equations were derived that express (in minutes) sawing time per log or tree and per Mbf. For trees, merchantable height is expressed in number of logs as well as in feet. One of the major uses for the tables of average sawing times is as a bench mark against...

  15. Lumber Grade Yields for Graded Aspen Logs and Trees

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks; Robert L. Brisbin

    1978-01-01

    Green lumber grade yields for aspen were determined for use with the U.S. Forest Service hardwood log and tree grades. The yields for logs are expressed in percent of total lumber tally volume, and those for trees are expressed in board feet. Overruns for the International 1/4-inch and Scribner log rules along with lumber recovery factors are shown by log grade.

  16. Log-Log Convexity of Type-Token Growth in Zipf's Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    It is traditionally assumed that Zipf's law implies the power-law growth of the number of different elements with the total number of elements in a system—the so-called Heaps' law. We show that a careful definition of Zipf's law leads to the violation of Heaps' law in random systems, with growth curves that have a convex shape in log-log scale. These curves fulfill universal data collapse that only depends on the value of Zipf's exponent. We observe that real books behave very much in the same way as random systems, despite the presence of burstiness in word occurrence. We advance an explanation for this unexpected correspondence.

  17. Learning Logs in the Science Classroom: The Literacy Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenson, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses one of the most functional forms of writing to learn, the two-column learning logs. Two-column learning logs are based on the premise that collecting information and processing information are two very different aspects of learning. Two-column logs allow students to connect the facts and theories of science to…

  18. ALOG: A spreadsheet-based program for generating artificial logs

    Treesearch

    Matthew F. Winn; Randolph H. Wynne; Philip A. Araman

    2004-01-01

    Log sawing simulation computer programs can be valuable tools for training sawyers as well as for testing different sawing patterns. Most available simulation programs rely on databases from which to draw logs and can be very costly and time-consuming to develop. ALOG (Artificial LOg Generator) is a Microsoft Excel®-based computer program that was developed to...

  19. Logging residue in Washington, Oregon, California: volume and characteristics.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard

    1973-01-01

    This report makes available data on the volume and characteristics of logging residue resulting from 1969 logging operations in Oregon, Washington, and California. The results indicate highest volumes of logging residue are found in the Douglas-fir region of western Oregon and western Washington. Average gross volume of residue in this region ranged...

  20. U.S. Hardwood sawmill log procurement practices

    Treesearch

    Adrienn Andersch; Iris Montague; Urs Buehlmann; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    2015-01-01

    U.S. hardwood sawmill log procurement practices are evolving because of the recent economic recession, market and supply chain shifts, and changing landowner objectives, among other factors. The objective of this study was to characterize the log procurement practices of hardwood sawmills and to characterize the role that log brokers play in supplying the sawmill...

  1. Economic incentives exist to support measures to reduce illegal logging

    Treesearch

    J.A. Turner; J. Buongiorno; A. Katz; S. Zhu; R. Li

    2008-01-01

    Three studies of the global economic implications of eliminating illegal logging are summarized. Processors of illegally sourced wood would lose from the elimination of illegal logging through high prices for logs and decreased production of wood products. Associated with these changes could be losses in employment and income. Beyond these losses to the processing...

  2. CT Imaging of Hardwood Logs for Lumber Production

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Pei Li; A. Lynn Abbott

    1996-01-01

    Hardwood sawmill operators need to improve the conversion of raw material (logs) into lumber. Internal log scanning provides detailed information that can aid log processors in improving lumber recovery. However, scanner data (i.e. tomographic images) need to be analyzed prior to presentation to saw operators. Automatic labeling of computer tomography (CT) images is...

  3. Is it time to revisit the log-sort yard?

    Treesearch

    John Dramm; Gerry Jackson

    2000-01-01

    Log-sort yards provide better utilization and marketing with improved value recovery of currently available timber resources in North America. Log-sort yards provide many services in marketing wood and fiber by concentrating, merchandising, manufacturing, sorting, and adding value to logs. Such operations supply forest products firms with desired raw materials, which...

  4. Utilization and cost of log production from animal loging operations

    Treesearch

    Suraj P. Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford; Robert B. Rummer; Mark Dubois

    2006-01-01

    Forest harvesting with animals is a labor-intensive operation. It is expensive to use machines on smaller woodlots, which require frequent moves if mechanically logged. So, small logging systems using animals may be more cost effective. In this study, work sampling was used for five animal logging operations in Alabama to measure productive and non-productive time...

  5. Financial and Economic Analysis of Reduced Impact Logging

    Treesearch

    Tom Holmes

    2016-01-01

    Concern regarding extensive damage to tropical forests resulting from logging increased dramatically after World War II when mechanized logging systems developed in industrialized countries were deployed in the tropics. As a consequence, tropical foresters began developing logging procedures that were more environmentally benign, and by the 1990s, these practices began...

  6. Interactive machine learning for postprocessing CT images of hardwood logs

    Treesearch

    Erol Sarigul; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns the nondestructive evaluation of hardwood logs through the analysis of computed tomography (CT) images. Several studies have shown that the commercial value of resulting boards can be increased substantially if log sawing strategies are chosen using prior knowledge of internal log defects. Although CT imaging offers a potential means of obtaining...

  7. Potential Pacific Rim demand for construction-grade softwood logs.

    Treesearch

    Donald F. Flora; Richard R. Vlosky

    1986-01-01

    Markets for small lower grade ("construction-grade"), softwood logs are projected to expand steadily through 1995. Log supplies will lag slightly behind demand until 1990, generating about a 10-percent increase in prices. Prices are expected to be level thereafter. United States exports of construction-grade logs are projected to increase 35 percent by 1990...

  8. Environmental effects of postfire logging: literature review and annotated bibliography.

    Treesearch

    James D. McIver; Lynn Starr

    2000-01-01

    The scientific literature on logging after wildfire is reviewed, with a focus on environmental effects of logging and removal of large woody structure. Rehabilitation, the practice of planting or seeding after logging, is not reviewed here. Several publications are cited that can be described as “commentaries,” intended to help frame the public debate. We review 21...

  9. Key Indicators of Successful Logging Jobs in the Northeast

    Treesearch

    Owen W. Herrick

    1976-01-01

    Uncertainty and inadequate information for prediction hinder attempts to judge the chances for success on logging jobs. In this study, variation in the success of commercial logging jobs in the Northeast was examined to relate the kinds of conditions present to the chances of logging being most successful under those conditions. Respondents rated half of the sample...

  10. Standing timber coefficients for Indiana walnut log production.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Edwin Kallio; John C. Callahan

    1969-01-01

    If the volume of walnut veneer logs and saw logs received at processing plants from Indiana forests is known, conversion factors developed in this paper can be used to determine how much timber was cut to provide these logs and the kinds of timber that were cut (sawtimber, cull trees, trees on nonforest land, etc.).

  11. A Loblolly Pine Management Guide: Managing Site Damage from Logging

    Treesearch

    W.H. McKee; G.E. Hatchell; A.E. Tiarks

    1985-01-01

    Serious damage to forest sites during logging can be avoided through careful planning of logging, preparation of the site for logging, and close supervision of the work.Losses in productivity caused by compaction can be largely restored by cultivation and fertilization.

  12. Development of regional stump-to-mill logging cost estimators

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras

    1989-01-01

    Planning logging operations requires estimating the logging costs for the sale or tract being harvested. Decisions need to be made on equipment selection and its application to terrain. In this paper a methodology is described that has been developed and implemented to solve the problem of accurately estimating logging costs by region. The methodology blends field time...

  13. Lumber values from computerized simulation of hardwood log sawing

    Treesearch

    D.B. Richards; W.K. Adkins; H. Hallock; E.H. Bulgrin

    1980-01-01

    Computer simulation sawing programs were used to study the sawing of mathematical models of hardwood logs by me live sawing and three 4-sided sawing methods. One of the 4-sided methods simulated "grade sawing" by sawing each successive board from the log face with the highest potential grade. Logs from 10 through 28 inches in diameter were sawn. In addition,...

  14. Intensifying the Group Member's Experience Using the Group Log.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valine, Warren J.

    1983-01-01

    Presents the use of a group log in which members analyze the content and process of each session using a suggested format. The log promotes dialogue between the leader and each group member and involves members more fully in the group process. Feedback indicates the log is valuable. (JAC)

  15. Why, What, and How to Log? Lessons from LISTEN

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostow, Jack; Beck, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to log tutorial interactions in comprehensive, longitudinal, fine-grained detail offers great potential for educational data mining--but what data is logged, and how, can facilitate or impede the realization of that potential. We propose guidelines gleaned over 15 years of logging, exploring, and analyzing millions of events from…

  16. A survey of animal-powered logging in Alabama

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Toms; Mark R. Dubois; John C. Bliss; John H. Wilhoit; Robert B. Rummer

    2001-01-01

    In a state with a very large, highly mechanized timber harvesting industry, animal-powered logging still occupies a niche in Alabama as a small-scale harvesting alternative. This article summarizes the results from a study that examined the extent of animal logging in Alabama. We investigated this topic by asking who is logging with animals, where are they working,...

  17. Defects in Hardwood Veneer Logs: Their Frequency and Importance

    Treesearch

    E.S. Harrar

    1954-01-01

    Most southern hardwood veneer and plywood plants have some method of classifying logs by grade to control the purchase price paid for logs bought on the open market. Such log-grading systems have been developed by experience and are dependent to a large extent upon the ability of the grader and his knowledge of veneer grades and yields required for the specific product...

  18. Sediment transport and soil disturbance after postfire logging.

    Treesearch

    James D. McIver

    2003-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable debate on the practice of postfire logging, in which burned forests are entered soon after fire to recover commercially valuable trees. Proponents of the practice argue that postfire logging is part of a 'restoration package' that can be used to control erosion (e.g., contour logging) and can help to mitigate costs of...

