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Sample records for activity measurements based

  1. Immobilised activated sludge based biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand measurement.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Björnsson, L; Mattiasson, B

    2000-02-01

    A biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor, based on an immobilised mixed culture of microorganisms in combination with a dissolved oxygen electrode, has been developed for the purpose of on-line monitoring of the biological treatment process for waste and wastewater. The sensor was designed for easy replacement of the biomembrane, thereby making it suitable for short-term use. The drawbacks of activated sludge based sensor, such as short sensor lifetime, were thereby circumvented. The sensor BOD measurements were carried out in the kinetic mode using a flow injection system, resulting in 25 s for one measurement followed by 4-8 min recovery time. Based on the results of normalised sensor responses, the OECD synthetic wastewater was considered to be a more suitable calibration solution in comparison with the GGA solution. Good agreement was achieved between the results of the sensor BOD measurement and those obtained from BOD5 analysis of a wastewater sample from a food-processing factory. Reproducibility of responses using one sensor was below +/- 5.6%, standard deviation. Reproducibility of responses using different sensors was within acceptable bias limits, viz. +/- 15% standard deviation.

  2. A molecular beacon assay for measuring base excision repair activities.

    PubMed

    Maksimenko, Andrei; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Sanz, Guenhaël; Laval, Jacques; Elder, Rhoderick H; Saparbaev, Murat K

    2004-06-18

    The base excision repair (BER) pathway plays a key role in protecting the genome from endogenous DNA damage. Current methods to measure BER activities are indirect and cumbersome. Here, we introduce a direct method to assay DNA excision repair that is suitable for automation and industrial use, based on the fluorescence quenching mechanism of molecular beacons. We designed a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide labelled with a 5'-fluorescein (F) and a 3'-Dabcyl (D) in which the fluorophore, F, is held in close proximity to the quencher, D, by the stem-loop structure design of the oligonucleotide. Following removal of the modified base or incision of the oligonucleotide, the fluorophore is separated from the quencher and fluorescence can be detected as a function of time. Several modified beacons have been used to validate the assay on both cell-free extracts and purified proteins. We have further developed the method to analyze BER in cultured cells. As described, the molecular beacon-based assay can be applied to all DNA modifications processed by DNA excision/incision repair pathways. Possible applications of the assay are discussed, including high-throughput real-time DNA repair measurements both in vitro and in living cells.

  3. Cell-based flow cytometry assay to measure cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Noto, Alessandra; Ngauv, Pearline; Trautmann, Lydie

    2013-12-17

    Cytolytic activity of CD8+ T cells is rarely evaluated. We describe here a new cell-based assay to measure the capacity of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells to kill CD4+ T cells loaded with their cognate peptide. Target CD4+ T cells are divided into two populations, labeled with two different concentrations of CFSE. One population is pulsed with the peptide of interest (CFSE-low) while the other remains un-pulsed (CFSE-high). Pulsed and un-pulsed CD4+ T cells are mixed at an equal ratio and incubated with an increasing number of purified CD8+ T cells. The specific killing of autologous target CD4+ T cells is analyzed by flow cytometry after coculture with CD8+ T cells containing the antigen-specific effector CD8+ T cells detected by peptide/MHCI tetramer staining. The specific lysis of target CD4+ T cells measured at different effector versus target ratios, allows for the calculation of lytic units, LU₃₀/10(6) cells. This simple and straightforward assay allows for the accurate measurement of the intrinsic capacity of CD8+ T cells to kill target CD4+ T cells.

  4. Measuring slope to improve energy expenditure estimates during field-based activities

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Glen E.; Lester, Jonathan; Migotsky, Sean; Higgins, Lisa; Borriello, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    This technical note describes methods to improve activity energy expenditure estimates using a multi-sensor board (MSB) by measuring slope. Ten adults walked over a 2.5-mile course wearing an MSB and mobile calorimeter. Energy expenditure was estimated using accelerometry alone (base) and four methods to measure slope. The barometer and GPS methods improved accuracy 11% from the base (Ps < 0.05) to 86% overall. Measuring slope using the MSB improves energy expenditure estimates during field-based activities. PMID:23537030

  5. Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kari, Jaana T.; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T.; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity. PMID:26317865

  6. Unobtrusive measurement of indoor energy expenditure using an infrared sensor-based activity monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bosun; Han, Jonghee; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an unobtrusive energy expenditure (EE) measurement system using an infrared (IR) sensor-based activity monitoring system to measure indoor activities and to estimate individual quantitative EE. IR-sensor activation counts were measured with a Bluetooth-based monitoring system and the standard EE was calculated using an established regression equation. Ten male subjects participated in the experiment and three different EE measurement systems (gas analyzer, accelerometer, IR sensor) were used simultaneously in order to determine the regression equation and evaluate the performance. As a standard measurement, oxygen consumption was simultaneously measured by a portable metabolic system (Metamax 3X, Cortex, Germany). A single room experiment was performed to develop a regression model of the standard EE measurement from the proposed IR sensor-based measurement system. In addition, correlation and regression analyses were done to compare the performance of the IR system with that of the Actigraph system. We determined that our proposed IR-based EE measurement system shows a similar correlation to the Actigraph system with the standard measurement system. PMID:19035796

  7. Measurement of the activity of an artificial neutrino source based on {sup 37}Ar

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, D. N.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Mirmov, I. N. Shikhin, A. A.; Yants, V. E.; Barsanov, V. I.; Dzhanelidze, A. A.; Zlokazov, S. B.; Markov, S. Yu.; Shakirov, Z. N.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2007-02-15

    The activity of an artificial neutrino source based on {sup 37}Ar was measured by a specially developed method of directly counting {sup 37}Ar decays in a proportional counter. This source was used to irradiate the target of the SAGE radiochemical gallium-germanium neutrino telescope at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow), whereupon the measurements were performed at the Institute of Reactor Materials (Zarechny, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia). The method used to prepare gaseous samples for measurements in proportional counters and the counting procedure are described. The measured activity of the {sup 37}Ar neutrino source is 405.1 {+-} 3.7 kCi (corrected for decays that occurred within the period between the instant of activity measurement and the commencement of the irradiation of Ga target at 04:00 Moscow time, 30.04.2004)

  8. Reliability and validity of an internet-based questionnaire measuring lifetime physical activity.

    PubMed

    De Vera, Mary A; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek

    2010-11-15

    Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005-2006. Reliability was examined using a test-retest study. Validity was examined in a 2-part study consisting of 1) comparisons with previously validated instruments measuring similar constructs, the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire (LT-PAQ) and the Chasan-Taber Physical Activity Questionnaire (CT-PAQ), and 2) a priori hypothesis tests of constructs measured by the L-PAQ. The L-PAQ demonstrated good reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.67 (household activity) to 0.89 (sports/recreation). Comparison between the L-PAQ and the LT-PAQ resulted in Spearman correlation coefficients ranging from 0.41 (total activity) to 0.71 (household activity); comparison between the L-PAQ and the CT-PAQ yielded coefficients of 0.58 (sports/recreation), 0.56 (household activity), and 0.50 (total activity). L-PAQ validity was further supported by observed relations between the L-PAQ and sociodemographic variables, consistent with a priori hypotheses. Overall, the L-PAQ is a useful instrument for assessing multiple domains of lifetime physical activity with acceptable reliability and validity.

  9. Validation of Web-Based Physical Activity Measurement Systems Using Doubly Labeled Water

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yukio; Yamada, Yosuke; Tokushima, Satoru; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Misaka; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Background Online or Web-based measurement systems have been proposed as convenient methods for collecting physical activity data. We developed two Web-based physical activity systems—the 24-hour Physical Activity Record Web (24hPAR WEB) and 7 days Recall Web (7daysRecall WEB). Objective To examine the validity of two Web-based physical activity measurement systems using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Methods We assessed the validity of the 24hPAR WEB and 7daysRecall WEB in 20 individuals, aged 25 to 61 years. The order of email distribution and subsequent completion of the two Web-based measurements systems was randomized. Each measurement tool was used for a week. The participants’ activity energy expenditure (AEE) and total energy expenditure (TEE) were assessed over each week using the DLW method and compared with the respective energy expenditures estimated using the Web-based systems. Results The mean AEE was 3.90 (SD 1.43) MJ estimated using the 24hPAR WEB and 3.67 (SD 1.48) MJ measured by the DLW method. The Pearson correlation for AEE between the two methods was r = .679 (P < .001). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement ranged from –2.10 to 2.57 MJ between the two methods. The Pearson correlation for TEE between the two methods was r = .874 (P < .001). The mean AEE was 4.29 (SD 1.94) MJ using the 7daysRecall WEB and 3.80 (SD 1.36) MJ by the DLW method. The Pearson correlation for AEE between the two methods was r = .144 (P = .54). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement ranged from –3.83 to 4.81 MJ between the two methods. The Pearson correlation for TEE between the two methods was r = .590 (P = .006). The average input times using terminal devices were 8 minutes and 10 seconds for the 24hPAR WEB and 6 minutes and 38 seconds for the 7daysRecall WEB. Conclusions Both Web-based systems were found to be effective methods for collecting physical activity data and are appropriate for use in epidemiological studies. Because the measurement

  10. Quantum dot-based nanosensors for diagnosis via enzyme activity measurement.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Birgitta R; Jepsen, Morten Leth; Ho, Yi-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Enzymes are essential in the human body, and the disorder of enzymatic activities has been associated with many different diseases and stages of disease. Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as quantum dots (QDs), have garnered great attention in molecular diagnostics. Owing to their superior optical properties, tunable and narrow emissions, stable brightness and long lifetime, QD-based enzyme activity measurement has demonstrated improved detection sensitivity, which is considered particularly valuable for early disease diagnosis. Recent studies have also shown that QD-based nanosensors are capable of probing multiple enzyme activities simultaneously. This review highlights the current development of QD-based nanosensors for enzyme detection. The enzyme-QD hybrid system, equipped with unique electronic, optical and catalytic properties, is envisioned as a potential solution in addressing challenges in diagnostics and therapeutics.

  11. Heartbeat: Measuring Active User Base and Potential User Interest in FLOSS Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, Andrea; Howison, James; Crowston, Kevin

    This paper presents a novel method and algorithm to measure the size of an open source project’s user base and the level of potential user interest that it generates. Previously unavailable download data at a daily resolution confirms hypothesized patterns related to release cycles. In short, regular users rapidly download the software after a new release giving a way to measure the active user base. In contrast, potential new users download the application independently of the release cycle, and the daily download figures tend to plateau at this rate when a release has not been made for some time. An algorithm for estimating these measures from download time series is demonstrated and the measures are examined over time in two open source projects.

  12. Measurement of polyphenol oxidase activity using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Woo-Yeon

    2015-02-15

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an important quality index during food processing involving heat-treatment and sensitive determination of PPO activity has been a critical concern in the food industry. In this study, a new measurement of PPO activity exploiting an optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor is presented using a polyclonal anti-PPO antibody that was immobilized in situ to the surface of a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-treated optical grating coupler activated with glutaraldehyde. When analysed with a purified PPO fraction from potato tubers, a linear relationship was found between PPO activities of 0.0005607-560.7U/mL and the sensor responses obtained. The sensor was applicable to measurement of PPO activity in real samples that were prepared from potato tubers, grapes and Kimchi cabbage, and the analytical results were compared with those obtained by a conventional colorimetric assay measuring PPO activity. When tested for long-term stability, the sensor was reusable up to 10th day after preparation.

  13. Measurement of polyphenol oxidase activity using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Woo-Yeon

    2015-02-15

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an important quality index during food processing involving heat-treatment and sensitive determination of PPO activity has been a critical concern in the food industry. In this study, a new measurement of PPO activity exploiting an optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor is presented using a polyclonal anti-PPO antibody that was immobilized in situ to the surface of a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-treated optical grating coupler activated with glutaraldehyde. When analysed with a purified PPO fraction from potato tubers, a linear relationship was found between PPO activities of 0.0005607-560.7U/mL and the sensor responses obtained. The sensor was applicable to measurement of PPO activity in real samples that were prepared from potato tubers, grapes and Kimchi cabbage, and the analytical results were compared with those obtained by a conventional colorimetric assay measuring PPO activity. When tested for long-term stability, the sensor was reusable up to 10th day after preparation. PMID:25236218

  14. Performance Evaluation of RTLS Based on Active RFID Power Measurement for Dense Moving Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyu; Lee, Jin; Lee, Seungbeom; Park, Sin-Chong

    Tracking a large quantity of moving target tags simultaneously is essential for the localization and guidance of people in welfare facilities like hospitals and sanatoriums for the aged. The locating system using active RFID technology consists of a number of fixed RFID readers and tags carried by the target objects, or senior people. We compare the performances of several determination algorithms which use the power measurement of received signals emitted by the moving active RFID tags. This letter presents a study on the effect of collision in tracking large quantities of objects based on active RFID real time location system (RTLS). Traditional trilateration, fingerprinting, and well-known LANDMARC algorithm are evaluated and compared with varying number of moving tags through the SystemC-based computer simulation. From the simulation, we show the tradeoff relationship between the number of moving tags and estimation accuracy.

  15. An Analysis Technique for Active Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Based on First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G; Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William S; Peerani, Paolo

    2012-08-13

    Passive neutron multiplicity counting is commonly used to quantify the total mass of plutonium in a sample, without prior knowledge of the sample geometry. However, passive neutron counting is less applicable to uranium measurements due to the low spontaneous fission rates of uranium. Active neutron multiplicity measurements are therefore used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in a sample. Unfortunately, there are still additional challenges to overcome for uranium measurements, such as the coupling of the active source and the uranium sample. Techniques, such as the coupling method, have been developed to help reduce the dependence of calibration curves for active measurements on uranium samples; although, they still require similar geometry known standards. An advanced active neutron multiplicity measurement method is being developed by Texas A&M University, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in an attempt to overcome the calibration curve requirements. This method can be used to quantify the {sup 235}U mass in a sample containing uranium without using calibration curves. Furthermore, this method is based on existing detectors and nondestructive assay (NDA) systems, such as the LANL Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). This method uses an inexpensive boron carbide liner to shield the uranium sample from thermal and epithermal neutrons while allowing fast neutrons to reach the sample. Due to the relatively low and constant fission and absorption energy dependent cross-sections at high neutron energies for uranium isotopes, fast neutrons can penetrate the sample without significant attenuation. Fast neutron interrogation therefore creates a homogeneous fission rate in the sample, allowing for first principle methods to be used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in the sample. This paper discusses the measurement method concept and development, including measurements and simulations performed to date, as well as the potential

  16. An Activation Force-based Affinity Measure for Analyzing Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jun; Guo, Hanliang; Wang, Zhanyi

    2011-01-01

    Affinity measure is a key factor that determines the quality of the analysis of a complex network. Here, we introduce a type of statistics, activation forces, to weight the links of a complex network and thereby develop a desired affinity measure. We show that the approach is superior in facilitating the analysis through experiments on a large-scale word network and a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network consisting of ∼5,000 human proteins. The experiment on the word network verifies that the measured word affinities are highly consistent with human knowledge. Further, the experiment on the PPI network verifies the measure and presents a general method for the identification of functionally similar proteins based on PPIs. Most strikingly, we find an affinity network that compactly connects the cancer-associated proteins to each other, which may reveal novel information for cancer study; this includes likely protein interactions and key proteins in cancer-related signal transduction pathways. PMID:22355630

  17. A Cell-Based Assay for Measuring Endogenous BcrAbl Kinase Activity and Inhibitor Resistance.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Steven B; Noel, Brett M; Parker, Laurie L

    2016-01-01

    Kinase enzymes are an important class of drug targets, particularly in cancer. Cell-based kinase assays are needed to understand how potential kinase inhibitors act on their targets in a physiologically relevant context. Current cell-based kinase assays rely on antibody-based detection of endogenous substrates, inaccurate disease models, or indirect measurements of drug action. Here we expand on previous work from our lab to introduce a 96-well plate compatible approach for measuring cell-based kinase activity in disease-relevant human chronic myeloid leukemia cell lines using an exogenously added, multi-functional peptide substrate. Our cellular models natively express the BcrAbl oncogene and are either sensitive or have acquired resistance to well-characterized BcrAbl tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This approach measures IC50 values comparable to established methods of assessing drug potency, and its robustness indicates that it can be employed in drug discovery applications. This medium-throughput assay could bridge the gap between single target focused, high-throughput in vitro assays and lower-throughput cell-based follow-up experiments. PMID:27598410

  18. A Cell-Based Assay for Measuring Endogenous BcrAbl Kinase Activity and Inhibitor Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Steven B.; Noel, Brett M.; Parker, Laurie L.

    2016-01-01

    Kinase enzymes are an important class of drug targets, particularly in cancer. Cell-based kinase assays are needed to understand how potential kinase inhibitors act on their targets in a physiologically relevant context. Current cell-based kinase assays rely on antibody-based detection of endogenous substrates, inaccurate disease models, or indirect measurements of drug action. Here we expand on previous work from our lab to introduce a 96-well plate compatible approach for measuring cell-based kinase activity in disease-relevant human chronic myeloid leukemia cell lines using an exogenously added, multi-functional peptide substrate. Our cellular models natively express the BcrAbl oncogene and are either sensitive or have acquired resistance to well-characterized BcrAbl tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This approach measures IC50 values comparable to established methods of assessing drug potency, and its robustness indicates that it can be employed in drug discovery applications. This medium-throughput assay could bridge the gap between single target focused, high-throughput in vitro assays and lower-throughput cell-based follow-up experiments. PMID:27598410

  19. Comparison of Physical Activity Measures Using Mobile Phone-Based CalFit and Actigraph

    PubMed Central

    Donaire-Gonzalez, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Seto, Edmund; Mendez, Michelle; Jerrett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies on physical activity often lack inexpensive, objective, valid, and reproducible tools for measuring physical activity levels of participants. Novel sensing technologies built into smartphones offer the potential to fill this gap. Objective We sought to validate estimates of physical activity and determine the usability for large population-based studies of the smartphone-based CalFit software. Methods A sample of 36 participants from Barcelona, Spain, wore a smartphone with CalFit software and an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer for 5 days. The ease of use (usability) and physical activity measures from both devices were compared, including vertical axis counts (VT) and duration and energy expenditure predictions for light, moderate, and vigorous intensity from Freedson’s algorithm. Statistical analyses included (1) Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test for usability measures, (2) Spearman correlation and linear regression for VT counts, (3) concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), and (4) Bland-Altman plots for duration and energy expenditure measures. Results Approximately 64% (23/36) of participants were women. Mean age was 31 years (SD 8) and mean body mass index was 22 kg/m2 (SD 2). In total, 25/36 (69%) participants recorded at least 3 days with at least 10 recorded hours of physical activity using CalFit. The linear association and correlations for VT counts were high (adjusted R 2=0.85; correlation coefficient .932, 95% CI 0.931-0.933). CCCs showed high agreement for duration and energy expenditure measures (from 0.83 to 0.91). Conclusions The CalFit system had lower usability than the Actigraph GT3X because the application lacked a means to turn itself on each time the smartphone was powered on. The CalFit system may provide valid estimates to quantify and classify physical activity. CalFit may prove to be more cost-effective and easily deployed for large-scale population health studies than other specialized instruments because

  20. Active and passive compensation of APPLE II-introduced multipole errors through beam-based measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Ting-Yi; Huang, Szu-Jung; Fu, Huang-Wen; Chang, Ho-Ping; Chang, Cheng-Hsiang; Hwang, Ching-Shiang

    2016-08-01

    The effect of an APPLE II-type elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) on the beam dynamics were investigated using active and passive methods. To reduce the tune shift and improve the injection efficiency, dynamic multipole errors were compensated using L-shaped iron shims, which resulted in stable top-up operation for a minimum gap. The skew quadrupole error was compensated using a multipole corrector, which was located downstream of the EPU for minimizing betatron coupling, and it ensured the enhancement of the synchrotron radiation brightness. The investigation methods, a numerical simulation algorithm, a multipole error correction method, and the beam-based measurement results are discussed.

  1. Active control of an innovative seat suspension system with acceleration measurement based friction estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Hongyi; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an innovative active seat suspension system for vehicles is presented. This seat suspension prototype is built with two low cost actuators each of which has one rotary motor and one gear reducer. A H∞ controller with friction compensation is designed for the seat suspension control system where the friction is estimated and compensated based on the measurement of seat acceleration. This principal aim of this research was to control the low frequency vibration transferred or amplified by the vehicle (chassis) suspension, and to maintain the passivity of the seat suspension at high frequency (isolation vibration) while taking into consideration the trade-off between the active seat suspension cost and its high frequency performance. Sinusoidal excitations of 1-4.5 Hz were applied to test the active seat suspension both when controlled and when uncontrolled and this is compared with a well-tuned passive heavy duty vehicle seat suspension. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm within the tested frequencies. Further tests were conducted using the excitations generated from a quarter-car model under bump and random road profiles. The bump road tests indicate the controlled active seat suspension has good transient response performance. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) method and ISO 2631-1 standards were applied to analyse the seat suspension's acceleration under random road conditions. Although some low magnitude and high frequency noise will inevitably be introduced by the active system, the weighted-frequency Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration shows that this may not have a large effect on ride comfort. In fact, the ride comfort is improved from being an 'a little uncomfortable' to a 'not uncomfortable' level when compared with the well-tuned passive seat suspension. This low cost active seat suspension design and the proposed controller with the easily measured feedback signals are very practical for real

  2. Development of Microreactor Array Chip-Based Measurement System for Massively Parallel Analysis of Enzymatic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, Yosuke; Akagi, Takanori; Ichiki, Takanori

    Microarray chip technology such as DNA chips, peptide chips and protein chips is one of the promising approaches for achieving high-throughput screening (HTS) of biomolecule function since it has great advantages in feasibility of automated information processing due to one-to-one indexing between array position and molecular function as well as massively parallel sample analysis as a benefit of down-sizing and large-scale integration. Mostly, however, the function that can be evaluated by such microarray chips is limited to affinity of target molecules. In this paper, we propose a new HTS system of enzymatic activity based on microreactor array chip technology. A prototype of the automated and massively parallel measurement system for fluorometric assay of enzymatic reactions was developed by the combination of microreactor array chips and a highly-sensitive fluorescence microscope. Design strategy of microreactor array chips and an optical measurement platform for the high-throughput enzyme assay are discussed.

  3. Online educative activities for solar ultraviolet radiation based on measurements of cloud amount and solar exposures.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J; Amar, A

    2016-09-01

    A set of online activities for children and the community that are based on an integrated real-time solar UV and cloud measurement system are described. These activities use the functionality of the internet to provide an educative tool for school children and the public on the influence of cloud and the angle of the sun above the horizon on the global erythemal UV or sunburning UV, the diffuse erythemal UV, the global UVA (320-400nm) and the vitamin D effective UV. Additionally, the units of UV exposure and UV irradiance are investigated, along with the meaning and calculation of the UV index (UVI). This research will help ensure that children and the general public are better informed about sun safety by improving their personal understanding of the daily and the atmospheric factors that influence solar UV radiation and the solar UV exposures of the various wavebands in the natural environment. The activities may correct common misconceptions of children and the public about UV irradiances and exposure, utilising the widespread reach of the internet to increase the public's awareness of the factors influencing UV irradiances and exposures in order to provide clear information for minimizing UV exposure, while maintaining healthy, outdoor lifestyles.

  4. Online educative activities for solar ultraviolet radiation based on measurements of cloud amount and solar exposures.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J; Amar, A

    2016-09-01

    A set of online activities for children and the community that are based on an integrated real-time solar UV and cloud measurement system are described. These activities use the functionality of the internet to provide an educative tool for school children and the public on the influence of cloud and the angle of the sun above the horizon on the global erythemal UV or sunburning UV, the diffuse erythemal UV, the global UVA (320-400nm) and the vitamin D effective UV. Additionally, the units of UV exposure and UV irradiance are investigated, along with the meaning and calculation of the UV index (UVI). This research will help ensure that children and the general public are better informed about sun safety by improving their personal understanding of the daily and the atmospheric factors that influence solar UV radiation and the solar UV exposures of the various wavebands in the natural environment. The activities may correct common misconceptions of children and the public about UV irradiances and exposure, utilising the widespread reach of the internet to increase the public's awareness of the factors influencing UV irradiances and exposures in order to provide clear information for minimizing UV exposure, while maintaining healthy, outdoor lifestyles. PMID:27450297

  5. Overview of a FPGA-based nuclear instrumentation dedicated to primary activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Bobin, C; Bouchard, J; Pierre, S; Thiam, C

    2012-09-01

    In National Metrology Institutes like LNE-LNHB, renewal and improvement of the instrumentation is an important task. Nowadays, the current trend is to adopt digital boards, which present numerous advantages over the standard electronics. The feasibility of an on-line fulfillment of nuclear-instrumentation functionalities using a commercial FPGA-based (Field-Programmable Gate Array) board has been validated in the case of TDCR primary measurements (Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio method based on liquid scintillation). The new applications presented in this paper have been included to allow either an on-line processing of the information or a raw-data acquisition for an off-line treatment. Developed as a complementary tool for TDCR counting, a time-to-digital converter specifically designed for this technique has been added. In addition, the description is given of a spectrometry channel based on the connection between conventional shaping amplifiers and the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) input available on the same digital board. First results are presented in the case of α- and γ-counting related to, respectively, the defined solid angle and well-type NaI(Tl) primary activity techniques. The combination of two different channels (liquid scintillation and γ-spectrometry) implementing the live-time anticoincidence processing is also described for the application of the 4πβ-γ coincidence method. The need for an optimized coupling between the analog chain and the ADC stage is emphasized. The straight processing of the signals delivered by the preamplifier connected to a HPGe detector is also presented along with the first development of digital filtering.

  6. Enhancing Maritime Education and Training: Measuring a Ship Navigator's Stress Based on Salivary Amylase Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murai, Koji; Wakida, Shin-Ichi; Miyado, Takashi; Fukushi, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yuji; Stone, Laurie C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that the measurement of salivary amylase activity is an effective index to evaluate the stress of a ship navigator for safe navigation training and education. Design/methodology/approach: Evaluation comes from the simulator and actual on-board experiments. The subjects are real captains who have…

  7. Active-passive measurements and CFD based modelling for indoor radon dispersion study.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Neetika; Chauhan, R P

    2015-06-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) play a significant role in indoor pollutant dispersion study. Radon is an indoor pollutant which is radioactive and inert gas in nature. The concentration level and spatial distribution of radon may be affected by the dwelling's ventilation conditions. Present work focus at the study of indoor radon gas distribution via measurement and CFD modeling in naturally ventilated living room. The need of the study is the prediction of activity level and to study the effect of natural ventilation on indoor radon. Two measurement techniques (Passive measurement using pin-hole dosimeters and active measurement using continuous radon monitor (SRM)) were used for the validation purpose of CFD results. The CFD simulation results were compared with the measurement results at 15 points, 3 XY planes at different heights along with the volumetric average concentration. The simulation results found to be comparable with the measurement results. The future scope of these CFD codes is to study the effect of varying inflow rate of air on the radon concentration level and dispersion pattern.

  8. Measurement of Contractile Activity in Small Animal's Digestive Organ by Carbon Nanotube-Based Force Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Takamichi; Takeda, Naoki; Tsutsui, Chihiro; Koike, Kanako; Shimatani, Yuichi; Sakai, Takafumi; Akiya, Masahiro; Taguchi, Akira

    2011-03-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT)-based force transducer designed to be embedded in the body of a live animal was fabricated and implanted into the stomach of a rat omit to measure contractile movement. The transducer comprised dispersed poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted multiwalled CNTs applied to a comb-like Au-electrode formed on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) sheet. The implanted rat was injected with acetylcholine to induce muscular contractions and changes in the resistance of the transducer were measured. Such changes arise owing to strain in the CNT network upon distortion. The measured resistance change was found to be proportional to the concentration of injected acetylcholine.

  9. An Activity-Based Study on Providing Basic Knowledge and Skills of Measurement in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maral, Sahide; Oguz-Unver, Ayse; Yurumezoglu, Kemal

    2012-01-01

    Even though one of the prerequisites of inquiry-based science classes is acquiring measuring skills, there is not enough emphasis in the schools today on developing these skills. The current study, which has been designed with the thought that this situation may be caused by the fact that teachers do not have a sufficient level of measurement…

  10. AUTOMATED ACTIN FILAMENT SEGMENTATION, TRACKING AND TIP ELONGATION MEASUREMENTS BASED ON OPEN ACTIVE CONTOUR MODELS.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongsheng; Shen, Tian; Smith, Matthew B; Fujiwara, Ikuko; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Huang, Xiaolei

    2009-06-28

    This paper presents an automated method for actin filament segmentation and tracking for measuring tip elongation rates in Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM) images. The main contributions of the paper are: (i) we use a novel open active contour model for filament segmentation and tracking, which is fast and robust against noise; (ii) different strategies are proposed to solve the filament intersection problem, which is shown to be the main difficulty in filament tracking; and (iii) this fully automated method avoids the need of human interaction and thus reduces required time for the entire elongation measurement process on an image sequence. Application to experimental results demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of this method.

  11. Accelerometer-based physical activity: total volume per day and standardized measures.

    PubMed

    Bassett, David R; Troiano, Richard P; McClain, James J; Wolff, Dana L

    2015-04-01

    The use of accelerometers in physical activity (PA) research has increased exponentially over the past 20 yr. The first commercially available accelerometer for assessing PA, the Caltrac, was worn on the waist and estimated PA energy expenditure in kilocalories. Around 1995, the emphasis shifted to measuring minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), especially for bouts of 10 min or longer. Recent studies, however, show that light-intensity PA and intermittent (nonbout) MVPA also have important health benefits. The total volume of PA performed is an important variable because it takes the frequency, intensity, and duration of activity bouts and condenses them down into a single metric. The total volume of PA is appropriate for many research applications and can enhance comparisons between studies. In the future, machine learning algorithms will provide improved accuracy for activity type recognition and estimation of PA energy expenditure. However, in the current landscape of objectively measured PA, total activity counts per day (TAC/d) is a proxy for the total volume of PA. TAC/d percentiles for age- and gender-specific groups have been developed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ActiGraph data (2003-2006), providing a novel way to assess PA. The use of TAC/d or standardized units of acceleration could harmonize PA across studies. TAC/d should be viewed as an additional metric, not intended to replace other metrics (e.g., sedentary time, light-intensity PA, moderate PA, and vigorous PA) that may also be related to health. As future refinements to wearable monitors occur, researchers should continue to consider metrics that reflect the total volume of PA in addition to existing PA metrics. PMID:25102292

  12. Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, T. H.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Flitcroft, I.; Su, H.

    1990-01-01

    The fraction, of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation, F sub ipar, is an important requirement for estimating vegetation biomass productivity and related quantities. This was an integral part of a large international effort; the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The main objective of FIFE was to study the effects of vegetation on the land atmosphere interactions and to determine if these interactions can be assessed from satellite spectral measurements. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well measurements of F sub ipar relate to ground, helicopter, and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F sub ipar and ground, helicopter, and satellite based measurements were taken at 13 tall grass prairie sites in Kansas. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements.

  13. A Self-Sensing Active Magnetic Bearing Based on a Direct Current Measurement Approach

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, Andries C.; van Schoor, George; du Rand, Carel P.

