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Sample records for activity male wistar

  1. Chlorotriazine Herbicides and Metabolites Activate an ACTH-Dependent Release of Corticosterone in Male Wistar Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in elevated serum corticosterone (CORT), progesterone, and estrogens. The increase in CORT indicated that this chlorotriazine herbicide may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ax...

  2. Chlorotriazine herbicides and metabolites activate an ACTH-dependent release of corticosterone in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Laws, Susan C; Hotchkiss, Michelle; Ferrell, Janet; Jayaraman, Saro; Mills, Lesley; Modic, Walker; Tinfo, Nicole; Fraites, Melanie; Stoker, Tammy; Cooper, Ralph

    2009-11-01

    Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in elevated serum corticosterone (CORT), progesterone, and estrogens. The increase in CORT indicated that this chlorotriazine herbicide may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study characterizes the temporal changes in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), CORT, and P4 in male Wistar rats following a single dose of ATR (0, 5, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), simazine (SIM; 188 mg/kg), propazine (PRO; 213 mg/kg), or primary metabolites, deisopropylatrazine (DIA; 4, 10, 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg), deethylatrazine (DEA; 173 mg/kg), and diamino-s-chlorotriazine (DACT; 3.37, 33.7, 67.5, and 135 mg/kg). The maximum dose for each chemical was the molar equivalent of ATR (200 mg/kg). Significant increases in plasma ACTH were observed within 15 min, following exposure to ATR, SIM, PRO, DIA, or DEA. Dose-dependent elevations in CORT and progesterone were also observed at 15 and 30 min post-dosing with these compounds indicating an activation of adrenal steroidogenesis. Measurement of the plasma concentrations of the parent compounds and metabolites confirmed that ATR, SIM, and PRO are rapidly metabolized to DACT. Although DACT had only minimal effects on ACTH and steroid release, dosing with this metabolite resulted in plasma DACT concentrations that were 60-fold greater than that observed following an equimolar dose of ATR and eightfold greater than equimolar doses of DIA or DEA, indicating that DACT is not likely the primary inducer of ACTH release. Thus, the rapid release of ACTH and subsequent activation of adrenal steroidogenesis following a single exposure to ATR, SIM, PRO, DIA, or DEA may reflect chlorotriazine-induced changes at the level of the brain and/or pituitary.

  3. Nephroprotective activity of Bilvādi agada in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanna, Sangeeta; Hiremath, S. K.; Unger, Banappa S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity accounts for 10–30% of the acute renal failure (ARF) among drug-induced ARF. In Ayurveda such side effects are considered as the poisonous effects of low potent poisons called gara viṣa. Bilvādi agada (BA), a classical formulation is indicated in gara viṣa and most of its ingredients have proven for their nephroprotective activity. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of BA in GM-induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: BA, GM, normal saline were procured from standard companies. Settings and Designs: Eighteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, viz. Control group which received normal saline intraperitoneal (i.p.) daily for 8 days; toxic group received GM 80 mg/kg/day i.p. for 8 days, and trial group received both GM 80 mg/kg/day i.p. and BA 216 mg/each rat weighing ~200 g orally 1 h after administration of GM. Statistics: All the values were expressed as mean ± standard error and data were analyzed by applying one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test for multiple comparison. Results: BA treated group showed a significant change (P < 0.05) in levels of serum creatinine, urine creatinine, and urine potassium. There was no significant change (P > 0.05) seen in serum potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium and phosphorus and urine sodium, chloride in all three groups. Glomerular congestion, interstitial edema, tubular necrosis, interstitial hemorrhage was reduced in BA treated group. The results of this study indicate that BA reduces GM-induced nephrotoxicity and it may be due to anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, diuretic and anti-oxidant properties of drugs. Further studies are necessary to explore the exact mechanism of BA in nephroprotection. PMID:26120225

  4. Subchronic exposure to leachate activates key markers linked with neurological disorder in Wistar male rat.

    PubMed

    Akintunde, J K; Oboh, G

    2015-12-01

    The linking of various environmental chemicals exposure to neurodegenerative disorders is current. This study was undertaken to elucidate the toxic effects and the underlying biochemical mechanism of leachate obtained from Elewi Odo municipal battery recycling site (EOMABRL) using key markers of neuronal damage in rat via an oral route. Analysis of the concentrations of heavy metals showed that lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, manganese, and iron were higher than the acceptable limits set by the regulatory authority-the World Health Organization. Whereas, copper, zinc, and cobalt were lower than permissible limits. EOMABRL was administered at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% concentrations to adult male rats for 60 days. An in vitro study was also carried out in the cerebellum to assess cholinesterase biochemistry assays. Following exposure, brain was collected to determine the antioxidant status. EOMABRL administration significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and a sequential decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) level with a concomitant increase in the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level was observed, when compared with the control. The treated rat had a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the activities of acetycholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Taken together, these findings conclude that some possible mechanisms by which EOMABRL elicits neuronal disorder in male rat could be through the activation of AChE and BuChE and induction of oxidative stress with necrosis of neuronal cells. PMID:26362636

  5. Macrophage activity and histopathology of the lymphohematopoietic organs in male Wistar rats orally exposed to single or mixed pesticides.

    PubMed

    De Camargo, Marcela Rodrigues; Barbisan, Luís Fernando; Martinez, Meire França; Da Silva Franchi, Carla Adriene; De Camargo, João Lauro Viana; Spinardi-Barbisan, Ana Lúcia Tozzi

    2013-01-01

    The noxious effects of low or effective dose exposure to single or mixed pesticides on macrophage activity and the lymphohematopoietic organs were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally exposed to dichlorvos, dicofol, endosulfan, dieldrin and permethrin, either as single or combined mixtures during a 28-day study containing eight groups: one group received a semipurified diet (non-treated); two groups received a semipurified diet containing low dose mixture (dieldrin 0.025 mg/kg, endosulfan, 0.6 mg/kg, dicofol 0.22 mg/kg, dichlorvos 0.23 mg/kg, permethrin 5 mg/kg) or an effective dose mixture (dichlorvos 2.3 mg/kg, dicofol 2.5 mg/kg, endosulfan 2.9 mg/kg, dieldrin 0.05 mg/kg and permethrin 25.0 mg/kg), respectively; the other five groups received a semipurified diet containing each single pesticide in effective doses. At sacrifice, the thymus, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, Payer's patches and bone marrow were removed for histological analysis. Peritoneal macrophages were obtained to determine the phagocytosis and spreading indexes and tumoral necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and H₂O₂ production. Exposure to pesticide mixtures did not alter the percentage of macrophage phagocytosis and spreading, TNF-α production or the NO and H₂O₂ release when compared to the non-treated group. Neither was there any apparent evidence that a pesticide mixture at low or effective doses altered the histological structure of the lymphohematopoietic organs. The findings indicate that short-term treatment with pesticide mixtures did not induce an apparent immunotoxic effect in male Wistar rats.

  6. Phorate-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and transcriptional activation of p53 and caspase genes in male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Saquib, Quaiser; Attia, Sabry M.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A.M.; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Giesy, John P.; Musarrat, Javed

    2012-02-15

    Male Wistar rats exposed to a systemic organophosphorus insecticide, phorate [O,O-diethyl S-[(ethylthio) methyl] phosphorothioate] at varying oral doses of 0.046, 0.092 or 0.184 mg phorate/kg bw for 14 days, exhibited substantial oxidative stress, cellular DNA damage and activation of apoptosis-related p53, caspase 3 and 9 genes. The histopathological changes including the pyknotic nuclei, inflammatory leukocyte infiltrations, renal necrosis, and cardiac myofiber degeneration were observed in the liver, kidney and heart tissues. Biochemical analysis of catalase and glutathione revealed significantly lesser activities of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in tissues of phorate exposed rats. Furthermore, generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential in bone marrow cells confirmed phorate-induced oxidative stress. Significant DNA damage was measured through comet assay in terms of the Olive tail moment in bone marrow cells of treated animals as compared to control. Cell cycle analysis also demonstrated the G{sub 2}/M arrest and appearance of a distinctive SubG{sub 1} peak, which signified induction of apoptosis. Up-regulation of tumor suppressor p53 and caspase 3 and 9 genes, determined by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, elucidated the activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways in response to cellular stress. Overall, the results suggest that phorate induces genetic alterations and cellular toxicity, which can adversely affect the normal cellular functioning in rats. -- Highlights: ► This is the first report on molecular toxicity of phorate in an in vivo test system. ► Phorate induces biochemical and histological changes in liver, kidney and heart. ► Rats treated with phorate exhibited DNA damage in bone marrow cells. ► Phorate induces apoptosis, oxidative stress and alters mitochondrial fluorescence. ► Phorate induces transcriptional changes and enhanced

  7. Interaction between the antioxidant activity of curcumin and cholinergic system on memory retention in adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarlak, Zeynab; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Moghaddasi, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The cholinergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. This study investigated the effects of curcumin (turmeric extract) and the cholinergic system and their interaction on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: At first, an injection cannula was implanted in right ventricles of the animals. One week after the surgery, the animals were trained with a shuttle box set up. Post-training, injections were performed in all experiments. Administration of curcumin increased memory retention. Also administrations of nicotine and pilocarpine, the cholinergic receptor agonists, increased memory retention, while it is decreased by succinylcholine and scopolamine, the cholinergic receptor antagonists. Then co-administration of curcumin and cholinergic drugs were performed. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections were applied for the curcumin and cholinergic drugs, respectively. Results: Co-administration of curcumin (45 mg/kg) with a low dose of nicotine (0.1 µg/rat) or pilocarpine (0.5 µg/rat) increased memory retention significantly. Effects of succinylcholine (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 µg/rat) or scopolamine (0.1, 1 and 5 µg/rat) were attenuated by curcumin markedly (45 mg/kg). Conclusion: The results suggest that curcumin has a close interaction with cholinergic system in memory retention process. PMID:26019804

  8. Antiurolithiatic activity of ethanol leaf extract of Ipomoea eriocarpa against ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Moonjit; Malipeddi, Himaja

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prophylactic and curative effect of the ethanol leaf extract of Ipomoea eriocarpa (Convolvulaceae) (IEE) in ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 6). All the groups received stone-inducing treatment till 28th day, comprising 1% ethylene glycol (v/v) with 1% ammonium chloride (w/v) for 4 days, followed by 1% ethylene glycol alone in water, except Group I (Control). Group II received only stone-inducing treatment till 28th day. Group III (Standard) received cystone (500 mg/kg) from 15th day till 28th day. Group IV (Prophylactic) received IEE (200 mg/kg) from 1st day till 28th day and Group V (Curative) received IEE (200 mg/kg) from 15th day till 28th day. Various biochemical parameters such as phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, urea, and creatinine levels were evaluated using urine, serum, and kidney homogenate. The kidneys were also sectioned and examined histopathologically under light microscope to study the kidney architecture and calcium oxalate deposits. Results: The IEE treatment (prophylactic and curative) significantly (P < 0.001) restored the parameters in urine, serum, and kidney homogenate to near-normal level. The histopathological examinations revealed that calcium oxalate crystal deposits in the renal tubules and congestion and dilation of the parenchymal blood vessels were significantly reverted after IEE treatment. Conclusions: The leaf extract of I. eriocarpa reduces and inhibits the growth of urinary stones showing its effect as an antiurolithiatic agent. PMID:27298496

  9. Mobile phone usage and male infertility in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Behari, Jitendra

    2010-10-01

    A significant decrease in protein kinase C and total sperm count along with increased apoptosis were observed in male Wistar rats exposed to mobile phone frequencies (2 h/day x 35 days at 0.9 W/kg specific absorption rate). The results suggest that a reduction in protein kinase activity may be related to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under microwave field exposure. Decrease in sperm count and an increase in apoptosis may be causative factor due to mobile radiation exposure leading to infertility.

  10. Decreased Activity in Neuropathic Pain Form and Gene Expression of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase5 and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Beta in Soleus Muscle of Wistar Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Masoud; Taherabadi, Seyed Jalal; Mehrabi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between decreased activity/neuropathic pain and gene expression alterations in soleus muscle has remained elusive. Objectives: In this experimental study, we investigated the effects of decreased activity in neuropathic pain form on Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 (CDK5) and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 β (GSK-3β) gene expression in soleus muscle of rats. Materials and Methods: Twelve male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) tight ligation of the L5 spinal nerve (SNL: n = 4); (2) sham surgery (Sham: n = 4), and (3) control (C: n = 4). The threshold to produce a withdrawal response to a mechanical and thermal stimulus was measured using von Frey filaments and radiation heat apparatus, respectively. Following 4 weeks after surgery, the left soleus muscle was removed and mRNA levels were determined by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results: Compared to control animals, L5 ligated animals developed mechanical and heat hypersensitivity during total period of study. Soleus muscle weight as well as CDK5 mRNA levels (less than ~ 0.4 fold) was decreased and GSK-3β mRNA levels (up to ~ 7 folds) increased in L5 ligated animals. Conclusions: These results showed enhanced muscle atrophy processes following peripheral nerve damage and might provide a useful approach to study underlying muscle mechanisms associated with clinical neuropathic pain syndromes. PMID:26290750

  11. Chronic, long-term social stress can cause decreased microtubule protein network activity and dynamics in cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Eskandari Sedighi, Ghazaleh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Cheraghi, Tayebe; Atarod, Deyhim; Rafiei, Shahrbanoo

    2015-03-01

    Social stress is viewed as a factor in the etiology of a variety of psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety. Animal models of social stress are well developed and widely used in studying clinical and physiological effects of stress. Stress is known to significantly affect learning and memory, and this effect strongly depends on the type of stress, its intensity, and duration. It has been demonstrated that chronic and acute stress conditions can change neuronal plasticity, characterized by retraction of apical dendrites, reduction in axonogenesis, and decreased neurogenesis. Various behavioral studies have also confirmed a decrease in learning and memory upon exposure of animals to long-term chronic stress. On the other hand, the close relationship between microtubule (MT) protein network and neuroplasticity controlling system suggests the possibility of MT protein alterations in high stressful conditions. In this work, we have studied the kinetics, activity, and dynamicity changes of MT proteins in the cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats that were subjected to social instability for 35 and 100 days. Our results indicate that MT protein network dynamicity and polymerization ability is decreased under long-term (100 days) social stress conditions.

  12. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles on adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Moradi, Hemen; Zarei, Sadegh; Asadi, Soheila; Salehzadeh, Aref; Ghafourikhosroshahi, Abolfazl; Mortazavi, Motahareh; Ziamajidi, Nasrin

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) on adult male Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups of six animals each were used for this study. For ten days, Groups one to four continuously received 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg nZnO, respectively. Group five served as the control group. At the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed and histopathological study of the liver and renal tissue, sperm analysis, serum oxidative stress parameters and some liver enzymes were done. The results of this study showed that nZnO at concentration more than 50 mg/kg lead to significant changes in liver enzymes, oxidative stress, liver and renal tissue and sperm quality and quantity. In conclusion, the toxicity of nZnO is more significant when the concentration is increased; however, the use of low doses requires further investigation.

  13. Sertraline and its iodine product: Experimental and theoretical vibrational studies. Potential in vitro anti-thyroid activity of sertraline and iodine product toxicity with respect to male Wistar rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Graciela E.; Ferraresi Curotto, Verónica; Laino, Carlos H.; Pis Diez, Reinaldo; Williams, Patricia A. M.; Ferrer, Evelina G.

    2013-03-01

    Mayor depression, obsessive-compulsive panic, social anxiety disorders are common diseases that are usually treated with sertraline hydrochloride which is the active ingredient of the well known drugs as Zoloft and Lustral. In this work, we presented a more complete vibrational characterization of the solid phase FT-IR spectra of Sertraline hydrochloride and its sertraline-iodine product in which the conformational space of the molecules was investigated performing molecular dynamic simulations within an NVT ensemble. Geometrical, electronic and vibrational properties were calculated with the density functional theory. Comparison of the simulated spectra with the experimental spectra provides important information about the ability of the computational method to describe the vibrational modes of both molecules. In addition, for the first time we present the evaluation of anti-thyroid activity of sertraline hydrochloride by using the Lang's method. Also, with the aim to evaluate the antidepressant effect of its iodine product we demonstrated for this compound the toxic effect towards the male Wistar rats.

  14. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity.

  15. Blocking TGF-β Signaling Pathway Preserves Mitochondrial Proteostasis and Reduces Early Activation of PDGFRβ+ Pericytes in Aristolochic Acid Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Wistar Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pozdzik, Agnieszka A.; Giordano, Laetitia; Li, Gang; Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Quellard, Nathalie; Godet, Julie; De Prez, Eric; Husson, Cécile; Declèves, Anne-Emilie; Arlt, Volker M.; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Brochériou-Spelle, Isabelle; Ledbetter, Steven R.; Caron, Nathalie; Nortier, Joëlle L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ)+ perivascular cell activation becomes increasingly recognized as a main source of scar-associated kidney myofibroblasts and recently emerged as a new cellular therapeutic target. Aims In this regard, we first confirmed the presence of PDGFRβ+ perivascular cells in a human case of end-stage aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and thereafter we focused on the early fibrosis events of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) inhibition in a rat model of AAN. Materials and Methods Neutralizing anti-TGFβ antibody (1D11) and its control isotype (13C4) were administered (5 mg/kg, i.p.) at Days -1, 0, 2 and 4; AA (15 mg/kg, sc) was injected daily. Results At Day 5, 1D11 significantly suppressed p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improving renal function impairment, reduced the score of acute tubular necrosis, peritubular capillaritis, interstitial inflammation and neoangiogenesis. 1D11 markedly decreased interstitial edema, disruption of tubular basement membrane loss of brush border, cytoplasmic edema and organelle ultrastructure alterations (mitochondrial disruption and endoplasmic reticulum edema) in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Moreover, 1D11 significantly inhibited p-PERK activation and attenuated dysregulation of unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial proteostasis in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions The early inhibition of p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improved acute renal function impairment, partially prevented epithelial-endothelial axis activation by maintaining PTEC proteostasis and reduced early PDGFRβ+ pericytes-derived myofibroblasts accumulation. PMID:27379382

  16. Intrahippocampal Insulin Improves Memory in a Passive-Avoidance Task in Male Wistar Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babri, Shirin; Badie, Hamid Gholamipour; Khamenei, Saeed; Seyedlar, Mehdi Ordikhani

    2007-01-01

    The main impacts of insulin favor the peripheral organs. Although it functions as a neuropeptide, insulin possesses also some central effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intrahippocampal infusion of insulin on passive avoidance learning in healthy male rats. Thirty male wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10…

  17. Curcumin Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Activation of Redox-Sensitive Kinases in High Fructose- and High-Fat-Fed Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Maithili Karpaga Selvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress and redox-sensitive kinases in high fructose- and high-fat-fed rats. Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups with ten animals each. Rats were fed with a standard rodent diet, high fructose diet (60%), and high-fat diet (30%). Curcumin was administered to control, high fructose and high fat diet groups for ten weeks. At the end of the study, body weight and blood glucose levels were measured. The antioxidant enzymes GSH (reduced glutathione), GPx (glutathione peroxidase), and catalase activities were estimated in the blood. MDA, TAS, and TOS were estimated in the plasma, liver, and kidney. Curcumin treatment decreased body weight and blood glucose levels in the rats fed with fructose and high-fat diet. Antioxidant enzymes and plasma TAS were significantly improved by curcumin treatment in high fructose-fed rats, whereas in high-fat-fed rats, there was an increase only in the GPx activity. Curcumin significantly attenuated the elevation of plasma MDA and TOS in both diet groups. Hepatic MDA and TOS were found to be decreased upon curcumin supplementation in both diet groups, whereas a decrease in the renal MDA levels was observed only in fructose-treated rats, not in fat-fed rats. Curcumin treatment elevated liver TAS in rats fed only with the fructose-rich diet. Curcumin showed a significant decrease in the oxidative stress index (OSI) in plasma, liver, and kidney tissues in both diet groups. ERK phosphorylation was significantly decreased in both diet groups by curcumin treatment. Similarly, curcumin reduced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK only in the high fructose-fed rats, not in the high-fat-fed rats. No significant changes were found in JNK phosphorylation in both diet groups. Thus, curcumin may be effective in the management of diet-induced oxidative stress and could be explored as a therapeutic adjuvant against complications associated with obesity and

  18. Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Salwe, Kartik J.; Sachdev, Devender O.; Bahurupi, Yogesh; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

    2015-01-01

    Background: We investigated anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats were used in this study consisting of seven groups of six animals each. Groups (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, (3) leaves extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (4) leaves extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (5) fruit peel extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (6) peel extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum and (7) glibenclamide respectively. Fasting blood sugar was recorded on 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day. At the end of the experiment Lipid profile and levels of antioxidants were determined. Safety profile of both extracts was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. Results: Higher dose of fruit peel extract of P. granatum (PEPG) and glibenclamide significantly lowered blood glucose level from 7th day onwards however glibenclamide was found to be more effective. Leaves extract at higher dose and fruit extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 14th day onwards. Leaves extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 21st day onwards. Glibenclamide and higher dose of fruit PEPG extract significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and significantly increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Glibenclamide followed by higher dose was found more effective in reducing plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increasing levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). No toxicity was observed even when both extracts were administered at 10 times of higher dose used in this study and no significant changes were seen when it were used chronically. Conclusion: Leaves and fruit PEPG possesses significant anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant properties. This study supports the traditional use of P

  19. Accurate measurement of body weight and food intake in environmentally enriched male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Beale, Kylie E L; Murphy, Kevin G; Harrison, Eleanor K; Kerton, Angela J; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Smith, Kirsty L

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory animals are crucial in the study of energy homeostasis. In particular, rats are used to study alterations in food intake and body weight. To accurately record food intake or energy expenditure it is necessary to house rats individually, which can be stressful for social animals. Environmental enrichment may reduce stress and improve welfare in laboratory rodents. However, the effect of environmental enrichment on food intake and thus experimental outcome is unknown. We aimed to determine the effect of environmental enrichment on food intake, body weight, behavior and fecal and plasma stress hormones in male Wistar rats. Singly housed 5-7-week-old male rats were given either no environmental enrichment, chew sticks, a plastic tube of 67 mm internal diameter, or both chew sticks and a tube. No differences in body weight or food intake were seen over a 7-day period. Importantly, the refeeding response following a 24-h fast was unaffected by environmental enrichment. Rearing, a behavior often associated with stress, was significantly reduced in all enriched groups compared to controls. There was a significant increase in fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) in animals housed with both forms of enrichment compared to controls at the termination of the study, suggesting enrichment reduces hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in singly housed rats. In summary, environmental enrichment does not influence body weight and food intake in singly housed male Wistar rats and may therefore be used to refine the living conditions of animals used in the study of energy homeostasis without compromising experimental outcome.

  20. Evaluation of ameliorative effect of curcumin on imidacloprid-induced male reproductive toxicity in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lonare, Milindmitra; Kumar, Manoj; Raut, Sachin; More, Amar; Doltade, Sagar; Badgujar, Prarabdh; Telang, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the toxic effects of imidacloprid (IM) on male reproductive system and ameliorative effect of curcumin (CMN) in male Wistar rats. For this purpose, IM (45 and 90 mg/kg, body weight) and CMN (100 mg/kg, body weight) were administered orally to the rats either alone or in combinations for a period of 28 days. At the end of experiment, male reproductive toxicity parameters (total sperm count and sperm abnormalities), testosterone level, steroidal enzymatic activity [3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD], and oxidative stress indicators were estimated in testis and plasma. IM treatments resulted in significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, live sperm count, and increase (p < 0.05) in sperm abnormalities. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase-x, and sorbitol dehydrogenase were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD enzymatic activity along with testosterone concentration in testis and plasma were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in IM-treated rats. IM exposure resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) in LPO and decrease (p < 0.05) in GSH level along with decreased activities of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST. IM-treated rats showed histopathological alterations in testis and epididymis. However, the reproductive toxicity parameters, oxidative stress indicators, and histopathological changes were minimized and functional restorations were noticed by co-administration of CMN in IM-treated rats. The results of this study suggest that IM-induced male reproductive toxic effects could be ameliorated by CMN supplementation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1250-1263, 2016.

  1. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE METABOLITES ON PUBERTY IN THE MALE WISTAR RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Effects of Atrazine Metabolites on Puberty in the Male Wistar Rat. D L Guidici, R L Cooper and T E Stoker. Endocrinology Branch, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC.
    Sponsor: R J Kavlock.
    Atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, alters pubertal pr...

  2. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE METABOLITES ON PUBERTY AND THYROID FUNCTION IN THE MALE WISTAR RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Effects of Atrazine Metabolites on Puberty and Thyroid Function in the Male Wistar Rat. Stoker, T.E1., Guidici, D.L.2, Laws, S.C.2 and Cooper, R.L.2 Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch and 2 Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  3. SUBCHRONIC MANCOZEB TREATEMENT INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY VIA OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MALE WISTAR RATS.

    PubMed

    Yahia, E; Aiche, M A; Chouabbia, A; Boulakoud, M S

    2014-01-01

    Mancozeb is a manganese/zinc ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide that is widely used in agriculture to control a broad variety of fungal infections of both vegetables and ornamental plants. The present study has been carried out to investigate the possible effect of mancozeb on animal the oxidative stress and some of the biochemical markers in male Wistar rats. In this experiment, adult male rats weighing between 200 and 250 g were treated per os for 4 weeks with two different doses of 800 and 1200 mg/kg per day. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased in all treated groups compared to control ones. It has been observed a significant increase in the fresh weight of liver in individuals of both doses. Moreover, mancozeb exposure caused a significant (p < 0.05) fall in aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in group treated with 1200 and 800 mg/kg/day. Similarly, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity underwent a significant (p < 0.05) increase in both groups. The obtained observations clearly reveal hepatotoxic effects of mancozeb in rats and constitute, therefore, an environmental health risks to living organisms. PMID:26080489

  4. Effect of exercise and feed restriction on body weight and lipogenesis in the male Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Dellwo, M.; Wright, D.L.; Beauchene, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    Male Wistar rats were swum for either 1.5 or 3.0 hours per day from 6 through 32 weeks of age. At 32 weeks of age, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and sacrificed 1 hour later. Liver activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (MF) were also measured. Feed intakes of exercised rats were slightly higher, whereas their body weights were slightly lower when compared to those of non-exercised ad libitum-fed rats (controls). Liver ME and G6PD activities of exercised rats were 30% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of control rats. Non-exercised rats, whose body weights were controlled by feed restriction to match those of exercised rats, also showed increases in liver ME and G6PD activities (30%). The relationship between rates of incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into liver fat and activities of liver ME and G6PD as affected by exercise and feed restriction will be discussed.

  5. Effects of male sexual maturity of reproductive endpoints relevant to DART studies in Wistar Hannover rats.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Ikuro; Creasy, Dianne M; Yokoi, Ryohei; Terashima, Yukari; Onozato, Tomoya; Maruyama, Yoshimasa; Chino, Tomonobu; Tahara, Toru; Tamura, Toru; Kuroda, Junji; Kusama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Wistar Hannover rats have been utilized as one of major strains in regulatory toxicology studies. This study was performed to verify the appropriate age of male sexual maturity in the development and reproductive toxicity (DART) study in Wistar Hannover rats (RccHan:WIST) by comparing reproductive endpoints between 8, 10 and 12 weeks of ages. Although fertility showed a tendency toward decrease in 8-week-old males, copulation index was not different among three ages. Testis weights reached a plateau at 10 weeks of age, whereas weights of other reproductive organs developed until 12 weeks of age. Indices of spermatogenesis (sperm motility, number of sperm in the epididymis and testis and contents of morphologically abnormal sperm) showed age-related progress and did not fully develop except for 12-week-old. For histology, epididymal tubules in 8-week-old animals showed immaturity with tall epithelium. At cesarean section, dams mated with 8-week-old males showed high incidence of preimplantation loss and the number of live fetuses was less than 10. In conclusion, although reproductive performance attained maturity by age of 10 weeks, spermatogenesis was not fully established at 10-week-old, which could result in a low fertility index. Therefore, we recommend that Wistar Hannover male rats at 12-week-old or older are used to conduct DART study properly and evaluate any adverse effects on dams and embryo-fetal development. PMID:24646708

  6. Evaluation of hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of carbofuran in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Owumi, Solomon E; Akinseye, Victor; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2014-03-01

    Carbofuran based pesticides have gained wide usage in Nigeria recently. Consequently, animals and human populations are exposed to them in the environment. Information on in vivo toxicity of carbofuran in experimental models is scanty. The present study therefore examined the hepatotoxicity and clastogenic effects of carbofuran in rats. Male Wistar rats were exposed to carbofuran (p.o) at 0-5mg/kg bw for 5weeks. Carbofuran induced significant (p<0.05) increase in the serum activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase when compared with the negative control, but not activity of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. It also significantly (p<0.05) induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes formation in the bone marrow as compared with the control. The level of induction is dose dependent in both cases. In addition, there was significant (p<0.05) higher number of hepatic cells in the cell/mm(2) assay for the group treated with carbofuran. Histopathological analysis of liver samples from the treated groups revealed lesions ranging from general congestion (portal, central venous and sinusoidal), mild periportal cellular infiltration, diffused sinusoidal congestion and hepatic necrosis to severe congestion. Findings from this study suggest that carbofuran has clastogenic and hepatotoxic effects in rats. It therefore may constitute an environmental health risks in individuals so exposed.

  7. Coffee and caffeine protect against liver injury induced by thioacetamide in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Kelly S; Prado, Monize G; Aguiar E Silva, Marco A; Dias, Marcos C; Rivelli, Diogo P; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2012-11-01

    Coffee intake has been inversely related to the incidence of liver diseases, although there are controversies on whether these beneficial effects on human health are because of caffeine or other specific components in this popular beverage. Thus, this study evaluated the protective effects of coffee or caffeine intake on liver injury induced by repeated thioacetamide (TAA) administration in male Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into five groups: one untreated group (G1) and four groups (G2-G5) treated with the hepatotoxicant TAA (200 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) twice a week for 8 weeks. Concomitantly, rats received tap water (G1 and G2), conventional coffee (G3), decaffeinated coffee (G4) or 0.1% caffeine (G5). After 8 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and blood and liver samples were collected. Conventional and decaffeinated coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.001) and oxidized glutathione (p < 0.05), fibrosis/inflammation scores (p < 0.001), collagen volume fraction (p < 0.01) and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) protein expression (p ≤ 0.001) in the liver from TAA-treated groups. In addition, conventional coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) S-phase indexes (p < 0.001), but only conventional coffee reduced cleaved caspase-3 indexes (p < 0.001), active metalloproteinase 2 (p ≤ 0.004) and the number of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive preneoplastic lesions (p < 0.05) in the liver from TAA-treated groups. In conclusion, conventional coffee and 0.1% caffeine intake presented better beneficial effects than decaffeinated coffee against liver injury induced by TAA in male Wistar rats. PMID:22646289

  8. Hepatoprotective Effect of Curcumin on Lindane-induced Oxidative Stress in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rambir; Sharma, Poonam

    2011-01-01

    Lindane, an organochlorine pesticide, is recognized as a major public health concern because of its potential toxic effects on human health. Its persistence in the body fluids may lead to continuous blood circulation, liver exposure and hepatotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective role of curcumin on lindane-induced hepatotoxicity. Forty-two healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of six rats each. Group I was given dimethylsulfoxide. A single dose of lindane (60 mg/kg bw) was given to group II. Lindane (30 mg/kg bw) was given daily to group III for 14 days. Treatment with curcumin (100 and 200 mg/kg) was given to groups IV and V before (pretreatment) and to groups VI and VII after (post-treatment) 14 days exposure of lindane. Oxidative stress parameters and antioxidative enzymes were investigated in the liver of exposed and treated rats. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and decrease in glutathione level, Superoxide dismutase catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and NADPH quinine reductase activities was observed in liver of rats exposed to lindane. Curcumin (Pre- and post-treatment) nearly normalized all these parameters. Histological alterations were also observed in the liver tissue after lindane exposure. Treatment with curcumin significantly prevented the lindane-induced histological alterations. In conclusion, curcumin has protective effect over lindane-induced oxidative damage in rat liver. PMID:21976817

  9. Dietary taurine reduces zinc-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yen-Hung; Lee, Ya-Ting; Hsieh, You-Liang; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2011-05-01

    Taurine is an agent for treating the heavy metal intoxication and presence of metals such as zinc, copper, and iron may have a role in heavy metal toxicity, a study was undertaken to investigate the effect of taurine on the toxicity of zinc in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups and fed different diets with or without supplement of 5% taurine and 150 to 600 ppm zinc for 2 mo. It was found that the body weight of rats, the ratios of liver and kidney weight to body weight, and the level of glutathione in the liver were decreased with increasing the dose of zinc. The levels of zinc in the liver, kidney, and plasma, the levels of malondialdehyde in the plasma, the levels of thiobarbiture acid-reactive substances in the liver, the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase in the plasma, the levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the plasma of rats were increased with the increasing dose of zinc. Hence, symptoms of zinc toxicity in rats included loss of body weight, hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity. However, these toxic effects of zinc were significantly reduced when the rats fed diet with supplement of taurine. Furthermore, the level of zinc in the feces of rats treated with taurine and zinc was higher than that of rats treated with zinc alone. It indicated that taurine thereby leading to a decreased absorption of dietary zinc and promoted excretion. PMID:22417375

  10. Fixed-consecutive-number performance in male and female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    van Haaren, F; van Hest, A

    1990-03-26

    The present experiment was designed to investigate whether or not response rate differences between male and female Wistar rats observed in many different experimental procedures could be attributed to sex differences in behavioral perseverance, as has been suggested by the results of previous experiments. Male and female Wistar rats were thus exposed to different fixed-consecutive-number schedules of reinforcement. Fixed-consecutive-number schedules require subjects to emit a specified number of responses on one (work) lever, before a response on another (food) lever results in the presentation of reinforcement. The response requirement on the work lever was manipulated in different experimental conditions. Subjects had to emit between 3 and 7, 8 and 12 or 13 and 17 responses on the work lever before a response on the food lever produced reinforcement. When subjects emitted fewer or more than the required number of responses on the work lever, a 5-s time-out period was presented. Males responded at higher rates than females during all experimental conditions; response rates of males and females increased as the response requirement on the work lever was increased. Sex differences in response efficiency were not observed, but males seemed to reach final response efficiency faster than females. Response efficiency decreased as the response requirement on the work lever was increased. Error analysis showed that both males and females made more errors by not producing enough responses on the work lever than by producing too many. However, males were more likely than females to emit more responses than the requirement on the work lever, while females were more likely than males not to produce enough responses on the work lever.

  11. BDNF-stimulated intracellular signalling mechanisms underlie exercise-induced improvement in spatial memory in the male Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Ranya G; Lyne, Ronan; Kelly, Áine M

    2014-12-15

    Exercise-induced improvements in learning are associated with neurotrophic and neurogenic changes in the dentate gyrus, but the intracellular signalling mechanisms that may mediate these improvements remain unknown. In the current study we investigate the effects of one week of forced exercise on spatial memory and analyse in parallel BDNF-stimulated signalling pathways in cells of the dentate gyrus. Additionally, we test whether a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of BDNF can mimic the observed cognitive and signalling changes. Male Wistar rats were assigned to exercised and sedentary groups and tested in a spatial task post-exercise. Tissue from the dentate gyrus was assessed for expression and release of BDNF, and for changes in expression and activation of TrkB, ERK and synapsin-1. In a separate set of experiments, male Wistar rats received a single i.c.v. injection of BDNF and were then tested in the same spatial learning task. Exercised and BDNF-treated (but not control) rats could successfully complete an object displacement task that tests spatial learning. Exercised rats and BDNF-treated rats displayed increases BDNF expression and ERK1 activation, while exercised rats showed increases in cell division, stimulated BDNF release, TrkB activation, and synapsin-1 expression in the dentate gyrus. We conclude that exercise-induced increases in BDNF in the dentate gyrus are sufficient to cause improvements in spatial memory by activating signalling cascades that enhance synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

  12. Efficacy and toxicological evaluation of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) extract in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Attanayake, Anoja Priyadarshani; Jayatilaka, Kamani Ayoma Perera Wijewardena; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini Kumari Boralugoda

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the oral antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (L.) (Cucurbitaceae) along with toxicological effects in alloxan induced diabetic and healthy Wistar rats. Methods A single graded dose of aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (0.25-2.00 g/kg) was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, i.p.) diabetic Wistar rats (n=6). In acute toxicity assessment, Wistar rats were administered the extract at the same dose range and observed for three days. Sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated by daily administration of the extract for 30 d at the dose which showed the optimum antihyperglycemic effect. Signs of toxicity, body weight of animals, consumption of food and water were monitored during the study period. The effects of the extract on biochemical (lipid parameters and activities of liver enzymes), hematological parameters (full blood count) and histopathological effects in organs were assessed at the end of the study. Results The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for Coccinia grandis leaf extract was found to be 0.75 g/kg in diabetic rats. The extract neither produced significant changes in consumption of food, intake of water, relative weight of organs nor affected biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters (P<0.05). Conclusions The extract at a dose of 0.75 g/kg was found to be toxicologically safe as a potential antihyperglycemic agent in Wistar rats.

  13. Effect of Preservation Methods of Oil Palm Sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the Reproductive Indices of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01–11.71%), protein (1.56–1.95%), ash (0.22–0.35%), moisture (92.55–98.24%), and alcohol (0.26–3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (P<.05) decreased sperm count (42.60±23.64×106), abnormal increase in testosterone level, and necrosis in the histology of the testes with reduced spermatogenetic activity, compared with other treatment groups. The female rats crossed with male rats fed on FrPS or FPS produced the highest number of pups followed by the control group. This study demonstrated that the intake of FrPS improved fertility in male animals, but its administration for a long period led to necrotic changes in the testes, whereas pasteurization of palm sap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals. PMID:25101691

  14. Effect of preservation methods of oil palm sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the reproductive indices of male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-12-01

    Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01-11.71%), protein (1.56-1.95%), ash (0.22-0.35%), moisture (92.55-98.24%), and alcohol (0.26-3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (P<.05) decreased sperm count (42.60±23.64×10(6)), abnormal increase in testosterone level, and necrosis in the histology of the testes with reduced spermatogenetic activity, compared with other treatment groups. The female rats crossed with male rats fed on FrPS or FPS produced the highest number of pups followed by the control group. This study demonstrated that the intake of FrPS improved fertility in male animals, but its administration for a long period led to necrotic changes in the testes, whereas pasteurization of palm sap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals.

  15. Limited Nesting Stress Alters Maternal Behavior and In Vivo Intestinal Permeability in Male Wistar Pup Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moussaoui, Nabila; Larauche, Muriel; Biraud, Mandy; Molet, Jenny; Million, Mulugeta; Mayer, Emeran; Taché, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    A few studies indicate that limited nesting stress (LNS) alters maternal behavior and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis of dams and offspring in male Sprague Dawley rats. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of LNS on maternal behavior in Wistar rats, and on the HPA axis, glycemia and in vivo intestinal permeability of male and female offspring. Intestinal permeability is known to be elevated during the first week postnatally and influenced by glucocorticoids. Dams and neonatal litters were subjected to LNS or normal nesting conditions (control) from days 2 to 10 postnatally. At day 10, blood was collected from pups for determination of glucose and plasma corticosterone by enzyme immunoassay and in vivo intestinal permeability by oral gavage of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran 4kDa. Dams exposed to LNS compared to control showed an increase in the percentage of time spent building a nest (118%), self-grooming (69%), and putting the pups back to the nest (167%). LNS male and female pups exhibited a reduction of body weight by 5% and 4%, adrenal weights/100g body weight by 17% and 18%, corticosterone plasma levels by 64% and 62% and blood glucose by 11% and 12% respectively compared to same sex control pups. In male LNS pups, intestinal permeability was increased by 2.7-fold while no change was observed in females compared to same sex control. There was no sex difference in any of the parameters in control pups except the body weight. These data indicate that Wistar dams subjected to LNS during the first postnatal week have an altered repertoire of maternal behaviors which affects the development of the HPA axis in both sexes and intestinal barrier function in male offspring. PMID:27149676

  16. Effects of Oral Maternal Administration of Caffeine on Reproductive Functions of Male Offspring of Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ogunwole, Eunice; Akindele, Opeyemi O; Oluwole, Omobola F; Salami, S A; Raji, Y

    2015-12-20

    Caffeine was investigated for its possible fetal programming effects on reproductive function of male offspring. Sixty-five pregnant Wistar rats were grouped into four. Group 1 was control and received distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated orally with 1.14, 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively. Each group was subdivided into four based on gestation days (GD) 1-7, 8-14, 15-21 and 1-21. The day of parturition was taken as postnatal day zero (0). Male offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 70. Parameters determined were: weight at birth, body weight at postnatal day 21 and 70, anogenital distance (AGD) index, sperm parameters, reproductive organ weight, histology and hormonal profile (testosterone, FSH and LH). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance. Level of significance was taken at P<0.05. Male offspring belonging to caffeine treated dams showed dose dependent significant decreases in birth weight. Male offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 had a significant increase in their AGD index. Also, male offspring from dams treated with 1.14 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 8-14 had a significant increase in AGD index. Dams treated with 3.42 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 15-21, had a significant increase in the AGD index of their male offspring. The sperm motility of offspring from dams treated with 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 were significantly increased. Offspring of GD 8-14 and GD 15-21 dams treated with 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively, showed significantly reduced serum testosterone level. There was a significant decrease in the weight of testes of offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 8-14. Histological sections of testes of offspring from caffeine treated dams showed interstitial congestions, edema, reduced germinal epithelial height and detached basal membrane. Maternal caffeine exposure during

  17. Effects of Oral Maternal Administration of Caffeine on Reproductive Functions of Male Offspring of Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ogunwole, Eunice; Akindele, Opeyemi O; Oluwole, Omobola F; Salami, S A; Raji, Y

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine was investigated for its possible fetal programming effects on reproductive function of male offspring. Sixty-five pregnant Wistar rats were grouped into four. Group 1 was control and received distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated orally with 1.14, 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively. Each group was subdivided into four based on gestation days (GD) 1-7, 8-14, 15-21 and 1-21. The day of parturition was taken as postnatal day zero (0). Male offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 70. Parameters determined were: weight at birth, body weight at postnatal day 21 and 70, anogenital distance (AGD) index, sperm parameters, reproductive organ weight, histology and hormonal profile (testosterone, FSH and LH). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance. Level of significance was taken at P<0.05. Male offspring belonging to caffeine treated dams showed dose dependent significant decreases in birth weight. Male offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 had a significant increase in their AGD index. Also, male offspring from dams treated with 1.14 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 8-14 had a significant increase in AGD index. Dams treated with 3.42 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 15-21, had a significant increase in the AGD index of their male offspring. The sperm motility of offspring from dams treated with 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 were significantly increased. Offspring of GD 8-14 and GD 15-21 dams treated with 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively, showed significantly reduced serum testosterone level. There was a significant decrease in the weight of testes of offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 8-14. Histological sections of testes of offspring from caffeine treated dams showed interstitial congestions, edema, reduced germinal epithelial height and detached basal membrane. Maternal caffeine exposure during

  18. Dietary restriction does not adversely affect bone geometry and mechanics in rapidly growing male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jennifer; Lamothe, Jeremy M; Zernicke, Ronald F; Auer, Roland N; Reimer, Raylene A

    2005-02-01

    The present study assessed the effects of dietary restriction on tibial and vertebral mechanical and geometrical properties in 2-mo-old male Wistar rats. Two-month-old male Wistar rats were randomized to the ad libitum (n=8) or the 35% diet-restricted (DR) feeding group (n=9) for 5 mo. Tibiae and L6 vertebrae were dissected out for microcomputed tomography (microCT) scanning and subsequently fractured in biomechanical testing to determine geometrical and mechanical properties. The DR group had significantly lower mean tibial length, mass, area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia, as well as vertebral energy to maximal load. After adjustment for body mass, however, DR tibial mean maximal load and stiffness, and DR vertebral area, height, volume, and maximal load were significantly greater, relative to ad libitum means. No significant differences were found between the DR and ad libitum mineral ash fractions. Because the material properties of the tibiae between the two groups were not significantly different, presumably the material integrity of the bones was not adversely affected as a consequence of DR. The similar material characteristics were consistent with mineral ash fractions that were not different between the two groups. Vertebral maximal load and stiffness were not significant between the DR and ad libitum animals. Importantly, we show that a level of dietary restriction (35%) that is less severe than many studies (40%), and without micronutrient compensation does not adversely affect tibial and vertebral mechanical properties in young growing male rats when normalized for body mass. PMID:15585686

  19. Intracranial self-administration of ethanol within the ventral tegmental area of male Wistar rats: evidence for involvement of dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Zachary A; Melendez, Roberto I; Bell, Richard L; Kuc, Kelly A; Zhang, Ying; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J

    2004-02-01

    Previous work from our laboratory indicated that female Wistar rats will self-administer ethanol (EtOH) directly into the posterior ventral tegmental area (VTA). These results suggested that VTA dopamine (DA) neurons might be involved in mediating the reinforcing actions of EtOH within this region. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the dose-response effects for the self-administration of EtOH into the VTA of male Wistar rats, and (2) the involvement of VTA DA neurons in the reinforcing actions of EtOH within the VTA. Adult male Wistar rats were implanted stereotaxically with guide cannulas aimed at the posterior or anterior VTA. After 1 week, rats were placed in standard two-lever (active and inactive) experimental chambers for a total of seven to eight sessions. The first experiment determined the intracranial self-administration of EtOH (0-400 mg%) into the posterior and anterior VTA. The second experiment examined the effects of coadministration of the D2/3 agonist quinpirole on the acquisition and maintenance of EtOH self-infusions into the posterior VTA. The final experiment determined the effects of a D2 antagonist (sulpiride) to reinstate self-administration behavior in rats given EtOH and quinpirole to coadminister. Male Wistar rats self-infused 100-300 mg% EtOH directly into the posterior, but not anterior, VTA. Coadministration of quinpirole prevented the acquisition and extinguished the maintenance of EtOH self-infusion into the posterior VTA, and addition of sulpiride reinstated EtOH self-administration. The results of this study indicate that EtOH is reinforcing within the posterior VTA of male Wistar rats and suggest that activation of VTA DA neurons is involved in this process.

  20. Dosimetry considerations in the enhanced sensitivity of male Wistar rats to chronic ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, R.A. Wilson, D.M.; Hard, G.C.; Stebbins, K.E.; Bartels, M.J.; Soelberg, J.J.; Dryzga, M.D.; Gingell, R.; McMartin, K.E.; Snellings, W.M.

    2008-04-15

    less sensitive strain), a significant difference was observed in oxalate clearances between young rats (i.e. Wistar clearance < F344) but not in age-matched old rats. Regardless, the ratios of oxalate:inulin clearances in these two strains of rats, including those exposed to ethylene glycol, were all < 1, suggesting that a fraction of the filtered oxalate is reabsorbed. Other species, including humans, typically have clearance ratios > 1 and are more effective at clearing oxalic acid by both glomerular filtration and active secretion. Thus, the lower renal clearance and kidney accumulation of oxalates in male Wistar rats enhances their sensitivity, which will be a factor in human risk assessments. The benchmark dose values (BMD05, BMDL05) were 170 mg/kg/day and 150 mg/kg/day for nephropathy, and 170 mg/kg/day and 160 mg/kg/day for birefringent crystals, using incidence times severity data in each case. The NOAEL of 150 mg/kg/day is the same as that reported after 16-week exposure and appears to be a threshold dose below which no renal toxicity occurs, regardless of exposure duration.

  1. Endurance treadmill running training benefits the biomaterial quality of bone in growing male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsang-Hai; Chang, Feng-Ling; Lin, Shang-Chih; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Hsieh, Sandy S; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance running training on the bones of growing rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats (7 weeks old) were assigned to a sedentary control group (CON, n = 10), a continuous endurance running group (CEN, n = 10), or an intermittent endurance running group (IEN, n = 12). After an 8-week training period, both exercise groups had significantly less body weight (BW) gain but higher aerobic capacity, shown by increased muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity. Bone area (BA), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured by dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA) in the total femur and sections of femora. Except for showing a significantly higher aBMD in total femora, the CON group was only slightly and nonsignificantly higher in other DXA measurements. In tissue weight measurements, the CON group showed a nonsignificantly higher tissue dry weight (P = 0.146), but a significantly lower tissue water content ratio (WCR, %) as compared to the exercise group. Despite having nonsignificantly lower long bone cross-sectional parameters, both exercise groups showed significantly better biomaterial properties, as measured by a three-point bending test. In extrinsic analysis, femora of the two exercise groups showed no difference in bending load and stiffness, but were significantly higher in post-yield bending energy and total ultimate bending energy (P < 0.05). Similar phenomena were revealed in tissue-level measurements; the CEN and IEN groups were significantly higher in ultimate toughness and post-yield toughness (P < 0.05). Higher post-yield energy shown by two exercise groups implied a change in bone matrix organization. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that two endurance treadmill training modes benefit bone, with subjects showing better tissue biomaterial properties without significantly increasing aBMD, BMC, or bone dimension. Further study would be valuable to investigate the effects of endurance

  2. Protective effect of pentoxifylline on male Wistar rat testicular germ cell apoptosis induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymeth amphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Mahnaz; Movassaghi, Shabnam; foroumadi, Alireza; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Sharifi, Zahra Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) one of the methamphetamine derivatives that affect the reproductive system, has not been well understood. Many young people are consumers of drugs such as MDMA that can affect their reproductive capability. Apoptosis is the main mechanism for male infertility. Pentoxifylline (PTX) increases cAMP intracellularly and reduces tumor necrosis factor-α. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of PTX administration in MDMA-induced apoptosis in testes of male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into five groups: control group (without any intervention), group receiving 7.5 mg/kg MDMA three times every two hours for one day, first experimental group receiving 100 mg/kg PTX just at the time of third injection of MDMA, second experimental group receiving 100 mg/kg PTX a week before MDMA administration, and the vehicle group, which received MDMA+saline. Two weeks later, testes were removed and prepared for H&E staining, TUNEL and Western blot techniques. Results: There was a significant decrease of the score in the MDMA group compared with the control group. In first and second experimental groups, the quality of seminiferous epithelium was improved compared with the MDMA group. The number of TUNEL-positive cells/tubule increased in MDMA and vehicle groups, which is decreased by administration of PTX before MDMA. Expression of active caspase-3 significantly increased in MDMA group, which is significantly decreased by administration of PTX before MDMA. Conclusion: PTX can significantly reduce the severity of lesions in the testes following administration of MDMA. PMID:27482346

  3. The effects of atrazine metabolites on puberty and thyroid function in the male Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Tammy E; Guidici, D L; Laws, S C; Cooper, R L

    2002-06-01

    Recently we reported that atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, alters the onset of puberty in male Wistar rats. In this study, we examined the same reproductive parameters in the developing male rat following a similar exposure to the primary, chlorinated metabolites of atrazine. Intact male Wistar rats were gavaged from postnatal day (PND) 23 through PND 53 and several reproductive endpoints were examined. The doses selected were the molar equivalents to atrazine in our previous work. Deethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropyl-atrazine (DIA), and diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) were administered by gavage at doses equivalent to the atrazine equimolar doses (AED) of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg. Preputial separation (PPS) was significantly delayed by DEA at 25, 100, and 200 AED, by DIA at 25, 100, and 200 AED, and by DACT at 12.5 through 200 AED. When the males were killed on PND 53, DEA (100 and 200 AED), DIA (50 through 200 AED), and DACT (200 AED) treatments caused a significant reduction in ventral prostate weight, while only the highest doses of DIA and DEA resulted in a significant decrease in lateral prostate weight. Seminal vesicle weight was reduced by DEA (25, 100, and 200 AED), DIA (100 and 200 AED), and 100 and 200 AED of DACT. Epididymal weights were reduced in the DEA (200 AED), DIA (200 AED), and DACT (100 and 200 AED) treatment groups. Serum testosterone was reduced only in the males receiving the 2 highest doses of DIA. Serum estrone was increased in the 2 highest doses of the DACT group, while serum estradiol was not different in any group. No differences were observed in any of the thyroid measures. In summary, the metabolites of ATR delay puberty in a manner similar to that observed in the previous study testing atrazine. These data also suggest that the 3 chlorinated metabolites are similar to ATR, by affecting the CNS control of the pituitary/gonadal axis and subsequent development of the reproductive tract.

  4. Arecoline augments cellular proliferation in the prostate gland of male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mondal, Anushree; Maiti, Bishwa Ranjan; Chatterji, Urmi

    2011-09-01

    Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular habit in the world due to its effects as a mild stimulant, causing a feeling of euphoria and slightly heightened alertness. Areca nuts contain several alkaloids and tannins, of which arecoline is the most abundant and known to have several adverse effects in humans, specially an increased risk of oral cancer. On evaluating the effects of arecoline on the male endocrine physiology in Wistar rats, it was found that arecoline treatment led to an overall enlargement and increase in the wet weight of the prostate gland, and a two-fold increase in serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels. Since the prostate is a major target for testosterone, the consequences of arecoline consumption were studied specifically in the prostate gland. Arecoline treatment led to an increase in the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduction of secretory vesicles, signifying a hyperactive state of the prostate. Increased expression of androgen receptors in response to arecoline allowed for enhanced effect of testosterone in the prostate of treated animals, which augmented cell proliferation, subsequently confirmed by an increase in the expression of Ki-67 protein. Cellular proliferation was also the outcome of concomitant over expression of the G{sub 1}-to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the findings provide the first evidence that regular use of arecoline may lead to prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and eventually to disorders associated with prostate enlargement. - Highlights: > Effect of arecoline was investigated on the endocrine physiology of male Wistar rats. > Increase observed in prostate size, wet weight, serum testosterone and gonadotropins. > Arecoline increased RER, expression of androgen receptor and cellular proliferation. > Upregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 seen at transcriptional and translational levels. > It may cause

  5. Isoflavones and their effects on the onset of puberty in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Caceres, S; Peña, L; Moyano, G; Martinez-Fernandez, L; Monsalve, B; Illera, M J; Millan, P; Illera, J C; Silvan, G

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to determine how two of the most important isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, affect the gonadal axis in male prepuberal rats. One hundred and seventy-five prepuberal male Wistar rats were allocated into seven groups: one control group and six experimental groups that were orally administered a high or low dose of genistein, daidzein or a mixture of both. Testosterone determination was assayed by EIA. The testes and body weights were measured, and the histology of the epididymis with the sperm content and epididymal sperm count were evaluated. In the control group, we observed an increase in the serum testosterone levels (>2.5 ng ml(-1) ) at the third week (52 days), which corresponded to the onset of puberty in these rats. The same increase in serum testosterone levels was observed at the fourth week in rats that received low doses of isoflavones; therefore, we concluded that the onset of puberty was delayed. At high doses, there was no significant increase in testosterone levels, which could be related to the fact that these male rats did not reach puberty. These findings were supported by the results obtained from the analysis of the epididymal content as well as the testes/body weight ratio.

  6. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood.

  7. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Orekoya, Latifat Olubukola; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary. PMID:23569852

  8. Effects of sodium arsenate and arsenite on male reproductive functions in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Cláudia Ferreira; Marchesi, Sarah Cozzer; Ferraz, Rafael Penha; Lima, Graziela Domingues de Almeida; de Oliveira, Juraci Alves; Machado-Neves, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As), in the form of trivalent arsenite or pentavalent arsenate, is a ubiquitous toxic compound naturally occurring in the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of two different forms of inorganic As on reproductive parameters following oral exposure. Adult Wistar male rats were exposed to sodium arsenite or arsenate at concentrations of 0.01 mg/L or 10 mg/L for 56 d in drinking water. Sodium arsenite at both concentrations and sodium arsenate at 10 mg/L produced reduction in daily sperm production, in number of spermatids in the testis, and in sperm in the epididymal caput/corpus regions. Changes in epididymal morphometry were variable and region specific. Total and progressive sperm motility and sperm morphology did not differ markedly between controls and animals exposed to As. The body and reproductive organs weights, as well as testosterone concentration, remained unchanged among all groups. In conclusion, As exposure in drinking water over 56 d produced damage in male reproductive functions in adult rats, suggesting that fertility problems might occur. Therefore, additional studies need to be undertaken to investigate potential mechanisms underlying sodium arsenite- and arsenate-induced disturbances in fertility and reproductive performance.

  9. Effects of sodium arsenate and arsenite on male reproductive functions in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Cláudia Ferreira; Marchesi, Sarah Cozzer; Ferraz, Rafael Penha; Lima, Graziela Domingues de Almeida; de Oliveira, Juraci Alves; Machado-Neves, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As), in the form of trivalent arsenite or pentavalent arsenate, is a ubiquitous toxic compound naturally occurring in the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of two different forms of inorganic As on reproductive parameters following oral exposure. Adult Wistar male rats were exposed to sodium arsenite or arsenate at concentrations of 0.01 mg/L or 10 mg/L for 56 d in drinking water. Sodium arsenite at both concentrations and sodium arsenate at 10 mg/L produced reduction in daily sperm production, in number of spermatids in the testis, and in sperm in the epididymal caput/corpus regions. Changes in epididymal morphometry were variable and region specific. Total and progressive sperm motility and sperm morphology did not differ markedly between controls and animals exposed to As. The body and reproductive organs weights, as well as testosterone concentration, remained unchanged among all groups. In conclusion, As exposure in drinking water over 56 d produced damage in male reproductive functions in adult rats, suggesting that fertility problems might occur. Therefore, additional studies need to be undertaken to investigate potential mechanisms underlying sodium arsenite- and arsenate-induced disturbances in fertility and reproductive performance. PMID:27029432

  10. Ulcer Protective Activity of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Arumugam Ramamoorthy; Daniel, Epison Prabu; Ilavarasan, Raju; Venkataraman, S.; Vijayakumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several synthetic drugs are useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer, but almost of these drugs are used in prolonging time, it may cause several adverse reactions. However, the herbal medicines are more potent to the treatment and minimize the side effects. Objective: To evaluate the methanol extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. (MEJG) for gastro protective activity against Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-ulcer potency of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) was assessed using aspirin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) plus pylorus ligation ulcer model and the parameters studied were ulcer index (UI), gastric juice volume, pH, total acidity, and total acid output. Same extract was studied by ethanol-induced (80%, 5 mL/kg, intragastrically) ulcer model, and the UI and biochemical parameters were studied. Results: The oral administration of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) attenuated the ulcer score and anti-secretary parameters (such as the volume of gastric content, free acidity, total acidity, and total acid output) in the aspirin plus pylorus ligation rats. The extract also significantly attenuated (P < 0.001) ulcer score in ethanol-induced ulcer model and lipid peroxidation level and significantly increased the level of glutathione peroxides, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity. The MEJG may possess active constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and terpenes, which may play a major role in gastroprotective effect in Wistar rats. Conclusion: The present study provides scientific support for the anti-ulcer activities of extracts of JG and also claimed that antioxidant potential of the extracts. However, substantiates the traditional claims for the usage of this drug in the treatment of gastric ulcer. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. for gastro protective activity against aspirin plus pyloric ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models was studied in Wistar rats. JG shows significantly

  11. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE METABOLITES ON PUBERTY AND THYROID FUNCTION IN THE MALE WISTAR RATS: AN EVALUATION IN THE MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Effects of Atrazine Metabolites on Puberty in the Male Wistar Rat. D L Guidici, R L Cooper and T E Stoker. Endocrinology Branch, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC.
    Sponsor: R J Kavlock.
    Atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, alters pubertal pr...

  12. Urinary monitoring of exposure to yttrium, scandium, and europium in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Usuda, Kan; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Fujimoto, Keiichi; Kono, Rei; Fujita, Aiko; Kono, Koichi

    2012-12-01

    On the assumption that rare earth elements (REEs) are nontoxic, they are being utilized as replacements of toxic heavy metals in novel technological applications. However, REEs are not entirely innocuous, and their impact on health is still uncertain. In the past decade, our laboratory has studied the urinary excretion of REEs in male Wistar rats given chlorides of europium, scandium, and yttrium solutions by one-shot intraperitoneal injection or oral dose. The present paper describes three experiments for the suitability and appropriateness of a method to use urine for biological monitoring of exposure to these REEs. The concentrations of REEs were determined in cumulative urine samples taken at 0-24 h by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, showing that the urinary excretion of REEs is <2 %. Rare earth elements form colloidal conjugates in the bloodstream, which make high REEs accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system and glomeruli and low urinary excretion. The high sensitivity of inductively coupled plasma-argon emission spectrometry analytical methods, with detection limits of <2 μg/L, makes urine a comprehensive assessment tool that reflects REE exposure. The analytical method and animal experimental model described in this study will be of great importance and encourage further discussion for future studies.