  19. Ultrafast CT scanning of an oak log for internal defects

    Treesearch

    Francis G. Wagner; Fred W. Taylor; Douglas S. Ladd; Charles W. McMillin; Fredrick L. Roder

    1989-01-01

    Detecting internal defects in sawlogs and veneer logs with computerized tomographic (CT) scanning is possible, but has been impractical due to the long scanning time required. This research investigated a new scanner able to acquire 34 cross-sectional log scans per second. This scanning rate translates to a linear log feed rate of 85 feet (25.91 m) per minute at one...

  20. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  1. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  2. Video compression via log polar mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1990-09-01

    A three stage process for compressing real time color imagery by factors in the range of 1600-to-i is proposed for remote driving'. The key is to match the resolution gradient of human vision and preserve only those cues important for driving. Some hardware components have been built and a research prototype is planned. Stage 1 is log polar mapping, which reduces peripheral image sampling resolution to match the peripheral gradient in human visual acuity. This can yield 25-to-i compression. Stage 2 partitions color and contrast into separate channels. This can yield 8-to-i compression. Stage 3 is conventional block data compression such as hybrid DCT/DPCM which can yield 8-to-i compression. The product of all three stages is i600-to-i data compression. The compressed signal can be transmitted over FM bands which do not require line-of-sight, greatly increasing the range of operation and reducing the topographic exposure of teleoperated vehicles. Since the compressed channel data contains the essential constituents of human visual perception, imagery reconstructed by inverting each of the three compression stages is perceived as complete, provided the operator's direction of gaze is at the center of the mapping. This can be achieved by eye-tracker feedback which steers the center of log polar mapping in the remote vehicle to match the teleoperator's direction of gaze.

  3. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-02-14

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

  4. Beyond Logging of Fingertip Actions: Analysis of Collaborative Learning Using Multiple Sources of Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avouris, N.; Fiotakis, G.; Kahrimanis, G.; Margaritis, M.; Komis, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we discuss key requirements for collecting behavioural data concerning technology-supported collaborative learning activities. It is argued that the common practice of analysis of computer generated log files of user interactions with software tools is not enough for building a thorough view of the activity. Instead, more…

  5. Rill erosion in burned and salvage logged western montane forests: Effects of logging equipment type, traffic level, and slash treatment

    Treesearch

    J. W. Wagenbrenner; P. R. Robichaud; R. E. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Following wildfires, forest managers often consider salvage logging burned trees to recover monetary value of timber, reduce fuel loads, or to meet other objectives. Relatively little is known about the cumulative hydrologic effects of wildfire and subsequent timber harvest using logging equipment. We used controlled rill experiments in logged and unlogged (control)...

  6. Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, A.; Dennis, B.; Van Eeckhout, E.

    1991-07-01

    The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geothermal reservoir in terms of possible additional drilling and future power plant design. The field activities focused on downhole measurements in four production wells (ZCQ-3, ZCQ-4, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6). The teams took measurements of the wells in both static (shut-in) and flowing conditions, using the high-temperature well logging tools developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two well logging missions weremore » conducted in the Zunil field. In October 1988 measurements were made in well ZCQ-3, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6. In December 1989 the second field operation logged ZCQ-4 and repeated logs in ZCQ-3. Both field operations included not only well logging but the collecting of numerous fluid samples from both thermal and nonthermal waters. 18 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  7. Opening the Black Box of Electronic Health: Collecting, Analyzing, and Interpreting Log Data

    PubMed Central

    Kelders, Saskia; Poel, Mannes; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette

    2017-01-01

    In electronic health (eHealth) research, limited insight has been obtained on process outcomes or how the use of technology has contributed to the users’ ability to have a healthier life, improved well-being, or activate new attitudes in their daily tasks. As a result, eHealth is often perceived as a black box. To open this black box of eHealth, methodologies must extend beyond the classic effect evaluations. The analyses of log data (anonymous records of real-time actions performed by each user) can provide continuous and objective insights into the actual usage of the technology. However, the possibilities of log data in eHealth research have not been exploited to their fullest extent. The aim of this paper is to describe how log data can be used to improve the evaluation and understand the use of eHealth technology with a broader approach than only descriptive statistics. This paper serves as a starting point for using log data analysis in eHealth research. Here, we describe what log data is and provide an overview of research questions to evaluate the system, the context, the users of a technology, as well as the underpinning theoretical constructs. We also explain the requirements for log data, the starting points for the data preparation, and methods for data collection. Finally, we describe methods for data analysis and draw a conclusion regarding the importance of the results for both scientific and practical applications. The analysis of log data can be of great value for opening the black box of eHealth. A deliberate log data analysis can give new insights into how the usage of the technology contributes to found effects and can thereby help to improve the persuasiveness and effectiveness of eHealth technology and the underpinning behavioral models. PMID:28784592

  8. Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

    2013-08-01

    The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Using instructional logs to identify quality in educational settings.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Brian; Jacob, Robin; Correnti, Richard

    2009-01-01

    When attempting to identify educational settings that are most effective in improving student achievement, classroom process (that is, the way in which a teacher interacts with his or her students) is a key feature of interest. Unfortunately, high-quality assessment of the student-teacher interaction occurs all too infrequently, despite the critical role that understanding and measuring such processes can play in school improvement. This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of two common approaches to studying these processes-direct classroom observation and annual surveys of teachers-and then describes the ways in which instructional logs can be used to overcome some of the limitations of these two approaches when gathering data on curriculum content and coverage. Classroom observations are expensive, require extensive training of raters to ensure consistency in the observations, and because of their expense generally cannot be conducted frequently enough to enable the researcher to generalize observational findings to the entire school year or illuminate the patterns of instructional change that occur across the school year. Annual surveys are less expensive but often suffer from self-report bias and the bias that occurs when teachers are asked to retrospectively report on their activities over the course of a single year. Instructional logs offer a valid, reliable, and relatively cost-effective alternative for collecting detailed information about classroom practice and can overcome some of the limitations of both observations and annual surveys.

  10. Parameter estimation and forecasting for multiplicative log-normal cascades.

    PubMed

    Leövey, Andrés E; Lux, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    We study the well-known multiplicative log-normal cascade process in which the multiplication of Gaussian and log normally distributed random variables yields time series with intermittent bursts of activity. Due to the nonstationarity of this process and the combinatorial nature of such a formalism, its parameters have been estimated mostly by fitting the numerical approximation of the associated non-Gaussian probability density function to empirical data, cf. Castaing et al. [Physica D 46, 177 (1990)]. More recently, alternative estimators based upon various moments have been proposed by Beck [Physica D 193, 195 (2004)] and Kiyono et al. [Phys. Rev. E 76, 041113 (2007)]. In this paper, we pursue this moment-based approach further and develop a more rigorous generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation procedure to cope with the documented difficulties of previous methodologies. We show that even under uncertainty about the actual number of cascade steps, our methodology yields very reliable results for the estimated intermittency parameter. Employing the Levinson-Durbin algorithm for best linear forecasts, we also show that estimated parameters can be used for forecasting the evolution of the turbulent flow. We compare forecasting results from the GMM and Kiyono et al.'s procedure via Monte Carlo simulations. We finally test the applicability of our approach by estimating the intermittency parameter and forecasting of volatility for a sample of financial data from stock and foreign exchange markets.

  11. Simulation Control Graphical User Interface Logging Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewling, Karl B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    One of the many tasks of my project was to revise the code of the Simulation Control Graphical User Interface (SIM GUI) to enable logging functionality to a file. I was also tasked with developing a script that directed the startup and initialization flow of the various LCS software components. This makes sure that a software component will not spin up until all the appropriate dependencies have been configured properly. Also I was able to assist hardware modelers in verifying the configuration of models after they have been upgraded to a new software version. I developed some code that analyzes the MDL files to determine if any error were generated due to the upgrade process. Another one of the projects assigned to me was supporting the End-to-End Hardware/Software Daily Tag-up meeting.

  12. Log-Linear Models for Gene Association

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianhua; Joshi, Adarsh; Johnson, Valen E.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a class of log-linear models for the detection of interactions in high-dimensional genomic data. This class of models leads to a Bayesian model selection algorithm that can be applied to data that have been reduced to contingency tables using ranks of observations within subjects, and discretization of these ranks within gene/network components. Many normalization issues associated with the analysis of genomic data are thereby avoided. A prior density based on Ewens’ sampling distribution is used to restrict the number of interacting components assigned high posterior probability, and the calculation of posterior model probabilities is expedited by approximations based on the likelihood ratio statistic. Simulation studies are used to evaluate the efficiency of the resulting algorithm for known interaction structures. Finally, the algorithm is validated in a microarray study for which it was possible to obtain biological confirmation of detected interactions. PMID:19655032

  13. Step-by-step thermal transformations of a new porous coordination polymer [(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} (Me{sub 2}mal{sup 2-}=dimethylmalonate): Thermal degradation to barium cuprate

    SciTech Connect

    Zauzolkova, Natalya, E-mail: zauzolkova@igic.ras.ru; Dobrokhotova, Zhanna; Lermontov, Anatoly