    2013-01-01

    Active magnetic bearings (AMBs) have become a key technology in various industrial applications. Self-sensing AMBs provide an integrated sensorless solution for position estimation, consolidating the sensing and actuating functions into a single electromagnetic transducer. The approach aims to reduce possible hardware failure points, production costs, and system complexity. Despite these advantages, self-sensing methods must address various technical challenges to maximize the performance thereof. This paper presents the direct current measurement (DCM) approach for self-sensing AMBs, denoting the direct measurement of the current ripple component. In AMB systems, switching power amplifiers (PAs) modulate the rotor position information onto the current waveform. Demodulation self-sensing techniques then use bandpass and lowpass filters to estimate the rotor position from the voltage and current signals. However, the additional phase-shift introduced by these filters results in lower stability margins. The DCM approach utilizes a novel PA switching method that directly measures the current ripple to obtain duty-cycle invariant position estimates. Demodulation filters are largely excluded to minimize additional phase-shift in the position estimates. Basic functionality and performance of the proposed self-sensing approach are demonstrated via a transient simulation model as well as a high current (10 A) experimental system. A digital implementation of amplitude modulation self-sensing serves as a comparative estimator. PMID:24030681

  14. A self-sensing active magnetic bearing based on a direct current measurement approach.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Andries C; van Schoor, George; du Rand, Carel P

    2013-09-11

    Active magnetic bearings (AMBs) have become a key technology in various industrial applications. Self-sensing AMBs provide an integrated sensorless solution for position estimation, consolidating the sensing and actuating functions into a single electromagnetic transducer. The approach aims to reduce possible hardware failure points, production costs, and system complexity. Despite these advantages, self-sensing methods must address various technical challenges to maximize the performance thereof. This paper presents the direct current measurement (DCM) approach for self-sensing AMBs, denoting the direct measurement of the current ripple component. In AMB systems, switching power amplifiers (PAs) modulate the rotor position information onto the current waveform. Demodulation self-sensing techniques then use bandpass and lowpass filters to estimate the rotor position from the voltage and current signals. However, the additional phase-shift introduced by these filters results in lower stability margins. The DCM approach utilizes a novel PA switching method that directly measures the current ripple to obtain duty-cycle invariant position estimates. Demodulation filters are largely excluded to minimize additional phase-shift in the position estimates. Basic functionality and performance of the proposed self-sensing approach are demonstrated via a transient simulation model as well as a high current (10 A) experimental system. A digital implementation of amplitude modulation self-sensing serves as a comparative estimator.

  15. Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie

    SciTech Connect

    Demetriades-shah, T.H.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Flitcroft, I.D.; Su, H. Kansas State Univ., Manhattan )

    1992-11-01

    The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by vegetation, F(sub ipar) is an important parameter for modeling the interactions between the land-surface and atmosphere and for estimating vegetation biomass productivity. This study was, therefore, an integral part of FIFE. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well definitive measurements of F(sub ipar) on the ground relate to near-ground and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F(sub ipar) and ground, helicopter, and satellite based reflectance measurements were taken at thirteen tall-grass prairie sites within the FIFE experimental area. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements. The ground and helicopter based reflectance measurements were taken on the same day or few days from the time of the overpass of LANDSAT and SPOT satellites. Ground-based reflectance measurements and sun photometer readings taken at the times of the satellite overpasses were used to correct for atmospheric attenuation. Hand-held radiometer spectral indices were strongly correlated with helicopter and satellite based values (r = 0.94 for helicopter, 0.93 for LANDSAT Thematic Mapper, and 0.86 for SPOT). However, the ground, helicopter, and satellite based normalized difference spectral vegetation indices showed low sensitivity to changes in F(sub ipar). Reflectance measurements were only moderately well correlated with measurements of F(sub ipar) (r = 0.82 for hand-held radiometer, 0.84 for helicopter measurements, and 0.75 for the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and SPOT). Improved spectral indices which can compensate for site differences are needed in order to monitor F(sub ipar) more reliably. 12 refs.

  16. Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, T. H.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Flitcroft, I. D.; Su, H.

    1992-01-01

    The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by vegetation, F(sub ipar) is an important parameter for modeling the interactions between the land-surface and atmosphere and for estimating vegetation biomass productivity. This study was, therefore, an integral part of FIFE. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well definitive measurements of F(sub ipar) on the ground relate to near-ground and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F(sub ipar) and ground, helicopter, and satellite based reflectance measurements were taken at thirteen tall-grass prairie sites within the FIFE experimental area. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements. The ground and helicopter based reflectance measurements were taken on the same day or few days from the time of the overpass of LANDSAT and SPOT satellites. Ground-based reflectance measurements and sun photometer readings taken at the times of the satellite overpasses were used to correct for atmospheric attenuation. Hand-held radiometer spectral indices were strongly correlated with helicopter and satellite based values (r = 0.94 for helicopter, 0.93 for LANDSAT Thematic Mapper, and 0.86 for SPOT). However, the ground, helicopter, and satellite based normalized difference spectral vegetation indices showed low sensitivity to changes in F(sub ipar). Reflectance measurements were only moderately well correlated with measurements of F(sub ipar) (r = 0.82 for hand-held radiometer, 0.84 for helicopter measurements, and 0.75 for the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and SPOT). Improved spectral indices which can compensate for site differences are needed in order to monitor F(sub ipar) more reliably.

  17. Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, T. H.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Flitcroft, I.; Su, H.

    1991-01-01

    The fraction, of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by vegetation, F(sub ipar) is an important parameter for modeling the interactions between the land-surface and atmosphere and for estimating vegetation biomass productivity. This study was; therefore, an integral part of FIFE. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well definitive measurements of F(sub ipar) on the ground relate to near-ground and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F(sub ipar) and ground, helicopter, and satellite based reflectance measurements were taken at thirteen tall-grass prairie sites within the FIFE experimental area. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements. The ground and helicopter based reflectance measurements were taken on the same day or few days from the time of the overpass of LANDSAT and SPOT satellites. Ground-based reflectance measurements and sun photometer readings taken at the times of the satellite overpasses were used to correct for atmospheric attenuation. Hand-held radiometer spectral indices were strongly correlated with helicopter and satellite based values (r=0.94 for helicopter, 0.93 for LANDSAT Thematic Mapper, and 0.86 for SPOT). However, the ground, helicopter, and satellite based normalized difference spectral vegetation indices showed low sensitivity to changes in F(sub ipar). Reflectance measurements were only moderately well correlated with measurements of F(sub ipar) (r=0.82 for hand-held radiometer, 0.84 for helicopter measurements, and 0.75 for the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and SPOT). Improved spectral indices which can compensate for site differences are needed in order to monitor F(sub ipar) more reliably.

  18. Evaluation of Non Diseased Specified Outcome Measures in Hand Injuries to Assess Activity and Participation Based on ICF Content.

    PubMed

    Farzad, Maryam; Layeghi, Fereydoun; Asgari, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Rassafiani, Mehdi

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to provide information about non disease specified outcome measures which evaluate disability in patients who have impairments in hand and upper extremity and to find the extent to which they are evaluating "disability" based on ICF hand Core Set (activity limitation and participation restriction). MEDLINE, CINAHL, GOOGLE SCHOLAR , OVID and SCIENCE DIRECT databases were systematically searched for studies on non disease specified outcome measures used to evaluate upper extremity function; only studies written in English were considered. We reviewed titles and abstracts of the identified studies to determine whether the studies met predefined eligibility criteria (eg, non disease specified out come measures used in hand injured patients). All the outcome measures which had eligibility included. After full text review ,7 non disease specified outcome measures in hand were identified. Studies were extracted, and the information retrieved from them. All the outcome measures which had incuded, were linked with ICF hand core set disability part (activity and participation). All of them only linked to 16 (42 %) components of ICF hand Core Set, which were most activity and less participation from ICF. None of the non disease specified out come measures in hand injuries cover all domains of disability from the ICF Hand Core Set.

  19. Functional activity maps based on significance measures and Independent Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Murcia, F J; Górriz, J M; Ramírez, J; Puntonet, C G; Illán, I A

    2013-07-01

    The use of functional imaging has been proven very helpful for the process of diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In many cases, the analysis of these images is performed by manual reorientation and visual interpretation. Therefore, new statistical techniques to perform a more quantitative analysis are needed. In this work, a new statistical approximation to the analysis of functional images, based on significance measures and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is presented. After the images preprocessing, voxels that allow better separation of the two classes are extracted, using significance measures such as the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon U-Test (MWW) and Relative Entropy (RE). After this feature selection step, the voxels vector is modelled by means of ICA, extracting a few independent components which will be used as an input to the classifier. Naive Bayes and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers are used in this work. The proposed system has been applied to two different databases. A 96-subjects Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) database from the "Virgen de las Nieves" Hospital in Granada, Spain, and a 196-subjects Positron Emission Tomography (PET) database from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Values of accuracy up to 96.9% and 91.3% for SPECT and PET databases are achieved by the proposed system, which has yielded many benefits over methods proposed on recent works.

  20. Flow injection catalase activity measurement based on gold nanoparticles/carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    El Nashar, Rasha Mohamed

    2012-07-15

    Amperometric flow injection method of hydrogen peroxide analysis was developed based on catalase enzyme (CAT) immobilization on a glassy carbon electrode (GC) modified with electrochemically deposited gold nanoparticles on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes/chitosan film. The resulting biosensor was applied to detect hydrogen peroxide with a linear response range 1.0×10(-7)-2.5×10(-3)M with a correlation coefficient 0.998 and response time less than 10s. The optimum conditions of film deposition such as potential applied, deposition time and pH were tested and the flow injection conditions were optimized to be: flow rate of 3ml/min, sample volume 75μl and saline phosphate buffer of pH 6.89. Catalase enzyme activity was successfully determined in liver homogenate samples of rats, raised under controlled dietary plan, using a flow injection analysis system involving the developed biosensor simultaneously with spectrophotometric detection, which is the common method of enzymatic assay.

  1. Flow injection catalase activity measurement based on gold nanoparticles/carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    El Nashar, Rasha Mohamed

    2012-07-15

    Amperometric flow injection method of hydrogen peroxide analysis was developed based on catalase enzyme (CAT) immobilization on a glassy carbon electrode (GC) modified with electrochemically deposited gold nanoparticles on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes/chitosan film. The resulting biosensor was applied to detect hydrogen peroxide with a linear response range 1.0×10(-7)-2.5×10(-3)M with a correlation coefficient 0.998 and response time less than 10s. The optimum conditions of film deposition such as potential applied, deposition time and pH were tested and the flow injection conditions were optimized to be: flow rate of 3ml/min, sample volume 75μl and saline phosphate buffer of pH 6.89. Catalase enzyme activity was successfully determined in liver homogenate samples of rats, raised under controlled dietary plan, using a flow injection analysis system involving the developed biosensor simultaneously with spectrophotometric detection, which is the common method of enzymatic assay. PMID:22817944

  2. SO2 on Venus: IUE, HST and ground-based measurements, and the active volcanism connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Na, C. Y.; Barker, E. S.; Stern, S. A.; Esposito, L. W.

    1993-01-01

    Magellan images have shown that the volcanic features are widespread over the surface of Venus. The question of whether there is active volcanism is important for understanding both the atmospheric and the geological processes on Venus. The thick cloud cover of Venus precludes any direct observation of active volcanoes even if they exist. The only means of monitoring the active volcanism on Venus at present seems to be remote sensing from Earth. Continuous monitoring of SO2 is important to establish the long term trend of SO2 abundance and to understand the physical mechanism responsible for the change.

  3. Measurement of voluntary activation based on transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Todd, Gabrielle; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C

    2016-09-01

    This article reviews the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex to make estimates of the level of voluntary drive to muscles. The method, described in 2003 (Todd et al. J Physiol 551: 661-671, 2003), uses a TMS pulse to produce descending corticospinal volleys that synaptically activate motoneurons, resulting in a muscle twitch. Linear regression of the superimposed twitch amplitude and voluntary force (or torque) can generate an "estimated" resting twitch for muscles involved in a task. This procedure has most commonly been applied to elbow flexors but also to knee extensors and other muscle groups. Data from 44 papers using the method were tabulated. We identify and discuss five major technical challenges, and the frequency with which they are addressed. The technical challenges include inadvertent activation of the cortical representation of antagonist muscles, the role of antagonist torques at the studied joint, uncertainty about the effectiveness of the TMS pulse in activating the motoneuron pool, the linearity of the voluntary force (or torque) and superimposed twitch relationship, and variability in the TMS-evoked EMG and force/torque responses. The ideal situation in which the descending corticospinal volleys recruit all of the agonist motoneurons and none of the antagonist motoneurons is unlikely to ever occur, and hence results must be carefully examined to assess the authenticity of the voluntary activation estimates in the context of the experimental design. A partial compromise lies in the choice of stimulus intensity. We also identify aspects of the procedure that require further investigation.

  4. Measurement of voluntary activation based on transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Todd, Gabrielle; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C

    2016-09-01

    This article reviews the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex to make estimates of the level of voluntary drive to muscles. The method, described in 2003 (Todd et al. J Physiol 551: 661-671, 2003), uses a TMS pulse to produce descending corticospinal volleys that synaptically activate motoneurons, resulting in a muscle twitch. Linear regression of the superimposed twitch amplitude and voluntary force (or torque) can generate an "estimated" resting twitch for muscles involved in a task. This procedure has most commonly been applied to elbow flexors but also to knee extensors and other muscle groups. Data from 44 papers using the method were tabulated. We identify and discuss five major technical challenges, and the frequency with which they are addressed. The technical challenges include inadvertent activation of the cortical representation of antagonist muscles, the role of antagonist torques at the studied joint, uncertainty about the effectiveness of the TMS pulse in activating the motoneuron pool, the linearity of the voluntary force (or torque) and superimposed twitch relationship, and variability in the TMS-evoked EMG and force/torque responses. The ideal situation in which the descending corticospinal volleys recruit all of the agonist motoneurons and none of the antagonist motoneurons is unlikely to ever occur, and hence results must be carefully examined to assess the authenticity of the voluntary activation estimates in the context of the experimental design. A partial compromise lies in the choice of stimulus intensity. We also identify aspects of the procedure that require further investigation. PMID:27418687

  5. Proteolytic Enzymes in Detergents: Evidence of Their Presence through Activity Measurements Based on Electrophoresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperas, Nuria; Fonfria-Subiros, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise uses a problem-based approach to expose students to some basic concepts relating to proteins and enzymes. One of the main applications of enzymes at the industrial level is their use in the detergent market. The students examine a detergent sample to ascertain whether proteolytic enzymes are a component and, if so, which…

  6. Measurement of enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Harris, T K; Keshwani, M M

    2009-01-01

    To study and understand the nature of living cells, scientists have continually employed traditional biochemical techniques aimed to fractionate and characterize a designated network of macromolecular components required to carry out a particular cellular function. At the most rudimentary level, cellular functions ultimately entail rapid chemical transformations that otherwise would not occur in the physiological environment of the cell. The term enzyme is used to singularly designate a macromolecular gene product that specifically and greatly enhances the rate of a chemical transformation. Purification and characterization of individual and collective groups of enzymes has been and will remain essential toward advancement of the molecular biological sciences; and developing and utilizing enzyme reaction assays is central to this mission. First, basic kinetic principles are described for understanding chemical reaction rates and the catalytic effects of enzymes on such rates. Then, a number of methods are described for measuring enzyme-catalyzed reaction rates, which mainly differ with regard to techniques used to detect and quantify concentration changes of given reactants or products. Finally, short commentary is given toward formulation of reaction mixtures used to measure enzyme activity. Whereas a comprehensive treatment of enzymatic reaction assays is not within the scope of this chapter, the very core principles that are presented should enable new researchers to better understand the logic and utility of any given enzymatic assay that becomes of interest.

  7. A DAQ-Device-Based Continuous Wave Near-Infrared Spectroscopy System for Measuring Human Functional Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiaomin

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is getting more and more popular as a neuroimaging technique. The fNIRS instrument can be used to measure local hemodynamic response, which indirectly reflects the functional neural activities in human brain. In this study, an easily implemented way to establish DAQ-device-based fNIRS system was proposed. Basic instrumentation components (light sources driving, signal conditioning, sensors, and optical fiber) of the fNIRS system were described. The digital in-phase and quadrature demodulation method was applied in LabVIEW software to distinguish light sources from different emitters. The effectiveness of the custom-made system was verified by simultaneous measurement with a commercial instrument ETG-4000 during Valsalva maneuver experiment. The light intensity data acquired from two systems were highly correlated for lower wavelength (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.92, P < 0.01) and higher wavelength (r = 0.84, P < 0.01). Further, another mental arithmetic experiment was implemented to detect neural activation in the prefrontal cortex. For 9 participants, significant cerebral activation was detected in 6 subjects (P < 0.05) for oxyhemoglobin and in 8 subjects (P < 0.01) for deoxyhemoglobin. PMID:25180044

  8. [On-line Estimation for the Amount of Stored PHA in Activated Sludge Based on OUR-HPR Measurements].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shan-wen; Wang, Ze-yu; Gao, Jing; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Dai-jun; Lu, Pei-li

    2015-05-01

    Activated sludge process is an important approach for industrial Polyhydroxyalkanoate ( PHA ) production. Off-line measurement with a time lag and complex analysis, is a common method for PHA, but is not suitable for the process control of PHA production. Based on a model for simultaneous storage and growth-soluble microbial products (SSAG-SMP), it is assumed that there is the linear relationship between the PHA synthesized and OUR or HPR, respectively. Further, a novel method to estimate PHA content based on in-situ monitoring data of oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and hydrogen-ion production rate (HPR) is established in this paper. The results of modeling OUR and HPR under different substrate concentrations showed that oxygen consumption proportion (kPHA,OUR) and proton consumption proportion (kPHA,HPR) of PHA synthesis were 0.67 and 0.57, respectively. The predicted results based on the linear relationship were essentially consistent with measured ones, and indicated that the method is feasible PMID:26314121

  9. The Effect of Electrode Designs Based on the Anatomical Heart Location for the Non-Contact Heart Activity Measurement.

    PubMed

    Gi, Sun Ok; Lee, Young-Jae; Koo, Hye Ran; Lee, Seung Pyo; Lee, Kang-Hwi; Kim, Kyeng-Nam; Kang, Seung-Jin; Lee, Joo Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Whan

    2015-12-01

    This research is an extension of a previous research [1] on the different effects of sensor location that is relatively suitable for heart rate sensing. This research aimed to elucidate the causes of wide variations in heart rate measurements from the same sensor position among subjects, as observed in previous research [1], and to enhance designs of the inductive textile electrode to overcome these variations. To achieve this, this study comprised two parts: In part 1, X-ray examinations were performed to determine the cause of the wide variations noted in the findings from previous research [1], and we found that at the same sensor position, the heart activity signal differed with slight differences in the positions of the heart of each subject owing to individual differences in the anatomical heart location. In part 2, three types of dual-loop-type textile electrodes were devised to overcome variations in heart location that were confirmed in part 1 of the study. The variations with three types of sensor designs were compared with that with a single-round type of electrode design, by using computer simulation and by performing a t-test on the data obtained from the experiments. We found that the oval-oval shaped, dual-loop-type textile electrode was more suitable than the single round type for determining morphological characteristics as well as for measuring appropriate heart activity signals. Based on these results, the oval-oval, dual-loop-type was a better inductive textile electrode that more effectively overcomes individual differences in heart location during heart activity sensing based on the magnetic-induced conductivity principle.

  10. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  11. Evaluation of drug-induced neurotoxicity based on metabolomics, proteomics and electrical activity measurements in complementary CNS in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Luise; Zurich, Marie-Gabrielle; Culot, Maxime; da Costa, Anaelle; Landry, Christophe; Bellwon, Patricia; Kristl, Theresa; Hörmann, Katrin; Ruzek, Silke; Aiche, Stephan; Reinert, Knut; Bielow, Chris; Gosselet, Fabien; Cecchelli, Romeo; Huber, Christian G; Schroeder, Olaf H-U; Gramowski-Voss, Alexandra; Weiss, Dieter G; Bal-Price, Anna

    2015-12-25

    The present study was performed in an attempt to develop an in vitro integrated testing strategy (ITS) to evaluate drug-induced neurotoxicity. A number of endpoints were analyzed using two complementary brain cell culture models and an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model after single and repeated exposure treatments with selected drugs that covered the major biological, pharmacological and neuro-toxicological responses. Furthermore, four drugs (diazepam, cyclosporine A, chlorpromazine and amiodarone) were tested more in depth as representatives of different classes of neurotoxicants, inducing toxicity through different pathways of toxicity. The developed in vitro BBB model allowed detection of toxic effects at the level of BBB and evaluation of drug transport through the barrier for predicting free brain concentrations of the studied drugs. The measurement of neuronal electrical activity was found to be a sensitive tool to predict the neuroactivity and neurotoxicity of drugs after acute exposure. The histotypic 3D re-aggregating brain cell cultures, containing all brain cell types, were found to be well suited for OMICs analyses after both acute and long term treatment. The obtained data suggest that an in vitro ITS based on the information obtained from BBB studies and combined with metabolomics, proteomics and neuronal electrical activity measurements performed in stable in vitro neuronal cell culture systems, has high potential to improve current in vitro drug-induced neurotoxicity evaluation.

  12. Measuring the activity of a {sup 51}Cr neutrino source based on the gamma-radiation spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbachev, V. V. Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-12-15

    A technique for the measurement of activities of intense β sources by measuring the continuous gamma-radiation (internal bremsstrahlung) spectra is developed. A method for reconstructing the spectrum recorded by a germanium semiconductor detector is described. A method for the absolute measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of {sup 51}Cr is presented.

  13. Head Start Parent Involvement Activities: Measuring the Effect of School Based Parent Involvement Activities on Parent Efficacy in Early Childhood Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadri, Khadijat O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this position paper was to examine the impact of school based parent involvement activities on parent efficacy. Methodology: The paper explores research studies into school based activities on long term parent efficacy. Conclusions: Most schools are involving parents in school-based activities in a variety of ways but the…

  14. A novel active optical approach for acceleration measurement based on a Y-shaped cavity dual-frequency laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Guangzong; Long, Xingwu; Zhang, Bin; Jin, Shilong

    2012-03-01

    A novel active optical approach for acceleration measurement based on a Y-shaped cavity dual-frequency laser is presented and demonstrated. Applied acceleration causes a change in the refractivity of sensing gas in one of the two cavities, resulting in a beat frequency variation between two orthogonal polarized lights. As a result, this approach produces a modulation of beat frequency strictly proportional to the input acceleration. Preliminary experiments with a 632.8 nm Y-shaped cavity He-Ne dual-frequency laser confirm the validity of the laser sensor. The experimental results show that the laser sensor in this approach characterizes a nearly linear response to the input acceleration, which is a projection of gravitational acceleration. The experimental values of the scale factors are mostly in good agreement with theoretical ones. By optimizing the optical and geometrical parameters of the laser sensor, an acceleration measurement resolution of 10 -5-10 -6 gravitational acceleration (within ±5 g measurement range) could be expected. Furthermore, we investigate the principle about the sign of the scale factor in detail, and propose a simple but efficient method to distinguish the direction of the acceleration acted on the laser sensor.

  15. Monitoring and Modeling of Ionosphere Irregularities Caused By Space Weather Activity on the Base of GNSS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, I.; Zakharenkova, I.; Krankowski, A.; Shagimuratov, I.

    2014-12-01

    The ionosphere plays an important role in GNSS applications because it influences on the radio wave propagation through out. The ionosphere delay is the biggest error source for satellite navigation systems, but it can be directly measured and mitigated with using dual frequency GNSS receivers. However GNSS signal fading due to electron density gradients and irregularities in the ionosphere can decrease the operational availability of navigation system. The intensity of such irregularities on high and mid latitudes essentially rises during space weather events. For monitoring of the ionospheric irregularities data collected from all available permanent GNSS stations in the Northern Hemisphere are processed and analyzed. Here we used parameters ROT (rate of GPS TEC change) and ROTI (index of ROT) to study the occurrence of TEC fluctuations. ROTI maps are constructed with the grid of 2 deg x 2 deg resolution as a function of the magnetic local time and corrected magnetic latitude. The ROTI maps allow to estimate the overall fluctuation activity and auroral oval evolutions, in general the ROTI values are corresponded to the probability of GPS signals phase fluctuations. There were developed several models in order to represent ionospheric fluctuations and scintillation activity under different geophysical conditions, but they were calibrated with data sets, that did not include GNSS derived data. It is very actual to develop empirical model based on GNSS derived measurements which can represent strong fluctuations of the ionosphere plasma density at high latitudes. The measurements provided by the existing permanent GNSS networks accumulated in order to develop the empirical model of ionospheric irregularities over the Northern hemisphere. As initial data the daily dependences of the ROTI index are used as a function of geomagnetic Local Time on the specific grid. With ROTI index maps it was determined the irregularities oval border and averaging parameter - semi

  16. Measuring Engagement in Later Life Activities: Rasch-Based Scenario Scales for Work, Caregiving, Informal Helping, and Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Larry H.; Matz-Costa, Christina; Johnson, Clair; Brown, Melissa; Besen, Elyssa; James, Jacquelyn B.

    2014-01-01

    The development of Rasch-based "comparative engagement scenarios" based on Guttman's facet theory and sentence mapping procedures is described. The scenario scales measuring engagement in work, caregiving, informal helping, and volunteering illuminate the lived experiences of role involvement among older adults and offer multiple…

  17. Web-based Tools for Educators: Outreach Activities of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braaten, D. A.; Holvoet, J. F.; Gogineni, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Kansas (KU) has implemented extensive outreach activities focusing on Polar Regions as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project. The PRISM project is developing advanced intelligent remote sensing technology that involves radar systems, an autonomous rover, and communications systems to measure detailed ice sheet characteristics, and to determine bed conditions (frozen or wet) below active ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica. These measurements will provide a better understanding of the response of polar ice sheets to global climate change and the resulting impact the ice sheets will have on sea level rise. Many of the research and technological development aspects of the PRISM project, such as robotics, radar systems, climate change and exploration of harsh environments, can kindle an excitement and interest in students about science and technology. These topics form the core of our K-12 education and training outreach initiatives, which are designed to capture the imagination of young students, and prompt them to consider an educational path that will lead them to scientific or engineering careers. The K-12 PRISM outreach initiatives are being developed and implemented in a collaboration with the Advanced Learning Technology Program (ALTec) of the High Plains Regional Technology in Education Consortium (HPR*TEC). ALTec is associated with the KU School of Education, and is a well-established educational research center that develops and hosts web tools to enable teachers nationwide to network, collaborate, and share resources with other teachers. An example of an innovative and successful web interface developed by ALTec is called TrackStar. Teachers can use TrackStar over the Web to develop interactive, resource-based lessons (called tracks) on-line for their students. Once developed, tracks are added to the TrackStar database and can be accessed and modified

  18. Intrinsic Motivation and Engagement as "Active Ingredients" in Garden-Based Education: Examining Models and Measures Derived from Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Ellen A.; Chi, Una

    2012-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory, this study presents a model of intrinsic motivation and engagement as "active ingredients" in garden-based education. The model was used to create reliable and valid measures of key constructs, and to guide the empirical exploration of motivational processes in garden-based learning. Teacher- and…

  19. Examining the utility of a bite-count-based measure of eating activity in free-living human beings.

    PubMed

    Scisco, Jenna L; Muth, Eric R; Hoover, Adam W

    2014-03-01

    The obesity epidemic has triggered a need for novel methods for measuring eating activity in free-living settings. Here, we introduce a bite-count method that has the potential to be used in long-term investigations of eating activity. The purpose of our observational study was to describe the relationship between bite count and energy intake and determine whether there are sex and body mass index group differences in kilocalories per bite in free-living human beings. From October 2011 to February 2012, 77 participants used a wrist-worn device for 2 weeks to measure bite count during 2,975 eating activities. An automated self-administered 24-hour recall was completed daily to provide kilocalorie estimates for each eating activity. Pearson's correlation indicated a moderate, positive correlation between bite count and kilocalories (r=0.44; P<0.001) across all 2,975 eating activities. The average per-individual correlation was 0.53. A 2 (sex)×3 (body mass index group: normal, overweight, obese) analysis of variance indicated that men consumed 6 kcal more per bite than women on average. However, there were no body mass index group differences in kilocalories per bite. This was the longest study of a body-worn sensor for monitoring eating activity of free-living human beings to date, which highlights the strong potential for this method to be used in future, long-term investigations.

  20. ACTIVITIES: Centimeter and Millimeter Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolster, L. Carey

    1974-01-01

    An activity is suggested which will give junior high school students practice in estimating and measuring in centimeters and millimeters. Three worksheets are given, one of which is a model for making a metric caliper. (LS)

  1. Calibration of a 3D endoscopic system based on active stereo method for shape measurement of biological tissues and specimen.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Ryo; Aoyama, Masahito; Hiura, Shinsaku; Aoki, Hirooki; Kominami, Yoko; Sanomura, Yoji; Yoshida, Shigeto; Tanaka, Shinji; Sagawa, Ryusuke; Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    For endoscopic medical treatment, measuring the size and shape of the lesion, such as a tumor, is important for the improvement of diagnostic accuracy. We are developing a system to measure the shapes and sizes of living tissue by active stereo method using a normal endoscope on which a micro pattern projector is attached. In order to perform 3D reconstruction, estimating the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the endoscopic camera and the pattern projector is required. Particularly, calibration of the pattern projector is difficult. In this paper, we propose a simultaneous estimation method of both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the pattern projector. This simplifies the calibration procedure required in practical scenes. Furthermore, we have developed an efficient user interface to intuitively operate the calibration and reconstruction procedures. Using the developed system, we measured the shape of an internal tissue of the soft palate of a human and a biological specimen.

  2. Development of an accelerator based system for in vivo neutron activation analysis measurements of manganese in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michelle Lynn

    2001-11-01

    Manganese is required by the human body, but as with many heavy elements, in large amounts it can be toxic, producing a neurological disorder similar to that of Parkinson's Disease. The primary industrial uses of the element are for the manufacturing of steel and alkali batteries. Environmental exposure may occur via drinking water or exhaust emissions from vehicles using gasoline with the manganese containing compound MMT as an antiknock agent (MMT has been approved for use in both Canada and the United States). Preclinical symptoms of toxicity have recently been detected in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne manganese at levels below the present threshold limit value set by the EPA. Evidence also suggests that early detection of manganese toxicity is crucial since once the symptoms have developed past a certain point, the syndrome will continue to progress even if manganese exposure ceases. The development of a system for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) measurement of manganese levels was investigated, with the goal being to have a means of monitoring both over exposed and manganese deficient populations. The McMaster KN-accelerator was used to provide low-energy neutrons, activation within an irradiation site occurred via the 55Mn(n,gamma) 56Mn capture reaction, and the 847 keV gamma-rays emitted when 56Mn decayed were measured using one or more Nal(TI) detectors. The present data regarding manganese metabolism and storage within the body are limited, and it is unclear what the optimal measurement site would be to provide a suitable biomarker of past exposure. Therefore the feasibility of IVNAA measurements in three sites was examined---the liver, brain and hand bones. Calibration curves were derived, minimum detectable limits determined and resulting doses calculated for each site (experimentally in the case of the liver and hand bones, and through computer simulations for the brain). Detailed analytical calculations of the 7Li(p,n) 7Be

  3. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities…

  4. Assessing the Validity of a Stage Measure on Physical Activity in a Population-Based Sample of Individuals with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lippke, Sonia; Reinbold-Matthews, Melissa; Courneya, Kerry S.; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J.; Birkett, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to test the validity of a transtheoretical model's physical activity (PA) stage measure with intention and different intensities of behavior in a large population-based sample of adults living with diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, n = 697; Type 2 diabetes, n = 1,614) and examine different age groups. The overall "specificity"…

  5. The Development and Evaluation of an Achievement Test for Measuring the Efficacy of Task-Based Writing Activities to Enhance Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…

  6. Measuring Substantial Reductions in Activity

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Charles; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard A.; So, Suzanna; Brown, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The case definitions for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) each include a disability criterion requiring substantial reductions in activity in order to meet diagnostic criteria. Difficulties have been encountered in defining and operationalizing the substantial reduction disability criterion within these various illness definitions. The present study sought to relate measures of past and current activities in several domains including the SF-36, an objective measure of activity (e.g. actigraphy), a self-reported quality of life scale, and measures of symptom severity. Results of the study revealed that current work activities had the highest number of significant associations with domains such as the SF-36 subscales, actigraphy, and symptom scores. As an example, higher self-reported levels of current work activity were associated with better health. This suggests that current work related activities may provide a useful domain for helping operationalize the construct of substantial reductions in activity. PMID:25584524

  7. Simultaneous intracellular β-D-glucosidase and phosphodiesterase I activities measurements based on a triple-signaling fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinhui; Wang, Hao; Li, Jishan; Zheng, Jing; Xu, Xinhua; Yang, Ronghua

    2011-02-15

    Despite that considerable efforts have been devoted to the design of various fluorogenic enzyme substrates, they are single-enzyme assay approaches that cannot afford detection of multienzyme activity. In this study, we set out our first attempt to design a new probe that could measure intracellular β-D-glucosidase and phosphodiesterase I activities. Unlike the commonly used fluorogenic enzyme substrates that contain one recognition site and signaling reporter, the new probe molecule possesses two cleavage sites, specificly corresponding to β-D-glucosidase and phosphodiesterase I, and three fluorescent reporters, 7-β-D-glucopyranosyloxycoumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, and meso-tetraphenylporphyrin. On the basis of intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer and fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanisms, interaction of the probe with the two enzymes, whether only one or both, produces different signal readouts with high sensitivity. Remarkably, the probe is chemically stable in complex biological fluids. Fluorescence outputs are not significantly affected by biologically related metal ions, anions, amino acids, and proteins. Furthermore, fluorescence microscopy confirmed that the probe is an excellent candidate for intracellular delivery and can be accumulated intensively in cells. We demonstrated the applicability for the simultaneous images of intracellular β-D-glucosidase and phosphodiesterase I activities using the different optical imaging modes.