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the blood of spontaneously or induced muricidal male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Augier, S; Penes, M C; Debilly, G; Miachon, A S

    2003-04-15

    Serum levels of several n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were compared in male Wistar muricidal (Mu) and non-Mu rats. The Mu behavior was either spontaneous or induced by long-term isolation, feeding with a starch-enriched polyunsaturated fatty acid diet (PUFA+S), water restriction, or adrenalectomy (ADX). Arachidonic acid (ARA) levels were lower in diet-induced (PUFA+S) Mu rats than in their non-Mu controls. Total n-6 fatty acid levels were also lower in spontaneously Mu rats than in spontaneously non-Mu rats. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and total n-3 fatty acids levels were lower in rats with isolation-induced Mu behavior. The n-3/n-6 ratio was higher in spontaneously Mu rats than in spontaneously non-Mu rats. The changes in ARA levels were greater than those in DHA levels, possibly due to the higher blood-brain barrier passage of arachidonic acid. The results were analyzed in the light of recent results showing a role of PUFAs in human and animal behavior. PMID:12725904

  14. A preliminary 13-week oral toxicity study of ginger oil in male and female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jeena, Kottarapat; Liju, Vijayastelter B; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2011-12-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe, ginger, is a major spice extensively used in traditional medicine. The toxicity profile of ginger oil was studied by subchronic oral administration for 13 weeks at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg per day to 6 groups of Wistar rats (5/sex per dose). Separate groups of rats (5/sex per group) received either paraffin oil (vehicle) or were untreated and served as comparative control groups. There was no mortality and no decrease in body weight or food consumption as well as selective organ weights during the study period. Administration of ginger oil to rats did not produce any treatment-related changes in hematological parameters, hepatic, renal functions, serum electrolytes, or in histopathology of selected organs. The major component of ginger oil was found to be zingiberene (31.08%), and initial studies indicated the presence of zingiberene in the serum after oral dosing. These results confirmed that ginger oil is not toxic to male and female rats following subchronic oral administrations of up to 500 mg/kg per day (no observed adverse effect level [NOAEL]). PMID:21960667

  15. The 90-day oral toxicity of d-psicose in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Ishii, Reika; Shirai, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    d-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that d-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute toxicity testing in rats, d-psicose is classified as an ordinary substance (LD50 = 16 g/kg). Elucidating the effects of sub-chronic feeding of d-psicose in rats is essential before it can be utilized as a physiologically functional food. In this study, male Wistar rats (3 weeks old) were fed diets containing 3% d-psicose or sucrose for 90 days. The body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight did not differ between the sucrose and the d-psicose groups. The weights of the liver and kidneys were significantly higher in the d-psicose group than in the sucrose group. However, no gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 3% d-psicose or were correlated with hypertrophy of the liver and kidney. In a clinical chemistry analysis, the erythrocyte and leukocyte courts were significantly higher in the d-psicose group, but that was not considered to be toxicologically significant. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects of d-psicose in rats fed a diet containing 3% d-psicosefor 90 days. PMID:22448098

  16. The 90-day oral toxicity of d-psicose in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Ishii, Reika; Shirai, Yoko

    2012-03-01

    d-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that d-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute toxicity testing in rats, d-psicose is classified as an ordinary substance (LD(50) = 16 g/kg). Elucidating the effects of sub-chronic feeding of d-psicose in rats is essential before it can be utilized as a physiologically functional food. In this study, male Wistar rats (3 weeks old) were fed diets containing 3% d-psicose or sucrose for 90 days. The body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight did not differ between the sucrose and the d-psicose groups. The weights of the liver and kidneys were significantly higher in the d-psicose group than in the sucrose group. However, no gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 3% d-psicose or were correlated with hypertrophy of the liver and kidney. In a clinical chemistry analysis, the erythrocyte and leukocyte courts were significantly higher in the d-psicose group, but that was not considered to be toxicologically significant. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects of d-psicose in rats fed a diet containing 3% d-psicosefor 90 days.

  17. Allopregnanolone preferentially induces energy‐rich food intake in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Ellinor; Johansson, Maja; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Haage, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is an increasing problem and identification of the driving forces for overeating of energy‐rich food is important. Previous studies show that the stress and sex steroid allopregnanolone has a hyperphagic effect on both bland food and palatable food. If allopregnanolone induces a preference for more palatable or for more energy‐rich food is not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of allopregnanolone on food preference. Male Wistar rats were subjected to two different food preference tests: a choice between standard chow and cookies (which have a higher energy content and also are more palatable than chow), and a choice between a low caloric sucrose solution and standard chow (which has a higher energy content and is less palatable than sucrose). Food intake was measured for 1 h after acute subcutaneous injections of allopregnanolone. In the choice between cookies and chow allopregnanolone significantly increased only the intake of cookies. When the standard chow was the item present with the highest caloric load, the chow intake was increased and allopregnanolone had no effect on intake of the 10% sucrose solution. The increased energy intakes induced by the high allopregnanolone dose compared to vehicle were very similar in the two tests, 120% increase for cookies and 150% increase for chow. It appears that in allopregnanolone‐induced hyperphagia, rats choose the food with the highest energy content regardless of its palatability. PMID:25501437

  18. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, ameliorates ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Arisekola, Muritala

    2013-01-01

    In previous studies, we established that kolaviron (KV) (a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds) elicited anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective effects in Wistar rats chronically treated with ethanol. The present study investigates the possible ameliorative effect of KV against ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven animals each; Group 1 (control) was administered corn oil, group 2 was given 45%v/v ethanol at 3g/kg body weight, group 3 received ethanol and KV (200mg/kg) simultaneously and group 4 received KV alone. All drugs were given daily by oral gavage for 21 consecutive days. Ethanol treatment resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in relative weight of testis of the animals. In the spermatozoa, ethanol intoxication resulted in 54%, 21% and 38% decreases in testicular protein content, sperm motility and count, respectively. In addition, ethanol administration enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) process assessed by the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the testis. Precisely, MDA level was increased by 121% in the testis of ethanol-treated rats relative to the control. Furthermore, levels of testicular glutathione and activities of testicular antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in ethanol-treated rats. Histopathology showed extensive degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules and defoliation of spermatocytes in testis of ethanol-treated rats. Interestingly, co-administration of KV with ethanol led to almost complete inhibition of testicular LPO thereby enhancing antioxidant status of the testis. Overall, KV ameliorates ethanol-induced toxic assault on testis and improves seminal qualities of the rats. PMID:23955400

  19. Effect of progesterone pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in male Fischer (F344/NCr) and Wistar (WF/NCr) rats.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, N; Barter, R A; Uno, H; Waalkes, M P

    1994-09-01

    A previous report indicated that progesterone pretreatment can markedly reduce cadmium (Cd) toxicity in male NAW mice. Therefore we examined the effects of progesterone pretreatment on Cd toxicity in male Fischer (F344) and Wistar (WF) rats. A single subcutaneous injection of 10 or 30 mumole (CdCl2)/kg proved nonlethal over 24 hr but caused the typical spectrum of testicular lesions in these rats. Moreover, when F344 rats were pretreated with progesterone (100 mg/kg, sc, at -48, -24, and 0 hr) and then given cadmium (20 mumole CdCl2/kg, 0 hr), this dose of cadmium proved very toxic, unexpectedly causing 53% mortality. Progesterone pretreatment had no effect on cadmium-induced lethality in WF rats or on testicular lesions in either strain. Significant elevations in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, indicative of hepatotoxicity, were also observed in progesterone-pretreated F344 rats given cadmium as compared to rats given Cd alone. Progesterone did not induce increases in hepatic or renal metallothionein (MT) and hepatic or testicular MT-I mRNA levels in F344 rats. In contrast, levels of the testicular cadmium-binding protein (TCBP) in progesterone-pretreated F344 rats were doubled. This increase in TCBP provided no protection against cadmium toxicity in the testes. These results indicate that, in contrast to previously reported data for mice, progesterone pretreatment increased the lethality of cadmium in male F344 rats and had no effect on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in F344 and WF rats. PMID:7843114

  20. Jodina rhombifolia leaves lyophilized aqueous extract decreases ethanol intake and preference in adolescent male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Roberto Teves, Mauricio; Wendel, Graciela Haydée; Pelzer, Lilian Eugenia

    2015-11-01

    The leaves of Jodina rhombifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Reissek (Santalaceae) are utilized as anti-alcoholic in Argentine folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-alcohol properties in adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 29; 83-105 g of weight). We utilized the "self-administration model", which ethanol was offered in the standard home-cage through two-bottle free-choice regimen between an ethanolic solution (20% in tap water, v/v) and tap water with unlimited access for 24h per day for 10 consecutive days. The results obtained show that repeated administration of J. rhombifolia lyophilized extract, markedly reduced ethanol voluntary intake on dose dependent bases. The magnitude in reduction of daily ethanol intake was approximately 29%, 44% and 68%, for the rat groups treated with 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg of extract, respectively. Ethanol preference (proportion of ethanol intake versus total fluid intake) was significantly reduced: 21.37% ± 0.79 (0 mg/kg); 15.83% ± 0.93 (62.5 mg/kg); 15.22% ± 1.30 (125 mg/kg) and 9.38% ± 0.57 (250 mg/kg). Daily food intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the group treated with 250 mg/kg of JRLE in comparison with vehicle-dose group; the reduction in ethanol intake was associated with a compensatory increase in food intake, probably because in the control group animals a part of the total caloric intake was supplied by ethanol. Treatment was very well tolerated by all animals and without apparent side-effects. These results contribute to the scientific validation of the antialcoholic indication of this botanic species in Argentine folk medicine. PMID:26253580

  1. Comparative pharmacokinetics of purified flaxseed and associated mammalian lignans in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mukker, Jatinder Kaur; Singh, Ravi Shankar Prasad; Muir, Alister D; Krol, Ed S; Alcorn, Jane

    2015-03-14

    Consumption of flaxseed lignans is associated with various health benefits; however, little is known about the bioavailability of purified lignans in flaxseed. Data on their bioavailability and hence pharmacokinetics (PK) are necessary to better understand their role in putative health benefits. In the present study, we conducted a comparative PK analysis of the principal lignan of flaxseed, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), and its primary metabolites, secoisolariciresinol (SECO), enterodiol (ED) and enterolactone (EL) in rats. Purified lignans were intravenously or orally administered to each male Wistar rat. SDG and its primary metabolites SECO, ED and EL were administered orally at doses of 40, 40, 10 and 10 mg/kg, respectively, and intravenously at doses of 20, 20, 5 and 1 mg/kg, respectively. Blood samples were collected at 0 (pre-dose), 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 45 min, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h post-dosing, and serum samples were analysed. PK parameters and oral bioavailability of purified lignans were determined by non-compartmental methods. In general, administration of the flaxseed lignans SDG, SECO and ED demonstrated a high systemic clearance, a large volume of distribution and short half-lives, whereas administration of EL at the doses of 1 mg/kg (intravenously) and 10 mg/kg (orally administered) killed the rats within a few hours of dosing, precluding a PK analysis of this lignan. PK parameters of flaxseed lignans exhibited the following order: systemic clearance, SDG < SECO < ED; volume of distribution, SDG < SECO < ED; half-life, SDG < ED < SECO. The percentage of oral bioavailability was 0, 25 and < 1 % for SDG, SECO and ED, respectively.

  2. Neonatal proinflammatory challenge in male Wistar rats: Effects on behavior, synaptic plasticity, and adrenocortical stress response.

    PubMed

    Tishkina, Anna; Stepanichev, Mikhail; Kudryashova, Irina; Freiman, Sofia; Onufriev, Mikhail; Lazareva, Natalia; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2016-05-01

    Effects of neonatal proinflammatory stress (NPS) on the development of anxiety and depressive-like behavior, stress responsiveness, hippocampal plasticity and conditioned fear response were studied in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats. On PND 3 and PND 5, the pups were subcutaneously injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 μg/kg). In the open field test, signs of increased anxiety were demonstrated in adolescent (PND 32), but not in adult (PND 101) rats. In the elevated plus maze, no changes could be detected in adolescent rats, however, in the adults the number of entries into the open arms decreased suggesting increased anxiety after NPS. Signs of "behavioral despair" in the forced swim test, expressed in adolescent rats as a trend, became significant in the adults indicating depression-like behavior. In the majority of brain slices from PND 19-PND 33 rats subjected to NPS, deficit of LTP in the hippocampal CA1 field was detected, this deficit being associated with the impaired mechanisms of LTP induction. In the adult rats, NPS enhanced fear conditioning promoting improved formation of the novel context-foot shock association in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm without effect on cued fear conditioning. NPS significantly impaired functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), resulting in an elevated corticosterone level maintained in the adolescents but not in the adults and in modified corticosterone response to behavioral sub-chronic stress in both adolescent and adult rats. Thus, NPS induces "perinatal malprogramming" resulting in development of depression-like behaviors, associated with abnormalities in functioning of the HPAA, impaired hippocampal neuroplasticity (LTP) and changes in hippocampus-dependent memory formation.

  3. Honey prevents neurobehavioural deficit and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate exposure in male Wistar rats- a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Sulieman, Habeeb Bolakale; Zubayr, Maymunah Oloruntosin; Imam, Aminu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Biliaminu, Sikiru Abayomi; Oyewole, Lukuman Aboyeji; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2016-02-01

    This research sought to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of honey against lead (Pb)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group that received 1 ml/kg distilled orally for 28 days; while groups II-IV received 0.2% lead in drinking water and 1 ml/kg of distilled water, 1 ml/kg of honey, 1.5 ml/kg of honey respectively for 28 days. Anxiety and exploratory activities were determined in the open field test. Memory function was determined using Morris water maze after which the animals were sacrificed. The brains were then excised, homogenized and Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione -S- Transferase (GST) activities were determined in the brains. Results showed that lead exposure causes decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities; increase anxiety, memory impairment, lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant activities. However, co-administration of honey with lead inhibited neurotoxicity as indicated by the improvement in memory function as evidenced by decreased latency period and increased in time spent in target quadrant in honey-fed rats compared to the lead-exposed animals. Furthermore, honey increased locomotion, exploration and decreased anxiety in lead-exposed rats as indicated by the frequency of rearing, freezing duration and the number of line crossed by animals. Also administration of honey improves antioxidant activities as shown by increased brain SOD, GST and GSH activities compared to the lead-treated groups but no significant effect on MDA level. It can be concluded that honey has neuroprotective effects against lead-induced cognitive deficit probably by enhancing antioxidant activities. PMID:26435406

  4. Honey prevents neurobehavioural deficit and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate exposure in male Wistar rats- a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Sulieman, Habeeb Bolakale; Zubayr, Maymunah Oloruntosin; Imam, Aminu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Biliaminu, Sikiru Abayomi; Oyewole, Lukuman Aboyeji; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2016-02-01

    This research sought to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of honey against lead (Pb)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group that received 1 ml/kg distilled orally for 28 days; while groups II-IV received 0.2% lead in drinking water and 1 ml/kg of distilled water, 1 ml/kg of honey, 1.5 ml/kg of honey respectively for 28 days. Anxiety and exploratory activities were determined in the open field test. Memory function was determined using Morris water maze after which the animals were sacrificed. The brains were then excised, homogenized and Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione -S- Transferase (GST) activities were determined in the brains. Results showed that lead exposure causes decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities; increase anxiety, memory impairment, lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant activities. However, co-administration of honey with lead inhibited neurotoxicity as indicated by the improvement in memory function as evidenced by decreased latency period and increased in time spent in target quadrant in honey-fed rats compared to the lead-exposed animals. Furthermore, honey increased locomotion, exploration and decreased anxiety in lead-exposed rats as indicated by the frequency of rearing, freezing duration and the number of line crossed by animals. Also administration of honey improves antioxidant activities as shown by increased brain SOD, GST and GSH activities compared to the lead-treated groups but no significant effect on MDA level. It can be concluded that honey has neuroprotective effects against lead-induced cognitive deficit probably by enhancing antioxidant activities.

  5. Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Stress-Related Behaviors and Stress Hormones in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure. PMID:25489427

  6. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on stress-related behaviors and stress hormones in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure.

  7. Social deprivation enhances the vulnerability of male Wistar rats to stressor- and amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S H; Stinus, L; Le Moal, M; Cador, M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of experiential factors on the vulnerability of rats to develop amphetamine (AMPH)- and stressor-induced behavioral sensitization. Young male Wistar rats with previous social experience were isolated from their peers for 2 weeks. 1) The effect of this short-lasting social deprivation were: a) a reduced tendency to explore a fearful environment; b) a prolonged exploratory activity in response to a novel but little fearful environment; and c) a dose-dependent increase in the psychomotor stimulation induced by systemic AMPH injection. 2) After repeated AMPH injections (injection every other day for 10 days), isolated rats exhibited behavioral sensitization at lower doses (0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg) than those required for group-housed rats (1 mg/kg). 3) After being submitted to a repeated stressor (3, 7 or 14 footshock sessions, with 2 days between sessions), the isolated rats exhibited a greater increase in the behavioral responsivity to a subsequent AMPH challenge (1 mg/kg) than did the group-housed rats regardless of the number of stress sessions. In conclusion, these results suggest that experiential factors such as privation of contact with peers (social isolation) may make rats more vulnerable to the long-term repercussions of chronic environmental and pharmacological challenges. PMID:7724696

  8. Promotion of liver and kidney carcinogenesis by ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Doi, Yuko; Imai, Norio; Suguro, Mayuko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Furukawa, Fumio; Tamano, Seiko; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-promoting effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) were investigated in a 2-stage carcinogenesis bioassay with regard to hepatic and renal carcinogenesis in rats. Male 6-week-old Wistar rats were given drinking water containing N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)nitrosamine (EHEN), as an initiator, at a dose of 500 ppm for 2 weeks. Starting one week thereafter, the animals were administered ETBE at dose levels of 0 (control), 100, 300, 500 or 1,000 mg/kg/day by gavage for 19 weeks from week 4 to 22. Necropsy of all rats was performed at week 23, and livers and kidneys were examined histopathologically. Incidences of hepatocellular adenomas, and those of combined hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were significantly elevated in rats given 1,000 mg/kg/day ETBE, but not 100‒500 mg/kg/day ETBE, and there was a significant increase in the average numbers of lesions. No significant differences in incidences and average numbers of renal tubule neoplasms were found in rats administered 100‒1,000 mg/kg/day ETBE. However, the average numbers of atypical tubule hyperplasias, considered to be preneoplastic lesions, were significantly increased in rats given ETBE at 1,000 mg/kg/day, but not in rats given 500 mg/kg/day or lower doses. Thus, these results imply that ETBE has hepatic and renal tumor-promoting activities that affect EHEN-induced carcinogenesis in male rats, and the no-observed-effect level is 500 mg/kg/day under the present experimental conditions. PMID:26538808

  9. Effect of chlorpromazine pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in the male Wistar (WF/NCr) rat.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, N; Rehm, S; Waalkes, M P

    1994-06-01

    A recent report has indicated that cadmium-induced testicular damage in CF-1 mice can be prevented by pretreatment with calmodulin inhibitors such as chlorpromazine (CPZ), trifluoperazine, or N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide (W-7). However, the basis of this tolerance to cadmium is unclear and has not been demonstrated in any species other than mice. Thus, we examined the effects of the calmodulin inhibitor CPZ on cadmium toxicity in male Wistar (WF/NCr) rats. A single sc injection of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg proved nonlethal over 24 h but caused the typical spectrum of testicular lesions and increases in hemoglobin content (as assessed by hemoglobin absorbance in testicular supernatant). Pretreatment with 40 mumol CPZ/kg had no effect on cadmium-induced testicular lesions but did reduce testicular hemoglobin content, while 120 mumol CPZ/kg moderately reduced the severity of testicular lesions and hemoglobin contents. CPZ pretreatment in some cases increased cadmium content in liver and reduced testicular content but had no effect on renal levels. Cadmium treatment markedly increased hepatic and renal metallothionein (MT), a metal-binding protein often associated with tolerance to cadmium. CPZ alone likewise increased hepatic MT and MT mRNA, but did not modify renal MT, renal MT mRNA, or testicular MT mRNA. In contrast to liver and kidney, testicular cadmium-binding protein (TCBP) decreased in rats exposed only to cadmium or to CPZ, while CPZ pretreatment had no further effect on cadmium-induced reductions in TCBP levels. These results indicate that, like mice, CPZ in rats can reduce the testicular toxicity of cadmium as indicated by CPZ-induced reductions in testicular vascular lesions and hemoglobin contents. However, in rats CPZ has a less dramatic effect on such cadmium-induced lesions than in mice. The CPZ-induced stimulation of hepatic MT gene expression or modification of toxicokinetics may both play roles in this acquired tolerance to cadmium

  10. Protective effect of morin on cardiac mitochondrial function during isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Al Numair, Khalid S; Chandramohan, Govindasamy; Alsaif, Mohammed A; Baskar, Arul Albert

    2012-01-01

    Altered mitochondrial function and free radical-mediated tissue damage have been suggested as an important pathological event in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiotoxicity. This study was undertaken to know the preventive effect of morin on mitochondrial damage in ISO-induced cardiotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Myocardial infarction (MI) in rats was induced by ISO (85 mg/kg) at an interval of 24 hours for 2 days. Morin was given to rats as pre-treatment for 30 days orally using an intragastric tube. ISO-treated rats showed a significant elevation of mitochondrial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) level and pre-treatment with morin significantly prevented the increase of TBARS and HP level to near normality. The level of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants was decreased significantly in ISO-treated rats and pre-treatment with morin significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione to normality. The activities of mitochondrial enzymes such as isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase were decreased significantly in ISO-treated myocardial ischemic rats and upon pre-treatment with morin restored these enzymes activity to normality. In addition, the decreased activities of cytochrome-C oxidase and NADH-dehydrogenases were observed in ISO-treated rats and pre-treatment with morin prevented the activities of cytochrome-C oxidase and NADH-dehydrogenase to normality. Pre-treatment with morin favorably restored the biochemical and functional parameters to near normal indicating morin to be a significant protective effect on cardiac mitochondrial function against ISO-induced MI in rats.

  11. Effect of restricted feeding on nocturnality and daily leptin rhythms in OVLT in aged male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, V D K; Jagota, Anita

    2014-06-01

    Circadian system has direct relevance to the problems of modern lifestyle, shift workers, jet lag etc. To understand non-photic regulation of biological clock, the effects of restricted feeding (RF) on locomotor activity and daily leptin immunoreactivity (ir) rhythms in three age groups [3, 12 and 24 months (m)] of male Wistar rats maintained in light:dark (LD) 12:12 h conditions were studied. Leptin-ir was examined in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). Reversal of feeding time due to restricted food availability during daytime resulted in switching of the animals from nocturnality to diurnality with significant increase in day time activity and decrease in night time activity. The RF resulted in % diurnality of approximately 32, 29 and 73 from % nocturnality of 82, 92 and 89 in control rats of 3, 12 and 24 m age, respectively. The increase in such switching from nocturnality to diurnality with restricted feeding was found to be robust in 24 m rats. The OVLT region showed daily leptin-ir rhythms with leptin-ir maximum at ZT-0 in all the three age groups. However leptin-ir levels were minimum at ZT-12 in 3 and 12 m though at ZT-18 in 24 m. In addition the mean leptin-ir levels decreased with increase in food intake and body weight significantly in RF aged rats. Thus we report here differential effects of food entrained regulation in switching nocturnality to diurnality and daily leptin-ir rhythms in OVLT in aged rats.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers alter hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase enzyme kinetics in male Wistar rats: implications for lipid and glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nash, Jessica T; Szabo, David T; Carey, Gale B

    2013-01-01

    Xenobiotics such as phenobarbital, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and Aroclor 1254 significantly suppress the activity of a key gluconeogenic and glyceroneogenic enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), suggesting that xenobiotics disrupt hepatic glucose and fat metabolism. The effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), a family of synthetic flame-retardant chemicals, on PEPCK activity is unknown. This study investigated the effect of DE-71, a commercial PBDE mixture, on PEPCK enzyme kinetics. Forty-eight 1-mo-old male Wistar rats were gavaged daily with either corn oil or corn oil containing 14 mg/kg DE-71 for 3, 14, or 28 d (n = 8/group). At each time point, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide were measured and hepatic PEPCK activity, lipid content, and three cytochrome P-450 enzymes (CYP1A, -2B, and -3A) were assayed. PBDE treatment for 28 d significantly decreased PEPCK Vmax ( μ mol/min/g liver weight) by 43% and increased liver lipid by 20%, compared to control. CYP1A, -2B, and -3A Vmax values were enhanced by 5-, 6-, and 39-fold, respectively, at both 14 and 28 d in treated rats compared to control. There was a significant inverse and temporal correlation between CYP3A and PEPCK Vmax for the treatment group. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were not markedly affected by treatment, but the glucose:insulin ratio was significantly higher in treated compared to control rats. Data suggest that in vivo PBDE treatment compromises liver glucose and lipid metabolism, and may influence whole-body insulin sensitivity.

  13. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Sargassum wightii and Halophila ovalis in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Neelakandan, Yuvaraj; Venkatesan, Arul

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this objective is to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of sulfated polysaccharide purified fractions isolated from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii and seagrass Halophila ovalis in male Wistar rats. Subjects and Methods: Crude sulfated polysaccharide from S. wightii and H. ovalis was subjected to anion exchange chromatography, and the chemical composition was investigated. The antinociceptive activity of purified fractions was investigated using formalin and hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema, peritonitis model, and Freund's Complete Adjuvant-induced arthritis model were employed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity. Results: In the formalin test, there was a significant reduction in licking time in both phases of the test at a dose of 10 mg/kg. In the hot plate test, the antinociceptive effect was observed only in animals treated with 5, 10 mg/kg suggesting that the analgesic effect occurs through a central action mechanism. Sw FrIV and Ho FrIV significantly inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan, especially at 3 h after treatment and potentially decreased neutrophil migration at 10 mg/kg, respectively. In Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, a significant reduction in paw volume was observed in Sw FrIV and Ho FrIV-treated groups (10 mg/kg). Conclusion: Purified components from S. wightii and H. ovalis have strong antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect on animal model. However, to determine the molecular mechanism, it is necessary to investigate the effect of purified fractions on inhibition of nitric oxide synthase expression mediated by inhibiting the phosphorylation of various signal proteins in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. PMID:27721544

  14. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Massularia acuminata Stem on Sexual Behaviour of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, M. T.; Akanji, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Ancient literature alluded to the use of a number of plants/preparations as sex enhancer. One of such botanicals is Massularia acuminata in which the stem has been acclaimed to be used as an aphrodisiac. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the acclaimed aphrodisiac activity of M. acuminata stem. Sixty male rats were completely randomized into 4 groups (A–D) of 15 each. Rats in group A (control) were administered with 1 mL of distilled water (the vehicle) while those in groups B, C, and D were given same volume containing 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. Sexual behaviour parameters were monitored in the male rats for day 1 (after a single dose), day 3 (after three doses, once daily), and day 5 (after five doses, once daily) by pairing with a receptive female (1 : 1). The male serum testosterone concentration was also determined. Cage side observation on the animals revealed proceptive behaviour (ear wiggling, darting, hopping, and lordosis) by the receptive female rats and precopulatory behaviour (chasing, anogenital sniffing and mounting) by the extract-treated male rats. The extract at 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight significantly (P < .05) increased the frequencies of mount and intromission. In addition, the ejaculation latency was significantly prolonged (P < .05). The latencies of mount and intromission were reduced significantly whereas ejaculation frequency increased. The extract also reduced the postejaculatory interval of the animals. Computed percentages of index of libido, mounted, intromitted, ejaculated and copulatory efficiency were higher in the extract treated animals compared to the distilled water-administered control whereas the intercopulatory interval decreased significantly. The extract also significantly (P < .05) increased the serum testosterone content of the animals except in those administered with 250 mg/kg body

  15. [Reference curves for assessing the physical growth of male Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Vargas Vitoria, Rodrigo; Hochmuller Fogaça, Rosalvo Tadeu; de Arruda, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Las ratas Wistar son una de las cepas más populares y utilizadas cotidianamente para la investigación en el laboratorio sirviendo como una importante herramienta de investigación, por lo que, exige el control estricto de variables como la edad, el sexo y el peso corporal, y de esta forma poder extrapolar los resultados al modelo humano. Objetivo: Desarrollar curvas de referencia para valorar el crecimiento físico de ratas machos Wistar en función de la edad cronológica y la maduración somática desde una perspectiva no-invasiva. Metodología: Fueron estudiadas 731 ratas machos Wistar de forma transversal. Se evaluó la edad, peso corporal y la superficie corporal. Se utilizó el método LMS para construir curvas de percentil en función del peso y la maduración somática. Resultados: Las curvas de crecimiento físico propuestas sirven para realizar el seguimiento del crecimiento físico y el diagnóstico del estado nutricional de ratas machos de cepa Wistar. Los puntos de corte prepuestos son: P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 y P97. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren que los científicos de diversas áreas puedan usar tales referencias, con el objetivo de extrapolar las fases del crecimiento somático de la rata de laboratorio al modelo humano y es una alternativa no-invasiva para valorar el crecimiento y el estado nutricional.

  16. Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Foppen, Ewout; van der Spek, Rianne; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-03-01

    In addition to the amount of ingested calories, both timing of food intake and meal composition are determinants of body weight gain. However, at present, it is unknown if the inappropriate timing of diet components is responsible for body weight gain. In the present study, we therefore studied a time-dependent effect of the diet composition on energy homeostasis. Male Wistar rats were subjected to chow ad libitum (chow group) or a choice diet with saturated fat, a 30% sugar solution, chow and tap water. The choice diet was provided either with all components ad libitum (AL), with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and a 30% sugar solution, but with access to saturated fat only during the light period (LF), or with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and saturated fat, but access to a 30% sugar solution only during the light period (LS). Caloric intake and body weight gain were monitored during 31 days. Energy expenditure was measured in the third week in calorimetric cages. All rats on a choice diet showed hyperphagia and gained more body weight compared to the chow group. Within the choice diet groups, rats on the LS diet were most food efficient (i.e. gained most body weight per ingested calorie) and showed a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) with an anti-phasic pattern, whereas no differences in locomotor activity or heat production were found. Collectively these data indicate that the timing of the diet composition affects food efficiency, most likely due to a shifted oxidation pattern, which can predispose for obesity. Further studies are underway to assess putative mechanisms involved in this dysregulation.

  17. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-α. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-α level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449

  18. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. PMID:26688578

  19. In utero exposure to dietheylhexyl phthalate differentially affects fetal testosterone and insl3 levels in the testes of male Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats: A dose response study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously reported that 750 mg/kg/day of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) administered in utero during the period of sex differentiation resulted in a higher prevalence of gubernacular lesions in male Wistar offspring than in the male Sprague Dawley (SD) rat offspring, whereas D...

  20. Effect of aqueous extract of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. Br. leaves in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oyedemi, S O; Yakubu, M T; Afolayan, A J

    2010-05-01

    The aqueous extract of the leaves of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. Br. at the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight was investigated for toxicity in male rats following administration on daily basis for 21 days. The extract did not significantly (p > .05) alter the levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width, basophils, total protein, phosphorus, calcium and chloride ions of the animals. Whereas the levels of lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, albumin as well as alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase activity were decreased by the extract, those of neutrophil, magnesium, total and conjugated bilirubin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase as well as liver and kidney body weight ratios increased. There was decrease in the mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and cholesterol only at the 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract, whereas the large unstained cells, sodium ions, white blood cells and uric acid increased only at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. The urea, creatinine and potassium increased only at 125 mg/kg body weight of the extract while the globulin content was elevated only at 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract. The doses did not produce any definite pattern of effect on the red blood cells and platelets. These alterations by the aqueous extract of L. leonurus leaves on the haematological together with the liver and kidney functional indices suggests parameter and dose-selective effects of the extract and will have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the blood system, kidney and liver of the animals. The extract is also unlikely to predispose the animals to cardiovascular risk when repeatedly consumed on daily basis at the doses investigated for 21 days. Therefore, the aqueous extract of L. leonurus

  1. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    PubMed Central

    Sailani, M. R.; Moeini, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly (P=0.00) in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis. PMID:19718326

  2. Dose- and time-dependent effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sewani-Rusike, C R; Ralebona, N; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a crude extract of Garcinia kola on male sexual function after subchronic and chronic treatment periods at different sublethal doses. Adult male Wistar rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) of a 70% ethanolic extract of G. kola daily for 56 days. Sexual behaviour studies were performed on days 28 and 50. At termination on day 56, organ weights, sperm count, reproductive hormone levels and testicular histology were assessed. Subchronic and chronic treatment of normal male rats with G. kola extract resulted in overall increase in components of libido, erection and ejaculation in treated rats - with lower doses being more efficient than the higher dose. There was a slight reduction in some components of sexual behaviour with prolonged time of treatment. G. kola treatment at all doses resulted in increased testicular weights, increased sperm count with no change in motility and increased serum testosterone levels with no change in gonadotropin levels. Gross testicular histology was not affected by treatment. We conclude that G. kola seed extract possesses potent aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats with resultant increase in sperm count and testosterone levels. PMID:26123866

  3. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment.

  4. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

  5. Evaluation of Toxicity Effects of Asafetida on Biochemical, Hematological, and Histological Parameters in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Yadegari, Maryam; Mirjalily, Aghdas; Rezvani, Mohammd Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Asafetida is traditionally used in folklore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of asafetida in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In chronic study, animals were administered with various doses of asafetida (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 6 weeks. At end of experiment, the effects of asafetida on hematological, renal, and hepatic markers and histological parameters were analyzed. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen up to 72 h of the administration of asafetida. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed within 24 h. In the chronic study, the asafetida intake has changed the hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), hematocrit (HCT), and platelets. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in treated animals. The plasma level of urea and creatinine were not altered by the administration of asafetida throughout the study. Histopathology study indicates hepatotoxicity, but no signs of prominent pathological changes in kidney. Conclusions: Asafetida did not show any acute toxicity, but chronic administration could have undesirable effects on hepatocytes and hematological factors. PMID:26862262

  6. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian-ying; He, Li-xia; Zhu, Han; Shang, Jun-li; Zhu, Ling-yan; Wang, Jun-bo; Li, Yong

    2015-12-01

    BT799 is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58) at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control. PMID:26633453

  7. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian-ying; He, Li-xia; Zhu, Han; Shang, Jun-li; Zhu, Ling-yan; Wang, Jun-bo; Li, Yong

    2015-12-02

    BT799 is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58) at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control.

  8. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qian-ying; He, Li-xia; Zhu, Han; Shang, Jun-li; Zhu, Ling-yan; Wang, Jun-bo; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    BT799 is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58) at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control. PMID:26633453

  9. Effects of altered food intake during pubertal development in male and female Wistar rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA is currently validating assays that will be used in a Tier I Screening Battery to detect endocrine disrupting chemicals. A primary concern with the Protocols for the Assessment of Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Juvenile Male and Female Rats is that a non...

  10. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity in Wistar and August rats with low and high motor activity (a cytochemical study).

    PubMed

    Sergutina, A V; Rakhmanova, V I

    2014-08-01

    Acetylcholinesterase activity was quantitatively evaluated by cytochemical method in brain structures (layers III and V of the sensorimotor cortex, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus CA3 field) of August and Wistar rats demonstrating high and low motor activity in the open field test. In August rats, acetylcholinesterase activity in the analyzed brain structures prevailed in animals with high motor activity in comparison with rats with low motor activity. In Wistar rats, the differences between the animals demonstrating high and low motor activity were less pronounced, but varied depending on the experimental series of studies. Comparisons of August rats with low motor activity and Wistar rats with high motor activity (maximum difference of motor function in these animals) revealed significant excess of acetylcholinesterase activity in layer III of the sensorimotor cortex in August rats and no differences in other brain structures of the examined animals.

  11. Tracheal overexpression of IL-1β, IRAK-1 and TRAF-6 mRNA in obese-asthmatic male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Mohammad Reza; Keyhanmanesh, Rana; Khamaneh, Amir Mehdi; Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari; Fallahi, Maryam; Alipour, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Human and animal studies have shown a close relationship between obesity and asthma severity. Here, we examined the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on the expression levels of IL-1β, IRAK-1 and TRAF-6 mRNA in male Wistar rats tracheal after sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA). Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats divided to four groups, included, control group with normal diet (C+ND), OVA-sensitized group with normal diet (S+ND), control group with high-fat diet (C+HFD), and OVA-sensitized group with high-fat diet (S+HFD). All animals fed for 8 weeks with standard pelts or high-fat diet, and then were sensitized and challenged with OVA or saline for another 4 weeks with designed regimens. At the end of study, trachea isolated and examined for expression levels of IL-1β, IRAK-1 and TRAF-6 mRNA with RT-PCR method. Results: Diet-induced obesity groups developed increased weight, obesity indexes and lipid profiles (P<0.05 to P<0.001). The expression levels of IL-1β mRNA in OVA-sensitization groups (S+ND and S+HFD) showed a significantly increased when compared with control group. Also in S+HFD group, expression level of TRAF-6 mRNA was higher than other groups (P<0.001). IRAK-1 expression level was high in S+HFD compared with control group.IL-1β and TRAF-6 mRNA correlated positively with obesity indexes. Conclusion: The results showed that DIO causes overexpression of IL-1β, IRAK-1 and TRAF-6 mRNA in an experimental model of asthma. Our results suggested that in obese-asthmatic conditions locally production and activation of pro-inflammatory agents can be increased. These findings showed that possible mechanism for obesity-asthma relationships. PMID:27279977

  12. FETAL TESTOSTERONE LEVELS ARE DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTED IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY AND WISTAR RATS AFTER IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE: A DOSE RESPONSE STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation disrupts testosterone resulting in malformations of androgen-dependent tissues. We have found that gubernacular lesions are more prevalent in in utero diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-treated Wistar male than in the SD rat o...

  13. Chronic toxicity of diethyl phthalate-A three generation lactational and gestational exposure study on male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Contzen; Mapuskar, Kranti; Rao, C Vaman

    2007-05-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is widely used in the perfume industry as a vehicle for fragrances and in personal care products making human exposure of DEP significant to adults as well as neonatals, as confirmed by levels recorded in blood as well as breast milk samples of human populations in some parts of the world. Therefore, a study was undertaken to understand the toxic effect of DEP over three generations in male Wistar rats. Healthy male and female albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 75-100g (6-7 weeks old) were randomly assigned to two groups of six each. Group I (Control) male and female rats were fed on normal diet and water ad libitum. Group II (DEP) male and female rats were given DEP dissolved in corn oil mixed with the diet at 50mg/kg of the diet/day. Hundred days after the treatment, females were mated with males for 10 days. Exposure to DEP was continued throughout mating, gestation until termination at weaning, which was 150 days of total treatment period of the parental generation. The F1 and F2 generation pups were then segregated on the basis of their sex and six male and female pups of both generations were allowed to grow till they were 75-100g in weight. The treatment was then carried out similar to the parental generation but with reduced dose of 25mg/kg of the diet/day for F1 generation and 10mg/kg of the diet/day for F2 generation. Hundred days after the treatment, females were mated with males for 10 days. Exposure to DEP was continued throughout mating, gestation (21 days) until termination at weaning (21 days), which was 150 days of total treatment period of the F1 and F2 generation. Liver and serum ALT, AST and triglycerides were significantly increased over the three generations, which was much more significant in the F2 generation DEP treated group. The serum cholesterol and liver glutathione and glutathione reductase showed a significant decrease over the three generations, which was much more significant in the F2 generation DEP

  14. [Seasonal peculiarities of the ground squirrel (Spermophilus undulatus) and Wistar rats circadian activity].

    PubMed

    Semenova, T P; Spiridonova, L A; Zakharova, N M

    2014-09-01

    The seasonal peculiarities of the circadian activity of hibernator, Yakutian long tail ground squirrels (S. undulatus) (n = 35) and non hibernator, Wistar rats (n = 35), were studied. The locomotor activity was registered in each subject individually during 5-17 days by means of "Animex" in the different periods of annual cycle. It was shown that ground squirrels were animals with daily type of activity. On the contrary, the Wistar rats demonstrated nocturne type of locomotors activity. The active period in rats was longer than in ground squirrels. It included not only at night, but morning time in spring, and daytime--in summer. The circadian differences between hibernators and non-hibernators were kept during all annual cycle at night time, but in daytime--only in spring and summer time.

  15. Malathion-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats: biochemical and histopathological studies.

    PubMed

    Flehi-Slim, Imen; Chargui, Issam; Boughattas, Sonia; El Mabrouk, Aymen; Belaïd-Nouira, Yosra; Neffati, Fadwa; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Haouas, Zohra; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2015-11-01

    The increasing use of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment constitutes an ecotoxicological hazard especially for humans and non-target animals. Hereby, we analyzed the toxic effects of malathion on the histological structure of liver and biochemical parameters in male rats. Three groups received daily different amounts of malathion: 1/1000, 1/100, and 1/10 LD50 for 30 days. The weights of treated rat's liver have increased. Analyzed tissues showed centrilobular and sinusoidal congestion, hepatocyte hypertrophy, cellular vacuolization, anucleated hepatocytes, depletion of organelles affecting the majority of cells, and presence of necrotic foci into the hepatic parenchyma. Histological sections of the liver showed important hepatocyte glycogen storage. We conclude that malathion stimulates the filing of glycogen in a dose-dependent manner. Biochemical parameters showed that alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels increased in the treated groups when the level of total protein decreased in intoxicated groups. PMID:26162445

  16. Effect of Atorvastatin on Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    MirHashemi, Amir Hossein; Afshari, Maryam; Alaeddini, Mojgan; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Dehpour, Ahmadreza; Sheikhzade, Sedigheh; Akhoundi, Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Statins are used as cholesterol-lowering drugs by many patients and have been recently shown to affect bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of atorvastatinon on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups of 12 samples each. Group A, served as control with no medication while groups B and C received a daily gavage of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as vehicle and atorvastatin (5 mg/kg) as test substance, respectively. In all three groups, 6mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were ligated between the maxillary incisors and first left molars to deliver an initial force of 60g. Tooth movement was measured following sacrifice, 21 days after appliance insertion. Root resorption, PDL width and osteoclast number were histologically evaluated and compared between the groups. Results: The mean amount of tooth movement was 0.62 mm in group A, 0.59 mm in group B and 0.38 mm in group C. OTM reduction following administration of atorvastatin was statistically significant (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the studied histologic variables among the three groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the current study, atorvastatin appears to reduce tooth movement in rats; however its effect on osteoclasts, especially osteoclastic function, requires further investigation. PMID:24910664

  17. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Musa T; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Salimon, Saoban S; Yakubu, Monsurat O; Jimoh, Rukayat O; Nafiu, Mikhail O; Akanji, Musbau A; Oladiji, Adenike T; Williams, Felicia E

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  18. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, Musa T.; Nurudeen, Quadri O.; Salimon, Saoban S.; Yakubu, Monsurat O.; Jimoh, Rukayat O.; Nafiu, Mikhail O.; Akanji, Musbau A.; Oladiji, Adenike T.; Williams, Felicia E.

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels. PMID:25893000

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) petals extract against acetaminophen toxicity in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Arash; Riahinia, Narges; Montazer Torbati, Mohammad Bagher; Behdani, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is known to be common and potentially fatal. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract, remaining from Crocus sativus petals (CSP) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying the histopathology of liver in male rats. Materials and Methods: Wister rats (24) were randomly assigned into four groups including: I) healthy, receiving normal saline; II) Intoxicated, receiving only APAP (600 mg/kg); III) pre-treated with low dose of CSP (10 mg /kg) and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg); IV) pre-treated with high dose of CSP (20 mg/kg) and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg). Results: The APAP treatment resulted in higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and bilirubin, along with lower total protein and albumin concentration than the control group. The administration of CSP with a dose of 20 mg/kg was found to result in lower levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a significant higher concentration of total protein and albumin. The histopathological results regarding liver pathology, revealed sever conditions including cell swelling, severe inflammation and necrosis in APAP-exposed rats, which was quiet contrasting compared to the control group. The pre-treated rats with low doses of ‍CSP showed hydropic degeneration with mild necrosis in centrilobular areas of the liver, while the same subjects with high doses of ‍CSP appeared to have only mild hepatocyte degeneration. Conclusions: Doses of 20 mg/kg of CSP ameliorates APAP–induced acute liver injury in rats. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of CSP resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of APAP in intoxicated rats. PMID:25386395

  20. Effect of Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin on spermatic parameters and testicular histopathology in male wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Yadegari, Maryam; Porentezari, Majid; Mirjalili, Aghdas; Hasanpor, Ashraf; Dashti, R. Mohammad Hossein; Anvari, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Ayurveda and traditional medicines of different countries such as Iran, America and Brazil, asafoetida has been used as an aphrodisiac agent. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of asafoetida on spermatic and testicular parameters in treated rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 male Wistar rats divided equally to five groups (one control and four test groups receiving 25, 50,100 and 200 mg/kg asafoetida respectively). After 6 weeks, a small part of the cauda epididymis of each rat was dissected, and the spermatic parameters were evaluated for at least 200 spermatozoa of each animal. Testis of all rats was harvested for pathologic examination. The testosterone concentration of serum was also determined. Data were statistically assessed by one-way ANOVA and value of P < 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: This study indicated that the asafoetida significantly increased the number and viability of sperms (P < 0.05). Histological study showed that spermatogenesis process and numbers of Leydig cells were increased with increasing the dose, but the Leydig cells become vacuolated. Johnsen score in experimental groups was increased compared to control although this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Asafoetida showed a positive effect on spermatic parameters although the histopathological effects on the testis were observed, particularly at high doses. PMID:26604552

  1. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  2. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  3. Impulsive choice and pre-exposure to delays: III. Four-month test-retest outcomes in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Renda, C Renee; Madden, Gregory J

    2016-05-01

    Delay discounting describes the tendency for organisms to devalue outcomes because they are delayed. Robust, positive correlations exist between excessive delay discounting and many maladaptive behaviors (e.g., substance abuse, obesity). Several studies have demonstrated that delay discounting can be reduced and this may hold promise for improving treatment outcomes. One method of reducing delay discounting provides rats with extended training with delayed reinforcement (i.e., delay-exposure training) and this significantly reduces impulsive choices, relative to rats trained with an equal number of immediate-reinforcement sessions (i.e., immediate-exposure training). To evaluate the stability of this effect, 12 weanling male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive either delay-exposure or immediate-exposure training for 120 sessions. Impulsive choice was assessed using an increasing-delay procedure immediately following training and 120 days after completion of the initial assessment. Delay-exposed rats discounted delayed food rewards significantly less than immediate-exposed rats in the initial assessment and the reassessment conducted 120 days later. These results are encouraging as they suggest that the effects of delay-exposure training are robust to the passage of time and intervening experience. PMID:27016155

  4. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic wave exposure from cellular phones on the reproductive pattern in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Behari, Jitendra

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigates the effect of free radical formation due to mobile phone exposure and effect on fertility pattern in 70-day-old male Wistar rats (sham exposed and exposed). Exposure took place in Plexiglas cages for 2 h a day for 35 days to mobile phone frequency. The specific absorption rate was estimated to be 0.9 W/kg. An analysis of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.007) showed a decrease, while an increase in catalase (P < 0.005) was observed. Malondialdehyde (P < 0.003) showed an increase and histone kinase (P = 0.006) showed a significant decrease in the exposed group. Micronuclei also show a significant decrease (P < 0.002) in the exposed group. A significant change in sperm cell cycle of G(0)-G(1) (P = 0.042) and G(2)/M (P = 0.022) were recorded. Generation of free radicals was recorded to be significantly increased (P = 0.035). Our findings on antioxidant, malondialdehyde, histone kinase, micronuclei, and sperm cell cycle are clear indications of an infertility pattern, initiated due to an overproduction of reactive oxygen species. It is concluded that radiofrequency electromagnetic wave from commercially available cell phones might affect the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa.

  5. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Chihiro; Satoh, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  6. Long-term mequindox treatment induced endocrine and reproductive toxicity via oxidative stress in male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ihsan, Awais; Wang Xu; Liu Zhaoying; Wang Yulian; Huang Xianju; Liu Yu; Yu Huan; Zhang Hongfei; Li Tingting; Yang Chunhui; Yuan Zonghui

    2011-05-01

    Mequindox (MEQ) is a synthetic antimicrobial chemical of quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxide group. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that MEQ exerts testicular toxicity by causing oxidative stress and steroidal gene expression profiles and determine mechanism of MEQ testicular toxicity. In this study, adult male Wistar rats were fed with MEQ for 180 days at five different doses as 0, 25, 55, 110 and 275 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to control, superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were elevated at 110 and 275 mg/kg MEQ, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was slightly increase at only 275 mg/kg. Furthermore, in LC/MS-IT-TOF analysis, one metabolite 2-isoethanol 4-desoxymequindox (M11) was found in the testis. There was significant decrease in body weight, testicular weight and testosterone at 275 mg/kg, serum follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) at 110 and 275 mg/kg, while lutinizing hormone (LH) levels were elevated at 110 mg/kg. Moreover, histopathology of testis exhibited germ cell depletion, contraction of seminiferous tubules and disorganization of the tubular contents of testis. Compared with control, mRNA expression of StAR, P450scc and 17{beta}-HSD in testis was significantly decreased after exposure of 275 mg/kg MEQ while AR and 3{beta}-HSD mRNA expression were significantly elevated at the 110 mg/kg MEQ group. Taken together, our findings provide the first and direct evidence in vivo for the formation of free radicals during the MEQ metabolism through N {yields} O group reduction, which may have implications to understand the possible mechanism of male infertility related to quinoxaline derivatives.

  7. The effects of Nigella sativa on sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Norouzi, Fatemeh; Abareshi, Azam; Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Saeedjalali, Mohsen; Mohebbati, Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Neuroimmune factors contribute on the pathogenesis of sickness behaviors. Nigella sativa (NS) has anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety and anti-depressive effects. In the present study, the effect of NS hydro-alcoholic extract on sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into five groups (n=10 in each): (1) control (saline), (2) LPS (1 mg/kg, administered two hours before behavioral tests), (3-5) LPS-Nigella sativa 100 , 200 and 400 mg/kg (LPS-NS 100, LPS-NS 200 and LPS-NS 400, respectively). Open- field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) were performed. Results: In OF, LPS reduced the peripheral crossing, peripheral distance, total crossing and total distance compared to control (p<0.01- p<0.001). The central crossing, central distance and central time in LPS-NS 100, LPS-NS200 and LPS-NS 400 groups were higher than LPS (p<0.01- p<0.001). In EPM, LPS decreased the open arm entries, open arm time and closed arm entries while increased the closed time compared to control (p<0.001). Pretreatment by NS extract reversed the effects of LPS (p<0.05- p<0.001). In FST, LPS increased the immobility time while, decreased the climbing and active times compared to control (p<0.05- p<0.001). In LPS-NS 100, LPS-NS 200 and LPS-NS 400 groups the immobility time was less while, the active and climbing times were more than those of LPS (p<0.05- p<0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS reduced the LPS-induced sickness behaviors in rats. Further investigations are required for better understanding the responsible compound (s) and the underlying mechanism(s). PMID:27247927

  8. Antiarthritic activity of a polyherbal formulation against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in Female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Petchi, R. Ramesh; Parasuraman, S.; Vijaya, C.; Gopala Krishna, S. V.; Kumar, M. Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To formulate a polyherbal formulation and evaluate its antiarthritic activity against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in Female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Glycosmis pentaphylla, Tridax procumbens, and Mangifera indica are well-known plants available throughout India and they are commonly used for the treatment of various diseases including arthritis. The polyherbal formulation was formulated using the ethanol extracts of the stem bark of G. pentaphylla, whole plant of T. procumbens, and leaves of M. indica. The polyherbal formulation contains the ethanol extracts of G. pentaphylla, T. procumbens, and M. indica in the ratio of 2:2:1. The quality of the finished product was evaluated as per the World Health Organization's guidelines for the quality control of herbal materials. Arthritis was induced in female Wistar rats using Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), and the antiarthritic effect of polyherbal formulation was studied at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The effects were compared with those of indomethacin (10 mg/kg). At the end of the study, blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological analysis. The radiological examination was carried out before terminating the study. Results: Polyherbal formulation showed significant antiarthritic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and this effect was comparable with that of indomethacin. The antiarthritic activity of polyherbal formulation is supported by biochemical and hematological analysis. Conclusion: The polyherbal formulation showed signinicant antiarthritic activity against FCA-induced arthritis in female Wistar rats. PMID:26229343

  9. Modulatory role of Acacia honey from north-west Nigeria on sodium arsenite-induced clastogenicity and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Gbadegesin, Michael A; Adegoke, Ayodeji M; Olugbami, J Olorunjuwon; Uche, Ndidi S

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Acacia honey from north-west Nigeria on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative damage and clastogenicity in male Wistar rats was investigated. Animals were divided into four groups and were treated daily via oral gavage for one week before they were sacrificed. Brain, liver and blood serum were collected for antioxidant and protein assays. Clastogenicity, in vitro antioxidant activity, vitamins and minerals were also evaluated. From the results, co-administration of Acacia honey with sodium arsenite on the animals increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities with concomitant decrease in malondialdehyde levels and anti-clastogenic effects relative to the group treated with sodium arsenite only. The honey possesses reducing power, high hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, good amount of vitamins (A, C and E), flavonoids (5.08 ± 0.92 mg QE/100 g) and phenolics (5.40 ± 0.69 mg GAE/100 g). The minerals present include zinc, iron, sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium. In conclusion, Acacia honey from Nigeria may mitigate oxidative stress and clastogenicity.

  10. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bahekar, Satish E.; Kale, Ranjana S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC) plant has been mentioned in literature of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and many others. It is also known commonly as tapioca, continues to be a crop of food security for the millions of people, especially in the developing countries of the globe including India. Medicinal uses of this plant including diarrhea have been mentioned in literature, but scientific evidence is lacking. Objective: The objective was to study antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of MEC in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were used in Wistar rats of either sex. Experimental models used were castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation and charcoal passage test. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were the standard drugs used in these models respectively. Results: MEC extracts decreased intestinal fluid volume in dose dependent manner no extract group was comparable with standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). MEC extracts also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility in dose dependent manner. MEC (100 mg/kg) and MEC (200 mg/kg) were comparable with standard drug atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg) in this aspect. <0.05 were considered to be significant. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves exhibited significant antidiarrheal activity by decreasing intestinal fluid accumulation and the gastrointestinal motility in Wistar rats. PMID:25878462

  11. Hypothalamic norepinephrine turnover response to a single low protein, high carbohydrate meal in the male Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Raum, W.; Glick, Z.

    1986-03-01

    A single meal stimulates norepinephrine turnover (NET) by approximately 4-fold in the brown adipose tissue (BAT). In this experiment the role of the hypothalamus in regulating this response was examined. NET was measured in the cortex (C), ventro-medial (VMH), and the lateral hypothalamus (LH). A total of 48 male Wistar rats (200 g body weight) were trained to eat during two feeding sessions per day. On the experimental day, one group (N = 24) was meal deprived and the other (N = 24) was given a low protein, high carbohydrate test meal for 2 hours. NET was determined by the synthesis inhibition method using alpha-methyltyrosine (AMT) injected within one hour after the meal. Norepinephrine (NE) content in each brain section was measured by radioimmunoassay at 4 time points (0, 1, 2, 3 hours) after AMT. The turnover rate (TR) was calculated as the slope of the decline in NE content over time (ng/mg protein/hr) following AMT. The fraction of the total pool of NE released/hr (k) was calculated by dividing the slope (TR) by the Y intercept (NE content at zero time). NET (TR) increased significantly (p < .05) in the VMH following a meal (9.36 +/- .67 vs 8.04 +/- .98 ng/hr; fed vs deprived). There was no change in TR in the C or LH, or in k in any brain section. The marked (4-fold) increase in BAT NET and minimal increase in VMH NET suggests that the meal has a direct effect on BAT with the VMH playing a secondary or modulatory role.

  12. Curcumin prevents inflammatory response, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats: Potential role of serine kinases.

    PubMed

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Zachariah, Bobby

    2016-01-25

    Emerging evidence suggests that high fructose consumption may be a potentially important factor responsible for the rising incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes worldwide. The present study investigated the preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats at the molecular level. Fructose feeding for 10 weeks caused oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Curcumin treatment attenuated the insulin resistance by decreasing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and increasing IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle of high fructose fed rats. It also attenuated hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and HOMA-IR level. Curcumin administration lowered tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C reactive protein (CRP) levels and downregulated the protein expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), protein kinase theta (PKCθ). In addition, inhibitor κB alpha (IκBα) degradation was prevented by curcumin supplementation. Treatment with curcumin inhibited the rise of malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS) and suppressed the protein expression of extracellular kinase ½ (ERK ½), p38 in the skeletal muscle of fructose fed rats. Further, it enhanced Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activity in the muscle of fructose fed rats. At the molecular level, curcumin inhibited the activation of stress sensitive kinases and inflammatory cascades. Our findings conclude that curcumin attenuated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, we suggest the use of curcumin as a therapeutic adjuvant in the management of diabetes, obesity and their associated complications.

  13. Curcumin prevents inflammatory response, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats: Potential role of serine kinases.

    PubMed

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Zachariah, Bobby

    2016-01-25

    Emerging evidence suggests that high fructose consumption may be a potentially important factor responsible for the rising incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes worldwide. The present study investigated the preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats at the molecular level. Fructose feeding for 10 weeks caused oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Curcumin treatment attenuated the insulin resistance by decreasing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and increasing IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle of high fructose fed rats. It also attenuated hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and HOMA-IR level. Curcumin administration lowered tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C reactive protein (CRP) levels and downregulated the protein expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), protein kinase theta (PKCθ). In addition, inhibitor κB alpha (IκBα) degradation was prevented by curcumin supplementation. Treatment with curcumin inhibited the rise of malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS) and suppressed the protein expression of extracellular kinase ½ (ERK ½), p38 in the skeletal muscle of fructose fed rats. Further, it enhanced Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activity in the muscle of fructose fed rats. At the molecular level, curcumin inhibited the activation of stress sensitive kinases and inflammatory cascades. Our findings conclude that curcumin attenuated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, we suggest the use of curcumin as a therapeutic adjuvant in the management of diabetes, obesity and their associated complications. PMID:26713546

  14. Wistar rats with high versus low rearing activity differ in radial maze performance.

    PubMed

    Görisch, Jutta; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2006-09-01

    Substantial work has shown that rats although identical in stock, sex, age, and housing conditions can differ considerably in terms of behavior and physiology. Such individual differences, which can be detected by specific behavioral screening tests, are rather stable, that is, they probably reflect a behavioral disposition or trait. Here, we asked whether and how such differences might affect performance in a task of spatial learning and memory, the radial maze. As in our previous work, we used the degree of rearing activity in a novel open field to assign male adult outbred Wistar rats into those with high versus low rearing activity (HRA/LRA rats). They were then tested in a plus-maze for possible differences in anxiety-related behavior. Finally, and most importantly, they were food deprived and underwent maze training using an 8-arm radial maze with four non-baited and four baited arms. One of these arms consistently contained a larger bait size than the other three. In the open field, HRA rats not only showed more rearing behavior, but also more locomotor activity than LRA rats. In the plus-maze, HRA rats again showed more locomotion, but did not differ in open arm time or percentage of open arm entries, that is, conventional measures of anxiety-related behavior. In the radial maze, HRA rats consistently needed less time to consume all pellets than LRA rats, which was due to faster locomotion on the arms and less time spent at the food pits (especially in baited arms) of HRA rats. During the initial days of training, they were also more efficient in obtaining all food pellets available. Furthermore, HRA rats visited more arms and made relatively less reference memory errors than LRA rats. This allowed them to forage food quickly, but was paralleled by more working memory errors than in LRA rats. In general, working memory errors were more frequent in the arm with the large bait size, but there were no indications that HRA and LRA rats responded differently

  15. Attenuation of lead-induced oxidative stress in rat brain, liver, kidney and blood of male Wistar rats by Moringa oleifera seed powder.

    PubMed

    Velaga, Manoj Kumar; Daughtry, Lucius K; Jones, Angelica C; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Rajanna, Sharada; Rajanna, Bettaiya

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a tree belonging to Moringaceae family and its leaves and seeds are reported to have ameliorative effects against metal toxicity. In the present investigation, M. oleifera seed powder was tested against lead-induced oxidative stress and compared against meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) treatment. Male Wistar rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups: control (2000 ppm of sodium acetate for 2 weeks), exposed (2000 ppm of lead acetate for 2 weeks), Moringa treated (500 mg/kg for 7 days after lead exposure), and DMSA treated (90 mg/kg for 7 days after lead exposure). After exposure and treatment periods, rats were sacrificed and the brain was separated into cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and brain stem; liver, kidney, and blood were also collected. The data indicated a significant (p<0.05) increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid perioxidation products (LPP), total protein carbonyl content (TPCC), and metal content of brain regions, liver, and kidney in the exposed group compared with their respective controls. In the blood, delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit showed significant (p<0.05) decrease on lead exposure. However, administration of M. oleifera restored all the parameters back to control, tissue-specifically, and also showed improvement in restoration better than DMSA treatment, indicating reduction of the negative effects of lead-induced oxidative stress.

  16. Effect of nucleus accumbens shell 5-HT4 receptors on the impairment of ACPA-induced emotional memory consolidation in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khodayar, Ebrahim; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigates the effects of 5-HT4 receptors of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell on the impairment of emotional memory consolidation induced by cannabinoid CB1 receptor stimulation. The elevated plus maze test-retest paradigm was used to assess memory in adult male Wistar rats. Intra-NAc shell administration of ACPA (selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist 0.006 µg/rat) and RS23597 (5-HT4 receptor antagonist 0.01 µg/rat), immediately after training, decreased emotional memory consolidation, suggesting a drug-induced amnesia, whereas post-training intra-NAc shell microinjections of RS67333 (5-HT4 receptor agonist 0.016 µg/rat) increased emotional memory consolidation. Interestingly, RS67333 exerted a dual effect on ACPA-induced behaviors, potentiating and restoring amnesia caused by the subthreshold and effective doses of ACPA, respectively. However, neither RS23597 nor AM251 (CB1 receptor antagonist 30, 60 and 120 ng/rat) affected emotional memory consolidation. Nonetheless, a subthreshold dose of AM251 (120 ng/rat) reversed the amnesia induced by ACPA (0.006 µg/rat) and RS23597 (0.01 µg/rat). None of the above doses altered the locomotor activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that the NAc-shell 5-HT4 receptors are involved in the modulation of ACPA-induced amnesia.