    The reactions of CuSO{sub 4}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O, dimethylmalonic acid and Ba(OH){sub 2}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (Cu: H{sub 2}Me{sub 2}mal: Ba=1: 2: 2) in aqueous and aqueous-ethanol solutions (H{sub 2}O: EtOH=1: 1) resulted in formation of 3D-porous coordination polymers [(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}({mu}-H{sub 2}O){sub 2}CuBa({mu}{sub 3}-Me{sub 2}mal)(Me{sub 2}mal)]{sub n} (1) and [({mu}-H{sub 2}O)CuBa({mu}{sub 3}-Me{sub 2}mal)({mu}{sub 4}-Me{sub 2}mal)]{sub n} (2), respectively. It has been shown that compound 2 was an intermediate in the thermal degradation of compound 1. Thorough studies of solid-state thermolysis of 1 and 2 allowed to detect formation of coordination polymer [CuBa({mu}{sub 4}-Me{sub 2}mal)({mu}{sub 5}-Me{sub 2}mal)]{sub n} (3), structure of which was determinedmore » by X-ray powder diffraction. It has been found that the channels in polymer 3 were accessible for guest molecules (MeOH). Theoretical estimation of methanol diffusion barrier was carried out. Complete solid-phase thermolysis of 1 and 2 leads to a mixture of BaCuO{sub 2}, BaCO{sub 3}, and CuO. Special conditions for obtaining of a crystalline phase of pure cubic BaCuO{sub 2} were determined. - Graphical abstract: Step-by-step transformation of new coordination polymer [(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} to [(H{sub 2}O)CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} and [CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} were performed. Dehydration of initial compound leads to structural changes of 12-membered ring fragment. All compounds have porous structure. The final product of thermal decomposition is crystalline phase of individual cubic BaCuO{sub 2}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New 3D-polymers [(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} and [(H{sub 2}O)CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis showed step-by-step transformations of [(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n}. Black

  14. Development of a glacially dominated shelf-slope-fan system in tectonically active southeast Alaska: Results of IODP Expedition 341 core-log-seismic integrated studies at glacial cycle resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, Sean; Jaeger, John; Mix, Alan; Swartz, John; Worthington, Lindsay; Reece, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Collision of the Yakutat microplate with North American formed the St. Elias Mountains in coastal Gulf of Alaska. While the tectonic driver for orogenesis has been ongoing since the Miocene, results from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 suggests that direct climatic perturbation of active orogenesis through glacial erosion is non-linear. Geophysical studies of the glaciated continental margin, slope, and adjacent deep-sea Surveyor Fan allow examination of the glaciated orogen from source to sink. Using high-resolution and crustal-scale seismic data and through comparison with other glaciated margins, we can identify key diagnostic seismic morphologies and facies indicative of glacial proximity and sediment routing. Expedition drilling results calibrated these images suggesting a timeline for initial advances of the Cordilleran ice sheet related glacial systems onto the shelf and a further timeline for the development of ice streams that reach the shelf edge. Comparisons can be made within this single margin between evolution of the tectonic-glacial system where erosion and sediment transport are occurring within a fold and thrust belt versus on a more stable shelf region. Onshore the Bering-Bagley glacial system in the west flows across the Yakataga fold and thrust belt, allowing examination of whether glacial erosion can cause tectonic feedbacks, whereas offshore the Bering-Bagley system interacts with the Pamplona Zone thrusts in a region of significant sediment accommodation. Results from Expedition 341 imply that timing of glacial advance to the shelf edge in this region may be driven by the necessity of filling up the accommodation through aggradation followed by progradation and thus is autogenic. In contrast the Malaspina-Hubbard glacial system to the east encountered significantly less accommodation and more directly responded to climatic forcing including showing outer shelf glacial occupation since the mid-Pleistocene transition-MPT to

  15. Lower expression of CADM1 and higher expression of MAL in Merkel cell carcinomas are associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus infection and better prognosis.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Takeshi; Matsushita, Michiko; Nonaka, Daisuke; Nagata, Keiko; Kato, Masako; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Murakami, Ichiro; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-02-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a clinically aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer; 80% of the cases are associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). We previously reported that MCPyV-negative MCCs have more irregular nuclei with abundant cytoplasm and significantly unfavorable outcomes than do MCPyV-positive MCCs. These results suggest that some cell adhesion or structural stabilization molecules are differently expressed depending on MCPyV infection status. Thus, we investigated the association of prognosis or MCPyV infection status in MCCs with cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1)/differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung protein 1 (DAL-1)/membrane protein, palmitoylated 3 (MPP3) tripartite complex and mal T-cell differentiation protein (MAL) expression, which play important roles in cell adhesion and oncogenesis and are related to cancer outcomes in various malignancies, to elucidate the role of these molecules. We analyzed the pathological and molecular characteristics of 26 MCPyV-positive and 15 MCPyV-negative MCCs. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that advanced age (hazard ratio [HR], 8.249; P = .007) and high CADM1 expression (HR, 5.214; P = .012) were significantly unfavorable overall survival parameters, whereas MCPyV infection (HR, 0.043, P < .001) and lower MAL expression (HR, 0.273; P = .018) were significantly favorable. On multivariate analysis, only MCPyV infection was significantly favorable for overall survival (HR, 0.04; P = .005). Hypermethylation of CADM1, DAL-1, and MAL promoters was detected in 1 of 18, 15 of 27, and 1 of 13 cases, respectively. Double immunostaining for cytokeratin 20 and CADM1, DAL-1, or MAL showed that nonneoplastic Merkel cells expressed DAL-1 and MAL but not CADM1. This study revealed that MCPyV-negative MCCs significantly expressed higher CADM1 and lower MAL than MCPyV-positive MCCs; these expression levels were markedly related to unfavorable outcomes. These data will give us important

  16. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    no name on report

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requestedmore » in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Document Log section of this report meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).« less

  17. Molecular characterization of multivalent bioconjugates by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALS)

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Jacob F.; Ashton, Randolph S.; Rode, Nikhil A.; Schaffer, David V.; Healy, Kevin E.

    2013-01-01

    The degree of substitution and valency of bioconjugate reaction products are often poorly judged or require multiple time- and product- consuming chemical characterization methods. These aspects become critical when analyzing and optimizing the potency of costly polyvalent bioactive conjugates. In this study, size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering was paired with refractive index detection and ultraviolet spectroscopy (SEC-MALS-RI-UV) to characterize the reaction efficiency, degree of substitution, and valency of the products of conjugation of either peptides or proteins to a biopolymer scaffold, i.e., hyaluronic acid (HyA). Molecular characterization was more complete compared to estimates from a protein quantification assay, and exploitation of this method led to more accurate deduction of the molecular structures of polymer bioconjugates. Information obtained using this technique can improve macromolecular engineering design principles and better understand multivalent macromolecular interactions in biological systems. PMID:22794081

  18. Emergency medicine clerkship encounter and procedure logging using handheld computers.

    PubMed

    Penciner, Rick; Siddiqui, Sanam; Lee, Shirley

    2007-08-01

    Tracking medical student clinical encounters is now an accreditation requirement of medical schools. The use of handheld computers for electronic logging is emerging as a strategy to achieve this. To evaluate the technical feasibility and student satisfaction of a novel electronic logging and feedback program using handheld computers in the emergency department. This was a survey study of fourth-year medical student satisfaction with the use of their handheld computers for electronic logging of patient encounters and procedures. The authors also included an analysis of this technology. Forty-six students participated in this pilot project, logging a total of 2,930 encounters. Students used the logs an average of 7.6 shifts per rotation, logging an average of 8.3 patients per shift. Twenty-nine students (63%) responded to the survey. Students generally found it easy to complete each encounter (69%) and easy to synchronize their handheld computer with the central server (83%). However, half the students (49%) never viewed the feedback Web site and most (79%) never reviewed their logs with their preceptors. Overall, only 17% found the logging program beneficial as a learning tool. Electronic logging by medical students during their emergency medicine clerkship has many potential benefits as a method to document clinical encounters and procedures performed. However, this study demonstrated poor compliance and dissatisfaction with the process. In order for electronic logging using handheld computers to be a beneficial educational tool for both learners and educators, obstacles to effective implementation need to be addressed.

  19. Thresholds of logging intensity to maintain tropical forest biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Sekercioğlu, Cağan Hakkı; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-08-18

    Primary tropical forests are lost at an alarming rate, and much of the remaining forest is being degraded by selective logging. Yet, the impacts of logging on biodiversity remain poorly understood, in part due to the seemingly conflicting findings of case studies: about as many studies have reported increases in biodiversity after selective logging as have reported decreases. Consequently, meta-analytical studies that treat selective logging as a uniform land use tend to conclude that logging has negligible effects on biodiversity. However, selectively logged forests might not all be the same. Through a pantropical meta-analysis and using an information-theoretic approach, we compared and tested alternative hypotheses for key predictors of the richness of tropical forest fauna in logged forest. We found that the species richness of invertebrates, amphibians, and mammals decreases as logging intensity increases and that this effect varies with taxonomic group and continental location. In particular, mammals and amphibians would suffer a halving of species richness at logging intensities of 38 m(3) ha(-1) and 63 m(3) ha(-1), respectively. Birds exhibit an opposing trend as their total species richness increases with logging intensity. An analysis of forest bird species, however, suggests that this pattern is largely due to an influx of habitat generalists into heavily logged areas while forest specialist species decline. Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the nuanced responses of species along a gradient of logging intensity, which could help inform evidence-based sustainable logging practices from the perspective of biodiversity conservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Comparison of Diarrheal Severity Scores in the MAL-ED Multisite Community-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gwenyth O.; Richard, Stephanie A.; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric R.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mduma, Estomih R.; Lima, Aldo A.; Bessong, Pascal; Jennifer, Mats Steffi; Hossain, Md. Iqbal; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Nyathi, Emanuel; Lima, Ila F.; Pascal, John; Soofi, Sajid; Ladaporn, Bodhidatta; Guerrant, Richard L.; Caulfield, Laura E.; Black, Robert E.; Kosek, Margaret N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: There is a lack of consensus on how to measure diarrheal severity. Within the context of a multisite, prospective cohort study, we evaluated the performance of a modified Vesikari score (MAL-ED), 2 previously published scores (Clark and CODA [a diarrheal severity score (Community DiarrheA) published by Lee et al]), and a modified definition of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) based on dysentery and health care worker diagnosed dehydration. Methods: Scores were built using maternally reported symptoms or fieldworker-reported clinical signs obtained during the first 7 days of a diarrheal episode. The association between these and the risk of hospitalization were tested using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Severity scores were also related to illness etiology, and the likelihood of the episode subsequently becoming prolonged or persistent. Results: Of 10,159 episodes from 1681 children, 143 (4.0%) resulted in hospitalization. The area under the curve of each score as a predictor of hospitalization was 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.81, 0.87) (Clark), 0.85 (0.82, 0.88) (MAL-ED), and 0.87 (0.84, 0.89) (CODA). Severity was also associated with etiology and episode duration. Although families were more likely to seek care for severe diarrhea, approximately half of severe cases never reached the health system. Conclusions: Community-based diarrheal severity scores are predictive of relevant child health outcomes. Because they require no assumptions about health care access or utilization, they are useful in refining estimates of the burden of diarrheal disease, in estimating the effect of disease control interventions, and in triaging children for referral in low- and middle-income countries in which the rates of morbidity and mortality after diarrhea remain high. PMID:27347723

  1. Epidemiology and Impact of Campylobacter Infection in Children in 8 Low-Resource Settings: Results From the MAL-ED Study.