  8. Ion-channel-coupled receptor-based platform for a real-time measurement of G-protein-coupled receptor activities.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jong Hyun; Oh, Eun Hae; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

    2015-02-24

    A simple but efficient measurement platform based on ion-channel-coupled receptors and nanovesicles was developed for monitoring the real-time activity of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this work, an olfactory receptor (OR), the most common class A GPCR, was covalently fused with a Kir6.2 channel so that the GPCR action directly induced the opening of the ion channels and changes in the electrical membrane potential without complex cellular signaling processes. This strategy reduced the measurement errors caused by instability of various cellular components. In addition, rather than using whole cells, a cell-surface-derived nanovesicle was used to preserve the membrane-integrated structure of GPCRs and to exclude case-dependent cellular conditions. Another merit of using the nanovesicle is that nanovesicles can be easily combined with nanomaterial-based field-effect transistors (FETs) to build a sensitive and stable measurement platform to monitor GPCR activities with high sensitivity in real-time. Using a platform based on carbon nanotube FETs and nanovesicles carrying Kir6.2-channel-coupled ORs, we monitored the real-time response of ORs to their ligand molecules. Significantly, since this platform does not rely on rather unstable cell signaling pathways, our platform could be utilized for a rather long time period without losing its functionality. This system can be utilized extensively for simple and sensitive analysis of the activities of various GPCRs and should enable various academic and practical applications.

  9. Antioxidant Activity/Capacity Measurement. 2. Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT)-Based, Mixed-Mode (Electron Transfer (ET)/HAT), and Lipid Peroxidation Assays.

    PubMed

    Apak, Reşat; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Çapanoğlu, Esra

    2016-02-10

    Measuring the antioxidant activity/capacity levels of food extracts and biological fluids is useful for determining the nutritional value of foodstuffs and for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of numerous oxidative stress-related diseases. Biologically, antioxidants play their health-beneficial roles via transferring a hydrogen (H) atom or an electron (e(-)) to reactive species, thereby deactivating them. Antioxidant activity assays imitate this action; that is, antioxidants are measured by their H atom transfer (HAT) or e(-) transfer (ET) to probe molecules. Antioxidant activity/capacity can be monitored by a wide variety of assays with different mechanisms, including HAT, ET, and mixed-mode (ET/HAT) assays, generally without distinct boundaries between them. Understanding the principal mechanisms, advantages, and disadvantages of the measurement assays is important for proper selection of method for valid evaluation of antioxidant properties in desired applications. This work provides a general and up-to-date overview of HAT-based, mixed-mode (ET/HAT), and lipid peroxidation assays available for measuring antioxidant activity/capacity and the chemistry behind them, including a critical evaluation of their advantages and drawbacks.

  10. Measuring activity in ant colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, C.; Fernández, J.; Pérez-Penichet, C.; Altshuler, E.

    2006-12-01

    Ants, as paradigm of social insects, have become a recurrent example of efficient problem solvers via self-organization. In spite of the simple behavior of each individual, the colony as a whole displays "swarm intelligence:" the organization of ant trails for foraging is a typical output of it. But conventional techniques of observation can hardly record the amount of data needed to get a detailed understanding of self-organization of ant swarms in the wild. Here we are presenting a measurement system intended to monitor ant activity in the field comprising massive data acquisition and high sensitivity. A central role is played by an infrared sensor devised specifically to monitor relevant parameters to the activity of ants through the exits of the nest, although other sensors detecting temperature and luminosity are added to the system. We study the characteristics of the activity sensor and its performance in the field. Finally, we present massive data measured at one exit of a nest of Atta insularis, an ant endemic to Cuba, to illustrate the potential of our system.

  11. On the Measurement and Visualization of Analysis Activity: A Study of Successful Strategies for Web-Based Information Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelik, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) has a history built, in part, on leveraging representational design to improve system performance. Traditionally, however, CSE has focused on visual representation of "monitored" processes--active, ongoing, and interconnected activities occurring in a system of interest and monitored by human…

  12. Effect of copper on soil functional stability measured by relative soil stability index (RSSI) based on two enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Marylène; Bécaert, Valérie; François, Matthieu; Sauvé, Sébastien; Deschênes, Louise

    2008-06-01

    Copper can affect essential processes in soils, often for long periods. Enzyme activity is considered a sensitive indicator to evaluate soil health and the potential toxic impact of a soil contaminant. Nevertheless, there is heterogeneity in the responses from enzyme activity assays because of the influence of pH and other physicochemical parameters on both enzyme activity and metal speciation. This leads to complications when comparing soils and limits the validity of the results. To overcome these problems, this paper evaluates resistance and recovery, quantified by using a relative soil stability index (RSSI), of the beta-glucosidase and protease activities towards an additional heat disturbance (17 h at 60 degrees C) in soils where soil organic matter, pH and Cu content were modified in a factorial setup. Chemical analyses (dissolved Cu, pCu(2+), dissolved organic carbon, pH) were performed both before the heat-perturbation and after the enzyme activity monitoring period. Results show that soil pH did not interfere with the RSSI scores of both enzymes. beta-glucosidase RSSI scores were scarcely affected by copper, making it inappropriate for evaluating copper-induced stress to soils. Protease activity shows stimulations of up to 2.5 times the activity of the unperturbed control in uncontaminated samples only. Thus, the protease RSSI score seems a good indicator for soil health relative to copper contamination given that all samples were affected by the presence of copper and high correlations were observed between RSSI scores and the different copper forms.

  13. Effect of heavy metals on nitrification activity as measured by RNA- and DNA-based function-specific assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metals can inhibit nitrification, a key process for nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. The transcriptional responses of functional genes (amoA, hao, nirK and norB) were measured in conjunction with specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR) for nitrifying enrichment cultures...

  14. Disease Activity Measures in Paediatric Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Nadia J.; Feldman, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Disease activity refers to potentially reversible aspects of a disease. Measurement of disease activity in paediatric rheumatic diseases is a critical component of patient care and clinical research. Disease activity measures are developed systematically, often involving consensus methods. To be useful, a disease activity measure must be feasible, valid, and interpretable. There are several challenges in quantifying disease activity in paediatric rheumatology; namely, the conditions are multidimensional, the level of activity must be valuated in the context of treatment being received, there is no gold standard for disease activity, and it is often difficult to incorporate the patient's perspective of their disease activity. To date, core sets of response variables are defined for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus, and juvenile dermatomyositis, as well as definitions for improvement in response to therapy. Several specific absolute disease activity measures also exist for each condition. Further work is required to determine the optimal disease activity measures in paediatric rheumatology. PMID:24089617

  15. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach.

    PubMed

    Wong, David W S; Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2011-06-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual's segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial-ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces.

  16. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2010-01-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual’s segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial–ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces. PMID:21643546

  17. Magnetic Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Biomonitoring of Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides and Nerve Agents Based on Simultaneous Measurement of Total Enzyme Amount and Enzyme Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Limin; Lu, Donglai; Smith, Jordan N.; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-05-15

    We report a new approach for electrochemical quantification of enzymatic inhibition and phosphorylation for biomonitoring of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents based on a magnetic beads (MBs) immunosensing platform. The principle of this approach is based on the combination of MBs immuno-capture based enzyme activity assay and competitive immunoassay of total amount of enzyme for simultaneous detection of enzyme inhibition and phosphorylation in biological fluids. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was chosen as a model enzyme. In competitive immunoassay, the target total BChE in a sample (mixture of OP-inhibited BChE and active BChE) competes with the BChE modified on the MBs to bind to the limited anti-BChE antibody labeled with quantum dots (QDs-anti-BChE), and followed by electrochemical stripping analysis of the bound QDs conjugate on the MBs. This assay shows a linear response over the total BChE concentration range of 0.1~20 nM. Simultaneously, real time BChE activity was measured on an electrochemical carbon nanotube-based sensor coupled with microflow injection system after immuno-capture by MBs-anti-BChE conjugate. Therefore, the formed phosphorylated adduct (OP-BChE) can be estimated by the difference values of the total amount BChE (including active and OP-inhibited) and active BChE from established calibration curves. This approach not only eliminates the difficulty in screening of low-dose OP exposure (less than 20% inhibition of BChE) because of individual variation of BChE values, but also avoids the drawback of the scarce availability of OP-BChE antibody. It is sensitive enough to detect 0.5 nM OP-BChE, which is less than 2% BChE inhibition. This method offers a new method for rapid, accurate, selective and inexpensive quantification of phosphorylated adducts and enzyme inhibition for biomonitoring of OP and nerve agent exposures.

  18. Disparate Proteome Responses of Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Aspergilli to Human Serum Measured by Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Ansong, Charles; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pederson, Leeanna M.; Fortuin, Suereta; Hofstad, Beth A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the primary pathogen causing the devastating pulmonary disease Invasive Aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. Genomic analysis shows high synteny between A. fumigatus and closely related rarely pathogenic Neosartorya fischeri and Aspergillus clavatus genomes. To investigate the presence of unique or highly inducible protein reactivity in the pathogen, we applied activity-based protein profiling to compare protein reactivity of all three fungi over time in minimal media growth and in response to human serum. We found 350 probe-reactive proteins exclusive to A. fumigatus, including known virulence associated proteins, and 13 proteins associated with stress response exclusive to A. fumigatus culture in serum. Though the fungi are highly orthologous, A. fumigatus has significantly more activity across varied biological process. Only 50% of expected orthologs of measured A. fumigatus reactive proteins were observed in N. fischeri and A. clavatus. Human serum induced processes uniquely or significantly represented in A. fumigatus include actin organization and assembly, transport, and fatty acid, cell membrane, and cell wall synthesis. Additionally, signaling proteins regulating vegetative growth, conidiation, and cell wall integrity, required for appropriate cellular response to external stimuli, had higher reactivity over time in A. fumigatus and N. fisheri, but not in A. clavatus. Together, we show that measured proteins and physiological processes identified solely or significantly over-represented in A. fumigatus reveal a unique adaptive response to human protein not found in closely related, but rarely aspergilli. These unique protein reactivity responses may reveal how A. fumigatus initiates pulmonary invasion leading to Invasive Aspergillosis.

  19. MOST Space-based Photometry of the Transiting Exoplanet System HD 189733: Precise Timing Measurements for Transits across an Active Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller-Ricci, Eliza; Rowe, Jason F.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Croll, Bryce; Guenther, David B.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Walker, Gordon A. H.; Weiss, Werner W.

    2008-07-01

    We have measured transit times for HD 189733b passing in front of its bright (V = 7.67), chromospherically active, and spotted parent star. Nearly continuous broadband optical photometry of this system was obtained with the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST) space telescope during 21 days in 2006 August, monitoring 10 consecutive transits. We have used these data to search for deviations from a constant orbital period which can indicate the presence of additional planets in the system that are as yet undetected by Doppler searches. There are no transit timing variations above the level of ±45 s, ruling out super-Earths (of masses 1-4 M⊕) in the 1:2 and 2:3 inner resonances, and planets of 20 M⊕ in the 2:1 outer resonance of the known planet. We also discuss complications in measuring transit times for a planet that transits an active star with large starspots, and how the transits can help constrain and test spot models. This has implications for the large number of such systems expected to be discovered by the COROT and Kepler missions. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna.

  20. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  1. Wavelet-based algorithm for auto-detection of daily living activities of older adults captured by multiple inertial measurement units (IMUs).

    PubMed

    Ayachi, Fouaz S; Nguyen, Hung P; Lavigne-Pelletier, Catherine; Goubault, Etienne; Boissy, Patrick; Duval, Christian

    2016-03-01

    A recent trend in human motion capture is the use of inertial measurement units (IMUs) for monitoring and performance evaluation of mobility in the natural living environment. Although the use of such systems have grown significantly, the development of methods and algorithms to process IMU data for clinical purposes is still limited. The aim of this work is to develop algorithms based on wavelet transform and discrete-time detection of events for the automatic segmentation of tasks related activities of daily living (ADL) from body worn IMUs. Seven healthy older adults (73  ±  4 years old) performed 10 ADL tasks in a simulated apartment during trials of different durations (3, 4, and 5 min). They wore a suit (Synertial UK Ltd IGS-180) comprised of 17 IMUs positioned strategically on body segments to capture full body motion. The proposed method automatically detected the number of template waveforms (representing each movement separately) using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete-time detection of events based on angular velocity, linear acceleration and 3D orientation data of pertinent IMUs. The sensitivity (Se.) and specificity (Sp.) of detection for the proposed method was established using time stamps of10tasks obtained from visual segmentation of each trial using the video records and the avatar provided by the system's software. At first, we identified six pertinent sensors that were strongly associated to different activities (at most two sensors/task) that allowed detection of tasks with high accuracy. The proposed algorithm exhibited significant global accuracy (N events  =  1999, Se.  =  97.5%, Sp.  =  94%), despite the variation in the occurrences of the performed tasks (free living). The Se. varied from 94% to 100% for all the detected ADL tasks and Sp. ranged from 90% to 100% with the worst Sp.  =  85 and 87% for Release_mid (reaching for object held just beyond reach at chest height) and Turning

  2. Brazil current eddy activity near cape São Tomé based on direct ADCP data measurements from 2006 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, N. D.; Gabioux, M.; Guerra, L. D.; Paiva, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    structure, the variability associated with the meandering of the stream and the eddy generation, had a significant barotropic component. Some eddies pinched off from the current, while others were reabsorbed by the Brasil Current, in accordance with the proposed conceptual model. Reference LIMA, N. D., GUERRA, L. D., PAIVA, A. M., 2010. Brazil Current eddy-activity near cape São Tomé based on direct ADCP measurements, 2010 Meeting of the Americas, Foz do Iguaçu.

  3. An updated model for nitrate uptake modelling in plants. II. Assessment of active root involvement in nitrate uptake based on integrated root system age: measured versus modelled outputs.

    PubMed

    Malagoli, Philippe; Le Deunff, Erwan

    2014-05-01

    Background and Aims An updated version of a mechanistic structural-functional model was developed to predict nitrogen (N) uptake throughout the growth cycle by a crop of winter oilseed rape, Brassica napus, grown under field conditions. Methods The functional component of the model derives from a revisited conceptual framework that combines the thermodynamic Flow-Force interpretation of nitrate uptake isotherms and environmental and in planta effects on nitrate influx. Estimation of the root biomass (structural component) is based upon a combination of root mapping along the soil depth profile in the field and a relationship between the specific root length and external nitrate concentration. The root biomass contributing actively to N uptake was determined by introduction of an integrated root system age that allows assignment of a root absorption capacity at a specific age of the root. Key Results Simulations were well matched to measured data of N taken up under field conditions for three levels of N fertilization. The model outputs indicated that the two topsoil layers (0-30 and 30-60 cm) contained 75-88 % of the total root length and biomass, and accounted for 90-95 % of N taken up at harvest. Conclusions This conceptual framework provides a model of nitrate uptake that is able to respond to external nitrate fluctuations at both functional and structural levels.

  4. Active Learning: The Importance of Developing a Comprehensive Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…

  5. Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated

  6. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  7. Electroencephalogram-based pharmacodynamic measures: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bewernitz, Michael; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can provide a useful modeling framework for predicting drug activity and can serve as a basis for dose optimization. Determining a suitable biomarker or surrogate measure of drug effect for pharmacodynamic models can be challenging. The electroencephalograph is a widely-available and non-invasive tool for recording brain-wave activity simultaneously from multiple brain regions. Certain drug classes (such as drugs that act on the central nervous system) also generate a reproducible electroencephalogram (EEG) effect. Characterization of such a drug-induced EEG effect can produce pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models useful for titrating drug levels and expediting development of chemically-similar drug analogs. This paper reviews the relevant concepts involved in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling using EEG-based pharmacodynamic measures. In addition, examples of such models for various drugs are organized by drug activity as well as chemical structure and presented. PMID:22373830

  8. Active cell mechanics: Measurement and theory.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Fodor, Étienne; Betz, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Living cells are active mechanical systems that are able to generate forces. Their structure and shape are primarily determined by biopolymer filaments and molecular motors that form the cytoskeleton. Active force generation requires constant consumption of energy to maintain the nonequilibrium activity to drive organization and transport processes necessary for their function. To understand this activity it is necessary to develop new approaches to probe the underlying physical processes. Active cell mechanics incorporates active molecular-scale force generation into the traditional framework of mechanics of materials. This review highlights recent experimental and theoretical developments towards understanding active cell mechanics. We focus primarily on intracellular mechanical measurements and theoretical advances utilizing the Langevin framework. These developing approaches allow a quantitative understanding of nonequilibrium mechanical activity in living cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology.

  9. Measuring the Built Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Day, Kristen; Forsyth, Ann; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical—or built—environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential. Three categories of built environment data are being used: (1) perceived measures obtained by telephone interview or self-administered questionnaires; (2) observational measures obtained using systematic observational methods (audits); and (3) archival data sets that are often layered and analyzed with GIS. This review provides a critical assessment of these three types of built-environment measures relevant to the study of physical activity. Among perceived measures, 19 questionnaires were reviewed, ranging in length from 7 to 68 questions. Twenty audit tools were reviewed that cover community environments (i.e., neighborhoods, cities), parks, and trails. For GIS-derived measures, more than 50 studies were reviewed. A large degree of variability was found in the operationalization of common GIS measures, which include population density, land-use mix, access to recreational facilities, and street pattern. This first comprehensive examination of built-environment measures demonstrates considerable progress over the past decade, showing diverse environmental variables available that use multiple modes of assessment. Most can be considered first-generation measures, so further development is needed. In particular, further research is needed to improve the technical quality of measures, understand the relevance to various population groups, and understand the utility of measures for science and public health. PMID:19285216

  10. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-02-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine's list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996-2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  11. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship

    PubMed Central

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine’s list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996–2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  12. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-02-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine's list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996-2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship.

  13. Measurement of lysine-specific demethylase-1 activity in the nuclear extracts by flow-injection based time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Chiharu; Ohta, Hiromichi; Shidoji, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A), a histone-modifying enzyme, is upregulated in many cancers, especially in neuroblastoma, breast cancer and hepatoma. We have established a simple method to measure LSD1 activity using a synthetic N-terminal 21-mer peptide of histone H3, which is dimethylated at Lys-4 (H3K4me2). After the enzyme reaction, a substrate of H3K4me2 and two demethylated products, H3K4me1 and H3K4me0, were quantitatively determined by flow injection time-of-flight mass spectrometry (FI-TOF/MS). By using recombinant human LSD1, a nonlinear fitting simulation of the data obtained by FI-TOF/MS produced typical consecutive-reaction kinetics. Apparent Km and kcat values of hLSD1 for the first and second demethylation reactions were found to be in the range of reported values. Tranylcypromine was shown to inhibit LSD1 activity with an IC50 of 6.9 µM for the first demethylation reaction and 5.8 µM for the second demethylation reaction. The FI-TOF/MS assay revealed that the endogenous LSD1 activity was higher in the nuclear extracts of SH-SY5Y cells than in HeLa or PC-3 cells, and this is in accordance with the immunoblotting data using an anti-LSD1 antibody. A simple, straightforward FI-TOF/MS assay is described to efficiently measure LSD1 activity in the nuclear extracts of cultured cells. PMID:25759518

  14. Measure of Legionella penumophila activity in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Fliermans, C.B.; Soracco, R.J.; Pope, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Detection of Legionella pneumophila by serogroup-specific fluorescent antibodies was combined with a tetrazolium dye (INT) to measure electron transport activity. The biological uptake and reduction of the INT dye was studied in pure cultures and in natural water samples with respect to temperature. Uptake was complete within 60 min. Controls inhibited with formaldehyde demonstrated little activity. Both the in vitro and in situ determinations suggested that the electron transport system of Legionella was active over a temperature range of 25 to 60/sup 0/C.

  15. Measure of Legionella pneumophila activity in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Fliermans, C.B.; Soracco, R.J.; Pope, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Detection of Legionella pneumophila by serogroup-specific fluorescent antibodies was combined with a tetrazolium dye (INT) to measure electron transport activity. The biological uptake and reduction of the INT dye was studied in pure cultures and in natural water samples with respect to temperature. Uptake was complete within 60 minutes. Controls inhibited with formaldehyde demonstrated little activity. Both the in vitro and in situ determinations suggested that the electron transport system of Legionella was active over a temperature range of 25/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/C.

  16. Comparison of plaque- and enzyme-linked immunospot-based assays to measure the neutralizing activities of monoclonal antibodies specific to domain III of dengue virus envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lidong; Wen, Kun; Li, Jie; Hu, Dongmei; Huang, Yanfen; Qiu, Liwen; Cai, Jianpiao; Che, Xiaoyan

    2012-01-01

    The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is used widely to measure the neutralization activity of anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies, but it is time-consuming and labor-intensive and has low sample throughput. For fast and convenient measurement of neutralizing antibodies, especially in evaluating the efficiency of the DENV vaccines on a large scale, a new method is needed to replace PRNT. In recent decades, several microneutralization assays have been developed to overcome the limitations of PRNT. In the present study, we evaluated one of these, the enzyme-linked immunospot microneutralization test (ELISPOT-MNT), in comparison with PRNT. ELISPOT-MNT is performed in 96-well format, and the plaques are developed after 2 to 4 days using an ELISA to transform them into spots, which are detected automatically with an ELISPOT instrument. The assay is faster than PRNT, has a high throughput, and is more objective. We used 10 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against domain III of the DENV envelope protein (EDIII) to evaluate the two assays; all of these MAbs cross-react with all four serotypes of DENV as measured by immunofluorescence assay. The two neutralization assays were performed simultaneously to measure the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of these MAbs. Using PRNT as the reference and treating IC(50) values higher than 50 μg/ml of MAbs as negative, ELISPOT-MNT showed a sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 88.24% when 10 MAbs were tested against four DENV serotype strains. A good correlation (R(2) = 0.672; P = 0.000) was observed between the two assays, making ELISPOT-MNT a potentially valuable method for measure of neutralizing antibodies against DENV.

  17. Comparison of Plaque- and Enzyme-Linked Immunospot-Based Assays To Measure the Neutralizing Activities of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Domain III of Dengue Virus Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lidong; Wen, Kun; Li, Jie; Hu, Dongmei; Huang, Yanfen; Qiu, Liwen; Cai, Jianpiao

    2012-01-01

    The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is used widely to measure the neutralization activity of anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies, but it is time-consuming and labor-intensive and has low sample throughput. For fast and convenient measurement of neutralizing antibodies, especially in evaluating the efficiency of the DENV vaccines on a large scale, a new method is needed to replace PRNT. In recent decades, several microneutralization assays have been developed to overcome the limitations of PRNT. In the present study, we evaluated one of these, the enzyme-linked immunospot microneutralization test (ELISPOT-MNT), in comparison with PRNT. ELISPOT-MNT is performed in 96-well format, and the plaques are developed after 2 to 4 days using an ELISA to transform them into spots, which are detected automatically with an ELISPOT instrument. The assay is faster than PRNT, has a high throughput, and is more objective. We used 10 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against domain III of the DENV envelope protein (EDIII) to evaluate the two assays; all of these MAbs cross-react with all four serotypes of DENV as measured by immunofluorescence assay. The two neutralization assays were performed simultaneously to measure the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of these MAbs. Using PRNT as the reference and treating IC50 values higher than 50 μg/ml of MAbs as negative, ELISPOT-MNT showed a sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 88.24% when 10 MAbs were tested against four DENV serotype strains. A good correlation (R2 = 0.672; P = 0.000) was observed between the two assays, making ELISPOT-MNT a potentially valuable method for measure of neutralizing antibodies against DENV. PMID:22116689

  18. Feature Based Measuring, Version 2.1

    2002-07-22

    A model-based tool that uses Measurement Features for generating measurement plans that facilitate DMIS compliant CMM Measurement part programs for both manufacturing verification and/or product acceptance.

  19. Measuring cholinesterase activity in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Claus Henn, Birgit; McMaster, Suzanne; Padilla, Stephanie

    2006-10-01

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 different collection methods: a disposable plastic pipette, and a cotton-wool roll. A brief questionnaire was conducted each week to document changes in exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors for the duration of the sampling. To measure cholinesterase activity, an existing radiometric method was modified to make it suitable for human saliva. Using this method, cholinesterase activity was measurable in saliva, and duplicate samples showed reliable repeatability. Activity in both collection methods ranged from 3 to 265 nmol/h/ml saliva (mean = 52 +/- 37 [SD] nmol/h/ml saliva). For some individuals, enzyme activity was consistent over the five sampling weeks; for others, activity was highly variable. Coefficients of variation (CVs) were calculated to assess variability, and mean CVs were the same for both collection methods (about 35%). Adjusting for protein concentration in the pipette-collected samples did not change results. Both collection methods worked well for collecting between 1 and 3 ml saliva, but at the majority of visits (86%), participants preferred the cotton-wool roll. Results from this study suggest that saliva may be a useful indicator of potential neurotoxic effects from exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides, but that factors affecting variability should be explored further.

  20. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Chettle, D. R.

    2008-02-15

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the {sup 26}Mg(n,{gamma}){sup 27}Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4{pi} geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when {sup 27}Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1{sigma}). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96{+-}1.25 ({+-}1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several

  1. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Pejović-Milić, A; McNeill, F E; Byun, S H; Prestwich, W V; Chettle, D R

    2008-02-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the 26Mg (n, gamma) 27Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4 pi geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when 27Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1 sigma). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96 +/- 1.25 (+/- 1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several studies using in

  2. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Pejović-Milić, A; McNeill, F E; Byun, S H; Prestwich, W V; Chettle, D R

    2008-02-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the 26Mg (n, gamma) 27Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4 pi geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when 27Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1 sigma). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96 +/- 1.25 (+/- 1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several studies using in

  3. Advanced (Measurement) Applications of Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Yaacov; Cummings, Kelli Dawn; Biancarosa, Gina; Fien, Hank

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a commentary on the current state of several measurement issues pertaining to curriculum-based measures of reading (R-CBM). We begin by providing an overview of the utility of R-CBM, followed by a presentation of five specific measurements considerations: (a) the reliability of R-CBM oral reading fluency…

  4. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    PubMed

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year).

  5. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

  6. Measuring psychological engagement in youth activity involvement.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Heather L; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Busseri, Michael A; Gadbois, Shannon; Bowker, Anne; Findlay, Leanne

    2015-12-01

    Although psychological engagement (e.g., enjoyment, concentration) may be critical in fostering positive outcomes of youth activity participation, too few studies have been conducted to establish its role in development. Furthermore, an established measurement tool is lacking. In the current study, we evaluated a brief engagement measure with two Canadian samples of youth (Sample 1, N = 290, mean age = 16.9 years, 62% female; Sample 2, N = 1827, mean age = 13.1 years, 54% female). We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized structure of the model. We also assessed the measure's validity by testing relations between engagement and both perceived outcomes and positive features of activity settings. Psychological engagement was best captured by three latent cognitive, affective, and relational/spiritual factors and a second-order latent factor. Also, as anticipated, psychological engagement was associated with features of the activity setting and perceived impact.

  7. Neutron and proton activation measurements from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    Radioactivity induced by high-energy protons and secondary neutrons (from nuclear interactions) in various samples returned from different locations in Skylab was measured directly by gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of decay gamma rays from the samples. Incident fluxes were derived from the activation measurements, using known nuclear cross-section. Neutron and proton flux values were found to range from 0.2 to 5 particles/sq cm-sec, depending on the energy range and location in Skylab. The thermal neutron flux was less than 0.07 neutrons/sq cm-sec. The results are useful for data analysis and planning of future high-energy astronomy experiments.

  8. Direct Raman measurement of an elevated base pKa in the active site of a small ribozyme in a precatalytic conformation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Man; Spitale, Robert C; Volpini, Rosaria; Krucinska, Jolanta; Cristalli, Gloria; Carey, Paul R; Wedekind, Joseph E

    2009-09-16

    Catalytic RNA molecules can achieve rate acceleration by shifting base pK(a) values toward neutrality. Prior evidence has suggested that base A38 of the hairpin ribozyme plays an important role in phosphoryl transfer, possibly functioning as a general acid, or by orienting a specific water molecule for proton transfer. To address the role of A38, we used Raman spectroscopy to measure directly the pK(a) of the N1-imino moiety in the context of hairpin ribozyme crystals representative of a "precatalytic" conformation. The results revealed that the pK(a) of A38 is shifted to 5.46 +/- 0.05 relative to 3.68 +/- 0.06 derived from a reference solution of the nucleotide AMP. The elevated pK(a) correlates well with the first titration point of the macroscopic pH-rate profile of the hairpin ribozyme in solution and strongly supports A38 as a general acid catalyst in bond scission. The results confirm that A38 is protonated before the transition state, which would promote phosphorane development. Overall, the results establish a cogent structure-function paradigm that expands our understanding of how RNA structure can enhance nucleobase reactivity to catalyze biological reactions.

  9. Measuring Changes in Electrical Conductivity of Fractures from DC Resistivity Data in an Active Oilfield Environment: A Model Study for Surface-Based Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, C. J.; Aldridge, D. F.; Knox, H. A.; Schramm, K. A.; Bartel, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    Presented here are preliminary results of a numerical modeling study on the feasibility of using DC resistivity data to make useful inferences on depth, size and orientation of subsurface fracture systems in an active oilfield environment. Specifically, we consider an experiment where the steel-cased borehole (consisting of a shallow, vertical section and deep, horizontal section) is one electrode of the DC source, with the other source electrode grounded at the Air/Earth interface some distance away. For simplicity, the fractures are modeled as short sequence of vertical sheets intersecting the horizontal section of the well casing. Finite element analysis of this system shows that as fracture conductivity is elevated, two effects (at least) are observed: a local perturbation in the electric potential in the vicinity of the fracture set, with limited far-field expression; and, an overall change in the electric potential of the entire borehole casing due to current leakage at the site of the fractures. Under ideal conditions, our results suggest that far-field, time-lapse measurements of DC potentials surrounding a borehole casing can be reliably interpreted by simple, linear inversion for a Coulomb charge distribution along the borehole path, including a local charge perturbation due to the fractures. In contrast to regularized, nonlinear 3D inversion of broadband EM or DC data, this approach offers an inexpensive method for detecting and monitoring the time-evolution of electrically conducting fractures while ultimately providing an estimate of their effective conductivity - the latter providing an important measure independent of seismic methods on fracture shape, size, and hydraulic connectivity.