  17. Modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 hepatic enzymes after oral administration of Chios mastic gum to male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Katsanou, Efrosini S; Kyriakopoulou, Katerina; Emmanouil, Christina; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Machera, Kyriaki

    2014-01-01

    Chios mastic gum (CMG), a resin derived from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, is known since ancient times for its pharmacological activities. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes are among the most involved in the biotransformation of chemicals and the metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens. Previous studies referring to the modulation of these enzymes by CMG have revealed findings of unclear biological and toxicological significance. For this purpose, the modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes in the liver of male Wistar rats following oral administration of CMG extract (CMGE), at the levels of mRNA and CYP1A1 enzyme activity, was compared to respective enzyme modulation following oral administration of a well-known bioactive natural product, caffeine, as control compound known to involve hepatic enzymes in its metabolism. mRNA levels of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 were measured by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and their relative quantification was calculated. CYP1A1 enzyme induction was measured through the activity of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD). The results indicated that administration of CMGE at the recommended pharmaceutical dose does not induce significant transcriptional modulation of Cyp1a1/2 and subsequent enzyme activity induction of CYP1A1 while effects of the same order of magnitude were observed in the same test system following the administration of caffeine at the mean daily consumed levels. The outcome of this study further confirms the lack of any toxicological or biological significance of the specific findings on liver following the administration of CMGE. PMID:24950217

  18. Estrogenic activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves on female wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Jawaid, Talha; Awasthi, Akanksha; Kamal, Mehnaz

    2015-01-01

    To study the estrogenic activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves (HEBA) in female Wistar rats. The dried powdered leaves were extracted with hydroalcoholic mixture (60%), and the resultant extract was subjected for phytochemical analyses to identify different phytoconstituents. HEBA were administered to ovariectomized rats for 7 days at three different doses (viz., 200, 300, 400 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) and their estrogenic activity were compared with each of daily treatment with 0.2 mg/kg body weight, i.p. conjugated equine estrogen as a positive control or olive oil as a negative control. Estrogenic activity was evaluated by doing uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and measurement of vaginal opening in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of HEBA in ovariectomized immature and mature female Wistar rats in a dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. resulted in significant increase in the uterine wet weight (in mg) (224.82 ± 7.01) and (912.25 ± 27.22) when compared with ovariectomized control rats (111.52 ± 3.17) and (506.67 ± 21.39). HEBA (400 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) treated rats, showing only cornified epithelial cells which was an indication of the presence of the estrogen and also showed 100% vaginal opening. It was observed that HEBA possess significant estrogenic activity at 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. which was evident by uterotropic assay, measurement of vaginal opening, and histopathological changes. PMID:25709965

  19. Impact of lead sub-chronic toxicity on recognition memory and motor activity of Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Azzaoui, F Z; Ahami, A O T; Khadmaoui, A

    2009-01-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of lead nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity), on body weight gain, motor activity, brain lead accumulation and especially on recognition memory of Wistar rats. Two groups of young female Wistar rats were used. Treated rats received 20 mg L(-1) of lead nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body weight, motor activity, object recognition memory and measure of brain lead levels has been evaluated. The body weight was taken weekly, whereas the memory abilities and the motor activity are measured once every fortnight alternatively, by submitting rats to the Open Field (OF) test and to the Novel Object Recognizing (NOR) memory test. The results have shown a non significant effect in gain of body weight. However, a high significance was shown for horizontal activity (p<0.01), long memory term (p<0.01), at the end of testing period and for brain lead levels (p<0.05) between studied groups.

  20. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  1. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O; Meyer, Samantha; Aboua, Yapo G; Goboza, Mediline

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg) aqueous solution was administered (daily) orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg) of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue. PMID:27403200

  2. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.; Meyer, Samantha; Aboua, Yapo G.; Goboza, Mediline

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg) aqueous solution was administered (daily) orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg) of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue. PMID:27403200

  3. Indatraline: synthesis and effect on the motor activity of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Márcia; Siqueira, Fernanda A; Garcia-Mijares, Miriam; Silva, Luiz F; Silva, Maria T A

    2011-11-10

    A new approach for the synthesis of indatraline was developed using as the key step an iodine(III)-mediated ring contraction of a 1,2-dihydronaphthalene derivative. Behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of indatraline and of its precursor indanamide on the motor activity of Wistar rats. Specific indexes for ambulation, raising and stereotypy were computed one, two and three hours after i.p. drug administration. Indatraline effects on motor activity lasted for at least three hours. On the other hand, no significant differences in motor activity were observed using indanamide. The results suggest that indatraline has a long lasting effect on motor activity and add evidence in favor of the potential use of that compound as a substitute in cocaine addiction.

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Manihot esculenta Crantz in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bahekar, Satish Eknath; Kale, Ranjana Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The study aimed to explore the antioxidant activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves (MEC) in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg were used in wistar rats of either sex. The oxidative stress was produced by overdose of acetaminophen and estimation of serum concentration of various enzymes such as malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) were measured by standard biochemical methods. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug for assessment of antioxidant status. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Student's unpaired t-test. Results: When compared with the standard antioxidant silymarin, MEC extract did not exhibit antioxidant activity in terms of MDA level reduction. However, it significantly increased serum levels of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, and CAT) exerting a potent antioxidant effect in a graded manner. Conclusions: The observed results suggest that MEC could be a potential source of antioxidants. However, further studies are required to explore this therapeutic property of plant. PMID:27134463

  5. Neonatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene induces oxidative stress causing altered hippocampal cytomorphometry and behavior during early adolescence period of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupesh; Das, Saroj Kumar; Das, Swagatika; Das, Lipsa; Patri, Manorama

    2016-05-01

    Environmental neurotoxicants like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have been well documented regarding their potential to induce oxidative stress. However, neonatal exposure to B[a]P and its subsequent effect on anti-oxidant defence system and hippocampal cytomorphometry leading to behavioral changes have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effect of acute exposure of B[a]P on five days old male Wistar pups administered with single dose of B[a]P (0.2 μg/kg BW) through intracisternal mode. Control group was administered with vehicle i.e., DMSO and a separate group of rats without any treatment was taken as naive group. Behavioral analysis showed anxiolytic-like behavior with significant increase in time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze. Further, significant reduction in fall off time during rotarod test showing B[a]P induced locomotor hyperactivity and impaired motor co-ordination in adolescent rats. B[a]P induced behavioral changes were further associated with altered anti-oxidant defence system involving significant reduction in the total ATPase, Na(+) K(+) ATPase, Mg(2+) ATPase, GR and GPx activity with a significant elevation in the activity of catalase and GST as compared to naive and control groups. Cytomorphometry of hippocampus showed that the number of neurons and glia in B[a]P treated group were significantly reduced as compared to naive and control. Subsequent observation showed that the area and perimeter of hippocampus, hippocampal neurons and neuronal nucleus were significantly reduced in B[a]P treated group as compared to naive and control. The findings of the present study suggest that the alteration in hippocampal cytomorphometry and neuronal population associated with impaired antioxidant signaling and mood in B[a]P treated group could be an outcome of neuromorphological alteration leading to pyknotic cell death or impaired differential migration of neurons during early postnatal brain development.

  6. Effect of the acupoints ST-36 (Zusanli) and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao) on intestinal myoelectric activity of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tabosa, A; Yamamura, Y; Forno, E R; Mello, L E A M

    2002-06-01

    Despite its ancient use as a therapeutic tool to treat several ailments, acupuncture still faces the challenge of scrutiny by Western science both in terms of its efficacy and in terms of the characterization of its effects and mechanisms of actions underlying these effects. We investigated under well-controlled and carefully characterized conditions the influence of electrical stimulation of acupuncture points ST-36 (Zusanli) and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao) on the myoelectric activity of the small intestine of 38 adult male Wistar rats. Electrical recordings obtained by means of four electrodes chronically implanted in the small intestine were used to assess the effects of acupuncture (electroacupuncture stimulation set at 2 Hz, intermittent stimulation, 1 V, for 30 min). Immobilization of the animals was associated with a consistent decrease (-8 +/- 7%) in the myoelectric activity of the small intestine as measured by means of the root mean square. Conversely, acupuncture was able to significantly increase (overshoot) this activity compared to baseline (+44 +/- 7%). In contrast, immobilized animals subjected to sham acupuncture had only modest (nonsignificant) increases in myoelectric activity (+9 +/- 6%). Using carefully controlled conditions we confirmed previous noncontrolled studies on the ability of acupuncture to alter intestinal motility. The characterization of the topographic and temporal profiles of the effects observed here represents a basis for future dissection of the physiological and pharmacological systems underlying these effects.

  7. The effects of different levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters of adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mesbahzadeh, Behzad; Akbari, Mohsen; kor, Nasroallah Moradi; Zadeh, Jalal Bayati

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peppermint is an efficient medicinal plant for the treatment of diseases, and it also can be used to produce raw materials in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of various levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods This experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD). Fifty adult, healthy, male Wistar rats (ages of 2.5–3 months; weights of 190–210 g) were allocated randomly into five groups. T1 was the control group in which the rats received 0.3 ml of distilled water). Groups T2, T3, T4, and T5 received 75, 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg of peppermint extract, respectively. The rats received daily pretreatment by oral gavages for 21 days. We recorded body weights at the beginning and at the end of the study to determine the changes in the body weights. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, albumin, globulin, and total protein. Statistical analysis of the data was done by SAS software. The data statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), which was conducted through Dennett’s multiple comparison post-test. Results The results indicated that the rats treated with peppermint gained more weight (p < 0.05) and also decreased the serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and glucose in T3, T4 and T5 than the other groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Peppermint extract had a positive effect on body-weight gain and some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. The findings showed that peppermint is a crucial substance at high temperature, and future research should be focused on determining the details of the mechanisms involved in producing the observed effects of peppermint extract. PMID:26516445

  8. Safety and efficacy of a novel Prunus domestica extract (Sitoprin, CR002) on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Swaroop, Anand; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel Prunus domestica bark extract (Sitoprin, CR002) was investigated on testosterone propionate (TP)-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in male Wistar rats. BPH was induced by daily subcutaneous administration of TP (3.0 mg/kg) over a period of 15 days (interim sacrifice group) and for an additional 21 days (terminal sacrifice group). We evaluated the dose-dependent efficacy (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day) of CR002 and a control group against BPH, and compared with a reference standard Prunus africana extract (CR001). Extensive clinical examinations were carried out on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of treatment period to determine the onset, duration and severity of clinical signs. Clinical pathology, hematology, biochemistry and histopathology were performed on days 15 and 35, prior to necropsy. Animals were fasted overnight prior to blood collection. Prostate glands and tissues were examined. On day 36, histopathology of ventral prostrate of control rats demonstrates single layer of columnar mucin secreting epithelial cells along with a lumen occupied with eosinophilic secretion. In contrast, CR002 and CR001 groups (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) exhibited no hyperplasia and proliferation of epithelial cells. Prostate histopathology of these treated groups was comparable with control rats. The hyperplasia and hypertrophy of prostrate was reduced to single-layered cell indicating the efficacy of CR002 and CR001. Overall, results demonstrate that CR002 exhibits therapeutic efficacy/activity in TP-induced BPH in rats, which is comparable to CR001.

  9. Therapeutic approaches of melatonin in microwave radiations-induced oxidative stress-mediated toxicity on male fertility pattern of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Meena, Ramovatar; Kumari, Kajal; Kumar, Jitendra; Rajamani, Paulraj; Verma, H N; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Microwave (MW) radiation produced by wireless telecommunications and a number of electrical devices used in household or in healthcare institutions may adversely affects the reproductive pattern. Present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin (is well known antioxidant that protects DNA, lipids and proteins from free radical damage) against oxidative stress-mediated testicular impairment due to long-term exposure of MWs. For this, 70-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 6/group): Sham exposed, Melatonin (Mel) treated (2 mg/kg), 2.45 GHz MWs exposed and MWs + Mel treated. Exposure took place in Plexiglas cages for 2 h a day for 45 days where, power density (0.21 mW/cm(2)) and specific absorption rate (SAR 0.14 W/Kg) were estimated. After the completion of exposure period, rats were sacrificed and various stress related parameters, that is LDH-X (lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme) activity, xanthine oxidase (XO), ROS (reactive oxygen species), protein carbonyl content, DNA damage and MDA (malondialdehyde) were performed. Result shows that melatonin prevent oxidative damage biochemically by significant increase (p < 0.001) in the levels of testicular LDH-X, decreased (p < 0.001) levels of MDA and ROS in testis (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, it reversed the effects of MWs on XO, protein carbonyl content, sperm count, testosterone level and DNA fragmentation in testicular cells. These results concluded that the melatonin has strong antioxidative potential against MW induced oxidative stress mediated DNA damage in testicular cells.

  10. Therapeutic approaches of melatonin in microwave radiations-induced oxidative stress-mediated toxicity on male fertility pattern of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Meena, Ramovatar; Kumari, Kajal; Kumar, Jitendra; Rajamani, Paulraj; Verma, H N; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Microwave (MW) radiation produced by wireless telecommunications and a number of electrical devices used in household or in healthcare institutions may adversely affects the reproductive pattern. Present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin (is well known antioxidant that protects DNA, lipids and proteins from free radical damage) against oxidative stress-mediated testicular impairment due to long-term exposure of MWs. For this, 70-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 6/group): Sham exposed, Melatonin (Mel) treated (2 mg/kg), 2.45 GHz MWs exposed and MWs + Mel treated. Exposure took place in Plexiglas cages for 2 h a day for 45 days where, power density (0.21 mW/cm(2)) and specific absorption rate (SAR 0.14 W/Kg) were estimated. After the completion of exposure period, rats were sacrificed and various stress related parameters, that is LDH-X (lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme) activity, xanthine oxidase (XO), ROS (reactive oxygen species), protein carbonyl content, DNA damage and MDA (malondialdehyde) were performed. Result shows that melatonin prevent oxidative damage biochemically by significant increase (p < 0.001) in the levels of testicular LDH-X, decreased (p < 0.001) levels of MDA and ROS in testis (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, it reversed the effects of MWs on XO, protein carbonyl content, sperm count, testosterone level and DNA fragmentation in testicular cells. These results concluded that the melatonin has strong antioxidative potential against MW induced oxidative stress mediated DNA damage in testicular cells. PMID:23676079

  11. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Linn.) leaf against paracetamol intoxicated Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Selvam, N. Thamizh; Venkatakrishnan, V.; Dhamodharan, R.; Murugesan, S.; Kumar, S. Damodar

    2013-01-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Alston) (Linn.) leaves against Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats was observed at two different doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The healthy control, disease control, and standard drug Silymarin-treated groups were also maintained for the comparison. The liver marker enzymes SGOT, SGPT, ALKP, Serum Bilirubin and other metabolic parameters like total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol were evaluated in all the experimental groups. The changes in liver function parameters were significant in comparison to disease control group and the observed efficacy was comparable to standard drug. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose dependent. The histopathology study of liver also supports the presence of hepatoprotective activity in S. jambos by showing improved cytoarchitecture of liver cells in the treated groups. The results obtained in this study indicate necessity for further research on isolation and characterization of functional molecules from the extract. PMID:24501529

  12. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Linn.) leaf against paracetamol intoxicated Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Selvam, N Thamizh; Venkatakrishnan, V; Dhamodharan, R; Murugesan, S; Kumar, S Damodar

    2013-07-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Alston) (Linn.) leaves against Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats was observed at two different doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The healthy control, disease control, and standard drug Silymarin-treated groups were also maintained for the comparison. The liver marker enzymes SGOT, SGPT, ALKP, Serum Bilirubin and other metabolic parameters like total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol were evaluated in all the experimental groups. The changes in liver function parameters were significant in comparison to disease control group and the observed efficacy was comparable to standard drug. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose dependent. The histopathology study of liver also supports the presence of hepatoprotective activity in S. jambos by showing improved cytoarchitecture of liver cells in the treated groups. The results obtained in this study indicate necessity for further research on isolation and characterization of functional molecules from the extract. PMID:24501529

  13. Transient Inactivation of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Affects Both Anxiety and Decision-Making in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Visser, Leonie; Baars, Annemarie M.; van ’t Klooster, José; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-01-01

    In both humans and rats high levels of anxiety impair decision-making in the Iowa gambling task (IGT) in male subjects. Expression of the immediate early gene c-fos as marker of neural activity in rat studies indicated a role of the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic and infralimbic region; mPFC) in mediating the relationship between anxiety and decision-making. To delineate this relationship further and assess the underlying neurobiology in more detail, we inactivated in the present study the mPFC in male rats using a mixture of the GABA-receptor agonists muscimol and baclofen. Rats were exposed to the elevated plus maze (EPM) to measure effects on anxiety and to the rodent version of the IGT (r-IGT). Inactivation led to increased levels of anxiety on the EPM, while not affecting general activity. The effect in the r-IGT (trials 61–120) was dependent on levels of performance prior to inactivation (trial 41–60): inactivation of the mPFC hampered task performance in rats, which already showed a preference for the advantageous option, but not in rats which were still choosing in a random manner. These data suggest that the mPFC becomes more strongly involved as rats have learned task-contingencies, i.e., choose for the best long-term option. Furthermore they suggest, along with the data of our earlier study, that both anxiety and decision-making in rats are mediated through a neural circuitry including at least the mPFC. The data are discussed in relation to recent data of rodent studies on the neural circuitry underlying decision-making. PMID:21927595

  14. Antioxidant enzymes expression and activity in liver of stressed wistar rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjević, J.; Nićiforović, A.; Radojčić, M. B.

    2009-09-01

    Altered activities of antioxidant defence system enzymes and the levels of free radicals scavengers have been found to correlate with various physiological or pathological conditions, including stress. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic 21 day isolation stress on antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) expression and activity in Wistar rat liver tissue. The serum corticosterone (CORT) and glucose (GLU) levels were also measured, as one of the most important indicators of stress. Our data revealed that in chronic stress conditions, when both CORT and GLU were low, the AOEs expression was markedly induced. This increase in MnSOD, CuZnSOD, and catalase exhibited similar trend implying efficient detoxification of O_2^{ - .} and H2O2. However, this trend was not followed by the respective enzyme activity. While the total SOD activity was induced by the stress, catalase activity remained unaltered. This discrepancy led us to a conclusion that chronic isolation stress may cause oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in rat liver tissue, favoring H2O2 accumulation.

  15. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice.

  16. Effects of diabetes, vanadium, and insulin on glycogen synthase activation in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Semiz, Sabina; Orvig, Chris; McNeill, John H

    2002-02-01

    In vivo effects of insulin and vanadium treatment on glycogen synthase (GS), glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) activity were determined in Wistar rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The skeletal muscle was freeze-clamped before or following an insulin injection (5 U/kg i.v.). Diabetes, vanadium, and insulin in vivo treatment did not affect muscle GSK-3beta activity as compared to controls. Following insulin stimulation in 4-week STZ-diabetic rats muscle GS fractional activity (GSFA) was increased 3 fold (p < 0.05), while in 7-week diabetic rats it remained unchanged, suggesting development of insulin resistance in longer term diabetes. Muscle PP1 activity was increased in diabetic rats and returned to normal after vanadium treatment, while muscle GSFA remained unchanged. Therefore, it is possible that PP1 is involved in the regulation of some other cellular events of vanadium (other than regulation of glycogen synthesis). The lack of effect of vanadium treatment in stimulating glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle suggests the involvement of other metabolic pathways in the observed glucoregulatory effect of vanadium.

  17. Behavioral toxicity and physiological changes from repeated exposure to fluorene administered orally or intraperitoneally to adult male Wistar rats: A dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Julie; Grova, Nathalie; Hidalgo, Sophie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Rychen, Guido; Bisson, Jean-François; Appenzeller, Brice M R; Schroeder, Henri

    2016-03-01

    Fluorene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment by reason of its high volatility. Demonstrated to be a neurotoxicant through inhalation, it was also identified as a contributive PAH to food contamination. Since no data are available on its oral neurotoxicity, the purpose of the present study was to assess the behavioral and physiological toxicity of repeated oral administration of fluorene to adult Wistar male rats. Animals were daily treated with fluorene at 1, 10 or 100mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. Administration was intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral (p.o.) to evaluate the influence of the route of exposure on fluorene toxicity. Following this period of treatment, animals in both groups were subjected to similar cognitive evaluations, namely anxiety (elevated-plus maze), locomotor activity (open-field) and learning and memory abilities (eight-arm maze and avoidance test of an aversive light stimulus), as well as physiological measurements. The behavioral testing occurred from the 28th to the 60th day of the experiment during which fluorene treatment continued uninterrupted. At the end of this period, the concentration levels of fluorene and of three of its monohydroxylated metabolites in blood and brain were determined using a GC-MS/MS method. The results demonstrated a reduction in rat anxiety level at the lowest doses administered (1 and 10mg/kg/day) regardless of the treatment route, whereas locomotor activity and learning abilities remained unchanged. Moreover, a less significant weight gain was noticed in animals i.p.- and p.o.-treated with 100mg/kg/day during the 28-day period of treatment, which, upon comparison with the three other groups, induced a body weight gap that was maintained throughout the experiment. Significant increases in relative liver weight were also observed in a dose-dependent manner in orally treated rats and only in animal treated i.p. with 100mg/kg/day. According to the dose, higher

  18. Lead-induced cardiac and hematological alterations in aging Wistar male rats: alleviating effects of nutrient metal mixture.

    PubMed

    Basha, D Chand; Basha, S Sadak; Reddy, G Rajarami

    2012-08-01

    Age related mitochondrial impairments are considered to be contributors of cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to examine whether early life exposure to lead (Pb) would lead to the Pb induced age related hematological and cardiac mitochondrial changes in rats, and to further examine the protective effect of nutrient metal mixture containing zinc, iron and calcium. Male albino rats were lactationally exposed to 0.2 % Pb-acetate or 0.2 % Pb-acetate together nutrient metal mixture (0.02 %) in drinking water of the mother from postnatal day 1 (PND1) to PND 21. The hemoglobin level, the activities of serum ceruloplasmin oxidase, cardiac mitochondrial enzymes catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase, copper zinc superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation and Pb levels were analyzed at PND 45, 12 and 24 months age. The hematological parameters, and the cardiac TCA cycle and antioxidant enzyme markers and lipid peroxidation levels were significantly altered following Pb exposure in young rats (PND 45). These Pb induced changes persisted, though at much lower level in the aged rats. The Pb levels in blood and heart were also significantly higher in PND 45 and remained at detectable levels in older rats. The nutrient metal mixture containing iron, calcium and zinc significantly reversed these changes in all the chosen markers except lipid peroxidation in which the reversal effect was not significant. These data are supportive of age-related cardiac mitochondrial impairments and further provide evidence for the protective efficacy of nutrient metal mixture against Pb-toxicity.

  19. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Learning, Memory, Behavior and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Young and Old Male Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Tranum; Pathak, C. M.; Pandhi, P.; Khanduja, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of green tea extract administration on age-related cognition in young and old male Wistar rats. Methods: Young and old rats were orally administered 0.5% green tea extract for a period of eight weeks and were evaluated by passive avoidance, elevated maze plus paradigm and changes in acetylcholinesterase activity.…

  20. Differences in Monoamine Oxidase Activity in the Brain of Wistar and August Rats with High and Low Locomotor Activity: A Cytochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Sergutina, A V; Rakhmanova, V I

    2016-06-01

    Monoamine oxidase activity was quantitatively assessed by cytochemical method in brain structures (layers III and V of the sensorimotor cortex, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampal CA3 field) of rats of August line and Wistar population with high and low locomotor activity in the open fi eld test. Monoamine oxidase activity (substrate tryptamine) predominated in the nucleus accumbens of Wistar rats with high motor activity in comparison with rats with low locomotor activity. In August rats, enzyme activity (substrates tryptamine and serotonin) predominated in the hippocampus of animals with high motor activity. Comparison of August rats with low locomotor activity and Wistar rats with high motor activity (i.e. animals demonstrating maximum differences in motor function) revealed significantly higher activity of the enzyme (substrates tryptamine and serotonin) in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. The study demonstrates clear-cut morphochemical specificity of monoaminergic metabolism based on the differences in the cytochemical parameter "monoamine oxidase activity", in the studied brain structures, responsible for the formation and realization of goal-directed behavior in Wistar and August rats.

  1. Induction of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities in Gunn, heterozygous, and Wistar rat livers by pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile.

    PubMed

    Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D

    1982-01-01

    The effect of pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT) activity was comprehensively examined in Wistar (JJ), heterozygous (Jj) and Gunn (jj) rats with eleven different acceptors for glucuronic acid. UDP-GT activity after 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and phenobarbital (PB) treatment was studied in additional rats for comparative purposes. Conjugation of group-1 aglycones (1-naphthol and p-nitrophenol) was much lower in Gunn than in Wistar rats. PCN did not alter UDP-GT conjugation of these acceptors. UDP-GT activity toward group-1 aglycones was increased by 3-MC in Wistar and heterozygous rats but was not enhanced in Gunn rats by any inducer. Activity toward group-2 aglycones (morphine, chloramphenicol, valproic acid) was similar in control rats of all genotypes. PCN increased chloramphenicol conjugation, whereas PB enhanced the glucuronidation of all group-2 aglycones in Wistar, heterozygous, and Gunn rats. Conjugation of group-3 acceptors (bilirubin and digitoxigenin monodigitoxoside, DIG) was deficient in Gunn rats and was not inducible. PCN increased glucuronidation of bilirubin and DIG in Wistar and heterozygous rats. The concentration of UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) in liver was similar in control animals of all genotypes and was increased in rats treated with 3-MC. The other inducers did not affect hepatic UDPGA levels. Thus, 3-MC, PB, and PCN induce UDP-GT activities toward different groups of acceptors of glucuronic acid. The results support the hypothesis that PCN induces a form of UDP-GT that preferentially conjugates the group-3 acceptors, bilirubin and DIG.

  2. Exploring the Potential Role of Chemopreventive Agent, Hesperetin Conjugated Pegylated Gold Nanoparticles in Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Gokuladhas, Krishnan; Jayakumar, Subramaniyan; Rajan, Balan; Elamaran, Ramasamy; Pramila, Chengalvarayan Subramani; Gopikrishnan, Mani; Tamilarasi, Sasivarman; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2016-04-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and is still one of the leading causes of death world wide, due to food additives, alcohol, fungal toxins, air, toxic industrial chemicals, and water pollutants. Chemopreventive drugs play a potential role in liver cancer treatment. Obviously in the production of anticancer drugs, the factors like poor solubility, bioavailability, biocompatibility, limited chemical stability, large amount of dose etc., plays a major role. Against this backdrop, the idea of designing the chemopreventive nature of bio flavanoid hesperetin (HP) drug conjugated with pegylated gold nanoparticles to increasing the solubility, improve bioavailability and enhance the targeting capabilities of the drug during diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male wistar albino rats. The dose fixation studies and the toxicity of pure HP and HP conjugated gold nanoparticles (Au-mPEG(5000)-S-HP) were analysed. After concluded the dose fixation and toxicity studies the experimental design were segregated in six groups for the anticancer analysis of DEN induced HCC for 16 weeks. After the experimental period the body weight, relative liver weight, number of nodules and size of nodules, the levels of tumor markers like CEA, AFP and the level of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. The administration of DEN to rats resulted in increased relative liver weight and serum marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. The levels of lipid peroxides elevated (in both serum and tissue) with subsequent decrease in the final body weight and tissue antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidise, and glutathione reductase. HP supplementation (20 mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated these alterations, thereby showing potent anticancer effect in liver cancer and the

  3. Exploring the Potential Role of Chemopreventive Agent, Hesperetin Conjugated Pegylated Gold Nanoparticles in Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Gokuladhas, Krishnan; Jayakumar, Subramaniyan; Rajan, Balan; Elamaran, Ramasamy; Pramila, Chengalvarayan Subramani; Gopikrishnan, Mani; Tamilarasi, Sasivarman; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2016-04-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and is still one of the leading causes of death world wide, due to food additives, alcohol, fungal toxins, air, toxic industrial chemicals, and water pollutants. Chemopreventive drugs play a potential role in liver cancer treatment. Obviously in the production of anticancer drugs, the factors like poor solubility, bioavailability, biocompatibility, limited chemical stability, large amount of dose etc., plays a major role. Against this backdrop, the idea of designing the chemopreventive nature of bio flavanoid hesperetin (HP) drug conjugated with pegylated gold nanoparticles to increasing the solubility, improve bioavailability and enhance the targeting capabilities of the drug during diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male wistar albino rats. The dose fixation studies and the toxicity of pure HP and HP conjugated gold nanoparticles (Au-mPEG(5000)-S-HP) were analysed. After concluded the dose fixation and toxicity studies the experimental design were segregated in six groups for the anticancer analysis of DEN induced HCC for 16 weeks. After the experimental period the body weight, relative liver weight, number of nodules and size of nodules, the levels of tumor markers like CEA, AFP and the level of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. The administration of DEN to rats resulted in increased relative liver weight and serum marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. The levels of lipid peroxides elevated (in both serum and tissue) with subsequent decrease in the final body weight and tissue antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidise, and glutathione reductase. HP supplementation (20 mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated these alterations, thereby showing potent anticancer effect in liver cancer and the

  4. Magnetoreception Regulates Male Courtship Activity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Wei; Her, Jim-Long; Wu, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The possible neurological and biophysical effects of magnetic fields on animals is an area of active study. Here, we report that courtship activity of male Drosophila increases in a magnetic field and that this effect is regulated by the blue light-dependent photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY). Naïve male flies exhibited significantly increased courtship activities when they were exposed to a ≥ 20-Gauss static magnetic field, compared with their behavior in the natural environment (0 Gauss). CRY-deficient flies, cryb and crym, did not show an increased courtship index in a magnetic field. RNAi-mediated knockdown of cry in cry-GAL4-positive neurons disrupted the increased male courtship activity in a magnetic field. Genetically expressing cry under the control of cry-GAL4 in the CRY-deficient flies restored the increase in male courtship index that occurred in a magnetic field. Interestingly, artificially activating cry-GAL4-expressing neurons, which include large ventral lateral neurons and small ventral lateral neurons, via expression of thermosensitive cation channel dTrpA1, also increased the male courtship index. This enhancement was abolished by the addition of the cry-GAL80 transgene. Our results highlight the phenomenon of increased male courtship activity caused by a magnetic field through CRY-dependent magnetic sensation in CRY expression neurons in Drosophila. PMID:27195955

  5. Magnetoreception Regulates Male Courtship Activity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Wei; Her, Jim-Long; Wu, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The possible neurological and biophysical effects of magnetic fields on animals is an area of active study. Here, we report that courtship activity of male Drosophila increases in a magnetic field and that this effect is regulated by the blue light-dependent photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY). Naïve male flies exhibited significantly increased courtship activities when they were exposed to a ≥ 20-Gauss static magnetic field, compared with their behavior in the natural environment (0 Gauss). CRY-deficient flies, cryb and crym, did not show an increased courtship index in a magnetic field. RNAi-mediated knockdown of cry in cry-GAL4-positive neurons disrupted the increased male courtship activity in a magnetic field. Genetically expressing cry under the control of cry-GAL4 in the CRY-deficient flies restored the increase in male courtship index that occurred in a magnetic field. Interestingly, artificially activating cry-GAL4-expressing neurons, which include large ventral lateral neurons and small ventral lateral neurons, via expression of thermosensitive cation channel dTrpA1, also increased the male courtship index. This enhancement was abolished by the addition of the cry-GAL80 transgene. Our results highlight the phenomenon of increased male courtship activity caused by a magnetic field through CRY-dependent magnetic sensation in CRY expression neurons in Drosophila. PMID:27195955

  6. The urinary bladder carcinogen propoxur does not produce genotoxic effects in the urinary bladder of Wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Iatropoulos, M J; Duan, J-D; Schmuck, G; Williams, G M

    2015-09-01

    Propoxur (PPX) is a carbamate insecticide which induced urinary bladder cancer in Wistar rats when fed at 5000ppm in Altromin 1321 diet (1321). In the present investigation, PPX was studied for induction of several key events related to modes of action (MOA) of carcinogenicity in urinary bladders (UBs). Wistar rats were administered the compound for 28 days at 8000ppm in Provini Liba SA 3883 diet, which is similar to the 1321 diet. o-Anisidine HCl (AH) was used as a genotoxic UB carcinogenic comparator, and trisodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) as an epigenetic UB carcinogen comparator. Along with the non-dosed control and three test substance groups (PPX, AH, NTA), four more groups were additionally fed 2% ammonium chloride (AC) in the diet to acidify the urine, since 1321 was reported to increase urinary pH. AC did acidify the urine, as expected, although the 3883 diet itself did not increase pH values above 8. In the alkaline comet assay, AH produced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in the UB urothelium (UBU) irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. In the nucleotide (32)P-postlabeling assay (NPL), AH produced DNA adducts irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. Routine (H&E) histopathology evaluation of the UBU did not reveal any hyperplasia or evidence of luminal microprecipitates or calculi in any of the groups. Assessment of UBU proliferation as measured by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, revealed that NTA and NTA plus AC increased the replicating fraction (RF). Also AH plus AC, but not AH alone, increased the RF of UBU, whereas PPX groups were not significantly different from controls. Thus, the results reveal no evidence for DNA SSBs, binding, or alteration of DNA synthesis in the UBU by PPX, while demonstrating UBU DNA damage by AH and showing that NTA does not damage DNA, but causes increased UBU proliferation. The findings are in accord with a genotoxic MOA for AH, and an epigenetic

  7. The urinary bladder carcinogen propoxur does not produce genotoxic effects in the urinary bladder of Wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Iatropoulos, M J; Duan, J-D; Schmuck, G; Williams, G M

    2015-09-01

    Propoxur (PPX) is a carbamate insecticide which induced urinary bladder cancer in Wistar rats when fed at 5000ppm in Altromin 1321 diet (1321). In the present investigation, PPX was studied for induction of several key events related to modes of action (MOA) of carcinogenicity in urinary bladders (UBs). Wistar rats were administered the compound for 28 days at 8000ppm in Provini Liba SA 3883 diet, which is similar to the 1321 diet. o-Anisidine HCl (AH) was used as a genotoxic UB carcinogenic comparator, and trisodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) as an epigenetic UB carcinogen comparator. Along with the non-dosed control and three test substance groups (PPX, AH, NTA), four more groups were additionally fed 2% ammonium chloride (AC) in the diet to acidify the urine, since 1321 was reported to increase urinary pH. AC did acidify the urine, as expected, although the 3883 diet itself did not increase pH values above 8. In the alkaline comet assay, AH produced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in the UB urothelium (UBU) irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. In the nucleotide (32)P-postlabeling assay (NPL), AH produced DNA adducts irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. Routine (H&E) histopathology evaluation of the UBU did not reveal any hyperplasia or evidence of luminal microprecipitates or calculi in any of the groups. Assessment of UBU proliferation as measured by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, revealed that NTA and NTA plus AC increased the replicating fraction (RF). Also AH plus AC, but not AH alone, increased the RF of UBU, whereas PPX groups were not significantly different from controls. Thus, the results reveal no evidence for DNA SSBs, binding, or alteration of DNA synthesis in the UBU by PPX, while demonstrating UBU DNA damage by AH and showing that NTA does not damage DNA, but causes increased UBU proliferation. The findings are in accord with a genotoxic MOA for AH, and an epigenetic

  8. Concerted Gene Expression of Hippocampal Steroid Receptors during Spatial Learning in Male Wistar Rats: A Correlation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lubec, Gert; Korz, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal and gonadal steroid receptor activities are significantly involved and interact in the regulation of learning, memory and stress. Thus, a coordinated expression of steroid receptor genes during a learning task can be expected. Although coexpression of steroid receptors in response to behavioral tasks has been reported the correlative connection is unclear. According to the inverted U-shape model of the impact of stress upon learning and memory we hypothesized that glucocorticoid (GR) receptor expression should be correlated to corticosterone levels in a linear or higher order manner. Other cognition modulating steroid receptors like estrogen receptors (ER) should be correlated to GR receptors in a quadratic manner, which describes a parabola and thus a U-shaped connection. Therefore, we performed a correlational meta-analyis of data of a previous study (Meyer and Korz, 2013a) of steroid receptor gene expressions during spatial learning, which provides a sufficient data basis in order to perform such correlational connections. In that study male rats of different ages were trained in a spatial holeboard or remained untrained and the hippocampal gene expression of different steroid receptors as well as serum corticosterone levels were measured. Expressions of mineralocorticoid (MR) and GR receptors were positively and linearly correlated with blood serum corticosterone levels in spatially trained but not in untrained animals. Training induced a cubic (best fit) relationship between mRNA levels of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) with MR mRNA. GR gene expression was linearly correlated with MR expression under both conditions. ERα m RNA levels were negatively and linearily and MR and GR gene expressions were cubicely correlated with reference memory errors (RME). Due to only three age classes correlations with age could not be performed. The findings support the U-shape theory of steroid receptor interaction, however the cubic fit

  9. Cumulative rate and distribution of Cd and Pb in the organs of adult male Wistar rats during oral exposure.

    PubMed

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna

    2014-11-01

    The degree of accumulation of Cd and Pb in the brains, spleens, lungs, hearts, livers and kidneys of adult Wistar rats was compared both for separate (Cd or Pb) and combined (Cd+Pb) oral exposure. In addition, the metals were administered either with liquids or with solid feed. Rats were exposed to low doses of metals (7mg Cd and 50mg Pb/kg feed or L of distilled water) over 6 or 12 weeks. In total the organs of rats accumulated about 0.3-0.5% Cd and 0.4-0.6% Pb supplied with food or drink. The presented studies demonstrated that the distribution of Cd and Pb in the organs is affected by: the type of exposure (separate or combined), the source of metals (feed or drinks) and the duration of exposure. It was found that simultaneous exposure to low doses of Cd and Pb supplied with food is much more hazardous than exposure to such metals supplied with water.

  10. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nfambi, Joshua; Bbosa, Godfrey S.; Sembajwe, Lawrence Fred; Gakunga, James; Kasolo, Josephine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, Moringa oleifera is used by different communities to treat various ailments including modulation of the immune system though with limited scientific evidence. Aim To study the immunomodulatory activity of M. oleifera methanolic leaf extract in Wistar albino rats. Methods An experimental laboratory-based study was done following standard methods and procedures. Nine experimental groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX) each comprising of six animals were used. Group I received normal saline. Groups II to IX received 200 mg/kg bwt cyclophosphamide at the beginning of the study. Group III received 50 mg/kg bwt of an immunostimulatory drug levamisole. Groups IV to IX were dosed daily for 14 days with extract at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively, using an intragastric tube. Complete blood count (CBC), delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test, and hemagglutination antibody titer were determined using standard methods and procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad prism 5.0a Software. Results There was an increment in WBC, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bwt similar to the levamisole-positive control group. The neutrophil adhesion was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for treatment groups that received 1000 mg/kg bwt (29.94%) and 500 mg/kg bwt at 17.28%. The mean percentage increment in footpad thickness was highest (26.9%) after 8 h of injection of antigen in the footpad of rats dosed 500 mg/kg bwt and this later reduced to 25.6% after 24 h. There was a dose-dependent increment in the mean hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) from 10.73±0.57 HA units/μL for the 250 mg/kg bwt to 26.22±1.70 HA units/μL for the 1000 mg/kg bwt. Conclusions Methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera caused a significant immunostimulatory effect on both the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems in the Wistar albino rats. PMID:26103628

  11. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P < 0.001), decrease in the period for epithelialization (P < 0.01), high skin breaking strength (P < 0.001), and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect. PMID:27018126

  12. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P < 0.001), decrease in the period for epithelialization (P < 0.01), high skin breaking strength (P < 0.001), and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect. PMID:27018126

  13. Male and female Wistar rats differ in decision-making performance in a rodent version of the Iowa Gambling Task.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Ruud; Jolles, Jolle; van der Knaap, Lisette; Baars, Annemarie; de Visser, Leonie

    2012-10-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measures decision-making processes by simulating real-life decisions involving reward, punishment, and uncertainty of outcomes. In humans, men show more choices for the advantageous option than women. Here, we investigated sex differences in a rat model of the IGT (r-IGT). In our r-IGT mildly food-deprived rats learn to differentiate a long-term advantageous arm from a long-term disadvantageous arm differing in frequency and amount of sugar pellets as well as unpalatable but not uneatable quinine-treated sugar pellets. We also used a T-maze discrimination procedure in which rats learn to differentiate a high from a low reward arm to further explore sex differences in reward-related decision-making. In line with human data, male rats showed a stronger task progression of choices for the advantageous option than female rats. Furthermore, male rats showed more win-stay and less lose-shift behaviour in the advantageous arm as the task progressed than female rats. Whilst both male and female rats had a stronger preference for the high over the small reward arm in the T-maze, males increased this preference over sessions, whilst females did not. These data are discussed in relation to sex differences in processing rewards and punishments. PMID:22814113

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lakhwani, Lalit; Tongia, Sudheer K; Pal, Veerendra S; Agrawal, Rajendra P; Nyati, Prem; Phadnis, Pradeep

    2007-01-01

    Forced swimming test is used to induce a characteristic behavior of immobility in rats, which resembles depression in humans to some extent. We evaluated the effect of omega-3 fatty acids alone as well as compared it with the standard antidepressant therapy with fluoxetine in both acute and chronic studies. In both the studies, rats were divided into 4 groups and subjected to the following drug interventions - Group 1- control: Group 2- fluoxetine in dose of 10 mg/kg subcutaneously 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the test: Group 3- omega-3 fatty acids in dose of 500 mg/kg orally; Group 4- fluoxetine plus omega-3 fatty acids both. In acute study, omega-3 fatty acids were given in single dose 2 h prior to the test while in chronic study omega-3 fatty acids were given daily for a period of 28 days. All animals were subjected to a 15-min pretest followed 24 h later by a 5-min test. A time sampling method was used to score the behavioral activity in each group. The results revealed that in acute study, omega-3 fatty acids do not have any significant effect in forced swimming test. However, in chronic study, omega-3 fatty acids affect the immobility and swimming behavior significantly when compared with control (p < 0.01) without any significant effect on climbing behavior and the efficacy of combination of omega-3 fatty acids and fluoxetine is significantly more than that of fluoxetine alone in changing the behavioral activity of rats in forced swimming test. It leads to the conclusion that omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity per se, and the combination of fluoxetine and omega-3 fatty acids has more antidepressant efficacy than fluoxetine alone in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

  15. Evaluation of wound healing activity of cow urine ark in diabetic Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Hirapara, Hiren N.; Ghori, Vishal M.; Anovadiya, Ashish P.; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate wound healing activity of cow urine ark in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6). Three groups - diabetic control, active control (glibenclamide), and treatment (cow urine ark) were operated for excision wounds (EWs). Rats in these groups received distilled water 1 ml/day, glibenclamide 0.5 mg/kg body weight/day, and cow urine ark 5.5 ml/kg body weight/day orally till complete healing of the EWs. EWs were evaluated for wound contraction on 3rd, 7th, and 11th day and for reepithelization on 11th day. The other three groups were operated for incision wounds (IW) as well as dead space wounds (DW) in the same animal which received the above agents orally for 11 days. IWs were analyzed for wound breaking strength and DWs were analyzed for dry weight, hydroxyproline content, and histology of granulation tissue. Results: EWs showed significantly increased wound closure in the treatment group as compared to the diabetic as well as active control groups at 3rd (P < 0.001) and 11th (P < 0.05) post-wounding day and to the only diabetic control group at 7th (P < 0.01) post-wounding day. IWs showed significant improvement in wound breaking strength in the treatment as compared to diabetic (P < 0.001) and active control (P < 0.01) groups. DWs showed significant increase in hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue in the treatment as compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001) and active control (P < 0.001) groups. Wound breaking strength and hydroxyproline content also significantly increased in the active control group compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Granulation tissue dry weight was significantly increased in treatment and active control groups as compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Cow urine ark increases granulation tissue formation as well as collagen content. Wound contraction was also significantly

  16. Evaluating Nuclear Factor NF-κB Activation following Bone Trauma: A Pilot Study in a Wistar Rats Model

    PubMed Central

    Salles, Marcos Barbosa; Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Allegrini, Sergio; Yoshimoto, Marcelo; König, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the moment of peak NF-kB activation and its dissipation in the cortical bone in the femur of Wistar rat stimulated by surgical trauma. Sixty-five Wistar rats were divided into 13 groups (n = 5 per group): eight experimental groups (expG 1–8) divided based on the euthanasia time point (zero, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h) and five sham control groups (conG 1–5) killed at zero, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h, respectively. A 1.8-mm-diameter defect was generated 0.5 mm from the femur proximal joint using a round bur to induce the surgical trauma. Overall, the activation peak of NF-κB in the cortical bone was 6 h (expG5 group) independent of the evaluated position; this peak was significantly different compared to those in the other groups (p < 0.05). The surgical trauma resulted in a spread of immune markings throughout the cortical bone with an accentuation in the knee region. The present study provides the first evidence that the NF-κB activation peak was established after 6 hours in the cortical bone of Wistar rats. The signs from a surgical trauma can span the entire cortical bone and are not limited to the damaged region. PMID:26465330

  17. Evaluating Nuclear Factor NF-κB Activation following Bone Trauma: A Pilot Study in a Wistar Rats Model.

    PubMed

    Salles, Marcos Barbosa; Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Allegrini, Sergio; Yoshimoto, Marcelo; König, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the moment of peak NF-kB activation and its dissipation in the cortical bone in the femur of Wistar rat stimulated by surgical trauma. Sixty-five Wistar rats were divided into 13 groups (n = 5 per group): eight experimental groups (expG 1-8) divided based on the euthanasia time point (zero, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h) and five sham control groups (conG 1-5) killed at zero, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h, respectively. A 1.8-mm-diameter defect was generated 0.5 mm from the femur proximal joint using a round bur to induce the surgical trauma. Overall, the activation peak of NF-κB in the cortical bone was 6 h (expG5 group) independent of the evaluated position; this peak was significantly different compared to those in the other groups (p < 0.05). The surgical trauma resulted in a spread of immune markings throughout the cortical bone with an accentuation in the knee region. The present study provides the first evidence that the NF-κB activation peak was established after 6 hours in the cortical bone of Wistar rats. The signs from a surgical trauma can span the entire cortical bone and are not limited to the damaged region. PMID:26465330

  18. BRAIN ACONITASE ACTIVITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHR) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of susceptibility are critical for human health risk assessment. Previous studies indicate that spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats are more sensitive than Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats to the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors such as carbaryl and chlorpyrifos. This diffe...

  19. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Ramsvik, Marie S.; Lindquist, Carine; Nordrehaug, Jan E.; Bruheim, Inge; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC’s content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis. PMID:26371012

  20. Subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar hyperplasia and decreases MUC5AC expression in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kania, Nia; Setiawan, Bambang; Widjadjanto, Edi; Nurdiana, Nurdiana; Widodo, M Aris; Kusuma, H M S Chandra

    2014-10-01

    Coal dust is a pollutant found in coal mines that are capable of inducing oxidative stress and inflammation, but the effects on lung metaplasia as an early step of carcinogenesis remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PM10 coal dust on lung histology, MUC5AC expression, epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. An experimental study was done on male Wistar rats, which were divided into the following groups: control groups exposed to coal dust for 14 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)), and the groups exposed to coal dust for 28 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)). EGF expressions in rat lungs were measured by ELISA. EGFR and MUC5AC were measured by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The bronchoalveolar epithelial image of the group exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed a epithelial rearrangement, hyperplastic (metaplastic) goblet cells, and scattered massive inflammatory cells. The pulmonary parenchymal image of the group of exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed scattered inflammatory cells filling up the pulmonary alveolar networks, leading to an appearance of thickened parenchymal alveoli until emphysema-like structure. There was no significant difference in MUC5AC, EGF, and EGFR expressions for 14-d exposure (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in EGF and EGFR expressions for 28-d exposure (p>0.05), but there was a significant difference in MUC5AC expression (p<0.05). We concluded that subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar reactive hyperplasia and rearrangement of epithelial cells which accompanied by decrease expression MUC5AC in male rats.

  1. Reversal of Lead-Induced Acute Toxicity by Lipoic Acid with Nutritional Supplements in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sangeeta; Sharma, Yamini; Shrivastava, Sadhana

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a pleiotropic toxicant. The potential role of oxidative stress injury that is associated with Pb poisoning suggests that antioxidants may enhance the efficacy of treatment designed to mitigate Pb-induced toxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate the comparative ameliorative potential of lipoic acid (LA) alone or in combination with calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn). Pb acetate (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered for 3 d. After 24 h of the last toxicant dose, LA (100 mg/kg, orally [po]) alone or in conjuction with Ca (50 mg/kg, po) and Zn (10 mg/kg, po) was administered for 3 d. Significant alterations in the concentration of urea, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, lipid peroxidation, and reduced glutathione as well as alterations in enzyme activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase were observed following acute Pb exposure. These findings were also supported by elevated mean DNA damage and Pb body burden in blood and soft tissues compared to controls (p ≤ 0.05). Three d posttreatment with LA along with Zn and Ca could significantly restore the biochemical parameters and Pb body burden to near-normal status through antioxidant activity or by preventing bioaccumulation of Pb within the blood and tissues of experimental rats. PMID:27481494

  2. African Nutmeg (Monodora Myristica) Lowers Cholesterol and Modulates Lipid Peroxidation in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesterolemic Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onyenibe, Nwozo Sarah; Fowokemi, Kasumu Titilayo; Emmanuel, Oyinloye Babatunji

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the cholesterol lowering potential and protective ability of aqueous extract of Monodora myristica experimental hypercholesterolemic rats, a short-term study was conducted. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by administering cholesterol orally at a dose of 40 mg/kg/0.3 ml. Plant extracts 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight and Questran 0.26 g/kg were administered five times a week for eight weeks for amelioration. Hypolipidemic effects were evaluated by measuring total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) in the serum, while the protective ability was measured by the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants levels in post mitochondrial fractions (PMF) of the hepatic and cardiac homogenates. Serum aminotransferases activities were also monitored. Results obtained shows that treatment with M. myristica elicited a significant reduction in serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels while there was concomitant increase in HDL-C of hypercholesterolemic rats. Elevations in serum aminotransferases activities and LPO level were reversed and a significant amelioration was noticed in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants status in the liver and heart of hypercholesterolemic rats. This study suggests that M. myristica possess cholesterol lowering potentials and protective ability in experimental hypercholesterolemia rat model. PMID:26199582

  3. African Nutmeg (Monodora Myristica) Lowers Cholesterol and Modulates Lipid Peroxidation in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesterolemic Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Onyenibe, Nwozo Sarah; Fowokemi, Kasumu Titilayo; Emmanuel, Oyinloye Babatunji

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the cholesterol lowering potential and protective ability of aqueous extract of Monodora myristica experimental hypercholesterolemic rats, a short-term study was conducted. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by administering cholesterol orally at a dose of 40 mg/kg/0.3 ml. Plant extracts 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight and Questran 0.26 g/kg were administered five times a week for eight weeks for amelioration. Hypolipidemic effects were evaluated by measuring total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) in the serum, while the protective ability was measured by the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants levels in post mitochondrial fractions (PMF) of the hepatic and cardiac homogenates. Serum aminotransferases activities were also monitored. Results obtained shows that treatment with M. myristica elicited a significant reduction in serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels while there was concomitant increase in HDL-C of hypercholesterolemic rats. Elevations in serum aminotransferases activities and LPO level were reversed and a significant amelioration was noticed in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants status in the liver and heart of hypercholesterolemic rats. This study suggests that M. myristica possess cholesterol lowering potentials and protective ability in experimental hypercholesterolemia rat model. PMID:26199582

  4. Ultrasonic emulsification of eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion: antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and wound healing activity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sugumar, Saranya; Ghosh, Vijayalakshmi; Nirmala, M Joyce; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2014-05-01

    The plant derived essential oil nanoemulsion was prepared using a mixture of components containing eucalyptus oil as organic phase, water as continuous phase, and non ionic surfactant, Tween 80, as emulsifier at a particular proportion of 1:1 v/v%. The ultrasonication was applied for varied processing time from 0 to 30 min to study the effect of time on the formation of nanoemulsion and physical stability of formulation by this method. The transparency and stability of emulsion was enhanced when the sonication time was increased compared to hand blender emulsion. The most stable nanoemulsion was obtained in 30 min sonication having the mean droplet diameter of 3.8 nm. The antibacterial studies of nanoemulsion against Staphylococcus aureus by time kill analysis showed complete loss of viability within 15 min of interaction. Observations from scanning electron microscopy of treated bacterial cells confirmed the membrane damage compared to control bacteria. Furthermore, the wound healing potential and skin irritation activity of the formulated nanoemulsion in Wistar rats, suggested non-irritant and higher wound contraction rate with respect to control and neomycin treated rats. These results proposed that the formulated system could be favourable for topical application in pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Ultrasonic emulsification of eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion: antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and wound healing activity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sugumar, Saranya; Ghosh, Vijayalakshmi; Nirmala, M Joyce; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2014-05-01

    The plant derived essential oil nanoemulsion was prepared using a mixture of components containing eucalyptus oil as organic phase, water as continuous phase, and non ionic surfactant, Tween 80, as emulsifier at a particular proportion of 1:1 v/v%. The ultrasonication was applied for varied processing time from 0 to 30 min to study the effect of time on the formation of nanoemulsion and physical stability of formulation by this method. The transparency and stability of emulsion was enhanced when the sonication time was increased compared to hand blender emulsion. The most stable nanoemulsion was obtained in 30 min sonication having the mean droplet diameter of 3.8 nm. The antibacterial studies of nanoemulsion against Staphylococcus aureus by time kill analysis showed complete loss of viability within 15 min of interaction. Observations from scanning electron microscopy of treated bacterial cells confirmed the membrane damage compared to control bacteria. Furthermore, the wound healing potential and skin irritation activity of the formulated nanoemulsion in Wistar rats, suggested non-irritant and higher wound contraction rate with respect to control and neomycin treated rats. These results proposed that the formulated system could be favourable for topical application in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24262758

  6. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Medeiros, Niara; Koslowsky Marder, Roberta; Farias Wohlenberg, Mariane; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings. PMID:26649198

  7. A postmenopause-like model of ovariectomized Wistar rats to identify active principles of Erythrina lysistemon (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Mvondo, M A; Njamen, D; Fomum, S Tanee; Wandji, J; Vollmer, Günter

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether the two major compounds of Erythrina lysistemon are active principles accounting for Erythrina estrogenic effects, we used a postmenopause-like model of ovariectomized Wistar rats to evaluate their effects on some menopausal problems. Ovariectomized rats were orally treated either with compound 1 or compound 2 at 1 and 10 mg/kg BW for 28 days. Estradiol valerate served as the reference substance. As results, compounds 1 and 2 displayed estrogen-like effects on the uterus and the vagina, and reduced atherogenic risks by decreasing the two assessed atherogenic parameters, the total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio and the atherogenic index of plasma.

  8. Antidepressant-like activity and cardioprotective effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB694 in socially stressed Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, Luca; Vacondio, Federica; Rossi, Stefano; Callegari, Sergio; Macchi, Emilio; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    In humans, depression is often triggered by prolonged exposure to psychosocial stressors and is often associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. Mounting evidence suggests a role for endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of both emotional behavior and cardiovascular function. Here, we examined cardiac activity in a rodent model of social stress-induced depression and investigated whether pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which terminates signaling of the endocannabinoid anandamide, exerts antidepressant-like and cardioprotective effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to five weeks of repeated social stress or control procedure. Starting from the third week, they received daily administration of the selective FAAH inhibitor URB694 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Cardiac electrical activity was recorded by radiotelemetry. Repeated social stress triggered biological and behavioral changes that mirror symptoms of human depression, such as (i) reductions in body weight gain and sucrose solution preference, (ii) hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and (iii) increased immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, stressed rats showed (i) alterations in heart rate daily rhythm and cardiac autonomic neural regulation, (ii) a larger incidence of spontaneous arrhythmias, and (iii) signs of cardiac hypertrophy. Daily treatment with URB694 (i) increased central and peripheral anandamide levels, (ii) corrected stress-induced alterations of biological and behavioral parameters, and (iii) protected the heart against the adverse effects of social stress. Repeated social stress in Wistar Kyoto rats reproduces aspects of human depression/cardiovascular comorbidity. Pharmacological enhancement of anandamide signaling might be a promising strategy for the treatment of these comorbid conditions.

  9. Antidepressant-like activity and cardioprotective effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB694 in socially stressed Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, Luca; Vacondio, Federica; Rossi, Stefano; Callegari, Sergio; Macchi, Emilio; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    In humans, depression is often triggered by prolonged exposure to psychosocial stressors and is often associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. Mounting evidence suggests a role for endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of both emotional behavior and cardiovascular function. Here, we examined cardiac activity in a rodent model of social stress-induced depression and investigated whether pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which terminates signaling of the endocannabinoid anandamide, exerts antidepressant-like and cardioprotective effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to five weeks of repeated social stress or control procedure. Starting from the third week, they received daily administration of the selective FAAH inhibitor URB694 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Cardiac electrical activity was recorded by radiotelemetry. Repeated social stress triggered biological and behavioral changes that mirror symptoms of human depression, such as (i) reductions in body weight gain and sucrose solution preference, (ii) hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and (iii) increased immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, stressed rats showed (i) alterations in heart rate daily rhythm and cardiac autonomic neural regulation, (ii) a larger incidence of spontaneous arrhythmias, and (iii) signs of cardiac hypertrophy. Daily treatment with URB694 (i) increased central and peripheral anandamide levels, (ii) corrected stress-induced alterations of biological and behavioral parameters, and (iii) protected the heart against the adverse effects of social stress. Repeated social stress in Wistar Kyoto rats reproduces aspects of human depression/cardiovascular comorbidity. Pharmacological enhancement of anandamide signaling might be a promising strategy for the treatment of these comorbid conditions. PMID:26391492

  10. Polyphenol-rich extract of Vernonia amygdalina (Del.) leaves ameliorated cadmium-induced alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume of male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Imafidon, Christian Eseigbe; Akomolafe, Rufus Ojo; Sanusi, Abubakar Abefe; Ogundipe, Oluwadare Joshua; Olukiran, Olaoluwa Sesan; Ayowole, Oladele Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effects of a polyphenol-rich extract of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (PEVA) on the feeding pattern of rats that are exposed to cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats, weighing 160-180 g, were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each as follows; Group 1 received distilled water orally (0.2 ml a 100 g rats), daily, throughout the period of study. Group 2 received Cd alone (in the form of CdSO4) at 5 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal route for 5 consecutive days. Group 3 were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 and thereafter left untreated for a period of 4-week. After the oral lethal dose of PEVA was determined, Groups 4, 5, and 6 received graded doses of PEVA at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day (0.2 ml per 100 g rats), respectively via oral route for 4 weeks after they were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2. Blood samples were collected for some plasma biochemical assays while urine samples were collected using metabolic cages. Results: PEVA administration significantly increased (P < 0.05) the body weight and feeding patterns that were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by Cd toxicity. PEVA also significantly reinstated the plasma antioxidant status, as well as glucose and urine volume of the rats toward control values (P < 0.05). Conclusion: PEVA can be an herbal alternative in the treatment or management of subjects manifesting alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume that is Cd-induced. PMID:26649233

  11. Intra-lateral septal infusions of folic acid alone or combined with various antidepressant drugs produce antidepressant-like actions in male Wistar rats forced to swim.

    PubMed

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia; Olivera-López, Jorge I; Jaramillo, M Teresa

    2012-01-10

    Intra-cerebral administrations of folic acid produce antidepressant-like effects; either alone or combined with several antidepressant drugs. However, the specific limbic structures implied in the antidepressant-like actions of folic acid are un-known. Thus, intra-lateral septal infusions of folic acid (5.0 nmol, P<0.05; 10.0 nmol, P<0.05) or oral administrations of folic acid (50 mg/kg, P<0.05, p.o.; 75.0; mg/kg, P<0.05, p.o.) or systemic administrations of fluoxetine (20.0 mg/kg, P<0.05; 25.0 mg/kg, P<0.05) reduced immobility by increasing swimming behavior in the forced swimming test (FST) of male Wistar rats. Conversely, desipramine (10.0 mg/kg, P<0.05; 15.0 mg/kg, P<0.05) reduced immobility by increasing climbing behavior. Subthreshold doses of folic acid (2.5 nmol/intra-LSN) combined with subthreshold doses of folic acid (25.0 mg/kg, p.o., P<0.05) or with subthreshold doses of fluoxetine (15.0 mg/kg, P<0.05) and they produced antidepressant-like effects which were canceled by ketanserin. In conclusion, intra-lateral septal infusions of folic acid alone or combined with systemic doses of folic acid or fluoxetine reduced immobility in the FST. These antidepressant-like actions, probably, were due to modifications of the serotonergic system since swimming behavior was increased and these effects were canceled by ketanserin.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of lactobacillus on carrageenan-induced paw edema in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amdekar, Sarika; Roy, Purabi; Singh, Vinod; Kumar, Avnish; Singh, Rambir; Sharma, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus were used to assess the anti-inflammatory properties in carrageenan induced acute inflammatory model. Materials and Methods. Diclofenac sodium was used as standard drug at concentration of 150 mg/kg of body weight. Culture of Lactobacillus  2 × 10(7) CFU/ml was given orally. Edema was induced with 1% carrageenan to all the groups after one hour of the oral treatments. Paw thickness was checked at t = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 24 hours. Stair climbing score and motility score were assessed at t = 24 hours. Cytokines assay for IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α was performed on serum samples. Results. Lactobacillus showed a statistically significant decrease in paw thickness at P < 0.001. L. acidophilus and L. casei decreased by 32% and 28% in paw thickness. They both significantly increased the stair climbing and motility score. Lactobacillus treatment significantly downregulated IL-6 and TNF-α while upregulated IL-10 at P < 0.0001. Conclusion. L. casei and L. acidophilus significantly decreased the inflammatory reactions induced by carrageenan. This study has also proposed that Lactobacillus ameliorated the inflammatory reaction by downregulating the proinflammatory cytokines pathway.