    PubMed

    Amour, Caroline; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Rogawski, Elizabeth T; McGrath, Monica; Seidman, Jessica C; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Samie, Amidou; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Qureshi, Shahida; Hotwani, Aneeta; Babji, Sudhir; Trigoso, Dixner Rengifo; Lima, Aldo A M; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Shakoor, Sadia; Kang, Gagandeep; Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L; Lang, Dennis; Gottlieb, Michael; Houpt, Eric R; Platts-Mills, James A

    2016-11-01

     Enteropathogen infections have been associated with enteric dysfunction and impaired growth in children in low-resource settings. In a multisite birth cohort study (MAL-ED), we describe the epidemiology and impact of Campylobacter infection in the first 2 years of life.  Children were actively followed up until 24 months of age. Diarrheal and nondiarrheal stool samples were collected and tested by enzyme immunoassay for Campylobacter Stool and blood samples were assayed for markers of intestinal permeability and inflammation.  A total of 1892 children had 7601 diarrheal and 26 267 nondiarrheal stool samples tested for Campylobacter We describe a high prevalence of infection, with most children (n = 1606; 84.9%) having a Campylobacter-positive stool sample by 1 year of age. Factors associated with a reduced risk of Campylobacter detection included exclusive breastfeeding (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, .47-.67), treatment of drinking water (0.76; 0.70-0.83), access to an improved latrine (0.89; 0.82-0.97), and recent macrolide antibiotic use (0.68; 0.63-0.74). A high Campylobacter burden was associated with a lower length-for-age Z score at 24 months (-1.82; 95% confidence interval, -1.94 to -1.70) compared with a low burden (-1.49; -1.60 to -1.38). This association was robust to confounders and consistent across sites. Campylobacter infection was also associated with increased intestinal permeability and intestinal and systemic inflammation.  Campylobacter was prevalent across diverse settings and associated with growth shortfalls. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding, drinking water treatment, improved latrines, and targeted antibiotic treatment may reduce the burden of Campylobacter infection and improve growth in children in these settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  2. Epidemiology and Impact of Campylobacter Infection in Children in 8 Low-Resource Settings: Results From the MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Amour, Caroline; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; McGrath, Monica; Seidman, Jessica C.; McCormick, Benjamin J. J.; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Samie, Amidou; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Qureshi, Shahida; Hotwani, Aneeta; Babji, Sudhir; Trigoso, Dixner Rengifo; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Shakoor, Sadia; Kang, Gagandeep; Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L.; Lang, Dennis; Gottlieb, Michael; Houpt, Eric R.; Platts-Mills, James A.; Acosta, Angel Mendez; de Burga, Rosa Rios; Chavez, Cesar Banda; Flores, Julian Torres; Olotegui, Maribel Paredes; Pinedo, Silvia Rengifo; Salas, Mery Siguas; Trigoso, Dixner Rengifo; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; Ahmed, Imran; Alam, Didar; Ali, Asad; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Qureshi, Shahida; Rasheed, Muneera; Soofi, Sajid; Turab, Ali; Zaidi, Anita K.M.; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Mason, Carl J.; Babji, Sudhir; Bose, Anuradha; George, Ajila T.; Hariraju, Dinesh; Jennifer, M. Steffi; John, Sushil; Kaki, Shiny; Kang, Gagandeep; Karunakaran, Priyadarshani; Koshy, Beena; Lazarus, Robin P.; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Raghava, Mohan Venkata; Raju, Sophy; Ramachandran, Anup; Ramadas, Rakhi; Ramanujam, Karthikeyan; Rose, Anuradha; Roshan, Reeba; Sharma, Srujan L.; Sundaram, Shanmuga; Thomas, Rahul J.; Pan, William K.; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Carreon, J. Daniel; Charu, Vivek; Doan, Viyada; Graham, Jhanelle; Hoest, Christel; Knobler, Stacey; Lang, Dennis R.; McCormick, Benjamin J.J.; McGrath, Monica; Miller, Mark A.; Mohale, Archana; Nayyar, Gaurvika; Psaki, Stephanie; Rasmussen, Zeba; Richard, Stephanie A.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Wang, Vivian; Blank, Rebecca; Gottlieb, Michael; Tountas, Karen H.; Amour, Caroline; Bayyo, Eliwaza; Mduma, Estomih R.; Mvungi, Regisiana; Nshama, Rosemary; Pascal, John; Swema, Buliga Mujaga; Yarrot, Ladislaus; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A.M. Shamsir; Haque, Rashidul; Hossain, Iqbal; Islam, Munirul; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Mondal, Dinesh; Tofail, Fahmida; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Rita; Ulak, Manjeswori; Bauck, Aubrey; Black, Robert; Caulfield, Laura; Checkley, William; Kosek, Margaret N.; Lee, Gwenyth; Schulze, Kerry; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Ross, A. Catharine; Schaefer, Barbara; Simons, Suzanne; Pendergast, Laura; Abreu, Cláudia B.; Costa, Hilda; Di Moura, Alessandra; Filho, José Quirino; Havt, Alexandre; Leite, Álvaro M.; Lima, Aldo A.M.; Lima, Noélia L.; Lima, Ila F.; Maciel, Bruna L.L.; Medeiros, Pedro H.Q.S.; Moraes, Milena; Mota, Francisco S.; Oriá, Reinaldo B.; Quetz, Josiane; Soares, Alberto M.; Mota, Rosa M.S.; Patil, Crystal L.; Bessong, Pascal; Mahopo, Cloupas; Maphula, Angelina; Nyathi, Emanuel; Samie, Amidou; Barrett, Leah; Dillingham, Rebecca; Gratz, Jean; Guerrant, Richard L.; Houpt, Eric; Petri, William A.; Platts-Mills, James; Scharf, Rebecca; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Strand, Tor; Svensen, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background. Enteropathogen infections have been associated with enteric dysfunction and impaired growth in children in low-resource settings. In a multisite birth cohort study (MAL-ED), we describe the epidemiology and impact of Campylobacter infection in the first 2 years of life. Methods. Children were actively followed up until 24 months of age. Diarrheal and nondiarrheal stool samples were collected and tested by enzyme immunoassay for Campylobacter. Stool and blood samples were assayed for markers of intestinal permeability and inflammation. Results. A total of 1892 children had 7601 diarrheal and 26 267 nondiarrheal stool samples tested for Campylobacter. We describe a high prevalence of infection, with most children (n = 1606; 84.9%) having a Campylobacter-positive stool sample by 1 year of age. Factors associated with a reduced risk of Campylobacter detection included exclusive breastfeeding (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, .47–.67), treatment of drinking water (0.76; 0.70–0.83), access to an improved latrine (0.89; 0.82–0.97), and recent macrolide antibiotic use (0.68; 0.63–0.74). A high Campylobacter burden was associated with a lower length-for-age Z score at 24 months (−1.82; 95% confidence interval, −1.94 to −1.70) compared with a low burden (−1.49; −1.60 to −1.38). This association was robust to confounders and consistent across sites. Campylobacter infection was also associated with increased intestinal permeability and intestinal and systemic inflammation. Conclusions. Campylobacter was prevalent across diverse settings and associated with growth shortfalls. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding, drinking water treatment, improved latrines, and targeted antibiotic treatment may reduce the burden of Campylobacter infection and improve growth in children in these settings. PMID:27501842

  3. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic α and β diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging. PMID:25561669

  4. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-02-19

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic α and β diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Rill erosion in burned and salvage logged western montane forests: Effects of logging equipment type, traffic level, and slash treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; Brown, R. E.