  10. Studying longterm effects of micro gravity on basic immune functions - The development of an application based on the measuring of phagocytosis activity of Blue Mussel hemocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, Eckehardt

    The immunsystem of astronauts exposed to microgravity is declining. Whether this effect is caused by microgravity or in combination with cosmic radiation is so far not clear. The immune system of vertebrates has several defence strategies but the basic immune response (Phagocytosis) is present as well in invertebrates. Phagocytotic cells are drawn by chemotaxis to the origin of an infection. By adhesion, ingestion and phagosome formation foreign particles, bacteria etc are transported inside of a cell were they are destroyed by native powerful biocides. Related to this biocide production is the formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). ROS can be measured by luminescence. The effects of microgravity will be simultaneously tested by exposure of phagocytotic hemocytes on orbit under microgravity, artificial gravity and, on ground under natural gravity. To address this purpose defined pools of Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis) hemocytes will be launched frozen to the ISS. References for all batches will stay on ground. Shortly after arrival and then in three-month intervals batches of the same pool will be thawed and reconstituted. The phagocytosis related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonized Zymosan. Luminescence will be measured and the data will be sent to ground. The experiment is scheduled for the Columbus Biolab early 2009. In preparation of this flight experiments the following procedures were investigated and the results will be presented: - a protocol for the cryoconservation and reconstituton of blue mussel hemocytes. - preliminary results of phagocytosis activity by reconstituted hemocytes after cryo-conservation and hemocytes without cryo-conservation treatment. The TRIPLELUX-B Experiment contributes to risk assessment concerning longterm immunotoxicity under space flight conditions. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The choice of the phagocytes from invertebrates is justified by the claim to study the

  11. Noninvasive ambulatory measurement system of cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Pino, Esteban J; Chavez, Javier A P; Aqueveque, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    This work implements a noninvasive system that measures the movements caused by cardiac activity. It uses unobtrusive Electro-Mechanical Films (EMFi) on the seat and on the backrest of a regular chair. The system detects ballistocardiogram (BCG) and respiration movements. Real data was obtained from 54 volunteers. 19 of them were measured in the laboratory and 35 in a hospital waiting room. Using a BIOPAC acquisition system, the ECG was measured simultaneously to the BCG for comparison. Wavelet Transform (WT) is a better option than Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) for signal extraction and produces higher effective measurement time. In the laboratory, the best results are obtained on the seat. The correlation index was 0.9800 and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement were 0.7136 ± 4.3673 [BPM]. In the hospital waiting room, the best results are also from the seat sensor. The correlation index was 0.9840, and the limits of agreement were 0.4386 ± 3.5884 [BPM]. The system is able to measure BCG in an unobtrusive way and determine the cardiac frequency with high precision. It is simple to use, which means the system can easily be used in non-standard settings: resting in a chair or couch, at the gym, schools or in a hospital waiting room, as shown. PMID:26738057

  12. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements

    PubMed Central

    Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574316

  13. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  14. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574316

  15. Using experienced activity spaces to measure foodscape exposure.

    PubMed

    Kestens, Yan; Lebel, Alexandre; Daniel, Mark; Thériault, Marius; Pampalon, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in understanding how food environments influence eating behavior and weight-related health outcomes. Little is known about the dose-response relationship between foodscapes and behavior or weight, with measures of food exposure having mainly focused on fixed anchor points including residential neighborhoods, schools, or workplaces. Recent calls have been made to extend the consideration of environmental influences beyond local neighborhoods and also to shift away from place-based, to people-based, measures of exposure. This report presents analyses of novel activity-space measures of exposure to foodscapes, combining travel survey data with food store locations in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada. The resulting individual activity-space experienced foodscape exposure measures differ from traditional residential-based measures, and show variations by age and income levels. Furthermore, these activity-space exposure measures once modeled, can be used as predictors of health outcomes. Hence, travel surveys can be used to estimate environmental exposure for health survey participants.

  16. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active

  17. Metabolic Thresholds and Validated Accelerometer Cutoff Points for the Actigraph GT1M in Young Children Based on Measurements of Locomotion and Play Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimmy, Gerda; Dossegger, Alain; Seiler, Roland; Mader, Urs

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine metabolic thresholds and subsequent activity intensity cutoff points for the ActiGraph GT1M with various epochs spanning from 5 to 60 sec in young children. Twenty-two children, aged 4 to 9 years, performed 10 different activities including locomotion and play activities. Energy expenditure was…

  18. Thermal vision measurement based on mapping transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongyue; Deng, Shanxi

    2006-11-01

    An active vision detection technology based on laser target is proposed in this paper for measuring the dimensions of thermal train wheels in workshop. A mapping transorm of histogram is used to restrain thermal background and extrude the laser target, therefore, it is necessary to search the transform threshold value. The color weights of the image background are analysed. A contrast of the laser targe stripe and a recognized error are pursued to a best threshold for image mapping transform. The experiments prove that the useful information of the laser target image is extruded and the recognized errors caused by the mapping transorm are less than 0.04 pixel. A theoretical foundation is set up for the laser target pick-up correctly and other image processing expediently.

  19. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Brown, Barbara B.; Werner, Carol M.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a spatially disaggregate level (such as street blocks) or at a spatially aggregate level (such as census block groups). A key issue is determining the spatial units for walkability measures so that they reflect potential walking behavior. This paper develops methods for assessing walkability within individual activity spaces: the geographic region accessible to an individual during a given walking trip. We first estimate street network-based activity spaces using the shortest path between known trip starting/ending points and a travel time budget that reflects potential alternative paths. Based on objective walkability measures of the street blocks, we use three summary measures for walkability within activity spaces: i) the average walkability score across block segments (representing the general level of walkability in the activity space); ii) the standard deviation (representing the walkability variation), and; iii) the network autocorrelation (representing the spatial coherence of the walkability pattern). We assess the method using data from an empirical study of built environment walkability and walking behavior in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. We visualize and map these activity space summary measures to compare walkability among individuals’ trips within their neighborhoods. We also compare summary measures for activity spaces versus census block groups, with the result that they agree less than half of the time. PMID:27213027

  20. Acausal measurement-based quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-01

    In measurement-based quantum computing, there is a natural "causal cone" among qubits of the resource state, since the measurement angle on a qubit has to depend on previous measurement results in order to correct the effect of by-product operators. If we respect the no-signaling principle, by-product operators cannot be avoided. Here we study the possibility of acausal measurement-based quantum computing by using the process matrix framework [Oreshkov, Costa, and Brukner, Nat. Commun. 3, 1092 (2012), 10.1038/ncomms2076]. We construct a resource process matrix for acausal measurement-based quantum computing restricting local operations to projective measurements. The resource process matrix is an analog of the resource state of the standard causal measurement-based quantum computing. We find that if we restrict local operations to projective measurements the resource process matrix is (up to a normalization factor and trivial ancilla qubits) equivalent to the decorated graph state created from the graph state of the corresponding causal measurement-based quantum computing. We also show that it is possible to consider a causal game whose causal inequality is violated by acausal measurement-based quantum computing.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF HUMAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS ON PERSONAL PM EXPOSURE: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FILTER-BASED AND CONTINUOUS PARTICLE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored 1998 Baltimore and 1999 Fresno PM Exposure Studies were analyzed to identify important microenvironments and activities that may lead to increased particle exposure for select elderly ...

  2. Validation of Self-Report Measures of Physical Activity: A Case Study Using the New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Lisa M.; Schofield, Grant M.; Schluter, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is fundamentally important in epidemiological research of physical activity behavior. A widely used telephone-based physical activity questionnaire was compared with other methods of administration and objective measures (pedometers and accelerometers) among 80 adults (43 women). The telephone…

  3. Measuring Gains in Critical Thinking in Food Science and Human Nutrition Courses: The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Problem-Based Learning Activities, and Student Journal Entries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…

  4. General SIC measurement-based entanglement detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Li, Tao; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2015-06-01

    We study the quantum separability problem by using general symmetric informationally complete measurements and present separability criteria for both -dimensional bipartite and multipartite systems. The criterion for bipartite quantum states is effective in detecting several well-known classes of quantum states. For isotropic states, it becomes both necessary and sufficient. Furthermore, our criteria can be experimentally implemented, and the criterion for two-qudit states requires less local measurements than the one based on mutually unbiased measurements.

  5. Measures of activity-based pedestrian exposure to the risk of vehicle-pedestrian collisions: space-time path vs. potential path tree methods.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shenjun; Loo, Becky P Y; Lam, Winnie W Y

    2015-02-01

    Research on the extent to which pedestrians are exposed to road collision risk is important to the improvement of pedestrian safety. As precise geographical information is often difficult and costly to collect, this study proposes a potential path tree method derived from time geography concepts in measuring pedestrian exposure. With negative binomial regression (NBR) and geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) models, the proposed probabilistic two-anchor-point potential path tree (PPT) approach (including the equal and weighted PPT methods) are compared with the deterministic space-time path (STP) method. The results indicate that both STP and PPT methods are useful tools in measuring pedestrian exposure. While the STP method can save much time, the PPT methods outperform the STP method in explaining the underlying vehicle-pedestrian collision pattern. Further research efforts are needed to investigate the influence of walking speed and route choice.

  6. Measures of activity-based pedestrian exposure to the risk of vehicle-pedestrian collisions: space-time path vs. potential path tree methods.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shenjun; Loo, Becky P Y; Lam, Winnie W Y

    2015-02-01

    Research on the extent to which pedestrians are exposed to road collision risk is important to the improvement of pedestrian safety. As precise geographical information is often difficult and costly to collect, this study proposes a potential path tree method derived from time geography concepts in measuring pedestrian exposure. With negative binomial regression (NBR) and geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) models, the proposed probabilistic two-anchor-point potential path tree (PPT) approach (including the equal and weighted PPT methods) are compared with the deterministic space-time path (STP) method. The results indicate that both STP and PPT methods are useful tools in measuring pedestrian exposure. While the STP method can save much time, the PPT methods outperform the STP method in explaining the underlying vehicle-pedestrian collision pattern. Further research efforts are needed to investigate the influence of walking speed and route choice. PMID:25555021

  7. Measuring emotion in advertising research: prefrontal brain activity.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Richard B; Nield, Geoffrey E

    2012-01-01

    With the current interest in the role of emotion in advertising and advertising research, there has been an increasing interest in the use of various brain activity measures to access nonverbal emotional responses. One such approach relies on measuring the difference between left and right hemisphere prefrontal cortical activity to assess like and dislike. This approach is based on electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging work, suggesting that the approach/withdrawal (frequently but not always associated with like/dislike) dimension of emotion is indicated by the balance of activity between the left and right prefrontal cortex. Much of this work was initiated by Richard Davidson in the early 1990s. An early study by Davidson et al. measured brain electrical activity to assess patterns of activation during the experience of happiness and disgust. The authors reported that disgust was found to be associated with increased right-sided activation in the frontal and anterior temporal regions compared with happiness. In contrast, happiness was found to be accompanied by left-sided activation in the anterior temporal region compared with disgust. Early reports suggested that frontal laterality indexes motivational valence with positive emotions (happy, like) associated with left greater than the right frontal activity and vice versa. Although these findings appear to be consistent with personality traits (e.g., optimism pessimism), state changes in frontal laterality appears to index approach withdraw rather than emotional valence. Interestingly, the behavioral and motivational correlates of prefrontal asymmetric activity are not restricted to humans or even primates but have been observed in numerous species such as birds and fish (see [4]). Henceforth, we use the term motivational valence (MV) rather than the more cumbersome term approach withdraw. PMID:22678836

  8. Feasibility study of activity measurement of positron emitters based on gamma-gamma coincident detection by two NaI(Tl) detectors.

    PubMed

    Volkovitsky, Peter; Unterweger, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Detection of two and more γ-rays in coincidence by two NaI(Tl) detectors with almost 4π geometry allows absolute characterization of radionuclides emitting coincidence gammas. The method is a generalization of the Eldridge-Crowther method developed originally for x-rays and low energy γ-rays. This method is applied to the case of (94)Nb decay with two coincident gamma-rays emitted in one cascade. The application of this method for the case of coincident positron-gamma emission ((22)Na and (26)Al sources) meets some difficulties. In these decays, two 511 keV gamma quanta produced in positron annihilation are strongly correlated. Despite the fact that the third gamma emitted in (22)Na and (26)Al decays is not correlated with two annihilation quanta, the number of independent observables for (22)Na and (26)Al decays is less than the number of unknowns. The small parameter ω(00), the probability that both annihilation quanta escape detection in both NaI(Tl) detectors, cannot be determined. However, if this parameter is defined from experimental data for one source with known activity ((22)Na), the activity of the other source ((26)Al) can be calculated from experimental data for (26)Al decay.

  9. A novel method for the activity measurement of large-area beta reference sources.

    PubMed

    Stanga, D; De Felice, P; Keightley, J; Capogni, M; Ioan, M R

    2016-03-01

    A novel method has been developed for the activity measurement of large-area beta reference sources. It makes use of two emission rate measurements and is based on the weak dependence between the source activity and the activity distribution for a given value of transmission coefficient. The method was checked experimentally by measuring the activity of two ((60)Co and (137)Cs) large-area reference sources constructed from anodized aluminum foils. Measurement results were compared with the activity values measured by gamma spectrometry. For each source, they agree within one standard uncertainty and also agree within the same limits with the certified values of the source activity. PMID:26701656

  10. Correlation between pedometer and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire on physical activity measurement in office workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the correlation of physical activity levels assessed by pedometer and those by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a population of office workers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 office workers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to each office worker by hand. Physical activity level was objectively assessed by a pedometer for 7 consecutive days and subjectively assessed by the GPAQ. Based on the pedometer and GPAQ outcomes, participants were classified into 3 groups: inactive, moderately active, and highly active. Results No correlation in the physical activity level assessed by the pedometer and GPAQ was found (rs = .08, P = 0.15). When considering the pedometer as the criterion for comparison, 65.3% of participants had underestimated their physical activity level using the GPAQ, whereas 9.3% of participants overestimated their physical activity level. Conclusions Physical activity level in office workers assessed by a subjective measure was greatly different from assessed by an objective tool. Consequently, research on physical activity level, especially in those with sedentary lifestyle, should consider using an objective measure to ensure that it closely reflects a person’s physical activity level. PMID:24886593

  11. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra and Temperature Analyses based on Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Moore, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Some initial results of soft x-ray spectral (0.5 to 3.0 nm) observations of active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) from a sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT are reported. These observations were made by a Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a rocket version of the EUV Variability Experiment’s (EVE) channel, a pinhole camera modified for EVE rocket suite of instruments to include a free-standing transmission grating (200 nm period), which provided spectrally-resolved images of the solar disk. Intensity ratios for strong emission lines extracted from temporally averaged SAM spectral profiles of the ARs were compared to appropriately convolved modeled CHIANTI spectra. These ratios represent the AR’s temperature structures, which are compared to the structures derived from some other observations and temperature models.

  12. Quantifying ant activity using vibration measurements.

    PubMed

    Oberst, Sebastian; Baro, Enrique Nava; Lai, Joseph C S; Evans, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    Ant behaviour is of great interest due to their sociality. Ant behaviour is typically observed visually, however there are many circumstances where visual observation is not possible. It may be possible to assess ant behaviour using vibration signals produced by their physical movement. We demonstrate through a series of bioassays with different stimuli that the level of activity of meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus) can be quantified using vibrations, corresponding to observations with video. We found that ants exposed to physical shaking produced the highest average vibration amplitudes followed by ants with stones to drag, then ants with neighbours, illuminated ants and ants in darkness. In addition, we devised a novel method based on wavelet decomposition to separate the vibration signal owing to the initial ant behaviour from the substrate response, which will allow signals recorded from different substrates to be compared directly. Our results indicate the potential to use vibration signals to classify some ant behaviours in situations where visual observation could be difficult.

  13. Measuring In Vitro ATPase Activity for Enzymatic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Rule, Chelsea S; Patrick, Marcella; Sandkvist, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes, or ATPases, play a critical role in a diverse array of cellular functions. These dynamic proteins can generate energy for mechanical work, such as protein trafficking and degradation, solute transport, and cellular movements. The protocol described here is a basic assay for measuring the in vitro activity of purified ATPases for functional characterization. Proteins hydrolyze ATP in a reaction that results in inorganic phosphate release, and the amount of phosphate liberated is then quantitated using a colorimetric assay. This highly adaptable protocol can be adjusted to measure ATPase activity in kinetic or endpoint assays. A representative protocol is provided here based on the activity and requirements of EpsE, the AAA+ ATPase involved in Type II Secretion in the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The amount of purified protein needed to measure activity, length of the assay and the timing and number of sampling intervals, buffer and salt composition, temperature, co-factors, stimulants (if any), etc. may vary from those described here, and thus some optimization may be necessary. This protocol provides a basic framework for characterizing ATPases and can be performed quickly and easily adjusted as necessary. PMID:27584824

  14. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  15. Measurement-based reliability/performability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsueh, Mei-Chen

    1987-01-01

    Measurement-based models based on real error-data collected on a multiprocessor system are described. Model development from the raw error-data to the estimation of cumulative reward is also described. A workload/reliability model is developed based on low-level error and resource usage data collected on an IBM 3081 system during its normal operation in order to evaluate the resource usage/error/recovery process in a large mainframe system. Thus, both normal and erroneous behavior of the system are modeled. The results provide an understanding of the different types of errors and recovery processes. The measured data show that the holding times in key operational and error states are not simple exponentials and that a semi-Markov process is necessary to model the system behavior. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the significance of using a semi-Markov process, as opposed to a Markov process, to model the measured system.

  16. Radiometer Design Analysis Based Upon Measurement Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racette, Paul E.; Lang, Roger H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for predicting the performance of a radiometer design based on calculating the measurement uncertainty. The variety in radiometer designs and the demand for improved radiometric measurements justify the need for a more general and comprehensive method to assess system performance. Radiometric resolution, or sensitivity, is a figure of merit that has been commonly used to characterize the performance of a radiometer. However when evaluating the performance of a calibration design for a radiometer, the use of radiometric resolution has limited application. These limitations are overcome by considering instead the measurement uncertainty. A method for calculating measurement uncertainty for a generic radiometer design including its calibration algorithm is presented. The result is a generalized technique by which system calibration architectures and design parameters can be studied to optimize instrument performance for given requirements and constraints. Example applications demonstrate the utility of using measurement uncertainty as a figure of merit.

  17. Magnetic space-based field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Satellite measurements of the geomagnetic field began with the launch of Sputnik 3 in May 1958 and have continued sporadically in the intervening years. A list of spacecraft that have made significant contributions to an understanding of the near-earth geomagnetic field is presented. A new era in near-earth magnetic field measurements began with NASA's launch of Magsat in October 1979. Attention is given to geomagnetic field modeling, crustal magnetic anomaly studies, and investigations of the inner earth. It is concluded that satellite-based magnetic field measurements make global surveys practical for both field modeling and for the mapping of large-scale crustal anomalies. They are the only practical method of accurately modeling the global secular variation. Magsat is providing a significant contribution, both because of the timeliness of the survey and because its vector measurement capability represents an advance in the technology of such measurements.

  18. Using activity-based costing in surgery.

    PubMed

    Grandlich, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING is an accounting technique that allows organizations to determine actual costs associated with their services based on the resources they consume. THIS TECHNIQUE can be used in a variety of ways, including targeting high-cost activities, forecasting financial baselines, and supporting resource allocation. FOUR STEPS should be followed when applying activity-based costing to surgical procedures. THIS ARTICLE explores how Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, used activity-based costing.

  19. Image analysis to measure activity index of animals.

    PubMed

    Bloemen, H; Aerts, J M; Berckmans, D; Goedseels, V

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the study was to present a method to quantify the behavioural response of animals to their micro-environment by using a camera system and a digitiser board. An algorithm was developed for analysing images and calculating activity, occupied zone and boundary of the animals. The developed method was tested on 3 different applications and animals. In the first application, the behavioural responses of broiler chickens to their thermal environment was measured. In the second application behavioural responses of pigs to their thermal environment were measured. In the third application, the response of water fleas to a chromium pollution was measured using the developed technique. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that the developed image analysis technique can be employed to quantify the behavioural responses of the tested animals to their micro-environment, in an easy and accurate way.

  20. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Jane Louie Fresco; Kashihara, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values.

  1. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Jane Louie Fresco; Kashihara, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values. PMID:26421312

  2. Lunar base activities and the lunar environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    1992-09-01

    The Moon is an attractive site for astronomical observatories and other facilities because of the absence of a substantial lunar atmosphere and the stability of the lunar surface. The present lunar atmosphere is sufficiently transparent that there is no significant image distortion due to absorption or refraction. This thin atmosphere results from a combination of small sources and prompt losses. The major source that has been identified is the solar wind, whose total mass input into the lunar atmosphere is approximately 50 gm/sec. The major components of the solar wind are light elements (H and He) that promptly escape from the lunar surface by exospheric evaporation (Jeans' escape). The principal atmospheric loss mechanism for heavier gases is photoionization within a period of weeks to months, followed by immediate loss to the solar wind. Lunar base activities will modify the lunar atmosphere if gas is released at a larger rate than that now occurring naturally. Possible gas sources are rocket exhaust, processing of lunar materials, venting of pressurized volumes, and astronaut life support systems. For even modest lunar base activity, such sources will substantially exceed natural sources, although effects are expected to be localized and transient. The Apollo database serves as a useful reference for both measurements of the natural lunar environment and its modification by lunar base activities.

  3. Lunar base activities and the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon is an attractive site for astronomical observatories and other facilities because of the absence of a substantial lunar atmosphere and the stability of the lunar surface. The present lunar atmosphere is sufficiently transparent that there is no significant image distortion due to absorption or refraction. This thin atmosphere results from a combination of small sources and prompt losses. The major source that has been identified is the solar wind, whose total mass input into the lunar atmosphere is approximately 50 gm/sec. The major components of the solar wind are light elements (H and He) that promptly escape from the lunar surface by exospheric evaporation (Jeans' escape). The principal atmospheric loss mechanism for heavier gases is photoionization within a period of weeks to months, followed by immediate loss to the solar wind. Lunar base activities will modify the lunar atmosphere if gas is released at a larger rate than that now occurring naturally. Possible gas sources are rocket exhaust, processing of lunar materials, venting of pressurized volumes, and astronaut life support systems. For even modest lunar base activity, such sources will substantially exceed natural sources, although effects are expected to be localized and transient. The Apollo database serves as a useful reference for both measurements of the natural lunar environment and its modification by lunar base activities.

  4. Measurement of optical activity of honey bee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Salgado-Verduzco, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Optical activity of some substances, such as chiral molecules, often exhibits circular birefringence. Circular birefringence causes rotation of the vibration plane of the plane polarized light as it passes through the substance. In this work we present optical characterization of honey as function of the optical activity when it is placed in a polariscope that consists of a light source and properly arranged polarizing elements.

  5. Measurement of myeloid cell immune suppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Dolcetti, Luigi; Peranzoni, Elisa; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2010-11-01

    This unit presents simple methods to assess the immunosuppressive properties of immunoregulatory cells of myeloid origin, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), both in vitro and in vivo. These methods are general and could be adapted to test the impact of different suppressive populations on T cell activation, proliferation, and cytotoxic activity; moreover they could be useful to assess the influence exerted on immune suppressive pathways by genetic modifications, chemical inhibitors, and drugs.

  6. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  7. Activity-Based Costing Systems for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Dennis H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines traditional costing models utilized in higher education and pinpoints shortcomings related to proper identification of costs. Describes activity-based costing systems as a superior alternative for cost identification, measurement, and allocation. (MLF)

  8. Calibrating a novel multi-sensor physical activity measurement system

    PubMed Central

    John, D; Liu, S; Sasaki, J E; Howe, C A; Staudenmayer, J; Gao, R X; Freedson, P S

    2011-01-01

    Advancing the field of physical activity (PA) monitoring requires the development of innovative multi-sensor measurement systems that are feasible in the free-living environment. The use of novel analytical techniques to combine and process these multiple sensor signals is equally important. This paper, describes a novel multi-sensor ‘Integrated PA Measurement System’ (IMS), the lab-based methodology used to calibrate the IMS, techniques used to predict multiple variables from the sensor signals, and proposes design changes to improve the feasibility of deploying the IMS in the free-living environment. The IMS consists of hip and wrist acceleration sensors, two piezoelectric respiration sensors on the torso, and an ultraviolet radiation sensor to obtain contextual information (indoors vs. outdoors) of PA. During lab-based calibration of the IMS, data were collected on participants performing a PA routine consisting of seven different ambulatory and free-living activities while wearing a portable metabolic unit (criterion measure) and the IMS. Data analyses on the first 50 adult participants are presented. These analyses were used to determine if the IMS can be used to predict the variables of interest. Finally, physical modifications for the IMS that could enhance feasibility of free-living use are proposed and refinement of the prediction techniques is discussed. PMID:21813941

  9. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. M.; Counsell, G.; Johnson, D.; Vasu, P.; Zvonkov, A.

    2010-10-15

    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale ({approx}1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  10. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D M; Counsell, G; Johnson, D; Vasu, P; Zvonkov, A

    2010-10-01

    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale (∼1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  11. Active-imaging-based underwater navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnin, David; Schmitt, Gwenaël.; Fischer, Colin; Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are widely used for the localization and the navigation of unmanned and remotely operated vehicles (ROV). In contrast to ground or aerial vehicles, GNSS cannot be employed for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) without the use of a communication link to the water surface, since satellite signals cannot be received underwater. However, underwater autonomous navigation is still possible using self-localization methods which determines the relative location of an AUV with respect to a reference location using inertial measurement units (IMU), depth sensors and even sometimes radar or sonar imaging. As an alternative or a complementary solution to common underwater reckoning techniques, we present the first results of a feasibility study of an active-imaging-based localization method which uses a range-gated active-imaging system and can yield radiometric and odometric information even in turbid water.

  12. Methods of measuring Protein Disulfide Isomerase activity: a critical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Monica; Laurindo, Francisco; Fernandes, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is an essential redox chaperone from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is responsible for correct disulfide bond formation in nascent proteins. PDI is also found in other cellular locations in the cell, particularly the cell surface. Overall, PDI contributes to ER and global cell redox homeostasis and signaling. The knowledge about PDI structure and function progressed substantially based on in vitro studies using recombinant PDI and chimeric proteins. In these experimental scenarios, PDI reductase and chaperone activities are readily approachable. In contrast, assays to measure PDI isomerase activity, the hallmark of PDI family, are more complex. Assessment of PDI roles in cells and tissues mainly relies on gain- or loss-of-function studies. However, there is limited information regarding correlation of experimental readouts with the distinct types of PDI activities. In this mini-review, we evaluate the main methods described for measuring the different kinds of PDI activity: thiol reductase, thiol oxidase, thiol isomerase and chaperone. We emphasize the need to use appropriate controls and the role of critical interferents (e.g., detergent, presence of reducing agents). We also discuss the translation of results from in vitro studies with purified recombinant PDI to cellular and tissue samples, with critical comments on the interpretation of results.

  13. Measurement of active drag during crawl arm stroke swimming.

    PubMed

    Hollander, A P; De Groot, G; van Ingen Schenau, G J; Toussaint, H M; De Best, H; Peeters, W; Meulemans, A; Schreurs, A W

    1986-01-01

    In order to measure active drag during front crawl swimming a system has been designed, built and tested. A tube (23 m long) with grips is fixed under the water surface and the swimmer crawls on this. At one end of the tube, a force transducer is attached to the wall of the swimming pool. It measures the momentary effective propulsive forces of the hands. During the measurements the subjects' legs are fixed together and supported by a buoy. After filtering and digitizing the electrical force signal, the mean propulsive force over one lane at constant speeds (ranging from about 1 to 2 m s-1) was calculated. The regression equation of the force on the speed turned out to be almost quadratic. At a mean speed of 1.55 m s-1 the mean force was 66.3 N. The accuracy of this force measured on one subject at different days was 4.1 N. The observed force, which is equal to the mean drag force, fits remarkably well with passive drag force values as well as with values calculated for propulsive forces during actual swimming reported in the literature. The use of the system does not interfere to any large extent with normal front crawl swimming; this conclusion is based on results of observations of film by skilled swim coaches. It was concluded that the system provides a good method of studying active drag and its relation to anthropometric variables and swimming technique.

  14. Measuring Physical Activity in the Elderly: Some Implications for Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of physical activity patterns is discussed in terms of data obtained by attitude assessment, activity questionnaires, personal monitoring devices, and fitness assessment. Problems of each technique are described. Application of activity measures to the estimation of total dietary needs is discussed. (SK)

  15. 12 CFR 1806.201 - Measuring and reporting Qualified Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Measuring and reporting Qualified Activities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.201 Measuring and reporting Qualified... applicable BEA NOFA for current limitations on Qualified Activities. (e) Measuring the Value of...

  16. Vehicle lateral state estimation based on measured tyre forces.

    PubMed

    Tuononen, Ari J

    2009-01-01

    Future active safety systems need more accurate information about the state of vehicles. This article proposes a method to evaluate the lateral state of a vehicle based on measured tyre forces. The tyre forces of two tyres are estimated from optically measured tyre carcass deflections and transmitted wirelessly to the vehicle body. The two remaining tyres are so-called virtual tyre sensors, the forces of which are calculated from the real tyre sensor estimates. The Kalman filter estimator for lateral vehicle state based on measured tyre forces is presented, together with a simple method to define adaptive measurement error covariance depending on the driving condition of the vehicle. The estimated yaw rate and lateral velocity are compared with the validation sensor measurements. PMID:22291535

  17. Vehicle Lateral State Estimation Based on Measured Tyre Forces

    PubMed Central

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2009-01-01

    Future active safety systems need more accurate information about the state of vehicles. This article proposes a method to evaluate the lateral state of a vehicle based on measured tyre forces. The tyre forces of two tyres are estimated from optically measured tyre carcass deflections and transmitted wirelessly to the vehicle body. The two remaining tyres are so-called virtual tyre sensors, the forces of which are calculated from the real tyre sensor estimates. The Kalman filter estimator for lateral vehicle state based on measured tyre forces is presented, together with a simple method to define adaptive measurement error covariance depending on the driving condition of the vehicle. The estimated yaw rate and lateral velocity are compared with the validation sensor measurements. PMID:22291535

  18. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  19. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  20. Active microwave measurement of soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Cihlar, J.; Moore, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of radar backscatter from bare soil at 4.7, 5.9, and 7.1 GHz for incident angles of 0-70 deg have been analyzed to determine sensitivity to soil moisture. Because the effective depth of penetration of the radar signal is only about one skin depth, the observed signals were correlated with the moisture in a skin depth as characterized by the attenuation coefficient (reciprocal of skin depth). Since the attenuation coefficient is a monotonically increasing function of moisture density, it may also be used as a measure of moisture content over the distance involved, which varies with frequency and moisture content. The measurements show an approximately linear increase in scattering with attenuation coefficient of the soil at angles within 10 deg of vertical and all frequencies. At 4.7 GHz this increase continues relatively large out to 70 deg incidence, but by 7.1 GHz the sensitivity is much less even at 20 deg and practically gone at 50 deg.