  13. The protective activity of noscapine on renal ischemia–reperfusion injury in male Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Khanmoradi, Mehrangiz; Ali Mard, Seyyed; Aboutaleb, Nahid; Nobakht, Malihe; Mahmoudian, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Bradykinin is a part of the kinin-kallikrein system which is involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury via B1 and B2 receptors. Noscapine is a non-competitive antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Noscapine has been reported to to be able to protect some organs against ischemia-reperfusion injury but its effect on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIR) in rats is unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of noscapine on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four rats were randomly assigned to four groups; sham, RIR control, pre-and post-treatment with noscapine. To induce RIR injury, 20 days after right nephrectomy, animals underwent a midline laparotomy and the renal artery was clamped for 40 min to induce ischemia, and the clamp was then removed to allow reperfusion for 48 hr. Animals received noscapine or vehicle 1 hr before RIR or just prior to reperfusion. At the end of the experiment, animals were killed by cardiac exsanguination. Blood samples were collected to assess blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. The kidneys were also removed for histopathlogical and western-blot analysis. Results: Noscapine treatment 1 hr before RIR or just prior to reperfusion protects the renal tissue structure as compared with the control. The expression levels of the studied inflammatory mediators, TNF-α and MCP-1in pretreated-, and treated-noscapine groups decreased as compared with the control group. The levels of BUN and creatinine in pre-, and post-treated noscapine groups were significantly lower than in control animals. Conclusion: Noscapine protects renal tissue structure and function against RIR through down-regulation of the inflammatory mediators. PMID:24904716

  14. Psychology of male and female communicative activity.

    PubMed

    Vasyura, Svetlana A

    2008-05-01

    The article features a brief overview of theoretical and empirical studies in communication psychology and sociability of men and women, boys and girls. Russian and foreign studies are summarized to point out that girls and women place greater emphasis on communication and interpersonal relations than do boys and men. Moreover, female communication is more emotional. The article presents the results of the author's own empirical study of male and female communicative activity. Communicative activity is viewed as a complex psychological phenomenon, a degree of the subject's willingness to interact. Communicative activity was studied with the test proposed by the Russian psychologist, Krupnov, and designed to detect the following components of communicative activity: dynamic (natural), emotional, motivational, cognitive, regulatory, productive, and two sorts of communication difficulties (operational and personal). Gender differences in communicative activity are shown on a sample of 480 participants aged 18-40 (240 men and 240 women). The article then describes communicative styles of adolescents (130 boys and 130 girls, aged 19-24). Various communicative styles are featured, including "energetic, businesslike," "conformal, emotional," "diplomatic, externally oriented" for boys and "energetic, sociable," "emotional, difficult," and "complaisant, expressive" for girls. Every person's individuality and gender identity are shown to impact their communicative style.

  15. Acetylcholine and muscarinic receptor function in cerebral cortex of diabetic young and old male Wistar rats and the role of muscarinic receptors in calcium release from pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Savitha, Balakrishnan; Joseph, Binoy; Peeyush Kumar, T; Paulose, C S

    2010-04-01

    We investigated acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, acetylcholine and muscarinic M1, M3 receptors kinetics in the cerebral cortex of young and old streptozotocin induced and insulin treated diabetic rats. The role of muscarinic receptors in intracellular calcium release from pancreatic islets was studied in vitro. Wistar rats of 7 and 90-weeks old were used. All studies were done in cerebral cortex. AChE assay was done by spectrophotometric method. Radioreceptor binding assays were done for Acetylcholine, Muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors using specific ligands. Calcium imaging was done using fluo4-AM in pancreatic cells. Ninety-weeks old control rats showed significantly decreased Vmax and increased Km for AChE compared to 7-weeks old control rats. An increased Vmax observed in both 7 and 90-weeks old diabetic groups with significant decrease in Km. Scatchard analysis using specific agonists showed significant decrease in the B (max) and K (d) of acetylcholine and muscarinic M1 receptors in 90-weeks old control rats compared to 7-weeks old control. Binding studies for M3 receptors showed no significant change compared to 7-weeks old control. Acetylcholine, muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor number significantly increased in 90-weeks old diabetic rat groups compared to their respective controls. Insulin treatment significantly reversed the binding parameters to near control compared to diabetic group. In vitro studies showed that acetylcholine through muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors' stimulated calcium release from the pancreatic islets. Thus our studies suggest that Insulin signaling play an important part in differentially regulating pancreatic cholinergic activity, and the diabetes mediated cortical dysfunctions with age.

  16. Protective role of N-Acetyl L-Cysteine against reproductive toxicity due to interaction of lead and cadmium in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Banothu Anil; Reddy, Alla Gopala; Kumar, Pentela Ravi; Reddy, Yerradoddi Ramana; Rao, Thirtham Madava; Haritha, Chiluka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: One of the target organs of heavy metals is testis and many authors proposed that oxidative stress could be responsible to induce their toxicity. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) toxicity, their toxicodynamic interaction and to evaluate therapeutic potential of N-Acetyl L-cysteine (NAC) against the reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. Material and methods: rats were randomly divided into 8 groups comprising of 6 rats in each. Group 1 and 2 were syam and NAC control, Group 3, 4 and 5 were kept as toxic control groups such as lead, cadmium and lead + cadmium respectively, where as Group 6, 7 and 8 were therapeutic groups with NAC. The experiment scheduled for 3 months. Body weights, anti-oxidant profile (GSH, GST, TBARS and protein carbonyls) in testis, testis weight, testicular LDH, sperm count and histopathology were conducted. And also, interaction of Pb and Cd with zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in testis was assessed. Results: The present study revealed significant alterations in body weights, anti-oxidant profile, weights of testes, testicular LDH, sperm count, and concentration of Zn and Cu in toxic control groups 3, 4 and 5 as compared to control and NAC-treated groups. The toxic combination (Pb+Cd) group 5 showed significant alterations in protein carbonyls, GST levels and testicular LDH as compared to Pb and Cd alone administered groups and these results are substantiated with marked changes in the histopathology. All the NAC-treated groups revealed significant improvement in all the parameters. Conclusion: The results of the investigation revealed that Pb, Cd and their combination induces toxicity to the biological system due to the excess generation of free radicals and impairment of anti-oxidant defenses. Toxic effects were more pronounced in the group that received a combination of Pb and Cd, suggesting positive toxicodynamic interaction. Use of NAC countered the

  17. Antifertility and fetotoxic activities of Acanthus montanus aqueous extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Asongalem, Emmanuel Acha; Nana, Paulin; Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Dimo, Théophile; Kamtchouing, Pièrre

    2008-09-01

    Acanthus montanus T. Anderson (Acanthaceae) possesses several medicinal properties; it is used in Cameroon as a folk medicine to treat pain, inflammation and threatened abortion. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of A. montanus aqueous extract on the estrous cycle pre- and postimplantation in rats and its mechanism of action. The estrous cycles of Wistar rats were monitored before, during and after oral administration of distilled water (control) or aqueous extract (62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg/day). Furthermore, pregnant rats received the above doses of aqueous extract on days 1-6 (preimplantation) or 6-15 (postimplantation) of gestation and were sacrificed on day 8 or 20 of pregnancy, respectively. Moreover, aqueous extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg/day) was given to ovariectomized rats in the presence or absence of exogenously administered estrogen and/or progesterone and uterine weight and deciduoma count were evaluated. The extract, irrespective of dose, reversibly prolonged the metestrous and occasionally the diestrous stages of the estrous cycle. The extract did not alter the uterine wet weight or deciduoma count, suggesting a lack of estrogenic and progestational effects. At 1000 mg/kg/day, the extract caused appreciable preimplantation losses of 36.8 +/- 6.5% (P < 0.05), while none of the doses caused postimplantation losses. The extract also caused delayed fetal growth. PMID:18985180

  18. Concurrent maternal and pup postnatal tobacco smoke exposure in Wistar rats changes food preference and dopaminergic reward system parameters in the adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Moura, E G; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Abreu-Villaça, Y; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2015-08-20

    Children from pregnant smokers are more susceptible to become obese adults and to become drug or food addicts. Drugs and food activate the mesolimbic reward pathway, causing a sense of pleasure that induces further consumption. Here, we studied the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure during lactation with feeding, behavior and brain dopaminergic reward system parameters at adulthood. Nursing Wistar rats and their pups were divided into two groups: tobacco smoke-exposed (S: 4times/day, from the 3rd to the 21th day of lactation), and ambient air-exposed (C). On PN175, both offspring groups were subdivided for a food challenge: S and C that received standard chow (SC) or that chose between high-fat (HFD) and high-sucrose diets (HSDs). Food intake was recorded after 30min and 12h. Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze and open field on PN178-179; they were euthanized for dopaminergic analysis on PN180. SSD (self-selected diet) animals presented a higher food intake compared to SC ones. S-SSD animals ate more than C-SSD ones at 30min and 12h. Both groups preferred the HFD. However, S-SSD animals consumed relatively more HFD than C-SSD at 30min. No behavioral differences were observed between groups. S animals presented lower tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) content in the ventral tegmental area, lower TH, dopaminergic receptor 2, higher dopaminergic receptor 1 contents in the nucleus accumbens and lower OBRb in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Tobacco-smoke exposure during lactation increases preference for fat in the adult progeny possibly due to alterations in the dopaminergic system.

  19. Heating of vegetable oils influences the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid formation in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Stawarska, Agnieszka; Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2015-10-01

    Dietary intake of lipids and their fatty acids profile influence many aspects of health. Thermal processing changes the properties of edible oils and can also modify their metabolism, for example, eicosanoids formation. The aim of our study was to verify whether the activity of desaturases can be modified by lipids intake, especially by the fatty acids content. The experimental diets contained rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and olive oil, both unheated and heated (for 10 minutes at 200 °C each time before administration), and influenced the fatty acids composition in serum and the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid (AA) formation. The activity of desaturases was determined by measuring the amounts of AA formed in vitro derived from linoleic acid as determined in liver microsomes of Wistar rats. In addition, the indices of ∆(6)-desaturase (D6D) and ∆(5)-desaturase (D5D) have been determined. To realize this aim, the method of high-performance liquid chromatography has been used with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection. Diet supplementation with the oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids affects the fatty acids profile in blood serum and the activity of D6D and ∆(5)-desaturase in rat liver microsomes, the above activities being dependent on the kind of oil applied. Diet supplementation with heated oils has been found to increase the amount of AA produced in hepatic microsomes; and in the case of rapeseed oil and sunflower oil, it has also increased D6D activity.

  20. Early ethanol and water consumption: accumulating experience differentially regulates drinking pattern and bout parameters in male alcohol preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different genetic backgrounds, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption.

  1. Perceptions of Child Support and Sexual Activity of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui

    2004-01-01

    Using the 1995 new cohort of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, this paper examines the association between perceptions of child support and adolescent males' sexual activity. The results indicate that adolescent males who expect the chance of being required to pay child support is high if one becomes a non-resident father or who has a…

  2. The effects of black garlic ethanol extract on the spatial memory and estimated total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of monosodium glutamate-exposed adolescent male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hermawati, Ery; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2015-09-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is believed to exert deleterious effects on various organs, including the hippocampus, likely via the oxidative stress pathway. Garlic (Alium sativum L.), which is considered to possess potent antioxidant activity, has been used as traditional remedy for various ailments since ancient times. We have investigated the effects of black garlic, a fermented form of garlic, on spatial memory and estimated the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adolescent male Wistar rats treated with MSG. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: C- group, which received normal saline; C+ group, which was exposed to 2 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG; three treatment groups (T2.5, T5, T10), which were treated with black garlic extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/200 g bw, respectively) and MSG. The spatial memory test was carried out using the Morris water maze (MWM) procedure, and the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus was estimated using the physical disector design. The groups treated with black garlic extract were found to have a shorter path length than the C- and C+ groups in the escape acquisition phase of the MWM test. The estimated total number of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was higher in all treated groups than that of the C+ group. Based on these results, we conclude that combined administration of black garlic and MSG may alter the spatial memory functioning and total number of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats.

  3. Antimutagenic and radioprotective activities of beta-carotene against the biological effects of iodine-131 radiopharmaceutical in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Berti, A P; Düsman, E; Mariucci, R G; Lopes, N B; Vicentini, V E P

    2014-03-31

    Radioactive iodine-131 (131I) is used in the treatment and diagnosis of thyroid gland injuries. However, because it emits ionizing radiation, it causes harmful effects to cells. Given that beta-carotene (BC) has antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties, this study aimed to investigate its radioprotective and antimutagenic activity in relation to 131I at the dose that is used to treat hyperthyroidism using a test system of bone marrow cells from Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). The doses were 0.2 mL of 8 mg BC/mL corn oil and 25 μCi 131I per 100 g body weight, and they were given via gavage in acute and subchronic treatments. Treatment groups included simultaneous, pre-treatment, post-treatment, and continuous treatment types. In all antimutagenic acute treatments, BC had a significant antimutagenic/radioprotective activity in relation to 131I. In subchronic antimutagenic treatments, BC reduced the damage that was caused by the radioisotope; however, this reduction was not statistically significant because of the relatively low percentage of chromosomal abnormalities that were observed with only 131I compared to the acute treatment. These results demonstrate the radioprotective and antimutagenic activity of BC, indicating its use by the population, which inevitably is exposed to mutagenic agents, as a means of health protection.

  4. Activity predicts male reproductive success in a polygynous lizard.

    PubMed

    Keogh, J Scott; Noble, Daniel W A; Wilson, Eleanor E; Whiting, Martin J

    2012-01-01

    Activity patterns and social interactions play a key role in determining reproductive success, although this is poorly understood for species that lack overt social behaviour. We used genetic paternity analysis to quantify both multiple paternity and the relative roles of activity and social behaviour in determining reproductive success in a nondescript Australian lizard. During the breeding season we intensively followed and recorded the behaviour of a group of seven males and 13 females in a naturalistic outdoor enclosure to examine the relative roles of body size, activity and social interactions in determining male fertilization success. We found multiple paternity in 42% of clutches. No single behaviour was a significant predictor of male fertilization success in isolation, but male-female association, interactions and courtship explained 41% of the variation in male fertilization success. Males with the highest number of offspring sired invested heavily in interacting with females but spent very little time in interactions with males. These same males also sired offspring from more clutches. When taken collectively, an index of overall male activity, including locomotion and all social interactions, significantly explained 81% of the variation in the total number of offspring sired and 90% of the variation in the number of clutches in which males sired offspring. We suggest that the most successful male strategy is a form of endurance rivalry in which active mate searching and interactions with females have the greatest fitness benefits.

  5. Age-related protective effect of deprenyl on changes in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes and antioxidant defense enzymes activities in cerebellar tissue in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    James, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidants are free radical scavengers and protect living organisms against oxidative damage to tissues. Experimental evidence implicates oxygen-derived free radicals as important causative agents of aging and the present study was designed to evaluate the age-related effects of deprenyl on the antioxidant defense in the cerebellum of male Wistar rats. Experimental rats of three age groups (6, 12, and 18 months old) were administered with liquid deprenyl (2 mg/kg body weight/day for a period of 15 days i.p) and levels of diagnostic marker enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase) in plasma, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and antiperoxidative enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the cerebellar tissue were determined. Intraperitonial administration of deprenyl (2 mg/kg body weight/day for a period of 15 days) significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the age-related alterations noted in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes plasma of experimental animals. Deprenyl also exerted an antioxidant effect against aging process by hindering lipid peroxidation to an extent. Moderate rise in the levels of reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes and antiperoxidative enzymes was also observed. The results of the present investigation indicated that the protective potential of deprenyl was probably due to the increase of the activity of the free radical scavenging enzymes or to a counteraction of free radicals by its antioxidant nature or to a strengthening of neuronal membrane by its membrane-stabilizing action. Histopathological observations also confirmed the protective effect of deprenyl against the age-related aberrations in rat cerebellum. These data on the effect of deprenyl on parameters of normal aging provides new additional

  6. Sex-dimorphic psychomotor activation after perinatal exposure to (-)-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol. An ontogenic study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Navarro, M; Rubio, P; Rodríguez de Fonseca, F

    1994-12-01

    The ontogeny and the adult expression of motor behaviors were studied in male and female rats born from mothers exposed to delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 5 mg/kg) during gestation and lactation. Perinatal exposure to THC increased both rearing and locomotor activities in males and females at immature preweanling ages (P-15 and P-20). These effects disappeared after ceasing THC exposure (postweaning ages), but they were observed again in adult (P-70) females. The effects appeared as persistently high motor activity in familiar environments, disappearing the characteristic habituation profile in locomotor and exploratory behaviors. In novel environment condition tests, adult (P-70) THC-exposed females, but not males, exhibited lower locomotor activity in the socio-sexual approach test, and an increase in the emergence latency in the dark-light emergence test. Additionally, animals of both sexes exposed to THC showed a increase in the time spent grooming measured in novelty conditions. These findings suggest that perinatal exposure to THC affects both the development and the adult expression of motor behaviors and it resulted in a sex-dimorphic psychomotor activation very similar to that observed after perinatal exposure to other drugs of abuse. A possible role of THC-induced pituitary-adrenal (PA) axis activation was also evaluated by measuring plasma corticosterone levels in adult animals perinatally exposed: THC-exposed females exhibit a clear increase of this adrenal hormone, whereas THC-exposed males displayed lower levels of this hormone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Sex-dimorphic psychomotor activation after perinatal exposure to (-)-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol. An ontogenic study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Navarro, M; Rubio, P; Rodríguez de Fonseca, F

    1994-12-01

    The ontogeny and the adult expression of motor behaviors were studied in male and female rats born from mothers exposed to delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 5 mg/kg) during gestation and lactation. Perinatal exposure to THC increased both rearing and locomotor activities in males and females at immature preweanling ages (P-15 and P-20). These effects disappeared after ceasing THC exposure (postweaning ages), but they were observed again in adult (P-70) females. The effects appeared as persistently high motor activity in familiar environments, disappearing the characteristic habituation profile in locomotor and exploratory behaviors. In novel environment condition tests, adult (P-70) THC-exposed females, but not males, exhibited lower locomotor activity in the socio-sexual approach test, and an increase in the emergence latency in the dark-light emergence test. Additionally, animals of both sexes exposed to THC showed a increase in the time spent grooming measured in novelty conditions. These findings suggest that perinatal exposure to THC affects both the development and the adult expression of motor behaviors and it resulted in a sex-dimorphic psychomotor activation very similar to that observed after perinatal exposure to other drugs of abuse. A possible role of THC-induced pituitary-adrenal (PA) axis activation was also evaluated by measuring plasma corticosterone levels in adult animals perinatally exposed: THC-exposed females exhibit a clear increase of this adrenal hormone, whereas THC-exposed males displayed lower levels of this hormone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7701042

  8. Chronic Cadmium Exposure Lead to Inhibition of Serum and Hepatic Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Samuel; Andrade-García, Alejandra; Herrera Camacho, Irma; León-Chavez, Bertha Alicia; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia; Flores, Gonzalo; Brambila, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the serum and liver from rats administered with cadmium (Cd) in drinking water was studied. After metal administration, Cd showed a time-dependent accumulation in the liver, meanwhile metallothionein had a maximum increase at 1 month, remaining in this level until the end of the study. On the other hand, serum and liver ALP activity was decreased after 3 months exposure. To determine if Cd produced an inhibition on enzyme, apo-ALP prepared from both nonexposed and exposed rats was reactivated with Zn, showing 60% more activity as compared with the enzyme isolated from nonexposed rats. In vitro assays showed that Cd-ALP was partially reactivated with Zn; however, in the presence of cadmium, Zn-ALP was completely inhibited. Kinetic studies indicate a noncompetitive inhibition by Cd; these results suggest that Cd can substitute Zn, and/or Cd can interact with nucleophilic ligands essential for the enzymatic activity.

  9. Acute oral gallium arsenide exposure and changes in certain hematological, hepatic, renal and immunological indices at different time intervals in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Flora, S J; Kumar, P; Kannan, G M; Rai, G P

    1998-01-31

    Male albino rats were given a single oral dose of gallium arsenide (GaAs) (100, 200 or 500 mg/kg). Erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was inhibited in all the three GaAs-exposed groups accompanied by elevated urinary excretion of ALA. A significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-GT) was observed. A significant increase in hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in hepatic glutathione contents were also noted. Renal alkaline phosphatase activity, urinary ALA and protein excretion increased significantly on GaAs exposure. These changes were accompanied by significant alterations in almost all the immunological variables, with an increase in gallium and arsenic concentration in blood and soft tissues. While most of the above biochemical alterations were prominent at day 7 following single exposure to 200 and 500 mg/kg GaAs, most of the immunological indices altered with all the three doses and remained high even at day 21. The results suggest only a moderate effect of GaAs on renal and hepatic tissues. By contrast, immunological and haematological systems are the most vulnerable to the toxic effects of GaAs.

  10. Hypoglycaemic and anorexigenic activities of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tormo, M A; Gil-Exojo, I; Romero de Tejada, A; Campillo, J E

    2004-11-01

    An inhibitor of alpha-amylase was isolated and purified from an extract of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The acute oral administration of the inhibitor (50 mg/kg body weight) to adult Wistar rats together with a starch load (2 g/kg body weight suspended in NaCl (9 g/l)) reduced the increase in glycaemia over the basal value (NaCl, 222 (SEM 49); inhibitor, 145 (SEM 16) mmol/l x 180 min; P<0.05) without modifying the insulin response. On administering the inhibitor orally (50 mg/kg body weight dissolved in NaCl (9 g/l)) for 21 d to rats fed on a standard diet, a decline was observed in the glycaemia values on day 0 (NaCl, 5.53 (SEM 0.12); inhibitor, 5.25 (SEM 0.16) mmol/l) relative to those obtained on days 10 (NaCl, 5.00 (SEM 0.14); inhibitor, 4.60 (SEM 0.08) mmol/l; P<0.05) and 21 (NaCl, 5.22 (SEM 0.22); inhibitor, 4.50 (SEM 0.12) mmol/l; P<0.01) of treatment, without modifying the plasma concentration of insulin. There was found to be a significant anorexigenic action of the inhibitor; there was reduced food intake (NaCl, 23.07 (SEM 0.31); inhibitor, 19.50 (SEM 0.49) g/d; P<0.01), a reduced weight gain (NaCl, 52 (SEM 3); inhibitor, -1.33 (SEM 8.9) g/21 d; P<0.01), as well as changes in the activity of some intestinal enzymes such as maltase (NaCl, 87 (SEM 7); inhibitor, 127 (SEM 11) U/g proteins; P<0.05). The present study has shown, for the first time, that the prolonged administration of an alpha-amylase inhibitor reduces blood glucose levels and body-weight gain in Wistar rats.

  11. Hypoglycaemic and anorexigenic activities of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tormo, M A; Gil-Exojo, I; Romero de Tejada, A; Campillo, J E

    2004-11-01

    An inhibitor of alpha-amylase was isolated and purified from an extract of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The acute oral administration of the inhibitor (50 mg/kg body weight) to adult Wistar rats together with a starch load (2 g/kg body weight suspended in NaCl (9 g/l)) reduced the increase in glycaemia over the basal value (NaCl, 222 (SEM 49); inhibitor, 145 (SEM 16) mmol/l x 180 min; P<0.05) without modifying the insulin response. On administering the inhibitor orally (50 mg/kg body weight dissolved in NaCl (9 g/l)) for 21 d to rats fed on a standard diet, a decline was observed in the glycaemia values on day 0 (NaCl, 5.53 (SEM 0.12); inhibitor, 5.25 (SEM 0.16) mmol/l) relative to those obtained on days 10 (NaCl, 5.00 (SEM 0.14); inhibitor, 4.60 (SEM 0.08) mmol/l; P<0.05) and 21 (NaCl, 5.22 (SEM 0.22); inhibitor, 4.50 (SEM 0.12) mmol/l; P<0.01) of treatment, without modifying the plasma concentration of insulin. There was found to be a significant anorexigenic action of the inhibitor; there was reduced food intake (NaCl, 23.07 (SEM 0.31); inhibitor, 19.50 (SEM 0.49) g/d; P<0.01), a reduced weight gain (NaCl, 52 (SEM 3); inhibitor, -1.33 (SEM 8.9) g/21 d; P<0.01), as well as changes in the activity of some intestinal enzymes such as maltase (NaCl, 87 (SEM 7); inhibitor, 127 (SEM 11) U/g proteins; P<0.05). The present study has shown, for the first time, that the prolonged administration of an alpha-amylase inhibitor reduces blood glucose levels and body-weight gain in Wistar rats. PMID:15533267

  12. Biological Activities of QIAPI 1 as a Melanin Precursor and Its Therapeutic Effects in Wistar Rats Exposed to Arsenic Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Solís-Herrera, Arturo; Ashraf, Ghulam M; del C A Esparza, María; Arias, Ruth I S; Bachurin, Sergei O; Barreto, George E; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2015-01-01

    The chemical process initiated by QIAPI 1 has been deemed to be the most important biological reaction associated with human photosynthesis, and possibly neuroprotective effects under various inflammatory events. However, the detailed biological activities of QIAPI 1 as a melanin precursor are still unknown. In the present work, cytotoxicity test was done by MTT assay to determine cell viability of various cell lines (WI-38, A549, HS 683) like proliferation tests and its effect on cytokine production. Arsenic poisoning is an often-unrecognized cause of renal insufficiency. No prophylactic and/or therapeutic compounds have shown promising results against kidney diseases. The pathogenesis of Arsenic-induced nephropathy is not clear. Arsenic, as itself, does not degrade over time in the environment, and its accumulation may induce toxic effects. In this study, we also report the histological findings of the kidney in 3 groups of Wistar rats, a control group, a group exposed to arsenic in the water; and a group exposed to arsenic and treated with QIAPI 1 simultaneously. The findings of the current evidence indicates a potential therapeutic ability of QIAPI 1.

  13. Biological Activities of QIAPI 1 as a Melanin Precursor and Its Therapeutic Effects in Wistar Rats Exposed to Arsenic Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Solís-Herrera, Arturo; Ashraf, Ghulam M; del C A Esparza, María; Arias, Ruth I S; Bachurin, Sergei O; Barreto, George E; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2015-01-01

    The chemical process initiated by QIAPI 1 has been deemed to be the most important biological reaction associated with human photosynthesis, and possibly neuroprotective effects under various inflammatory events. However, the detailed biological activities of QIAPI 1 as a melanin precursor are still unknown. In the present work, cytotoxicity test was done by MTT assay to determine cell viability of various cell lines (WI-38, A549, HS 683) like proliferation tests and its effect on cytokine production. Arsenic poisoning is an often-unrecognized cause of renal insufficiency. No prophylactic and/or therapeutic compounds have shown promising results against kidney diseases. The pathogenesis of Arsenic-induced nephropathy is not clear. Arsenic, as itself, does not degrade over time in the environment, and its accumulation may induce toxic effects. In this study, we also report the histological findings of the kidney in 3 groups of Wistar rats, a control group, a group exposed to arsenic in the water; and a group exposed to arsenic and treated with QIAPI 1 simultaneously. The findings of the current evidence indicates a potential therapeutic ability of QIAPI 1. PMID:25909193

  14. Antidiabetic Activity of Polyherbal Formulation in Streptozotocin – Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Petchi, Rajendran Ramesh; Vijaya, Chockalingam; Parasuraman, Subramani

    2014-01-01

    Glycosmis pentaphylla, Tridax procumbens, and Mangifera indica are well-known plants available throughout India and they are commonly used for the treatment of various diseases including diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of the individual plant parts is well known, but the synergistic or combined effects are unclear. The concept of polyherbalism has been highlighted in Sharangdhar Samhita, an Ayurvedic literature dating back to 1300 AD. Polyherbal formulations enhance the therapeutic action and reduce the concentrations of single herbs, thereby reducing adverse events. The aim of the present study is to formulate a polyherbal formulation and evaluate its antidiabetic potential in animals. The polyherbal formulation was formulated using the ethanol extracts of the stem bark of G. pentaphylla, whole plant of T. procumbens, and leaves of M. indica. The polyherbal formulation contains the ethanol extracts of G. pentaphylla, T. procumbens, and M. indica in the ratio of 2:2:1. The quality of the finished product was evaluated as per the World Health Organization's guidelines for the quality control of herbal materials. The quality testing parameters of the polyherbal formulation were within the limits. Fingerprint analysis of the polyherbal formulation showed effective separation at 366 nm, and it revealed that the active compound present in the polyherbal formulation and the active compounds present in all the three extracts were the same. The acute toxicity studies of the polyherbal formulation did not show any toxic symptoms in doses up to 2000 mg/kg over 14 days. The oral antidiabetic activity of the polyherbal formulation (250 and 500 mg/kg) was screened against streptozotocin (50 mg/kg; i.p.) + nicotinamide (120 mg/kg; i.p.) induced diabetes mellitus in rats. The investigational drug was administered for 21 consecutive days, and the effect of the polyherbal formulation on blood glucose levels was studied at regular intervals. At the end of the study, the

  15. Antidiabetic activity of polyherbal formulation in streptozotocin - nicotinamide induced diabetic wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Petchi, Rajendran Ramesh; Vijaya, Chockalingam; Parasuraman, Subramani

    2014-04-01

    Glycosmis pentaphylla, Tridax procumbens, and Mangifera indica are well-known plants available throughout India and they are commonly used for the treatment of various diseases including diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of the individual plant parts is well known, but the synergistic or combined effects are unclear. The concept of polyherbalism has been highlighted in Sharangdhar Samhita, an Ayurvedic literature dating back to 1300 AD. Polyherbal formulations enhance the therapeutic action and reduce the concentrations of single herbs, thereby reducing adverse events. The aim of the present study is to formulate a polyherbal formulation and evaluate its antidiabetic potential in animals. The polyherbal formulation was formulated using the ethanol extracts of the stem bark of G. pentaphylla, whole plant of T. procumbens, and leaves of M. indica. The polyherbal formulation contains the ethanol extracts of G. pentaphylla, T. procumbens, and M. indica in the ratio of 2:2:1. The quality of the finished product was evaluated as per the World Health Organization's guidelines for the quality control of herbal materials. The quality testing parameters of the polyherbal formulation were within the limits. Fingerprint analysis of the polyherbal formulation showed effective separation at 366 nm, and it revealed that the active compound present in the polyherbal formulation and the active compounds present in all the three extracts were the same. The acute toxicity studies of the polyherbal formulation did not show any toxic symptoms in doses up to 2000 mg/kg over 14 days. The oral antidiabetic activity of the polyherbal formulation (250 and 500 mg/kg) was screened against streptozotocin (50 mg/kg; i.p.) + nicotinamide (120 mg/kg; i.p.) induced diabetes mellitus in rats. The investigational drug was administered for 21 consecutive days, and the effect of the polyherbal formulation on blood glucose levels was studied at regular intervals. At the end of the study, the

  16. Male-specific suppression of hepatic microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activities toward sex hormones in the adult male rat administered bisphenol A.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Noriaki; Matsumoto, Junya; Nakada, Ken; Yuasa, Akira; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Various adverse effects of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive organs of male animals have been reported. We found that UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activities towards bisphenol A, testosterone and oestradiol were significantly decreased in liver microsomes prepared from adult male Wistar rats administered with the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (1 mg/2 days for 2 or 4 weeks). However, suppression of the transferase activities was not observed in female rats, even after bisphenol A treatment for 4 weeks. Diethylstilbestrol, which is well known as an endocrine disruptor, had the same effects, but p -cumylphenol had no effect on UGT activities towards sex hormones. Co-administration of an anti-oestrogen, tamoxifen, inhibited the suppression of the transferase activities by bisphenol A. Western blotting analysis showed that the amount of UGT2B1, an isoform of UGT which glucuronidates bisphenol A, was decreased in the rat liver microsomes by the treatment. Northern blotting analysis also indicated that UGT2B1 mRNA in the liver was decreased by bisphenol A treatment. The suppression of UGT activities, UGT2B1 protein and UGT2B1 mRNA expression did not occur in female rats. The results indicate that bisphenol A treatment reduces the mRNA expression of UGT2B1 and other UGT isoforms that mediate the glucuronidation of sex hormones in adult male rats, and this suggests that the endocrine balance may be disrupted by suppression of glucuronidation. PMID:12230427

  17. Boron influences immune and antioxidant responses by modulating hepatic superoxide dismutase activity under calcium deficit abiotic stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bhasker, T Vijay; Gowda, N K S; Mondal, S; Krishnamoorthy, P; Pal, D T; Mor, A; Bhat, S Karthik; Pattanaik, A K

    2016-07-01

    The influence of Boron (B) supplementation on immune and antioxidant status of rats with or without abiotic stress induced by dietary calcium (Ca) restriction was studied in a feeding trial of 90 days. Wistar strain rats (3-4 wk age, n=84) were divided into 7 dietary groups (4 replicates of 3 each) viz., normal-calcium (100%) basal diet alone (NC, control) or supplemented with B at 5 (NCB-5), 10 (NCB-10), 20 (NCB-20) and 40ppm (NCB-40) levels; low-calcium (50%) basal diet alone (LC) or supplemented with 40ppm B (LCB-40). After 75 days of experimental feeding, rats were challenged with intraperitoneal injection of sheep RBCs to assess their humoral immunity. At the end of the trial, cell-mediated immunity was assessed as foot pad reaction to sheep RBCs injected into the hind leg paws. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect blood for estimation of minerals and total antioxidant activity, and liver for superoxide dismutase gene expression analysis. Supplementation of graded levels of B (5, 10, 20 and 40ppm) as borax in NC diets significantly increased (P<0.01) the footpad thickness and serum total antioxidant activity, hepatic expression levels of both Cu-Zn SOD (SOD1) and Mn-SOD (SOD2) mRNAs. The erythrocytic SOD activity and humoral response did not differ significantly among the dietary groups. In Ca restricted groups, humoral immune response was significantly decreased (P<0.01) compared to control but increased (P<0.05) with 40ppm B supplementation. Serum levels of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) remained similar among the dietary groups, while the manganese (Mn) content was significantly decreased (P<0.01) with increased levels of dietary B. In conclusion, B supplementation increased the hepatic mRNA expression levels of both SOD isoenzymes, thereby improving the immune and antioxidant status. PMID:27259355

  18. Diuretic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Microencapsulated Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae) Oil on Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Renan Donomae; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acrocomia aculeata, popularly known as “bocaiuva,” is widely acknowledged in culinary and traditional medicines to treat cardiovascular diseases, a combined effect with diuretics that are also used for hypertension. However, there are no scientific data published to support its use as functional food and its ethnopharmacological use. This study intended to determine the composition of fatty acids of the pulp oil and evaluate the diuretic action and anti-inflammatory activity of the in natura and microencapsulated oil orally administrated on rats. The obtained results confirm the prevalence of monounsaturated fatty acids (68.51%), especially oleic acid (65.68%±1.05%), in the oil from the bocaiuva pulp. The in natura A. aculeata oil has diuretic (P<.01) and anti-inflammatory potential, which promoted a marked inhibition on the hind paw edema induced by carrageenan (67%±7% after 2 h) (P<.01). In addition, results show that the oral administration of the bocaiuva oil at 300 (P<.05) and 700 (P<.05) mg/kg doses significantly inhibited the leukocyte migration induced by carrageenan to the pleural cavity in rats. The inhibitions equaled 91%±3% and 81%±16%, respectively. The microencapsulated oil also showed antiedematogenic (P<.01) as well as diuretic activities (P<.01). The microencapsulation by complex coacervation was shown to be a technique that favors the bioavailability and preservation of bioactive components of the bocaiuva oil. PMID:25369069

  19. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity and Associated Toxicity of Artemisia afra Aqueous Extract in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sunmonu, Taofik O.; Afolayan, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. is a widely used medicinal plant in South Africa for the treatment of diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity and possible toxicity effect of aqueous leaf extract of the herb administered at different dosages for 15 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Administration of the extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (P < 0.05) increased body weight, decreased blood glucose levels, increased glucose tolerance, and improved imbalance in lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. These are indications of antidiabetic property of A. afra with 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best hypoglycemic action by comparing favourably well with glibenclamide, a standard hypoglycemic drug. The extract at all dosages tested also restored liver function indices and haematological parameters to normal control levels in the diabetic rats, whereas the kidney function indices were only normalized in the diabetic animals administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract. This investigation clearly showed that in addition to its hypoglycemic activity, A. afra may also protect the liver and blood against impairment due to diabetes. However, some kidney functions may be compromised at high dosages of the extract. PMID:23861717

  20. Activation of sorbitol pathway in metabolic syndrome and increased susceptibility to cataract in Wistar-Obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Giridharan, Nappan Veettil

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is a major public health problem worldwide, and of late, epidemiological studies indicate a preponderance of cataracts under obesity conditions. Although cataract is a multifactorial disorder and various biochemical mechanisms have been proposed, the influence of obesity on cataractogenesis has yet to be investigated. In such a scenario, a suitable animal model that develops cataract following the onset of obesity will be a welcome tool for biomedical research. Therefore, we investigated the molecular and biochemical basis for predisposition to cataract in the obese mutant rat models established in our institute because 15%–20% of these rats develop cataracts spontaneously as they reach 12–15 months of age. Methods We analyzed the major biochemical pathways in the normal lenses of different age groups of our obese mutant rat strains, Wistar/Obese (WNIN/Ob) and WNIN/GR-Ob, the former with euglycemia and the latter with an additional impaired glucose tolerance trait. In addition, sorbitol levels were estimated in the cataractous lenses of the obese rats. Results Except for the polyol pathway, all the principal pathways of the lens remained unaltered. Therefore, sorbitol levels were found to be high in the normal eye lenses of obese rats (WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GR-Ob) compared to their lean controls from three months of age onwards. Between WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GR-Ob, the levels of sorbitol were higher in the latter, suggesting a synergistic effect of impaired glucose tolerance along with obesity in the activation of the sorbitol pathway. Either way, an elevated sorbitol pathway seemed to be the predisposing factor responsible for cataract formation in these mutant rats. Conclusions Activation of the sorbitol pathway indeed enhances the risk of cataract development in conditions such as metabolic syndrome. These rat models thus may be valuable tools for investigating obesity-associated cataract and for developing intervention strategies, based on these

  1. Trade-Offs in Male Display Activity with Lek Size

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, César; Loiselle, Bette A.; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    In lek mating systems, males aggregate and defend arenas where they display for females; females select and mate with a male and then solely raise their offspring. Generally, female visits and copulations increase and reproductive variance in male mating success declines with lek size. Here we investigate how male display effort changes across a gradient in lek size. We expect male display effort, an energetically expensive activity, will increase with lek size and male rank due to changes in breeding opportunities and competition among males. We test the interaction of male rank and lek size on display effort using the white-bearded manakin, Manacus manacus (Aves: Pipridae), a well-studied species with a wide geographic distribution in the new world tropics. We used mini-video recorders to simultaneously capture female visits and display behaviors of 41 males distributed over 10 leks. We found that overall display effort increased disproportionately with lek size due to males of both high and low ranks increasing their display effort at larger leks. Our results suggest that increased breeding opportunities and intrasexual competition at larger leks result in males of different ranks investing similarly in increased display effort in order to attract females. PMID:27680489

  2. A gestational diet high in fat-soluble vitamins alters expression of genes in brain pathways and reduces sucrose preference, but not food intake, in Wistar male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Pausova, Zdenka; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-04-01

    High intakes of multivitamins (HV) during pregnancy by Wistar rats increase food intake, body weight, and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in male offspring. In this study, high-fat soluble vitamins were fed in combination during gestation to test the hypothesis that they partially account for the effects of the HV diet. Pregnant Wistar rats (14-16/group) were fed a recommended multivitamin diet (1-fold all vitamins) or high-fat soluble vitamin diet (HFS; 10-fold vitamins A, D, E, and K) during pregnancy. Offspring body weight, food intake, and preference as well as expression of selected genes in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were evaluated at birth, weaning, and 14 weeks postweaning. Body weight and food intake were not affected but sucrose preference decreased by 4% in those born to dams fed the HFS gestational diet. Gene expressions of the hypothalamic anorexogenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) and orexogenic neuropeptide Y (Npy) (∼30% p = 0.008, ∼40% p = 0.007) were increased in weaning and adult rats, respectively. Hippocampal dopaminergic genes (35%-50% p < 0.05) were upregulated at birth and 14 weeks postweaning. DNA hypermethylation (2% p = 0.006) was observed in the dopamine receptor 1 (Drd1) promoter region. We conclude that a gestational diet high in vitamins A, D, E, and K does not show the effects of the HV diet on body weight or food intake but may affect the development of higher hedonic regulatory pathways associated with food preference.

  3. Competitiveness Among Females and Males in Physical Activity Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Diane L.

    1986-01-01

    Competitive orientations of 237 male and female undergraduates enrolled in competitive and noncompetitive physical activity classes were investigated using the Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire and a Competitiveness Inventory. Females scored higher on work and goal orientation, while males scored higher on competitiveness. (KH)

  4. Antihyperglycaemic activity of the stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yerima, M; Anuka, J A; Salawu, O A; Abdu-Aguye, I

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease and its prevalence is reaching epidemic proportion worldwide. In 2002, WHO Expert Committee on diabetes mellitus recommended an urgent and further evaluation of the folkloric methods of managing the disease. In response to this recommendation, several medicinal plants are currently being investigated for their hypoglycaemic activity and one of such plants is Tamarindus indica. Tamarindus indica is a slow growing tree that is resistant to strong winds and perennial. The stem-bark extract of the plant is used locally for the management of diabetes. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg(-1) IP). The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg kg(-1). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, alkaloids and triterpenes. The 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract lowered the blood glucose level significantly (p < 0.05) at the 4th, 8th and 16th h. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the BGL significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the study. In the oral glucose load method the 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract significantly (p < 0.05) lowered elevated blood glucose at the 3rd and 5th. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the blood glucose from the 1st to the 5th, while the 250 mg kg(-1) also lowered the blood glucose level but only significantly at the 5th h. The extract is practically non toxic when administered orally. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica Linn significantly lowered elevated Blood Glucose concentration (BGL) in the experimental animal models, while the crude extract was able to prevent an elevation in BGL when used in the oral glucose load model.

  5. Decoding Ventromedial Hypothalamic Neural Activity during Male Mouse Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Dollar, Piotr; Perona, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The ventromedial hypothalamus, ventrolateral area (VMHvl) was identified recently as a critical locus for inter-male aggression. Optogenetic stimulation of VMHvl in male mice evokes attack toward conspecifics and inactivation of the region inhibits natural aggression, yet very little is known about its underlying neural activity. To understand its role in promoting aggression, we recorded and analyzed neural activity in the VMHvl in response to a wide range of social and nonsocial stimuli. Although response profiles of VMHvl neurons are complex and heterogeneous, we identified a subpopulation of neurons that respond maximally during investigation and attack of male conspecific mice and during investigation of a source of male mouse urine. These “male responsive” neurons in the VMHvl are tuned to both the inter-male distance and the animal's velocity during attack. Additionally, VMHvl activity predicts several parameters of future aggressive action, including the latency and duration of the next attack. Linear regression analysis further demonstrates that aggression-specific parameters, such as distance, movement velocity, and attack latency, can model ongoing VMHvl activity fluctuation during inter-male encounters. These results represent the first effort to understand the hypothalamic neural activity during social behaviors using quantitative tools and suggest an important role for the VMHvl in encoding movement, sensory, and motivation-related signals. PMID:24760856

  6. Age-Related Changes in Hepatic Activity and Expression of Detoxification Enzymes in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vyskočilová, Erika; Szotáková, Barbora; Skálová, Lenka; Bártíková, Hana; Hlaváčová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Process of aging is accompanied by changes in the biotransformation of xenobiotics and impairment of normal cellular functions by free radicals. Therefore, this study was designed to determine age-related differences in the activities and/or expressions of selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in young and old rats. Specific activities of 8 drug-metabolizing enzymes and 4 antioxidant enzymes were assessed in hepatic subcellular fractions of 6-week-old and 21-month-old male Wistar rats. Protein expressions of carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were determined using immunoblotting. Remarkable age-related decrease in specific activities of CYP2B, CYP3A, and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase was observed, whereas no changes in activities of CYP1A2, flavine monooxygenase, aldo-keto reductase 1C, and antioxidant enzymes with advancing age were found. On the other hand, specific activity of CBR1 and GST was 2.4 folds and 5.6 folds higher in the senescent rats compared with the young ones, respectively. Interindividual variability in CBR1 activity increased significantly with rising age. We suppose that elevated activities of GST and CBR1 may protect senescent rats against xenobiotic as well as eobiotic electrophiles and reactive carbonyls, but they may alter metabolism of drugs, which are CBR1 and especially GSTs substrates. PMID:23971034

  7. Daily rhythms of serotonin metabolism and the expression of clock genes in suprachiasmatic nucleus of rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease male Wistar rat model and effect of melatonin administration.

    PubMed

    Mattam, Ushodaya; Jagota, Anita

    2015-02-01

    The circadian system in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) involves regulated serotonin levels and coordinated expression of various clock genes. To understand circadian disfunction in the age-related neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson's disease (PD), the rotenone-induced PD (RIPD) male Wistar rat model was used. The alterations in the rhythmic dynamic equilibrium of interactions between the various components of serotonin metabolism and the molecular clock were measured. There was significant decrease in the mean 24 h levels of tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), serotonin (5-HT), N-acetyl serotonin (NAS) and melatonin (MEL) by approximately 63, 51, 76 and 96% respectively ( p ≤ 0.05). However significant increase in 5-methoxy indole acetic acid (5-MIAA), 5-methoxy tryptophol (5-MTOH), 5-hydroxy tryptophol (5-HTOH) indicated increased serotonin catabolism with the abolition of daily rhythms of MEL, 5-HTP and 5-MIAA in RIPD. 24 h mean levels of rPer1, rCry1, rBmal1 reduced by about 0.5, 0.74 and 0.39-fold and increased for rPer2 by about 1.7-fold. The daily pulse of rPer2, rCry1, rCry2 and rBmal1 significantly decreased by 0.36, 0.6, 0.14, 0.1 and 0.2-fold. As melatonin, an antioxidant and an endogenous synchronizer of rhythm declined in RIPD male Wistar rat model, the effects of melatonin-administration on the rhythmic expression of various clock genes were studied. Interestingly, melatonin-administration resulted in restoration of the phase of rPer1 daily rhythm in RIPD indicating differential sensitivity of various clock components towards melatonin. The animals which were administered both rotenone and MEL for 48 days interestingly showed neuroprotective effects in dark phase on correlations between expression of various genes.

  8. Relationships between Mechanical Nociceptive Threshold and Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Male Rats with Experimental Type I Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shipilov, V N; Chistyakova, O V; Trost, A M

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed the dynamics of neuropathic pain development and changes in catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the brain, liver, and skeletal muscles of male Wistar rats with 1-month streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. A decrease in mechanical nociceptive threshold was revealed that progressed during the disease progress. Insulin treatment restored nociceptive threshold in diabetic animals to the control values. Catalase activity in the liver and skeletal muscles of diabetic rats increased by 1.5 and 2 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, while insulin treatment reduced enzyme activity to the control level. In the brain, catalase activity was reduced by 1.5 times and insulin therapy did affect this parameter. SOD activity in the studied tissues remained unchanged during diabetes and was not affected by insulin therapy. A strong negative correlation between nociceptive threshold in rats and catalase activity in their liver and skeletal muscles was found. PMID:27270940

  9. Antioxidants, cadmium-induced toxicity, serum biochemical and the histological abnormalities of the kidney and testes of the male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Obianime, A W; Roberts, I I

    2009-12-01

    The effect of different doses of cadmium [CD] on some biochemical, hormonal and histopathological parameters of the liver, kidney and testes of the Wistar rate were investigated. Cadmium in the dose range 0-40 mg/kg while causing a time-and dose-dependent decrease of the basal serum levels of alkaline phosphatase [ALP] also caused a dose-dependent increase in the serum concentration of the acid and prostatic acid phosphatases. The value of the ALP changed from 148.7+/-1.0 IU/L in the control to 53.7+/-0.098 at 40 mg/kg of cadmium. While the ACP and ACPT changed from 32.6+/-0.72 and 7 Units in the control to 54 and 17 units respectively at 40 mg/kg of CD. Furthermore cadmium also caused positively correlated dose-and time-dependent destruction of the histology of the liver, kidney and testes. These were characterized by vascular congestion, vacuolation, destruction of the seminal epithelial layers, focal necrosis of nucleus, oedema of the seminal epithelia layers, focal necrosis of nucleus, oedema of the seminiferous tubules and reduction of spermatogenesis. CD also caused granular and eosinophilic cytoplasm, enlargement of sinusoids with kupffer cells, haemorrhage and apoptosis of cells. Finally pre-treatment with vitamin C [0.0015/kg], vitamin E [1.51/g] and selenium [0.25 mg] which on their own had little or no effects on the serum basal phosphatases, hormonal and histological stability caused a reversal of the cadmium-induced biochemical, hormonal and histological toxicities of the liver, kidney and testes. These results may be explained by the oxidational/antioxidational properties of these xenobiotics and their mechanisms of actions.

  10. THE EFFECT OF ATRAZINE ON PUBERTY IN THE MALE WISTAR RATS: AN EVALUATION IN THE PROTOCOL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, has been shown previously to alter the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) through a direct effect on the central nervous system (CNS), we hypothesized that exposure to ATR in the EDSTAC male pubertal protoco...

  11. Guanosine may increase absence epileptic activity by means of A2A adenosine receptors in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Dobolyi, Árpád; Todorov, Mihail Ivilinov; Kékesi, Katalin A; Juhász, Gábor; Aleksza, Magdolna; Kovács, Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    The non-adenosine nucleoside guanosine (Guo) was demonstrated to decrease quinolinic acid(QA)-induced seizures, spontaneously emerged absence epileptic seizures and lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-evoked induction of absence epileptic seizures suggesting its antiepileptic potential. It was also described previously that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 20 and 50mg/kg Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in a well investigated model of human absence epilepsy, the Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats during 4th (20mg/kg Guo) and 3rd as well as 4th (50mg/kg Guo) measuring hours. Guanosine can potentially decrease SWD number by means of its putative receptors but absence epileptic activity changing effects of Guo by means of increased extracellular adenosine (Ado) cannot be excluded. An increase in the dose of i.p. injected Guo is limited by its low solubility in saline, therefore, we addressed in the present study whether higher doses of Guo, diluted in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, have more potent antiepileptic effect in WAG/Rij rats. We confirmed that i.p. 50mg/kg Guo decreased but, surprisingly, i.p. 100mg/kg Guo enhanced the number of SWDs in WAG/Rij rats. Combined i.p. injection of a non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5mg/kg) or a selective Ado A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 58261 (7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine) (1mg/kg) and a cyclooxygenase 1 and 2/COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin (10mg/kg) with 100mg/kg Guo decreased the SWD number compared to i.p. 100mg/kg Guo alone. The results suggest that i.p. 100mg/kg Guo can increase SWD number by means of the adenosinergic system. PMID:27154620

  12. Anti-hyperbilirubinemic and wound healing activity of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera leaves in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rupali Arun; Makwana, Aakash B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bilirubin lowering and wound healing property of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera (AECP) leaves in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats of either sex were used for the study. Bilirubin lowering property of C. procera leaves was evaluated using phenylhydrazine and paracetamol as inducing agents followed by measuring the concentration of serum total bilirubin in hyperbilirubinemic rats. Wound healing property was evaluated using incision and excision models by measuring tensile breaking strength, percentage wound contractions, and epithelization days, respectively. Statistical Analysis: Statistical comparison between groups in each experiment was done with one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: AECP showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in concentrations of serum total bilirubin in hyperbilirubinemic rats as well as significant (P < 0.05) increase in breaking strength and percentage wound contractions with decreased epithelization period when compared to control groups. Conclusions: AECP showed significant bilirubin lowering and wound healing property in Wistar rats. PMID:26288472

  13. Reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapal, Ramaiyan; Ratna, J.Vijaya; Sarathchandran, I.; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the antispermatogenic and testicular antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp southern India. Methods Fourty Wistar male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were equally divided into four groups. Experimental groups were administered with the ethanolic extract of Feronia limonia (F. limoni) fruit pulp at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight once daily for 55 days. All treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each treatment periods, various spermatological indices, tissue biochemicals and testicular enzymes levels were analysed. Blood profiles were also estimated. Results Compared with the control, the F. limonia fruit pulp at both dose levels did not decrease body weight, which were associated with decline in epididymal sperm count, motility, viability and increased percent of abnormal sperm. Further, F. limonia fruit pulp at 500 mg/kg body weight markedly reduced the epididymal and testicular protein content by 24.58% and 29.86%, respectively, as well as the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Δ5-3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase) levels by 42.82% and 38.08%, respectively, while a significant elevation was observed in testicular cholesterol and ascorbic acid content. A gradual recovery of all parameters was observed after 55 days of treatment withdrawal. No significant alterations in haematological indices were observed. Conclusions The present findings indicate that F. limonia fruit pulp may have reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic properties, and could partially support the traditional use as male contraceptive. PMID:23569995

  14. Changes in Astroglial Markers in a Maternal Immune Activation Model of Schizophrenia in Wistar Rats are Dependent on Sex

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Daniela F.; Wartchow, Krista M.; Lunardi, Paula S.; Brolese, Giovana; Tortorelli, Lucas S.; Batassini, Cristiane; Biasibetti, Regina; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Data from epidemiological studies suggest that prenatal exposure to bacterial and viral infection is an important environmental risk factor for schizophrenia. The maternal immune activation (MIA) animal model is used to study how an insult directed at the maternal host can have adverse effects on the fetus, leading to behavioral and neurochemical changes later in life. We evaluated whether the administration of LPS to rat dams during late pregnancy affects astroglial markers (S100B and GFAP) of the offspring in later life. The frontal cortex and hippocampus were compared in male and female offspring on postnatal days (PND) 30 and 60. The S100B protein exhibited an age-dependent pattern of expression, being increased in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the MIA group at PND 60, while at PND 30, male rats presented increased S100B levels only in the frontal cortex. Considering that S100B secretion is reduced by elevation of glutamate levels, we may hypothesize that this early increment in frontal cortex tissue of males is associated with elevated extracellular levels of glutamate and glutamatergic hypofunction, an alteration commonly associated with SCZ pathology. Moreover, we also found augmented GFAP in the frontal cortex of the LPS group at PND 30, but not in the hippocampus. Taken together data indicate that astroglial changes induced by MIA are dependent on sex and brain region and that these changes could reflect astroglial dysfunction. Such alterations may contribute to our understanding of the abnormal neuronal connectivity and developmental aspects of SCZ and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:26733814

  15. Sub-chronic concomitant ingestion of L-arginine and monosodium glutamate improves feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and antioxidant capacity in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Egbuonu, Anthony C Cemaluk

    2012-03-15

    The use of L-arginine (ARG) is common in supplements, whereas, Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is widely used as flavor enhancing food additive. Thus, ARG and MSG may be present together in human diets, warranting this study aimed at investigating the effect of concomitant ingestion of ARG and MSG on some biochemical indices in male rats. Twelve male albino rats were grouped into three (n = 4) and concomitantly exposed to 0:0, 20:5 and 60:15 mg kg(-1) of ARG:MSG. Exposure was peroral and every twenty four h for 28 days. ARG plus MSG treatment caused a significant (p < or = 0.05) increase in Feed Efficiency (FE) (Low dose: 5.23 +/- 22%; High dose: 5.60 +/- 11%), whereas, it decreased (p < or = 0.05) the serum Total Cholesterol (T-Chol) (low dose: 80.83 +/- 0.11 mg/100 mL, high dose: 92.55 +/- 0.14 mg/100 mL), triacylglycerol (TAG) (low dose: 179.91 +/- 0.09 mg/100 mL, high dose: 119.77 +/- 0.32 mg/100 mL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (low dose: 5.00 +/- 0.07 mg/100 mL, high dose: 24.36 +/- 0.10 mg/100 mL) concentrations of the rats in a dose dependent manner. However, (at the high dose) the increase in Body Weight (BW) (0.08 +/- 0.07 kg), Feed Intake (FI) (0.40 +/- 0.03 kg) and Water Intake (WI) (0.65 +/- 0.18 L) induced by ARG plus MSG exposure was not significant (p < or = 0.05), suggesting non treatment related effect on these routine parameters. However, exposure to ARG plus MSG may significantly improve feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and antioxidant capacity in the male rats. PMID:24175428

  16. Hepatoprotective activity of white horehound (Marrubium vulgare) extract against cyclophosphamide toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ettaya, Amani; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-04-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of Marrubium vulgare against cyclophosphamide toxicity in Wistar rats was evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each: a control group, a group injected with cyclophosphamide (150 mg·kg(-1)) for 3 days, a group orally given a M. vulgare aqueous extract ((500 mg of dry leaves)·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 30 days then treated with cyclophosphamide, and a group receiving only M. vulgare for 30 days. After 33 days of treatment, activities of alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum. Moreover, lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in liver. Alterations of these hepatic biomarkers and increased lipid peroxidation confirmed cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity. Cyclophosphamide also decreased the enzymatic defense system against oxidative stress. However, when this drug was administered in rats given M. vulgare extract, all the biological parameters underwent much less alteration. Administration of M. vulgare extract was found to be beneficial by attenuating cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage. The protective effect of the plant is mainly attributed to its antioxidant properties and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, as highlighted by HPLC-based analysis.

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of white horehound (Marrubium vulgare) extract against cyclophosphamide toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ettaya, Amani; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-04-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of Marrubium vulgare against cyclophosphamide toxicity in Wistar rats was evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each: a control group, a group injected with cyclophosphamide (150 mg·kg(-1)) for 3 days, a group orally given a M. vulgare aqueous extract ((500 mg of dry leaves)·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 30 days then treated with cyclophosphamide, and a group receiving only M. vulgare for 30 days. After 33 days of treatment, activities of alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum. Moreover, lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in liver. Alterations of these hepatic biomarkers and increased lipid peroxidation confirmed cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity. Cyclophosphamide also decreased the enzymatic defense system against oxidative stress. However, when this drug was administered in rats given M. vulgare extract, all the biological parameters underwent much less alteration. Administration of M. vulgare extract was found to be beneficial by attenuating cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage. The protective effect of the plant is mainly attributed to its antioxidant properties and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, as highlighted by HPLC-based analysis. PMID:26886858

  18. Differential cardiotoxicity in response to chronic doxorubicin treatment in male spontaneous hypertension-heart failure (SHHF), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Leslie C.; Radin, M. Judith; Heller, Lois; Rogers, Lynette K.; Tobias, Anthony; Matise, Ilze; Wang, Qi; Apple, Fred S.; McCune, Sylvia A.

    2013-11-15

    Life threatening complications from chemotherapy occur frequently in cancer survivors, however little is known about genetic risk factors. We treated male normotensive rats (WKY) and strains with hypertension (SHR) and hypertension with cardiomyopathy (SHHF) with 8 weekly doses of doxorubicin (DOX) followed by 12 weeks of observation to test the hypothesis that genetic cardiovascular disease would worsen delayed cardiotoxicity. Compared with WKY, SHR demonstrated weight loss, decreased systolic blood pressure, increased kidney weights, greater cardiac and renal histopathologic lesions and greater mortality. SHHF showed growth restriction, increased kidney weights and renal histopathology but no effect on systolic blood pressure or mortality. SHHF had less severe cardiac lesions than SHR. We evaluated cardiac soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) content and arachidonic acid metabolites after acute DOX exposure as potential mediators of genetic risk. Before DOX, SHHF and SHR had significantly greater cardiac sEH and decreased epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) (4 of 4 isomers in SHHF and 2 of 4 isomers in SHR) than WKY. After DOX, sEH was unchanged in all strains, but SHHF and SHR rats increased EETs to a level similar to WKY. Leukotriene D4 increased after treatment in SHR. Genetic predisposition to heart failure superimposed on genetic hypertension failed to generate greater toxicity compared with hypertension alone. The relative resistance of DOX-treated SHHF males to the cardiotoxic effects of DOX in the delayed phase despite progression of genetic disease was unexpected and a key finding. Strain differences in arachidonic acid metabolism may contribute to variation in response to DOX toxicity. - Highlights: • Late doxorubicin toxicity evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and cardiomyopathic rats. • Hypertension enhances the delayed toxicity of doxorubicin. • Genetic predisposition to cardiomyopathy did not further enhance toxicity. • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids

  19. Melatonin has differential effects on age-induced stoichiometric changes in daily chronomics of serotonin metabolism in SCN of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Y; Jagota, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls various physiological, endocrine and behavioral functions by regulating conversion of serotonin (5-HT) to melatonin (MEL). Aging leads to alterations in the neural and temporal organization of the SCN leading to circadian dysfunction. Age-induced stoichiometric alterations in daily chronomics of various components of 5-HT metabolism were studied by constructing interactomes between parameters. The levels of tryptophan (TRP), 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), N-acetylserotonin (NAS), N-acetyl 5-methoxytryptamine (MEL), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 5-methoxyindole acetic acid (5-MIAA), 5-hydroxytryptophol (5-HTOH), 5-methoxytryptophol (5-MTOH) and N-acetyltryptamine (NAT) were measured at (Zeitgeber time 0, 6, 12 and 18) in male rat SCN of 3, 12 and 24 months age groups. Age-induced decrease was observed in mean levels of NAS, MEL, 5-HIAA, 5-MIAA, 5-MTOH, and NAT and increase was observed in TRP, 5-HTP, 5-HT and 5-HTOH in rat SCN. Daily pulses decreased with aging significantly for TRP, 5-HT, NAS, MEL, 5-HIAA, 5-MIAA and NAT. We report here, the age-induced change in interactions between various 5-HT metabolism components by middle age (12 m) changing further by 24 m. The daily rhythms persisted with aging for NAS, MEL and 5-HTOH. Though, rhythms were abolished for TRP, 5-HTP, 5-HIAA, 5-MIAA, 5-MTOH and NAT differentially at 12 and 24 m. The MEL administration showed restoration in 5-HT ratio with 5-HTP, MEL and 5-HTOH in 24 m and NAS and 5-HIAA in 12 m SCN. Thus, MEL administration effects alterations of age-induced stoichiometry in levels and chronomics of serotonin metabolic network interactomes.