    2016-10-01

    Following wildfires, forest managers often consider salvage logging burned trees to recover monetary value of timber, reduce fuel loads, or to meet other objectives. Relatively little is known about the cumulative hydrologic effects of wildfire and subsequent timber harvest using logging equipment. We used controlled rill experiments in logged and unlogged (control) forests burned at high severity in northern Montana, eastern Washington, and southern British Columbia to quantify rill overland flow and sediment production rates (fluxes) after ground-based salvage logging. We tested different types of logging equipment-feller-bunchers, tracked and wheeled skidders, and wheeled forwarders-as well as traffic levels and the addition of slash to skid trails as a best management practice. Rill experiments were done at each location in the first year after the fire and repeated in subsequent years. Logging was completed in the first or second post-fire year. We found that ground-based logging using heavy equipment compacted soil, reduced soil water repellency, and reduced vegetation cover. Vegetation recovery rates were slower in most logged areas than the controls. Runoff rates were higher in the skidder and forwarder plots than their respective controls in the Montana and Washington sites in the year that logging occurred, and the difference in runoff between the skidder and control plots at the British Columbia site was nearly significant (p = 0.089). Most of the significant increases in runoff in the logged plots persisted for subsequent years. The type of skidder, the addition of slash, and the amount of forwarder traffic did not significantly affect the runoff rates. Across the three sites, rill sediment fluxes were 5-1900% greater in logged plots than the controls in the year of logging, and the increases were significant for all logging treatments except the low use forwarder trails. There was no difference in the first-year sediment fluxes between the feller

  6. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use

    PubMed Central

    Rockwell, Cara A.; Guariguata, Manuel R.; Menton, Mary; Arroyo Quispe, Eriks; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Fernandez Silva, Harol; Jurado Rojas, Edwin Eduardo; Kohagura Arrunátegui, José Andrés Hideki; Meza Vega, Luis Alberto; Revilla Vera, Olivia; Valera Tito, Jonatan Frank; Villarroel Panduro, Betxy Tabita; Yucra Salas, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Although many examples of multiple-use forest management may be found in tropical smallholder systems, few studies provide empirical support for the integration of selective timber harvesting with non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) is one of the world’s most economically-important NTFP species extracted almost entirely from natural forests across the Amazon Basin. An obligate out-crosser, Brazil nut flowers are pollinated by large-bodied bees, a process resulting in a hard round fruit that takes up to 14 months to mature. As many smallholders turn to the financial security provided by timber, Brazil nut fruits are increasingly being harvested in logged forests. We tested the influence of tree and stand-level covariates (distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity) on total nut production at the individual tree level in five recently logged Brazil nut concessions covering about 4000 ha of forest in Madre de Dios, Peru. Our field team accompanied Brazil nut harvesters during the traditional harvest period (January-April 2012 and January-April 2013) in order to collect data on fruit production. Three hundred and ninety-nine (approximately 80%) of the 499 trees included in this study were at least 100 m from the nearest cut stump, suggesting that concessionaires avoid logging near adult Brazil nut trees. Yet even for those trees on the edge of logging gaps, distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity did not have a statistically significant influence on Brazil nut production at the applied logging intensities (typically 1–2 timber trees removed per ha). In one concession where at least 4 trees ha-1 were removed, however, the logging intensity covariate resulted in a marginally significant (0.09) P value, highlighting a potential risk for a drop in nut production at higher intensities. While we do not suggest that logging activities should be completely avoided in Brazil nut rich

  7. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Cara A; Guariguata, Manuel R; Menton, Mary; Arroyo Quispe, Eriks; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Fernandez Silva, Harol; Jurado Rojas, Edwin Eduardo; Kohagura Arrunátegui, José Andrés Hideki; Meza Vega, Luis Alberto; Revilla Vera, Olivia; Quenta Hancco, Roger; Valera Tito, Jonatan Frank; Villarroel Panduro, Betxy Tabita; Yucra Salas, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Although many examples of multiple-use forest management may be found in tropical smallholder systems, few studies provide empirical support for the integration of selective timber harvesting with non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) is one of the world's most economically-important NTFP species extracted almost entirely from natural forests across the Amazon Basin. An obligate out-crosser, Brazil nut flowers are pollinated by large-bodied bees, a process resulting in a hard round fruit that takes up to 14 months to mature. As many smallholders turn to the financial security provided by timber, Brazil nut fruits are increasingly being harvested in logged forests. We tested the influence of tree and stand-level covariates (distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity) on total nut production at the individual tree level in five recently logged Brazil nut concessions covering about 4000 ha of forest in Madre de Dios, Peru. Our field team accompanied Brazil nut harvesters during the traditional harvest period (January-April 2012 and January-April 2013) in order to collect data on fruit production. Three hundred and ninety-nine (approximately 80%) of the 499 trees included in this study were at least 100 m from the nearest cut stump, suggesting that concessionaires avoid logging near adult Brazil nut trees. Yet even for those trees on the edge of logging gaps, distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity did not have a statistically significant influence on Brazil nut production at the applied logging intensities (typically 1-2 timber trees removed per ha). In one concession where at least 4 trees ha-1 were removed, however, the logging intensity covariate resulted in a marginally significant (0.09) P value, highlighting a potential risk for a drop in nut production at higher intensities. While we do not suggest that logging activities should be completely avoided in Brazil nut rich

  8. Color images of Kansas subsurface geology from well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, D.R.; Doveton, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Modern wireline log combinations give highly diagnostic information that goes beyond the basic shale content, pore volume, and fluid saturation of older logs. Pattern recognition of geology from logs is made conventionally through either the examination of log overlays or log crossplots. Both methods can be combined through the use of color as a medium of information by setting the three color primaries of blue, green, and red light as axes of three dimensional color space. Multiple log readings of zones are rendered as composite color mixtures which, when plotted sequentially with depth, show lithological successions in a striking manner. The method is extremely simple to program and display on a color monitor. Illustrative examples are described from the Kansas subsurface. ?? 1986.

  9. MCNP capabilities for nuclear well logging calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, R.A.; Little, R.C.; Briesmeister, J.F.

    The Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) consists of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes and data libraries. This paper discusses how the general-purpose continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP ({und M}onte {und C}arlo {und n}eutron {und p}hoton), part of the LARTCS, provides a computational predictive capability for many applications of interest to the nuclear well logging community. The generalized three-dimensional geometry of MCNP is well suited for borehole-tool models. SABRINA, another component of the LARTCS, is a graphics code that can be used to interactively create a complex MCNP geometry. Users can define many source and tallymore » characteristics with standard MCNP features. The time-dependent capability of the code is essential when modeling pulsed sources. Problems with neutrons, photons, and electrons as either single particle or coupled particles can be calculated with MCNP. The physics of neutron and photon transport and interactions is modeled in detail using the latest available cross-section data.« less

  10. Acoustic reflection log in transversely isotropic formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronquillo Jarillo, G.; Markova, I.; Markov, M.

    2018-01-01

    We have calculated the waveforms of sonic reflection logging for a fluid-filled borehole located in a transversely isotropic rock. Calculations have been performed for an acoustic impulse source with the characteristic frequency of tens of kilohertz that is considerably less than the frequencies of acoustic borehole imaging tools. It is assumed that the borehole axis coincides with the axis of symmetry of the transversely isotropic rock. It was shown that the reflected wave was excited most efficiently at resonant frequencies. These frequencies are close to the frequencies of oscillations of a fluid column located in an absolutely rigid hollow cylinder. We have shown that the acoustic reverberation is controlled by the acoustic impedance of the rock Z = Vphρs for fixed parameters of the borehole fluid, where Vph is the velocity of horizontally propagating P-wave; ρs is the rock density. The methods of waveform processing to determine the parameters characterizing the reflected wave have been discussed.

  11. Armored instrumentation cable for geothermal well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.; Johnson, J.; Todd, B.

    1981-01-01

    Multiconductor armored well-logging cable is used extensively by the oil and natural gas industry to lower various instruments used to measure the geological and geophysical parameters into deep wellbores. Advanced technology in oil-well drilling makes it possible to achieve borehole depths of 9 km (30,000 ft). The higher temperatures in these deeper boreholes demand advancements in the design and manufacturing of wireline cable and in the electrical insulating and armoring materials used as integral components. If geothermal energy is proved an abundant economic resource, drilling temperatures approaching and exceeding 300/sup 0/C will become commonplace. The adaptation of teflons as electricalmore » insulating material permitted use of armored cable in geothermal wellbores where temperatures are slightly in excess of 200/sup 0/C, and where the concentrations of corrosive minerals and gases are high. Teflon materials presently used in wireline cables, however, are not capable of continuous operation at the anticipated higher temperatures.« less

  12. Post-wildfire logging hinders regeneration and increases fire risk.

    PubMed

    Donato, D C; Fontaine, J B; Campbell, J L; Robinson, W D; Kauffman, J B; Law, B E

    2006-01-20

    We present data from a study of early conifer regeneration and fuel loads after the 2002 Biscuit Fire, Oregon, USA, with and without postfire logging. Natural conifer regeneration was abundant after the high-severity fire. Postfire logging reduced median regeneration density by 71%, significantly increased downed woody fuels, and thus increased short-term fire risk. Additional reduction of fuels is necessary for effective mitigation of fire risk. Postfire logging can be counterproductive to the goals of forest regeneration and fuel reduction.

  13. Erosion associated with cable and tractor logging in northwestern California

    Treesearch

    R. M. Rice; P. A. Datzman

    1981-01-01

    Abstract - Erosion and site conditions were measured at 102 logged plots in northwestern California. Erosion averaged 26.8 m 3 /ha. A log-normal distribution was a better fit to the data. The antilog of the mean of the logarithms of erosion was 3.2 m 3 /ha. The Coast District Erosion Hazard Rating was a poor predictor of erosion related to logging. In a new equation...

  14. Potential advantages of curve sawing non-straight hardwood logs

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    2007-01-01

    Curve sawing is not new to the softwood industry. Softwood sawmill managers think about how fast they can push logs through their sawmill to maximize the yield of 1x and 2x lumber. Curve sawing helps mills maximize yield when sawing non-straight logs. Hardwood sawmill managers don’t want to push logs through their sawmills, because they want to maximize lumber value...

  15. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank to maintain a Fair Housing Inquiry/Application Log (“Log”), based upon, but not limited to, one or more of the...

  16. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank to maintain a Fair Housing Inquiry/Application Log (“Log”), based upon, but not limited to, one or more of the...