  1. Measurement of dust concentration based on VBAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, You; Wang, Ninghui

    2013-03-01

    There are almost no economic and management solutions in automated measurement of dust concentration of magnesium oxide smelting electric arc furnace mouth. Nearly a thousand degrees of heat and the strong magnetic fields created by high-current Constitutes a serious interference with the sensor. This makes close-contact measurement method becomes almost impossible. To solve the above problem, this paper proposes a measurement scheme based on VBAI (Vision Builder for Automated Inspection, a software developed by National Instruments) to calculate the dust concentration. It uses visual analysis of the means to calculate the number of dust particles per unit volume of. And then it calculates the dust concentration. Though the analysis of the actual photo of the smelting site, the relative dust concentration in the mouth of the furnace is calculate. This method will be applied to the precipitator 70 kW motor inverter control and has a high recognition rate and significant application prospects.

  2. A creatinine biosensor based on admittance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Sun, Tai-Ping; Jheng, Deng-Yun; Tsai, Hou-Wei; Shieh, Hsiu-Li

    2015-08-01

    Regular check of blood creatinine level is very important as it is a measurement of renal function. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a simple and reliable creatinine biosensor based on admittance measurement for precise determination of creatinine. The creatinine biosensor was fabricated with creatinine deiminase immobilized on screen-printed carbon electrodes. Admittance measurement at a specific frequency ranges (22.80 - 84.71 Hz) showed that the biosensor has an excellent linear (r2 > 0.95) response range (50 - 250 uM), which covers the normal physiological and pathological ranges of blood creatinine levels. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed that the biosensor has excellent reliability and validity (ICC = 0.98). In conclusion, a simple and reliable creatinine biosensor was developed and it is capable of precisely determining blood creatinine levels in both the normal physiological and pathological ranges.

  3. Trusted measurement model based on multitenant behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhen-Hu; Shen, Chang-Xiang; Zhao, Yong; Liang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    With a fast growing pervasive computing, especially cloud computing, the behaviour measurement is at the core and plays a vital role. A new behaviour measurement tailored for Multitenants in cloud computing is needed urgently to fundamentally establish trust relationship. Based on our previous research, we propose an improved trust relationship scheme which captures the world of cloud computing where multitenants share the same physical computing platform. Here, we first present the related work on multitenant behaviour; secondly, we give the scheme of behaviour measurement where decoupling of multitenants is taken into account; thirdly, we explicitly explain our decoupling algorithm for multitenants; fourthly, we introduce a new way of similarity calculation for deviation control, which fits the coupled multitenants under study well; lastly, we design the experiments to test our scheme.

  4. Trusted Measurement Model Based on Multitenant Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Zhen-Hu; Shen, Chang-Xiang; Zhao, Yong; Liang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    With a fast growing pervasive computing, especially cloud computing, the behaviour measurement is at the core and plays a vital role. A new behaviour measurement tailored for Multitenants in cloud computing is needed urgently to fundamentally establish trust relationship. Based on our previous research, we propose an improved trust relationship scheme which captures the world of cloud computing where multitenants share the same physical computing platform. Here, we first present the related work on multitenant behaviour; secondly, we give the scheme of behaviour measurement where decoupling of multitenants is taken into account; thirdly, we explicitly explain our decoupling algorithm for multitenants; fourthly, we introduce a new way of similarity calculation for deviation control, which fits the coupled multitenants under study well; lastly, we design the experiments to test our scheme. PMID:24987731

  5. [An electrochemical method for measuring metabolic activity and counting cells].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, B a; Khlupova, M e; Shleev, S V; Kaprel'iants, A S; Iaropolov, A I

    2006-01-01

    An express electrochemical method for determining the metabolic activity of live cells based on the possibility of an electron exchange between an electrode and elements of the biological electron transfer chain in the presence of a mediator is proposed. This method is useful for studying any live cells (animal, plant, and microbial), including anaerobic, dormant, and spore cells. The sample preparation and measurement itself does not take more than 30 min. The detection limit in a volume of 15 ml amounts to 10-5 cells/ml. The applicability of the assessment method of the metabolic activity level during the transition of the bacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis into an uncultivable dormant state was demonstrated. This method is of special value for medicine and environmental control, detecting latent forms of pathogens. An optimal combination of the methods for the express analysis of latent pathogens is proposed. PMID:17066962

  6. Active doublet method for measuring small changes in physical properties

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Peter M.; Fehler, Michael C.; Johnson, Paul A.; Phillips, W. Scott

    1994-01-01

    Small changes in material properties of a work piece are detected by measuring small changes in elastic wave velocity and attenuation within a work piece. Active, repeatable source generate coda wave responses from a work piece, where the coda wave responses are temporally displaced. By analyzing progressive relative phase and amplitude changes between the coda wave responses as a function of elapsed time, accurate determinations of velocity and attenuation changes are made. Thus, a small change in velocity occurring within a sample region during the time periods between excitation origin times (herein called "doublets") will produce a relative delay that changes with elapsed time over some portion of the scattered waves. This trend of changing delay is easier to detect than an isolated delay based on a single arrival and provides a direct measure of elastic wave velocity changes arising from changed material properties of the work piece.

  7. Towards Fast In-line Measurement of Water Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J.; Andreasen, M. B.; Pedersen, M.; Rasmussen, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    Water activity is widely used as a key parameter in controlling the quality of food and feed products, among others. For determining the water activity, the material is sampled from the manufacturing process and measured in the laboratory with water activity analyzers. The sampling procedure can lead to non-representative measurements, the measurement process is time consuming, and much of the produced material may be wasted before the measurement results are available. To reduce waste and to be able to optimize production processes, industry requires in-line measurement of relevant quality determining parameters, hereunder the water activity. In cooperation with a manufacturer of systems for automatic in-line sampling and measurement of moisture, density, and the size of items, a project was defined to also enable the manufacturer's existing products to perform automatic measurement of the water activity in a sample. The aim was to develop a measurement system with the ability to operate in an industrial environment, which in the end would increase the measurement speed significantly and minimize the problems related to the handling of samples. In the paper the selection and characterization of the sensors, the design of a measurement chamber, and various issues of modeling and methods to reduce measurement time are discussed. The paper also presents water activity measurements obtained from food and feed products with the system, and shows that reliable results can be obtained in a few minutes with a proper design of the measurement chamber and selection of a model.

  8. Human body contour data based activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate. PMID:24111015

  9. Human body contour data based activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate.

  10. Activity Based Curriculum for Elementary Education. Additional Activities, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Public Schools, KS.

    This elementary curriculum is a vehicle to provide manipulative activities that reinforce academic skills through meaningful, relevant, activity-based awareness of modern society. The twenty-six activity plans included in the curriculum place a major emphasis upon realistic or concrete experiences that deal with the manipulation and exploration of…

  11. Property-Based Software Engineering Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1995-01-01

    Little theory exists in the field of software system measurement. Concepts such as complexity, coupling, cohesion or even size are very often subject to interpretation and appear to have inconsistent definitions in the literature. As a consequence, there is little guidance provided to the analyst attempting to define proper measures for specific problems. Many controversies in the literature are simply misunderstandings and stem from the fact that some people talk about different measurement concepts under the same label (complexity is the most common case). There is a need to define unambiguously the most important measurement concepts used in the measurement of software products. One way of doing so is to define precisely what mathematical properties characterize these concepts regardless of the specific software artifacts to which these concepts are applied. Such a mathematical framework could generate a consensus in the software engineering community and provide a means for better communication among researchers, better guidelines for analysis, and better evaluation methods for commercial static analyzers for practitioners. In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework which is generic, because it is not specific to any particular software artifact, and rigorous, because it is based on precise mathematical concepts. This framework defines several important measurement concepts (size, length, complexity, cohesion, coupling). It is not intended to be complete or fully objective; other frameworks could have been proposed and different choices could have been made. However, we believe that the formalism and properties we introduce are convenient and intuitive. In addition, we have reviewed the literature on this subject and compared it with our work. This framework contributes constructively to a firmer theoretical ground of software measurement.

  12. Property-Based Software Engineering Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1997-01-01

    Little theory exists in the field of software system measurement. Concepts such as complexity, coupling, cohesion or even size are very often subject to interpretation and appear to have inconsistent definitions in the literature. As a consequence, there is little guidance provided to the analyst attempting to define proper measures for specific problems. Many controversies in the literature are simply misunderstandings and stem from the fact that some people talk about different measurement concepts under the same label (complexity is the most common case). There is a need to define unambiguously the most important measurement concepts used in the measurement of software products. One way of doing so is to define precisely what mathematical properties characterize these concepts, regardless of the specific software artifacts to which these concepts are applied. Such a mathematical framework could generate a consensus in the software engineering community and provide a means for better communication among researchers, better guidelines for analysts, and better evaluation methods for commercial static analyzers for practitioners. In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework which is generic, because it is not specific to any particular software artifact and rigorous, because it is based on precise mathematical concepts. We use this framework to propose definitions of several important measurement concepts (size, length, complexity, cohesion, coupling). It does not intend to be complete or fully objective; other frameworks could have been proposed and different choices could have been made. However, we believe that the formalisms and properties we introduce are convenient and intuitive. This framework contributes constructively to a firmer theoretical ground of software measurement.

  13. Non-contact Laser-based Human Respiration Rate Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalise, L.; Marchionni, P.; Ercoli, I.

    2011-08-01

    At present the majority of the instrumentation, used in clinical environments, to measure human respiration rate are based on invasive and contact devices. The gold standard instrument is considered the spirometer which is largely used; it needs a direct contact and requires a collaboration by the patient. Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDVi) is an optical, non-contact measurement system for the assessment of a surface velocity and displacement. LDVi has already been used for the measurement of the cardiac activity and for the measurement of the chest-wall displacements. The aims of this work are to select the best measurement point on the thoracic surface for LDVi monitoring of the respiration rate (RR) and to compare measured data with the RR valued provided by the spirometer. The measurement system is composed by a LDV system and a data acquisition board installed on a PC. Tests were made on 10 different point of the thorax for each patient. Patients population was composed by 33 subjects (17 male and 16 female). The optimal measurement point was chosen considering the maximum peak-to-peak value of the displacement measured by LDV. Before extracting RR we have used a special wavelet decomposition for better selection of the expiration peaks. A standard spirometer was used for the validation of the data. From tests it results that the optimal measurement point, namely is located on the inferior part of the thoracic region (left, front side). From our tests we have obtained a close correlation between the RR values measured by the spirometer and those measured by the proposed method: a difference of 14±211 ms on the RR value is reported for the entire population of 33 subjects. Our method allows a no-contact measurement of lungs activity (respiration period), reducing the electric and biological risks. Moreover it allows to measure in critical environment like in RMN or in burned skin where is difficult or impossible to apply electrodes.

  14. Neutron Yield Measurements via Aluminum Activation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-08

    Neutron activation of aluminum may occur by several neutron capture reactions. Four such reactions are described here: {sup 27}Al + n = {sup 28}Al, {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na, {sup 27}Al(n, 2n){sup 26}Al and {sup 27}Al(n,p){sup 27}Mg. The radioactive nuclei {sup 28}Al, {sup 24}Na, and {sup 27}Mg, which are produced via the {sup 27}Al + n = {sup 28}Al, {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na and {sup 27}Al(n,p){sup 27}Mg neutron reactions, beta decay to excited states of {sup 28}Si, {sup 24}Mg and {sup 27}Al respectively. These excited states then emit gamma rays as the nuclei de-excite to their respective ground states.

  15. Measuring Physical Activity in Outdoor Community Recreational Environments: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sydney A.; Stransky, Michelle; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major contributors to escalating health care costs in the USA. Physical activity is an important protective factor against CVD, and the National Prevention Strategy recognizes active living (defined as a way of life that integrates physical activity into everyday routines) as a priority for improving the nation’s health. This paper focuses on developing more inclusive measures of physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, specifically parks and trails, to enhance their usability for at-risk populations such as persons with mobility limitations. We develop an integrated conceptual framework for measuring physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, describe examples of evidence-based tools for measuring physical activity in these settings, and discuss strategies to improve measurement of physical activity for persons with mobility limitations. Addressing these measurement issues is critically important to making progress towards national CVD goals pertaining to active community environments. PMID:26005510

  16. Comparison of Mercury Measurement Methods Using Two Active Filter Measurement Methods and a Tekran Speciation Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, A.; Gustin, M. S.; Huang, J.; Heidecorn, K.

    2014-12-01

    Three active mercury (Hg) measurement methods were operated side by side at an urban site (University of Nevada, Reno College of Agriculture Greenhouse facility, elev. 1370 m) in Reno, and at a high elevation site (Peavine Peak, elev. 2515 m) adjacent to Reno from December 2013 to October 2014. A model 602 BetaPlus Teledyne Advanced Pollution Instrumentation (TAPI, San Diego, CA USA) particulate measurement system was used to collect particulate matter on a 47 mm diameter cation exchange membrane (CEM, PN# MSTGS3R Mustang S, Pall Corp. Port Washington, NY) at a rate of 16.7 lpm for 24 hours to four days. Particulate concentrations were calculated using beta attenuation across the filters (non-destructive to filter material); the CEM filters were then analyzed for total Hg on a Tekran Total Hg Analysis system (model 2600, Tekran Instruments Corp. Knoxville, TN, USA). Concurrently, samples were collected on an active Hg membrane system. The active Hg membrane system consisted of 3 CEM filters sampling at a rate of 1 lpm for one to two weeks. CEM filters were then analyzed on the Tekran 2600. A Tekran speciation unit (model 1130, 1135, 2537) was also in operation and ambient air samples were analyzed for gaseous elemental Hg (GEM), gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM), and particulate bound Hg (PBM). Both the 602 BetaPlus system and the active Hg membrane system should collect RM on the CEM filters. The active Hg membrane system most likely captures mainly GOM based on previous tests with the Teflon inlet setup that indicated there was high static electricity effective in removing particulate matter. Flow rate and length of measurement (24 hours vs. four days) affected the Hg concentrations on the 602 BetaPlus system. Based on these measurements we hypothesize that, due to the high flow rate, and therefore short retention time, the 602 BetaPlus only captured PBM. It is also possible that there was loss of Hg to inlet walls due to the longer inlet on the 602 BetaPlus system

  17. Electromagnetic Measurements in an Active Oilfield Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, K. A.; Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Weiss, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    An important issue in oilfield development pertains to mapping and monitoring of the fracture distributions (either natural or man-made) controlling subsurface fluid flow. Although microseismic monitoring and analysis have been used for this purpose for several decades, there remain several ambiguities and uncertainties with this approach. We are investigating a novel electromagnetic (EM) technique for detecting and mapping hydraulic fractures in a petroleum reservoir by injecting an electrically conductive contrast agent into an open fracture. The fracture is subsequently illuminated by a strong EM field radiated by a large engineered antenna. Specifically, a grounded electric current source is applied directly to the steel casing of the borehole, either at/near the wellhead or at a deep downhole point. Transient multicomponent EM signals (both electric and magnetic) scattered by the conductivity contrast are then recorded by a surface receiver array. We are presently utilizing advanced 3D numerical modeling algorithms to accurately simulate fracture responses, both before and after insertion of the conductive contrast agent. Model results compare favorably with EM field data recently acquired in a Permian Basin oilfield. However, extraction of the very-low-amplitude fracture signatures from noisy data requires effective noise suppression strategies such as long stacking times, rejection of outliers, and careful treatment of natural magnetotelluric fields. Dealing with the ever-present "episodic EM noise" typical in an active oilfield environment (associated with drilling, pumping, machinery, traffic, etc.) constitutes an ongoing problem. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. A Measurement Activity to Encourage Exploration of Calculus Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuffey, William

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an activity that incorporates measurement in order to lead students to discover and explore fundamental concepts of calculus. Students are provided with an experientially real starting point involving measurement and are encouraged to engage in mathematical discussions in a low-stakes environment. I describe the activity as…

  19. Twin Knudsen Cell Configuration for Activity Measurements by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.

    1996-01-01

    A twin Knudsen cell apparatus for alloy activity measurements by mass spectrometry is described. Two Knudsen cells - one containing an alloy and one containing a pure component - are mounted on a single flange and translated into the sampling region via a motorized x-y table. Mixing of the molecular beams from the cells is minimized by a novel system of shutters. Activity measurements were taken on two well-characterized alloys to verify the operation of the system. Silver activity measurements are reported for Ag-Cu alloys and aluminum activity measurements are reported for Fe-Al alloys. The temperature dependence of activity for a 0.474 mol fraction Al-Fe alloy gives a partial molar heat of aluminum. Measurements taken with the twin cell show good agreement with literature values for these alloys.

  20. Data base management systems activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Data Management System-1100 is designed to operate in conjunction with the UNIVAC 1100 Series Operating System on any 1100 Series computer. DMS-1100 is divided into the following four major software components: (1) Data Definition Languages (DDL); (2) Data Management Routine (DMR); (3) Data Manipulation Languages (DML); and (4) Data Base Utilities (DBU). These software components are described in detail.

  1. Measuring MAP kinase activity in immune complex assays.

    PubMed

    Cherkasova, Vera A

    2006-11-01

    I present an overview of published methods for measuring mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activity on endogenous associated substrates, exogenously added substrates as well as determination of activation loop phosphorylation as a read-out of kinase activity in vivo. Detailed procedures for these assays are given for two MAP kinases (MAPKs) Fus3 and Kss1 and compared with other published protocols, including the protocols for Hog1 and Mpk1 MAPKs. Measuring kinase activity in immune complex assays can serve as an approach for identification of potential substrates of protein kinases as well as for detecting other kinase-associated proteins. PMID:16890454

  2. Improved installation prototype for measurement of low argon-37 activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    efficiency is possible to imply the TDCR method, similar with the classical liquid scintillation measurements method, based on the triple to double coincidence ratios correction. The prototype of installation is contracted and being evaluated now. Preliminary estimated value of minimum measured argon-37 activity in the sample of the liquid argon of 20 cm3 volume is about 0.1 Bq for a 5-hour exposure. For the volume of processed air about 2 m3 it corresponds to 50 mBq/m3 subsurface argon-37 measurements sensitivity.

  3. Validity of physical activity measures in individuals after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Gustavo J.; Wert, David M.; Brower, Kelly S.; Piva, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the concurrent criterion-related validity of two activity monitors in comparison to the criterion method of indirect calorimetry in older adults after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). DESIGN Validation study. SETTING Subjects completed 9 increasingly demanding daily activities in a research laboratory; each activity was performed for 7 minutes, for a total of 80-minutes while the activity monitors and criterion method were used concurrently. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-one subjects, 67% female, mean age 68±7 years old, and BMI 29±4. INTERVENTIONS not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Energy expenditure (EE) in kcal/min measured by accelerometer-based and multisensor-based monitors, and the criterion method. Validity was assessed by paired t-test, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman plots comparing the measurements from the activity monitors to the criterion method. RESULTS Measurements from the accelerometer-based monitor were significantly lower than those of the criterion method across all walking and non-walking activities. The underestimations ranged from 40% to 100%. The accelerometer-based monitor demonstrated small to moderate agreement compared to the criterion method (ICCs from 0 to 0.38). Measurements from the multisensor-based monitor were significantly lower than the criterion method during several non-walking activities; yet, the differences were minor (2% to 19%). Measurements from the multisensor-based monitor during walking activities were not different compared to the criterion method. The multisensor-based monitor demonstrated moderate to excellent agreement with the criterion method (ICCs from 0.48 to 0.81). CONCLUSION The multisensor-based monitor showed better criterion-related validity than the accelerometer-based monitor, and should be considered as a tool to measure physical activity in individuals after TKA. PMID:25450127

  4. Regularities of solar wind parameter changes based on spaced measurements at near-Earth orbit during cycles 20-24 as a basis for prediction of solar activity and space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Tamara

    Here we discuss parameters of the solar wind streams as consequences of activity of solar cycles 20-24. We use in the report results of our study of connection between solar wind parameters (IMF B, solar wind velocity V, concentration N, electric field Е = [V,B]) and IMF longitude angle U during period of SC20-24. We have used for the study data base of B, V, N, measured at 1 a.u. near ecliptic plane for period of 1963 - 2013.The azimuth component of IMF spiral corresponds to east-west component By (GSE) which plays important role in reconnection on magnetopause and in progress of geomagnetic activity. Resulting from the conducted study, main regularities determining relationship between solar wind parameters in each from SC20-24 have been derived. In particular, it was shown that E for By>0 has its maxima in each solar cycle at average U=80 deg, herewith the maxima for odd cycles (21, 23) are considerably larger than ones for even cycles (20, 22). Besides, the value of E for 23 cycle has the absolute maximum for By>0 among SC20-24! So, relative low value of maximum of sunspot number Wm=121 of SC23 is a parameter, which does not determine strength of solar wind electric field E and consequently geomagnetic activity. Geomagnetic index Dst(U) shows also absolute maximum of depression for cycle 23 at near the same U=80 deg. (By>0). B(U) is larger, Wm is larger for all U except interval for By>0, where B for odd cycles 21, 23 is higher than B for even ones 20,22. It should be noted that V (U) for SC with minimal Wm (20,23) has the highest maximum for By>0; maximum of V for By<0 are larger for even SC than for odd ones. V(U) for cycle 24 is less than V for the other SC for now, but V is increasing rapidly (HSS) for By<0 (as in SC22). Based on the results of the study and on spectral analysis of V and B for the interval studied (which allowed us to describe long-term parts of B,V by sinusoids), we conclude: the Sun may is going for a global minimum (near 2020) similar

  5. Resin {sup 90}Y microsphere activity measurements for liver brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dezarn, William A.; Kennedy, Andrew S.

    2007-06-15

    The measurement of the radioactivity administered to the patient is one of the major components of {sup 90}Y microsphere liver brachytherapy. The activity of {sup 90}Y microspheres in a glass delivery vial was measured in a dose calibrator. The calibration value to use for {sup 90}Y in the dose calibrator was verified using an activity calibration standard provided by the microsphere manufacturer. This method allowed for the determination of a consistent, reproducible local activity standard. Additional measurements were made to determine some of the factors that could affect activity measurement. The axial response of the dose calibrator was determined by the ratio of activity measurements at the bottom and center of the dose calibrator. The axial response was 0.964 for a glass shipping vial, 1.001 for a glass V-vial, and 0.988 for a polycarbonate V-vial. Comparisons between activity measurements in the dose calibrator and those using a radiation survey meter were found to agree within 10%. It was determined that the dose calibrator method was superior to the survey meter method because the former allowed better defined measurement geometry and traceability of the activity standard back to the manufacturer. Part of the preparation of resin {sup 90}Y microspheres for patient delivery is to draw out a predetermined activity from a shipping vial and place it into a V-vial for delivery to the patient. If the drawn activity was placed in a glass V-vial, the activity measured in the dose calibrator with a glass V-vial was 4% higher than the drawn activity from the shipping vial standard. If the drawn activity was placed in a polycarbonate V-vial, the activity measured in the dose calibrator with a polycarbonate V-vial activity was 20% higher than the drawn activity from the shipping vial standard. Careful characterization of the local activity measurement standard is recommended instead of simply accepting the calibration value of the dose calibrator manufacturer.

  6. The measurement of physical activity in young children.

    PubMed

    Noland, M; Danner, F; DeWalt, K; McFadden, M; Kotchen, J M

    1990-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the validity of various measures of physical activity in young children. In Study 1, 21 preschool children were utilized to explore how well measures of children's activity obtained from parents, teachers, and the children predicted observed behavior at school and in the home. Study 2 (n = 51 preschool children) focused on the predictive validity of the Caltrac motion sensor. In both studies, detailed minute-by-minute ratings of children's activity in Study 1 were generally ineffective in predicting observed physical activity. Children's activity preferences, however, were significantly related to the proportion of high intensity physical activity performed. In Study 2, there was a significant relationship (r = .86, p less than .0001) between Caltrac readings and observed physical activity. This correlation was similar for boys and girls, normal and overweight children, and younger and older children. These findings suggest that the Caltrac monitor may provide a valid index of individual differences in physical activity in young children.

  7. Charged fusion product loss measurements using nuclear activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonheure, G.; Hult, M.; Gonzalez de Orduna, R.; Wieslander, E.; Arnold, D.; Dombrowski, H.; Laubenstein, M.; Murari, A.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-15

    In ITER, {alpha} particle loss measurements will be required in order to understand the alpha particle physics. Techniques capable of operating in a fusion reactor environment need further development. Recent experimental studies on JET demonstrated the potential of nuclear activation to measure the flux of escaping MeV ions. New results from MeV ion induced activation of metallic, ceramic, and crystal samples placed near the plasma edge are reported. Activation products were measured as function of orientation with respect to the magnetic field as well as function of the distance to the plasma. Sample activity was measured using ultralow-level gamma-ray spectrometry. Distribution of 14.68 MeV fusion proton induced activation products is strongly anisotropic in agreement with simulations and falls off sharply with increasing distance to the plasma. Prospects for using the technique in ITER are discussed.

  8. Quantitative measurements of active Ionian volcanoes in Galileo NIMS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saballett, Sebastian; Rathbun, Julie A.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Spencer, John R.

    2016-10-01

    Io is the most volcanically active body in our solar system. The spatial distribution of volcanoes a planetary body's surface gives clues into its basic inner workings (i.e., plate tectonics on earth). Tidal heating is the major contributor to active surface geology in the outer solar system, and yet its mechanism is not completely understood. Io's volcanoes are the clearest signature of tidal heating and measurements of the total heat output and how it varies in space and time are useful constraints on tidal heating. Hamilton et al. (2013) showed through a nearest neighbor analysis that Io's hotspots are globally random, but regionally uniform near the equator. Lopes-Gautier et al. (1999) compared the locations of hotspots detected by NIMS to the spatial variation of heat flow predicted by two end-member tidal heating models. They found that the distribution of hotspots is more consistent with tidal heating occurring in asthenosphere rather than the mantle. Hamilton et al. (2013) demonstrate that clustering of hotspots also supports a dominant role for asthenosphere heating. These studies were unable to account for the relative brightness of the hotspots. Furthermore, studies of the temporal variability of Ionian volcanoes have yielded substantial insight into their nature. The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) gave us a large dataset from which to observe active volcanic activity. NIMS made well over 100 observations of Io over an approximately 10-year time frame. With wavelengths spanning from 0.7 to 5.2 microns, it is ideally suited to measure blackbody radiation from surfaces with temperatures over 300 K. Here, we report on our effort to determine the activity level of each hotspot observed in the NIMS data. We decide to use 3.5 micron brightness as a proxy for activity level because it will be easy to compare to, and incorporate, ground-based observations. We fit a 1-temperature blackbody to spectra in each grating position and averaged the

  9. Ice nucleus activity measurements of solid rocket motor exhaust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The ice Nucleus activity of exhaust particles generated from combustion of Space Shuttle propellant in small rocket motors has been measured. The activity at -20 C was substantially lower than that of aerosols generated by unpressurized combustion of propellant samples in previous studies. The activity decays rapidly with time and is decreased further in the presence of moist air. These tests corroborate the low effectivity ice nucleus measurement results obtained in the exhaust ground cloud of the Space Shuttle. Such low ice nucleus activity implies that Space Shuttle induced inadvertent weather modification via an ice phase process is extremely unlikely.

  10. The effect of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention on objectively measured physical activity in Belgian preschool boys and girls of high and low SES: the ToyBox-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ToyBox-study developed an evidence- and theory-based intervention to improve preschoolers’ energy balance-related behaviours – including physical activity (PA) – by targeting the kindergarten environment and involving their parents/caregivers. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention on increasing Belgian preschoolers’ objectively measured PA levels. Methods A sample of 472 preschoolers (4.43 ± 0.55 years; 55.1% boys) from 27 kindergartens (15 intervention, 12 control kindergartens) in Flanders, Belgium were included in the data analyses. Preschoolers wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for six consecutive days and were included in the data analyses if they had a minimum of two weekdays and one weekend day, both at baseline and follow-up (one year later). Preschoolers’ PA outcomes were estimated for an average day, weekday, weekend day, during school hours, and during after school hours. To assess intervention effects, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted for the total sample, and for sub-groups (according to sex, kindergarten levels of socio-economic status (SES) and risk groups (low levels of PA at baseline)) of preschoolers. Results Small intervention effects were found in the total sample. Most intervention effects were found in boys and in preschoolers from high SES kindergartens. Boys from the intervention group had an increase in vigorous PA (ß = 1.47, p = 0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (ß = 1.27, p = 0.03) from baseline to follow-up, whereas PA levels in boys from the control group stagnated or decreased. In preschoolers from high SES kindergartens, the largest effects were found for PA outcomes during school hours and during after school hours. Conclusion The results from the Belgian sample demonstrate that effects of the PA-component of the ToyBox-intervention on objectively measured PA were found in preschool boys and in preschoolers from high SES kindergartens

  11. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  12. Earthworm Biomass Measurement: A Science Activity for Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Jonathan; Levine, Elissa; Carey, Pauline B.; Niepold III, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity on biomass measurement which, in this case, is the weight of a group of living things in a given area. The earthworm activity gives students a greater understanding of ecology, practical math applications, and the scientific method. (ASK)

  13. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  14. Why activity-based costing works.

    PubMed

    Gabram, S G; Mendola, R A; Rozenfeld, J; Gamelli, R L

    1997-01-01

    With advancing technology and the quest for delineating the true cost of a procedure or diagnostic test, cost accounting techniques are being re-explored in the health care setting. Activity-based costing (ABC), adopted from other businesses, is one such example that has applications in the health industry. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of health care costs among physician providers, emphasizing a new approach--activity-based costing. PMID:10169347

  15. Why activity-based costing works.

    PubMed

    Gabram, S G; Mendola, R A; Rozenfeld, J; Gamelli, R L

    1997-01-01

    With advancing technology and the quest for delineating the true cost of a procedure or diagnostic test, cost accounting techniques are being re-explored in the health care setting. Activity-based costing (ABC), adopted from other businesses, is one such example that has applications in the health industry. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of health care costs among physician providers, emphasizing a new approach--activity-based costing.

  16. Laser-Based Measurement Of Torsional Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, P. G.; Halliwell, N. A.

    1986-07-01

    Investigations of the torsional vibration characteristics of shaft systems which transmit pulsating torques are an important part of a machinery designer's responsibility. Satisfactory operation of such systems depends to a large extent on successful treatment of this vibration problem, since incorrectly or insufficiently controlled torsional oscillations can lead to fatigue failure, rapid bearing wear, gear hammer etc. The problem is particularly severe in engine crankshaft design where numerous failures have been traced to abnormal vibration at "critical" speeds. Traditionally, the monitoring of torsional oscillation has been performed using strain gauges, slip rings and a variety of mechanical and electrical "torsiographs". More recently systems employing slotted discs or toothed wheels together with proximity transducers have been preferred, but a disadvantage arises from all these methods in that they require contact with the rotating component which necessitates "downtime" for transducer attachment. Moreover, physical access to the rotating surface is often restricted thus making the use of such methods impractical. The "cross-beam" laser velocimeter provides a means of measuring torsional vibration by a non-contact method, thus effectively overcoming the disadvantages of previous measurement systems. This well established laser-based instrument provides a time-resolved voltage analogue of shaft tangential surface velocity and laboratory and field tests have shown it to be both accurate and reliable. The versatility of this instrument, however, is restricted by the need for accurate positioning, since the velocimeter must be arranged so that the rotating surface always traverses the beam intersection region, which is typically only a fraction of a millimetre in length. As a consequence use is restricted to components of circular cross section. This paper compares and contrasts the "cross-beam" system with a new laser instrument, the laser torsional vibrometer

  17. Measurement of action spectra of light-activated processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Justin; Zvyagin, Andrei V.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Upcroft, Jacqui; Upcroft, Peter; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina H.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a new experimental technique suitable for measurement of light-activated processes, such as fluorophore transport. The usefulness of this technique is derived from its capacity to decouple the imaging and activation processes, allowing fluorescent imaging of fluorophore transport at a convenient activation wavelength. We demonstrate the efficiency of this new technique in determination of the action spectrum of the light mediated transport of rhodamine 123 into the parasitic protozoan Giardia duodenalis.