  20. The effects of black garlic (Allium sativum L.) ethanol extract on the estimated total number of Purkinje cells and motor coordination of male adolescent Wistar rats treated with monosodium glutamate.

    PubMed

    Aminuddin, M; Partadiredja, G; Sari, D C R

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have indicated that monosodium glutamate (MSG) might cause negative effects on the nervous system, including in the cerebellum. Garlic (Allium sativum) has long been known as a flavouring agent and a traditional remedy for various illnesses. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of garlic on the motor coordination and the number of Purkinje cells present in rats treated with MSG. A total of 25 male Wistar rats aged 4 to 5 weeks old were used in this study and were divided into five groups, namely a negative control (C-) group, which received 0.9 % NaCl solution, a positive control (C+) group, which received MSG, and three treated groups, which received 2 mg/g bw of MSG and 2.5 mg (T2.5), 5 mg (T5), or 10 mg (T10) of black garlic solution per oral administration (per 200 g bw), respectively. All treatments were carried out for 10 days. Upon the end of the treatment, the motor performance of all rats were tested using the rotarod apparatus. The rats were subsequently sacrificed, and the cerebella of the rats were processed for stereological analyses. It has been found that the number of Purkinje cells of the cerebella of all treated groups were significantly higher than that of the group treated with MSG only. No changes in motor coordination function were observed as a result of MSG treatment. PMID:24737450

  1. Correlation of histopathology, urinary biomarkers, and gene expression responses following hexachloro-1:3-butadiene-induced acute nephrotoxicity in male Hanover Wistar rats: a 28-day time course study.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David P; Turton, John A; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Swain, Aubrey J; McClure, Fiona J; Smyth, Rosemary; Pereira, Ines B; Munday, Michael R; York, Malcolm J

    2013-07-01

    Hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (HCBD) causes segment-specific injury to the proximal renal tubule. A time course study of traditional and more recently proposed urinary biomarkers was performed in male Hanover Wistar rats receiving a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 45 mg/kg HCBD. Animals were killed on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14, and 28 postdosing and the temporal response of renal biomarkers was characterized using kidney histopathology, urinary and serum biochemistry, and gene expression. Histopathologic evidence of tubular degeneration was seen from day 1 until day 3 postdosing and correlated with increased urinary levels of α-glutathione S-transferase (α-GST), albumin, glucose, and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and increased gene expression of KIM-1, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1, and heme oxygenase (decycling) 1. Histopathologic evidence of tubular regeneration was seen from day 2 postdosing and correlated with raised levels of urinary KIM-1 and osteopontin and increased gene expression of KIM-1 and annexin A7. Traditional renal biomarkers generally demonstrated low sensitivity. It is concluded that in rat proximal tubular injury, measurement of a range of renal biomarkers, in conjunction with gene expression analysis, provides an understanding of the extent of degenerative changes induced in the kidney and the process of regeneration.

  2. Enhaced D2-type receptor activity facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Rosas-Aguilar, Viridiana; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Perez, Cesar A; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-08-01

    Animal models have shown that the neural bases of social attachment, sexual preference and pair bonds, depend on dopamine D2-type receptor and oxytocin activity. In addition, studies have demonstrated that cohabitation can shape partner preference via conditioning. Herein, we used rats to explore the development of learned same-sex partner preferences in adulthood as a result of cohabitation during enhanced D2 activity. Experimental Wistar males (N=20), received saline or the D2 agonist (quinpirole) and were allowed to cohabitate during 24 h, with a stimulus male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. Four days later they were drug-free tested for partner preference between the scented male partner and a sexually receptive female. Sexual partner preference was analyzed by measuring frequency and latency for appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors, as well as non-contact erections. Social preference was also analyzed by measuring the frequency and latency of visits, body contacts and time spent together. Results indicated that only quinpirole-treated males displayed sexual and social preference for the scented male over the sexually receptive female. They spent more time together, displayed more body contacts, more female-like proceptive behaviors, and more non-contact erections. Accordingly, conditioned males appeared to be more sexually aroused and motivated by the known male than by a receptive female. We discuss the implications of this animal model on the formation of learned homosexual partner preferences.

  3. Hormonal imbalance and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism associated with chronic feeding of high sucrose low magnesium diet in weanling male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Garg, Meenakshi; Mehra, Pranav; Bansal, Devi Dayal

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to determine chronic effect of high sucrose low magnesium (HSLM) diet in weanling rats on plasma thyroid profile, catecholamines and activities of key hepatic glycolytic, and gluconeogenic enzymes. Compared to control diet fed group, significantly elevated levels of plasma triiodothyronine, tetraiodothyronine, catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) and activity of hepatic glycolytic (hexokinase and glucokinase), and gluconeogenic (glucose-6-phosphatase) enzymes were observed in high sucrose and low magnesium fed groups. However, HSLM diet had an additive effect on all these three parameters. The study thus, assumes significance as it shows that hormonal imbalance and disorders in carbohydrate metabolism at an early stage of development can be due to dietary modification or due to deficiency of key element magnesium.

  4. In vivo study on the effects of microcystin extracts on the expression profiles of proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun and c-myc) in liver, kidney and testis of male Wistar rats injected i.v. with toxins.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiying; Xie, Ping; Li, Guangyu; Hao, Le; Xiong, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a potent liver tumor promoter, possessing potent tumor-promoting activity and weak initiating activity. Proto-oncogenes are known to be involved in the tumor-promoting mechanisms of microcystin-LR. However, few data are available on the effects of MCs on proto-oncogenes in the whole animal. To investigate the effects of MCs on the expression profile of the proto-oncogenes in different organs, male Wistar rats were injected intravenously with microcystin extracts at a dose of 86.7 mug MC-LR eq/kg bw (MC-LR eq, MC-LR equivalents). mRNA levels of three proto-oncogenes c-fos, c-jun and c-myc in liver, kidney and testis were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR at several time points post-injection. Significant induction of these genes at transcriptional level was observed in the three organs. In addition, the increase of mRNA expression of all three genes was much higher in liver than in kidney and testis. Meanwhile, the protein levels of c-Fos and c-Jun were investigated by western blotting. Both proteins were induced in the three organs. However, elevations of protein levels were much lower than those of mRNA levels. These findings suggest that the expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc might be one possible mechanism for the tumor-promoting activity and initiating activity of microcystins.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE AND ITS METABOLITE DACT ON HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS ACTIVATION IN ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that a single administration of atrazine (ATR), a chloro-s-triazine herbicide that is used extensively throughout the USA and world, is able to induce a dose-dependent increase in plasma ACTH, with maximal concentrations observed at 15 mi...

  6. Lactobacillus plantarum AS1 isolated from south Indian fermented food Kallappam suppress 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal cancer in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Satish; Kanmani, P; Yuvaraj, N; Paari, K A; Pattukumar, V; Thirunavukkarasu, C; Arul, V

    2012-02-01

    The relationship between antioxidant and anticancer properties of probiotic bacterium strain Lactobacillus plantarum AS1 (AS1) in colon cancer induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) has been studied. In this study, an increased level of lipid peroxide (LPO) products and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S transferase) and marker enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase) in colon and plasma of cancer-bearing animals have been observed. AS1 was supplemented either before initiation or during initiation and selection/promotion phases of colon carcinogenesis and was found to be effective in altering lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities and marker enzymes to a statistically significant level measured either in the colon and in the plasma. These alterations inclined towards normal in a time-dependent manner on AS1 supplementation. The mean tumor volume diameter and total number of tumors were found to be statistically decreased in AS1 pre- and post-treated rats. Furthermore, histopathological examination shows remarkable difference between control and treated groups. The in vitro antioxidant assay shows that AS1 has promising antioxidant property. These results demonstrate that AS1 strain can modulate the development of DMH-induced rat colon carcinogenesis through an antioxidant-dependent mechanism. PMID:22161238

  7. Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Arts, Johanna W M; Kramer, Klaas; Arndt, Saskia S; Ohl, Frauke

    2014-10-30

    Most laboratory animals used in research are vendor-bred and transferred to research facilities. Transfer procedures might have considerable and unintended effects on research results. In the present study we compared physiological and behavioral parameters before and after external and internal transfer, as well as between transferred and non-transferred Wistar rats. The impact of both external and internal transfer on body weight, plasma corticosterone levels, heart rate, blood pressure, and locomotor activity was studied in both male and female Wistar rats, taking into account the sex differences in stress responsivity. External transfer was found to decrease body weight, increase plasma corticosterone, increase activity, increase heart rate in female rats, but decrease heart rate in male rats. Parameters showed differences between the sexes and light phases. This study shows that acclimatization after transfer is sex-specific and researchers should take the sex into consideration when determining the acclimatization period. It is recommended to allow for acclimatization of at least 8 days in males and two weeks in females after external transfer and timely (2 days before starting experiments) transfer the animals internally to the testing room.

  8. Metabolites and JAK/STAT pathway were involved in the liver and spleen damage in male Wistar rats fed with mequindox.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Huang, Xian-Ju; Ihsan, Awais; Liu, Zhao-Ying; Huang, Ling-Li; Zhang, Hua-Hai; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhou, Wen; Liu, Qin; Xue, Xi-Juan; Yuan, Zong-Hui

    2011-02-27

    Mequindox (MEQ) is a novel synthetic quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides antibacterial agent and growth promoter in animal husbandry. This study was to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS), the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway, suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) and inflammatory cytokines were involved in toxicities of MEQ. Our data demonstrated that high dose of MEQ (275 mg/kg) apparently led to tissue impairment combined with imbalance of redox in liver. In liver and spleen samples, hydroxylation metabolites and desoxymequindox were detected, directly confirming the potential link of N→O group reduction metabolism with its organ toxicity. Moreover, up-regulation of JAK/STAT, SOCS family, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were also observed in the high-dose group. Meanwhile, significant changes of oxidative stress indices in liver were observed in the high-dose group. As for NADPH subunit, the mRNA levels of many subunits were significantly up-regulated at low doses but down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner in liver and spleen, suggesting an involvement of NADPH in MEQ metabolism and ROS generation. In conclusion, we reported the dose-dependent long-term toxicity as well as the discussion of the potential mechanism and pathways of MEQ, which raised further awareness of its toxicity following with the dose change.

  9. The effect of MK-801 on motor activity and c-Fos protein expression in the brain of adolescent Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pesić, Vesna; Popić, Jelena; Milanović, Desanka; Loncarević-Vasiljković, Natasa; Rakić, Ljubisa; Kanazir, Selma; Ruzdijić, Sabera

    2010-03-19

    The changes that occur during adolescence have a profound impact on the brain and behavior later in life. In this work we examined changes in motor activity during habituation to a novel environment and after treatment with MK-801 (0.025, 0.05, 0.1mg/kg) in peripubertal, pubertal and adult Wistar rats. The involvement of the motor cortex and striatum in motor activity was assessed by analyzing changes in c-Fos protein levels that served as an indicator of neuronal activity. During the habituation period, locomotor activity in peripubertal rats was higher during the first 10 min than in other groups. The same amount of stereotypy-like movements was detected in all three groups. MK-801 induced dose- and age-dependent changes in motor activity. Peripubertal rats were the most sensitive to treatment with MK-801. We also report a surprising finding that systemic application of MK-801 induced a similar age-related profile of changes in motor activity and c-Fos protein expression in the motor cortex but no c-Fos induction in the striatum. Our results demonstrate that, depending on the phase of adolescence the same dose of MK-801 affected behavioral functions in a different manner and that activity of the motor cortex rather than striatal activity was linked to drug-motor activity interactions.

  10. Creatine and pyruvate prevent the alterations caused by tyrosine on parameters of oxidative stress and enzyme activities of phosphoryltransfer network in cerebral cortex of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Rodrigo Binkowski; Gemelli, Tanise; Rojas, Denise Bertin; Bonorino, Narielle Ferner; Costa, Bruna May Lopes; Funchal, Cláudia; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Wannmacher, Clovis Milton Duval

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine accumulates in inborn errors of tyrosine catabolism, especially in tyrosinemia type II. In this disease caused by tyrosine aminotransferase deficiency, eyes, skin, and central nervous system disturbances are found. In the present study, we investigated the chronic effect of tyrosine methyl ester (TME) and/or creatine plus pyruvate on some parameters of oxidative stress and enzyme activities of phosphoryltransfer network in cerebral cortex homogenates of 21-day-old Wistar. Chronic administration of TME induced oxidative stress and altered the activities of adenylate kinase and mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase. Total sulfhydryls content, GSH content, and GPx activity were significantly diminished, while DCFH oxidation, TBARS content, and SOD activity were significantly enhanced by TME. On the other hand, TME administration decreased the activity of CK from cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions but enhanced AK activity. In contrast, TME did not affect the carbonyl content and PK activity in cerebral cortex of rats. Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate was effective in the prevention of alterations provoked by TME administration on the oxidative stress and the enzymes of phosphoryltransfer network, except in mitochondrial CK, AK, and SOD activities. These results indicate that chronic administration of TME may stimulate oxidative stress and alter the enzymes of phosphoryltransfer network in cerebral cortex of rats. In case this also occurs in the patients affected by these disorders, it may contribute, along with other mechanisms, to the neurological dysfunction of hypertyrosinemias, and creatine and pyruvate supplementation could be beneficial to the patients.

  11. Arterial baroreceptor reflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity following chronic myocardial infarction in male, female, and ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Pinkham, Maximilian I; Whalley, Gillian A; Guild, Sarah-Jane; Malpas, Simon C; Barrett, Carolyn J

    2015-07-15

    There is controversy regarding whether the arterial baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in heart failure is altered. We investigated the impact of sex and ovarian hormones on changes in the arterial baroreflex control of renal SNA following a chronic myocardial infarction (MI). Renal SNA and arterial pressure were recorded in chloralose-urethane anesthetized male, female, and ovariectomized female (OVX) Wistar rats 6-7 wk postsham or MI surgery. Animals were grouped according to MI size (sham, small and large MI). Ovary-intact females had a lower mortality rate post-MI (24%) compared with both males (38%) and OVX (50%) (P < 0.05). Males and OVX with large MI, but not small MI, displayed an impaired ability of the arterial baroreflex to inhibit renal SNA. As a result, the male large MI group (49 ± 6 vs. 84 ± 5% in male sham group) and OVX large MI group (37 ± 3 vs. 75 ± 5% in OVX sham group) displayed significantly reduced arterial baroreflex range of control of normalized renal SNA (P < 0.05). In ovary-intact females, arterial baroreflex control of normalized renal SNA was unchanged regardless of MI size. In males and OVX there was a significant, positive correlation between left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction and arterial baroreflex range of control of normalized renal SNA, but not absolute renal SNA, that was not evident in ovary-intact females. The current findings demonstrate that the arterial baroreflex control of renal SNA post-MI is preserved in ovary-intact females, and the state of left ventricular dysfunction significantly impacts on the changes in the arterial baroreflex post-MI. PMID:25994953

  12. Arterial baroreceptor reflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity following chronic myocardial infarction in male, female, and ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Pinkham, Maximilian I; Whalley, Gillian A; Guild, Sarah-Jane; Malpas, Simon C; Barrett, Carolyn J

    2015-07-15

    There is controversy regarding whether the arterial baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in heart failure is altered. We investigated the impact of sex and ovarian hormones on changes in the arterial baroreflex control of renal SNA following a chronic myocardial infarction (MI). Renal SNA and arterial pressure were recorded in chloralose-urethane anesthetized male, female, and ovariectomized female (OVX) Wistar rats 6-7 wk postsham or MI surgery. Animals were grouped according to MI size (sham, small and large MI). Ovary-intact females had a lower mortality rate post-MI (24%) compared with both males (38%) and OVX (50%) (P < 0.05). Males and OVX with large MI, but not small MI, displayed an impaired ability of the arterial baroreflex to inhibit renal SNA. As a result, the male large MI group (49 ± 6 vs. 84 ± 5% in male sham group) and OVX large MI group (37 ± 3 vs. 75 ± 5% in OVX sham group) displayed significantly reduced arterial baroreflex range of control of normalized renal SNA (P < 0.05). In ovary-intact females, arterial baroreflex control of normalized renal SNA was unchanged regardless of MI size. In males and OVX there was a significant, positive correlation between left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction and arterial baroreflex range of control of normalized renal SNA, but not absolute renal SNA, that was not evident in ovary-intact females. The current findings demonstrate that the arterial baroreflex control of renal SNA post-MI is preserved in ovary-intact females, and the state of left ventricular dysfunction significantly impacts on the changes in the arterial baroreflex post-MI.

  13. Prostate response to prolactin in sexually active male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Maria Elena; Soto-Cid, Abraham; Rojas, Fausto; Pascual, Luz I; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Toledo, Rebeca; Garcia, Luis I; Quintanar-Stephano, Andres; Manzo, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Background The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying this correlation. Hence, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of prolactin on sexual behaviour and prostate organization of male rats. Methods In addition to sexual behaviour recordings, we developed the ELISA procedure to quantify the serum level of prolactin, and the hematoxilin-eosin technique for analysis of the histological organization of the prostate. Also, different experimental manipulations were carried out; they included pituitary grafts, and haloperidol and ovine prolactin treatments. Data were analyzed with a One way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnet test if required. Results Data showed that male prolactin has a basal level with two peaks at the light-dark-light transitions. Consecutive ejaculations increased serum prolactin after the first ejaculation, which reached the highest level after the second, and started to decrease after the third ejaculation. These normal levels of prolactin did not induce any change at the prostate tissue. However, treatments for constant elevations of serum prolactin decreased sexual potency and increased the weight of the gland, the alveoli area and the epithelial cell height. Treatments for transient elevation of serum prolactin did not affect the sexual behaviour of males, but triggered these significant effects mainly at the ventral prostate. Conclusion The prostate is a sexual gland that responds to prolactin. Mating-induced prolactin release is required during sexual encounters to activate the epithelial cells in the gland. Here we saw a precise mechanism controlling the release of prolactin during ejaculations that avoid

  14. Testosterone, physical activity, and somatic outcomes among Filipino males.

    PubMed

    Gettler, Lee T; Agustin, Sonny S; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2010-08-01

    Testosterone (T) facilitates male investment in reproduction in part through its anabolic effects on skeletal muscle. Traits like muscle and strength are energetically costly but are believed to enhance competitive ability in humans and other mammals. However, there are limited data on relationships between T and somatic outcomes in lean, non-western populations. We evaluate relationships between waking and pre-bed salivary T and adiposity, fat-free mass (FFM), arm muscle area (AMA), and grip strength (GS) in a large, population-based birth cohort of young adult Filipino males (20.8-22.6 years, n = 872). Data were collected as part of the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Neither waking nor evening T predicted FFM, AMA, or GS. However, there were borderline or significant interactions between T and basketball playing (the most common team sport) and weight lifting as predictors of outcomes: higher waking T predicted higher FFM (activity x T interaction P < 0.01), AMA (interaction P < 0.1), and GS (interaction P < 0.02) among frequent basketball players, and GS (interaction P < 0.09) among the smaller sample of weight lifters. In contrast to clinical studies, but consistent with findings in several subsistence-level populations, T was positively related to adiposity in these lean young males, suggesting that energy status might regulate circulating T. Our findings support a role of the prewaking rise in T as a determinant of energetic allocation to lean mass and strength in the context of repeated muscular use and support the hypothesized role of T as a mediator of investment in costly somatic traits in human males.

  15. Putative free radical-scavenging activity of an extract of Cineraria maritima in preventing selenite-induced cataractogenesis in Wistar rat pups

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, Thirugnanasambandhar Sivasubramanian; Muralidharan, Arumugam Ramachandran; Annadurai, Thangaraj; Jesudasan, Christdas Arul Nelson; Thomas, Philip Aloysius

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the possible free radical-scavenging activity of an extract of Cineraria maritima on selenite-induced cataractous lenses in Wistar rat pups. Methods In the present study, Wistar rat pups were divided into three experimental groups. On P10, Group I (control) rat pups received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.89% saline. Rats in groups II (selenite-challenged, untreated) and III (selenite-challenged, C. maritima treated) received a subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (19 μmol/kg bodyweight); Group III rat pups also received an intraperitoneal injection of the extract of C. maritima (350 mg/kg bodyweight) once daily P9–14. Both eyes of each pup were examined from P16 until P30. Cytochemical localization of nitroblue tetrazolium salts and generation of superoxide, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide levels were measured. The expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene was evaluated with reverse transcription-PCR. Immunoblot analysis was also performed to confirm the differential expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase protein. Results Subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite led to severe oxidative damage in the lenticular tissues, shown by increased formation of formazan crystals, elevated generation of superoxide, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide radicals, and elevated inducible nitric oxide synthase gene and protein expression that possibly contributed to the opacification of the lens and thus cataract formation. When rat pups were treated with intraperitoneal administration of the extract of C. maritima, the generation of free radicals as well as the messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase were maintained at near normal levels. Conclusions The data generated by this study suggest that an ethanolic extract of C. maritima possibly prevents cataractogenesis in a rat model by minimizing free radical generation. PMID:24357923

  16. A high level of male sexual activity is necessary for the activation of the medial preoptic area and the arcuate nucleus during the 'male effect' in anestrous goats.

    PubMed

    Bedos, Marie; Portillo, Wendy; Dubois, Jean-Philippe; Duarte, Gerardo; Flores, José A; Chemineau, Philippe; Keller, Matthieu; Paredes, Raúl G; Delgadillo, José A

    2016-10-15

    In small ungulates such as sheep or goats, the introduction of a male among a group of anovulatory females during the anestrus season leads to the reactivation of the gonadotrope axis and ovulation, a phenomenon known as the 'male effect'. In goats, our previous studies have demonstrated the importance of male sexual activity for an efficient reactivation of the gonadotrope axis assessed through ovulation and blood LH pulsatility. In the present experiment, we assessed whether the level of male sexual activity would also induce differential activation of two brain regions of key importance for the reactivation of GnRH activity, namely the medial preoptic area and the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. In both structures, we observed a differential activation of Fos in females, depending on the level of buck sexual activity. Indeed, goats unexposed to males showed low levels of expression of Fos while those exposed to sexually inactive bucks showed an intermediate level of Fos expression. Finally, the highest level of Fos expression was found in females exposed to sexually active males. However, and contrary to our initial hypothesis, we were not able to find any specific activation of kisspeptin cells in the arcuate nucleus following the introduction of highly sexually active males. As a whole, these results demonstrate that the level of male sexual activity is a key factor to stimulate brain regions involved in the control of the gonadotrope axis in the context of the male effect in goats.

  17. A high level of male sexual activity is necessary for the activation of the medial preoptic area and the arcuate nucleus during the 'male effect' in anestrous goats.

    PubMed

    Bedos, Marie; Portillo, Wendy; Dubois, Jean-Philippe; Duarte, Gerardo; Flores, José A; Chemineau, Philippe; Keller, Matthieu; Paredes, Raúl G; Delgadillo, José A

    2016-10-15

    In small ungulates such as sheep or goats, the introduction of a male among a group of anovulatory females during the anestrus season leads to the reactivation of the gonadotrope axis and ovulation, a phenomenon known as the 'male effect'. In goats, our previous studies have demonstrated the importance of male sexual activity for an efficient reactivation of the gonadotrope axis assessed through ovulation and blood LH pulsatility. In the present experiment, we assessed whether the level of male sexual activity would also induce differential activation of two brain regions of key importance for the reactivation of GnRH activity, namely the medial preoptic area and the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. In both structures, we observed a differential activation of Fos in females, depending on the level of buck sexual activity. Indeed, goats unexposed to males showed low levels of expression of Fos while those exposed to sexually inactive bucks showed an intermediate level of Fos expression. Finally, the highest level of Fos expression was found in females exposed to sexually active males. However, and contrary to our initial hypothesis, we were not able to find any specific activation of kisspeptin cells in the arcuate nucleus following the introduction of highly sexually active males. As a whole, these results demonstrate that the level of male sexual activity is a key factor to stimulate brain regions involved in the control of the gonadotrope axis in the context of the male effect in goats. PMID:27475456

  18. Comparative power spectrum analysis of EEG activity in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar rats in kainate model of temporal model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Kortenska, Lidia; Marinov, Pencho; Boyanov, Kiril

    2016-06-01

    Recently, we have reported that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) exhibit higher susceptibility than Wistar rats in kainate (KA) model of epilepsy. The aim of the present study is to compare the baseline of EEG signals in SHRs and Wistar rats using Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) during the three phases of KA model (acute, latent and chronic). The SHRs showed higher baseline relative power of delta waves in the left frontal cortex and lower gamma-HF waves in the left frontal and left/right parietal cortex, respectively, compared to Wistar rats. During the acute phase, both absolute and relative power of fast EEG bands (gamma-HF) was lower in the left/right frontal and the left/right parietal cortex in SHRs compared to Wistar rats. During the latent phase, no difference in the power of the investigated bands was detected between the two strains. During the chronic epileptic phase, the SHRs were characterized with higher power of HF oscillations than Wistar rats both in the frontal and parietal cortex without brain lateralization while theta, alpha and beta bands were with diminished power in the left parietal cortex of SHRs compared to normotensive Wistar rats. Taken together, the presented results suggest that the increased delta waves and lower gamma-HF waves in the frontal/parietal cortex are associated with a higher seizure susceptibility of SHRs compared to Wistar rats while fastest oscillations has a critical role in seizure generation and propagation of hypertensive rats.

  19. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

  20. Effects of the type of dietary fat at two levels of vitamin E in Wistar male rats during development and aging. I. Life span, serum biochemical parameters and pathological changes.

    PubMed

    Porta, E A; Joun, N S; Nitta, R T

    1980-05-01

    This experiment was designed to study in rats the implications of the dietary type of fat at two levels of vitamin E on the life span as well as on several biochemical and anatomopathological age-related changes. For this purpose, six different isoenergetic diets containing 15% coconut oil (SFD), safflower oil (UFD) or a combination of both (CFD) with 2 or 200 mg% of dl-alpha-tocopherol were offered ad libitum to outbred Wistar male rats from weaning to senescence. The results indicated that up to 9--12 months the body weights of rats consuming the CFD or the UFD increased generally faster than those fed the SFD, and that all rats developed moderate degrees of obesity. Age-dependent changes in organ weights (kidneys, testes, spleen, brain, liver and heart) were unaffected by diet. Serum levels of vitamin E generally reflected the corresponding dietary levels, but were also influenced by the type of dietary fat. Serum cholesterol levels were not significantly affected by the type of diet or by age. Only transient hypotriglyceridemic and hypophospholipidemic effects of the UFD were observed and, while the levels of triglycerides decreased with age up to the 18th month followed by an increase at 24 months, the levels of serum phospholipids remained unchanged. Neither diet nor age modified the serum albumin/globulin ratios. While no differences in maximum life span were found between dietary groups, the 50% survival time of rats fed the UFD at high level of vitamin E was significantly longer than in all the other groups. This beneficial effect was related to postponement of the onset and reduction of incidence of malignant neoplasms, but was apparently not related to any particular influence on the incidence or severity of chronic nephropathy which practically developed in all rats. Various neoplastic, degenerative and inflammatory diseases encountered in rats dying during the course of the experiment were tabulated and compared with similar findings reported by others

  1. Effects of swimming activity on the copulatory behavior of sexually active male rats.

    PubMed

    Allouh, M Z

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has long been associated with better sexual function. This study investigated the effects of moderate swimming exercise on the copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats. Two sets of sexually potent male rats -highly active and moderately active- were identified depending on baseline sexual activity. Each of the two sets of rats was further randomly divided into two groups (swimming and sedentary). There were 16 rats in each of the four study groups (highly active swimming, highly active sedentary, moderately active swimming and moderately active sedentary). The copulatory behavior parameters and serum testosterone levels were measured and compared between the rats of the swimming and sedentary groups following a month long training period in which rats were made to swim for 1 h every alternate day. Swimming significantly improved the sexual performance of highly active rats, as indicated by increased intromission frequency and intromission ratio, compared with the sedentary controls. Swimming improved both sexual desire and performance, as indicated by reduced mount latency and increased intromission ratio, respectively, in swimming moderately active rats compared with the sedentary moderately active controls. Therefore, swimming activity improves the copulatory behavior of both highly active and moderately active male rats.

  2. Evaluating the protective effects of vitamin C on serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity of male rats exposed to malathion

    PubMed Central

    Taherdehi, Faezeh Ghorbani; Nikravesh, Mohammad Reza; Jalali, Mehdi; Fazel, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malathion is one of organophosphate poisons (OPPs) that inhibit cholinesterase activity and induce oxidative stress in target organs, such as the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Malathion on serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity in male rats and also to assess the protective effects of vitamin C in this regard. Methods This experimental study was performed in the Pharmacology Laboratory of the Pharmacy Faculty and in the Advanced Histology Techniques Laboratory of the Medical Faculty of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS) in January 2014. Thirty male wistar rats, weighting 200–250 g, were divided into five groups of six. The different groups were exposed as follows: group 1: Malathion 50 mg/kg; group 2: Vitamin C; group 3: Malathion plus Vitamin C with the specified doses; sham group: normal saline; and control group: no exposure. After six weeks, 3 ml blood samples were taken from the rats, and titrimetric and Ellman methods were used to assess serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity, respectively. The data was analyzed by SPSS 16, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The activities of serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase were inhibited significantly in the Malathion exposed group compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The administration of Vitamin C alone significantly increased the activities of serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase. The serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase inhibition showed improvement in the group that received both Malathion and Vitamin C. Conclusion Malathion reduced the activities of serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase in exposed animals. It probably has the same intoxication effects on people who are exposed. Improvement of cholinesterase activity by antioxidant effects of Vitamin C suggests that Vitamin C supplementation can be used to decrease side effects of OPP exposure. PMID:27648190

  3. Evaluating the protective effects of vitamin C on serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity of male rats exposed to malathion

    PubMed Central

    Taherdehi, Faezeh Ghorbani; Nikravesh, Mohammad Reza; Jalali, Mehdi; Fazel, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malathion is one of organophosphate poisons (OPPs) that inhibit cholinesterase activity and induce oxidative stress in target organs, such as the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Malathion on serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity in male rats and also to assess the protective effects of vitamin C in this regard. Methods This experimental study was performed in the Pharmacology Laboratory of the Pharmacy Faculty and in the Advanced Histology Techniques Laboratory of the Medical Faculty of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS) in January 2014. Thirty male wistar rats, weighting 200–250 g, were divided into five groups of six. The different groups were exposed as follows: group 1: Malathion 50 mg/kg; group 2: Vitamin C; group 3: Malathion plus Vitamin C with the specified doses; sham group: normal saline; and control group: no exposure. After six weeks, 3 ml blood samples were taken from the rats, and titrimetric and Ellman methods were used to assess serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity, respectively. The data was analyzed by SPSS 16, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The activities of serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase were inhibited significantly in the Malathion exposed group compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The administration of Vitamin C alone significantly increased the activities of serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase. The serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase inhibition showed improvement in the group that received both Malathion and Vitamin C. Conclusion Malathion reduced the activities of serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase in exposed animals. It probably has the same intoxication effects on people who are exposed. Improvement of cholinesterase activity by antioxidant effects of Vitamin C suggests that Vitamin C supplementation can be used to decrease side effects of OPP exposure.

  4. Perillyl alcohol protects against ethanol induced acute liver injury in Wistar rats by inhibiting oxidative stress, NFκ-B activation and proinflammatory cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Nafees, Sana; Sultana, Sarwat

    2011-01-11

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are two major etiological factors that are suggested to play key roles in the development of ethanol induced liver injury. Release of proinflammatory cytokine like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκ-B) may strongly intensify inflammation and cell damage. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) also exerts significant effect in this whole cell signaling machinery. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of perillyl alcohol (POH) on ethanol-induced acute liver injury in Wistar rats and its probable mechanism. We have successfully demonstrated that pre-treatment with POH, besides exerting antioxidant activity might be able to modulate TNF-α release and NFκ-B activation. Rats were divided into five groups and treated with ethanol or POH via an intragastric tube for one week. Control group was treated with vehicle, and ethanol treated group was given ethanol (5 g/kg body wt). Animal of treatment groups were pretreated with POH (50 & 100 mg/kg body wt) and have been given ethanol. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase and hepatic malondialdehyde were increased significantly by ethanol treatment. Ethanol administration decreased hepatic reduced glutathione content and various antioxidant enzymes activity. TNF-α production and NFκ-B activation was also found to be increased after ethanol administration. POH pre-treatment significantly ameliorates ethanol induced acute liver injury possibly by inhibition of lipid peroxidation, replenishment of endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense system, downregulation of TNF-α as well as NFκ-B.

  5. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

  6. [Evaluation of locomotor activity after a local induction of toxic demyelination in the brainstem of Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Bondan, Eduardo Fernandes; Lallo, Maria Anete; Orsini, Heloísa; Bentubo, Henri Levi Donnaruma; Yazbek, Angela; Macrini, Daclê Juliani; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Graça, Dominguita Luhers

    2006-06-01

    Ethidium-bromide (EB)-induced lesions have been used to investigate the incomplete remyelination in the central nervous system, as well as to evaluate therapeutic strategies to accelerate the reconstruction of the lost myelin sheaths. Although many electrophysiologic studies were performed in situations of experimental demyelination and remyelination, their behavioural effects have not been properly analyzed. In this study, we investigated ultrastructurally the EB - demyelinating lesions as well as the locomotor activity of rats during the beam walking test after a focal induction of demyelination using the EB model in the ventral surface of the brainstem. It was observed the occurrence of locomotor deficits until 31 days post-injection, as well as that subsequent remyelination was related to the return of the lost function.

  7. [Evaluation of locomotor activity after a local induction of toxic demyelination in the brainstem of Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Bondan, Eduardo Fernandes; Lallo, Maria Anete; Orsini, Heloísa; Bentubo, Henri Levi Donnaruma; Yazbek, Angela; Macrini, Daclê Juliani; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Graça, Dominguita Luhers

    2006-06-01

    Ethidium-bromide (EB)-induced lesions have been used to investigate the incomplete remyelination in the central nervous system, as well as to evaluate therapeutic strategies to accelerate the reconstruction of the lost myelin sheaths. Although many electrophysiologic studies were performed in situations of experimental demyelination and remyelination, their behavioural effects have not been properly analyzed. In this study, we investigated ultrastructurally the EB - demyelinating lesions as well as the locomotor activity of rats during the beam walking test after a focal induction of demyelination using the EB model in the ventral surface of the brainstem. It was observed the occurrence of locomotor deficits until 31 days post-injection, as well as that subsequent remyelination was related to the return of the lost function. PMID:16917626

  8. Azoreductase activity of Sprague Dawley and Wistar-derived rats towards both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic analogues of 4-dimethylaminophenylazobenzene (DAB).

    PubMed

    Elliott, B M

    1984-08-01

    Azoreductase activity towards the hepatocarcinogen p-dimethylaminophenylazobenzene (DAB) and four analogues has been measured in vitro in the liver and caecum of Sprague Dawley (Alpk/SD) and Alderley Park (Alpk/AP Wistar-derived) rats. Two carcinogenic DAB analogues, 3'-methyl-p-dimethylaminophenylazobenzene (3M) and 6-p-dimethylaminophenylazobenzothiazole (6BT) and two non-carcinogenic analogues, 4-N-pyrrolidinylazobenzene (4N) and 5-p-dimethylaminophenylazoindazole (5I) have been examined. The azoreductase activity towards DAB of a 9000 g supernatant of liver homogenate was greater in the SD than the AP strain between 6 and 13 weeks of age, but comparable to that of AP rats at 4 weeks of age. The activity towards DAB fell in both strains with increasing age. Animals of both strains fed a riboflavin-low diet (2-3 mg kg-1) had reduced azoreductase activity with DAB when compared to a standard diet at all ages studied, although the difference was less marked in the AP rats. 3M and 4N were azoreduced by the livers of both strains of rat fed a standard diet at a rate of approximately 50% of that of DAB, whereas 5I and 6BT were cleaved at a much lower rate (5-20%). All the chemicals were reduced by an oxygen-insensitive enzyme in the liver preparation, as has previously been reported for DAB. DAB, 3M and 6BT were reduced at a similar rate to each other by a fraction containing caecal contents, both in and between the two strains of rat. Similarly, 4N and 5I were reduced by a caecal preparation at a similar rate to each other in and between both strains of rat, but at a rate of only 30-50% that shown by DAB, 3M and 6BT. In contrast to the conditions required by the liver azoreductase enzyme, anaerobic conditions were required for maximal activity of the caecal preparation. Liver azoreductase activity towards all the DAB analogues was reduced in both strains of rat maintained on a riboflavin-low diet, while the caecal azoreductase activity was unaffected. Neither the

  9. Facile Synthesis of Curcumin Nanocrystals and Validation of Its Antioxidant Activity Against Circulatory Toxicity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, A; Devasena, T

    2015-06-01

    Our investigation was carried out in two phases. First we synthesized curcumin nanocrystals using a simple precipitation method and characterized their absorbance, crystallinity, size, and morphology by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Particle size Analyzer (PSA), in comparison with bulk curcumin. Characterization studies revealed that the protocol we standardized resulted in Curcumin nanocrystals with 10-200 nm size which was fairly soluble in water in contrast to bulk curcumin. Due to its crystallinity, nanocurcumin that we synthesized was also referred as Curcumin Nanocrystals. In Phase 2, we have assessed the comparative antioxidant efficacy of Curcumin nanocrystals and bulk Curcumin in the circulation of 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine-treated rats by investigating lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase), GSH and GSH-dependent detoxification enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, gIutathione-S-transferase). Curcumin nanocrystals exerted its antioxidant effect by decreasing lipid peroxidation, and by enhancing the activities of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes studied. Curcumin nanocrystals exhibited its antioxidant action at 40 mg dose whereas the bulk curcumin exerted its effect at 80 mg dose. This may be due to enhanced solubility, dispersibility, and crystallinity of the nanocrystals, which might have enhanced its bioavailability when compared to poorly soluble bulk curcumin. PMID:26369020

  10. Clinical doses of citalopram or reboxetine differentially modulate passive and active behaviors of female Wistar rats with high or low immobility time in the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Flores-Serrano, Ana Gisela; Vila-Luna, María Leonor; Álvarez-Cervera, Fernando José; Heredia-López, Francisco José; Góngora-Alfaro, José Luis; Pineda, Juan Carlos

    2013-09-01

    The sensitivity of immobility time (IT) to antidepressant-drugs differs in rats expressing high or low motor activity during the forced swimming test (FST). However, whether this heterogeneity is expressed after the administration of the most selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs and SNRIs, respectively) is unknown. We compared the influence of either the SSRI citalopram or the SNRI reboxetine with the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline on two subgroups of female Wistar rats expressing high IT (HI; at or above the mean value) or low IT (LI; below the mean) during the initial 5 min of the first session of the FST. None of the tested drugs increased motor activity in the open field test. When vehicle was applied to either HI or LI rats, IT increased in the second session of the FST. This increment concurred with a simultaneous climbing time (CT) decrement. When amitriptyline (15 mg/kg) was tested the CT increased for both HI and LI rats. This increment was accompanied by an IT decrement in HI and LI rats. Reboxetine (0.16 or 1 mg/kg) precluded IT and CT changes in both HI and LI rats and produced a swimming time reduction. Citalopram (0.4, 1, and 3 mg/kg) essentially mimicked the influence of reboxetine on the IT and CT in LI rats, as well as in HI rats, but in the latter case only at 3 mg/kg. Yet, at the dose of 10 mg/kg citalopram lacked this effect in both subgroups. No differences were detected when the IT of LI rats was evaluated with citalopram (3 mg/kg) during estrus or diestrus stage. These results show that clinical doses of citalopram produced an antidepressant-like effect selectively in LI rats, while amitriptyline or reboxetine produced this effect in both LI and HI animals.

  11. Differential inducing effect of benzo[a]pyrene on gene expression and enzyme activity of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1A2 in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Floreani, Maura; Gabbia, Daniela; Barbierato, Massimo; DE Martin, Sara; Palatini, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare RT-PCR, Western blot and determination of enzyme activity in the assessment of the induction of cytochromes P450 (CYPs) 1A1 and 1A2 by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats. Inhibition studies and kinetic analyses confirmed literature data indicating that methoxyresorufin is a specific CYP1A2 substrate in both uninduced and BaP-treated rats, whereas ethoxyresorufin is a specific CYP1A1 substrate only in BaP-treated rats. BaP treatment increased mRNA and protein expressions of both CYP1A enzymes to a greater extent in Wistar than Sprague-Dawley rats. It consistently caused a higher increase in mRNA and protein expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the former rats. By contrast, CYP1A2 enzyme activity was much more markedly increased in Sprague-Dawley than Wistar rats and CYP1A1 activity was induced to similar levels. A BaP-induced increase in the turnover number of CYP1A enzymes in Sprague-Dawley rats, relative to Wistar rats, may provide a plausible explanation for the differential effect of BaP on gene expression and enzyme activity. These results have methodological implications, since they show that RT-PCR and Western blot may not provide a quantitative measure of induction of CYP1A activity, which is the actual measure of the change in CYP1A-mediated metabolism.

  12. GR 127935 reduces basal locomotor activity and prevents RU 24969-, but not D-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, in the Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive (WKHA) rat.

    PubMed

    Chaouloff, F; Courvoisier, H; Moisan, M P; Mormède, P

    1999-01-01

    The hyperlocomotor effect of the serotonin (5-HT)1A,B receptor agonist 5-methoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H-indole (RU 24969) has been repeatedly reported. However, 5-HT1A receptors, 5-HT1B receptors (or both) have been claimed to mediate this effect of RU 24969. These contradictory data possibly arise from protocol differences, especially those related to animal species, drugs, and activity assessment. Herein, the influence of a pretreatment with the selective 5-HT1B,D receptor antagonist N-[4-methoxy3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)phenyl]-2'-methyl-4'-(5me thyl-1,2,4-oxadiozol-3-yl)-biphenyl-4-carboxamide (GR 127935; 1, 3.3 and 10 mg/kg IP) on the hyperlocomotor effect of a 5 mg/kg (IP) dose of RU 24969 was studied in Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rats. In a first series of experiments, it was confirmed that RU 24969 (2.5 and 5 mg/kg), administered 10 min after the onset of activity recordings, increases locomotion dose-dependently (cage crossings). In a second series of experiments, administration of GR 127935 10 min after the onset of activity recordings promoted a dose-dependent decrease in basal activity (and rearings) and prevented (3.3 and 10 mg/kg) RU 24969-elicited locomotor activity. On the other hand, GR 127935 was ineffective against RU 24969-induced inhibition of rearings. Lastly, it was observed that 3.3 mg/kg GR 127935 did not affect the number of cage crossings and rearings displayed by rats administered 1.5 mg/kg D-amphetamine. This study shows that 5-HT1B receptors play a major role in the hyperlocomotor effect of RU 24969, at least under our experimental setting. Whether these receptors also play a tonic role in the high locomotor activity displayed by WKHA rats remains to be determined.

  13. Attenuation of Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Activity in Male and Female Mice by Active Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Kosten, Therese A.; Shen, Xiaoyun Y.; Kinsey, Berma M.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Orson, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Immunotherapy for drug addiction is being investigated in several laboratories but most studies are conducted in animals of one sex. Yet, women show heightened immune responses and are more likely to develop autoimmune diseases than men. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an active anti-cocaine vaccine, succinyl-norcocaine conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, for its ability to elicit antibodies and alter cocaine-induced ambulatory activity in male versus female mice. Methods Male and female BALB/c mice were vaccinated (n=44) or served as non-vaccinated controls (n=34). Three weeks after initial vaccination, a booster was given. Ambulatory activity induced by cocaine (20 mg/kg) was assessed at 7-wk and plasma obtained at 8-wk to assess antibody levels. Results High antibody titers were produced in mice of both sexes. The vaccine reduced ambulatory activity cocaine-induced but this effect was greater in female compared to male mice. Discussion and conclusions The efficacy of this anti-cocaine vaccine is demonstrated in mice of both sexes but its functional consequences are greater in females than males. Scientific significance Results point to the importance of testing animals of both sexes in studies of immunotherapies for addiction. PMID:25251469

  14. The Sex Differences of Morphology and Immunology of SIRS of Newborn Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kosyreva, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases particularly appear at reproductive age and depend on the sex hormone level, varied between male and female. There are a few sets of data about the sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases course, including systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis, of newborns. The aim of our research was the estimation of morphological and immunological manifestation of SIRS of the newborn Wistar rats. Investigations were carried out on male and female two-day-old Wistar rats (10–12 g). SIRS was modeled by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (E. coli, O26: B6 strain, Sigma) in high dose—15 mg/kg. We did not find out any sex differences of the liver lesions severity between newborn males and females after LPS injection. The levels of endotoxin and estradiol in the serum, as the number of neutrophils in the intra-alveolar septa of the lungs, were higher in males than females with SIRS. Production of IL-2 and TNF-α by the spleen cells of males was higher than that in control group that reflects polarization predominantly on the Th1-type immune response. The secretion of IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ by ConA activated spleen cells of females decreased that reflects the suppression of Th1-type immune response. We suppose that the LPS administration in the high dose causes the multidirectional reaction of the immune system of neonatal males and females Wistar rats. PMID:27350991

  15. Male Adolescents' Reasons for Participating in Physical Activity, Barriers to Participation, and Suggestions for Increasing Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Kenneth R.; Dwyer, John J. M.; Goldenberg, Ellie; Fein, Allan; Yoshida, Karen K.; Boutilier, Marie

    2005-01-01

    This study explored male adolescents' reasons for participating in moderate and vigorous physical activity, perceived barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity, and suggestions as to what can be done to increase participation in physical activity. A total of 26 male 15- and 16-year-old adolescents participated in focus group sessions,…

  16. Is self-sacrificial competitive altruism primarily a male activity?

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Francis T; Perilloux, Carin

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the basis of self-sacrificial prosocial behavior in small groups. Seventy-eight undergraduates (39M, 39F) filled out a thirty-item personality scale and then participated in a "group problem-solving study" in which the monetary success of a three-person group depended upon one of its members volunteering to endure pain (a cold stressor test) and inconvenience (being soaked in a dunk tank). There were 13 groups consisting of two females and one male, and 13 groups consisting of two males and one female. Across groups, the behavior of the altruist was judged to be more costly, challenging, and important and he/she was liked better, rewarded with more money, and preferred as a future experimental partner. Groups containing two males showed more evidence of competition to become altruists than groups containing two females, and personality traits were more effective predictors of altruistic behavior in males than in females. We conclude that competition between males and "showing off" are key factors in triggering self-sacrificial altruistic behavior.

  17. Hematological Characteristics of the BB Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Wright, J R; Yates, A J; Shah, N T; Neff, J C; Covey, D W; Thibert, P

    1983-01-01

    Complete blood counts, differential white blood cell and platelet counts were performed on male and female BB Wistar diabetic rats (BBWd), their nondiabetic siblings (BBWnd) and outbred Wistar rats of the line from which the BB Wistar rats were derived. Most of the observed changes were strain-related (those present in both BBWd and BBWnd but not in control rats) rather than diabetes-related (those in BBWd but neither BBWnd nor control rats) and therefore probably due to the inbreeding process. The BBW strain had significantly lower numbers of white cells and platelets, as well as markedly changed differential white cell counts. Differential counts showed a pattern of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, monocytosis and eosinophilia. It is possible that these white blood cell changes contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection reported for the BBW strain. No significant difference in serum immunoglobulin concentrations was found in any of these three groups of rats. There- fore, hypogammaglobutinemia cannot account for the increased susceptibility to infections, but it is not possible to rule out an abnormality in the distribution of immunoglobulin fractions as an etiological factor. PMID:15311399

  18. Hematological Characteristics of the BB Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Wright, J R; Yates, A J; Shah, N T; Neff, J C; Covey, D W; Thibert, P

    1983-01-01

    Complete blood counts, differential white blood cell and platelet counts were performed on male and female BB Wistar diabetic rats (BBWd), their nondiabetic siblings (BBWnd) and outbred Wistar rats of the line from which the BB Wistar rats were derived. Most of the observed changes were strain-related (those present in both BBWd and BBWnd but not in control rats) rather than diabetes-related (those in BBWd but neither BBWnd nor control rats) and therefore probably due to the inbreeding process. The BBW strain had significantly lower numbers of white cells and platelets, as well as markedly changed differential white cell counts. Differential counts showed a pattern of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, monocytosis and eosinophilia. It is possible that these white blood cell changes contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection reported for the BBW strain. No significant difference in serum immunoglobulin concentrations was found in any of these three groups of rats. There- fore, hypogammaglobutinemia cannot account for the increased susceptibility to infections, but it is not possible to rule out an abnormality in the distribution of immunoglobulin fractions as an etiological factor.

  19. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  20. Reproductive success in the Lusitanian toadfish: Influence of calling activity, male quality and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Amorim, M Clara P; Conti, Carlotta; Sousa-Santos, Carla; Novais, Bruno; Gouveia, Maria D; Vicente, Joana R; Modesto, Teresa; Gonçalves, Amparo; Fonseca, Paulo J

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic signals are sexual ornaments with an established role on mate choice in several taxa, but not in fish. Recent studies have suggested that fish vocal activity may signal male quality and influence male's reproductive success but experimental evidence is lacking. Here we made two experiments to test the hypothesis that vocal activity is essential for male breeding success in a highly vocal fish, the Lusitanian toadfish. We first compared the reproduction success between muted and vocal males. In a second experiment we related male reproduction success with acoustic activity and male quality, including biometric, condition and physiological features. As a proxy for reproductive success we tallied both total number and number of sired eggs, which were correlated. Muting experiments showed that successful mating was dependent on vocalizing. In addition, the number of eggs was positively associated with the male's maximum calling rate. In the second experiment male's reproductive success was positively associated with male condition and negatively related with circulating androgen levels and relative gonad mass, but was not associated with vocal activity. Differences in results may be related with nest design which could have influenced mate choice costs and intra-sexual competition. In the muting experiment nests had a small opening that restrained the large nest-holder but allowed smaller fish, such as females, to pass while in the second experiment fish could move freely. These experiments suggest that a combination of factors, including vocal activity, influence reproductive success in this highly vocal species.

  1. Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats differ in the affective and locomotor effects of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Rauhut, Anthony S; Zentner, Isaac J; Mardekian, Stacey K; Tanenbaum, Jason B

    2008-01-28

    Anhedonia is a characteristic of clinical depression and has been associated with dysfunction of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, a system also involved in mediating nicotine reward. To further examine the relationship between anhedonia, clinical depression and nicotine reward, the present experiment determined if Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of clinical depression, differed from Wistar rats in nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP). Strain differences in nicotine-induced changes in locomotor activity also were determined simultaneously. To determine if strain differences were specific to reward-based learning, nicotine or lithium chloride (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) experiments were conducted. Rats received vehicle or nicotine (0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) during a multi-trial, biased CPP training procedure or received vehicle, nicotine (0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) or lithium chloride (LiCl; 0.0375, 0.075 or 0.15 M) during a multi-trial CTA training procedure. Whereas both nicotine doses (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg) initially induced hypoactivity, only the moderate nicotine dose (0.4 mg/kg) induced hyperactivity with repeated administration and produced a CPP in Wistar rats. Both nicotine doses failed to alter locomotor activity or produce a CPP in WKY rats. WKY rats also acquired a LiCl CTA more slowly and less robustly compared to Wistar rats. In contrast, nicotine dose-dependently produced a CTA in both strains and WKY rats were more sensitive to the avoidance effects of nicotine compared to Wistar rats. Collectively, these results suggest that WKY rats show deficits in nicotine reward and specific aversive drug stimuli compared to Wistar rats.

  2. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma in healthy and hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Newary, Samah A; Sulieman, A M; El-Attar, S R; Sitohy, M Z

    2016-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Hyperlipidemia increases the incidence of myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. This study evaluated the potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma ("CDNP extract"). In vivo studies were performed for 10 weeks on dietary hyperlipidemic and healthy Wistar albino rat models that received two dose levels of the CDNP extract (0.50 and 1.00 g/kg body weight). Serum lipid profiles were determined for the experimental animals. Dietary hyperlipidemic rats were characterized by an elevated lipid profile compared to the healthy control, i.e., increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), although the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was reduced. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), were significantly higher in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats than in the normal healthy ones, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly lower. Force-feeding hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats with the CDNP extract at two doses decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG to normal levels. The risk ratio, which was as high as 870 % for the hyperlipidemic rats was decreased by the treatment to levels close to that calculated for the healthy control rats. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were very low in the hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats but increased significantly when CDNP extract was adminstered, attaining similar HDL-C levels to those of healthy control rats. Treatment with the CDNP extract also improved the levels of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, GPx, SOD, and CAT) in hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats. Thus, the CDNP extract improves the lipid

  3. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma in healthy and hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Newary, Samah A; Sulieman, A M; El-Attar, S R; Sitohy, M Z

    2016-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Hyperlipidemia increases the incidence of myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. This study evaluated the potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma ("CDNP extract"). In vivo studies were performed for 10 weeks on dietary hyperlipidemic and healthy Wistar albino rat models that received two dose levels of the CDNP extract (0.50 and 1.00 g/kg body weight). Serum lipid profiles were determined for the experimental animals. Dietary hyperlipidemic rats were characterized by an elevated lipid profile compared to the healthy control, i.e., increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), although the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was reduced. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), were significantly higher in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats than in the normal healthy ones, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly lower. Force-feeding hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats with the CDNP extract at two doses decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG to normal levels. The risk ratio, which was as high as 870 % for the hyperlipidemic rats was decreased by the treatment to levels close to that calculated for the healthy control rats. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were very low in the hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats but increased significantly when CDNP extract was adminstered, attaining similar HDL-C levels to those of healthy control rats. Treatment with the CDNP extract also improved the levels of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, GPx, SOD, and CAT) in hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats. Thus, the CDNP extract improves the lipid

  4. Body Size, Rather Than Male Eye Allometry, Explains Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Activity in Low Light

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. L.; Palermo, N. A.; Theobald, J. C.; Wells, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Male Chrysomya megacephala (F.) blow fly compound eyes contain an unusual area of enlarged dorsal facets believed to allow for increased light capture. This region is absent in females and has been hypothesized to aid in mate tracking in low light conditions or at greater distances. Many traits used in the attraction and capture of mates are allometric, growing at different rates relative to body size. Previous reports concerning C. megacephala eye properties did not include measurements of body size, making the relationship between the specialized eye region and body size unclear. We examined different morphological features of the eye among individuals of varying sizes. We found total eye size scaled proportionately to body size, but the number of enlarged dorsal facets increased as body size increased. This demonstrated that larger males have an eye that is morphologically different than smaller males. On the basis of external morphology, we hypothesized that since larger males have larger and a greater number of dorsally enlarged facets, and these facets are believed to allow for increased light capture, larger males would be active in lower light levels than smaller males and females of equal size. In a laboratory setting, larger males were observed to become active earlier in the morning than smaller males, although they did not remain active later in the evening. However, females followed the same pattern at similar light levels suggesting that overall body size rather than specialized male eye morphology is responsible for increased activity under low light conditions. PMID:26411786

  5. Do perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to physical activity differ between male and female adolescents?

    PubMed

    Tergerson, Jennifer L; King, Keith A

    2002-11-01

    A four-page survey was administered to 535 adolescents at two single-sex (one male, one female) high schools in Cincinnati, Ohio, to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. More specifically, the survey assessed perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to exercising. Results indicated that the most helpful cue to physical activity for both female and male students was "having a friend to exercise with." The most commonly reported benefit of exercising among females was "to stay in shape," whereas the most commonly reported benefit to exercising among males was "to become strong." Among females, the most common barrier to exercising was "having no time to exercise," whereas males were most likely to report "wanting to do other things with my time." Multivariate analyses of covariance revealed that perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to physical activity differed significantly based on gender. Recommendations on specific strategies to increasing male and female adolescent physical activity levels are offered. PMID:12557633

  6. Eating disorder in a young active duty male.

    PubMed

    Staten, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    Eating disorders can have atypical presentations, be challenging to diagnose, and often result in treatment delay, as illustrated here. Bulimia nervosa is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors, and is ten times more common in females. Studies show increased prevalence over the past decade, with similar prevalence in young military members and civilians. Risk factors include dieting, gender preference, life-altering events, and history of a psychiatric condition. Relatively little research has focused on eating disorders among military males, but factors unique to this group include rigid weight standards, mandatory semiannual personal fitness assessments, and extended deployments. Bulimia and other eating disorders can have subtle or atypical presentations and are often overlooked in males. Other diagnostic obstacles include career concerns and stigma avoidance, along with provider time constraints, inexperience, or discomfort with the issue. Serious medical complications of bulimia are uncommon, but delayed diagnosis can lead to hospitalization and significant morbidity. This case emphasizes the importance of a thorough history and wide differential when faced with an unusual presentation. Recognizing risk factors and incorporating simple screening tools can aid the timely identification and treatment of service members with disordered eating before unit and mission effectiveness are compromised.

  7. [Suppression of sexual activity and reproduction in male small ruminants].

    PubMed

    Mihsler, Lisa; Wagner, Henrik; Wehrend, Axel

    2016-06-16

    Handling and husbandry of male small ruminants after sexual maturity often become difficult. Castration is currently the most reliable solution to this problem. Medicinal procedures for temporary inhibition of the gonad function could provide an alternative. Following a short overview of surgical castration, the current knowledge on the application of vaccines against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH agonist in rams and billy goats is presented in a literature overview. In rams, GnRH vaccination has been used successfully for temporary suppression of the reproduction function, regardless of an animal's age at the time of therapy initiation. Fewer investigations are available for the billy goat. A complete suppression of spermatogenesis was not achieved in all cases. Currently, treatment with GnRH agonists does not represent a relible method for the suppression of gonad function. PMID:27189125

  8. Leveling the Playing Field: First Generation Korean American Males and School Based Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Corey

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the manner in which extracurricular activities impacted the acculturation of first-generation adolescent males. Specifically, the project focused on the influence of organized high school soccer on the development of first-generation adolescent Korean American males. Eight adolescent participants, ranging in age from fourteen…

  9. Hormonal specificity and activation of social behavior in male red-winged blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Harding, C F; Walters, M J; Collado, D; Sheridan, K

    1988-09-01

    Five groups of male red-winged blackbirds were observed 12 times over 14 days in an aviary setting. An estradiol-treated female was present during the last two observations of each group. Each group of males consisted of a castrated (CA) and an intact (IN) control and six castrated males given one of the following hormone treatments: the aromatizable androgens, testosterone (T) and androstenedione (AE); the nonaromatizable androgens, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and androsterone (AN); the estrogen, estradiol (E); or a combination of E + DHT. Castration significantly reduced the frequency of singing and three common vocalizations, chucks, checks, and ips, below the levels shown by IN males. Only hormone treatments which provided both androgenic and estrogenic metabolites (A + E = T, AE, E + DHT) restored normal levels of these behaviors in castrated males. Endocrine status also modulated epaulet display. IN and A + E males were more likely than other males to keep their epaulets constantly exposed. The frequency of sidling and supplanting also varied significantly across hormone-treatment groups, with A + E males showing higher frequencies of these behaviors than other males. T was clearly the most effective hormone treatment in activating hormone-sensitive behaviors in this species. Hormone treatment was more important than size or plumage pattern in determining the outcome of aggressive interactions. In some groups, the dominant male clearly inhibited the performance of hormone-sensitive behaviors by other males. Among A + E males, the frequency of higher intensity song spread displays was highly correlated with the frequency of high-intensity aggressive behaviors and negatively correlated with the tendency to withdraw from other males. Patterns of correlations among behaviors suggest that some calls are more hormone dependent than others, and thus may serve different signal functions.

  10. Inhibin activity in male rat reproductive organs during treatment with dihydrotestosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Gladkova, A.I.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the inhibin level in the male reproductive system is studied. Hormones were determined in the peripheral blood of the donor rats by radioimmunoassay. Inhibin activity in the male rats is shown. DHT caused a very small increase in inhibin activity in the testis. Further study of relations between androgens and inhibin at peripheral and central levels will facilitate fertility control.

  11. Child Support Enforcement and Sexual Activity of Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui

    2007-01-01

    Strong child support enforcement requires fathers to take financial responsibility for their children and may also encourage more responsible sexual behavior. Using the 1997-2001 waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 4,272), this article examines the association between child support enforcement and the sexual activity of…

  12. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  13. Muscle activity during stance phase of walking: comparison of males with transfemoral amputation with osseointegrated fixations to nondisabled male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pantall, Annette; Ewins, David

    2013-01-01

    A recent development in prosthetics is the osseointegrated fixation (OF), with improvements in comfort, fatigue, hip movement, and ease of prosthetic attachment reported. However, little information is available regarding muscle function. This study reports on selected gait parameters of the residual limb during the stance phase of level overground walking, focusing on muscle activity. Five males with transfemoral amputation (TFA) with OFs were recruited. Ground reaction force (GRF), lower-limb kinematics, and surface electromyography (sEMG) from residual-limb muscles were recorded. sEMG data were also collected from a group of 10 nondisabled male subjects. Interstance variability of gait parameters was assessed by coefficient of multiple correlations. Repeatability of GRF and hip kinematics was high, whereas repeatability of the sEMG was low for four of the five individuals with TFA. Interstance variability of the sEMG for gluteus medius (GMED) was significantly greater in the group with TFA. The main difference in sEMG between the groups was the phase, with GMED and adductor magnus displaying greater differences than their counterparts in the nondisabled group. Results demonstrate that muscles in the residual limb retain aspects of their previous functional pattern.