  17. Manufacturing Hardwood Dimension Products Directly from Logs: Potential Opportunities

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Wenjie Lin; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    When a hardwood log is sawn into lumber, over 16 percent of the volume is converted to sawdust. Furthermore, 12 percent of the log is converted to slabs and 17 percent is converted to edging and trimming pieces, all of which are chipped. Hence, less than 55 percent of the log is actually converted to lumber. Lumber must meet the requirements of specific NHLA grades and...

  18. Cost of skid roads for arch logging in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    George R., Jr. Trimble; Carl R. Barr

    1960-01-01

    In the mountain hardwood country of the northern Appalachians, tree-length skidding with tractor and arch has proved to be economical logging. One essential part of this type of logging is that tree-length logs are winched to the skid roads: tractor and arch do not run around through the woods. Winching distance is commonly 200 to 300 feet; and occasionally an extra...

  19. The presence and nature of ellipticity in Appalachian hardwood logs

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas; John S. Stanovick; Deborah Conner

    2017-01-01

    The ellipticity of hardwood logs is most often observed and measured from either end of a log. However, due to the nature of hardwood tree growth and bucking practices, the assessment of ellipticity in thir manner may not be accurate. Trees grown on hillsides often develop supporting wood that gives the first few feet of the  log butt a significant degree of...

  20. Certified and uncertified logging concessions compared in Gabon: changes in stand structure, tree species, and biomass.

    PubMed

    Medjibe, V P; Putz, Francis E; Romero, Claudia

    2013-03-01

    Forest management certification is assumed to promote sustainable forest management, but there is little field-based evidence to support this claim. To help fill this gap, we compared a Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)-certified with an adjacent uncertified, conventionally logged concession (CL) in Gabon on the basis of logging damage, above-ground biomass (AGB), and tree species diversity and composition. Before logging, we marked, mapped, and measured all trees >10 cm dbh in 20 and twelve 1-ha permanent plots in the FSC and CL areas, respectively. Soil and tree damage due to felling, skidding, and road-related activities was then assessed 2-3 months after the 508 ha FSC study area and the 200 ha CL study area were selectively logged at respective intensities of 5.7 m(3)/ha (0.39 trees/ha) and 11.4 m(3)/ha (0.76 trees/ha). For each tree felled, averages of 9.1 and 20.9 other trees were damaged in the FSC and CL plots, respectively; when expressed as the impacts per timber volume extracted, the values did not differ between the two treatments. Skid trails covered 2.9 % more of the CL surface, but skid trail length per unit timber volume extracted was not greater. Logging roads were wider in the CL than FSC site and disturbed 4.7 % more of the surface. Overall, logging caused declines in AGB of 7.1 and 13.4 % at the FSC and CL sites, respectively. Changes in tree species composition were small but greater for the CL site. Based on these findings and in light of the pseudoreplicated study design with less-than perfect counterfactual, we cautiously conclude that certification yields environmental benefits even after accounting for differences in logging intensities.

  1. Landscape-scale changes in forest canopy structure across a partially logged tropical peat swamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedeux, B. M. M.; Coomes, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Forest canopy structure is strongly influenced by environmental factors and disturbance, and in turn influences key ecosystem processes including productivity, evapotranspiration and habitat availability. In tropical forests increasingly modified by human activities, the interplay between environmental factors and disturbance legacies on forest canopy structure across landscapes is practically unexplored. We used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data to measure the canopy of old-growth and selectively logged peat swamp forest across a peat dome in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, and quantified how canopy structure metrics varied with peat depth and under logging. Several million canopy gaps in different height cross-sections of the canopy were measured in 100 plots of 1 km2 spanning the peat dome, allowing us to describe canopy structure with seven metrics. Old-growth forest became shorter and had simpler vertical canopy profiles on deeper peat, consistent with previous work linking deep peat to stunted tree growth. Gap size frequency distributions (GSFDs) indicated fewer and smaller canopy gaps on the deeper peat (i.e. the scaling exponent of Pareto functions increased from 1.76 to 3.76 with peat depth). Areas subjected to concessionary logging until 2000, and illegal logging since then, had the same canopy top height as old-growth forest, indicating the persistence of some large trees, but mean canopy height was significantly reduced. With logging, the total area of canopy gaps increased and the GSFD scaling exponent was reduced. Logging effects were most evident on the deepest peat, where nutrient depletion and waterlogged conditions restrain tree growth and recovery. A tight relationship exists between canopy structure and peat depth gradient within the old-growth tropical peat swamp forest. This relationship breaks down after selective logging, with canopy structural recovery, as observed by ALS, modulated by environmental conditions. These findings improve our

  2. Effects of postfire salvage logging on deadwood-associated beetles.

    PubMed

    Cobb, T P; Morissette, J L; Jacobs, J M; Koivula, M J; Spence, J R; Langor, D W

    2011-02-01

    In Canada and the United States pressure to recoup financial costs of wildfire by harvesting burned timber is increasing, despite insufficient understanding of the ecological consequences of postfire salvage logging. We compared the species richness and composition of deadwood-associated beetle assemblages among undisturbed, recently burned, logged, and salvage-logged, boreal, mixed-wood stands. Species richness was lowest in salvage-logged stands, largely due to a negative effect of harvesting on the occurrence of wood- and bark-boring species. In comparison with undisturbed stands, the combination of wildfire and logging in salvage-logged stands had a greater effect on species composition than either disturbance alone. Strong differences in species composition among stand treatments were linked to differences in quantity and quality (e.g., decay stage) of coarse woody debris. We found that the effects of wildfire and logging on deadwood-associated beetles were synergistic, such that the effects of postfire salvage logging could not be predicted reliably on the basis of data on either disturbance alone. Thus, increases in salvage logging of burned forests may have serious negative consequences for deadwood-associated beetles and their ecological functions in early postfire successional forests. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Applying the log-normal distribution to target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, Gerald C.

    1992-09-01

    Holst and Pickard experimentally determined that MRT responses tend to follow a log-normal distribution. The log normal distribution appeared reasonable because nearly all visual psychological data is plotted on a logarithmic scale. It has the additional advantage that it is bounded to positive values; an important consideration since probability of detection is often plotted in linear coordinates. Review of published data suggests that the log-normal distribution may have universal applicability. Specifically, the log-normal distribution obtained from MRT tests appears to fit the target transfer function and the probability of detection of rectangular targets.

  4. 7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING WEST FROM POWERHOUSE ROOF. TRANSFORMER SHED IN FOREGROUND. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  5. Effects of past logging and grazing on understory plant communities in a montane Colorado forest

    Treesearch

    Paula J. Fornwalt; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Laurie S. Huckaby

    2009-01-01

    Throughout Pinus ponderosa-Pseudotsuga menziesii forests of the southern Colorado Front Range, USA, intense logging and domestic grazing began at the time of Euro-American settlement in the late 1800s and continued until the early 1900s. We investigated the long-term impacts of these settlement-era activities on understory plant...

  6. Teacher Logs: A Tool for Gaining a Comprehensive Understanding of Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennie, Elizabeth J.; Charles, Karen J.; Rice, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    Examining repeated classroom encounters over time provides a comprehensive picture of activities. Studies of instructional practices in classrooms have traditionally relied on two methods: classroom observations, which are expensive, and surveys, which are limited in scope and accuracy. Teacher logs provide a "real-time" method for…

  7. Utility of remotely sensed imagery for assessing the impact of salvage logging after forest fires

    Treesearch

    Sarah A. Lewis; Peter R. Robichaud; Andrew T. Hudak; Brian Austin; Robert J. Liebermann

    2012-01-01

    Remotely sensed imagery provides a useful tool for land managers to assess the extent and severity of post-wildfire salvage logging disturbance. This investigation uses high resolution QuickBird and National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery to map soil exposure after ground-based salvage operations. Three wildfires with varying post-fire salvage activities...

  8. A Clustering Methodology of Web Log Data for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valsamidis, Stavros; Kontogiannis, Sotirios; Kazanidis, Ioannis; Theodosiou, Theodosios; Karakos, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    Learning Management Systems (LMS) collect large amounts of data. Data mining techniques can be applied to analyse their web data log files. The instructors may use this data for assessing and measuring their courses. In this respect, we have proposed a methodology for analysing LMS courses and students' activity. This methodology uses a Markov…

  9. Are Learning Logs Related to Procrastination? From the Viewpoint of Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Masanori; Oi, Misato; Konomi, Shin'ichi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between self-regulated learning (SRL) awareness, time-management awareness, learning behaviors (report submission), and learning performance. Psychometric data and learning logs for both in-class and out-of-class activities were collected in the lecture course, and their relationships were analyzed using…

  10. Logging Options to Minimize Soil Disturbance in the Northern Lake States

    Treesearch

    Douglas M. Stone

    2002-01-01

    Forest harvesting is likely to have greater impacts on site productivity than any other activity during the rotation. We determined effects of commercial, winter-logging of four aspen-dominated stands on site disturbance and development of regeneration on clay soils in western Upper Michigan. A large skidder caused deep rutting on 20% of a site in a thinning that...

  11. The Flux of Carbon from Selective Logging, Fire, and Regrowth in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    The major goal of this work was to develop a spatial, process-based model (CARLUC) that would calculate sources and sinks of carbon from changes in land use, including logging and fire. The work also included Landsat data, together with fieldwork, to investigate fire and logging in three different forest types within Brazilian Amazonia. Results from these three activities (modeling, fieldwork, and remote sensing) are described, individually, below. The work and some of the personnel overlapped with research carried out by Dr. Daniel Nepstad's LBA team, and thus some of the findings are also reported in his summaries.