  18. A web-based tool for ranking landslide mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasse, S.; Vaciago, G.; Choi, Y. J.; Kalsnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    As part of the research done in the European project SafeLand "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies", a compendium of structural and non-structural mitigation measures for different landslide types in Europe was prepared, and the measures were assembled into a web-based "toolbox". Emphasis was placed on providing a rational and flexible framework applicable to existing and future mitigation measures. The purpose of web-based toolbox is to assist decision-making and to guide the user in the choice of the most appropriate mitigation measures. The mitigation measures were classified into three categories, describing whether the mitigation measures addressed the landslide hazard, the vulnerability or the elements at risk themselves. The measures considered include structural measures reducing hazard and non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences (or vulnerability and exposure of elements at risk). The structural measures include surface protection and control of surface erosion; measures modifying the slope geometry and/or mass distribution; measures modifying surface water regime - surface drainage; measures mo¬difying groundwater regime - deep drainage; measured modifying the mechanical charac¬teristics of unstable mass; transfer of loads to more competent strata; retaining structures (to modify slope geometry and/or to transfer stress to compe¬tent layer); deviating the path of landslide debris; dissipating the energy of debris flows; and arresting and containing landslide debris or rock fall. The non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences: early warning systems; restricting or discouraging construction activities; increasing resistance or coping capacity of elements at risk; relocation of elements at risk; sharing of risk through insurance. The measures are described in the toolbox with fact sheets providing a

  19. Active and passive microwave measurements of soil moisture in FIFE

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.R. ); Gogineni, S.P.; Ampe, J. )

    1992-11-30

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. This paper reports on the application of active and passive microwave measurement systems to the simultaneous determination of soil moisture. These systems have been tested on common targets very few times. Here C and X band scatterometer data from a helicopter base is compared with L band push broom microwave radiometer (PBMR) data taken from the NASA C-130 aircraft. The regions sampled over FIFE encompass areas with different surface treatments. The scatterometers proved to be sensitive to soil moisture over most of the areas studied, while the radiometer lost sensitivity in regions which had been unburned for years, and which thus had substantial dead organic accumulation. The correlation of soil moisture and backscattered signal was observed to increase with off normal angles.

  20. Development of the Patient Activation Measure for mental health.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Perrin, Nancy A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Hibbard, Judith H; Tusler, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Our objective was to adapt the physical health Patient Activation Measure (PAM) for use among people with mental health conditions (PAM-MH). Data came from three studies among people with chronic mental health conditions and were combined in Rasch analyses. The PAM-MH's psychometric properties equal those of the original 13-item PAM. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity were good, and the PAM-MH showed sensitivity to change. The PAM-MH appears to be a reliable and valid measure of patient activation among individuals with mental health problems. It appears to have potential for use in assessing change in activation. PMID:19728074

  1. Analysis of initial in-plant active neutron multiplicity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.; Harker, W.C.

    1993-08-01

    This paper analyzes initial in-plant measurements made by active neutron multiplicity counting, a new technique currently under development for the assay of bulk uranium containing kilograms of {sup 235}U. The measurements were made at Savannah River and Y-12 using active well coincidence counters and prototype multiplicity electronics and software from Los Alamos. For one of the sets of highly enriched uranium samples measured to data, we improved the assay accuracy by an order-of-magnitude by adding the multiplicity analysis to the conventional coincidence analysis. This paper summarizes our results and describes areas where further work is needed.

  2. MCG measurement in the environment of active magnetic shield.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Kato, K; Kobayashi, K; Igarashi, A; Sato, T; Haga, A; Kasai, N

    2004-01-01

    MCG (Magnetocardiography) measurement by a SQUID gradiometer was attempted with only active magnetic shielding (active shielding). A three-axis-canceling-coil active shielding system, where three 16-10-16 turns-coil sets were put in the orthogonal directions, produces a homogeneous magnetic field in a considerable volume surrounding the center. Fluxgate sensors were used as the reference sensors of the system. The system can reduce environmental magnetic noise at low frequencies of less than a few Hz, at 50 Hz and at 150 Hz. Reducing such disturbances stabilizes biomagnetic measurement conditions for SQUIDs in the absence of magnetically shielded rooms (MSR). After filtering and averaging the measured MCG data by a first-order SQUID gradiometer with only the active shielding during the daytime, the QRS complex and T wave was clearly presented. PMID:16012640

  3. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  4. Solar irradiance measurements - Minimum through maximum solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. B., III; Gibson, M. A.; Shivakumar, N.; Wilson, R.; Kyle, H. L.; Mecherikunnel, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the NOAA-9 spacecraft solar monitors were used to measure the total solar irradiance during the period October 1984 to December 1989. Decreasing trends in the irradiance measurements were observed as sunspot activity decreased to minimum levels in 1986; after 1986, increasing trends were observed as sunspot activity increased. The magnitude of the irradiance variability was found to be approximately 0.1 percent between sunspot minimum and maximum (late 1989). When compared with the 1984 to 1989 indices of solar magnetic activity, the irradiance trends appear to be in phase with the 11-year sunspot cycle. Both irradiance series yielded 1,365/sq Wm as the mean value of the solar irradiance, normalized to the mean earth/sun distance. The monitors are electrical substitution, active-cavity radiometers with estimated measurement precisions and accuracies of less than 0.02 and 0.2 percent, respectively.

  5. Comparison of Estimated and Measured Muscle Activity During Inclined Walking.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Nathalie; Schwameder, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    While inclined walking is a frequent daily activity, muscle forces during this activity have rarely been examined. Musculoskeletal models are commonly used to estimate internal forces in healthy populations, but these require a priori validation. The aim of this study was to compare estimated muscle activity using a musculoskeletal model with measured EMG data during inclined walking. Ten healthy male participants walked at different inclinations of 0°, ± 6°, ± 12°, and ± 18° on a ramp equipped with 2 force plates. Kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity of the musculus (m.) biceps femoris, m. rectus femoris, m. vastus lateralis, m. tibialis anterior, and m. gastrocnemius lateralis were recorded. Agreement between estimated and measured muscle activity was determined via correlation coefficients, mean absolute errors, and trend analysis. Correlation coefficients between estimated and measured muscle activity for approximately 69% of the conditions were above 0.7. Mean absolute errors were rather high with only approximately 38% being ≤ 30%. Trend analysis revealed similar estimated and measured muscle activities for all muscles and tasks (uphill and downhill walking), except m. tibialis anterior during uphill walking. This model can be used for further analysis in similar groups of participants.

  6. Competency-Based Adult Education Sample Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauzat, Sam V.; Bryant, Nerissa

    For use by adult basic education teachers, this curriculum guide is intended as a frame of reference for building a total instructional program designed around a competency-based and skill-based curriculum. The 104 sample activities are categorized under subheadings of the following topics: Occupational Knowledge, Health, Government and Law,…

  7. Microelectrode measurements of the activity distribution in nitrifying bacterial aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, D. de; Heuval, J.C. van den; Ottengraf, S.P.P. )

    1993-02-01

    Environmental problems caused by strongly increased ammonium emission by intensive agricultural and industrial activities, wastewater and waste gas purification plants are being redesigned. Since the growth rates and biomass yields of nitrifying organisms are low, their application in continuous-flow processes requires efficient retention of biomass, and development of bacterial aggregates with good settling properties is needed. In this study microelectrodes were used to study the activity distribution of bacterial aggregates in a biological fluidized-bed nitrification reactor with an external aerator. Measurements of ammonium, oxygen, nitrate, and pH were made. Results included the following: biomass yield was close to expected; the active nitrifying zone was limited to the outer 100 to 120 [mu]m of the aggregates; distribution of activity was determined by the penetration depth of oxygen during aggregate development; measurements of activity required the use of ammonium or nitrate microelectrodes, not oxygen microelectrodes alone. 32 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for assessing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Marieke J; Fransen, Jaap; Kievit, Wietske; van Riel, Piet LCM

    2016-01-01

    Patient assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be useful in clinical practice, offering a patient-friendly, location independent, and a time-efficient and cost-efficient means of monitoring the disease. The objective of this study was to identify patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to assess disease activity in RA and to evaluate the measurement properties of these measures. Systematic literature searches were performed in the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles reporting on clinimetric development or evaluation of PROM-based instruments to monitor disease activity in patients with RA. 2 reviewers independently selected articles for review and assessed their methodological quality based on the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) recommendations. A total of 424 abstracts were retrieved for review. Of these abstracts, 56 were selected for reviewing the full article and 34 articles, presenting 17 different PROMs, were finally included. Identified were: Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index (RADAI), RADAI-5, Patient-based Disease Activity Score (PDAS) I & II, Patient-derived Disease Activity Score with 28-joint counts (Pt-DAS28), Patient-derived Simplified Disease Activity Index (Pt-SDAI), Global Arthritis Score (GAS), Patient Activity Score (PAS) I & II, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data (RAPID) 2–5, Patient Reported Outcome-index (PRO-index) continuous (C) & majority (M), Patient Reported Outcome CLinical ARthritis Activity (PRO-CLARA). The quality of reports varied from poor to good. Typically 5 out of 10 clinimetric domains were covered in the validations of the different instruments. The quality and extent of clinimetric validation varied among PROMs of RA disease activity. The Pt-DAS28, RADAI, RADAI-5 and RAPID 3 had the strongest and most extensive validation. The measurement properties least reported and in need of more evidence were: reliability

  9. Systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for assessing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, Jos; de Jonge, Marieke J; Fransen, Jaap; Kievit, Wietske; van Riel, Piet Lcm

    2016-01-01

    Patient assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be useful in clinical practice, offering a patient-friendly, location independent, and a time-efficient and cost-efficient means of monitoring the disease. The objective of this study was to identify patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to assess disease activity in RA and to evaluate the measurement properties of these measures. Systematic literature searches were performed in the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles reporting on clinimetric development or evaluation of PROM-based instruments to monitor disease activity in patients with RA. 2 reviewers independently selected articles for review and assessed their methodological quality based on the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) recommendations. A total of 424 abstracts were retrieved for review. Of these abstracts, 56 were selected for reviewing the full article and 34 articles, presenting 17 different PROMs, were finally included. Identified were: Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index (RADAI), RADAI-5, Patient-based Disease Activity Score (PDAS) I & II, Patient-derived Disease Activity Score with 28-joint counts (Pt-DAS28), Patient-derived Simplified Disease Activity Index (Pt-SDAI), Global Arthritis Score (GAS), Patient Activity Score (PAS) I & II, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data (RAPID) 2-5, Patient Reported Outcome-index (PRO-index) continuous (C) & majority (M), Patient Reported Outcome CLinical ARthritis Activity (PRO-CLARA). The quality of reports varied from poor to good. Typically 5 out of 10 clinimetric domains were covered in the validations of the different instruments. The quality and extent of clinimetric validation varied among PROMs of RA disease activity. The Pt-DAS28, RADAI, RADAI-5 and RAPID 3 had the strongest and most extensive validation. The measurement properties least reported and in need of more evidence were: reliability

  10. Systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for assessing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Marieke J; Fransen, Jaap; Kievit, Wietske; van Riel, Piet LCM

    2016-01-01

    Patient assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be useful in clinical practice, offering a patient-friendly, location independent, and a time-efficient and cost-efficient means of monitoring the disease. The objective of this study was to identify patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to assess disease activity in RA and to evaluate the measurement properties of these measures. Systematic literature searches were performed in the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles reporting on clinimetric development or evaluation of PROM-based instruments to monitor disease activity in patients with RA. 2 reviewers independently selected articles for review and assessed their methodological quality based on the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) recommendations. A total of 424 abstracts were retrieved for review. Of these abstracts, 56 were selected for reviewing the full article and 34 articles, presenting 17 different PROMs, were finally included. Identified were: Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index (RADAI), RADAI-5, Patient-based Disease Activity Score (PDAS) I & II, Patient-derived Disease Activity Score with 28-joint counts (Pt-DAS28), Patient-derived Simplified Disease Activity Index (Pt-SDAI), Global Arthritis Score (GAS), Patient Activity Score (PAS) I & II, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data (RAPID) 2–5, Patient Reported Outcome-index (PRO-index) continuous (C) & majority (M), Patient Reported Outcome CLinical ARthritis Activity (PRO-CLARA). The quality of reports varied from poor to good. Typically 5 out of 10 clinimetric domains were covered in the validations of the different instruments. The quality and extent of clinimetric validation varied among PROMs of RA disease activity. The Pt-DAS28, RADAI, RADAI-5 and RAPID 3 had the strongest and most extensive validation. The measurement properties least reported and in need of more evidence were: reliability

  11. Brain mechanical property measurement using MRE with intrinsic activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John B.; Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-11-01

    Many pathologies alter the mechanical properties of tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been developed to noninvasively characterize these quantities in vivo. Typically, small vibrations are induced in the tissue of interest with an external mechanical actuator. The resulting displacements are measured with phase contrast sequences and are then used to estimate the underlying mechanical property distribution. Several MRE studies have quantified brain tissue properties. However, the cranium and meninges, especially the dura, are very effective at damping externally applied vibrations from penetrating deeply into the brain. Here, we report a method, termed ‘intrinsic activation’, that eliminates the requirement for external vibrations by measuring the motion generated by natural blood vessel pulsation. A retrospectively gated phase contrast MR angiography sequence was used to record the tissue velocity at eight phases of the cardiac cycle. The velocities were numerically integrated via the Fourier transform to produce the harmonic displacements at each position within the brain. The displacements were then reconstructed into images of the shear modulus based on both linear elastic and poroelastic models. The mechanical properties produced fall within the range of brain tissue estimates reported in the literature and, equally important, the technique yielded highly reproducible results. The mean shear modulus was 8.1 kPa for linear elastic reconstructions and 2.4 kPa for poroelastic reconstructions where fluid pressure carries a portion of the stress. Gross structures of the brain were visualized, particularly in the poroelastic reconstructions. Intra-subject variability was significantly less than the inter-subject variability in a study of six asymptomatic individuals. Further, larger changes in mechanical properties were observed in individuals when examined over time than when the MRE procedures were repeated on the same day. Cardiac pulsation

  12. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  13. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2009-06-09

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  14. A critical review of assessment strategies to measure the behavioral activation model of depression.

    PubMed

    Manos, Rachel C; Kanter, Jonathan W; Busch, Andrew M

    2010-07-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) treatments for depression are based on a model of psychopathology indicating that losses of, reductions in, or chronically low levels of positive reinforcement produce behavioral and emotional changes in depression. The corresponding mechanism theory is that using BA techniques to increase activation will lead to a subsequent increase in positive reinforcement, which will decrease depressive symptoms. We attempt to review BA literature relevant to its psychopathology and mechanism models, paying particular attention to attempts to measure activation as conceptualized within BA treatments and attempts to measure reinforcement. Suggestions on ways in which to improve these measurements in order to better evaluate the psychopathology and mechanism models are provided.

  15. Internet-Based Physical Activity Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Durant, Nefertiti H.; Benitez, Tanya J.; Pekmezi, Dorothy W.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of Internet– and Website–based physical activity interventions targeting adult populations. Search procedures identified 72 unique Internet-based physical activity interventions published in peer-reviewed journals. Participants of the studies were predominately White, middle-aged (mean age = 43.3 years), and female (65.9%). Intervention durations ranged from 2 weeks to 13 months (median = 12 weeks). Forty-six of the studies were randomized controlled trials, 21 were randomized trials without a control condition, 2 were non–randomized controlled trials, and 3 used a single-group design. The majority of studies (n = 68) assessed outcomes immediately following the end of the intervention period, and 16 studies provided delayed postintervention assessments. Forty-four of the 72 studies (61.1%) reported significant increases in physical activity. Future directions for Internet-based physical activity interventions include increasing representation of minority and male populations in Internet-based efforts, conducting delayed postintervention follow-up assessments, and incorporating emerging technologies (ie, cellular and Smartphones) into Internet-based physical activity efforts. PMID:25045343

  16. Applying activity-based costing to healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Canby, J B

    1995-02-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) focuses on processes that drive cost. By tracing healthcare activities back to events that generate cost, a more accurate measurement of financial performance is possible. This article uses ABC principles and techniques to determine costs associated with the x-ray process in a midsized outpatient clinic. The article also provides several tips for initiating an ABC cost system for an entire healthcare organization. PMID:10146178

  17. Applying activity-based costing to healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Canby, J B

    1995-02-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) focuses on processes that drive cost. By tracing healthcare activities back to events that generate cost, a more accurate measurement of financial performance is possible. This article uses ABC principles and techniques to determine costs associated with the x-ray process in a midsized outpatient clinic. The article also provides several tips for initiating an ABC cost system for an entire healthcare organization.

  18. Assays to measure the activation of membrane tyrosine kinase receptors: focus on cellular methods.

    PubMed

    Minor, Lisa K

    2003-09-01

    Many methods have been explored as means to measure the activation and inhibition of tyrosine kinase receptors, in vitro using the isolated kinase domain, and in living cells. Kinase activity has been measured in enzyme assays using a peptide substrate, but with different detection systems. These include the radioactive FlashPlate assay, the fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay, the dissociation-enhance lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) and other formats. These methods have successfully identified inhibitors of receptor activity. Cell-based assays have recently emerged to measure receptor activation and inhibition. When membrane tyrosine kinase receptors become activated, they increase their state of phosphorylation. This phosphorylation may lead to an increase in tyrosine kinase-specific activity. Methods have been developed that take advantage of these properties. These include measuring the ligand-stimulated total tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor using a DELFIA or an ELISA assay, measuring ligand-stimulated enzyme activation of the receptor by quantifying enzyme activity, and dimerization of the activated receptor using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). Although cell-based assays are still in their infancy, these techniques may prove a valuable addition to the receptor screening strategy.

  19. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  20. Spectral-based inferential measurement of grey-body's temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Feng; Liu, Liying; Zhu, Lingxi; Huan, Kewei; Li, Ye; Shi, Xiaoguang

    2015-11-01

    Aiming at the problems of temperature measurement and the defects of radiance thermometry theory, one method of spectral-based inferential measurement is proposed, which adopts the Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM) functional model as the temperature measurement model. Then, the radiance thermometry theory and inferential measurement technology are discussed comparatively. Temperatures of some targets, such and tungsten lamp and solar surface, are measured by spectral-based inferential measurement.

  1. Caring Economics: A New Framework for Conceptualizing and Measuring Economic Activity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Indradeep

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the reader to a new framework for conceptualizing and measuring economic activity called caring economics. Going beyond the conventional understanding of economic activity as that which unfolds in markets, caring economics highlights the work of care and caregiving that occurs within households and is often unpaid. This article also unveils a new set of measures based on the framework of caring economics that are urgently needed by policymakers and business leaders to foster personal, business, and national economic success.

  2. Activity based video indexing and search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Jiang, Qin; Medasani, Swarup; Allen, David; Lu, Tsai-ching

    2010-04-01

    We describe a method for searching videos in large video databases based on the activity contents present in the videos. Being able to search videos based on the contents (such as human activities) has many applications such as security, surveillance, and other commercial applications such as on-line video search. Conventional video content-based retrieval (CBR) systems are either feature based or semantics based, with the former trying to model the dynamics video contents using the statistics of image features, and the latter relying on automated scene understanding of the video contents. Neither approach has been successful. Our approach is inspired by the success of visual vocabulary of "Video Google" by Sivic and Zisserman, and the work of Nister and Stewenius who showed that building a visual vocabulary tree can improve the performance in both scalability and retrieval accuracy for 2-D images. We apply visual vocabulary and vocabulary tree approach to spatio-temporal video descriptors for video indexing, and take advantage of the discrimination power of these descriptors as well as the scalability of vocabulary tree for indexing. Furthermore, this approach does not rely on any model-based activity recognition. In fact, training of the vocabulary tree is done off-line using unlabeled data with unsupervised learning. Therefore the approach is widely applicable. Experimental results using standard human activity recognition videos will be presented that demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  3. Teaching Activity-Based Taxicab Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ada, Tuba

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed on the process of teaching taxicab geometry, a non-Euclidean geometry that is easy to understand and similar to Euclidean geometry with its axiomatic structure. In this regard, several teaching activities were designed such as measuring taxicab distance, defining a taxicab circle, finding a geometric locus in taxicab geometry, and…

  4. An Alternative Measure of Solar Activity from Detailed Sunspot Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraközy, J.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    2016-05-01

    The sunspot number is analyzed by using detailed sunspot data, including aspects of observability, sunspot sizes, and proper identification of sunspot groups as discrete entities of solar activity. The tests show that in addition to the subjective factors there are also objective causes of the ambiguities in the series of sunspot numbers. To introduce an alternative solar-activity measure, the physical meaning of the sunspot number has to be reconsidered. It contains two components whose numbers are governed by different physical mechanisms and this is one source of the ambiguity. This article suggests an activity index, which is the amount of emerged magnetic flux. The only long-term proxy measure is the detailed sunspot-area dataset with proper calibration to the magnetic flux. The Debrecen sunspot databases provide an appropriate source for the establishment of the suggested activity index.

  5. First fusion proton measurements in TEXTOR plasmas using activation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bonheure, G.; Wassenhove, G. Van; Mlynar, J.; Hult, M.; Gonzalez de Orduna, R.; Lutter, G.; Vermaercke, P.; Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Esser, G.; Biel, W.

    2012-10-15

    MeV particle loss measurements from fusion plasmas, in particular alpha particles, remain difficult in large fusion devices and further R and D is needed for ITER. This paper describes the first attempt to measure 3 MeV escaping fusion protons emitted from TEXTOR tokamak plasmas using activation technique. This technique was successfully demonstrated, initially, in 2006 on the JET tokamak. An ion camera equipped with a collimator and several types of activation detectors was installed inside the TEXTOR vacuum vessel to perform these measurements. After irradiation, the detectors were analyzed using ultra low level gamma-ray spectrometry at the HADES underground laboratory. 3 MeV escaping fusion protons were detected in larger number -{approx}6 times more - compared to earlier measurements using this technique on JET. Another major progress was the reduction of the cooling time by a factor of 50, which made possible to detect radionuclides with half-life of less than 90 min.

  6. Photospheric Magnetic Diffusion by Measuring Moments of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engell, Alexander; Longcope, D.

    2013-07-01

    Photospheric magnetic surface diffusion is an important constraint for the solar dynamo. The HMI Active Region Patches (HARPs) program automatically identify all magnetic regions above a certain flux. In our study we measure the moments of ARs that are no longer actively emerging and can thereby give us good statistical constraints on photospheric diffusion. We also present the diffusion properties as a function of latitude, flux density, and single polarity (leading or following) within each HARP.

  7. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  8. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil.

  9. The Elastic Body Model: A Pedagogical Approach Integrating Real Time Measurements and Modelling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, C.; Guastella, I.; Tarantino, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a pedagogical approach to elastic body movement based on measurements of the contact times between a metallic rod and small bodies colliding with it and on modelling of the experimental results by using a microcomputer-based laboratory and simulation tools. The experiments and modelling activities have been built in the…

  10. New ITF measure method based on fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qiaoran; Liu, Shijie; Gao, Wanrong; Zhou, You; Liu, HuanHuan

    2016-01-01

    With the unprecedented developments of the intense laser and aerospace projects', the interferometer is widely used in detecting middle frequency indicators of the optical elements, which put forward very high request towards the interferometer system transfer function (ITF). Conventionally, the ITF is measured by comparing the power spectra of known phase objects such as high-quality phase step. However, the fabrication of phase step is complex and high-cost, especially in the measurement of large-aperture interferometer. In this paper, a new fringe method is proposed to measure the ITF without additional objects. The frequency was changed by adjusting the number of fringes, and the normalized transfer function value was measured at different frequencies. The ITF value measured by fringe method was consistent with the traditional phase step method, which confirms the feasibility of proposed method. Moreover, the measurement error caused by defocus was analyzed. The proposed method does not require the preparation of a step artifact, which greatly reduces the test cost, and is of great significance to the ITF measurement of large aperture interferometer.

  11. Measuring the activities of higher organisms in activated sludge by means of mechanical shearing pretreatment and oxygen uptake rate.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaodi; Wang, Qilin; Cao, Yali; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2010-07-01

    A pretreatment method was developed to assess the activities of higher organisms. The method is based on mechanical shearing to damage the large cells of the protozoan and metazoan community in activated sludge. The procedure was confirmed through experimentation to be effective in determining the activities of higher organisms by comparing oxygen uptake rates (OURs) before and after the higher organisms were eradicated. Shearing led to disintegration of flocs, which could be effectively reconstituted by centrifugation. The reconstitution of the sludge flocs was essential since otherwise the activity of the floc mass would be too high due to lack of diffusion limitation. Mechanical shearing had no influence on the morphology, quantity and specific activity of yeasts, and it was inferred that bacteria smaller than yeasts in size would also not be influenced by the applied shearing procedure. Moreover, the effect of filamentous organisms on the measured activities of higher organisms was experimentally demonstrated and analyzed, and determined to be so weak that it could be ignored. Based on these tests, five typical activated sludge processes were selected to measure the contribution of higher organisms to the original OUR. The measured activities of higher organisms ranged from 9.4 to 25.0% of the original OURs.

  12. Measurement error of self-reported physical activity levels in New York City: assessment and correction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010-2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors.

  13. Measurement Error of Self-Reported Physical Activity Levels in New York City: Assessment and Correction

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010–2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors. PMID:25855646

  14. Study of variant design of SML-based coordinate measuring machines automatic measurement plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Boxiong; Wang, Junying; Chen, Huacheng; Luo, Xiuzhi

    2006-11-01

    It is the trend of Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) measurement technology that creates measurement plan automatically. Based on Pro/CMM module of Pro/E software, the idea for automatic generation of the main DMIS (Dimensional Measuring Interface Standard) file of measurement plan is described. To satisfy the special measurement requirements of different customers conveniently, a method of variant design of DMIS file based on SML (Tabular Layouts of Article Characteristics) and the main DMIS file is proposed.

  15. Structure-Based Predictions of Activity Cliffs

    PubMed Central

    Husby, Jarmila; Bottegoni, Giovanni; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben; Cavalli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In drug discovery, it is generally accepted that neighboring molecules in a given descriptors' space display similar activities. However, even in regions that provide strong predictability, structurally similar molecules can occasionally display large differences in potency. In QSAR jargon, these discontinuities in the activity landscape are known as ‘activity cliffs’. In this study, we assessed the reliability of ligand docking and virtual ligand screening schemes in predicting activity cliffs. We performed our calculations on a diverse, independently collected database of cliff-forming co-crystals. Starting from ideal situations, which allowed us to establish our baseline, we progressively moved toward simulating more realistic scenarios. Ensemble- and template-docking achieved a significant level of accuracy, suggesting that, despite the well-known limitations of empirical scoring schemes, activity cliffs can be accurately predicted by advanced structure-based methods. PMID:25918827

  16. Computer-Based Experiments to Measure RC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Francis X.

    2000-01-01

    Finds that few electricity and magnetism experiments make use of computers for data acquisition. Reports on the use of a Vernier system for the measurement of the RC time constant for the charging and discharging of a capacitor. (CCM)

  17. Automated MRI Cerebellar Size Measurements Using Active Appearance Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Price, Mathew; Cardenas, Valerie A.; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Although the human cerebellum has been increasingly identified as an important hub that shows potential for helping in the diagnosis of a large spectrum of disorders, such as alcoholism, autism, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, the high costs associated with manual segmentation, and low availability of reliable automated cerebellar segmentation tools, has resulted in a limited focus on cerebellar measurement in human neuroimaging studies. We present here the CATK (Cerebellar Analysis Toolkit), which is based on the Bayesian framework implemented in FMRIB’s FIRST. This approach involves training Active Appearance Models (AAM) using hand-delineated examples. CATK can currently delineate the cerebellar hemispheres and three vermal groups (lobules I–V, VI–VII, and VIII–X). Linear registration with the low-resolution MNI152 template is used to provide initial alignment, and Point Distribution Models (PDM) are parameterized using stellar sampling. The Bayesian approach models the relationship between shape and texture through computation of conditionals in the training set. Our method varies from the FIRST framework in that initial fitting is driven by 1D intensity profile matching, and the conditional likelihood function is subsequently used to refine fitting. The method was developed using T1-weighted images from 63 subjects that were imaged and manually labeled: 43 subjects were scanned once and were used for training models, and 20 subjects were imaged twice (with manual labeling applied to both runs) and used to assess reliability and validity. Intraclass correlation analysis shows that CATK is highly reliable (average test-retest ICCs of 0.96), and offers excellent agreement with the gold standard (average validity ICC of 0.87 against manual labels). Comparisons against an alternative atlas-based approach, SUIT (Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial Template), that registers images with a high-resolution template of the cerebellum, show that our AAM

  18. Measuring the Enzyme Activity of Arabidopsis Deubiquitylating Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Kamila; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Isono, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Deubiquitylating enzymes, or DUBs, are important regulators of ubiquitin homeostasis and substrate stability, though the molecular mechanisms of most of the DUBs in plants are not yet understood. As different ubiquitin chain types are implicated in different biological pathways, it is important to analyze the enzyme characteristic for studying a DUB. Quantitative analysis of DUB activity is also important to determine enzyme kinetics and the influence of DUB binding proteins on the enzyme activity. Here, we show methods to analyze DUB activity using immunodetection, Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining, and fluorescence measurement that can be useful for understanding the basic characteristic of DUBs.

  19. Automatic GPS satellite based subsidence measurements for Ekofisk

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J.; Luttenberger, C.; Landau, H.; Gustavsen, K.

    1995-12-01

    A fully automatic procedure for the measurement of subsidence of many platforms in almost real time is presented. Such a method is important for developments which may be subject to subsidence and where reliable subsidence and rate measurements are needed for safety, planning of remedial work and verification of subsidence models. Automatic GPS satellite based subsidence measurements are made continuously on platforms in the North Sea Ekofisk Field area. A description of the system is given. The derivation of those parameters which give optimal measurement accuracy is described, the results of these derivations are provided. GPS satellite based measurements are equivalent to pressure gauge based platform subsidence measurements, but they are much cheaper to install and maintain. In addition, GPS based measurements are not subject to drift of any gauges. GPS measurements were coupled to oceanographic quantities such as the platform deck clearance. These quantities now follow from GPS based measurements.

  20. A Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    2005-01-01

    There are multiple approaches to measuring physical activity. Among these are direct observation, electronic monitoring, direct and indirect calorimetry, and self-report instruments. Self-report instruments are the most practical and cost effective option for use with a large group. In a study by Motl, Dishman, Dowda, and Pate (2004), two groups…

  1. Exploring Patient Activation in the Clinic: Measurement from Three Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Christy J. W.; Ledford, Christopher C.; Childress, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To further conceptualize and operationalize patient activation (PA), using measures from patient, physician, and researcher perspectives. Data Source/Study Setting. Multimethod observation in 2010 within a family medicine clinic. Study Design. Part of an intervention with 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, this observational study…

  2. 12 CFR 1806.201 - Measuring and reporting Qualified Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable BEA NOFA for current limitations on Qualified Activities. (e) Measuring the Value of Qualified... NOFA, the Fund will assess the value of: (1) Equity Investments, Equity-Like Loans, loans, grants and... the Baseline Period or the Assessment Period, as applicable, the Fund will assess the value of...