  14. Physical activity and sedentary time: male perceptions in a university work environment.

    PubMed

    George, Emma S; Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Guagliano, Justin M

    2014-03-01

    Promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary time in males can be challenging, and interventions tailored specifically for males are limited. Understanding male perceptions of physical activity and sedentary behavior is important to inform development of relevant interventions, especially for males working in an office setting. As part of a larger intervention study to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time, male university employees aged 35 to 64 years were invited to partake in focus groups to discuss benefits, motivators, and barriers related to physical activity and sedentary time. Five semistructured focus group sessions, ranging from 50 to 70 minutes in duration, were conducted on two campuses at an Australian university. A total of 15 participants (9 academic/faculty staff and 6 professional staff), with a mean (± SD) age of 46.1 (±8.0) years took part in the study. Health and family were commonly discussed motivators for physical activity, whereas time constraints and work commitments were major barriers to physical activity participation. Sedentary time was a perceived "by-product" of participants' university employment, as a substantial proportion of their days were spent sitting, primarily at a computer. Participants believed that physical activity should be recognized as a legitimate activity at work, embedded within the university culture and endorsed using a top-down approach. It is important to encourage breaks in sedentary time and recognize physical activity as a legitimate health-promoting activity that is supported and encouraged during working hours. These findings can be used as a platform from which to develop targeted strategies to promote physical activity in male university employees.

  15. Both myo-inositol to chiro-inositol epimerase activities and chiro-inositol to myo-inositol ratios are decreased in tissues of GK type 2 diabetic rats compared to Wistar controls.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tie-hua; Heimark, Douglas B; Nguygen, Thang; Nadler, Jerry L; Larner, Joseph

    2002-05-10

    Previous data from our and other labs demonstrated a decreased chiro-inositol content in urine and tissues of human subjects and animals with type 2 diabetes. In urine this decrease in chiro-inositol was accompanied by an increase in myo-inositol content. Decreased urine levels of chiro-inositol in monkeys were next correlated with the severity of underlying insulin resistance determined by five separate assays. To investigate the decreased chiro-inositol and the accompanying increased myo-inositol excretions in urine in humans and monkeys, we postulated a defect in the epimerization of myo-inositol to chiro-inositol. [(3)H]Myo-inositol was then shown to be converted to [(3)H]chiro-inositol in rats in vivo and in fibroblasts in vitro in a process stimulated by insulin. We next demonstrated that the conversion of [(3)H]myo-inositol to [(3)H]chiro-inositol in vivo was markedly decreased in GK type 2 diabetic rats compared to Wistar controls in liver, muscle, and fat, insulin sensitive tissues. Decreases of 20-25% conversion to baseline levels of under 5% conversion were observed. In the present work, we initially compared the total contents of myo-inositol and chiro-inositol in GK type 2 diabetic rat kidney, liver, and muscle compared to Wistar controls. We demonstrated a consistent decreased total chiro-inositol to myo-inositol ratio in kidney, liver, and muscle compared to controls. We next established the presence of a myo-inositol to chiro-inositol epimerase activity in rat liver cytosol. Enzyme activity was shown to be time and enzyme concentration dependent with a broad pH optimum. It required NADH and NADPH for full activity, which is compatible with its action via an oxido-reductive mechanism. Lastly, we demonstrated that the epimerase enzyme bioactivity was significantly decreased in muscle, liver, and fat cytosolic extracts of GK type 2 diabetic rats versus Wistar controls. Decreased myo-inositol to chiro-inositol epimerase activity may therefore play a

  16. Subpallial and hypothalamic areas activated following sexual and agonistic encounters in male chickens.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingjing; Kuenzel, Wayne J; Anthony, Nicholas B; Jurkevich, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    Male sexual and agonistic behaviors are controlled by the common social behavior network, involving subpallial and hypothalamic brain areas. In order to understand how this common network generates different behavioral outcomes, induction of FOS protein was used to examine the patterns of neuronal activation in adult male chickens following interaction with a female or a male. Males were subjected to one of the following treatments: handling control, non-contact interaction with a female, contact interaction with a live female, a taxidermy female model or another male. The number of FOS-immunoreactive (FOS-ir) cells, and the area and immunostaining density of individual cells were quantified in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), medial extended amygdala (nucleus taeniae of the amygdala, TnA, and dorsolateral and ventromedial subdivisions of the medial portion of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, BSTM1 and BSTM2, respectively), lateral septum (SL), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), bed nucleus of the pallial commissure (NCPa) and ventrolateral thalamic nucleus (VLT). An increase in FOS-ir cells following appetitive sexual behavior was found in BSTM2 and NCPa. Copulation augmented FOS-ir in POM, SL, VLT, and PVN. Intermale interactions increased FOS-ir in all examined brain regions except the TnA and BSTM. Within the SL, copulatory and agonistic behavior activated spatially segregated cell groups. In the PVN, different social behaviors induced significant changes in the distribution of FOS-ir cell sizes suggesting activation of heterogeneous subpopulations of cells. Collectively, behavioral outcomes of male-female and male-male interactions are associated with a combination of common and site-specific patterns of neural activation.

  17. Chronic Social Stress in Puberty Alters Appetitive Male Sexual Behavior and Neural Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bastida, Christel C.; Puga, Frank; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Jennings, Kimberly J.; Wommack, Joel C.; Delville, Yvon

    2014-01-01

    Repeated social subjugation in early puberty lowers testosterone levels. We used hamsters to investigate the effects of social subjugation on male sexual behavior and metabolic activity within neural systems controlling social and motivational behaviors. Subjugated animals were exposed daily to aggressive adult males in early puberty for postnatal days 28 to 42, while control animals were placed in empty clean cages. On postnatal day 45, they were tested for male sexual behavior in the presence of receptive female. Alternatively, they were tested for mate choice after placement at the base of a Y-maze containing a sexually receptive female in one tip of the maze and an ovariectomized one on the other. Social subjugation did not affect the capacity to mate with receptive females. Although control animals were fast to approach females and preferred ovariectomized individuals, subjugated animals stayed away from them and showed no preference. Cytochrome oxidase activity was reduced within the preoptic area and ventral tegmental area in subjugated hamsters. In addition, the correlation of metabolic activity of these areas with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and anterior parietal cortex changed significantly from positive in controls to negative in subjugated animals. These data show that at mid-puberty, while male hamsters are capable of mating, their appetitive sexual behavior is not fully mature and this aspect of male sexual behavior is responsive to social subjugation. Furthermore, metabolic activity and coordination of activity in brain areas related to sexual behavior and motivation was altered by social subjugation. PMID:24852486

  18. Mutational changes in the courtship activity of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) after X-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Werner, M; Schröder, J H

    1980-07-01

    The courtship activity of male F2 descendants of irradiated and control guppies, Poecilia reticulata, of the inbred strain Istanbul was compared. The results of Spieser and Schröder (1978), who found a decrease in courtship activity of descendants of irradiated guppies, were confirmed under more natural conditions.

  19. Do Perceived Cues, Benefits, and Barriers to Physical Activity Differ between Male and Female Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tergerson, Jennifer L.; King, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed adolescents at single-sex high schools to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. The most helpful cue to physical activity for males and females was having a friend to exercise with. Parental encouragement and having a parent who exercised were also helpful. Wanting to do other things was a common barrier to…

  20. Mutational changes in the courtship activity of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) after X-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, M.; Schroeder, J.H.

    1980-07-01

    The courtship activity of male F2 descendants of irradiated and control guppies, Poecilia reticulata, of the inbred strain Istanbul was compared. The results of Spieser and Schroeder (1978), who found a decrease in courtship activity of descendants of irradiated guppies, were confirmed under more natural conditions.

  1. Differential Effects of Stress on Microglial Cell Activation in Male and Female Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bollinger, Justin L.; Bergeon Burns, Christine M.; Wellman, Cara L.

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility to stress-linked psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, differs between men and women. Dysfunction of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in many of these disorders. Chronic stress affects mPFC in a sex-dependent manner, differentially remodeling dendritic morphology and disrupting prefrontally mediated behaviors in males and females. Chronic restraint stress induces microglial activation, reflected in altered microglial morphology and immune factor expression, in mPFC in male rats. Unstressed females exhibit increased microglial ramification in several brain regions compared to males, suggesting both heightened basal activation and a potential for sex-dependent effects of stress on microglial activation. Therefore, we assessed microglial density and ramification in the prelimbic region of mPFC, and immune-associated genes in dorsal mPFC in male and female rats following acute or chronic restraint stress. Control rats were left unstressed. On the final day of restraint, brains were collected for either qPCR or visualization of microglia using Iba-1 immunohistochemistry. Microglia in mPFC were classified as ramified, primed, reactive, or amoeboid, and counted stereologically. Expression of microglia-associated genes (MHCII, CD40, IL6, CX3CL1, and CX3CR1) was also assessed using qPCR. Unstressed females showed a greater proportion of primed to ramified microglia relative to males, alongside heightened CX3CL1-CX3CR1 expression. Acute and chronic restraint stress reduced the proportion of primed to ramified microglia and microglial CD40 expression in females, but did not significantly alter microglial activation in males. This sex difference in microglial activation could contribute to the differential effects of stress on mPFC structure and function in males versus females. PMID:26441134

  2. Effect of mating activity and dominance rank on male masturbation among free-ranging male rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Dubuc, Constance; Coyne, Sean P.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2013-01-01

    The adaptive function of male masturbation is still poorly understood, despite its high prevalence in humans and other animals. In non-human primates, male masturbation is most frequent among anthropoid monkeys and apes living in multimale-multifemale groups with a promiscuous mating system. In these species, male masturbation may be a non-functional by-product of high sexual arousal or be adaptive by providing advantages in terms of sperm competition or by decreasing the risk of sexually transmitted infections. We investigated the possible functional significance of male masturbation using behavioral data collected on 21 free-ranging male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the peak of the mating season. We found some evidence that masturbation is linked to low mating opportunities: regardless of rank, males were most likely to be observed masturbating on days in which they were not observed mating, and lower-ranking males mated less and tended to masturbate more frequently than higher-ranking males. These results echo the findings obtained for two other species of macaques, but contrast those obtained in red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) and Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris). Interestingly, however, male masturbation events ended with ejaculation in only 15% of the observed masturbation time, suggesting that new hypotheses are needed to explain masturbation in this species. More studies are needed to establish whether male masturbation is adaptive and whether it serves similar or different functions in different sexually promiscuous species. PMID:24187414

  3. Effect of mating activity and dominance rank on male masturbation among free-ranging male rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Dubuc, Constance; Coyne, Sean P; Maestripieri, Dario

    2013-11-01

    The adaptive function of male masturbation is still poorly understood, despite its high prevalence in humans and other animals. In non-human primates, male masturbation is most frequent among anthropoid monkeys and apes living in multimale-multifemale groups with a promiscuous mating system. In these species, male masturbation may be a non-functional by-product of high sexual arousal or be adaptive by providing advantages in terms of sperm competition or by decreasing the risk of sexually transmitted infections. We investigated the possible functional significance of male masturbation using behavioral data collected on 21 free-ranging male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the peak of the mating season. We found some evidence that masturbation is linked to low mating opportunities: regardless of rank, males were most likely to be observed masturbating on days in which they were not observed mating, and lower-ranking males mated less and tended to masturbate more frequently than higher-ranking males. These results echo the findings obtained for two other species of macaques, but contrast those obtained in red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) and Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris). Interestingly, however, male masturbation events ended with ejaculation in only 15% of the observed masturbation time, suggesting that new hypotheses are needed to explain masturbation in this species. More studies are needed to establish whether male masturbation is adaptive and whether it serves similar or different functions in different sexually promiscuous species.

  4. Behavioral activities of male Cerulean Warblers in relation to habitat characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Petra Bohall; Perkins, Kelly A.

    2012-01-01

    Activities of 29 male Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea) were quantified on two sites in West Virginia during May–June 2005. Singing and foraging were the most common of 11 observed behavioral activities (81.6%), while maintenance and mating behaviors were uncommonly observed. Male activity differed among vegetative strata (P  =  0.02) with lower- and mid-canopy strata used most often (70% of observations), especially for foraging, perching, and preening. The upper-canopy was used primarily for singing, particularly within core areas of territories and in association with canopy gaps. Foraging occurred more than expected outside of core areas. Males were associated with canopy gaps during 30% of observations, but the distribution of behavioral activities was not significantly related (P  =  0.06) to gap presence. Males used 23 different tree species for a variety of activities with oaks (Quercus spp.) used most often on the xeric site and black cherry (Prunus serotina) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) on the mesic site. Tree species used for singing differed between core and non-core areas (P < 0.0001) but distribution of singing and foraging activity did not differ among tree species (P  =  0.13). Cerulean Warblers appear to be flexible in use of tree species. Their use of different canopy strata for different behavioral activities provides an explanation for the affinity this species exhibits for a vertically stratified forest canopy.

  5. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  6. Enduring effects of post-weaning rearing condition on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and motor activity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Mosaferi, Belal; Babri, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Hadi; Mohaddes, Gisou

    2015-04-01

    Environmental manipulation at early critical periods could have long-lasting effects. In spite of the great interest in the biological effects of the environmental condition so far, its long-lasting effects are less documented. This study looks at the enduring effects of rearing condition on tasks that measure affective responses and exploratory behavior in male Wistar rats. The animals were reared from weaning to adulthood in an enriched environment, standard laboratory condition, or isolated condition. Then, all rats were housed in standard laboratory cages to provide a common environment, and successively exposed to different tests between 0 and 11 weeks post-manipulation. The open field test indicated a more efficient exploratory behavior in the enriched group, and an enhanced spontaneous motor activity in both standard and isolated groups. In addition, rats reared in standard condition showed heightened motor activity in forced swimming test and elevated plus maze. Forced swimming test showed an antidepressive-like effect in the enriched environment group by increased climbing behavior. In respect to the anxiety behavior, environmental enrichment improved threat detection ability. It is concluded that rearing condition from weaning to adulthood has important and long-lasting effects on depressive- and anxiety-like and exploratory behaviors as well as motor activity.

  7. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  8. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  9. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-07-31

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population.

  10. Brain activation by visual erotic stimuli in healthy middle aged males.

    PubMed

    Kim, S W; Sohn, D W; Cho, Y-H; Yang, W S; Lee, K-U; Juh, R; Ahn, K-J; Chung, Y-A; Han, S-I; Lee, K H; Lee, C U; Chae, J-H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify brain centers, whose activity changes are related to erotic visual stimuli in healthy, heterosexual, middle aged males. Ten heterosexual, right-handed males with normal sexual function were entered into the present study (mean age 52 years, range 46-55). All potential subjects were screened over 1 h interview, and were encouraged to fill out questionnaires including the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory. All subjects with a history of sexual arousal disorder or erectile dysfunction were excluded. We performed functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male volunteers when an alternatively combined erotic and nonerotic film was played for 14 min and 9 s. The major areas of activation associated with sexual arousal to visual stimuli were occipitotemporal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus. However, hypothalamus and thalamus were not activated. We suggest that the nonactivation of hypothalamus and thalamus in middle aged males may be responsible for the lesser physiological arousal in response to the erotic visual stimuli. PMID:16467858

  11. Hif1α is required for osteoclast activation and bone loss in male osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Tando, Toshimi; Sato, Yuiko; Miyamoto, Kana; Morita, Mayu; Kobayashi, Tami; Funayama, Atsushi; Kanaji, Arihiko; Hao, Wu; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Oike, Takatsugu; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    The number of osteoporosis patients is increasing not only in women but in men. Male osteoporosis occurs due to aging or androgen depletion therapies, leading to fractures. However, molecular mechanisms underlying male osteoporosis remain unidentified. Here, we show that hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1α) is required for development of testosterone deficiency-induced male osteoporosis. We found that in mice Hif1α protein accumulates in osteoclasts following orchidectomy (ORX) in vivo. In vitro, Hif1α protein accumulated in osteoclasts cultured in hypoxic conditions, but Hif1α protein rather than mRNA levels were suppressed by testosterone treatment, even in hypoxia. Administration of a Hif1α inhibitor to ORX mice abrogated testosterone deficiency-induced osteoclast activation and bone loss but did not alter osteoclast activities or bone phenotypes in sham-operated, testosterone-sufficient animals. We conclude that Hif1α protein accumulation due to testosterone-deficiency promotes development of male osteoporosis. Thus Hif1α protein could be targeted to inhibit pathologically-activated osteoclasts under testosterone-deficient conditions to treat male osteoporosis patients. PMID:26792721

  12. Acute stress differentially affects aromatase activity in specific brain nuclei of adult male and female quail.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction.

  13. Hif1α is required for osteoclast activation and bone loss in male osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Tando, Toshimi; Sato, Yuiko; Miyamoto, Kana; Morita, Mayu; Kobayashi, Tami; Funayama, Atsushi; Kanaji, Arihiko; Hao, Wu; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Oike, Takatsugu; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    The number of osteoporosis patients is increasing not only in women but in men. Male osteoporosis occurs due to aging or androgen depletion therapies, leading to fractures. However, molecular mechanisms underlying male osteoporosis remain unidentified. Here, we show that hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1α) is required for development of testosterone deficiency-induced male osteoporosis. We found that in mice Hif1α protein accumulates in osteoclasts following orchidectomy (ORX) in vivo. In vitro, Hif1α protein accumulated in osteoclasts cultured in hypoxic conditions, but Hif1α protein rather than mRNA levels were suppressed by testosterone treatment, even in hypoxia. Administration of a Hif1α inhibitor to ORX mice abrogated testosterone deficiency-induced osteoclast activation and bone loss but did not alter osteoclast activities or bone phenotypes in sham-operated, testosterone-sufficient animals. We conclude that Hif1α protein accumulation due to testosterone-deficiency promotes development of male osteoporosis. Thus Hif1α protein could be targeted to inhibit pathologically-activated osteoclasts under testosterone-deficient conditions to treat male osteoporosis patients.

  14. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-08-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  15. Brain activation-based sexual orientation in female-to-male transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Kim, T-H; Kim, G-W; Kim, S-K; Jeong, G-W

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the sexual orientation in association with brain activation pattern in response to visual erotic stimuli in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven FtM transsexuals who have had sex-reassignment surgery to alter their natal bodies with the gender-identity disorder were participated. Brain activation for sexual orientation was induced by visual stimuli with female and male erotic nude pictures compared with emotionally-neutral pictures. During viewing the erotic female pictures, the brain areas dominantly activated consist of the superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, anterior/median cingulate gyri and hypothalamus, whereas during viewing male pictures, the brain areas with predominant activities were the middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, precuneus, superior/middle occipital gyri, cerebellar cortex and vermis. These findings demonstrate that the brain activation patterns induced by viewing male or female erotic pictures show some correlation to the sexual orientation opposite to the genetic sex in FtM transsexuals. This study would be helpful to understand the neural mechanism associated with visual sexual arousal in patients with gender disorder. PMID:26581912

  16. Brain activation-based sexual orientation in female-to-male transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Kim, T-H; Kim, G-W; Kim, S-K; Jeong, G-W

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the sexual orientation in association with brain activation pattern in response to visual erotic stimuli in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven FtM transsexuals who have had sex-reassignment surgery to alter their natal bodies with the gender-identity disorder were participated. Brain activation for sexual orientation was induced by visual stimuli with female and male erotic nude pictures compared with emotionally-neutral pictures. During viewing the erotic female pictures, the brain areas dominantly activated consist of the superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, anterior/median cingulate gyri and hypothalamus, whereas during viewing male pictures, the brain areas with predominant activities were the middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, precuneus, superior/middle occipital gyri, cerebellar cortex and vermis. These findings demonstrate that the brain activation patterns induced by viewing male or female erotic pictures show some correlation to the sexual orientation opposite to the genetic sex in FtM transsexuals. This study would be helpful to understand the neural mechanism associated with visual sexual arousal in patients with gender disorder.

  17. Role of spontaneous physical activity in prediction of susceptibility to activity based anorexia in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Grace, Martha; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2014-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic eating disorder affecting females and males, defined by body weight loss, higher physical activity levels and restricted food intake. Currently, the commonalities and differences between genders in etiology of AN are not well understood. Animal models of AN, such as activity-based anorexia (ABA), can be helpful in identifying factors determining individual susceptibility to AN. In ABA, rodents are given an access to a running wheel while food restricted, resulting in paradoxical increased physical activity levels and weight loss. Recent studies suggest that different behavioral traits, including voluntary exercise, can predict individual weight loss in ABA. A higher inherent drive for movement may promote development and severity of AN, but this hypothesis remains untested. In rodents and humans, drive for movement is defined as spontaneous physical activity (SPA), which is time spent in low-intensity, non-volitional movements. In this paper, we show that a profile of body weight history and behavioral traits, including SPA, can predict individual weight loss caused by ABA in male and female rats with high accuracy. Analysis of the influence of SPA on ABA susceptibility in males and females rats suggests that either high or low levels of SPA increase the probability of high weight loss in ABA, but with larger effects in males compared to females. These results suggest that the same behavioral profile can identify individuals at-risk of AN for both male and female populations and that SPA has predictive value for susceptibility to AN.

  18. Self-Control Is Associated with Physical Activity and Fitness among Young Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Marja Ilona; Suihko, Johanna; Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Jallinoja, Piia

    2012-01-01

    The personality trait self-control has been associated with various adaptive outcomes. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether self-control is associated with self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA), Body Mass Index (BMI), muscle-fitness and aerobic fitness among young men. Participants (482 male conscripts;…

  19. The active metabolic rate predicts a male spider's proximity to females and expected fitness.

    PubMed

    Kasumovic, Michael M; Seebacher, Frank

    2013-04-23

    Conspicuous traits, such as weaponry and body size, are often correlated with fitness. By contrast, we understand less about how inconspicuous physiological traits affect fitness. Not only is linking physiology directly to fitness a challenge, but in addition, behavioural studies most often focus on resting or basal metabolic rates, resulting in a poor understanding of how active metabolic rates affect fitness. Here we use the golden orb-web spider (Nephila plumipes), a species for which proximity to a female on the web predicts a male's paternity share, to examine the role of resting and active metabolic rates in fitness. Using a semi-natural experimental set-up, we show that males closer to a female have higher active metabolic rates than males further from females. This higher metabolic activity is paralleled by increased citrate synthase activity, suggesting greater mitochondrial densities. Our results link both higher active metabolic rates and increased citrate synthase activity with fitness. Coupled with the behaviour and life history of N. plumipes, these results provide insight into the evolution of physiological systems.

  20. Male-to-female transsexuals show sex-atypical hypothalamus activation when smelling odorous steroids.

    PubMed

    Berglund, H; Lindström, P; Dhejne-Helmy, C; Savic, I

    2008-08-01

    One working hypothesis behind transsexuality is that the normal sex differentiation of certain hypothalamic networks is altered. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the pattern of cerebral activation in 12 nonhomosexual male-to-female transsexuals (MFTRs) when smelling 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST). These steroids are reported to activate the hypothalamic networks in a sex-differentiated way. Like in female controls the hypothalamus in MFTRs activated with AND, whereas smelling of EST engaged the amygdala and piriform cortex. Male controls, on the other hand, activated the hypothalamus with EST. However, when restricting the volume of interest to the hypothalamus activation was detected in MFTR also with EST, and explorative conjunctional analysis revealed that MFTR shared a hypothalamic cluster with women when smelling AND, and with men when smelling EST. Because the EST effect was limited, MFTR differed significantly only from male controls, and only for EST-AIR and EST-AND. These data suggest a pattern of activation away from the biological sex, occupying an intermediate position with predominantly female-like features. Because our MFTRs were nonhomosexual, the results are unlikely to be an effect of sexual practice. Instead, the data implicate that transsexuality may be associated with sex-atypical physiological responses in specific hypothalamic circuits, possibly as a consequence of a variant neuronal differentiation.

  1. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide reduces motor activity after an immune challenge in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago Berti; Taricano, Marina; Flório, Jorge Camilo; Palermo-Neto, João; Bernardi, Maria Martha

    2010-07-29

    Prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure causes reproductive, behavioral and neurochemical injuries in both the mother and pups. Previous investigations by our group showed that prenatal LPS administration (100 microg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 9.5 impaired the male offspring's social behavior in infancy and adulthood. In the present study, we investigated whether these social behavioral changes were associated with motor activity impairment. Male rat pups treated prenatally with LPS or not were tested for reflexological development and open field general activity during infancy. In adulthood, animals were tested for open field general activity, haloperidol-induced catalepsy and apomorphine-induced stereotypy; striatal dopamine levels and turnover were also measured. Moreover, LPS-treated or untreated control pups were challenged with LPS in adulthood and observed for general activity in the open field. In relation to the control group, the motor behavior of prenatally treated male pups was unaffected at basal levels, both in infancy and in adulthood, but decreased general activity was observed in adulthood after an immune challenge. Also, striatal dopamine and metabolite levels were decreased in adulthood. In conclusion, prenatal LPS exposure disrupted the dopaminergic system involved with motor function, but this neurochemical effect was not accompanied by behavioral impairment, probably due to adaptive plasticity processes. Notwithstanding, behavioral impairment was revealed when animals were challenged with LPS, resulting in enhanced sickness behavior.

  2. Energy intake, expenditure and pattern of daily activity of Nigerian male students.

    PubMed

    Cole, A H; Ogbe, J O

    1987-11-01

    1. Twenty apparently healthy and normal Nigerian male students, resident at the University of Ibadan campus, were studied for seven consecutive days to assess their food energy intake and expenditure and pattern of their daily activities. 2. The mean age (years) of the group was 24.0 (SD 3.23, range 20-30), mean height (m) 1.71 (SD 0.06, range 1.61-1.84) and body-weight (kg) was 61.1 (SD 5.01, range 51.0-69.5). 3. The food intake of each subject was obtained by direct weighing and its energy value determined using a ballistic bomb calorimeter. Patterns of daily activities were recorded and the energy costs of representative activities were determined by indirect calorimetry. 4. Activities mainly involved sitting, mean 580 (SD 167, range 394-732) min/d. Sleeping and standing activities took a mean of 445 (SD 112) and 115 (SD 75) min/d respectively. Personal domestic activities took a mean of 94 (SD 40) min/d. 5. The mean energy intake of the group was 11,182 (SD 1970) kJ/d or 183 (SD 32) kJ/kg body-weight per d. This value is lower than the 12.5 MJ/d recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) (1973) as the energy requirement for an adult man engaged in moderate activities, but it is higher than the FAO/WHO/United Nations University (UNU) (1985) recommended value of 10.8 MJ/d for a male office clerk (light activity). It is also lower than the recommended energy requirement of 11.6 MJ/d for a subsistence farmer (moderately active work) (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985). 6. The mean energy expenditure of the male subjects was 9876 (SD 1064, range 7159-12,259) kJ/d and was lower than mean intake. 7. The energy intake and expenditure values indicated that the groups participating in the present study were not physically very active. It is an indication that the Nigerian male students expended less but probably consumed more energy than required. It is suggested for health reasons and for mental fitness that the Nigerian male students

  3. Sexually dimorphic proteinuria in Wistar rats: Relevance to clinical models.

    PubMed

    Imafidon, Eseigbe Christian; Akomolafe, Rufus Ojo; Oladele, Abraham Ayodele

    2016-03-01

    The study investigated the relationship between physiological proteinuria and the histomorphometry of the renal corpuscles in apparently healthy Wistar rats of both sexes, belonging to the same age group. This was with a view to appraise any possible connection between potential expression of sexual dimorphism and the histomorphometry of some integral parts of the glomerular filtration barrier. Twenty Wistar rats of both sexes between ages 9 and 10 weeks were used for this study. This comprised 10 male and 10 female rats weighing 110-200g which were housed in separate metabolic cages for the collection of urine samples.They were sacrificed 24h and 7 days after 2 weeks of acclimatization, respectively. The rats were fasted for 24h during the collection of urine samples. The results showed 74.75% significantly higher urine total protein (p<0.0001), 187.29% significantly higher mg protein/100g body weight (p<0.0001), 32.34% significantly higher Bowman's capsular thickness (p<0.0001), 30.64% significantly higher glomerular thickness (p=0.0002), 59.47% significantly higher Bowman's capsular space (p=0.003), 5.30% insignificantly lower creatinine clearance (p=0.24) and 28.05% significantly higher level of urine protein to creatinine ratio (p<0.0001) in the male when compared with their female counterpart. In conclusion, Wistar rats express sexually dimorphic proteinuria which is structural in origin. PMID:26896858

  4. In vivo investigation of the neuroprotective property of Convolvulus pluricaulis in scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bihaqi, Syed Waseem; Singh, Avninder Pal; Tiwari, Manisha

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the neuroprotective effect of Convolvulus pluricaulis aqueous extract (AE) against scopolamine (1 mg/kg body weight (bwt))-induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on male Wistar rats (age matched, weight 250 ± 20 g). The present study investigated cognitive-enhancing property of AE using Elevated plus maze (EPM) (transfer latency [TL]) and Morris water maze (MWM). Besides evaluating the effect of extract on neurochemical enzymes, in vivo antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities were also screened. All the measured parameters were compared with rivastigmine tartrate (1 mg/kg bwt) which was taken as standard. Results: Pretreatment of rats with AE (150 mg/kg bwt) significantly reduced scopolamine-induced increase in the TL in EPM, whereas in MWM, administration of extract improved the impairment of spatial memory induced by scopolamine. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was significantly inhibited by extract within the cortex and hippocampus. Reduced activities or contents of glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione within the cortex and hippocampus induced by scopolamine were elevated by the extract. Taken together, it could be postulated that extract may exert its potent-enhancing activity through both anti-AChE and antioxidant action. Conclusion: AE possesses neuroprotective potential, thus validating its use in alleviating toxic effects of scopolamine. PMID:22021993

  5. Long-term fish oil supplementation attenuates seizure activity in the amygdala induced by 3-mercaptopropionic acid in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mancilla, L E; Hernández-González, M; Guevara, M A; Benavides-Haro, D E; Martínez-Arteaga, P

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have provided evidence of significant effects of omega-3 fatty acids on brain functionality, including seizures and disorders such as epilepsy. Fish oil (FO) is a marine product rich in unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. Considering that the amygdala is one of the brain structures most sensitive to seizure generation, we aimed to evaluate the effect of long-term chronic FO supplementation (from embryonic conception to adulthood) on the severity of seizures and amygdaloid electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA)-induced seizure model using adult rats. Female Wistar rats were fed a commercial diet supplemented daily with FO (300mg/kg) from puberty through mating, gestation, delivery, and weaning of the pups. Only the male pups were then fed daily with a commercial diet supplemented with the same treatment as the dam up to the age of 150days postpartum, when they were bilaterally implanted in the amygdala to record behavior and EEG activity before, during, and after seizures induced by administering 3-MPA. Results were compared with those obtained from rats supplemented with palm oil (PO) and rats treated with a vehicle (CTRL). The male rats treated with FO showed longer latency to seizure onset, fewer convulsive episodes, and attenuated severity compared those in the PO and CTRL groups according to the Racine scale. Moreover, long-term FO supplementation was associated with a reduction of the absolute power (AP) of the fast frequencies (12-25Hz) in the amygdala during the seizure periods. These findings support the idea that chronic supplementation with omega-3 of marine origin may have antiseizure properties as other studies have suggested.

  6. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  7. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress.

  8. The Effect of Parathion on Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase in the Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Bunya, Naofumi; Sawamoto, Keigo; Benoit, Hanif

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and midazolam, for up to 48 hours. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined serially for up to 8 days after poisoning. Results. At all doses of parathion, maximal depression of acetylcholinesterase occurred at 3 hours after poisoning. Acetylcholinesterase recovered to nearly 50% of baseline activity by day 4 in the 20 mg/kg cohort and by day 5 in the 40 and 60 mg/kg cohorts. At day 8, most rats' acetylcholinesterase had recovered to roughly 70% of baseline. These data should be useful in developing rodent models of acute OP pesticide poisoning. PMID:27418928

  9. The Effect of Parathion on Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase in the Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Bunya, Naofumi; Sawamoto, Keigo; Benoit, Hanif; Bird, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and midazolam, for up to 48 hours. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined serially for up to 8 days after poisoning. Results. At all doses of parathion, maximal depression of acetylcholinesterase occurred at 3 hours after poisoning. Acetylcholinesterase recovered to nearly 50% of baseline activity by day 4 in the 20 mg/kg cohort and by day 5 in the 40 and 60 mg/kg cohorts. At day 8, most rats' acetylcholinesterase had recovered to roughly 70% of baseline. These data should be useful in developing rodent models of acute OP pesticide poisoning. PMID:27418928

  10. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students

    PubMed Central

    PETNJI YAYA, LUC HONORE; MANOLIS, CHRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 and 15 minutes to complete and contained a measure of cell-phone addiction and questions that asked how much time participants spent daily on 24 cell-phone activities. Results: Findings revealed cell-phone activities that are associated significantly with cell-phone addiction (e.g., Instagram, Pinterest), as well as activities that one might logically assume would be associated with this form of addiction but are not (e.g., Internet use and Gaming). Cell-phone activities that drive cell-phone addiction (CPA) were found to vary considerably across male and female cell-phone users. Although a strong social component drove CPA for both males and females, the specific activities associated with CPA differed markedly. Conclusions: CPA amongst the total sample is largely driven by a desire to connect socially. The activities found to be associated with CPA, however, differed across the sexes. As the functionality of cell-phones continues to expand, addiction to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology becomes an increasingly realistic possibility. Future research must identify the activities that push cell-phone use beyond its “;tipping point” where it crosses the line from a helpful tool to one that undermines our personal well-being and that of others. PMID:25595966

  11. Quadriceps and hamstrings prelanding myoelectric activity during landing from different heights among male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    de Britto, Morgana Alves; Carpes, Felipe P; Koutras, Georgios; Pappas, Evangelos

    2014-08-01

    ACL tear is a major concern among athletes, coaches and sports scientists. More than taking the athlete away from training and competition, ACL tear is a risk factor for early-onset of knee osteoarthritis, and, therefore addressing strategies to avoid such injury is pertinent not only for competitive athletes, but for all physically active subjects. Imbalances in the prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles have been linked to ACL injuries. We investigated the effect of landing from different heights on prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles in recreational athletes. Thirty recreational athletes (15 male and 15 female) performed three bilateral drop jumps from two different heights; 20cm and 40cm while myoelectric activity of the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and medial hamstrings were collected. When increasing the height of drop landing tasks prelanding normalized myoelectric activity of the quadriceps was increased by 15-20% but no significant changes were found for the hamstrings. Female athletes exhibited higher activity of the medial hamstrings compared to their male counterparts. We concluded that increasing the height of drop landing tasks is associated with increased myoelectric activity of the quadriceps but not the hamstrings in recreational athletes. These differences in muscle activity may be related to increased risk for ACL injury when the height is increased. Female athletes demonstrated higher recruitment of the medial hamstrings.

  12. Exogenous nerve growth factor stimulates choline acetyltransferase activity in aging Fischer 344 male rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, L R

    1991-01-01

    The effect of age and exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) infusion on choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) specific activity is examined in microdissections of cerebral and hippocampal cortices, and the cholinergic nuclei of the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca (MS/DB), the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), and striatum of Fischer 344 male rats. Significant, 20% losses in ChAT activity are found in the MS/DB and striatum of 24-month-old rats (n = 21) compared to 4-month-old animals, but there is no apparent loss of enzyme activity in the NBM. Loss of ChAT activity in the MS/DB is only observed in animals older than 19 months of age, while a striatal deficit is found in animals older than 7 months. Treatment for 2 weeks with NGF at 1.2 micrograms/day results in significant 70% increases of ChAT activity in the MS/DB and striatum of 24-month-old rats compared to untreated and vehicle-treated 4-month-old rats, but does not stimulate activity in the NBM. Sensitivity of ChAT activity in the MS/DB and striatum to exogenous NGF increases with age. These experiments indicate that in the MS/DB, NBM, and striatum of Fischer 344 male rat there is an age-associated, differential regulation of ChAT enzyme activity and sensitivity to exogenous NGF.

  13. DNA damage in Wistar rats exposed to dithiocarbamate pesticide mancozeb.

    PubMed

    Goldoni, A; Klauck, C R; Da Silva, S T; Da Silva, M D; Ardenghi, P G; Da Silva, L B

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides are used in large amounts in agriculture and the evaluation of their toxic effects is of major concern to public and environmental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of a commercial formulation of the fungicide mancozeb by the micronucleus test in bone marrow and the comet assay in total blood of Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with a solution of mancozeb at a concentration of 40 mg/kg/day, administered intraperitoneally for 18 consecutive days, and compared to a control group. The results indicate that mancozeb induced significantly higher DNA damage as detected by the comet assay and increased the frequency of micronuclei. The results show that mancozeb is genotoxic and may adversely affect the DNA integrity of exposed organisms. PMID:25152054

  14. Impaired 17,20-Lyase Activity in Male Mice Lacking Cytochrome b5 in Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sondhi, Varun; Owen, Bryn M.; Liu, Jiayan; Chomic, Robert; Kliewer, Steven A.; Hughes, Beverly A.; Arlt, Wiebke; Mangelsdorf, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Androgen and estrogen biosynthesis in mammals requires the 17,20-lyase activity of cytochrome P450 17A1 (steroid 17-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase). Maximal 17,20-lyase activity in vitro requires the presence of cytochrome b5 (b5), and rare cases of b5 deficiency in human beings causes isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency. To study the consequences of conditional b5 removal from testicular Leydig cells in an animal model, we generated Cyb5flox/flox:Sf1-Cre (LeyKO) mice. The LeyKO male mice had normal body weights, testis and sex organ weights, and fertility compared with littermates. Basal serum and urine steroid profiles of LeyKO males were not significantly different than littermates. In contrast, marked 17-hydroxyprogesterone accumulation (100-fold basal) and reduced testosterone synthesis (27% of littermates) were observed after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in LeyKO animals. Testis homogenates from LeyKO mice showed reduced 17,20-lyase activity and a 3-fold increased 17-hydroxylase to 17,20-lyase activity ratio, which were restored to normal upon addition of recombinant b5. We conclude that Leydig cell b5 is required for maximal androgen synthesis and to prevent 17-hydroxyprogesterone accumulation in the mouse testis; however, the b5-independent 17,20-lyase activity of mouse steroid 17-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase is sufficient for normal male genital development and fertility. LeyKO male mice are a good model for the biochemistry but not the physiology of isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency in human beings. PMID:26974035

  15. Male golden hamster in male reproductive toxicology testing: Assessment of protective activity of selenium in acute cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Wiodarczyk, B.; Biernacki, B.; Minta, M.; Juszkiewicz, T.; Kozaczynski, W.

    1995-06-01

    The golden hamster has a short history as a laboratory animal. In spite of this, it has been extensively used as a subject for biomedical research. The hamster has also been utilized in toxicological evaluations, especially in teratology studies. Results of these investigations reveal that laboratory hamsters are very sensitive to many chemical compounds, including: drugs, food additives, industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and other environmental contaminants. The animals most frequently used in toxicological investigations are rats and mice. This is also true in male reproductive toxicology. Apparent differences in species sensitivity to chemical compounds suggest a need to examine a new species in this field of toxicology. A good example of chemical specific differences in species sensitivity is the testicular toxicity of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), which was a testicular toxicant in humans and in rats, but it was not effective, even at relatively high dose levels, in the mouse. From our own vast experience in using hamsters in toxicological studies, we decided to use this laboratory animal in male reproductive toxicology screening tests. The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of golden hamsters as an experimental animal species for male reproductive toxicology testing. To this effect we have chosen selenium and cadmium as test agents as they were well known for their spectacular effect on the male reproductive system. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Advantage of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation on cadmium-induced damages in testis of adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo P; Predes, Fabrícia S; Monteiro, Juliana C; Freitas, Karine M; Wada, Ronaldo S; Dolder, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Paullinia cupana is an Amazonian bush whose seeds have long been used in folk medicine. However, most of the therapeutic properties attributed to this plant are broad and nonspecific, although an antioxidant activity has been reported.  On the other hand, cadmium is a heavy metal known for increasing free radicals, hence resulting in cellular oxidative damages. This study was designed to evaluate whether Paullinia cupana is able to reduce cadmium-induced morphological impairment in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats 110 days old were ip injected with cadmium (1.15 mg/kg BW [body weight]) and subsequently treated with P. cupana during 56 days.  Furthermore, groups receiving either P. cupana extract or cadmium are mentioned. After the treatment period, testis samples were subjected to histological and stereological analyses. Moderate to severe testicular impairments were shown by the animals exposed to cadmium. However, the animals supplemented with P. cupana after cadmium exposure showed a significant decrease in the proportion of damaged seminiferous tubules. Also, P. cupana supplementation was effective in maintaining the number of Leydig cells per testis in the animals exposed to cadmium. In conclusion, P. cupana supplementation was partially efficient in preventing cadmium from damaging the testis of adult Wistar rats. PMID:22659242

  17. Advantage of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation on cadmium-induced damages in testis of adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo P; Predes, Fabrícia S; Monteiro, Juliana C; Freitas, Karine M; Wada, Ronaldo S; Dolder, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Paullinia cupana is an Amazonian bush whose seeds have long been used in folk medicine. However, most of the therapeutic properties attributed to this plant are broad and nonspecific, although an antioxidant activity has been reported.  On the other hand, cadmium is a heavy metal known for increasing free radicals, hence resulting in cellular oxidative damages. This study was designed to evaluate whether Paullinia cupana is able to reduce cadmium-induced morphological impairment in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats 110 days old were ip injected with cadmium (1.15 mg/kg BW [body weight]) and subsequently treated with P. cupana during 56 days.  Furthermore, groups receiving either P. cupana extract or cadmium are mentioned. After the treatment period, testis samples were subjected to histological and stereological analyses. Moderate to severe testicular impairments were shown by the animals exposed to cadmium. However, the animals supplemented with P. cupana after cadmium exposure showed a significant decrease in the proportion of damaged seminiferous tubules. Also, P. cupana supplementation was effective in maintaining the number of Leydig cells per testis in the animals exposed to cadmium. In conclusion, P. cupana supplementation was partially efficient in preventing cadmium from damaging the testis of adult Wistar rats.

  18. Atypical Neural Activity in Males But Not Females with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kirkovski, Melissa; Enticott, Peter G; Hughes, Matthew E; Rossell, Susan L; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2016-03-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPj) are highly involved in social understanding, a core area of impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used fMRI to investigate sex differences in the neural correlates of social understanding in 27 high-functioning adults with ASD and 23 matched controls. There were no differences in neural activity in the mPFC or rTPj between groups during social processing. Whole brain analysis revealed decreased activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus in males with ASD compared to control males while processing social information. This pattern was not observed in the female sub-sample. The current study indicates that sex mediates the neurobiology of ASD, particularly with respect to processing social information. PMID:26520145

  19. Notes on the Diet of Reproductively Active Male Rafinesque's Big Eared Bats

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Menzel, J.M.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diet examination through the use of fecal samples, of five reproductively active male Rafinesque's big-eared bats from the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September 1999. Diets of these individuals in upland pine stands were similar to diets of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in bottomland and upland hardwood habitats. Although fecal samples had three insect orders, the diet consisted primarily of lepidopterans.

  20. Cardioprotective potential of Punica granatum extract in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Patankar, Pankaj; Ghadi, Prakash; Kasture, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the protective role of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) seed juice extract and its butanolic fraction on heart rate, electrocardiographic patterns, vascular reactivity to catecholamines, cardiac marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes together with morphologic and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The effects of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and butanolic fraction of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg., p.o.) on cardiac parameters were studied. Isoproterenol hydrochloride was used to induce myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. At the end of the experiment, heart rate, ECG, pressure rate index and cardiac marker enzyme levels were assessed. Results: Rats treated with isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 24 h) showed a significant increase in heart rate, ST elevation in ECG, pressure rate index and a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes- lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase in serum. Isoproterenol significantly reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and increased vascular reactivity to various catecholamines. Pretreatment with PJ (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) for a period of 21 days significantly inhibited the effects of ISO on heart rate, PRI, ECG patterns, levels of LDH, CK, SOD, CAT, and vascular reactivity changes. Treatment with PJ (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) alone did not alter any of the parameters as compared to vehicle-treated Wistar rats. Punica granatum-treated animals showed a lesser degree of cellular infiltration in histopathological studies. Conclusion: Punica granatum ameliorates cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol and may be of value in the treatment of MI. PMID:21808588

  1. Effects of capture stress on free-ranging, reproductively active male Weddell seals.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, Robert Geoffrey; Turner, Emma; Hall, Ailsa; Waas, Joseph R; Hindell, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Physiological stress responses to capture may be an indicator of welfare challenges induced by animal handling. Simultaneously, blood chemistry changes induced by stress responses may confound experimental design by interacting with the biological parameters being measured. Cortisol elevation is a common indicator of stress responses in mammals and reproductive condition can profoundly influence endocrine response. We measured changes in blood cortisol and testosterone induced by handling reproductively active male Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) early and late in the breeding season. Weddell seals have the highest resting cortisol levels of all mammals yet showed a clear, prolonged elevation in cortisol in response to capture. Responses were similar when first caught and when caught a second time, later in the breeding season. Baseline testosterone levels declined over the breeding season but were not altered by capture. Administering a light dose of diazepam significantly ameliorated the cortisol response of handled animals without affecting testosterone levels. This may be an effective way of reducing acute capture stress responses. Male breeding success in years males were handled was no different to the years they were not, despite the acute capture response, suggesting no long-term impact of handling on male reproductive output.

  2. Adrenal axis activation by chronic social stress fails to inhibit gonadal function in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, V; Taylor, G T; Mormède, P

    1997-11-01

    Stress in males via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may set into motion varied physiological alterations, including dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. However, the influence of the HPA on the HPG axis may not always be inhibitory. Presence or absence of stimuli of sexual significance that typically activates the HPG axis may alter the influence of the adrenal axis on gonadal axes. In this project, we used male rats and chronic social stimulation that included brief or extended periods with female rats to examine HPA-HPG axes interactions. In experiment 1, we used intact males and a 'chronic social stress' paradigm developed in our previous research that induces social instability by daily changing the membership of group-housed males with females. Thymus weight was reduced and corticosterone levels were marginally increased by chronic social stress, indicating a HPA axis hyperactivity. The HPG axis was also activated as shown by the increased weight of the androgen-sensitive sex structures. These results indicate that when these two axes are stimulated together, neither interferes with nor suppresses activities of the other. Implants of corticosterone pellets to adrenalectomized animals that maintained constant, high corticosterone levels failed to reverse the gonadal hyperactivity induced by sexual stimulation. In a second experiment, we studied the influence of different intensity of sexual stimulations on HPA-HPG axes interactions. Increased corticosterone levels and adrenal weight, indicating a HPA hyperactivity, failed to inhibit HPG hyperactivity as measured by the increased sexual organs weight, whatever the sexual intensity of the stimulation. This work demonstrates that the gonadal axis is freed from suppression when sexual stimulation occurs together with stress. The general conclusion is that the nature of complex social settings is important in determining interactions between the two neuroendocrine axes.

  3. Compliance of males with stage 1 testicular germ cell tumours on an active surveillance protocol.

    PubMed

    Honeyball, F; Murali-Ganesh, R; Hruby, G; Grimison, P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the rate of compliance among 57 males with stage 1 testicular germ cell tumours on an active surveillance protocol at a single Australian centre. At median follow up of 24 months, 81% had adequate compliance with the follow-up regimen, 12% were lost to follow up, and 16% relapsed; none between protocol visits. Active surveillance is an acceptable alternative to adjuvant therapy for stage 1 testicular germ cell tumours, with reduced toxicity for most and equivalent survival, but requires efforts to maintain adequate compliance with follow up to avoid late detection of recurrence.

  4. Eurycoma longifolia JACK and orientation activities in sexually experienced male rats.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Sim, M K

    1998-02-01

    The effects of Eurycoma longifolia JACK were studied on the orientation activities of sexually experienced male rats towards receptive females (mounting, licking, anogenital sniffing), environment (exploration, raring, climbing), themselves (genital grooming, non-genital grooming) and mobility (unrestricted, restricted) after dosing them with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight twice daily for 10 d prior to the test. The results showed that E. longifolia JACK modified the orientation activities of the treated male rats in that they significantly displayed more frequent and vigorous mounting, licking and anogenital sniffing towards the receptive females, and it further intensified self orientation as indicated by the increased grooming of the genitals compared to the controls (p<0.05). In addition, rats treated with 800 mg/kg of methanol, water and butanol extracts of E. longifolia JACK continued to show confinement to a particular area of the cage (around the female), thus showing restriction in movement as compared to the controls (p<0.05). However, the treated males possessed a lack of interest in the external environment as indicated by a reduction in exploration, raring and climbing on the cage wall. Hence, the present study further supports the folk use of E. longifolia JACK as an aphrodisiac. PMID:9514610

  5. Display activity and seasonality of faecal sexual steroids in male great bustard (Otis tarda L.).

    PubMed

    Biczó, A; Péczely, P

    2007-03-01

    The non-invasive faecal sampling and RIA was used to measure faecal equivalents of testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol-17beta (E2) and progesterone (P4) in juvenile and adult great bustard males. Possible connections of diurnal and seasonal changes of sexual steroid levels and display activity were studied. Correlations were found between sexual steroid equivalent levels of faeces and display activity and agonistic behaviour in the different phases of annual cycle of adult males. In early display period increasing levels of androgens were measured, during main display period very high androgen dominance was observable against E2 and P4. During postnuptial moult strong T decrease and DHEA and P4 increase were detected. Elevation of E2 was measured during wintering. In juveniles level of DHEA was higher than level of T suggesting its importance in immature males. Decrease of T was detected between reproductive period and postnuptial moult and DHEA between reproduction and wintering, accompanying with E2 elevation. The inhibiting effect of inclement weather on gonad functions also was detected in our study. We suppose that the unexpected cold weather with strong wind depressed the levels of androgens both in juveniles and adults and the increase of faecal E2 was also detected. PMID:17385541

  6. Display activity and seasonality of faecal sexual steroids in male great bustard (Otis tarda L.).

    PubMed

    Biczó, A; Péczely, P

    2007-03-01

    The non-invasive faecal sampling and RIA was used to measure faecal equivalents of testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol-17beta (E2) and progesterone (P4) in juvenile and adult great bustard males. Possible connections of diurnal and seasonal changes of sexual steroid levels and display activity were studied. Correlations were found between sexual steroid equivalent levels of faeces and display activity and agonistic behaviour in the different phases of annual cycle of adult males. In early display period increasing levels of androgens were measured, during main display period very high androgen dominance was observable against E2 and P4. During postnuptial moult strong T decrease and DHEA and P4 increase were detected. Elevation of E2 was measured during wintering. In juveniles level of DHEA was higher than level of T suggesting its importance in immature males. Decrease of T was detected between reproductive period and postnuptial moult and DHEA between reproduction and wintering, accompanying with E2 elevation. The inhibiting effect of inclement weather on gonad functions also was detected in our study. We suppose that the unexpected cold weather with strong wind depressed the levels of androgens both in juveniles and adults and the increase of faecal E2 was also detected.

  7. Effect of melatonin implants on sexual activity in Mediterranean goat females without separation from males.

    PubMed

    Zarazaga, L A; Gatica, M C; Celi, I; Guzmán, J L; Malpaux, B

    2009-10-15

    This work was designed to determine whether melatonin treatment at the spring equinox can induce reproductive activity in goats without separation from males (separation being the normal practice in Spanish farming systems) and whether this treatment modifies the onset of the natural breeding season. Twenty-nine entire does were distributed into two groups (Group M, n=14; Group C, n=15). A third group of ovariectomized, estradiol-treated goats (OVX group, n=5) was used to study the effect of melatonin on reproductive activity. On March 18, Groups M and OVX received a subcutaneous melatonin implant. In entire females, estrus was tested daily using entire aproned males, and ovulation rate was assessed after identification of estrus. Plasma progesterone in entire goats, plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) in the OVX group, and live weight and body condition score for all animals were recorded once a week. In entire goats, a clear treatment by time interaction was observed for progesterone concentrations (P<0.001), with a period of high progesterone concentrations during the natural seasonal anestrus in Group M. A similar period of high LH concentrations was observed in the OVX group. Whereas all females of Group M presented ovarian activity during this period, no female of Group C did. The resumption of the natural breeding season was retarded in Group M in comparison with that in Group C (P<0.05). We can conclude that in Mediterranean goats, melatonin implants can induce reproductive activity without separation from males, and it causes a small retardation in the reactivation of reproductive activity in the natural breeding season. PMID:19631371

  8. How to make a sexy snake: estrogen activation of female sex pheromone in male red-sided garter snakes.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2012-03-01

    Vertebrates indicate their genetic sex to conspecifics using secondary sexual signals, and signal expression is often activated by sex hormones. Among vertebrate signaling modalities, the least is known about how hormones influence chemical signaling. Our study species, the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), is a model vertebrate for studying hormonal control of chemical signals because males completely rely on the female sex pheromone to identify potential mates among thousands of individuals. How sex hormones can influence the expression of this crucial sexual signal is largely unknown. We created two groups of experimental males for the first experiment: Sham (blank implants) and E2 (17β-estradiol implants). E2 males were vigorously courted by wild males in outdoor bioassays, and in a Y-maze E2 pheromone trails were chosen by wild males over those of small females and were indistinguishable from large female trails. Biochemically, the E2 pheromone blend was similar to that of large females, and it differed significantly from Shams. For the second experiment, we implanted males with 17β-estradiol in 2007 but removed the implants the following year (2008; Removal). That same year, we implanted a new group of males with estrogen implants (Implant). Removal males were courted by wild males in 2008 (implant intact) but not in 2009 (removed). Total pheromone quantity and quality increased following estrogen treatment, and estrogen removal re-established male-typical pheromone blends. Thus, we have shown that estrogen activates the production of female pheromone in adult red-sided garter snakes. This is the first known study to quantify both behavioral and biochemical responses in chemical signaling following sex steroid treatment of reptiles in the activation/organization context. We propose that the homogametic sex (ZZ, male) may possess the same targets for activation of sexual signal production, and the absence of the activator (17

  9. How to make a sexy snake: estrogen activation of female sex pheromone in male red-sided garter snakes.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2012-03-01

    Vertebrates indicate their genetic sex to conspecifics using secondary sexual signals, and signal expression is often activated by sex hormones. Among vertebrate signaling modalities, the least is known about how hormones influence chemical signaling. Our study species, the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), is a model vertebrate for studying hormonal control of chemical signals because males completely rely on the female sex pheromone to identify potential mates among thousands of individuals. How sex hormones can influence the expression of this crucial sexual signal is largely unknown. We created two groups of experimental males for the first experiment: Sham (blank implants) and E2 (17β-estradiol implants). E2 males were vigorously courted by wild males in outdoor bioassays, and in a Y-maze E2 pheromone trails were chosen by wild males over those of small females and were indistinguishable from large female trails. Biochemically, the E2 pheromone blend was similar to that of large females, and it differed significantly from Shams. For the second experiment, we implanted males with 17β-estradiol in 2007 but removed the implants the following year (2008; Removal). That same year, we implanted a new group of males with estrogen implants (Implant). Removal males were courted by wild males in 2008 (implant intact) but not in 2009 (removed). Total pheromone quantity and quality increased following estrogen treatment, and estrogen removal re-established male-typical pheromone blends. Thus, we have shown that estrogen activates the production of female pheromone in adult red-sided garter snakes. This is the first known study to quantify both behavioral and biochemical responses in chemical signaling following sex steroid treatment of reptiles in the activation/organization context. We propose that the homogametic sex (ZZ, male) may possess the same targets for activation of sexual signal production, and the absence of the activator (17

  10. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. [X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  11. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  12. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  13. Hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering and metabolic regulation activities of metforminium decavanadate (H2Metf)3 [V10O28]·8H2O using hypercaloric-induced carbohydrate and lipid deregulation in Wistar rats as biological model.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Samuel; Sánchez-Lara, Eduardo; Sarmiento-Ortega, Víctor Enrique; Sánchez-Lombardo, Irma; Flores-Hernández, José Ángel; Pérez-Benítez, Aarón; Brambila-Colombres, Eduardo; González-Vergara, Enrique

    2015-06-01

    Because of the increasing global spread of type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is a need to develop new antidiabetic agents. Recently we have synthesized new decavanadates using metformin as counterion. In particular, the compound containing three metforminium dications has been obtained in high yield and has been completely characterized. Biological studies using Wistar rats that have been fed with a high caloric diet inducing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome were carried out. Results of the impact on key biochemical parameters mediated by metformin alone and the new compound are here presented. The metforminium decavanadate (H2Metf)3[V10O28]·8H2O, abbreviated as Metf-V10O28, was shown to have pharmacological potential as a hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering and metabolic regulator, since the resulting compound made of the two components with antidiabetic activities, reduces both dosage and time of administration (twice a week). Hence, due to the beneficial effects induced by the metforminium decavanadate we recommend to continue the exploration into the mechanism and toxicology of this new compound.

  14. PFC Activity Pattern During Verbal WM Task in Healthy Male and Female Subjects: A NIRS Study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chenyang; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Dewu; Liu, Dan; Gong, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), as a non-invasive optical imaging method, has been widely used in psychology research. Working memory (WM) is an extensively researched psychological concept related to the temporary storage and processing of information. Many neuropsychological studies demonstrate that several brain areas of prefrontal cortex (PFC) are engaged during verbal WM tasks. The gender-based differences in WM remains under dispute. To better understand the active module and gender differences in PFC activity patterns during verbal WM tasks, we investigated the blood oxygenation changes of the PFC in 15 healthy subjects using a homemade multichannel continuous-wave NIRS instrument, while performing a verbal n-back task. We employed traditional activation and novel connectivity analyses simultaneously. Males had a higher level of oxygenation activity and connectivity in PFC than females. Only the results of females revealed a leftward lateralization in the 2-back task. PMID:27526142

  15. Bacteriocin PJ4 active against enteric pathogen produced by Lactobacillus helveticus PJ4 isolated from gut microflora of wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus): partial purification and characterization of bacteriocin.

    PubMed

    Jena, Prasant Kumar; Trivedi, Disha; Chaudhary, Harshita; Sahoo, Tapasa Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2013-04-01

    The increase of multidrug-resistant pathogens and the restriction on the use antibiotics due to its side effects have drawn attention to the search for possible alternatives. Bacteriocins are small antimicrobial peptides produced by numerous bacteria. Much interest has been focused on bacteriocins because they exhibit inhibitory activity against pathogens. Lactic acid bacteria possess the ability to synthesize antimicrobial compounds (like bacteriocin) during their growth. In this study, an antibacterial substance (bacteriocin PJ4) produced by Lactobacillus helveticus PJ4, isolated from rat gut microflora, was identified as bacteriocin. It was effective against wide assay of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria involved in various diseases, including Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial peptide was relatively heat-resistant and also active over a wide pH range of 2-10. It has been partially purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation and size exclusion chromatography and checked on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bacteriocin PJ4 purified through size exclusion chromatography resolved ~6.5 kDa protein with bacteriocin activity. The peptide is inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, trypsin, and lipase but not when treated with catalase, α-amylase, and pepsin. It showed a bactericidal mode of action against the indicator strains E. coli MTCC443, Lactobacillus casei MTCC1423, and E. faecalis DT48. Such characteristics indicate that this bacteriocin may be a potential candidate for alternative agents to control important pathogens.