  12. Little effects of reduced-impact logging on insect communities in eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Denis Silva; Calvão, Lenize Batista; de Assis Montag, Luciano Fogaça; Juen, Leandro; De Marco, Paulo

    2016-07-01

    Selective logging has become a major source of threats to tropical forest, bringing challenges for both ecologists and managers to develop low-impact forestry. Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is a prominent activity accounting for such forestry practices to prevent strong forest disturbances. Our aims were to evaluate the effects of RIL on insect communities of forested streams from Eastern Amazon and to test the hypothesis of negative effects of RIL on species richness, abundance, and functional feeding groups of aquatic insect assemblages. Neither of the evaluated metrics of the studied assemblages were negatively affected by RIL. Environmental metrics, such as substrate heterogeneity, woody canopy cover, and hill slope height, varied more among RIL streams than in reference streams, indicating a gradient according to logging impacts, and are suitable candidates to monitor RIL impacts in Amazonian streams. In addition, the PHI index also varied among REF and RIL, according to age class and year of logging, which could reflect trends to recover the forest structure after logging in a time frame of only 10 years. We conclude that RIL impacts have not had detrimental impacts on insect communities, but have changed little of the environmental conditions, especially of the riparian vegetation around streams.

  13. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives. PMID:27355041

  14. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives.

  15. Parameter estimation and forecasting for multiplicative log-normal cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leövey, Andrés E.; Lux, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    We study the well-known multiplicative log-normal cascade process in which the multiplication of Gaussian and log normally distributed random variables yields time series with intermittent bursts of activity. Due to the nonstationarity of this process and the combinatorial nature of such a formalism, its parameters have been estimated mostly by fitting the numerical approximation of the associated non-Gaussian probability density function to empirical data, cf. Castaing [Physica DPDNPDT0167-278910.1016/0167-2789(90)90035-N 46, 177 (1990)]. More recently, alternative estimators based upon various moments have been proposed by Beck [Physica DPDNPDT0167-278910.1016/j.physd.2004.01.020 193, 195 (2004)] and Kiyono [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.76.041113 76, 041113 (2007)]. In this paper, we pursue this moment-based approach further and develop a more rigorous generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation procedure to cope with the documented difficulties of previous methodologies. We show that even under uncertainty about the actual number of cascade steps, our methodology yields very reliable results for the estimated intermittency parameter. Employing the Levinson-Durbin algorithm for best linear forecasts, we also show that estimated parameters can be used for forecasting the evolution of the turbulent flow. We compare forecasting results from the GMM and Kiyono 's procedure via Monte Carlo simulations. We finally test the applicability of our approach by estimating the intermittency parameter and forecasting of volatility for a sample of financial data from stock and foreign exchange markets.

  16. Malonate-containing manganese(III) complexes: synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of AsPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Fernando S; Kerbellec, Nicolas; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2006-02-06

    The novel manganese(III) complexes PPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2] (1) and AsPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2] (2) (PPh4+ = tetraphenylphosphonium cation, AsPh4+ = tetraphenylarsonium cation, and H2mal = malonic acid) have been prepared, and the structure of 2 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. 2 is a mononuclear complex whose structure is made up of trans-diaquabis(malonato)manganate(III) units and tetraphenylarsonium cations. Two crystallographically independent manganese(III) ions (Mn(1) and Mn(2)) occur in 2 that exhibit elongated octahedral surroundings with four oxygen atoms from two bidentate malonate groups in equatorial positions (Mn(1)-O = 1.923(6) and 1.9328(6) A and Mn(2)-O = 1.894(6) and 1.925(6) A) and two trans-coordinated water molecules in the axial sites (Mn(1)-Ow = 2.245(6) A and Mn(2)-Ow = 2.268(6) A). The [Mn(mal)2(H2O)2]- units are linked through hydrogen bonds involving the free malonate-oxygen atoms and the coordinated water molecules to yield a quasi-square-type anionic layer growing in the ab plane. The shortest intralayer metal-metal separations are 7.1557(7) and 7.1526(7) A (through the edges of the square). The anionic sheets are separated from each other by layers of AsPh4+ where sextuple- and double-phenyl embraces occur. The magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 in the temperature range 1.9-290 K reveals the occurrence of weak intralayer ferromagnetic interactions (J = +0.081(1) (1) and +0.072(2) cm(-1) (2)). These values are compared to those of the weak antiferromagnetic coupling [J = -0.19(1) cm(-1)], which is observed in the chain compound K2[Mn(mal)2(MeOH)2][Mn(mal)2] (3), where the exchange pathway involves the carboxyate-malonate bridge in the anti-syn conformation. The structure of 3 was reported elsewhere. Theoretical calculations on fragment models of 2 and 3 were performed to analyze and substantiate both the nature and magnitude of the magnetic couplings observed.

  17. First successful reduction of clinical allergenicity of food by genetic modification: Mal d 1-silenced apples cause fewer allergy symptoms than the wild-type cultivar.

    PubMed

    Dubois, A E J; Pagliarani, G; Brouwer, R M; Kollen, B J; Dragsted, L O; Eriksen, F D; Callesen, O; Gilissen, L J W J; Krens, F A; Visser, R G F; Smulders, M J M; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Flokstra-de Blok, B J; van de Weg, W E

    2015-11-01

    Genetic modification of allergenic foods such as apple has the potential to reduce their clinical allergenicity, but this has never been studied by oral challenges in allergic individuals. We performed oral food challenges in 21 apple-allergic individuals with Elstar apples which had undergone gene silencing of the major allergen of apple, Mal d 1, by RNA interference. Downregulation of Mal d 1 gene expression in the apples was verified by qRT-PCR. Clinical responses to the genetically modified apples were compared to those seen with the wild-type Elstar using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Gene silencing produced two genetically modified apple lines expressing Mal d 1.02 and other Mal d 1 gene mRNA levels which were extensively downregulated, that is only 0.1-16.4% (e-DR1) and 0.2-9.9% (e-DR2) of those of the wild-type Elstar, respectively. Challenges with these downregulated apple lines produced significantly less intense maximal symptoms to the first dose (Vmax1) than with Elstar (Vmax1 Elstar 3.0 mm vs 0.0 mm for e-DR1, P = 0.017 and 0.0 mm for e-DR2, P = 0.043), as well as significantly less intense mean symptoms per dose (meanV/d) than with Elstar (meanV/d Elstar 2.2 mm vs 0.2 mm for e-DR1, P = 0.017 and 0.0 mm for e-DR2, P = 0.043). Only one subject (5%) remained symptom-free when challenged with the Elstar apple, whereas 43% did so with e-DR1 and 63% with e-DR2. These data show that mRNA silencing of Mal d 1 results in a marked reduction of Mal d 1 gene expression in the fruit and reduction of symptoms when these apples are ingested by allergic subjects. Approximately half of the subjects developed no symptoms whatsoever, and virtually all subjects wished to consume the apple again in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for calendar year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, Deborah L.

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requestedmore » in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Records are not required to be submitted to EPA and are not considered to be part of the Annual Document Log, but are included to provide the complete disposition history or status of all PCB activities during the year. The Annual Document Log section of this report (Section 2.0) meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section (Section 3.0) meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).« less

  19. Observations from borehole dilution logging experiments in fractured crystalline rock under variable hydraulic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.; Anderson, Alton; Williams, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying hydraulically active fractures in low permeability, crystalline-bedrock aquifers requires a variety of geophysical and hydrogeophysical borehole tools and approaches. One such approach is Single Borehole Dilution Tests (SBDT), which in some low flow cases have been shown to provide greater resolution of borehole flow than other logging procedures, such as vertical differential Heat Pulse Flowmeter (HPFM) logging. Because the tools used in SBDT collect continuous profiles of water quality or dye changes, they can identify horizontal flow zones and vertical flow. We used SBDT with a food grade blue dye as a tracer and dual photometer-nephelometer measurements to identify low flow zones.SBDT were conducted at seven wells with open boreholes (exceeding 300 ft). At most of the wells HPFM logs were also collected. The seven wells are set in low-permeability, fractured granite and gneiss rocks underlying a former tetrachloroeythylene (PCE) source area at the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site in Milford, NH. Time series SBDT logs were collected at each of the seven wells under three distinct hydraulic conditions: (1) ambient conditions prior to a pump test at an adjacent well, (2) mid test, after 2-3 days of the start of the pump test, and (3) at the end of the test, after 8-9 days of the pump test. None of the SBDT were conducted under pumping conditions in the logged well. For each condition, wells were initially passively spiked with blue dye once and subsequent time series measurements were made.Measurement accuracy and precision of the photometer tool is important in SBDT when attempting to detect low rates of borehole flow. Tests indicate that under ambient conditions, none of the wells had detectable flow as measured with HPFM logging. With SBDT, 4 of the 7 showed the presence of some very low flow. None of 5 (2 of the 7 wells initially logged with HPFM under ambient conditions were not re-logged) wells logged with the HPFM during the pump test had

  20. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log and...

  1. Log-Multiplicative Association Models as Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carolyn J.; Yu, Hsiu-Ting

    2007-01-01

    Log-multiplicative association (LMA) models, which are special cases of log-linear models, have interpretations in terms of latent continuous variables. Two theoretical derivations of LMA models based on item response theory (IRT) arguments are presented. First, we show that Anderson and colleagues (Anderson & Vermunt, 2000; Anderson & Bockenholt,…

  2. Robust Spatial Autoregressive Modeling for Hardwood Log Inspection

    Treesearch

    Dongping Zhu; A.A. Beex

    1994-01-01

    We explore the application of a stochastic texture modeling method toward a machine vision system for log inspection in the forest products industry. This machine vision system uses computerized tomography (CT) imaging to locate and identify internal defects in hardwood logs. The application of CT to such industrial vision problems requires efficient and robust image...