  3. Measurement for Work. Teaching Guide and Sample Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Margo; Bolton, Chris

    This document is intended to help Australian technical and further education instructors in New South Wales (TAFE NSW) identify teaching principles and learning activities that they can use to help adult learners master the mathematics processes, knowledge, and skills needed to perform basic measurement tasks in today's workplace. The materials…

  4. Satellite measurements of recent volcanic activity at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Kervyn, Matthieu; Realmuto, Vince; Abrams, Michael; Hook, Simon J.

    2008-06-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) is the only active volcano in the world that produces natrocarbonatite lava. These carbonate-rich lavas are unique in that they have relatively low temperatures (495-590 °C) and very low viscosity. OL has been erupting intermittently since 1983, mostly with small lava flows, pools and spatter cones (hornitos) confined to the summit crater. Explosive, ash-producing eruptions are rare, however, on September 4, 2007 the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured the first satellite image of an ash plume erupting from OL, which may be indicative of a new phase of more silica-rich products and explosive activity that has not occurred since 1966-1967. In the months prior to the eruption, thermal infrared (TIR) satellite monitoring detected an increasing number of thermal anomalies around OL. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor analyzed with the MODLEN algorithm detected more than 30 hot spots in the last week of August and first week of September 2007, some of which were from bush fires ignited by lava flows or spatter around the volcano. Higher-resolution ASTER data confirmed the location of these burn scars associated with lava flows. ASTER also detected the appearance of an anomalous hot spot at the summit of OL in mid-June with temperatures ~ 440 °C, the presence of several new lava flows in the crater in July and August, and on September 4 measured higher temperatures (~ 550 °C) possibly suggesting a more silicate-rich eruption. ASTER spectral emissivity data were interpreted to indicate a mixture of carbonate and silicate ash in the eruption plume from September 4. Based on the analysis of both ASTER and MODIS data combined with occasional field observations, there appear to have been 2 distinct eruptive events so far in 2007: a typical natrocarbonatite eruption confined to the summit crater in June-July, and a more intense eruption in August-September consisting of

  5. Measurement of microbial biomass and activity in landfill soils.

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J. E.; Miller, R. M.; Spokas, K.; Environmental Research

    1995-01-01

    Two complementary techniques, which have been widely used to provide a general measure of microbial biomass or microbial activity in natural soils, were evaluated for their applicability to soils from the Mallard North and Mallard Lake Landfills, DuPage County, Illinois, U.S.A. Included were: (1) a potassium sulphate extraction technique with quantification of organic carbon for measurement of microbial biomass; and (2) an arginine ammonification technique for microbial activity. Four profiles consisting of replaced soils were sampled for this study; units included topsoil (mixed mollisol A and B horizons), compacted clay cover (local calcareous Wisconsinan age glacial till), and mixed soil/refuse samples. Internally consistent results across the four profiles and good correlations with other independent indicators of microbial activity (moisture, organic matter content, nitrogen, and phosphorus) suggest that, even though these techniques were developed mainly for natural mineral soils, they are also applicable to disturbed landfill soils.

  6. Triton burnup measurements in KSTAR using a neutron activation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Jungmin; Cheon, MunSeong; Kim, Jun Young; Rhee, T.; Kim, Junghee; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of the time-integrated triton burnup for deuterium plasma in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) have been performed following the simultaneous detection of the d-d and d-t neutrons. The d-d neutrons were measured using a 3He proportional counter, fission chamber, and activated indium sample, whereas the d-t neutrons were detected using activated silicon and copper samples. The triton burnup ratio from KSTAR discharges is found to be in the range 0.01%-0.50% depending on the plasma conditions. The measured burnup ratio is compared with the prompt loss fraction of tritons calculated with the Lorentz orbit code and the classical slowing-down time. The burnup ratio is found to increase as plasma current and classical slowing-down time increase.

  7. Asset-Based Measurement of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandolini, Andrea; Magri, Silvia; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is generally defined as income or expenditure insufficiency, but the economic condition of a household also depends on its real and financial asset holdings. This paper investigates measures of poverty that rely on indicators of household net worth. We review and assess two main approaches followed in the literature: income-net worth…

  8. GIFTS EDU Ground-based Measurement Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, W. L., Sr.; Zollinger, L. J.; Huppi, R. J.; Reisse, R. A.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, X.; Tansock, J. J., Jr.; Jensen, S. M.; Revercomb, H. E.; Feltz, W. F.; Bingham, G. E.

    2007-01-01

    Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is an imaging infrared spectrometer designed for atmospheric soundings. The EDU groundbased measurement experiment was held in Logan, Utah during September 2006 to demonstrate its extensive capabilities for geosynchronous and other applications.

  9. Magnetic space-based field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Because the near Earth magnetic field is a complex combination of fields from outside the Earth of fields from its core and of fields from its crust, measurements from space prove to be the only practical way to obtain timely, global surveys. Due to difficulty in making accurate vector measurements, early satellites such as Sputnik and Vanguard measured only the magnitude survey. The attitude accuracy was 20 arc sec. Both the Earth's core fields and the fields arising from its crust were mapped from satellite data. The standard model of the core consists of a scalar potential represented by a spherical harmonics series. Models of the crustal field are relatively new. Mathematical representation is achieved in localized areas by arrays of dipoles appropriately located in the Earth's crust. Measurements of the Earth's field are used in navigation, to map charged particles in the magnetosphere, to study fluid properties in the Earth's core, to infer conductivity of the upper mantels, and to delineate regional scale geological features.

  10. A direct measurement of strontium-89 activity in bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Ben-Josef, E; Maughan, R L; Vasan, S; Porter, A T

    1995-06-01

    The total absorbed dose after systemic administration of 89Sr has been determined by measuring directly its activity in bone metastases. Autoradiography was performed on sections of bones obtained from patients treated with 89Sr to study the pattern of deposition. Discs of 5 and 8 mm diameter were cut from metastatic sites and normal bone. The beta-ray activity was determined with a scintillation counter, which was calibrated using similar bovine cancellous bone discs, onto which a known activity of 89Sr was transferred by pipette. From the activity measured, the initial activity (at the time of 89Sr administration) was calculated. The absorbed dose was estimated using the methodology described in NCRP Report No. 58. The estimated initial activity of 89Sr in the bone metastases varied from 2.3 to 240 MBq kg-1, with a mean value of 31 +/- 27 MBq kg-1. The total absorbed dose ranged from 1.3 to 64 Gy, with a mean of 18 +/- 16 Gy. The average total dose to normal bone sites was 1.1 +/- 0.4 Gy. The metastases to normal bone dose ratio in individual samples varied from 8 +/- 4 to 40 +/- 25. These estimates are in agreement with those obtained previously by indirect methods. PMID:7675358

  11. Space based astronomy: Teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Carla B. (Editor); Weiler, Edward; Morrow, Cherilyn; Bacon, Pamela M.; Thorne, Muriel; Blanchard, Paul A.; Howard, Sethane; Pengra, Patricia R.; Brown, Deborah A.; Winrich, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy - astronomical observations made from outer space. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. Instead, it tells the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The guide begins with a survey of astronomy related NASA spacecraft. This is followed by a collection of activities in four units: (1) the atmospheric filter; (2) the electromagnetic spectrum; (3) collecting electromagnetic radiation; and (4) down to Earth. A curriculum index identifies the curriculum areas each activity addresses. The guide concludes with a glossary, reference list, a NASA Resources list, and an evaluation card. It is designed for students in grades 5 through 8.

  12. Rodent model of activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Olaia; Fraga, Ángela; Pellón, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Emilio

    2014-04-10

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) consists of a procedure that involves the simultaneous exposure of animals to a restricted feeding schedule, while free access is allowed to an activity wheel. Under these conditions, animals show a progressive increase in wheel running, a reduced efficiency in food intake to compensate for their increased activity, and a severe progression of weight loss. Due to the parallelism with the clinical manifestations of anorexia nervosa including increased activity, reduced food intake and severe weight loss, the ABA procedure has been proposed as the best analog of human anorexia nervosa (AN). Thus, ABA research could both allow a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying AN and generate useful leads for treatment development in AN.

  13. Bridge continuous deformation measurement technology based on fiber optic gyro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Weibing; Hu, Wenbin; Liu, Fang; Tang, Jianguang; Li, Sheng; Yang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Bridge is an important part of modern transportation systems and deformation is a key index for bridge's safety evaluation. To achieve the long span bridge curve measurement rapidly and timely and accurately locate the bridge maximum deformation, the continuous deformation measurement system (CDMS) based on inertial platform is presented and validated in this paper. Firstly, based on various bridge deformation measurement methods, the method of deformation measurement based on the fiber optic gyro (FOG) is introduced. Secondly, the basic measurement principle based on FOG is presented and the continuous curve trajectory is derived by the formula. Then the measurement accuracy is analyzed in theory and the relevant factors are presented to ensure the measurement accuracy. Finally, the deformation measurement experiments are conducted on a bridge across the Yangtze River. Experimental results show that the presented deformation measurement method is feasible, practical, and reliable; the system can accurately and quickly locate the maximum deformation and has extensive and broad application prospects.

  14. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M.; Scholz, M.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Pytel, K.

    2014-08-21

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, α){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting β{sup −} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β–particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β–source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5–the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β{sup −} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  15. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Scholz, M.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Paducha, M.; Pytel, K.

    2014-08-01

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction 9Be(n, α)6He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, 6He, decays with half-life T1/2 = 0.807 s emitting β- particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β-particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β-source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5-the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β- particles emitted from radioactive 6He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  16. Thermodynamic Activity Measurements with Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan H.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2001-01-01

    Coupling the Knudsen effusion method with mass spectrometry has proven to be one of the most useful experimental techniques for studying the equilibrium between condensed phases and complex vapors. The Knudsen effusion method involves placing a condensed sample in a Knudsen cell, a small "enclosure", that is uniformly heated and held until equilibrium is attained between the condensed and vapor phases. The vapor is continuously sampled by effusion through a small orifice in the cell. A molecular beam is formed from the effusing vapor and directed into a mass spectrometer for identification and pressure measurement of the species in the vapor phase. Knudsen cell mass spectrometry (KCMS) has been used for nearly fifty years now and continues to be a leading technique for obtaining thermodynamic data. Indeed, much of the well-established vapor specie data in the JANAF tables has been obtained from this technique. This is due to the extreme versatility of the technique. All classes of materials can be studied and all constituents of the vapor phase can be measured over a wide range of pressures (approximately 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -11) bar) and temperatures (500-2800 K). The ability to selectively measure different vapor species makes KCMS a very powerful tool for the measurement of component activities in metallic and ceramic solutions. Today several groups are applying KCMS to measure thermodynamic functions in multicomponent metallic and ceramic systems. Thermodynamic functions, especially component activities, are extremely important in the development of CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) type thermodynamic descriptions. These descriptions, in turn, are useful for modeling materials processing and predicting reactions such as oxide formation and fiber/matrix interactions. The leading experimental methods for measuring activities are the Galvanic cell or electro-motive force (EMF) technique and the KCMS technique. Each has specific advantages, depending on

  17. Torsional ultrasonic wave based level measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David E.; Kisner, Roger A.

    2012-07-10

    A level measurement system suitable for use in a high temperature and pressure environment to measure the level of coolant fluid within the environment, the system including a volume of coolant fluid located in a coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment and having a level therein; an ultrasonic waveguide blade that is positioned within the desired coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment; a magnetostrictive electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment and configured to operate in the environment and cooperate with the waveguide blade to launch and receive ultrasonic waves; and an external signal processing system located outside of the high temperature and pressure environment and configured for communicating with the electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment.

  18. Measurements of the PLT and PDX device activation

    SciTech Connect

    Stavely, J.; Barnes, C.W.; Chrien, R.E.; Strachan, J.D.

    1981-09-01

    Measurements of the activation levels around the PLT and PDX tokamaks have been made using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometer and a Geiger counter. The activation results from radiation induced in the plasma by 14 MeV neutrons from the d(t,n)..cap alpha.. fusion reaction, 14.7 MeV protons from the d(/sup 3/He,p)..cap alpha.. fusion reaction, 10 ..-->.. 20 MeV hard x-rays from runaway electron induced bremmstrahlung, and 2.5 MeV neutrons from the d(d,n)/sup 3/He fusion reaction. The magnitude of the activation is compared to that predicted for PDX on the basis of one-dimensional activation codes.

  19. Preparation of gaseous CRMs from the primary system for (222)Rn activity measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, B J; Kim, B C; Lee, K B; Lee, J M; Park, T S

    2016-03-01

    For disseminating the gaseous radon standard traceable to the KRISS primary system based on the defined solid angle counting method, two kinds of radon CRM (a glass ampule type and a stainless steel cylinder type) were developed. The activity of the CRM was certified by subtracting a residual activity from the measured activity by the primary system. After certification, the ampule CRM was used to calibrate a radon-monitoring instrument and the cylinder CRM to calibrate an HPGe system. We also improved the measurement procedure of the radon primary system. In a typical radon energy spectrum, the radon peak overlaps with the polonium peak. For more reliable and accurate measurement of radon activity, a fitting method was adopted for the evaluation of radon area in the alpha energy spectrum. The result of radon activity evaluated by using the fitting method is in good agreement with that by the previous integration method. PMID:26778761

  20. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  1. DNA-based control of protein activity

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, W.; Janssen, B. M. G.

    2016-01-01

    DNA has emerged as a highly versatile construction material for nanometer-sized structures and sophisticated molecular machines and circuits. The successful application of nucleic acid based systems greatly relies on their ability to autonomously sense and act on their environment. In this feature article, the development of DNA-based strategies to dynamically control protein activity via oligonucleotide triggers is discussed. Depending on the desired application, protein activity can be controlled by directly conjugating them to an oligonucleotide handle, or expressing them as a fusion protein with DNA binding motifs. To control proteins without modifying them chemically or genetically, multivalent ligands and aptamers that reversibly inhibit their function provide valuable tools to regulate proteins in a noncovalent manner. The goal of this feature article is to give an overview of strategies developed to control protein activity via oligonucleotide-based triggers, as well as hurdles yet to be taken to obtain fully autonomous systems that interrogate, process and act on their environments by means of DNA-based protein control. PMID:26812623

  2. Competency-Based Education: A Framework for Measuring Quality Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Jackie; Dias, Laura Portolese; Schedler, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The growth of competency-based education in an online environment requires the development and measurement of quality competency-based courses. While quality measures for online courses have been developed and standardized, they do not directly align with emerging best practices and principles in the design of quality competency-based online…

  3. Data correction for seven activity trackers based on regression models.

    PubMed

    Andalibi, Vafa; Honko, Harri; Christophe, Francois; Viik, Jari

    2015-08-01

    Using an activity tracker for measuring activity-related parameters, e.g. steps and energy expenditure (EE), can be very helpful in assisting a person's fitness improvement. Unlike the measuring of number of steps, an accurate EE estimation requires additional personal information as well as accurate velocity of movement, which is hard to achieve due to inaccuracy of sensors. In this paper, we have evaluated regression-based models to improve the precision for both steps and EE estimation. For this purpose, data of seven activity trackers and two reference devices was collected from 20 young adult volunteers wearing all devices at once in three different tests, namely 60-minute office work, 6-hour overall activity and 60-minute walking. Reference data is used to create regression models for each device and relative percentage errors of adjusted values are then statistically compared to that of original values. The effectiveness of regression models are determined based on the result of a statistical test. During a walking period, EE measurement was improved in all devices. The step measurement was also improved in five of them. The results show that improvement of EE estimation is possible only with low-cost implementation of fitting model over the collected data e.g. in the app or in corresponding service back-end. PMID:26736578

  4. Measuring thermal budgets of active volcanoes by satellite remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, L.; Francis, P. W.; Rothery, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper measurements of the total radiant energy flux Q at Lascar volcano in north Chile for December 1984 are reported. The results are consistent with the earlier suggestion that a lava lake is the source of a reported thermal budget anomaly, and with values for 1985-1986 that are much lower, suggesting that fumarolic activity was then a more likely heat source. The results show that satellite remote sensing may be used to monitor the activity of a volcano quantitatively, in a way not possible by conventional ground studies, and may provide a method for predicting eruptions.

  5. Environmental Measurements Laboratory fiscal year 1998: Accomplishments and technical activities

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) is government-owned, government-operated, and programmatically under the DOE Office of Environmental Management. The Laboratory is administered by the Chicago Operations Office. EML provides program management, technical assistance and data quality assurance for measurements of radiation and radioactivity relating to environmental restoration, global nuclear nonproliferation, and other priority issues for the Department of Energy, as well as for other government, national, and international organizations. This report presents the technical activities and accomplishments of EML for Fiscal Year 1998.

  6. Device for measuring oxygen activity in liquid sodium

    DOEpatents

    Roy, P.; Young, R.S.

    1973-12-01

    A composite ceramic electrolyte in a configuration (such as a closed end tube or a plate) suitable to separate liquid sodium from a reference electrode with a high impedance voltmeter connected to measure EMF between the sodium and the reference electrode as a measure of oxygen activity in the sodium is described. The composite electrolyte consists of zirconiacalcia with a bonded layer of thoria-yttria. The device is used with a gaseous reference electrode on the zirconia-calcia side and liquid sodium on the thoria-yttria side of the electrolyte. (Official Gazette)

  7. Measurement of borneol based on infrared spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yan; Sun, Huili; Xu, Kexin

    2005-02-01

    The infrared spectrometry contains multiple information of the sample, and it is easy to be applied to on-line measurement. To Chinese medicine, this technology can improve the standard of quality control and accelerate the modernization course. In this paper, we investigate the spectral characteristics of borneol, an effective ingredient in many Chinese medicines. The following results are achieved. In middle infrared (MIR) region, utilizing the linear relationship between absorption and concentration, the concentration of borneol with relative error within 4.30% in the strongest absorption region (2950-2970 cm(-1)) is measured; in near infrared (NIR) region, the predicted concentrations of borneol are calculated by using partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis, in which the wavelengths are selected by genetic algorithm (GA) from the absorption bands of borneol in NIR region. The predicted relative error of calibration model is less than 2%. This result shows that PLS regression analysis combining genetic algorithm is a good method to improve prediction and reduce data in NIR region.

  8. Development of microcontroller based water flow measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, Muhammad Miftahul; Surachman, Arif; Fathonah, Indra Wahyudin; Billah, Muhammad Aziz; Khairurrijal, Mahfudz, Hernawan; Rimawan, Ririn; Lestari, Slamet

    2015-04-01

    A digital instrument for measuring water flow was developed using an AT89S52 microcontroller, DS1302 real time clock (RTC), and EEPROM for an external memory. The sensor used for probing the current was a propeller that will rotate if immersed in a water flow. After rotating one rotation, the sensor sends one pulse and the number of pulses are counted for a certain time of counting. The measurement data, i.e. the number of pulses per unit time, are converted into water flow velocity (m/s) through a mathematical formula. The microcontroller counts the pulse sent by the sensor and the number of counted pulses are stored into the EEPROM memory. The time interval for counting is provided by the RTC and can be set by the operator. The instrument was tested under various time intervals ranging from 10 to 40 seconds and several standard propellers owned by Experimental Station for Hydraulic Structure and Geotechnics (BHGK), Research Institute for Water Resources (Pusair). Using the same propellers and water flows, it was shown that water flow velocities obtained from the developed digital instrument and those found by the provided analog one are almost similar.

  9. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  10. Plant-based active photoprotectants for sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Cefali, L C; Ataide, J A; Moriel, P; Foglio, M A; Mazzola, P G

    2016-08-01

    Excessive exposure to the sun's radiation is the major exogenous mediator of skin damage, which accelerates skin ageing and increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Compounds with photoprotectant activity are extremely useful for decreasing the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin; however, numerous sun filters, especially organic sunscreens, are allergenic. Therefore, the development of formulations containing plant extracts, which may be potentially safer, is extensively being explored. Plant-based cosmetics are commonly used to avoid skin ageing because they contain antioxidant agents that minimize free radical activity, and numerous studies have investigated the skin-protectant effects of related plant species. In addition to their antioxidant properties, plant-based cosmetics protect the skin against solar radiation because they contain polyphenols such as flavonoids and carotenoids. Therefore, this study aims to present a review of plant species commonly used in sunscreens to protect the skin against damage due to sunlight exposure. PMID:26919163

  11. Vectra DA for the objective measurement of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Segurado, O G; Sasso, E H

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative and regular assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is required to achieve treatment targets such as remission and to optimize clinical outcomes. To assess inflammation accurately, predict joint damage and monitor treatment response, a measure of disease activity in RA should reflect the pathological processes resulting in irreversible joint damage and functional disability. The Vectra DA blood test is an objective measure of disease activity for patients with RA. Vectra DA provides an accurate, reproducible score on a scale of 1 to 100 based on the concentrations of 12 biomarkers that reflect the pathophysiologic diversity of RA. The analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility of Vectra DA have been evaluated for patients with RA in registries and prospective and retrospective clinical studies. As a biomarker-based instrument for assessing disease activity in RA, the Vectra DA test can help monitor therapeutic response to methotrexate and biologic agents and assess clinically challenging situations, such as when clinical measures are confounded by non-inflammatory pain from fibromyalgia. Vectra DA scores correlate with imaging of joint inflammation and are predictive for radiographic progression, with high Vectra DA scores being associated with more frequent and severe progression and low scores being predictive for non-progression. In summary, the Vectra DA score is an objective measure of RA disease activity that quantifies inflammatory status. By predicting risk for joint damage more effectively than conventional clinical and laboratory measures, it has the potential to complement these measures and optimise clinical decision making.

  12. Paper-Based Active Tactile Sensor Array.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qize; Zhong, Junwen; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Yao, Xu; Wang, Bo; Li, Wenbo; Wu, Nan; Liu, Kang; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-11-25

    A paper-based active tactile sensor -array (PATSA) with a dynamic sensitivity of 0.35 V N(-1) is demonstrated. The pixel position of the PATSA can be routed by analyzing the real-time recording voltages in the pressing process. The PATSA performance, which remains functional when removing partial areas, reveals that the device has a potential application to customized electronic skins. PMID:26450138

  13. Chief Complaint-Based Performance Measures: A New Focus For Acute Care Quality Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Griffey, Richard T; Pines, Jesse M.; Farley, Heather L.; Phelan, Michael P; Beach, Christopher; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Venkatesh, Arjun K.

    2014-01-01

    Performance measures are increasingly important to guide meaningful quality improvement efforts and value-based reimbursement. Populations included in most current hospital performance measures are defined by recorded diagnoses using International Disease Classification (ICD)-9 codes in administrative claims data. While the diagnosis-centric approach allows the assessment of disease-specific quality, it fails to measure one of the primary functions of emergency department (ED) care which involves diagnosing, risk-stratifying, and treating patients’ potentially life-threatening conditions based on symptoms (i.e. chief complaints). In this paper we propose chief complaint-based quality measures as a means to enhance the evaluation of quality and value in emergency care. We discuss the potential benefits of chief-complaint based measures, describe opportunities to mitigate challenges, propose an example measure set, and present several recommendations to advance this paradigm in ED-based performance measurement. PMID:25443989

  14. Antioxidative activity of lactobacilli measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity.

    PubMed

    Saide, J A O; Gilliland, S E

    2005-04-01

    The reducing ability and antioxidative activity of some species of Lactobacillus were compared under in vitro conditions. Cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei were grown at 37 degrees C in de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) broth supplemented with 0.5% 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) to evaluate reducing activity. Reduced TTC was extracted from the cultures with acetone, and the intensity of the red color measured colorimetrically at 485 nm was an indication of reducing activity. The lactobacilli varied significantly in relative ability to reduce TTC when grown in MRS broth for 15 h. The relative amounts of growth as indicated by pH values at 18 h appeared to influence the amount of reduction. Antioxidative activity was evaluated by the ability of the whole cells or the cell-free extracts from cultures to protect a protein from being attacked by free radicals. These analyses were performed using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. All cultures tested exhibited some degree of antioxidative activity. Among the treatments, the cell-free extracts from cells grown in MRS broth exhibited significantly higher values than did whole cells. There was no apparent relationship between the reducing and antioxidative activities of the cultures evaluated. The results from this study show that these cultures can provide a source of dietary antioxidants. Furthermore, selection of cultures that produce antioxidants as starters could provide yet another health or nutritional benefit from cultured or culture-containing dairy products.

  15. Active transmission isolation/rotor loads measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenigsberg, I. J.; Defelice, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Modifications were incorporated into a helicopter active transmission isolation system to provide the capability of utilizing the system as a rotor force measuring device. These included; (1) isolator redesign to improve operation and minimize friction, (2) installation of pressure transducers in each isolator, and (3) load cells in series with each torque restraint link. Full scale vibration tests performed during this study on a CH-53A helicopter airframe verified that these modifications do not degrade the systems wide band isolation characteristics. Bench tests performed on each isolator unit indicated that steady and transient loads can be measured to within 1 percent of applied load. Individual isolator vibratory load measurement accuracy was determined to be 4 percent. Load measurement accuracy was found to be independent of variations in all basic isolator operating characteristics. Full scale system load calibration tests on the CH-53A airframe established the feasibility of simultaneously providing wide band vibration isolation and accurate measurement of rotor loads. Principal rotor loads (lift, propulsive force, and torque) were measured to within 2 percent of applied load.

  16. Emission measure distribution for diffuse regions in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2014-11-01

    Our knowledge of the diffuse emission that encompasses active regions is very limited. In this paper we investigate two off-limb active regions, namely, AR 10939 and AR 10961, to probe the underlying heating mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used spectral observations from Hinode/EIS and employed the emission measure (EM) technique to obtain the thermal structure of these diffuse regions. Our results show that the characteristic EM distributions of the diffuse emission regions peak at log T = 6.25 and the coolward slopes are in the range 1.4-3.3. This suggests that both low- as well as high-frequency nanoflare heating events are at work. Our results provide additional constraints on the properties of these diffuse emission regions and their contribution to the background/foreground when active region cores are observed on-disk.

  17. Active Geodesics: Region-based Active Contour Segmentation with a Global Edge-based Constraint.

    PubMed

    Appia, Vikram; Yezzi, Anthony

    2011-11-01

    We present an active geodesic contour model in which we constrain the evolving active contour to be a geodesic with respect to a weighted edge-based energy through its entire evolution rather than just at its final state (as in the traditional geodesic active contour models). Since the contour is always a geodesic throughout the evolution, we automatically get local optimality with respect to an edge fitting criterion. This enables us to construct a purely region-based energy minimization model without having to devise arbitrary weights in the combination of our energy function to balance edge-based terms with the region-based terms. We show that this novel approach of combining edge information as the geodesic constraint in optimizing a purely region-based energy yields a new class of active contours which exhibit both local and global behaviors that are naturally responsive to intuitive types of user interaction. We also show the relationship of this new class of globally constrained active contours with traditional minimal path methods, which seek global minimizers of purely edge-based energies without incorporating region-based criteria. Finally, we present some numerical examples to illustrate the benefits of this approach over traditional active contour models.

  18. Calculating Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Concentrations from Beta Activity Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Szrom, Fran; Falo, Gerald A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Alberth, David P.

    2009-03-01

    Beta activity measurements were used as surrogate measurements of uranium mass in aerosol samples collected during the field testing phase of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. These aerosol samples generated by the perforation of armored combat vehicles were used to characterize the depleted uranium (DU) source term for the subsequent human health risk assessment (HHRA) of Capstone aerosols. Establishing a calibration curve between beta activity measurements and uranium mass measurements is straightforward if the uranium isotopes are in equilibrium with their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny. For DU samples collected during the Capstone study, it was determined that the equilibrium between the uranium isotopes and their immediate short lived, beta-emitting progeny had been disrupted when penetrators had perforated target vehicles. Adjustments were made to account for the disrupted equilibrium and for wall losses in the aerosol samplers. Correction factors for the disrupted equilibrium ranged from 0.16 to 1, and the wall loss correction factors ranged from 1 to 1.92.

  19. Experimental entanglement activation from discord in a programmable quantum measurement.

    PubMed

    Adesso, Gerardo; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Nagali, Eleonora; Piani, Marco; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2014-04-11

    In quantum mechanics, observing is not a passive act. Consider a system of two quantum particles A and B: if a measurement apparatus M is used to make an observation on B, the overall state of the system AB will typically be altered. When this happens, no matter which local measurement is performed, the two objects A and B are revealed to possess peculiar correlations known as quantum discord. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that the very act of local observation gives rise to an activation protocol which converts discord into distillable entanglement, a stronger and more useful form of quantum correlations, between the apparatus M and the composite system AB. We adopt a flexible two-photon setup to realize a three-qubit system (A, B, M) with programmable degrees of initial correlations, measurement interaction, and characterization processes. Our experiment demonstrates the fundamental mechanism underpinning the ubiquitous act of observing the quantum world and establishes the potential of discord in entanglement generation.

  20. Evaluation of wind electric energy based on martian wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Y.; Kurita, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since Mars is characterized by strong surface wind, electric power generation by the wind activity has been proposed as a possible power source for martian base station as well as that for exploration module (George James et al., 1999, Vimal Kumar et al., 2010). George and Vimal estimated total power as 19kW and 500W, which they conclude is sufficient value as a power source of small exploration module. These values seem comparable to that used in MER( 900Wh per day ). But their estimate largely depends on the model of wind velocity and reevaluation is necessary based on plausible wind model as well as more realistic assumptions about power generation. This study evaluates plausible range of available power by using surface wind model estimated by Viking Lander measurements. Meteorological package of Viking Lander measured wind velocity and its direction at 1.6m hight at every 60 min. for 200 sols. We estimate wind statistics by using Weibull distribution function and elevation offset. We calculate the wind energy by wind turbines as the integrated value of power produced in a Martian day, and compare with solar panel and nuclear battery under various conditions (Mars ground roughness, blade length, shape of wind turbine and rotor height from the ground). As a result of the calculations, we obtain reasonable amount of wind electricity (1000 Wh per day ), which can be used if we select proper locations and suitable wind turbine.

  1. Measuring Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Activity in Children

    PubMed Central

    van Eijsden, Manon; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Geus, Eco J.