  16. A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Amateur Male Boxers and Active Non-boxers.

    PubMed

    Bolam, K A; Skinner, T L; Sax, A T; Adlard, K N; Taaffe, D R

    2016-08-01

    To examine the site-specific osteogenic effect of upper limb impact-loading activity we compared the forearm and arm bone mineral density (BMD) of male boxers to that of active controls. A cross-sectional study was performed with 30 amateur male boxers (aged 18-44 years) and 32 age-matched, non-boxing, active controls. Participants had their regional and whole body BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hand grip strength, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, vitamin D, lean and fat mass, and past and current physical activity were also assessed. Forearm and arm BMD were 1.5-2.2% higher in boxers than the control group although this was not statistically significant (p>0.05), with no significant difference for BMC (p>0.05). There were no differences between groups for spine, hip, or whole body BMD or BMC, or for body composition or hormone status. Within the arms, lean mass was associated with BMD and BMC in both boxers and the control group (BMD, r=0.60-0.76, p<0.001; BMC, r=0.67-0.82, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between amateur boxers and the control group for upper limb BMD and BMC. However, muscle mass appears to be particularly important to bone health of the upper limbs. PMID:27203576

  17. [Male participation in types of physical activities of a program for the elderly: a longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Paulo Adão de; Streit, Inês Amanda; Sandreschi, Paula Fabricio; Fortunato, Artur Rodrigues; Mazo, Giovana Zarpellon

    2014-08-01

    The article seeks to describe male participation on a physical activity program for the elderly in the south of Brazil over a ten-year period (2003-2013). The data of the study were extracted from a database and assessed using descriptive and inferential statistics and assessment of the thematic content. The first phase of the study was longitudinal (from 2003 to 2013) with 163 elderly participants, while the second phase was cross-sectional for the year of 2013 with 45 elderly individuals. Male participation was, on average, 3.5 times lower than female participation for all years assessed, and the activity most practiced was swimming. In the year 2013, the average age of the elderly men was 68 ± 7.8 years. Most of them are married, have tertiary education, good acquisitive power, positive self perception of health, one or more diagnosed diseases, and do not participate in any other physical activity outside the program. According to the elderly, the reasons for participating most cited was the search for quality of life and health and, for continuing to exercise, acquiring the taste for the physical activity. Understanding the profile of these individuals and of the reasons that motivate them are important tools to comprehend the issue and help to define public politics directed at this population group. PMID:25119086

  18. Variability of corticosteroid responses during exercise stress in active and sedentary middle-aged males.

    PubMed

    White, J A; Ismail, A H; Bottoms, G D

    1975-04-01

    Two groups of middle-aged male subjects (both N=11), one active (mean age 44.6 years) and one sedentary (mean age 43.7 years), undertook a graded exercise stress test on a bicycle ergometer in the post-absorptive state. Blood serum corticosteroid levels were measured at the following stages of metabolism; at rest, under conditions of submaximal and "maximal' exercise and during recovery. The active group showed no significant change in mean serum corticosteroid levels from resting values, during exercise and recovery. However the sedentary group displayed a significant increase in mean serum corticosteroid levels from a resting value of 5.81 plus or minus 0.41 mub-g/100 ml. (mean plus or minus S.E.) to 7.83 plus or minus 0.71 mug/100 ml. during "maximal' exercise (p smaller than 0.05), which was maintained throughout recovery 7.82 plus or minus 0.70 ug/100 ml (p smaller than 0.05). Futhermore the active group demonstrated significantly lower mean serum corticosteroid levels compared with the sedentary group under conditions of submaximal (p smaller than 0.05) and "maximal' (p smaller than 0.01) exercise and during recovery (p smaller than 0.01). It was concluded that the variability in the response patterns of serum corticosteroids during exercise stress in active and sedentary middle-aged males, reflected the physiological differences observed between the two groups of subjects.

  19. Experimental model of heterotopic ossification in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zotz, T.G.G.; de Paula, J.B.; Moser, A.D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues adjacent to large joints, resulting in joint mobility deficit. In order to determine which treatment techniques are more appropriate for such condition, experimental models of induced heterotopic bone formation have been proposed using heterologous demineralized bone matrix implants and bone morphogenetic protein and other tissues. The objective of the present experimental study was to identify a reliable protocol to induce HO in Wistar rats, based on autologous bone marrow (BM) implantation, comparing 3 different BM volumes and based on literature evidence of this HO induction model in larger laboratory animals. Twelve male Wistar albino rats weighing 350/390 g were used. The animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction in order to quantify serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). HO was induced by BM implantation in both quadriceps muscles of these animals, experimental group (EG). Thirty-five days after the induction, another blood sample was collected for ALP determination. The results showed a weight gain in the EG and no significant difference in ALP levels when comparing the periods before and after induction. Qualitative histological analysis confirmed the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in all 12 EG rats. In conclusion, the HO induction model was effective when 0.35 mL autologous BM was applied to the quadriceps of Wistar rats. PMID:22473322

  20. Sexually active males prevent the display of seasonal anestrus in female goats.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, J A; Flores, J A; Hernández, H; Poindron, P; Keller, M; Fitz-Rodríguez, G; Duarte, G; Vielma, J; Fernández, I G; Chemineau, P

    2015-03-01

    A well-defined season of sexual rest controlled by photoperiod is observed in female sheep and goats during spring and summer, delineating their "anestrous season"; bucks also decrease sexual activity at about the same time. Nutrition and/or socio-sexual stimuli play only secondary roles. However, the presence of sexually active males can reduce the length of seasonal anestrus. Whether it can also completely suppress anestrus has not been investigated. Here we tested this in goats in 3 experiments, using bucks rendered sexually active out of season by exposure to long days. The continuous presence of these males prevented goats to display seasonal anestrus: 12/14 females cycled the year round, vs. 0/13 and 0/11 for females with un-treated bucks or without bucks (experiment 1). When active bucks were removed, females immediately entered anestrus (7/7 stopped ovulating vs. 1/7 if maintained with active bucks; experiment 2). Finally, 7/7 anestrous does with bucks in sexual rest since 1.5months commenced cycling rapidly during mid-anestrous, when these bucks became sexually active following a treatment with artificial long days, vs. 0/7 with un-treated bucks or no bucks (experiment 3). The presence/withdrawal of active bucks had a highly significant effect in the three experiments (P≤0.002). Therefore, the presence of a mating opportunity can completely override the photoperiodic inhibition of reproduction of females throughout the anestrous season. Results suggest that we must re-evaluate the relative contributions of photoperiod vs. other external cues in controlling seasonal reproduction, thus offering new non-pharmaceutical ways for controlling out-of-season reproduction in small ruminants.

  1. Differential activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex between male and female givers of social reputation.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Iori; Ito, Ayahito; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Ueno, Aya; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sakai, Shinya; Mugikura, Shunji; Takahashi, Shoki; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown the profound influence of social reputation on human behavior and has implicated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in representing subjective values induced by social interaction. However, little is known regarding how the vmPFC encodes subjective pleasantness induced by social reputation received from others. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the vmPFC in males and females encodes the subjective pleasantness of social reputation received from the same gender and from the opposite gender. Behavioral data showed that positive reputation was perceived to be more pleasant than negative reputation. Intriguingly, both male and female subjects showed greater differences in the pleasantness scores between the positive reputation condition and the negative reputation condition from females than between positive and negative reputations from males. Imaging data revealed that the left vmPFC specifically contributed to the processing of positive reputation. The activity patterns of the vmPFC corresponded to the gender differences in behavior during the processing of social reputation. These results indicate that the vmPFC plays a role in representing the subjective value of positive social reputation and that this region might be a final computational site in a stream of value-based decision-making processes.

  2. Differential activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex between male and female givers of social reputation.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Iori; Ito, Ayahito; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Ueno, Aya; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sakai, Shinya; Mugikura, Shunji; Takahashi, Shoki; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown the profound influence of social reputation on human behavior and has implicated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in representing subjective values induced by social interaction. However, little is known regarding how the vmPFC encodes subjective pleasantness induced by social reputation received from others. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the vmPFC in males and females encodes the subjective pleasantness of social reputation received from the same gender and from the opposite gender. Behavioral data showed that positive reputation was perceived to be more pleasant than negative reputation. Intriguingly, both male and female subjects showed greater differences in the pleasantness scores between the positive reputation condition and the negative reputation condition from females than between positive and negative reputations from males. Imaging data revealed that the left vmPFC specifically contributed to the processing of positive reputation. The activity patterns of the vmPFC corresponded to the gender differences in behavior during the processing of social reputation. These results indicate that the vmPFC plays a role in representing the subjective value of positive social reputation and that this region might be a final computational site in a stream of value-based decision-making processes. PMID:26235682

  3. Phytochemical Screening, Physicochemical Properties, Acute Toxicity Testing and Screening of Hypoglycaemic Activity of Extracts of Eremurus himalaicus Baker in Normoglycaemic Wistar Strain Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Ahlam; Akbar, Seema; Zargar, Mohammad A.; Wali, Adil F.; Malik, Akhtar H.; Dar, Mohammad Y.; Hamid, Rabia; Ganai, Bashir A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P < 0.001); this was followed by MeOH extract at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05), while MeOH extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and ethyl acetate extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited insignificant effect. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents. PMID:24864262

  4. Effects of exposure to male goat hair extracts on luteinizing hormone secretion and neuronal activation in seasonally anestrous ewes.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Hiromi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Ichimaru, Toru; Ohkura, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji; Okamura, Hiroaki

    2014-10-01

    In sheep and goats, exposure of seasonally anestrous females to males or their fleece/hair activates the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator leading to pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Pheromones emitted by sexually mature males are thought to play a prominent role in this male effect. In the present study, we first aimed to clarify whether the male goat pheromone is effective in ewes. Seasonally anestrous St. Croix ewes were exposed to hair extracts derived from either intact or castrated (control) male Shiba goats. The male goat-hair extract significantly increased LH secretion compared to the control, suggesting that an interspecies action of the male pheromone occurs between sheep and goats. Using the male goat-hair extract as the pheromone source, we then aimed to clarify the neural pathway involved in the signal transduction of the male pheromone. Ewes were exposed to either the goat-hair extract or the control and sacrificed 2 hr after the exposure. Expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was immunohistochemically examined. The male goat-hair extract significantly increased the c-Fos expression compared to the control in regions of the vomeronasal system, such as the accessory olfactory bulb and medial amygdala, and the arcuate nucleus. The main olfactory bulb did not exhibit any significant increase in the c-Fos expression by the male goat-hair extract. This result suggests that the neural signal of the male pheromone is conveyed to the GnRH pulse generator through the activated regions in ewes.

  5. Do Male And Female Cyclists' Cortical Activity Differ Before and During Cycling Exercise?

    PubMed

    Ludyga, Sebastian; Gronwald, Thomas; Hottenrott, Kuno

    2015-12-01

    Although men and women are suggested to vary in resistance to fatigue, possible sex difference in its central component have rarely been investigated via electroencephalography (EEG). Therefore, we examined differences in cortical activity between male and female cyclists (n = 26) during cycling exercise. Participants performed an incremental test to derive the anaerobic threshold from the lactate power curve. In addition, cyclists' cortical activity was recorded with EEG before and during cycling exercise. Whereas women showed higher frontal alpha and beta activity at rest, no sex-specific differences of relative EEG spectral power occurred during cycling at higher intensity. Women and men's brains respond similarly during submaximal cycling, as both sexes show an inverted U-shaped curve of alpha power. Therefore, sex differences observable at rest vanish after the onset of exercise. PMID:26866769

  6. Effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on orientation activities in middle-aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Lee, K L

    2002-12-01

    The effects of various fractions of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the orientation activities of the inbred, adult middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats, 9 months old and retired breeders towards the receptive females (anogenital sniffing, licking, mounting), the environment (climbing, raring, exploration), themselves (nongenital grooming, genital grooming) and mobility (restricted, unrestricted) after treating these subjects twice daily for 10 days. Results showed that subjects treated with 800 mg/kg of E. longifolia Jack increased orientation activities towards the receptive females (anogenital sniffing, licking and mounting), increased genital grooming towards themselves and restricted movements to a particular area of the cage but decreased interest in the external environment (climbing, raring, exploration) as compared with the controls during the investigation period. In conclusion, this study gives further evidences that different fractions of E. longifolia Jack modified the orientation activities of the middle-aged male rats. PMID:12685506

  7. Do Male And Female Cyclists' Cortical Activity Differ Before and During Cycling Exercise?

    PubMed

    Ludyga, Sebastian; Gronwald, Thomas; Hottenrott, Kuno

    2015-12-01

    Although men and women are suggested to vary in resistance to fatigue, possible sex difference in its central component have rarely been investigated via electroencephalography (EEG). Therefore, we examined differences in cortical activity between male and female cyclists (n = 26) during cycling exercise. Participants performed an incremental test to derive the anaerobic threshold from the lactate power curve. In addition, cyclists' cortical activity was recorded with EEG before and during cycling exercise. Whereas women showed higher frontal alpha and beta activity at rest, no sex-specific differences of relative EEG spectral power occurred during cycling at higher intensity. Women and men's brains respond similarly during submaximal cycling, as both sexes show an inverted U-shaped curve of alpha power. Therefore, sex differences observable at rest vanish after the onset of exercise.

  8. Pineal and photoperiodic influences on fat deposition, pelage, and testicular activity in male meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Smale, L; Dark, J; Zucker, I

    1988-01-01

    Pinealectomy completely prevented gonadal regression as well as reduction in body weight and white adipose tissue content of the gonadal and retroperitoneal fat deposits in male meadow voles transferred from long to short day lengths. Pineal influences on pelage characteristics depended on which parameter was assessed. For instance, the increase in guard hair length observed in short-day control voles was blocked by pinealectomy; however, a similar increase in underhair length was unaffected by removal of the pineal gland. Photoperiod-dependent changes in fat deposition, testicular activity, and guard hair length presumably rely on altered pineal secretory activity to transduce the effects of day length on the neuroendocrine axis; however, mechanisms independent of pineal activity may be capable of mediating photoperiodic control of underhair growth. PMID:2979644

  9. Female choice reveals terminal investment in male mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor, after a repeated activation of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Krams, I; Daukšte, J; Kivleniece, I; Krama, T; Rantala, M J; Ramey, G; Šauša, L

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that secondary sexual traits reflect immunocompetence of males in many animal species. This study experimentally investigated whether a parasite-like immunological challenge via a nylon implant affects sexual attractiveness of males in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Although a single immunological challenge significantly reduced sexual attractiveness and locomotor activity of males, it had no adverse effect on their survival. A second immune challenge of the same males increased their attractiveness. However, it was found that the repeated challenge significantly reduced locomotor activity of males and caused higher mortality. This result indicates terminal investment on sexual signaling, which is supposedly based on a trade-off between pheromone production and energy expenditures needed for such activities as recovery of immune system and locomotor activity. When the third implantation was carried out in the same group of males, melanization of nylon implants was found to be lower in more attractive than in less attractive males. This suggests that males that became sexually attractive after the second immune challenge did not invest in recovery of their immune system. PMID:21864151

  10. Female Choice Reveals Terminal Investment in Male Mealworm Beetles, Tenebrio molitor, after a Repeated Activation of the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Krams, I; Daukšte, J; Kivleniece, I; Krama, T; Rantala, MJ; Ramey, G; Šauša, L

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that secondary sexual traits reflect immunocompetence of males in many animal species. This study experimentally investigated whether a parasite-like immunological challenge via a nylon implant affects sexual attractiveness of males in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Although a single immunological challenge significantly reduced sexual attractiveness and locomotor activity of males, it had no adverse effect on their survival. A second immune challenge of the same males increased their attractiveness. However, it was found that the repeated challenge significantly reduced locomotor activity of males and caused higher mortality. This result indicates terminal investment on sexual signaling, which is supposedly based on a trade-off between pheromone production and energy expenditures needed for such activities as recovery of immune system and locomotor activity. When the third implantation was carried out in the same group of males, melanization of nylon implants was found to be lower in more attractive than in less attractive males. This suggests that males that became sexually attractive after the second immune challenge did not invest in recovery of their immune system. PMID:21864151

  11. [Hormonal activity of the hypophysis-gonadal system in male hamadryas baboons in relationship to their hierarchical position].

    PubMed

    Taranov, A G; Shashk-ogly, L K; Goncharov, N P

    1986-03-01

    Hierarchic status-dependent hormonal activity of pituitary-gonadal system was studied in an isolated group of hamadryas baboons. Testosterone level was higher in dominating males. The level of sex hormone was higher in aged animals with great muscle mass. No correlation was observed between hierarchic status of hamadryas baboon males and the blood level of luteinizing hormone.

  12. Proteasome activators, PA28γ and PA200, play indispensable roles in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Haratake, Kousuke; Miyahara, Hatsumi; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Protein degradation mediated by the proteasome is important for the protein homeostasis. Various proteasome activators, such as PA28 and PA200, regulate the proteasome function. Here we show double knockout (dKO) mice of Psme3 and Psme4 (genes for PA28γ and PA200), but not each single knockout mice, are completely infertile in male. The dKO sperms exhibited remarkable defects in motility, although most of them showed normal appearance in morphology. The proteasome activity of the mutant sperms decreased notably, and the sperms were strongly positive with ubiquitin staining. Quantitative analyses of proteins expressed in dKO sperms revealed up-regulation of several proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Furthermore, increased 8-OHdG staining was observed in dKO sperms head, suggesting defective response to oxidative damage. This report verified PA28γ and PA200 play indispensable roles in male fertility, and provides a novel insight into the role of proteasome activators in antioxidant response. PMID:27003159

  13. Effects of social stress on tumor development in dominant male mice with diverse behavioral activity profiles.

    PubMed

    Cacho Fernández, Raúl; Garmendia Rezola, Larraitz; Vegas Moreno, Oscar; Azpíroz Sánchez, Arantxa

    2008-11-01

    We examined the influence of individual psychological profile and social behavior on tumor development in dominant male mice. Male OF1 mice were subjected to an open field test (OFT) to observe their motor activity and latency. Subsequently, the animals were divided into three groups: Stress-Non-Inoculated (SNI), Stress-Inoculated (SI) and Control-Inoculated (CI). The SI and CI groups were inoculated with tumor cells and the SNI group with vehicle. SNI and SI were exposed to social stress with an anosmic intruder six (T1) and twenty one (T2) days after inoculation and their behavior was analyzed. After T2, subjects were put down and the pulmonary metastatic foci counted. SI developed greater pulmonary metastasis than CI, indicating an effect of stress despite the animal's dominant status. Active animals developed less pulmonary metastasis than their passive counterparts. No differences were found in social behavior at T1. Differences were found, however, in some behavioral categories at T2 between SI and SNI, and between active and passive animals. These differences indicate an effect of tumor development on social behavior that is more evident in passive subjects.

  14. Male Weasels Decrease Activity and Energy Expenditure in Response to High Ambient Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zub, Karol; Fletcher, Quinn E.; Szafrańska, Paulina A.; Konarzewski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The heat dissipation limit (HDL) hypothesis suggests that the capacity of endotherms to dissipate body heat may impose constraints on their energy expenditure. Specifically, this hypothesis predicts that endotherms should avoid the detrimental consequences of hyperthermia by lowering their energy expenditure and reducing their activity in response to high ambient temperatures (Ta). We used an extensive data set on the daily energy expenditure (DEE, n = 27) and the daily activity time (AT, n = 48) of male weasels (Mustela nivalis) during the spring and summer breeding season to test these predictions. We found that Ta was related in a “hump-shaped” (i.e. convex) manner to AT, DEE, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and metabolic scope (the ratio of DEE to RMR). These results support the HDL hypothesis because in response to warm Tas male weasels reduced their AT, DEE, and RMR. Although the activity and energy expenditure of large endotherms are most likely to be constrained in response to warm Tas because they are less able to dissipate heat, our results suggest that small endotherms may also experience constraints consistent with the HDL hypothesis. PMID:23977336

  15. Extremely high proportions of male flowers and geographic variation in floral ratios within male figs of Ficus tikoua despite pollinators displaying active pollen collection.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jun-Yin; Fu, Rong-Hua; Compton, Stephen G; Hu, Dai-Mei; Zhang, Lu-Shui; Yang, Fan; Chen, Yan; Kjellberg, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Most plants are pollinated passively, but active pollination has evolved among insects that depend on ovule fertilization for larval development. Anther-to-ovule ratios (A/O ratios, a coarse indicator of pollen-to-ovule ratios) are strong indicators of pollination mode in fig trees and are consistent within most species. However, unusually high values and high variation of A/O ratios (0.096-10.0) were detected among male plants from 41 natural populations of Ficus tikoua in China. Higher proportions of male (staminate) flowers were associated with a change in their distribution within the figs, from circum-ostiolar to scattered. Plants bearing figs with ostiolar or scattered male flowers were geographically separated, with scattered male flowers found mainly on the Yungui Plateau in the southwest of our sample area. The A/O ratios of most F. tikoua figs were indicative of passive pollination, but its Ceratosolen fig wasp pollinator actively loads pollen into its pollen pockets. Additional pollen was also carried on their body surface and pollinators emerging from scattered-flower figs had more surface pollen. Large amounts of pollen grains on the insects' body surface are usually indicative of a passive pollinator. This is the first recorded case of an actively pollinated Ficus species producing large amounts of pollen. Overall high A/O ratios, particularly in some populations, in combination with actively pollinating pollinators, may reflect a response by the plant to insufficient quantities of pollen transported in the wasps' pollen pockets, together with geographic variation in this pollen limitation. This suggests an unstable scenario that could lead to eventual loss of wasp active pollination behavior. PMID:26843943

  16. Juvenile hormone-dopamine systems for the promotion of flight activity in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The reproductive roles of dopamine and dopamine regulation systems are known in social hymenopterans, but the knowledge on the regulation systems in solitary species is still needed. To test the possibility that juvenile hormone (JH) and brain dopamine interact to trigger territorial flight behavior in males of a solitary bee species, the effects on biogenic amines of JH analog treatments and behavioral assays with dopamine injections in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata were quantified. Brain dopamine levels were significantly higher in methoprene-treated males than in control males 4 days after treatment, but were not significantly different after 7 days. Brain octopamine and serotonin levels did not differ between methoprene-treated and control males at 4 and 7 days after treatment. Injection of dopamine caused significantly higher locomotor activities and a shorter duration for flight initiation in experimental versus control males. These results suggest that brain dopamine can be regulated by JH and enhances flight activities in males. The JH-dopamine system in males of this solitary bee species is similar to that of males of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera.

  17. Juvenile hormone-dopamine systems for the promotion of flight activity in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The reproductive roles of dopamine and dopamine regulation systems are known in social hymenopterans, but the knowledge on the regulation systems in solitary species is still needed. To test the possibility that juvenile hormone (JH) and brain dopamine interact to trigger territorial flight behavior in males of a solitary bee species, the effects on biogenic amines of JH analog treatments and behavioral assays with dopamine injections in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata were quantified. Brain dopamine levels were significantly higher in methoprene-treated males than in control males 4 days after treatment, but were not significantly different after 7 days. Brain octopamine and serotonin levels did not differ between methoprene-treated and control males at 4 and 7 days after treatment. Injection of dopamine caused significantly higher locomotor activities and a shorter duration for flight initiation in experimental versus control males. These results suggest that brain dopamine can be regulated by JH and enhances flight activities in males. The JH-dopamine system in males of this solitary bee species is similar to that of males of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera.

  18. Time course of chronic oral cadmium nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats: excretion of urinary enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, E M; Maruhn, D; Rinke, M

    1999-11-01

    Twelve male and female Wistar rats each received cadmium (as CdCl2) in their diet at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, and 250 ppm for 72 weeks. After 1, 4, 8, 13, 18, 26, 32, 45, 57, and 68 weeks a total of 8 enzymes from different cellular compartments of the nephron were measured. At the end of the study period, the kidneys were examined histopathologically. Concentrations up to and including 50 ppm did not induce any adverse effect. At 250 ppm, growth of male and female animals was markedly retarded. Significantly increased activities of the cytosolic phosphohexose isomerase were excreted by males and females receiving 250 ppm at all timepoints from week 13. The values of the mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase were mostly elevated from week 1 to 57, however, due to a wide scatter range, were only occasionally significantly different from control values. The brush border enzymes (gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase and leucine arylamidase) were not changed in a relevant manner in female rats, while in 250 ppm males the excreted activity of ALP and LAP from week 1 to week 18, and that of GGT during the entire study period were significantly lower than the control values. Excretion of the lysosomal enzymes aryl sulfatase A, beta-galactosidase, and beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase was at no time influenced in a noteworthy manner. Histopathology after 72 weeks revealed chronic but also acute degenerative changes in the kidneys of 250 ppm males and females. A comparison of published data on persons having undergone high cadmium exposure with the results presented here shows remarkable differences.

  19. Male prairie voles display cardiovascular dipping associated with an ultradian activity cycle.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Robert; Curtis, J Thomas

    2016-03-15

    Mammals typically display alternating active and resting phases and, in most species, these rhythms follow a circadian pattern. The active and resting phases often are accompanied by corresponding physiological changes. In humans, blood pressure decreases during the resting phase of the activity cycle, and the magnitude of that "nocturnal dipping" has been used to stratify patients according to the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in contrast to most mammals, prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) have periods of activity and rest that follow an ultradian rhythm with period lengths significantly <24h. While rhythmic changes in blood pressure across a circadian activity cycle have been well-documented, blood pressure patterns in species that display ultradian rhythms in activity are less well-studied. In the current study, we implanted pressure-sensitive radiotelemetry devices in male prairie voles and recorded activity, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) continuously for 3days. Visualization of the ultradian rhythms was enhanced using a 1h running average to filter the dataset. Positive correlations were found between activity and MAP and between activity and HR. During the inactive period of the ultradian cycle, blood pressure decreased by about 15%, which parallels the nocturnal dipping pattern seen in healthy humans. Further, the duration of inactivity did not affect any of the cardiovascular measures, so the differences in blood pressure values between the active and inactive periods are likely driven by ultradian oscillations in hormones and autonomic function. Finally, specific behavioral patterns also were examined. Both the instrumented animal and his non-instrumented cagemate appeared to show synchronized activity patterns, with both animals displaying sleep-like behavior for more than 90% of the inactive period. We propose that the prairie vole ultradian rhythm in blood pressure is an analogue for circadian blood pressure variability

  20. Effects of physical activity on pupil cycle time (PCT) in healthy Indian male.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Suparna; Avadhany, Sandhya T

    2014-01-01

    Globally, physical inactivity is an important risk factor for the development of non-communicable disease consisting of coronary artery disease, as well as, other diseases including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancers. Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity in the eye is determined by the pupil cycle time (PCT) can be comparable with cardiac parasympathetic response and thereby determine the morbidity and mortality among individuals. The PCT is measured by throwing white light on the edge of the pupil. Pupil cycling is a feature of pupillary reflex arc. The aim of this study is to establish the effect of physical activity on the PCT. The counting of PCT was done for 90 cycles and average one count is considered a single PCT. The physical activity level (PAL) was determined by administering a physical activity level questionnaire developed in the Division of Nutrition, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore. The PAL is classified as < 1.4 as sedentary, 1.55 to 1.75 moderately active, and > 1.75 heavily active. Thirty healthy male volunteers in the age group of 18-50 years and with BMI of 18.5 kg/m2-30 kg/m2 were studied. We obtained PCT of 962.00 ± 105.72 msec in sedentary, 896.77 ± 85.88 msec in moderately active and 889.45 ± 68.71 msec in heavily active individuals. Linear regression analysis shows there is statistically significant difference between the three different groups of physical activity level with a b value of 0 and R2 being 0.19. Increase in physical activity led to decrease in the PCT i.e. increase in the parasympathetic tone in the eye. Pupil cycle time (PCT) is a simple noninvasive tool to assess and differentiate the PNS function in different activity level of individual. PMID:25906609

  1. Male pheromone protein components activate female vomeronasal neurons in the salamander Plethodon shermani

    PubMed Central

    Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R; Houck, Lynne D; Wood, Jessica M; Feldhoff, Pamela W; Feldhoff, Richard C

    2006-01-01

    Background The mental gland pheromone of male Plethodon salamanders contains two main protein components: a 22 kDa protein named Plethodon Receptivity Factor (PRF) and a 7 kDa protein named Plethodon Modulating Factor (PMF), respectively. Each protein component individually has opposing effects on female courtship behavior, with PRF shortening and PMF lengthening courtship. In this study, we test the hypothesis that PRF or PMF individually activate vomeronasal neurons. The agmatine-uptake technique was used to visualize chemosensory neurons that were activated by each protein component individually. Results Vomeronasal neurons exposed to agmatine in saline did not demonstrate significant labeling. However, a population of vomeronasal neurons was labeled following exposure to either PRF or PMF. When expressed as a percent of control level labeled cells, PRF labeled more neurons than did PMF. These percentages for PRF and PMF, added together, parallel the percentage of labeled vomeronasal neurons when females are exposed to the whole pheromone. Conclusion This study suggests that two specific populations of female vomeronasal neurons are responsible for responding to each of the two components of the male pheromone mixture. These two neural populations, therefore, could express different receptors which, in turn, transmit different information to the brain, thus accounting for the different female behavior elicited by each pheromone component. PMID:16553953

  2. Alpha Power, Alpha Asymmetry and Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity in Depressed Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Natalia; Blier, Pierre; Fusee, Wendy; Knott, Verner

    2012-01-01

    Left fronto-cortical hypoactivity, thought to reflect reduced activity in approach-related systems, and right parietal hypoactivity, associated with emotional under-arousal, have been noted in major depressive disorder (MDD). Altered theta activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has also been associated with the disorder. We assessed resting frontal and parietal alpha asymmetry and power in non-medicated MDD (N=53; 29 females) and control (N=43; 23 females) individuals. Theta activity was examined using standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) in the ACC [BA24ab and BA32 comprising the rostral ACC and BA25/subgenual (sg) ACC]. The MDD group, and particularly depressed males, displayed increased overall frontal and parietal alpha power and left midfrontal hypoactivity (alpha2-indexed). They also exhibited increased sgACC theta2 activity. MDD females had increased right parietal activity, suggesting increased emotive arousal. Thus, unmedicated depressed adults were characterized by lower activity in regions implicated in approach/positive affective tendencies as well as diffuse cortical hypoarousal, though sex specific modulations emerged. Altered theta in the sgACC may reflect emotion regulation abnormalities in MDD. PMID:22939462

  3. Effects of Aromatase Inhibition and Androgen Activity on Serotonin and Behavior in Male Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Bethea, Cynthia L.; Reddy, Arubala P.; Robertson, Nicola; Colemen, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Aggression in humans and animals has been linked to androgens and serotonin function. To further our understanding of the effect of androgens on serotonin and aggression in male macaques, we sought to manipulate circulating androgens and the activity of aromatase; and to then determine behavior and the endogenous availability of serotonin. Male Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) were castrated for 5-7 months and then treated for 3 months with [1] placebo, [2] testosterone (T), [3] T+Dutasteride (5a reductase inhibitor; AvodartTM), [4] T+Letrozole (non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor; FemeraTM), [5] Flutamide+ATD (androgen antagonist plus steroidal aromatase inhibitor) or [6] dihydrotestosterone (DHT)+ATD (n=5/group). Behavioral observations were made during treatments. At the end of the treatment period, each animal was sedated with propofol and administered a bolus of fenfluramine (5 mg/kg). Fenfluramine causes the release of serotonin proportional to endogenous availability and in turn, serotonin stimulates the secretion of prolactin. Therefore, serum prolactin concentrations reflect endogenous serotonin. Fenfluramine significantly increased serotonin/prolactin in all groups (p <0.0001). Fenfluramine-induced serotonin/prolactin in the T-treated group was significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.0001). Castration partially reduced the serotonin/prolactin response; and Letrozole partially blocked the effect of T. Complete inhibition of aromatase with ATD, a non-competitve inhibitor, significantly and similarly reduced the fenfluramine-induced serotonin/prolactin response in the presence or absence of DHT. Neither aggressive behavior nor yawning (indicators of androgen activity) correlated with serotonin/prolactin, but posited aromatase activity correlated significantly with prolactin (p<0.0008; r2 =0.95). In summary, androgens induced aggressive behavior but they did not regulate serotonin. Altogether, the data suggest that aromatase activity supports

  4. Effects of aromatase inhibition and androgen activity on serotonin and behavior in male macaques.

    PubMed

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Reddy, Arubala P; Robertson, Nicola; Coleman, Kristine

    2013-06-01

    Aggression in humans and animals has been linked to androgens and serotonin function. To further our understanding of the effect of androgens on serotonin and aggression in male macaques, we sought to manipulate circulating androgens and the activity of aromatase; and to then determine behavior and the endogenous availability of serotonin. Male Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) were castrated for 5-7 months and then treated for 3 months with (a) placebo; (b) testosterone (T); (c) T + Dutasteride (5a reductase inhibitor; AvodartTM); (d) T + Letrozole (nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor; FemeraTM); (e) Flutamide + ATD (androgen antagonist plus steroidal aromatase inhibitor); or (f) dihydrotestosterone (DHT) + ATD (n = 5/group). Behavioral observations were made during treatments. At the end of the treatment period, each animal was sedated with propofol and administered a bolus of fenfluramine (5 mg/kg). Fenfluramine causes the release of serotonin proportional to endogenous availability and in turn, serotonin stimulates the secretion of prolactin. Therefore, serum prolactin concentrations reflect endogenous serotonin. Fenfluramine significantly increased serotonin/prolactin in all groups (p < .0001). Fenfluramine-induced serotonin/prolactin in the T-treated group was significantly higher than the other groups (p < .0001). Castration partially reduced the serotonin/prolactin response and Letrozole partially blocked the effect of T. Complete inhibition of aromatase with ATD, a noncompetitive inhibitor, significantly and similarly reduced the fenfluramine-induced serotonin/prolactin response in the presence or absence of DHT. Neither aggressive behavior nor yawning (indicators of androgen activity) correlated with serotonin/prolactin, but posited aromatase activity correlated significantly with prolactin (p < .0008; r² = 0.95). In summary, androgens induced aggressive behavior but they did not regulate serotonin. Altogether, the data suggest that aromatase activity

  5. Effect of whole body vibration frequency on neuromuscular activity in ACL-deficient and healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Piccinini, A; Fagnani, F; Di Cagno, A; Macaluso, A; Pigozzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to enhance muscle activity via reflex pathways, thus having the potential to contrast muscle weakness in individuals with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of neuromuscular activation during WBV over a frequency spectrum from 20 to 45 Hz between ACL-deficient and healthy individuals. Fifteen males aged 28±4 with ACL rupture and 15 age-matched healthy males were recruited. Root mean square (RMS) of the surface electromyogram from the vastus lateralis in both limbs was computed during WBV in a static half-squat position at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, and normalized to the RMS while maintaining the half-squat position without vibration. The RMS of the vastus lateralis in the ACL-deficient limb was significantly greater than in the contralateral limb at 25, 30, 35 and 40 Hz (P<0.05) and in both limbs of the healthy participants (dominant limb at 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05; non dominant limb at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05). The greater neuromuscular activity in the injured limb compared to the uninjured limb of the ACL-deficient patients and to both limbs of the healthy participants during WBV might be due to either augmented excitatory or reduced inhibitory neural inflow to motoneurons of the vastus lateralis through the reflex pathways activated by vibratory stimuli. The study provides optimal WBV frequencies which might be used as reference values for ACL-deficient patients. PMID:26424928

  6. Septal regulation of male sexual behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Gogate, M G; Brid, S V; Wingkar, K C; Kantak, N M

    1995-06-01

    Involvement of septal nuclei in modulation of male sexual behavior in rats was investigated. Sexually active Wistar male rats were assigned to intact, sham, lateral septal nuclei lesioned (LSL), and medial septal nuclei lesioned (MSL) groups. All male rats were tested for sexual behavior in an arena in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Intromission and ejaculation latencies were increased, and mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies were decreased in the LSL group compared to the intact group. In contrast, mount and intromission latencies were decreased, and pursuit and mount frequencies were increased in the MSL group compared to the intact group. The results indicate that medial septal nuclei may inhibit and lateral septal nuclei may facilitate male sexual behavior in rats. PMID:7652045

  7. Natural male contraceptive: phytochemical investigation and anti-spermatogenic activity of Pistia stratiotes Linn.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kiran; Dubey, Bidhyut Kumar; Tripathi, Avinash C; Singh, Ajeet Pal; Saraf, Shailendra K

    2014-01-01

    This work is an attempt to explore the anti-spermatogenic activity of Pistia stratiotes and to investigate it as a male contraceptive. The prepared extracts were screened for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, saponin and phenolic compounds. To assess the anti-spermatogenic activity, mice were orally administered with the various extracts of P. stratiotes (dose: 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day, for 45 days) and the most active, ethanolic extract was subjected to the isolation of phytoconstituent responsible for the activity. Diethyl ether fraction of ethanolic extract was taken to isolate a saponin, sitosterol-3-O-[2,4-di-O-acetyl-6-O-stearyl-β-D-glucopyranoside]. Anti-spermatogenic activity of the isolated saponin was evaluated at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight/day, for 45 days. The treatment caused significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the weight of reproductive organs (testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle). The sperm count, sperm viability and serum testosterone levels were significantly lowered compared with that of the control group.

  8. Melanin-concentrating hormone is necessary for olanzapine-inhibited locomotor activity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Chee, Melissa J S; Douris, Nicholas; Forrow, Avery B; Monnard, Arnaud; Lu, Shuangyu; Flaherty, Stephen E; Adams, Andrew C; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2015-10-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), an atypical antipsychotic, can be effective in treating patients with restricting type anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively. Clinical improvements include weight gain and reduced pathological hyperactivity. However the neuronal populations and mechanisms underlying OLZ actions are not known. We studied the effects of OLZ on hyperactivity using male mice lacking the hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCHKO) that are lean and hyperactive. We compared the in vivo effects of systemic or intra-accumbens nucleus (Acb) OLZ administration on locomotor activity in WT and MCHKO littermates. Acute systemic OLZ treatment in WT mice significantly reduced locomotor activity, an effect that is substantially attenuated in MCHKO mice. Furthermore, OLZ infusion directly into the Acb of WT mice reduced locomotor activity, but not in MCHKO mice. To identify contributing neuronal mechanisms, we assessed the effect of OLZ treatment on Acb synaptic transmission ex vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal OLZ treatment reduced Acb GABAergic activity in WT but not MCHKO neurons. This effect was also seen in vitro by applying OLZ to acute brain slices. OLZ reduced the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic activity that was more robust in WT than MCHKO Acb. These findings indicate that OLZ reduced Acb GABAergic transmission and that MCH is necessary for the hypolocomotor effects of OLZ.

  9. Cortisol and induced cognitive fatigue: effects on memory activation in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Elissa B; de Groot, Renate H M; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Nicolson, Nancy A; Veltman, Dick J; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between individual differences in acute fatigue and endogenous cortisol changes elicited by the sustained performance of cognitively demanding tasks (fatigue condition). Healthy males provided salivary cortisol measurements and subjective fatigue ratings, and were scanned (functional magnetic resonance imaging) during memory encoding and recognition tasks in fatigue and control conditions. A group of 15 'responders' showed significantly higher cortisol levels in the fatigue condition than 12 'non-responders'. Responders showed higher subjective fatigue and reduced encoding and recognition activation than non-responders in the fatigue condition. An interaction in activation changes in the right hippocampus during encoding reflected decreased activation in responders, but somewhat increased activation in non-responders in the fatigue compared to control condition. Moreover, decreased hippocampal activation in responders was associated with increased subjective fatigue. Findings are consistent with a central role for the hippocampus in differences between responders and non-responders and also implicate the right hippocampus in individual differences in induced cognitive fatigue effects.

  10. Refocusing HIV / AIDS interventions in Thailand: the case for male sex workers and other homosexually active men.

    PubMed

    Mccamish, M; Storer, G; Carl, G

    2000-01-01

    Although studies have shown that male sex workers in Thailand are at increased risk of HIV infection, no sustained strategy have so far been directed towards homosexually active men in the country. This paper brings together data from qualitative research carried out in Pattaya and Bangkok, with data generated during a bar-based intervention in Bangkok, to develop a taxonomy of sites in which the recruitment of male commercial sex can occur. The researchers also examined the sexual networks of Thai male sex workers and their clients in order to show the overlap of commercial and non-commercial male-male sex sites, and the intersection of male commercial sex with heterosexual sex. Previous efforts directed towards Thai male sex workers have been non-continuous; largely restricted to high-profile tourist areas; have not acknowledged the importance of recreational sex; and have not built up a capacity for ongoing intervention. With a change of focus, interventions targeted at sex workers could reduce the risks of HIV infection among organized and freelance sex workers as well as their commercial and male and female casual sex partners. Foremost, however, is the need to commit to well planned and long range interventions directed by and at male sex workers. PMID:12295881

  11. Pharmacokinetics and anesthetic activity of eugenol in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Guenette, S A; Beaudry, F; Marier, J F; Vachon, P

    2006-08-01

    Eugenol, the principle chemical constituent of clove oil, has recently been evaluated for its anesthetic and analgesic properties in fish and amphibians. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) and anesthetic activity of eugenol in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received single i.v. doses of eugenol (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg) and anesthetic level was evaluated with the withdrawal reflex. For the 20 mg/kg dose level, blood and urinary samples were collected over 1 h for the PK assessment. Plasma and blood concentrations of eugenol, as well as metabolite identification in urine, were determined using a novel dansyl chloride derivatization method with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). PK parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. Eugenol-induced loss of consciousness in a dose-dependent manner, with mean (+/-SEM) recovery in reflex time of 167 +/- 42 sec observed at the highest dose level. Mean systemic clearance (Cl) in plasma and blood were 157 and 204 mL/min/kg, respectively. Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates were identified in urine. Overall, eugenol produced a reversible, dose-dependent anesthesia in male Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:16846463

  12. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males. PMID:22368416

  13. Hypothesis That Urethral Bulb (Corpus Spongiosum) Plays an Active Role in Male Urinary Continence

    PubMed Central

    Rehder, Peter; Staudacher, Nina M.; Schachtner, Joerg; Berger, Maria E.; Schillfahrt, Florian; Hauser, Verena; Mueller, Raphael; Skradski, Viktor; Horninger, Wolfgang; Glodny, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The proximal urethral bulb in men is enlarged, surrounds the bulbous urethra, and extends dorsally towards the perineum. During intercourse engorgement takes place due to increased blood flow through the corpus spongiosum. Antegrade ejaculation is facilitated by contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles during climax. Micturition during sexual stimulation is functionally inhibited. Supporting the bulb may indirectly facilitate continence in a certain subset of patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. During physical activity with increased abdominal pressure, reflex contraction of the pelvic floor muscles as well as the bulbospongiosus muscles occurs to support sphincter function and limit urinary incontinence. Operations to the prostate may weaken urinary sphincter function. It is hypothesized that the distal urinary sphincter may be supported indirectly by placing a hammock underneath the urethral bulb. During moments of physical stress the “cushion” of blood within the supported corpus spongiosum helps to increase the zone of coaptation within the sphincteric (membranous) urethra. This may lead to urinary continence in patients treated by a transobturator repositioning sling in patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. This paper describes the possible role of the urethral bulb in male urinary continence, including its function after retroluminal sling placement (AdVance, AdVance XP® Male Sling System, Minnetonka, USA). PMID:27022393

  14. Fasting Enhances Pyroglutamyl Peptidase II Activity in Tanycytes of the Mediobasal Hypothalamus of Male Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Iván; Cabral, Agustina; Uribe, Rosa María; Jaimes-Hoy, Lorraine; Perello, Mario; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Sánchez-Jaramillo, Edith; Charli, Jean-Louis

    2015-07-01

    Fasting down-regulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis activity through a reduction of TRH synthesis in neurons of the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). These TRH neurons project to the median eminence (ME), where TRH terminals are close to the cytoplasmic extensions of β2 tanycytes. Tanycytes express pyroglutamyl peptidase II (PPII), the TRH-degrading ectoenzyme that controls the amount of TRH that reaches the anterior pituitary. We tested the hypothesis that regulation of ME PPII activity is another mechanism by which fasting affects the activity of the HPT axis. Semiquantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry data indicated that PPII and deiodinase 2 mRNA levels increased in tanycytes after 48 hours of fasting. This increase was transitory, followed by an increase of PPII activity in the ME, and a partial reversion of the reduction in PVN pro-TRH mRNA levels and the number of TRH neurons detected by immunohistochemistry. In fed animals, adrenalectomy and corticosterone treatment did not change ME PPII activity 72 hours later. Methimazole-induced hypothyroidism produced a profound drop in tanycytes PPII mRNA levels, which was reverted by 3 days of treatment with T4. The activity of thyroliberinase, the serum isoform of PPII, was increased at most fasting time points studied. We conclude that delayed increases in both the ME PPII as well as the thyroliberinase activities in fasted male rats may facilitate the maintenance of the deep down-regulation of the HPT axis function, despite a partial reactivation of TRH expression in the PVN. PMID:25942072

  15. Fasting Enhances Pyroglutamyl Peptidase II Activity in Tanycytes of the Mediobasal Hypothalamus of Male Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Iván; Cabral, Agustina; Uribe, Rosa María; Jaimes-Hoy, Lorraine; Perello, Mario; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Sánchez-Jaramillo, Edith; Charli, Jean-Louis

    2015-07-01

    Fasting down-regulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis activity through a reduction of TRH synthesis in neurons of the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). These TRH neurons project to the median eminence (ME), where TRH terminals are close to the cytoplasmic extensions of β2 tanycytes. Tanycytes express pyroglutamyl peptidase II (PPII), the TRH-degrading ectoenzyme that controls the amount of TRH that reaches the anterior pituitary. We tested the hypothesis that regulation of ME PPII activity is another mechanism by which fasting affects the activity of the HPT axis. Semiquantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry data indicated that PPII and deiodinase 2 mRNA levels increased in tanycytes after 48 hours of fasting. This increase was transitory, followed by an increase of PPII activity in the ME, and a partial reversion of the reduction in PVN pro-TRH mRNA levels and the number of TRH neurons detected by immunohistochemistry. In fed animals, adrenalectomy and corticosterone treatment did not change ME PPII activity 72 hours later. Methimazole-induced hypothyroidism produced a profound drop in tanycytes PPII mRNA levels, which was reverted by 3 days of treatment with T4. The activity of thyroliberinase, the serum isoform of PPII, was increased at most fasting time points studied. We conclude that delayed increases in both the ME PPII as well as the thyroliberinase activities in fasted male rats may facilitate the maintenance of the deep down-regulation of the HPT axis function, despite a partial reactivation of TRH expression in the PVN.

  16. Regional Brain Activity in Abstinent Methamphetamine Dependent Males Following Cue Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Robert; Myrick, Hugh; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T; George, Mark S; See, Ronald E

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging of drug-associated cue presentations has aided in understanding the neurobiological substrates of craving and relapse for cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. However, imaging of cue-reactivity in methamphetamine addiction has been much less studied. Method Nine caucasian male methamphetamine-dependent subjects and nine healthy controls were scanned in a Phillips 3.0T MRI scan when they viewed a randomized presentation of visual cues of methamphetamine, neutral objects, and rest conditions. Functional Imaging data were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping software 5 (SPM 5) Results Methamphetamine subjects had significant brain activation in the ventral striatum and medial frontal cortex in comparison to meth pictures and neutral pictures in healthy controls (p<0.005, threshold 15 voxels). Interestingly the ventral striatum activation significantly correlated with the days since the last use of meth (r=−0.76, p=0.017). No significant activity was found in healthy control group. Conclusion The preliminary data suggest that methamphetamine dependent subjects, when exposed to methamphetamine-associated visual cues, have increased brain activity in ventral striatum, caudate nucleus and medial frontal cortex which subserve craving, drug-seeking, and drug use. PMID:27314105

  17. Hematological and Biochemical Markers of Iron Status in a Male, Young, Physically Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Lázaro Alessandro Soares; Grotto, Helena Zerlotti W.; Brenzikofer, René; Macedo, Denise Vaz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals (RIs) for the hemogram and iron status biomarkers in a physically active population. The study population included male volunteers (n = 150) with an average age of 19 ± 1 years who had participated in a regular and controlled exercise program for four months. Blood samples were collected to determine hematological parameters using a Sysmex XE-5000 analyzer (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). Iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation and ferritin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in serum samples were measured using commercial kits (Roche Diagnostics, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and a Roche/Hitachi 902 analyzer. The RIs were established using the RefVal program 4.1b. The leucocyte count, TIBC, and CRP and ferritin concentrations exhibited higher RIs compared with those in a nonphysically active population. Thirty volunteers (outliers) were removed from the reference population due to blood abnormalities. Among the outliers, 46% exhibited higher CRP concentrations and lower concentrations of iron and reticulocyte hemoglobin compared with the nonphysically active population (P < 0.001). Our results showed that it is important to establish RIs for certain laboratory parameters in a physically active population, especially for tests related to the inflammatory response and iron metabolism. PMID:25045665

  18. Health, fitness, physical activity, and morbidity of middle aged male factory workers. I.

    PubMed Central

    Tuxworth, W; Nevill, A M; White, C; Jenkins, C

    1986-01-01

    A description of the fitness, physical activity of lifestyle, and some aspects of health status and attitudes in a population of male factory workers aged 35-60 is presented as the first part of a report on a study of morbidity in this population. A total of 1394 subjects were included, undergoing medical examination, fitness testing by bicycle ergometry, assessment of body fat, and interview questionnaire. The inter-relation of fitness, body composition, habitual exertion, health risk factors, and attitudes to exercise are discussed. Fitness levels are compared with those reported in other studies and discussed in terms of capacity for walking and running and in relation to criteria for health benefit. In these two latter respects fitness appears to be inadequate among the great majority of those tested, although it is comparable with that reported by several other recent studies. Fitness is associated with physical activity of leisure but not that of work. Only relatively strenuous physical activity in leisure time appears to be related to fitness, and is only participated in by some 28% of the sample. Cycling has the strongest association with fitness of all the physical activity variables. Blood pressure and percentage body fat are also associated, inversely, with fitness, the latter not unexpectedly because of the weight related measure of fitness. PMID:3790455

  19. Neonatal exposure to amphetamine alters social affiliation and central dopamine activity in adult male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Fukushiro, D F; Olivera, A; Liu, Y; Wang, Z

    2015-10-29

    The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms pair bonds after mating. Recent data have shown that amphetamine (AMPH) is rewarding to prairie voles as it induces conditioned place preferences. Further, repeated treatment with AMPH impairs social bonding in adult prairie voles through a central dopamine (DA)-dependent mechanism. The present study examined the effects of neonatal exposure to AMPH on behavior and central DA activity in adult male prairie voles. Our data show that neonatal exposure to AMPH makes voles less social in an affiliation test during adulthood, but does not affect animals' locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. Neonatal exposure to AMPH also increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain, indicating an increase in central DA activity. As DA has been implicated in AMPH effects on behavioral and cognitive functions, altered DA activity in the vole brain may contribute to the observed changes in social behavior.

  20. Networking activities and perceptions of HIV risk among male migrant market vendors in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenqing; Muessig, Kathryn E; Li, Mingqiang; Zhang, Ying-Xia; Zhang, Yingxia

    2014-02-01

    HIV research among internal migrants in China has not fully explored the contexts and perceptions of "risk". In 2011, urban markets in Liuzhou, China were mapped, and sixty male vendors, age 22-56, were selected for in-depth interviews on migration, social and family life, and perceptions and practices of sexual risk behavior. Participants were evenly divided among higher income shop and small stall vendors. All men were sexually active. Only the shop vendors reported non-marital sexual partners, including concurrent partners (n = 15), commercial partners (n = 10), and other sexual relationships (n = 11). Shop vendors engaged in networking activities that facilitated commercial and non-commercial high-risk sex. Perceptions of HIV risk from commercial sex led some men to doubt the protective ability of condoms and rely on local (unproven) self-protection techniques. Networking activities played a role in high-risk sex and shaping migrants' risk perceptions and health practices. The networks created through these processes could also be used to facilitate health promotion activities.

  1. Networking Activities and Perceptions of HIV Risk Among Male Migrant Market Vendors in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenqing; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Li, Mingqiang; Zhang, Yingxia

    2013-01-01

    HIV research among internal migrants in China has not fully explored the contexts and perceptions of “risk”. In 2011, urban markets in Liuzhou, China were mapped, and sixty male vendors, age 22 to 56, were selected for in-depth interviews on migration, social and family life, and perceptions and practices of sexual risk behavior. Participants were evenly divided among higher income shop and small stall vendors. All men were sexually active. Only the shop vendors reported non-marital sexual partners, including concurrent partners (n=15), commercial partners (n=10), and other sexual relationships (n=11). Shop vendors engaged in networking activities that facilitated commercial and non-commercial high-risk sex. Perceptions of HIV risk from commercial sex led some men to doubt the protective ability of condoms and rely on local (unproven) self-protection techniques. Networking activities played a role in high-risk sex and shaping migrants' risk perceptions and health practices. The networks created through these processes could also be used to facilitate health promotion activities. PMID:23572155

  2. Neonatal exposure to amphetamine alters social affiliation and central dopamine activity in adult male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Fukushiro, D F; Olivera, A; Liu, Y; Wang, Z

    2015-10-29

    The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms pair bonds after mating. Recent data have shown that amphetamine (AMPH) is rewarding to prairie voles as it induces conditioned place preferences. Further, repeated treatment with AMPH impairs social bonding in adult prairie voles through a central dopamine (DA)-dependent mechanism. The present study examined the effects of neonatal exposure to AMPH on behavior and central DA activity in adult male prairie voles. Our data show that neonatal exposure to AMPH makes voles less social in an affiliation test during adulthood, but does not affect animals' locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. Neonatal exposure to AMPH also increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain, indicating an increase in central DA activity. As DA has been implicated in AMPH effects on behavioral and cognitive functions, altered DA activity in the vole brain may contribute to the observed changes in social behavior. PMID:26321240

  3. Correlates of video game screen time among males: body mass, physical activity, and other media use.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Mary; Gray, Melissa; Reilly, Jenny; Noggle, Matthew

    2009-08-01

    This study examined the correlations between media use, body mass variables, and physical activity among 116 male undergraduates (white n=106; African American n=5, Latin American n=1, Asian American n=2, and 2 others). Length of video game play during one sitting was positively related to body mass index (BMI; r=.27, p<.01) and negatively correlated with frequency of exercise (r=-.21, p<.05) and days of walking (r=-.22, p<.05). Frequency of video game play was negatively correlated with length of exercising (r=-.21, p<.05). Years of video game play was negatively correlated with length of exercise (r=-.21, p<.05). These results were stronger among those who play online games. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that video game use predicted BMI, accounting for 6.9% of the variance. The implications of the results are discussed. PMID:19665099

  4. Antifertility activity of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Ayodeji F; Akhigbe, Roland E

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complementary medicine has grown over time with more botanicals emerging and remaining integral parts of medicare. Such botanicals include Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. AIM: This study investigated the effect of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract on male reproductive system using rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Control and treated rats were maintained on control diet. Treated rats also received graded doses of the extract. RESULTS: When compared with the controls, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta treatment led to significant testosterone suppression associated with consequent significant rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) and decrease in sperm count. Treatment with Cryptolepis sanguinolenta did not result in significant attenuation of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and testicular morphometry. Sperm viability, motility, and morphology were also comparable in all groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta possesses anti-androgenic and anti-spermatogenic properties with potential anti-aphrodisiac activity. PMID:22870014

  5. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity. PMID:27536016

  6. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-03-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity. PMID:27536016

  7. Effect of reproductive status on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and reactivity in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    PubMed

    Harris, Breanna N; Saltzman, Wendy

    2013-03-15

    Previous studies indicate that reproductive condition can alter stress response and glucocorticoid release. Although the functional significance of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation by breeding condition is not fully understood, one possible explanation is the behavior hypothesis, which states that an animal's need to express parental behavior may be driving modulation of the HPA axis. This possibility is consistent with findings of blunted activity and reactivity of the HPA axis in lactating female mammals; however, effects of reproductive status on HPA function have not been well characterized in male mammals that express parental behavior. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in the monogamous and biparental California mouse. Several aspects of HPA activity were compared in males from three reproductive conditions: virgin males (housed with another male), non-breeding males (housed with a tubally ligated female), and first-time fathers (housed with a female and their first litter of pups). In light of the behavior hypothesis we predicted that new fathers would differ from virgin and non-breeding males in several aspects of HPA function and corticosterone (CORT) output: decreased amplitude of the diurnal rhythm in CORT, a blunted CORT increase following predator-odor stress, increased sensitivity to glucocorticoid negative feedback, and/or a blunted CORT response to pharmacological stimulation. In addition, we predicted that first-time fathers would be more resistant to CORT-induced suppression of testosterone secretion, as testosterone is important for paternal behavior in this species. We found that virgin males, non-breeding males and first-time fathers did not display any CORT differences in diurnal rhythm, response to a predator-odor stressor, or response to pharmacological suppression or stimulation. Additionally, there were no differences in circulating testosterone concentrations. Adrenal mass was, however, significantly lower in new

  8. Scheduled daily mating induces circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Opiol, Hanna; Marchant, Elliott G; Pavlovski, Ilya; Mear, Rhiannon J; Hamson, Dwayne K; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2012-01-01

    Daily schedules of limited access to food, palatable high calorie snacks, water and salt can induce circadian rhythms of anticipatory locomotor activity in rats and mice. All of these stimuli are rewarding, but whether anticipation can be induced by neural correlates of reward independent of metabolic perturbations associated with manipulations of food and hydration is unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether mating, a non-ingestive behavior that is potently rewarding, can induce circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in male rats provided scheduled daily access to steroid-primed estrous female rats. In Experiment 1, rats anticipated access to estrous females in the mid-light period, but also exhibited post-coital eating and running. In Experiment 2, post-coital eating and running were prevented and only a minority of rats exhibited anticipation. Rats allowed to see and smell estrous females showed no anticipation. In both experiments, all rats exhibited sustained behavioral arousal and multiple mounts and intromissions during every session, but ejaculated only every 2-3 days. In Experiment 3, the rats were given more time with individual females, late at night for 28 days, and then in the midday for 28 days. Ejaculation rates increased and anticipation was robust to night sessions and significant although weaker to day sessions. The anticipation rhythm persisted during 3 days of constant dark without mating. During anticipation of nocturnal mating, the rats exhibited a significant preference for a tube to the mating cage over a tube to a locked cage with mating cage litter. This apparent place preference was absent during anticipation of midday mating, which may reflect a daily rhythm of sexual reward. The results establish mating as a reward stimulus capable of inducing circadian rhythms of anticipatory behavior in the male rat, and reveal a critical role for ejaculation, a modulatory role for time of day, and a potential confound role for

  9. Antiperoxidative Activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum Leaf Extract in Reproductive Organs of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akomolafe, Seun Funmilola; Akindahunsi, Afolabi Akintunde; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg.) Hutch. & Dalz is one of the many medicinal plants used in folklore as male fertility enhancers. This research was aimed at evaluating the anti-peroxidative activity of the leaves of this plant by determining their capacity to reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) level in reproductive organs and accessory glands of rats. Adult male rats were administered orally with the aqueous leaf extract from T. conophorum at 50, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 21 consecutive days while clomiphene citrate (1.04 mg/kg body weight), a fertility drug was used as standard. The results of the study indicated that there was increase in relative organ weight, body weight, mean total food and water consumed by the treated groups. Testicular MDA level was highly significantly different from that of the control (p < 0.0001) although a tentatively decreased MDA level was observed. However, MDA levels in the reproductive accessory glands, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland were insignificantly (p < 0.05) lower than those of controls. The highest percentage decrease of MDA level (66.35, 42.68, 62.50 and 63.36%) was observed at the highest concentration of the extract (1000 mg/kg) in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland respectively. These values were two-fold greater than the values obtained for the standard drug. Interestingly, the treatment of rats with the extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the levels of GSH, vitamin C and total protein. Collectively, the results suggest that the extract from T. conophorum leaves had greater capacity to reduce lipid peroxidation in reproductive organs and accessory glands and thus, this plant may be useful in the treatment/management of reproductive cellular damage involving reactive oxygen species. PMID:26064173

  10. Reduced activity of ATP synthase in mitochondria causes cytoplasmic male sterility in chili pepper.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjie; Pandeya, Devendra; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Liu, Wing Yee; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2013-04-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait characterized by the inability to produce functional pollen. The CMS-associated protein Orf507 (reported as Orf456 in previous researches) was previously identified as a candidate gene for mediating male sterility in pepper. Here, we performed yeast two-hybrid analysis to screen for interacting proteins, and found that the ATP synthase 6 kDa subunit containing a mitochondrial signal peptide (MtATP6) specifically interacted with Orf507. In addition, the two proteins were found to be interacted in vivo using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays. Further functional characterization of Orf507 revealed that the encoded protein is toxic to bacterial cells. Analysis of tissue-specific expression of ATP synthase 6 kDa showed that the transcription level was much lower in anthers of the CMS line than in their wild type counterparts. In CMS plants, ATP synthase activity and content were reduced by more than half compared to that of the normal plants. Taken together, it can be concluded that reduced ATP synthase activity and ATP content might have affected pollen development in CMS plants. Here, we hypothesize that Orf507 might cause MtATP6 to be nonfunctional by changing the latter's conformation or producing an inhibitor that prevents the normal functioning of MtATP6. Thus, further functional analysis of mitochondrial Orf507 will provide insights into the mechanisms underlying CMS in plants. PMID:23274393

  11. Scheduled daily mating induces circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Opiol, Hanna; Marchant, Elliott G; Pavlovski, Ilya; Mear, Rhiannon J; Hamson, Dwayne K; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2012-01-01

    Daily schedules of limited access to food, palatable high calorie snacks, water and salt can induce circadian rhythms of anticipatory locomotor activity in rats and mice. All of these stimuli are rewarding, but whether anticipation can be induced by neural correlates of reward independent of metabolic perturbations associated with manipulations of food and hydration is unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether mating, a non-ingestive behavior that is potently rewarding, can induce circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in male rats provided scheduled daily access to steroid-primed estrous female rats. In Experiment 1, rats anticipated access to estrous females in the mid-light period, but also exhibited post-coital eating and running. In Experiment 2, post-coital eating and running were prevented and only a minority of rats exhibited anticipation. Rats allowed to see and smell estrous females showed no anticipation. In both experiments, all rats exhibited sustained behavioral arousal and multiple mounts and intromissions during every session, but ejaculated only every 2-3 days. In Experiment 3, the rats were given more time with individual females, late at night for 28 days, and then in the midday for 28 days. Ejaculation rates increased and anticipation was robust to night sessions and significant although weaker to day sessions. The anticipation rhythm persisted during 3 days of constant dark without mating. During anticipation of nocturnal mating, the rats exhibited a significant preference for a tube to the mating cage over a tube to a locked cage with mating cage litter. This apparent place preference was absent during anticipation of midday mating, which may reflect a daily rhythm of sexual reward. The results establish mating as a reward stimulus capable of inducing circadian rhythms of anticipatory behavior in the male rat, and reveal a critical role for ejaculation, a modulatory role for time of day, and a potential confound role for

  12. Differential Effect of γ-radiation-induced Heme Oxygenase-1 Activity in Female and Male C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Youngsoo; Platonov, Alexander; Akhalaia, Medea; Yun, Yeon-Sook

    2005-01-01

    Ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species, which exert diverse biological effects on cells and animals. We investigated alterations of heme oxygenase (HO) and non-protein thiols (NPSH), which are known as two major anti-oxidant enzymes, in female and male C57BL/6 mice in the lung, liver, and brain after whole-body γ-irradiation with 10 Gy (1-7 days) as well as in the lung after whole-thorax γ-irradiation (WTI) with 12.5 Gy (1-26 weeks). Most significant alteration of HO activity was observed in the liver, which elevated 250% in males. NPSH level in female liver was increased on the 5th-7th days but decreased in males on the 3rd day. In the lung, the elevation of HO activity in both sexes and the pattern of NPSH change were similar to that of the liver. On the other hand, the increase of HO activity on the 16th week and the decrease of NPSH level on the 2nd week were observed only in male lung after WTI. This study shows that the liver is the most sensitive tissue to γ-irradiation-induced alterations of HO activity in both female and male mice. In addition, there exists significant differential effect of γ-irradiation on anti-oxidant system in female and male mice. PMID:16100440

  13. Protein intake and nitrogen balance in male non-active adolescents and soccer players.

    PubMed

    Boisseau, N; Le Creff, C; Loyens, M; Poortmans, J R

    2002-12-01

    Recommendations for the requirements for protein intake amount usually to 0.8-1.0 g x kg(-1) body mass x day(-1) in adolescents without any reference to the undertaking of acute exercise or to the training status. The present investigation intended to determine the nitrogen balance and protein intake in 8 healthy male non-active adolescents and 11 adolescent soccer players, both groups aged about 15 years. An assessment of nutrient intake was obtained by analysing 7 day food records collected by a questionnaire. Nitrogen excretion rate was determined and nitrogen balance was calculated from the mean daily protein intake and the urinary excretion. The results showed that the nutritional status of the two groups was similar. Nevertheless, we found that their diets were quite inappropriate in terms of the intakes of carbohydrate, some minerals (zinc, calcium, magnesium), vitamins (A, B6, D) and fibre. A positive nitrogen balance was observed from a mean protein intake of 1.57 g x kg(-1) body mass x day(-1) in these adolescents, whether they were non-active or athletes. Thus, the present investigation indicated that the growth and development in non-active adolescents and in adolescent soccer-players give rise to a need for a higher protein intake than is usually recommended. However, the higher protein requirements did not seem to be related only to the increased energy expenditure imposed by the exercise training in the soccer-player group.