  3. Teaching an Old Log New Tricks with Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Krista; Puri, Colin; Mahler, Paul; Dukatz, Carl

    2014-03-01

    To most people, the log file would not be considered an exciting area in technology today. However, these relatively benign, slowly growing data sources can drive large business transformations when combined with modern-day analytics. Accenture Technology Labs has built a new framework that helps to expand existing vendor solutions to create new methods of gaining insights from these benevolent information springs. This framework provides a systematic and effective machine-learning mechanism to understand, analyze, and visualize heterogeneous log files. These techniques enable an automated approach to analyzing log content in real time, learning relevant behaviors, and creating actionable insights applicable in traditionally reactive situations. Using this approach, companies can now tap into a wealth of knowledge residing in log file data that is currently being collected but underutilized because of its overwhelming variety and volume. By using log files as an important data input into the larger enterprise data supply chain, businesses have the opportunity to enhance their current operational log management solution and generate entirely new business insights-no longer limited to the realm of reactive IT management, but extending from proactive product improvement to defense from attacks. As we will discuss, this solution has immediate relevance in the telecommunications and security industries. However, the most forward-looking companies can take it even further. How? By thinking beyond the log file and applying the same machine-learning framework to other log file use cases (including logistics, social media, and consumer behavior) and any other transactional data source.

  4. Veneer-log production and receipts, North Central Region, 1974.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Jerold T. Hahn

    1976-01-01

    Shows 1974 veneer-log production and receipts by species in the Lake States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) and in the Central States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri). Comparisons are made with similar data for 1972. Includes tables showing veneer-log production and receipts (for selected years) since 1946 in the Lake States and since 1956 in the Central...

  5. Veneer-log production and receipts, North Central Region, 1976.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Jerold T. Hahn

    1978-01-01

    Shows 1976 veneer-log production and receipts by species in the Lake States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) and in the Central States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri). Comparisons are made with similar data for 1974. Includes tables showing veneer-log production and receipts (for selected years) since 1946 in the Lake States and since 1956 in the Central...

  6. Landslides after clearcut logging in a coast redwood forest

    Treesearch

    Leslie M. Reid; Elizabeth T. Keppeler

    2012-01-01

    Landslides have been mapped at least annually in the 473 ha North Fork Caspar Creek watershed since 1985, allowing evaluation of landslide distribution, characteristics, and rates associated with second-entry partial clearcut logging of 1989 to 1992. Comparison of sliding rates in logged and forested areas shows no appreciable difference for streamside slides (size...

  7. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Gregory P.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Keller, Michael; Knapp, David E.; Silva, José N. M.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest. Across 2,030,637 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2004, at least 76% of all harvest practices resulted in high levels of canopy damage sufficient to leave forests susceptible to drought and fire. We found that 16 ± 1% of selectively logged areas were deforested within 1 year of logging, with a subsequent annual deforestation rate of 5.4% for 4 years after timber harvests. Nearly all logging occurred within 25 km of main roads, and within that area, the probability of deforestation for a logged forest was up to four times greater than for unlogged forests. In combination, our results show that logging in the Brazilian Amazon is dominated by highly damaging operations, often followed rapidly by deforestation decades before forests can recover sufficiently to produce timber for a second harvest. Under the management regimes in effect at the time of our study in the Brazilian Amazon, selective logging would not be sustained. PMID:16901980

  8. Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

    2014-01-01

    A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,…

  9. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported...

  10. Biased estimation of forest log characteristics using intersect diameters

    Treesearch

    Lisa J. Bate; Torolf R. Torgersen; Michael J. Wisdom; Edward O. Garton

    2009-01-01

    Logs are an important structural feature of forest ecosystems, and their abundance affects many resources and forest processes, including fire regimes, soil productivity, silviculture, carbon cycling, and wildlife habitat. Consequently, logs are often sampled to estimate their frequency, percent cover, volume, and weight. The line-intersect method (LIM) is one of the...

  11. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging...

  12. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging...

  13. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging...

  14. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging...

  15. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging...

  16. Lumber grade recoverey from Hawaii-grown robusta Eucalyptus logs

    Treesearch

    Roger G. Skolmen

    1970-01-01

    In part to supplement meager data on lumber grade yield of Hawaii-grown timber, 30 robusta eucalyptus logs were shipped to a Michigan sawmill for processing. The logs were from 12 trees in three different stands. The lumber produced was graded according to National Hardwood Lumber Association standards. The sample was too small to provide a basis for predicting grade...

  17. Logging debris matters: better soil, fewer invasive plants

    Treesearch

    John Kirkland; Timoth B. Harrington; David H. Peter; Robert A. Slesak; Stephen H. Schoenholtz

    2012-01-01

    The logging debris that remains after timber harvest traditionally has been seen as a nuisance. It can make subsequent tree planting more difficult and become fuel for wildfire. It is commonly piled, burned, or taken off site. Logging debris, however, contains significant amounts of carbon and nitrogen—elements critical to soil productivity. Its physical presence in...

  18. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Treesearch

    Gregory P. Asner; Eben N. Broadbent; Paulo J. C. Oliveira; Michael Keller; David E. Knapp; Jose N. M. Silva

    2006-01-01

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest....

  19. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Knapp, David E; Silva, José N M

    2006-08-22

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest. Across 2,030,637 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2004, at least 76% of all harvest practices resulted in high levels of canopy damage sufficient to leave forests susceptible to drought and fire. We found that 16+/-1% of selectively logged areas were deforested within 1 year of logging, with a subsequent annual deforestation rate of 5.4% for 4 years after timber harvests. Nearly all logging occurred within 25 km of main roads, and within that area, the probability of deforestation for a logged forest was up to four times greater than for unlogged forests. In combination, our results show that logging in the Brazilian Amazon is dominated by highly damaging operations, often followed rapidly by deforestation decades before forests can recover sufficiently to produce timber for a second harvest. Under the management regimes in effect at the time of our study in the Brazilian Amazon, selective logging would not be sustained.

  20. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of § 73.1800 (c) and (d), (§ 73.1800...

  1. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of § 73.1800 (c) and (d), (§ 73.1800...

  2. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of § 73.1800 (c) and (d), (§ 73.1800...

  3. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of § 73.1800 (c) and (d), (§ 73.1800...

  4. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of § 73.1800 (c) and (d), (§ 73.1800...

  5. Logging residues under different stand and harvesting conditions, Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Benson; Cameron M. Johnston

    1976-01-01

    Volume and characteristics of logging residues from 34 harvest areas are presented. Clearcuts and partial cuts logged to conventional utilization levels and to close utilization levels are included. Residue volumes ranged from almost 3, 600 ft3 /acre of wood 3-inches-plus down to about 550 ft3 /acre, depending on treatment. More than 60 percent of the residues were...

  6. Postfire logging: is it beneficial to a forest?

    Treesearch

    Sally Duncan

    2002-01-01

    Public debate on postfire logging has intensified in recent years, particularly since passage of the "salvage rider" in 1995, directing accelerated harvest of dead trees in the western United States. Supporters of postfires logging argue that it is part of a suite of restoration techniques, and that removal of timber means reduction of fuels for...

  7. Web Log Analysis: A Study of Instructor Evaluations Done Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Kenneth J.; Smith, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on developing a relatively simple method for analyzing web-logs. It also explores the challenges and benefits of web-log analysis. The study of student behavior on this site provides insights into website design and the effectiveness of this site in particular. Another benefit realized from the paper is the ease with which these…

  8. 6. Livestock barn (far left), log drafthorse barn (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Livestock barn (far left), log draft-horse barn (left of center), loafing shed (center), log calving barn (right of center). View to west-northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  9. Butt-log grade distributions for five Appalachian hardwood species

    Treesearch

    John R. Myers; Gary W. Miller; Harry V., Jr. Wiant; Joseph E. Barnard; Joseph E. Barnard

    1986-01-01

    Tree quality is an important factor in determining the market value of hardwood timber stands, but many forest inventories do not include estimates of tree quality. Butt-log grade distributions were developed for northern red oak, black oak, white oak, chestnut oak, and yellow-poplar using USDA Forest Service log grades on more than 4,700 trees in West Virginia. Butt-...

  10. Veneer log production and receipts, North Central Region, 1968.

    Treesearch

    Thomas P. Jr. Ginnaty

    1970-01-01

    The 1968 veneer-log production and mill receipts were 45.5 and 47.6 million board feet, respectively, in the Lake States--declines of 11 and 14%, respectively, since 1966. The Central States produced 37.0 million board feet of logs and received 48.8 million--about the same as in 1966.

  11. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Production or Disclosure of Information § 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for records...

  12. Indiana saw log production and sawmill industry, 1971.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Donald H. McGuire

    1974-01-01

    Shows Indiana saw log production by species and state of destination in 1971, and saw log receipts in Indiana by species, state of origin, and survey unit. Comparisons with similar data in 1966 are made and reasons for changes in production and receipts are given. Lumber market conditions and sawmill size and locations are discussed. Gives the volume and wood and...

  13. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported...

  14. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported...

  15. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported...

  16. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported...

  17. British Columbia log export policy: historical review and analysis.

    Treesearch

    Craig W. Shinn

    1993-01-01

    Log exports have been restricted in British Columbia for over 100 years. The intent of the restriction is to use the timber in British Columbia to encourage development of forest industry, employment, and well-being in the Province. Logs have been exempted from the within-Province manufacturing rule at various times, in varying amounts, for different reasons, and by...

  18. DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part II: Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes. [For "DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part I: Design," see EJ1114124.

  19. Green Lumber Grade Yields for Subfactory Class Hardwood Logs

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks; Leland F. Hanks

    1973-01-01

    Data on lumber grade yields for subfactory class logs are presented for ten species of hardwoods. Eogs of this type are expected to assume greater importance in the market. The yields, when coupled with lumber prices, will be useful to sawmill operators for developing log prices in terms of standard factory lumber.

  20. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries. During...