  14. Continuous Melatonin Attenuates the Regressing Activities of Short Photoperiod in Male Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Donchan

    2013-01-01

    Golden hamsters reproduce in a limited time of a year. Their sexual activities are active in summer but inactive in winter during which day length does not exceed night time and environmental conditions are severe to them. The reproductive activities are determined by the length of light in a day (photoperiod). Melatonin is synthesized and secreted only at night time from the pineal gland. Duration of elevated melatonin is longer in winter than summer, resulting in gonadal regression. The present study aimed at the influences of continuous melatonin treatments impinging on the gonadal function in male golden hamsters. Animals received empty or melatonin-filled capsules for 10 weeks. They were divided into long photoperiod (LP) and short photoperiod (SP). All the animals maintained in LP (either empty or melatonin-filled capsules) showed large testes, implying that melatonin had no effects on testicular functions. Animals housed in SP displayed completely regressed testes. But animals kept in SP and implanted with melatonin capsules exhibited blockage of full regression by SP. These results suggest that constant release of melatonin prohibits the regressing influence of SP. PMID:25949127

  15. Leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness of male adolescents in Oman.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Selina; Al-Shamli, Ali Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness, body fat percentage, flexibility, muscle strength, and endurance) of 10th-grade male students in Oman. Data were collected from 330 students. All participants completed a descriptive questionnaire, a 1 mile walk/run test; a skinfold analysis of the chest, abdomen, and thigh; a sit and reach test; a hand grip test; and a 1-minute sit-up test. Students spent an average of 19.20 ± 6.77 hours on sedentary activities, 3.46 ± 2.11 hours on sports activities, and 11.22 ± 9.24 hours working per week. The students had an average body fat percentage of 6.38% ± 4.67%, muscle strength 38.04 ± 7.55 kg, flexibility 38.01 ± 7.41 cm, abdominal muscle endurance 38.85 ± 8.15 times/min, and cardiovascular endurance 8.10 ± 1.65 minutes.

  16. The effects of nutrition and physical activity on bone development in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Muhsin; Derman, Orhan; Oksüz-Kanbur, Nuray; Akgül, Sinem; Kutluk, Tezer

    2009-01-01

    Peak bone mass (PBM) is defined as the highest bone mineral content (BMC) reached in any period of a person's life. The bone mass once gained at the peak begins to decline and continues to do so until the end of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of nutrition and physical activity on bone mineralization during the adolescent period. The study took place at Hacettepe University Ihsan Doğramaci Children's Hospital Adolescent Unit. One hundred fourteen healthy male adolescents applying for different reasons, with ages ranging between 11.1 and 16.5 years, participated in the study. When all adolescents were evaluated, no statistical relationship between the daily calcium intake, BMC and bone mineral density (BMD) was obtained. However, a positive statistical relationship was found for those participants in Tanner stage I. This result is in support of previous studies stating the importance of calcium intake and bone mineralization in the prepubertal stage, suggested by our findings, which yielded a positive correlation only in the prepubertal stage. One of the reasons for the same effect not being observed in puberty is thought to be due to the hormonal changes and active role of sex steroids. This shows how critical the prepubertal period is for future bone health. During this critical period of prepuberty, the significance of nutritions and physical activity is evident.

  17. Context-dependent effects of Y chromosome and mitochondrial haplotype on male locomotive activity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Dean, R; Lemos, B; Dowling, D K

    2015-10-01

    Some regions of the genome exhibit sexual asymmetries in inheritance and are thus subjected to sex-biased evolutionary forces. Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) enables mtDNA mutations harmful to males, but not females, to accumulate. In the face of male-harmful mtDNA mutation accumulation, selection will favour the evolution of compensatory modifiers in the nuclear genome that offset fitness losses to males. The Y chromosome is a candidate to host these modifiers, because it is paternally inherited, known to harbour an abundance of genetic variation for male fertility, and therefore likely to be under strong selection to uphold male viability. Here, we test for intergenomic interactions involving mtDNA and Y chromosomes in male Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, we examine effects of each of these genomic regions, and their interaction, on locomotive activity, across different environmental contexts--both dietary and social. We found that both the mtDNA haplotype and Y chromosome haplotype affected activity in males assayed in an environment perceived as social. These effects, however, were not evident in males assayed in perceived solitary environments, and neither social nor solitary treatments revealed evidence for intergenomic interactions. Finally, the magnitude and direction of these genetic effects was further contingent on the diet treatment of the males. Thus, genes within the mtDNA and Y chromosome are involved in genotype-by-environment interactions. These interactions might contribute to the maintenance of genetic variation within these asymmetrically inherited gene regions and complicate the dynamics of genetic interactions between the mtDNA and the Y chromosome.

  18. Increasing brain angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity decreases anxiety-like behavior in male mice by activating central Mas receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; de Kloet, Annette D; Pati, Dipanwita; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Pioquinto, David J; Ludin, Jacob A; Oh, S Paul; Katovich, Michael J; Frazier, Charles J; Raizada, Mohan K; Krause, Eric G

    2016-06-01

    Over-activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibits RAS activity by converting angiotensin-II, the effector peptide of RAS, to angiotensin-(1-7), which activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Whether increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety by stimulating central MasR is unknown. To test the hypothesis that increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety-like behavior via central MasR stimulation, we generated male mice overexpressing ACE2 (ACE2 KI mice) and wild type littermate controls (WT). ACE2 KI mice explored the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) significantly more than WT, suggesting increasing ACE2 activity is anxiolytic. Central delivery of diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, to C57BL/6 mice also reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, but centrally administering ACE2 KI mice A-779, a MasR antagonist, abolished their anxiolytic phenotype, suggesting that ACE2 reduces anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR. To identify the brain circuits mediating these effects, we measured Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, subsequent to EPM exposure and found that ACE2 KI mice had decreased Fos in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis but had increased Fos in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Within the BLA, we determined that ∼62% of GABAergic neurons contained MasR mRNA and expression of MasR mRNA was upregulated by ACE2 overexpression, suggesting that ACE2 may influence GABA neurotransmission within the BLA via MasR activation. Indeed, ACE2 overexpression was associated with increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (indicative of presynaptic release of GABA) onto BLA pyramidal neurons and central infusion of A-779 eliminated this effect. Collectively, these results suggest that ACE2 may reduce anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR that facilitate GABA release onto pyramidal neurons within the

  19. Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on upper respiratory illness in active males.

    PubMed

    Jones, Arwel W; Cameron, Simon J S; Thatcher, Rhys; Beecroft, Marikka S; Mur, Luis A J; Davison, Glen

    2014-07-01

    Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction and increased risk of upper respiratory illness (URI) in athletic populations, however, the mechanisms remain unclear. During winter months, under double-blind procedures, 53 males (mean training load±SD, 50.5±28.9 MET-hweek(-1)) were randomized to daily supplementation of 20g of COL (N=25) or an isoenergetic/isomacronutrient placebo (PLA) (N=28) for 12weeks. Venous blood was collected at baseline and at 12weeks and unstimulated saliva samples at 4 weeks intervals. There was a significantly lower proportion of URI days and number of URI episodes with COL compared to PLA over the 12weeks (p<0.05). There was no effect of COL on in vitro neutrophil oxidative burst, salivary secretory IgA or salivary antimicrobial peptides (p>0.05), which does not support previously suggested mechanisms. In a subset of participants (COL=14, PLA=17), real-time quantitative PCR, targeting the 16S rRNA gene showed there was an increase in salivary bacterial load over the 12 weeks period with PLA (p<0.05) which was not as evident with COL. Discriminant function analysis of outputs received from serum metabolomics showed changes across time but not between groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that COL limits the increased salivary bacterial load in physically active males during the winter months which may provide a novel mechanism of immune-modulation with COL and a relevant marker of in vivo (innate) immunity and risk of URI. PMID:24200515

  20. Early Life Manipulations of the Nonapeptide System Alter Pair Maintenance Behaviors and Neural Activity in Adult Male Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Nicole M.; Tomaszycki, Michelle L.; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Adult zebra finches (T. guttata) form socially monogamous pair bonds characterized by proximity, vocal communication, and contact behaviors. In this experiment, we tested whether manipulations of the nonapeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homolog of vasopressin) and the V1a receptor (V1aR) early in life altered species-typical pairing behavior in adult zebra finches of both sexes. Although there was no effect of treatment on the tendency to pair in either sex, males in different treatments exhibited profoundly different profiles of pair maintenance behavior. Following a brief separation, AVT-treated males were highly affiliative with their female partner but sang very little compared to Controls. In contrast, males treated with a V1aR antagonist sang significantly less than Controls, but did not differ in affiliation. These effects on behavior in males were also reflected in changes in the expression of V1aR and immediate early gene activity in three brain regions known to be involved in pairing behavior in birds: the medial amygdala, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. AVT males had higher V1aR expression in the medial amygdala than both Control and antagonist-treated males and immediate early gene activity of V1aR neurons in the medial amygdala was positively correlated with affiliation. Antagonist treated males showed decreased activity in the medial amygdala. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the activity of V1aR cells in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and singing. Treatment also affected the expression of V1aR and activity in the lateral septum, but this was not correlated with any behaviors measured. These results provide evidence that AVT and V1aR play developmental roles in specific pair maintenance behaviors and the neural substrate underlying these behaviors in a bird. PMID:27065824

  1. Early Life Manipulations of the Nonapeptide System Alter Pair Maintenance Behaviors and Neural Activity in Adult Male Zebra Finches.

    PubMed

    Baran, Nicole M; Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Adult zebra finches (T. guttata) form socially monogamous pair bonds characterized by proximity, vocal communication, and contact behaviors. In this experiment, we tested whether manipulations of the nonapeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homolog of vasopressin) and the V1a receptor (V1aR) early in life altered species-typical pairing behavior in adult zebra finches of both sexes. Although there was no effect of treatment on the tendency to pair in either sex, males in different treatments exhibited profoundly different profiles of pair maintenance behavior. Following a brief separation, AVT-treated males were highly affiliative with their female partner but sang very little compared to Controls. In contrast, males treated with a V1aR antagonist sang significantly less than Controls, but did not differ in affiliation. These effects on behavior in males were also reflected in changes in the expression of V1aR and immediate early gene activity in three brain regions known to be involved in pairing behavior in birds: the medial amygdala, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. AVT males had higher V1aR expression in the medial amygdala than both Control and antagonist-treated males and immediate early gene activity of V1aR neurons in the medial amygdala was positively correlated with affiliation. Antagonist treated males showed decreased activity in the medial amygdala. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the activity of V1aR cells in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and singing. Treatment also affected the expression of V1aR and activity in the lateral septum, but this was not correlated with any behaviors measured. These results provide evidence that AVT and V1aR play developmental roles in specific pair maintenance behaviors and the neural substrate underlying these behaviors in a bird. PMID:27065824

  2. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats.

  3. Carbachol-Induced Reduction in the Activity of Adult Male Zebra Finch RA Projection Neurons.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei; Wang, Song-Hua; Li, Dong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic mechanism is involved in motor behavior. In songbirds, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a song premotor nucleus in the pallium and receives cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain. The activity of projection neurons in RA determines song motor behavior. Although many evidences suggest that cholinergic system is implicated in song production, the cholinergic modulation of RA is not clear until now. In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of carbachol, a nonselective cholinergic receptor agonist, were investigated on the RA projection neurons of adult male zebra finches through whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in vitro. Our results show that carbachol produced a significant decrease in the spontaneous and evoked action potential (AP) firing frequency of RA projection neurons, accompanying a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, an increase in the evoked AP latency, afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak amplitude, and AHP time to peak, and a decrease in the membrane input resistance, membrane time constant, and membrane capacitance. These results indicate that carbachol reduces the activity of RA projection neurons by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential and increasing the AHP and the membrane conductance, suggesting that the cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production. PMID:26904300

  4. Plasma levels of corticosterone and testosterone after sexual activity in male rats treated neonatally with clomipramine.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Jaime, H; Retana-Márquez, S; Vazquez-Palacios, G; Velázquez-Moctezuma, J

    2003-07-01

    Neonatal treatment with clomipramine (CMI) in rats, induces alterations of pleasure-seeking behaviors during adulthood. Alterations of hormonal responses to stressful situations have also been reported. In this study, the levels of corticosterone and testosterone in response to sexual activity were assessed in rats treated neonatally with CMI. Male pups received subcutaneous injections of CMI (15 mg/kg, 0.1 ml), twice a day (09.00 hours and 18.00 hours) from 8 to 21 days of age. A control group received saline in the same number of injections. Four months after CMI treatment, subjects (Ss) were submitted to the forced swim test to verify the effect of CMI. Thereafter, they were tested to assess their spontaneous sexual activity. Plasma levels of corticosterone and testosterone were assessed under different conditions. Results of sexual behavior and the forced swim test corroborate the depressive-like effect of CMI. The sole presence of an estrogenized stimulus female caused an increase in plasma levels of testosterone in both control and CMI-treated Ss. The same was true for corticosterone; however, this increase was significantly lower in the CMI-treated group. There is a discrepancy between the normal hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) response and the decreased sexual behavior. The data suggest that CMI induces permanent changes in the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  5. Liquid phase adsorption of Crystal violet onto activated carbons derived from male flowers of coconut tree.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaar, S; Kalaamani, P; Subburaam, C V

    2006-08-25

    Adsorption of Crystal violet, a basic dye onto phosphoric and sulphuric acid activated carbons (PAAC and SAAC), prepared from male flowers coconut tree has been investigated. Equilibrium data were successfully applied to study the kinetics and mechanism of adsorption of dye onto both the carbons. The kinetics of adsorption was found to be pseudo second order with regard to intraparticle diffusion. The pseudo second order is further supported by the Elovich model, which in turn intensifies the fact of chemisorption of dye onto both the carbons. Quantitative removal of dye at higher initial pH of dye solution reveals the basic nature of the Crystal violet and acidic nature of the activated carbons. Influence of temperature on the removal of dye from aqueous solution shows the feasibility of adsorption and its endothermic nature. Mass transfer studies were also carried out. The adsorption capacities of both the carbons were found to be 60.42 and 85.84 mg/g for PAAC and SAAC, respectively. Langmuir's isotherm data were used to design single-stage batch adsorption model.

  6. Effects of copper metabolism on neurological functions in Wistar and Wilson's disease model rats.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Noriko; Iso, Hiroyuki; Kitanaka, Nobue; Kitanaka, Junichi; Eguchi, Hironobu; Ookawara, Tomomi; Ozawa, Keiichiro; Shimoda, Shigero; Yoshihara, Daisaku; Takemura, Motohiko; Suzuki, Keiichiro

    2006-10-27

    Behavioral functions of Wistar and Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, Wilson's disease animal model, were compared by measuring the open-field, acoustic startle reflex and prepulse inhibition (PPI), and shuttle-box avoidance learning tests with or without oral supplementation with copper or D-penicillamine, copper chelator. All of the LEC rats, irrespective of the treatment, exhibited higher locomotor activity, a decreased habituation to startle response or a lower PPI, compared with Wistar rats. The copper content of all brain regions examined, except for the medulla oblongata of LEC rats, was significantly lower than those in Wistar rats. Besides, in the region of the striatum and the nucleus accumbens of the LEC rats, lower content of norepinephrine, and higher content of dopamine and serotonin were observed compared with Wistar rats. Although copper supplementation did not affect the brain copper content, it reduced the PPI in both Wistar and LEC rats. In contrast, D-penicillamine supplementation decreased both the brain copper content and locomotor activity, and enhanced the startle amplitude only in Wistar rats. These findings suggest that an imbalance in copper homeostasis affects monoamine metabolism and behavioral functions.

  7. Biochemical effects of vepacide (from Azadirachta indica) on Wistar rats during subchronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Siddiqui, M K J

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the effect of Vepacide (from Azadirachta indica), a neem-based pesticide, on acid (AcP) and alkaline (AkP) phosphatase in different tissues of male and female albino Wistar rats. Subchronic doses of Vepacide in coconut oil (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg; maximum volume of 0.2 mL) were administered orally for 45 or 90 days. The administration of Vepacide resulted in a significant increase in AcP and AkP in serum, kidney, lung, and liver tissue (AkP only in liver), whereas a significant decrease of AcP in liver was observed in male and female rats after 45 and 90 days of treatment with moderate and high doses. The alterations in serum, liver, kidney, and lung tissues of both male and female rats caused by this compound were statistically significant, and the changes were also dose and time dependent. The alterations in male rats were not statistically significant when compared with female rats, indicating that there were no sexual differences. The withdrawal study (28 days post-treatment) revealed significant recovery, indicating reversal of the toxic symptoms once the toxicant was removed. There was a high degree of positive correlation between results for serum as compared to those for kidney, lung, and liver (AkP only for liver). However, there was a high negative correlation between AcP results for serum as compared with those for liver. The alterations in these enzymes indicated that lung tissue was the most susceptible, followed by liver and kidney. AcP and AkP are marker enzymes, and their increase in serum, with parallel increases in different tissues, might be due to the increased permeability of plasma membranes. The decrease in liver AcP may be due to the necrosis of cellular tissues. The changes observed in these enzyme activities could be useful as biomarkers of exposure to Vepacide. PMID:15388273

  8. Hepatic injury induces contrasting response in liver and kidney to chemicals that are metabolically activated: Role of male sex hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young C. Yim, Hye K.; Jung, Young S.; Park, Jae H.; Kim, Sung Y.

    2007-08-15

    Injury to liver, resulting in loss of its normal physiological/biochemical functions, may adversely affect a secondary organ. We examined the response of the liver and kidney to chemical substances that require metabolic activation for their toxicities in mice with a preceding liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride treatment 24 h prior to a challenging dose of carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen decreased the resulting hepatotoxicity both in male and female mice as determined by histopathological examination and increases in serum enzyme activities. In contrast, the renal toxicity of the challenging toxicants was elevated markedly in male, but not in female mice. Partial hepatectomy also induced similar changes in the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of a challenging toxicant, suggesting that the contrasting response of male liver and kidney was associated with the reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride pretreatment or partial hepatectomy decreased the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in both sexes but elevated the renal p-nitrophenol hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities significantly only in male mice. Increases in Cyp2e1 and Cyp2b expression were also evident in male kidney. Castration of males or testosterone administration to females diminished the sex-related differences in the renal response to an acute liver injury. The results indicate that reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity induced by liver injury may render secondary target organs susceptible to chemical substances activated in these organs. This effect may be sex-specific. It is also suggested that an integrated approach should be taken for proper assessment of chemical hazards.

  9. Role of sex hormones in hypercapnia-induced activation of the locus coeruleus in female and male rats.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, D; Marques, D A; Bernuci, M P; Leite, C M; Araújo-Lopes, R; Anselmo-Franci, J; Bícego, K C; Szawka, R E; Gargaglioni, L H

    2016-01-28

    The locus coeruleus (LC) has been suggested as a CO2 chemoreceptor site in mammals. Most of the studies involving the role of the LC in hypercapnic ventilatory responses have been performed in males. Since ovarian steroids modulate the activity of LC neurons and females have a different respiratory response to CO2 than males, we evaluated the activity of LC noradrenergic neurons during normocapnia and hypercapnia in female and male rats with distinct sex hormone levels. Ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-treated ovariectomized (OVX+E2) and female rats on the diestrous day of the estrous cycle were evaluated. Concurrently, males were investigated as gonad-intact, orchidectomized (ORX), testosterone (T)-treated ORX (ORX+T), and E2-treated ORX (ORX+E2). Activation of LC neurons was determined by double-label immunohistochemistry to c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Hypercapnia induced by 7% CO2 increased the number of c-Fos/TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the LC of all groups when compared to air exposure. Hypercapnia-induced c-Fos expression did not differ between diestrous females and intact male rats. In the OVX+E2 group, there was attenuation in the c-Fos expression during normocapnia compared with OVX rats, but CO2 responsiveness was not altered. Moreover, in ORX rats, neither T nor E2 treatments changed c-Fos expression in LC noradrenergic neurons. Thus, in female rats, E2 reduces activation of LC noradrenergic neurons, whereas in males, sex hormones do not influence the LC activity.

  10. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K.; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  11. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  12. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Nandy, Subhangkar; Senapati, Aswini Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group) for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future. PMID:24761115

  13. Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Jacques; Eustache, Florence; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie Chantal; Livera, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS) exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA) of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach) for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction. PMID:24369134

  14. Agonists-induced platelet activation varies considerably in healthy male individuals: studies by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Simon; Höcker, Lisa; Koren, Daniela

    2006-02-01

    Flow cytometric evaluation of platelet function extends our understanding of platelets' role in various clinical conditions associated with either bleeding disorders, thrombosis, or monitoring of antiplatelet therapy. The use of suboptimal concentrations of various agonists may allow assessing the "activatability" of platelets. We determined platelet responsiveness to thrombin-receptor-activating peptide-6, arachidonic acid, adenosine 5c-diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, collagen, and ristocetin at suboptimal concentrations by determination of P-selectin expression and binding of PAC-1 in 26 healthy male individuals. The response varied considerably from one individual to the next. However, within individuals, responses to all agonists except collagen correlated strongly (p<0.05), suggesting a global variability of platelet responses. Moreover, P-selectin expression and PAC-1 binding were strongly correlated (p<0.05). Interestingly, with epinephrine, PAC-1 positive events outnumbered P-selectin positive events, while this was not seen with the other agonists. Thus, epinephrine may specifically affect the conformational switch mechanism and receptor clustering. Our data indicate that the in vitro response to suboptimal concentrations of agonists varies, but individuals with selective platelet defects may still be identified based on data obtained with the various agonists. PMID:16283308

  15. Adrenergic and serotoninergic receptors mediate the immunological activation of corticosterone secretion in male rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, A L; Petraglia, F; Criscuolo, M; Ficarra, G; Salvestroni, C; Nappi, R E; Trentini, G P; Genazzani, A R

    1996-06-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of action of immune agents on corticosterone secretion, the present study evaluated the possible involvement of some neuronal pathways (serotoninergic, noradrenergic/adrenergic) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced corticosterone release in male rats. Serotoninergic antagonists, mianserin (5-HT2C receptor blocker) or pindolol (5HT1A receptor blocker) or noradrenergic/adrenergic antagonists, prazosin (alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker) or propranolol (beta-adrenoceptor blocker), were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected before (5 min) the administration of LPS. In each experiment a group of rats i.p. injected with vehicle served as controls. Animals were sacrificed by decapitation 90 min after administration of LPS and trunk blood was collected for corticosterone radioimmunoassay. Results showed that pretreatment with mianserin, but not with pindolol, significantly reduced plasma corticosterone levels following administration of LPS (p < 0.05); prazosin attenuated the plasma corticosterone response to LPS (p < 0.05), while propranolol did not induce significant change. The present study indicated that serotoninergic and noradrenergic/adrenergic pathways are involved in the immunoneuroendocrine modulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal function in rats. In particular, it is probably mediated by the activation of 5-HT2C receptors and of alpha 1-adrenoceptors, while type 1A serotonin receptors or beta-adrenoceptors do not seem to be involved in such a phenomenon.

  16. Influence of attitudes on the intention to use condoms in Quebec sexually active male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M N; Saucier, J F; Pica, L A

    1994-05-01

    The authors surveyed between April and June 1989, 1328 males from six secondary schools in grades 7-11 in Laval, Quebec, to determine the influence of attitudes and other variables on their intentions to use condoms. Findings are based upon survey feedback from the 433 students who reported being sexually active. Although they ranged in age from 12 to 19 years, 91.9% were aged 13-17. Laval is a mainly French-speaking middle-class white suburb immediately north of Montreal and is the second most populous city in the province of Quebec with a population of 314,398. Condom use at first intercourse was greatest among 14 year olds at 72.7%, compared to only 51.2% of 17 year olds. Older adolescents depended more upon their female partners' use of oral contraceptives. In younger adolescents, the intention to use condoms was significantly associated with supportive parental attitudes about sexuality and contraception. Information on condoms provided by parents, peers, schools, and the media had no positive effect upon subjects' intentions to use condoms. The young men seemed instead to be more affected by their personal attitudes about condoms. The authors suggest exposing young men to programs designed to prevent unwanted pregnancy, HIV infection, and other sexually transmitted diseases early in their lives. Parents should also be encouraged to take a greater role in sex education.

  17. Fenitrothion action at the endocannabinoid system leading to spermatotoxicity in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Yuki; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Suzuki, Himiko; Okamura, Ai; Ohtani, Katsumi; Nunome, Mari; Noro, Yuki; Wang, Dong; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2014-09-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds as anticholinesterase agents may secondarily act on diverse serine hydrolase targets, revealing unfavorable physiological effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation proposes that fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP compound) acts on the endocannabinoid signaling system in male reproductive organs, thereby leading to spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) in rats. FNT oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) preferentially inhibited the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) hydrolase, in the rat cellular membrane preparation from the testis in vitro. Subsequently, male Wistar rats were treated orally with 5 or 10 mg/kg FNT for 9 weeks and the subchronic exposure unambiguously deteriorated sperm motility and morphology. The activity-based protein profiling analysis with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated cellular membrane proteome in testis. Intriguingly, testicular AEA (endogenous substrate of FAAH) levels were elevated along with the FAAH inhibition caused by the subchronic exposure. More importantly, linear regression analyses for the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity reveal a good correlation between the testicular FAAH activity and morphological indices or sperm motility. Accordingly, the present study proposes that the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity appears to be related to inhibition of FAAH leading to overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays crucial roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. - Highlights: • Subchronic exposure to fenitrothion induces spermatotoxicity in rats. • The fatty acid amide hydrolase is a potential target for the spermatotoxicity. • Overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signal possibly leads to the spermatotoxicity.

  18. Cortisol administration increases hippocampal activation to infant crying in males depending on childhood neglect.

    PubMed

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Animal studies show that exposure to parental neglect alters stress regulation and can lead to neural hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity in response to cortisol, most pronounced in the hippocampus. Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has also been related to parenting more directly, for example, in both sexes, cortisol levels increase when listening to infants crying, possibly to activate and facilitate effective care behavior. Severe trauma is known to negatively affect the HPA-axis in humans; however, it is unknown whether normal variation in parental care in the healthy population can alter sensitivity of the hippocampus to cortisol. Here, we investigate whether variation in experienced neglect changes neural sensitivity to cortisol when humans listen to infant crying, which is an unequivocal signal relevant for care behavior. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject neuroimaging study, we administered 40 mg cortisol to 21 healthy young males without children and used a validated task for measuring neural responses to infant crying. The Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to index participants' early exposure to abuse and neglect. The data show that cortisol markedly increased hippocampal activation toward crying infants, and this effect varied significantly with parental neglect, even in our nonclinical subject sample. Without exposure to severe trauma or neglect, reduced self-experienced quality of parental care in the normal range already substantially increased hippocampal responsivity to cortisol. Altered hippocampal sensitivity to cortisol might be a cross-species marker for the risk of developing later life psychopathology. PMID:24757127

  19. Cortisol administration increases hippocampal activation to infant crying in males depending on childhood neglect.

    PubMed

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Animal studies show that exposure to parental neglect alters stress regulation and can lead to neural hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity in response to cortisol, most pronounced in the hippocampus. Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has also been related to parenting more directly, for example, in both sexes, cortisol levels increase when listening to infants crying, possibly to activate and facilitate effective care behavior. Severe trauma is known to negatively affect the HPA-axis in humans; however, it is unknown whether normal variation in parental care in the healthy population can alter sensitivity of the hippocampus to cortisol. Here, we investigate whether variation in experienced neglect changes neural sensitivity to cortisol when humans listen to infant crying, which is an unequivocal signal relevant for care behavior. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject neuroimaging study, we administered 40 mg cortisol to 21 healthy young males without children and used a validated task for measuring neural responses to infant crying. The Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to index participants' early exposure to abuse and neglect. The data show that cortisol markedly increased hippocampal activation toward crying infants, and this effect varied significantly with parental neglect, even in our nonclinical subject sample. Without exposure to severe trauma or neglect, reduced self-experienced quality of parental care in the normal range already substantially increased hippocampal responsivity to cortisol. Altered hippocampal sensitivity to cortisol might be a cross-species marker for the risk of developing later life psychopathology.

  20. Spontaneous malignant craniopharyngioma in an aged Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs, Martin; Ernst, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are extremely rare epithelial tumors of the sellar region in human beings and domestic and laboratory animals. A craniopharyngioma, 0.6 cm in diameter, was observed grossly in the sellar and parasellar regions of an untreated 23-month-old male Wistar-derived rat sacrificed moribund. The tumor was composed of cords, columns, and nests of neoplastic stratified squamous epithelium with marked hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. Neoplastic cells formed solid or cystic areas, infiltrating the base of the skull, brain, and pituitary gland. Immunocytochemical evaluation revealed a strong cytoplasmic reaction for pan-cytokeratin in all tumor cells. Malignant craniopharyngioma should be considered a differential diagnosis in the rat when a tumor with stratified squamous epithelial features and a locally aggressive growth pattern is observed in the sellar or suprasellar region. PMID:27559246

  1. Spontaneous malignant craniopharyngioma in an aged Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Martin; Ernst, Heinrich

    2016-07-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are extremely rare epithelial tumors of the sellar region in human beings and domestic and laboratory animals. A craniopharyngioma, 0.6 cm in diameter, was observed grossly in the sellar and parasellar regions of an untreated 23-month-old male Wistar-derived rat sacrificed moribund. The tumor was composed of cords, columns, and nests of neoplastic stratified squamous epithelium with marked hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. Neoplastic cells formed solid or cystic areas, infiltrating the base of the skull, brain, and pituitary gland. Immunocytochemical evaluation revealed a strong cytoplasmic reaction for pan-cytokeratin in all tumor cells. Malignant craniopharyngioma should be considered a differential diagnosis in the rat when a tumor with stratified squamous epithelial features and a locally aggressive growth pattern is observed in the sellar or suprasellar region. PMID:27559246

  2. Estimating the active space of male koala bellows: propagation of cues to size and identity in a Eucalyptus forest.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Reby, David; Ellis, William A H; Brumm, Jacqui; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Examining how increasing distance affects the information content of vocal signals is fundamental for determining the active space of a given species' vocal communication system. In the current study we played back male koala bellows in a Eucalyptus forest to determine the extent that individual classification of male koala bellows becomes less accurate over distance, and also to quantify how individually distinctive acoustic features of bellows and size-related information degrade over distance. Our results show that the formant frequencies of bellows derived from Linear Predictive Coding can be used to classify calls to male koalas over distances of 1-50 m. Further analysis revealed that the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing were the most stable acoustic features of male bellows as they propagated through the Eucalyptus canopy. Taken together these findings suggest that koalas could recognise known individuals at distances of up to 50 m and indicate that they should attend to variation in the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing when assessing the identity of callers. Furthermore, since the formant frequency spacing is also a cue to male body size in this species and its variation over distance remained very low compared to documented inter-individual variation, we suggest that male koalas would still be reliably classified as small, medium or large by receivers at distances of up to 150 m.

  3. Age effects on the social interaction test in early adulthood male rats.

    PubMed

    Garau, A; Martí, M A; Sala, J; Balada, F

    2000-01-01

    The effects of age on active and passive social interaction were studied in Wistar rats using the social interaction test (S.I.T.). Individual behaviors such as ambulation, rearing, and defecation were also studied. Despite the widespread use of the S.I.T. in anxiety research, the effects of age on the S.I.T. have not been studied thoroughly. Male Wistar rats of 75, 135, and 180 days old were used. Our results showed age effects on active social contact, passive social contact, ambulation, rearing, and defecation. At 135 days old, animals presented the lowest scores on active social behavior and the highest scores on defecation. Moreover, exploratory behavior measured by ambulation and rearing decreased with age. These results suggest that age could be a relevant variable in the social interaction test.

  4. Strain-dependent effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robert N; Hancock, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the possibility that acute caffeine's behavioral action might depend on rats' strain, effects of 50mg/kg of the drug were observed on activity, anxiety-related behavior and habituation learning in male and female rats from three different strains, namely PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar. All subjects were tested in an open field, an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box. For the three strains combined, increased occupancy of the center of the open field and entries of the open plus-maze arms with caffeine suggested caffeine-induced anxiolysis, whereas increased grooming in the open field, decreased rearing in the plus maze and increased risk assessment in the light-dark box were consistent with anxiogenesis. Caffeine also reduced open-field rearing only for PVG/c rats, and entries into and occupation of the light side of the light-dark box only for Long-Evans rats, and increased total defecation in the three types of apparatus for all three strains combined. Overall, caffeine appeared to be mainly anxiogenic. The drug also increased open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats and walking for all rats, but decreased open-field ambulation and entries into the plus maze closed arms for Wistar rats alone. In general, Wistar rats appeared to be the least and Long-Evans the most anxious of the three strains investigated. Caffeine also decreased within-session habituation of open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats alone, thereby suggesting strain-dependent interference with non-associative learning and short-term memory. Several overall sex differences were also observed that supported female rats being more active and less anxious than males.

  5. Strain-dependent effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robert N; Hancock, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the possibility that acute caffeine's behavioral action might depend on rats' strain, effects of 50mg/kg of the drug were observed on activity, anxiety-related behavior and habituation learning in male and female rats from three different strains, namely PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar. All subjects were tested in an open field, an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box. For the three strains combined, increased occupancy of the center of the open field and entries of the open plus-maze arms with caffeine suggested caffeine-induced anxiolysis, whereas increased grooming in the open field, decreased rearing in the plus maze and increased risk assessment in the light-dark box were consistent with anxiogenesis. Caffeine also reduced open-field rearing only for PVG/c rats, and entries into and occupation of the light side of the light-dark box only for Long-Evans rats, and increased total defecation in the three types of apparatus for all three strains combined. Overall, caffeine appeared to be mainly anxiogenic. The drug also increased open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats and walking for all rats, but decreased open-field ambulation and entries into the plus maze closed arms for Wistar rats alone. In general, Wistar rats appeared to be the least and Long-Evans the most anxious of the three strains investigated. Caffeine also decreased within-session habituation of open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats alone, thereby suggesting strain-dependent interference with non-associative learning and short-term memory. Several overall sex differences were also observed that supported female rats being more active and less anxious than males. PMID:26577750

  6. Short periods of prenatal stress affect growth, behaviour and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in male guinea pig offspring.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2005-08-01

    Prenatal stress can have profound long-term influences on physiological function throughout the course of life. We hypothesized that focused periods of moderate prenatal stress at discrete time points in late gestation have differential effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in adult guinea pig offspring, and that changes in HPA axis function will be associated with modification of anxiety-related behaviour. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light for 2 h on gestational days (GD) 50, 51, 52 (PS50) or 60, 61, 62 (PS60) (gestation length approximately 70 days). A control group was left undisturbed throughout pregnancy. Behaviour was assessed in male offspring on postnatal day (PND)25 and PND70 by measurement of ambulatory activity and thigmotaxis (wall-seeking behaviour) in a novel open field environment. Subsequent to behavioural testing, male offspring were cannulated (PND75) to evaluate basal and activated HPA axis function. Body weight was significantly decreased in adult PS50 and PS60 offspring and this effect was apparent soon after weaning. The brain-to-body-weight ratio was significantly increased in adult PS50 males. Basal plasma cortisol levels were elevated in PS50 male offspring throughout the 24 h sampling period compared with controls. In response to an ACTH challenge and to exposure to an acute stressor, PS60 male offspring exhibited elevated plasma cortisol responses. Plasma testosterone concentrations were strikingly decreased in PS50 offspring. Thigmotaxis in the novel environment was increased in PS50 male offspring at PND25 and PND70, suggesting increased anxiety in these animals. In conclusion, prenatal stress during critical windows of neuroendocrine development programs growth, HPA axis function, and stress-related behaviour in adult male guinea pig offspring. Further, the nature of the effect is dependant on the timing of the maternal stress during pregnancy.

  7. Effects of tai chi on pain and muscle activity in young males with acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Cho, YongHo

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was to examine the effects of tai chi on low back pain in young males. [Subjects and Methods] Forty males in their 20s with low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups. Tai chi was applied to one group, and stretching was applied to the other group. The subjects conducted exercise for one hour, three times per week for four weeks. They performed warm-up exercises for 10 min at the beginning and end of the sessions and conducted the main exercise for 40 minutes. Wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were employed to measure muscle activity and pain, respectively. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in pain and muscle activity. The tai chi group's VAS decreased from 3.1 to 2.1, and its muscle activity decreased from 21.5% maximum voluntary isomeric contraction (MVIC) to 16.4% MVIC. The stretching group's VAS decreased from 3.4 to 2.8, and its muscle activity decreased from 24.1% MVIC to 22.1% MVIC. [Conclusion] Tai chi is more effective for low back pain in males in their 20s than stretching. Tai chi can be considered an effective method to reduce low back pain in males in their 20s.

  8. Effects of Tai Chi on Pain and Muscle Activity in Young Males with Acute Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cho, YongHo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was to examine the effects of tai chi on low back pain in young males. [Subjects and Methods] Forty males in their 20s with low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups. Tai chi was applied to one group, and stretching was applied to the other group. The subjects conducted exercise for one hour, three times per week for four weeks. They performed warm-up exercises for 10 min at the beginning and end of the sessions and conducted the main exercise for 40 minutes. Wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were employed to measure muscle activity and pain, respectively. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in pain and muscle activity. The tai chi group’s VAS decreased from 3.1 to 2.1, and its muscle activity decreased from 21.5% maximum voluntary isomeric contraction (MVIC) to 16.4% MVIC. The stretching group’s VAS decreased from 3.4 to 2.8, and its muscle activity decreased from 24.1% MVIC to 22.1% MVIC. [Conclusion] Tai chi is more effective for low back pain in males in their 20s than stretching. Tai chi can be considered an effective method to reduce low back pain in males in their 20s. PMID:24926131

  9. Active Intervention Program Using Dietary Education and Exercise Training for Reducing Obesity in Mexican American Male Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…

  10. Effects of tai chi on pain and muscle activity in young males with acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Cho, YongHo

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was to examine the effects of tai chi on low back pain in young males. [Subjects and Methods] Forty males in their 20s with low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups. Tai chi was applied to one group, and stretching was applied to the other group. The subjects conducted exercise for one hour, three times per week for four weeks. They performed warm-up exercises for 10 min at the beginning and end of the sessions and conducted the main exercise for 40 minutes. Wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were employed to measure muscle activity and pain, respectively. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in pain and muscle activity. The tai chi group's VAS decreased from 3.1 to 2.1, and its muscle activity decreased from 21.5% maximum voluntary isomeric contraction (MVIC) to 16.4% MVIC. The stretching group's VAS decreased from 3.4 to 2.8, and its muscle activity decreased from 24.1% MVIC to 22.1% MVIC. [Conclusion] Tai chi is more effective for low back pain in males in their 20s than stretching. Tai chi can be considered an effective method to reduce low back pain in males in their 20s. PMID:24926131

  11. Simple Research Paradigm for Demonstrating Subliminal Pschodynamic Activation: Effects of Oedipal Stimuli on Dart-Throwing Accuracy in College Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Lloyd H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out in which "subliminal psychodynamic activation" effects, used for studying the relationship between psychopathology and unconscious conflict, were sought out from male college students. Results were discussed for their bearing on subliminal research and research in personality. (Editor/RK)

  12. Influence of habitual physical activity on gastric emptying in healthy males and relationships with body composition and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; Cleghorn, Geoffrey J; King, Neil A

    2015-08-14

    Although a number of studies have examined the role of gastric emptying (GE) in obesity, the influences of habitual physical activity level, body composition and energy expenditure (EE) on GE have received very little consideration. In the present study, we compared GE in active and inactive males, and characterised relationships with body composition (fat mass and fat-free mass) and EE. A total of forty-four males (active n 22, inactive n 22; BMI 21-36 kg/m2; percentage of fat mass 9-42%) were studied, with GE of a standardised (1676 kJ) pancake meal being assessed by the [13C]octanoic acid breath test, body composition by air displacement plethysmography, RMR by indirect calorimetry, and activity EE (AEE) by accelerometry. The results showed that GE was faster in active compared with inactive males (mean half-time (t 1/2): active 157 (sd 18) and inactive 179 (sd 21) min, P< 0.001). When data from both groups were pooled, GE t 1/2 was associated with percentage of fat mass (r 0.39, P< 0.01) and AEE (r - 0.46, P< 0.01). After controlling for habitual physical activity status, the association between AEE and GE remained, but not that for percentage of fat mass and GE. BMI and RMR were not associated with GE. In summary, faster GE is considered to be a marker of a habitually active lifestyle in males, and is associated with a higher AEE level and a lower percentage of fat mass. The possibility that GE contributes to a gross physiological regulation (or dysregulation) of food intake with physical activity level deserves further investigation.

  13. Male-specific tetraene and triene hydrocarbons ofCarpophilus hemipterus: Structure and pheromonal activity.

    PubMed

    Bartelt, R J; Weisleder, D; Dowd, P F; Plattner, R D

    1992-03-01

    Males ofCarpophilus hemipterus (L.), the dried-fruit beetle, (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) were found to emit nine all-E tetraene and one all-E triene hydrocarbons in addition to two pheromonally active tetraenes that had been reported previously. The previously known compounds are (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,5,7-trimethyl-2,4,6,8-decatetraene(1) and (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3, 5,7-trimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene(2). The new tetraenes were all related to structure1 by having one additional carbon at either one or two of the following four locations: at carbon 1 of the chain, at carbon 10 of the chain, at the 5-alkyl branch, or at the 7-alkyl branch. (Structure 2 also fits within this pattern.) The triene inC. hemipterus is (2E,4E,6E)-5-ethyl-3-methyl-2, 4,6-nonatriene. Also identified from volatile collections from the beetles were the 2Z and 4Z isomers of1. All structures were proven by synthesis, with NMR and mass spectral data for the compounds provided. Two of the newly discovered compounds, (2E,4E,6E,8E)-7-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6,8-decatetraene and (2E,4E,6E,8E)-7-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene, were quite active in the wind-tunnel bioassay, but others, such as (2E,4E,6E,8E)-5-ethyl-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6,8-decatetraene and (2E,4E,6E,8E)-4,6,8-trimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene were not. Structureactivity relationships are explored among the natural compounds and additional, synthetic analogs, which were never detected from the beetles. Some of these analogs, such as (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,5-dimethyl-7-propyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene, were quite active in the bioassay. The biosynthesis of the beetle-derived compounds is discussed. A single biosynthetic scheme that lacks complete enzyme specificity at four specific steps could account for the entire series of compounds found in the beetles and their relative proportions. The definition of "pheromone" is discussed in relation to these hydrocarbons. PMID:24254944

  14. Differential activity of stanniocalcin in male and female fresh water teleost Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede) during gonadal maturation.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sushant Kumar; Alim, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze the differences in the activity of hormone stanniocalcin (STC) between male and female fishes of Mastacembelus armatus during their gonadal cycle. A large variation in nuclear diameter of cells of corpuscles of Stannius (CS) were recorded in relation to testicular cycle as well as ovarian cycle which indicates that the cellular activity varied with different phases of reproductive cycle in both male and female fish. Similar changes in nuclear diameter of CS cells were also observed after 17alpha-methyltestosterone administration in males and 17 β-estradiol administrations in females. A positive correlation was observed between plasma STC levels, gonadosomatic index (GSI) and the sex steroids in both sexes, suggesting that STC has a role in the processes involved in gonadal development. In addition females showed remarkable changes in plasma calcium level during gonadal cycle while no such change for males were observed. In females the plasma calcium level estimated during different phases of reproductive cycle indicates positive correlation between plasma level of calcium and gonad growth. Thus hyperactivity of CS cells was noted in both male and female fishes during gonadal cycle along with the differences in the activity of STC as well. In female it may act as hypocalcemic factor and bring the level of calcium to normal which increases during preparatory and pre spawning phases to fulfill the increased demand of calcium for vitellogenesis. However data of male fishes indicated that plasma STC concentration varied widely during gonadal cycle but showed no consistent relationship to plasma calcium level. PMID:25003342

  15. Burnout Is Associated with Reduced Parasympathetic Activity and Reduced HPA Axis Responsiveness, Predominantly in Males

    PubMed Central

    de Vente, Wieke; van Amsterdam, Jan G. C.; Olff, Miranda; Kamphuis, Jan H.; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that burnout is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Stress-related dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis may explain the enhanced risk for CVD. To test this hypothesis, 55 patients (34 males and 21 females) with burnout on sickness absence and 40 healthy participants (16 males and 24 females) were exposed to a psychosocial stressor consisting of mental arithmetic and public speech. Physiological variables (i.e., blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, vascular resistance, cortisol, and alpha-amylase) were measured. Basal levels, reactivity, and recovery were compared between groups. In male patients, baseline systolic blood pressure was higher, whereas basal alpha-amylase and cortisol reactivity were lower than in healthy males. In female patients, a tendency for lower basal cortisol was found as compared to healthy females. Furthermore, reduced basal heart rate variability and a trend for elevated basal cardiac output were observed in both male and female patients. Burnout is characterised by dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system and the HPA axis, which was more pronounced in males than in females. This study further supports burnout as being a risk factor for CVD through dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system and the HPA axis. PMID:26557670

  16. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, Ronald W.; Hillman, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172 ± 4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312 ± 4513 kJ; p < 0.001) and evening (BK: 12265 ± 4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833 ± 4065; p = 0.039) energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90 ± 0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86 ± 0.03; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.025). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. PMID:27738523

  17. Increased affective ultrasonic communication during fear learning in adult male rats exposed to maternal immune activation.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nicole; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Fuchs, Eberhard; Wöhr, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Maternal exposure to infection during pregnancy greatly increases the risk of psychopathology in the offspring. In support of clinical findings, rodent models of maternal immune activation (MIA) show that prenatal exposure to pathogens can induce phenotypic changes in the offspring associated with schizophrenia, autism, depression and anxiety. In the current study, we investigated the effects of MIA via polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on emotional behavior and communication in rats. Pregnant rats were administered poly I:C or saline on gestation day 15 and male offspring were tested in an auditory fear conditioning paradigm in early adulthood. We found that prenatal poly I:C exposure significantly altered affective signaling, namely, the production of aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), in terms of call number, structure and temporal patterning. MIA led to an increase in aversive 22-kHz USVs to 300% of saline controls. Offspring exposed to MIA not only emitted more 22-kHz USVs, but also emitted calls that were shorter in duration and occurred in bouts containing more calls. The production of appetitive 50-kHz USVs and audible calls was not affected. Intriguingly, alterations in aversive 22-kHz USV emission were observed despite no obvious changes in overt defensive behavior, which highlights the importance of assessing USVs as an additional measure of fear. Aversive 22-kHz USVs are a prominent part of the rat's defensive behavioral repertoire and serve important communicative functions, most notably as alarm calls. The observed changes in aversive 22-kHz USVs show that MIA has long-term effects on emotional behavior and communication in exposed rat offspring.

  18. Alcohol and Other Risk Factors for Drowning among Male Active Duty U.S. Army Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nicole S.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Yore, Michelle M.; Senier, Laura; Williams, Jeffrey O.; Smith, Gordon S.; Theriault, Alexis

    2007-01-01

    Background Risk factors for drowning are largely undocumented among military populations. Hypothesis Accident report narratives will provide important information about the role of alcohol use and other behaviors in drownings among active duty male U.S. Army soldiers. Methods Using a case series design, we describe drowning deaths reported to the U.S. Army Safety Center (1980–1997), documenting associated demographic factors, alcohol use, and other risk-taking behaviors. Results Drowning victims (n = 352) were disproportionately young, black, and single, with less time-in-service, and no college experience. Most drownings occurred off-duty (89%). Alcohol use was involved in at least 31% of the cases overall. Alcohol use was also associated with a 10-fold increase in reckless behavior (OR 9.6, 95% CI 4.5–20.7) and was most common among drownings in Europe (OR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.5–13.4). Most drownings occurred where no lifeguard was present (68%), but almost two-thirds occurred in the presence of others, with CPR initiated in less than one-third of these cases. Drownings involving minority victims were less likely to involve alcohol, but more likely to occur in unauthorized swimming areas. While most drownings did not involve violations of safety rules, over one-third of the cases involved some form of reckless behavior, particularly for those under age 21. Conclusions Intervention programs should be tailored to meet the needs of the demographic subgroups at highest risk since behavioral risk factors vary by race and age. CPR training and skills maintenance can improve survival rates. Narrative data are important for developing hypotheses and understanding risk factors for injuries. PMID:11763109

  19. Juvenile hormone regulation of male accessory gland activity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, R.; Tan, A.; Sun, Z.; Chen, J.; Rainkin, M.; Palli, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Male accessory gland proteins (Acps) act as key modulators of reproductive success in insects by influencing the female reproductive physiology and behavior. We used custom microarrays and identified 112 genes that were highly expressed in male accessory glands (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Out of these 112 identified genes, 59 of them contained sequences coding for signal peptide and cleavage site and the remaining 53 contained transmembrane domains. The expression of 14 these genes in the MAG but not in other tissues of male or female was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In virgin males, juvenile hormone (JH) levels increased from second day post adult emergence (PAE), remained high on third day PAE and declined on fourth day PAE. The ecdysteroid titers were high soon after adult emergence but declined to minimal levels from 1-5 days PAE. Feeding of juvenile hormone analog, hydroprene, but not the ecdysteroid analog, RH-2485, showed an increase in size of MAGs, as well as an increase in total RNA and protein content of MAG. Hydroprene treatment also increased the expression Acp genes in the MAG. RNAi-mediated knock-down in the expression of JHAMT gene decreased the size of MAGs and expression of Acps. JH deficiency influenced male reproductive fitness as evidenced by a less vigor in mating behavior, poor sperm transfer, low egg and the progeny production by females mated with the JH deficient males. These data suggest a critical role for JH in the regulation of male reproduction especially through MAG secretions. PMID:19324087

  20. Sundarban Honey Confers Protection against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Nurul; Hossain, Md. Sabir; Alam, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly decreased in the hearts after ISO-induced myocardial infarction. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with Sundarban honey brought the biochemical parameters to near normalcy, indicating the protective effect of Sundarban honey against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings of the heart tissues further confirmed the biochemical findings, indicating that Sundarban honey confers protection against ISO-induced oxidative stress in the myocardium. PMID:27294126

  1. Modification of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea initiated bladder carcinogenesis in Wistar rats by terephthalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Lunbiao; Shi Yuan; Dai Guidong; Pan Hongxin; Chen Jianfeng; Song Ling; Wang Shouling; Chang, Hebron C.; Sheng Hongbing; Wang Xinru . E-mail: xrwang@njmu.edu.cn

    2006-01-15

    The effect of terephthalic acid (TPA) on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was examined. Male Wistar rats were initiated by injection of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea (MNU) (20 mg/kg b.w. ip) twice a week for 4 weeks, then given basal diet containing 5% TPA, 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) or 1% TPA for the next 22 weeks, and then euthanized. 5% TPA treatment induced a high incidence of urinary bladder calculi and a large amount of precipitate. Though 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and 1% TPA treatment did not induce urinary bladder calculi formation, they resulted in a moderate increase in urinary precipitate. Histological examination of urinary bladder revealed that MNU-5% TPA treatment resulted in a higher incidence of simple hyperplasia, papillary or nodular hyperplasia (PN hyperplasia), papilloma and cancer than MNU control. MNU-5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and 1% TPA treatment increased slightly the incidence of simple hyperplasia and PN hyperplasia (not statistically significant). The major elements of the precipitate are phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, chloride, calcium and TPA. The present study indicated that the calculi induced by TPA had a strong promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis and the precipitate containing calcium terephthalate (CaTPA) may also have weak promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

  2. Two Drosophila DEG/ENaC channel subunits have distinct functions in gustatory neurons that activate male courtship.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Starostina, Elena; Vijayan, Vinoy; Pikielny, Claudio W

    2012-08-22

    Trimeric sodium channels of the DEG/ENaC family have important roles in neurons, but the specific functions of different subunits present in heteromeric channels are poorly understood. We previously reported that the Drosophila DEG/ENaC subunit Ppk25 is essential in a small subset of gustatory neurons for activation of male courtship behavior, likely through detection of female pheromones. Here we show that, like mutations in ppk25, mutations in another Drosophila DEG/ENaC subunit gene, nope, specifically impair male courtship of females. nope regulatory sequences drive reporter gene expression in gustatory neurons of the labellum wings, and legs, including all gustatory neurons in which ppk25 function is required for male courtship of females. In addition, gustatory-specific knockdown of nope impairs male courtship. Further, the impaired courtship response of nope mutant males to females is rescued by targeted expression of nope in the subset of gustatory neurons in which ppk25 functions. However, nope and ppk25 have nonredundant functions, as targeted expression of ppk25 does not compensate for the lack of nope and vice versa. Moreover, Nope and Ppk25 form specific complexes when coexpressed in cultured cells. Together, these data indicate that the Nope and Ppk25 polypeptides have specific, nonredundant functions in a subset of gustatory neurons required for activation of male courtship in response to females, and suggest the hypothesis that Nope and Ppk25 function as subunits of a heteromeric DEG/ENaC channel required for gustatory detection of female pheromones. PMID:22915128

  3. Tongkat Ali as a potential herbal supplement for physically active male and female seniors--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ralf R; Wang, Ruxiang; Bassett, Susan H; Chen, Tao; Liu, Na; Zhu, Ying; Tambi, Mohd Ismail

    2014-04-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia; TA) is known to increase testosterone levels and alleviate aging males' symptoms. This study aimed at investigating TA as an ergogenic supplement for elderly people. Thirteen physically active male and 12 physically active female seniors (57-72 years) were supplemented with 400-mg TA extract daily for 5 weeks. Standard hematological parameters were taken. In addition, the concentrations of total and free testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed. As additional biochemical parameters, blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase as parameters of kidney function and muscle damage, respectively, as well as the muscle strength by a simple handgrip test were determined. After treatment, hemoglobin, testosterone, and dihydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and the ratio of total testosterone/cortisol and muscle force remained significantly lower in female seniors than in male seniors. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count in male seniors increased slightly but were significantly higher than in female seniors. Treatment resulted in significant increases in total and free testosterone concentrations and muscular force in men and women. The increase in free testosterone in women is thought to be due to the significant decline in sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. The study affirms the ergogenic benefit of TA through enhanced muscle strength. PMID:23754792

  4. Tongkat Ali as a potential herbal supplement for physically active male and female seniors--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ralf R; Wang, Ruxiang; Bassett, Susan H; Chen, Tao; Liu, Na; Zhu, Ying; Tambi, Mohd Ismail

    2014-04-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia; TA) is known to increase testosterone levels and alleviate aging males' symptoms. This study aimed at investigating TA as an ergogenic supplement for elderly people. Thirteen physically active male and 12 physically active female seniors (57-72 years) were supplemented with 400-mg TA extract daily for 5 weeks. Standard hematological parameters were taken. In addition, the concentrations of total and free testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed. As additional biochemical parameters, blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase as parameters of kidney function and muscle damage, respectively, as well as the muscle strength by a simple handgrip test were determined. After treatment, hemoglobin, testosterone, and dihydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and the ratio of total testosterone/cortisol and muscle force remained significantly lower in female seniors than in male seniors. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count in male seniors increased slightly but were significantly higher than in female seniors. Treatment resulted in significant increases in total and free testosterone concentrations and muscular force in men and women. The increase in free testosterone in women is thought to be due to the significant decline in sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. The study affirms the ergogenic benefit of TA through enhanced muscle strength.

  5. [ACTIVITY OF HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS OF PRENATALLY STRESSED MALE RATS IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF DEPRESSION].

    PubMed

    Ordyan, N E; Pivina, S G; Rakitskaya, V V; Akulova, V K

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity changes were examined in the adult, prenatally stressed male rats in the experimental depression model--the paradigm of "learned helplessness". It was shown that in males descending from intact mothers a depressive-like state was accompanied by an increase in HPA activity. The expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increases, coupled with a rise in plasma levels of ACTH and corticosterone as well as in adrenal weight. At the same time in males born from mothers stressed during the last week of pregnancy we observed a decrease in activity of both the central (hypothalamus) and the peripheral (adrenal cortex) parts of regulation of this hormonal axis similar to that revealed for these animals in our previous study in "stress-restress" paradigm. It is concluded that prenatal stress modifies the sensitivity of animals to the inescapable intense stress impact, which manifests itself in a specific pattern of the HPA axis activity after stress load. PMID:27220240

  6. The Persistence of Erroneous Familiarity in an Epileptic Male: Challenging Perceptual Theories of Deja Vu Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a 39-year-old, temporal lobe epileptic male, MH. Prior to complex partial seizure, experienced up to three times a day, MH often experiences an aura experienced as a persistent sensation of deja vu. Data-driven theories of deja vu formation suggest that partial familiarity for the perceived stimulus is responsible for the…

  7. Active vitamin D deficiency mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus results in male infertility in young mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiwei; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Rong; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-01-01

    We used mice with targeted deletion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 α-hydroxylase [1α(OH)ase(-/-)] to investigate whether 1,25(OH)2D3 deficiency results in male infertility mediated by 1,25(OH)2D3 or extracellular calcium and phosphorus. Male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) and their wild-type littermates fed either a normal diet or a rescue diet from weaning were mated at 6-14 wk of age with female wild-type mice on the same diet. The fertility efficiency of females was analyzed, and the reproductive phenotypes of males were evaluated by histopathological and molecular techniques. Hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice on a normal diet developed infertility characterized by hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, with downregulation of testicular calcium channels, lower intracellular calcium levels, decreased sperm count and motility, and histological abnormalities of the testes. The proliferation of spermatogenic cells was decreased with downregulation of cyclin E and CDK2 and upregulation of p53 and p21 expression, whereas apoptosis of spermatogenic cells was increased with upregulation of Bax and p-caspase 3 expression and downregulation of Bcl-xl expression. When serum calcium and phosphorus were normalized by the rescue diet, the defective reproductive phenotype in the male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice, including the hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, decreased sperm count and motility, histological abnormalities of testis, and defective spermatogenesis, was reversed. These results indicate that the infertility seen in male 1,25(OH)2D3-deficient mice is not a direct effect of active vitamin D deficiency on the reproductive system but is an indirect effect mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus.

  8. Toxicity assessment of nanosilver wound dressing in Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Mahdavi, Moujan; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Korani, Mitra; Amani, Amir; Ziarati, Parisa

    2013-05-07

    Antibiotic resistance to microorganisms is one of the major problems faced in the field of wound care in burns patients. Silver nanoparticles have come up as potent antimicrobial agent and are being evaluated in diverse medical applications ranging from silver based dressings to silver coated medical devices. We aimed in present study to test the release of nanosilver from nanosilver wound dressing and compare the dermal and systemic toxicity of nanosilver dressings in a repeated dose (21 days) model. Under general anesthesia, a limited standard 2nd degree burns were provided on the back of each rat in all treatment, negative control (simple dressing) and 5% silver nitrate groups, each contained 5 male wistar rats. According to the analysis made by atomic absorption spectrometry, the wound dressings released 0.599 ± 0.083 ppm of nanosilver during first 24 hrs of study. Daily observations were recoded and wounds were covered with new dressings each 24 hrs. Burn healing was observed in nanosilver wound dressing group in shorter time periods than the control groups. In toxicity assessment, this dressing didn't cause any hematological and histopathological abnormalities in treatment group but biochemical studies showed significant rise of plasma transaminase (ALT) at the endpoint (21 days) of the study (P=0.027). Portal mononuclear lymphoid and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltrations in three to four adjacent foci wer