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls mainly automatic bodily functions that are engaged in homeostasis, like heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration and renal function. The ANS has two main branches: the sympathetic nervous system, preparing the human body for action in times of danger and stress, and the parasympathetic nervous system, which regulates the resting state of the body. ANS activity can be measured invasively, for instance by radiotracer techniques or microelectrode recording from superficial nerves, or it can be measured non-invasively by using changes in an organ's response as a proxy for changes in ANS activity, for instance of the sweat glands or the heart. Invasive measurements have the highest validity but are very poorly feasible in large scale samples where non-invasive measures are the preferred approach. Autonomic effects on the heart can be reliably quantified by the recording of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in combination with the impedance cardiogram (ICG), which reflects the changes in thorax impedance in response to respiration and the ejection of blood from the ventricle into the aorta. From the respiration and ECG signals, respiratory sinus arrhythmia can be extracted as a measure of cardiac parasympathetic control. From the ECG and the left ventricular ejection signals, the preejection period can be extracted as a measure of cardiac sympathetic control. ECG and ICG recording is mostly done in laboratory settings. However, having the subjects report to a laboratory greatly reduces ecological validity, is not always doable in large scale epidemiological studies, and can be intimidating for young children. An ambulatory device for ECG and ICG simultaneously resolves these three problems. Here, we present a study design for a minimally invasive and rapid assessment of cardiac autonomic control in children, using a validated ambulatory device 1-5, the VU University Ambulatory Monitoring System (VU

  2. Predictability of sacral base levelness based on iliac crest measurements.

    PubMed

    Dott, G A; Hart, C L; McKay, C

    1994-05-01

    A level sacral base plane is necessary to allow normalization of complex lumbosacral mechanics. Palpatory examinations are often used to evaluate for leg length discrepancy and pelvic obliquity despite improved accuracy and consistency of radiographic techniques. Treatment based on palpatory examinations suppose a direct and consistent relationship between the pelvic bones (innominates) and the sacral base. To evaluate the relationship between iliac crest levelness and sacral base levelness, a radiographic postural survey in the upright, weight-bearing position was performed on 358 men and women thought to have pelvic obliquity. Of these subjects, 293 demonstrated unlevel iliac crest heights or sacral base > or = 3/16 inch (4.76 mm), with iliac crest heights accurately predicting sacral base position 62% of the time. At > or = 3/8 inch (9.53 mm), 68% of the cases were accurately predicted. When the criterion for unlevelness was increased to > or = 1/2 inch (12.70 mm), the predictive accuracy improved to 83%. Radiographic findings in this study demonstrate a significant difference between iliac crest heights and sacral base position. In cases of mild to moderate short leg syndromes, the iliac crest height is an unreliable predictor of the direction or degree of sacral base levelness. PMID:8056627

  3. Electroencephalogram measurement using polymer-based dry microneedle electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Miyako; Nishinaka, Yuya; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we report a successful electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement using polymer-based dry microneedle electrodes. The electrodes consist of needle-shaped substrates of SU-8, a silver film, and a nanoporous parylene protective film. Differently from conventional wet electrodes, microneedle electrodes do not require skin preparation and a conductive gel. SU-8 is superior as a structural material to poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS; Dow Corning Toray Sylgard 184) in terms of hardness, which was used in our previous work, and facilitates the penetration of needles through the stratum corneum. SU-8 microneedles can be successfully inserted into the skin without breaking and could maintain a sufficiently low skin-electrode contact impedance for EEG measurement. The electrodes successfully measured EEG from the frontal pole, and the quality of acquired signals was verified to be as high as those obtained using commercially available wet electrodes without any skin preparation or a conductive gel. The electrodes are readily applicable to record brain activities for a long period with little stress involved in skin preparation to the users.

  4. Concurrent measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plants.

    PubMed

    Bellik, Yuva; Iguer-Ouada, Mokrane

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, a multitude of analytical methods for measuring antioxidant activity of plant extracts has been developed. However, when using methods to determine hemoglobin released from human erythrocytes treated with ginger extracts, we found hemoglobin concentrations were significantly higher than in untreated control samples. This suggests in the presence of antioxidants that measuring hemoglobin alone is not sufficient to determine hemolysis. We show concurrent measurement of erythrocyte concentration and hemoglobin is essential in such assays, and describe a new protocol based on simultaneous measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin.

  5. Radon-222 activity flux measurement using activated charcoal canisters: revisiting the methodology.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Sami H; Akber, Riaz A

    2014-03-01

    The measurement of radon ((222)Rn) activity flux using activated charcoal canisters was examined to investigate the distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the relationship between (222)Rn activity flux and exposure time. The activity flux of (222)Rn from five sources of varying strengths was measured for exposure times of one, two, three, five, seven, 10, and 14 days. The distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed was obtained by dividing the bed into six layers and counting each layer separately after the exposure. (222)Rn activity decreased in the layers that were away from the exposed surface. Nevertheless, the results demonstrated that only a small correction might be required in the actual application of charcoal canisters for activity flux measurement, where calibration standards were often prepared by the uniform mixing of radium ((226)Ra) in the matrix. This was because the diffusion of (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the detection efficiency as a function of the charcoal depth tended to counterbalance each other. The influence of exposure time on the measured (222)Rn activity flux was observed in two situations of the canister exposure layout: (a) canister sealed to an open bed of the material and (b) canister sealed over a jar containing the material. The measured (222)Rn activity flux decreased as the exposure time increased. The change in the former situation was significant with an exponential decrease as the exposure time increased. In the latter case, lesser reduction was noticed in the observed activity flux with respect to exposure time. This reduction might have been related to certain factors, such as absorption site saturation or the back diffusion of (222)Rn gas occurring at the canister-soil interface.

  6. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  7. Measurements of Microbial Community Activities in Individual Soil Macroaggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Fansler, Sarah J.; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeff L.; Konopka, Allan

    2012-05-01

    The functional potential of single soil aggregates may provide insights into the localized distribution of microbial activities better than traditional assays conducted on bulk quantities of soil. Thus, we scaled down enzyme assays for {beta}-glucosidase, N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine aminopeptidase to measure of the enzyme potential of individual aggregates (250-1000 {mu}m diameter). Across all enzymes, the smallest aggregates had the greatest activity and the range of enzyme activities observed in all aggregates supports the hypothesis that functional potential in soil may be distributed in a patchy fashion. Paired analyses of ATP as a surrogate for active microbial biomass and {beta}-glucosidase on the same aggregates suggest the presence of both extracellular {beta}-glucosidase functioning in aggregates with no detectable ATP and also of relatively active microbial communities (high ATP) that have low {beta}-glucosidase potentials. Studying function at a scale more consistent with microbial habitat presents greater opportunity to link microbial community structure to microbial community function.

  8. Information Technology Measurement and Testing Activities at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Michael D.; Carnahan, Lisa J.; Carpenter, Robert J.; Flater, David W.; Fowler, James E.; Frechette, Simon P.; Gray, Martha M.; Johnson, L. Arnold; McCabe, R. Michael; Montgomery, Douglas; Radack, Shirley M.; Rosenthal, Robert; Shakarji, Craig M.

    2001-01-01

    Our high technology society continues to rely more and more upon sophisticated measurements, technical standards, and associated testing activities. This was true for the industrial society of the 20th century and remains true for the information society of the 21st century. Over the last half of the 20th century, information technology (IT) has been a powerful agent of change in almost every sector of the economy. The complexity and rapidly changing nature of IT have presented unique technical challenges to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and to the scientific measurement community in developing a sound measurement and testing infrastructure for IT. This measurement and testing infrastructure for the important non-physical and non-chemical properties associated with complex IT systems is still in an early stage of development. This paper explains key terms and concepts of IT metrology, briefly reviews the history of the National Bureau of Standards/National Institute of Standards and Technology (NBS/NIST) in the field of IT, and reviews NIST’s current capabilities and work in measurement and testing for IT. It concludes with a look at what is likely to occur in the field of IT over the next ten years and what metrology roles NIST is likely to play. PMID:27500026

  9. Measurement bias in activation-recovery intervals from unipolar electrograms

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Ben; Taggart, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The activation-recovery interval (ARI) calculated from unipolar electrograms is regularly used as a convenient surrogate measure of local cardiac action potential durations (APD). This method enables important research bridging between computational studies and in vitro and in vivo human studies. The Wyatt method is well established as a theoretically sound method for calculating ARIs; however, some studies have observed that it is prone to a bias error in measurement when applied to positive T waves. This article demonstrates that recent theoretical and computational studies supporting the use of the Wyatt method are likely to have underestimated the extent of this bias in many practical experimental recording scenarios. This work addresses these situations and explains the measurement bias by adapting existing theoretical expressions of the electrogram to represent practical experimental recording configurations. A new analytic expression for the electrogram's local component is derived, which identifies the source of measurement bias for positive T waves. A computer implementation of the new analytic model confirms our hypothesis that the bias is systematically dependent on the electrode configuration. These results provide an aid to electrogram interpretation in general, and this work's outcomes are used to make recommendations on how to minimize measurement error. PMID:25398981

  10. Chief complaint-based performance measures: a new focus for acute care quality measurement.

    PubMed

    Griffey, Richard T; Pines, Jesse M; Farley, Heather L; Phelan, Michael P; Beach, Christopher; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Venkatesh, Arjun K

    2015-04-01

    Performance measures are increasingly important to guide meaningful quality improvement efforts and value-based reimbursement. Populations included in most current hospital performance measures are defined by recorded diagnoses using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes in administrative claims data. Although the diagnosis-centric approach allows the assessment of disease-specific quality, it fails to measure one of the primary functions of emergency department (ED) care, which involves diagnosing, risk stratifying, and treating patients' potentially life-threatening conditions according to symptoms (ie, chief complaints). In this article, we propose chief complaint-based quality measures as a means to enhance the evaluation of quality and value in emergency care. We discuss the potential benefits of chief complaint-based measures, describe opportunities to mitigate challenges, propose an example measure set, and present several recommendations to advance this paradigm in ED-based performance measurement.

  11. Accurate and fast fiber transfer delay measurement based on phase discrimination and frequency measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. W.; Wang, B.; Gao, C.; Wang, L. J.

    2016-09-01

    An accurate and fast fiber transfer delay measurement method is demonstrated. As a key technique, a simple ambiguity resolving process based on phase discrimination and frequency measurement is used to overcome the contradiction between measurement accuracy and system complexity. The system achieves a high measurement accuracy of 0.2 ps with a 0.1 ps measurement resolution and a large dynamic range up to 50 km as well as no dead zone.

  12. Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

  13. The Reliability of Randomly Generated Math Curriculum-Based Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, Gerald G.; Smith, Bradley H.; Pender, Carolyn; Malone, Patrick S.; Roberts, Jarod; Hall, John D.

    2015-01-01

    "Curriculum-Based Measurement" (CBM) is a direct method of academic assessment used to screen and evaluate students' skills and monitor their responses to academic instruction and intervention. Interventioncentral.org offers a math worksheet generator at no cost that creates randomly generated "math curriculum-based measures"…

  14. Activity cliffs and activity cliff generators based on chemotype-related activity landscapes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Medina-Franco, José L

    2015-11-01

    Activity cliffs have large impact in drug discovery; therefore, their detection and quantification are of major importance. This work introduces the metric activity cliff enrichment factor and expands the previously reported activity cliff generator concept by adding chemotype information to representations of the activity landscape. To exemplify these concepts, three molecular databases with multiple biological activities were characterized. Compounds in each database were grouped into chemotype classes. Then, pairwise comparisons of structure similarities and activity differences were calculated for each compound and used to construct chemotype-based structure-activity similarity (SAS) maps. Different landscape distributions among four major regions of the SAS maps were observed for different subsets of molecules grouped in chemotypes. Based on this observation, the activity cliff enrichment factor was calculated to numerically detect chemotypes enriched in activity cliffs. Several chemotype classes were detected having major proportion of activity cliffs than the entire database. In addition, some chemotype classes comprising compounds with smooth structure activity relationships (SAR) were detected. Finally, the activity cliff generator concept was applied to compounds grouped in chemotypes to extract valuable SAR information.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Maleki Dizaj, Solmaz; Mennati, Afsaneh; Jafari, Samira; Khezri, Khadejeh; Adibkia, Khosro

    2015-01-01

    Due to the vast and inappropriate use of the antibiotics, microorganisms have begun to develop resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. So therefore, development of the new and effective antimicrobial agents seems to be necessary. According to some recent reports, carbon-based nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (especially single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)) and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles show potent antimicrobial properties. In present review, we have briefly summarized the antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanoparticles together with their mechanism of action. Reviewed literature show that the size of carbon nanoparticles plays an important role in the inactivation of the microorganisms. As major mechanism, direct contact of microorganisms with carbon nanostructures seriously affects their cellular membrane integrity, metabolic processes and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanostructures may interestingly be investigated in the near future owing to their high surface/volume ratio, large inner volume and other unique chemical and physical properties. In addition, application of functionalized carbon nanomaterials as carriers for the ordinary antibiotics possibly will decrease the associated resistance, enhance their bioavailability and provide their targeted delivery. PMID:25789215

  16. Passive, integrated measurement of indoor radon using activated carbon.

    PubMed

    George, A C

    1984-04-01

    Activated carbon canisters were tested to determine their adsorption and retention characteristics for radon. Our tests conducted indoors under typical conditions of temperature and relative humidity indicate that simple, inexpensive and maintenance-free passive devices containing 150-200 g of activated carbon can measure radon conveniently and adequately. The amount of radon absorbed in the collector is determined by counting the gamma rays from the decay products of radon. The lower limit of detection for radon is 0.2 pCi/l. for an exposure of 72 hr. Greater sensitivity can be obtained with larger counting systems and devices containing carbon with more surface area. Tests in a residential building and in a test chamber indicate that the measured radon in the canister is proportional to the mean concentration of radon during the period of exposure when correction for relative humidity is made. For practical situations encountered indoors, the device yields results accurate to within +/- 20%. Results from field measurements indicate that the use of the device is feasible.

  17. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  18. Discoveries from Revisiting Apollo Direct Active Measurements of Lunar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Brian

    2010-05-01

    New missions to the moon being developed by China, Japan, India, USA, Russia and Europe and possibilities of human missions about 2020 face the reality that 6 Apollo expeditions did not totally manage or mitigate effects of easily-mobilised and very "sticky" lunar dust on humans and hardware. Laboratory and theoretical modelling cannot reliably simulate the complex lunar environments that affect dynamical movements of lunar dust. The only direct active measurements of lunar dust during Apollo were made by matchbox-sized minimalist Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) deployed to transmit some 30 million digital measurements from Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15. These were misplaced or relatively ignored until 2009, when a self-funded suite of discoveries (O'Brien Geophys. Research Letters FIX 6 May 2099) revealed unexpected properties of lunar dust, such as the adhesive force being stronger as illumination increased. We give the first reports of contrasting effects, contamination or cleansing, from rocket exhausts of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 Lunar Modules leaving the moon. We further strengthen the importance of collateral dust inadvertently splashed on Apollo hardware by human activities. Dust management designs and mission plans require optimum use of such in situ measurements, extended by laboratory simulations and theoretical modelling.

  19. II. Physical activity: measurement and behavioral patterns in children and youth.

    PubMed

    Wójcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward

    2014-12-01

    With physical activity levels among children and adolescents at an all-time low, there is a critical need for scientists and public health officials alike to further examine the physical activity behaviors of this population. Accordingly, this chapter will act as an entrée to the rest of the monograph by providing a general overview of the epidemiology of physical activity among youth in the United States. In so doing, we discuss the following: public health guidelines for youth-based physical activity, current rates and trends of physical activity participation in youth, issues related to physical education rates in school systems, lifestyle practices that encourage sedentary behaviors and attendant disease states, a synopsis of the health-related benefits of a physically active lifestyle, promotion of and opportunities for increased engagement, and comparisons of objective and subjective methods of measuring physical activity.

  20. The Direct Measurement of Base Drag for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Zhi-guo; Li, Guo-jun; Jiang, Hua; Zhao, Rong-juan; Wang, Gang; Huang, Jun

    A new base drag measurement method has been introduced in this paper. In tradition method, the base drag of the model was measured by the pressure transducer located on the bottom of the model. In this method, the base drag was measured with piezoelectric balance directly. The drag force was measured twice by fixing the model base segment to the model or the balance, the difference between these two measurements is considered as the base drag of the model. The wind tunnel test was carried out in φ0.6m shock tunnel of CARDC with a cone model. The base drag of cone model was measured in the flow field of M(=8.42, Re(l=9.67(106/m with the attack angle of 0(. The results showed that the base drag coefficient of the cone model is 0.0015. It means that the base drag can't be ignored in high precision tests, and it can be measured by piezoelectric balance in shock tunnel. The length of the tail sting affects the axis force test result. In the same attack angle, the base drag of high lift/drag ratio model decreases with the increasing of flow field Mach number.

  1. Performance-Based Measurement: Action for Organizations and HPT Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Moseley, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Basic measurements and applications of six selected general but critical operational performance-based indicators--effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, return on investment, and benefit-cost ratio--are presented. With each measurement, goals and potential impact are explored. Errors, risks, limitations to measurements, and a…

  2. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2015-02-01

    Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP) in conjunction with multimodal characterization techniques has yielded impactful findings in microbiology, particularly in pathogen, bioenergy, drug discovery, and environmental research. Using small molecule chemical probes that react irreversibly with specific proteins or protein families in complex systems has provided insights in enzyme functions in central metabolic pathways, drug-protein interactions, and regulatory protein redox, for systems ranging from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria to mycobacteria, and combining live cell or cell extract ABPP with proteomics, molecular biology, modeling, and other techniques has greatly expanded our understanding of these systems. New opportunities for application of ABPP to microbial systems include: enhancing protein annotation, characterizing protein activities in myriad environments, and reveal signal transduction and regulatory mechanisms in microbial systems.

  3. Evaluation of 16 measures of mental workload using a simulated flight task emphasizing mediational activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwille, W. W.; Rahimi, M.; Casali, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    As aircraft and other systems become more automated, a shift is occurring in human operator participation in these systems. This shift is away from manual control and toward activities that tap the higher mental functioning of human operators. Therefore, an experiment was performed in a moving-base flight simulator to assess mediational (cognitive) workload measurement. Specifically, 16 workload estimation techniques were evaluated as to their sensitivity and intrusion in a flight task emphasizing mediational behavior. Task loading, using navigation problems presented on a display, was treated as an independent variable, and workload-measure values were treated as dependent variables. Results indicate that two mediational task measures, two rating scale measures, time estimation, and two eye behavior measures were reliably sensitive to mediational loading. The time estimation measure did, however, intrude on mediational task performance. Several of the remaining measures were completely insensitive to mediational load.

  4. Measurement Theory in Deutsch's Algorithm Based on the Truth Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new measurement theory, in qubits handling, based on the truth values, i.e., the truth T (1) for true and the falsity F (0) for false. The results of measurement are either 0 or 1. To implement Deutsch's algorithm, we need both observability and controllability of a quantum state. The new measurement theory can satisfy these two. Especially, we systematically describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using raw data in a thoughtful experiment.

  5. A Variance Based Active Learning Approach for Named Entity Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Keyvanpour, Mohammadreza

    The cost of manually annotating corpora is one of the significant issues in many text based tasks such as text mining, semantic annotation and generally information extraction. Active Learning is an approach that deals with reduction of labeling costs. In this paper we proposed an effective active learning approach based on minimal variance that reduces manual annotation cost by using a small number of manually labeled examples. In our approach we use a confidence measure based on the model's variance that reaches a considerable accuracy for annotating entities. Conditional Random Field (CRF) is chosen as the underlying learning model due to its promising performance in many sequence labeling tasks. The experiments show that the proposed method needs considerably fewer manual labeled samples to produce a desirable result.

  6. Active microring based tunable optical power splitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Eldhose; Thomas, Arun; Dhawan, Anuj; Sarangi, Smruti R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a set of novel tunable optical power splitters based on active microring resonators. They work by operating ring resonators in the transient zone between full resonance and off-resonance states for a specific wavelength. We can achieve different split ratios by either varying the bias voltage, or by selectively enabling a given resonator with a specific split ratio among an array of ring resonators. We take 500 ps to tune the resonator, which is at least 10× better that competing designs. Its split ratio varies from 0.4 to 1.8 for an applied voltage range of 0-5 V.

  7. Perceived and Objective Measures of Neighborhood Environment for Physical Activity Among Mexican Adults, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Deborah; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández, Bernardo; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A.; Pratt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Environmental supports for physical activity may help residents to be physically active. However, such supports might not help if residents’ perceptions of the built environment do not correspond with objective measures. We assessed the associations between objective and perceived measures of the built environment among adults in Cuernavaca, Mexico, and examined whether certain variables modified this relationship. Methods We conducted a population-based (n = 645) study in 2011 that used objective (based on geographic information systems) and perceived (by questionnaire) measures of the following features of the built environment: residential density, mixed-land use, intersection density, and proximity to parks and transit stops. We used linear regression to assess the adjusted associations between these measures and to identify variables modifying these relationships. Results Adjusted associations were significant for all features (P < .05) except intersection density and proximity to transit stops. Significantly stronger associations between perceived and objective measures were observed among participants with low socioeconomic status, participants who did not own a motor vehicle or did not meet physical activity recommendations, and participants perceiving parks as safe. Conclusion Perceived measures of residential density, mixed-land use, and proximity to parks are associated with objective environmental measures related to physical activity. However, in Mexico, it should not be assumed that perceived measures of intersection density and proximity to transit stops are the same as objective measures. Our results are consistent with those from high-income countries in that associations between perceived and objective measures are modified by individual sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. PMID:27281391

  8. Recent volcanic activity on Venus - Evidence from radiothermal emissivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C. A.; Wood, J. A.

    1993-03-01

    Radiothermal emissivity measurements are analyzed in order to study large volcanic constructs on Venus and to correlate details of the reflectivity/emissivity patterns with geological landforms and stratigraphy visible in corresponding SAR images. There appears to be a correlation between locations on Venus where high emissivity at high altitudes and low emissivity at low altitudes are observed. These phenomena are attributed here to relatively recent volcanic activity: the former to summit eruptions that have not had time to weather to the low-emissivity state, the latter to continuing emission of volcanic gases from neighboring small plains volcanoes. The pattern of reflectivity and emissivity on Maat Mons is examined in the light of these findings. It is concluded that Maat Mons has undergone the most recent episode of volcanic activity of all the volcanoes studied here.

  9. Recent volcanic activity on Venus - Evidence from radiothermal emissivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Cordula A.; Wood, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Radiothermal emissivity measurements are analyzed in order to study large volcanic constructs on Venus and to correlate details of the reflectivity/emissivity patterns with geological landforms and stratigraphy visible in corresponding SAR images. There appears to be a correlation between locations on Venus where high emissivity at high altitudes and low emissivity at low altitudes are observed. These phenomena are attributed here to relatively recent volcanic activity: the former to summit eruptions that have not had time to weather to the low-emissivity state, the latter to continuing emission of volcanic gases from neighboring small plains volcanoes. The pattern of reflectivity and emissivity on Maat Mons is examined in the light of these findings. It is concluded that Maat Mons has undergone the most recent episode of volcanic activity of all the volcanoes studied here.

  10. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-07-16

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.

  11. Effect of fluorocarbons on acetylcholinesterase activity and some counter measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W.; Parker, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    An isolated vagal sympathetic heart system has been successfully used for the study of the effect of fluorocarbons (FCs) on cardiac performance and in situ enzyme activity. Dichlorodifluoromethane sensitizes this preparation to sympathetic stimulation and to exogenous epinephrine challenge. Partial and complete A-V block and even cardiac arrest have been induced by epinephrine challenge in the FC sensitized heart. Potassium chloride alone restores the rhythmicity but not the normal contractility of the heart in such a situation. Addition of glucose will, however, completely restore the normal function of the heart which is sensitized by dichlorodifluoromethane. The ED 50 values of acetylcholinesterase activity which are used as a measure of relative effectiveness of fluorocarbons are compared with the maximum permissible concentration. Kinetic studies indicate that all the fluorocarbons tested so far are noncompetitive.

  12. Active calibration target for bistatic radar cross-section measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pienaar, M.; Odendaal, J. W.; Joubert, J.; Cilliers, J. E.; Smit, J. C.

    2016-05-01

    Either passive calibration targets are expensive and complex to manufacture or their bistatic radar cross section (RCS) levels are significantly lower than the monostatic RCS levels of targets such as spheres, dihedral, and trihedral corner reflectors. In this paper the performance of an active calibration target with relative high bistatic RCS values is illustrated as a reference target for bistatic RCS measurements. The reference target is simple to manufacture, operates over a wide frequency range, and can be configured to calibrate all four polarizations (VV, HH, HV, and VH). Bistatic RCS measurements of canonical targets, performed in a controlled environment, are calibrated with the reference target and the results are compared to simulated results using FEKO.

  13. Evaluating Procedures for Reducing Measurement Error in Math Curriculum-Based Measurement Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Methe, Scott A.; Briesch, Amy M.; Hulac, David

    2015-01-01

    At present, it is unclear whether math curriculum-based measurement (M-CBM) procedures provide a dependable measure of student progress in math computation because support for its technical properties is based largely upon a body of correlational research. Recent investigations into the dependability of M-CBM scores have found that evaluating…

  14. A method for measuring total thiaminase activity in fish tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, J.L.; Tillitt, D.E.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Brown, S.B.; Fitzsimons, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    An accurate, quantitative, and rapid method for the measurement of thiaminase activity in fish samples is required to provide sufficient information to characterize the role of dietary thiaminase in the onset of thiamine deficiency in Great Lakes salmonines. A radiometric method that uses 14C-thiamine was optimized for substrate and co-substrate (nicotinic acid) concentrations, incubation time, and sample dilution. Total thiaminase activity was successfully determined in extracts of selected Great Lakes fishes and invertebrates. Samples included whole-body and selected tissues of forage fishes. Positive control material prepared from frozen alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in Lake Michigan enhanced the development and application of the method. The method allowed improved discrimination of thiaminolytic activity among forage fish species and their tissues. The temperature dependence of the thiaminase activity observed in crude extracts of Lake Michigan alewives followed a Q10 = 2 relationship for the 1-37??C temperature range, which is consistent with the bacterial-derived thiaminase I protein. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  15. Precise method for the measurement of catalase activity in honey.

    PubMed

    Huidobro, José F; Sánchez, M Pilar; Muniategui, Soledad; Sancho, M Teresa

    2005-01-01

    An improved method is reported for the determination of catalase activity in honey. We tested different dialysis membranes, dialysis fluid compositions and amounts, dialysis temperatures, sample amounts, and dialysis times. The best results were obtained by dialysis of 7.50 g sample in a cellulose dialysis sack, using two 3 L portions of 0.015 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) as the dialysis fluid at 4 degrees C for 22 h. As in previous methods, catalase activity was determined on the basis of the rate of disappearance of the substrate, H202, with the H202 determined spectrophotometrically at 400 nm in an assay system containing o-dianisidine and peroxidase. Trials indicated that the best solvent for the o-dianisidine was 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.1; the best starting H202 concentration was 3 mM; the best HCl concentration for stopping the reaction was 6 N; and the best sample volume for catalase measurement was 7.0 mL. Precision values (relative standard deviations for analyses of 10 subsamples of each of 3 samples) were high, ranging from 0.48% for samples with high catalase activity to 1.98% for samples with low catalase activity.

  16. Measuring initiator caspase activation by bimolecular fluorescence complementation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Melissa J; Bouchier-Hayes, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Initiator caspases, including caspase-2, -8, and -9, are activated by the proximity-driven dimerization that occurs after their recruitment to activation platforms. Here we describe the use of caspase bimolecular fluorescence complementation (caspase BiFC) to measure this induced proximity. BiFC assays rely on the use of a split fluorescent protein to identify protein-protein interactions in cells. When fused to interacting proteins, the fragments of the split fluorescent protein (which do not fluoresce on their own) can associate and fluoresce. In this protocol, we use the fluorescent protein Venus, a brighter and more photostable variant of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), to detect the induced proximity of caspase-2. Plasmids encoding two fusion products (caspase-2 fused to either the amino- or carboxy-terminal halves of Venus) are transfected into cells. The cells are then treated with an activating (death) stimulus. The induced proximity (and subsequent activation) of caspase-2 in the cells is visualized as Venus fluorescence. The proportion of Venus-positive cells at a single time point can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. Alternatively, the increase in fluorescence intensity over time can be evaluated by time-lapse confocal microscopy. The caspase BiFC strategy described here should also work for other initiator caspases, such as caspase-8 or -9, as long as the correct controls are used. PMID:25561623

  17. Emission Measure Distribution and Heating of Two Active Region Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode, we have studied the coronal plasma in the core of two active regions. Concentrating on the area between opposite polarity moss, we found emission measure distributions having an approximate power-law form EM/T(exp 2.4) from log T = 5.55 up to a peak at log T = 6.57. The observations are explained extremely well by a simple nanoflare model. However, in the absence of additional constraints, the observations could possibly also be explained by steady heating.

  18. Slice-Based Formal Specification Measures -- Mapping Coupling and Cohesion Measures to Formal Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollin, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that existing slice-based measures can reasonably be mapped to the field of state-based specification languages. By making use of Z specifications this contribution renews the idea of slice-profiles and derives coupling and cohesion measures for them. The measures are then assessed by taking a critical look at their sensitiveness in respect to modifications on the specification source. The presented study shows that slice-based coupling and cohesion measures have the potential to be used as quality indicators for specifications as they reflect the changes in the structure of a specification as accustomed from their program-related pendants.

  19. Time-driven activity-based costing.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Anderson, Steven R

    2004-11-01

    In the classroom, activity-based costing (ABC) looks like a great way to manage a company's limited resources. But executives who have tried to implement ABC in their organizations on any significant scale have often abandoned the attempt in the face of rising costs and employee irritation. They should try again, because a new approach sidesteps the difficulties associated with large-scale ABC implementation. In the revised model, managers estimate the resource demands imposed by each transaction, product, or customer, rather than relying on time-consuming and costly employee surveys. This method is simpler since it requires, for each group of resources, estimates of only two parameters: how much it costs per time unit to supply resources to the business's activities (the total overhead expenditure of a department divided by the total number of minutes of employee time available) and how much time it takes to carry out one unit of each kind of activity (as estimated or observed by the manager). This approach also overcomes a serious technical problem associated with employee surveys: the fact that, when asked to estimate time spent on activities, employees invariably report percentages that add up to 100. Under the new system, managers take into account time that is idle or unused. Armed with the data, managers then construct time equations, a new feature that enables the model to reflect the complexity of real-world operations by showing how specific order, customer, and activity characteristics cause processing times to vary. This Tool Kit uses concrete examples to demonstrate how managers can obtain meaningful cost and profitability information, quickly and inexpensively. Rather than endlessly updating and maintaining ABC data,they can now spend their time addressing the deficiencies the model reveals: inefficient processes, unprofitable products and customers, and excess capacity.

  20. Time-driven activity-based costing.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Anderson, Steven R

    2004-11-01

    In the classroom, activity-based costing (ABC) looks like a great way to manage a company's limited resources. But executives who have tried to implement ABC in their organizations on any significant scale have often abandoned the attempt in the face of rising costs and employee irritation. They should try again, because a new approach sidesteps the difficulties associated with large-scale ABC implementation. In the revised model, managers estimate the resource demands imposed by each transaction, product, or customer, rather than relying on time-consuming and costly employee surveys. This method is simpler since it requires, for each group of resources, estimates of only two parameters: how much it costs per time unit to supply resources to the business's activities (the total overhead expenditure of a department divided by the total number of minutes of employee time available) and how much time it takes to carry out one unit of each kind of activity (as estimated or observed by the manager). This approach also overcomes a serious technical problem associated with employee surveys: the fact that, when asked to estimate time spent on activities, employees invariably report percentages that add up to 100. Under the new system, managers take into account time that is idle or unused. Armed with the data, managers then construct time equations, a new feature that enables the model to reflect the complexity of real-world operations by showing how specific order, customer, and activity characteristics cause processing times to vary. This Tool Kit uses concrete examples to demonstrate how managers can obtain meaningful cost and profitability information, quickly and inexpensively. Rather than endlessly updating and maintaining ABC data,they can now spend their time addressing the deficiencies the model reveals: inefficient processes, unprofitable products and customers, and excess capacity. PMID:15559451

  1. Detection limit for activation measurements in ultralow background sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trache, Livius; Chesneanu, D.; Margineanu, R.; Pantelica, A.; Ghita, D. G.; Burducea, I.; Straticiuc, M.; Tang, X. D.

    2014-09-01

    We used 12C +13C fusion at the beam energies E = 6, 7 and 8 MeV to determine the sensitivity and the limits of activation method measurements in ultralow background sites. A 13C beam of 0.5 μA from the 3 MV Tandem accelerator of the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH impinged on thick graphite targets. After about 24 hrs of irradiation targets were measured in two different laboratories: one with a heavy shielded Ge detector in the institute (at the surface) and one located underground in the microBequerel laboratory, in the salt mine of Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The 1369- and 2754 keV peaks from 24Na deactivation were clearly observed in the γ-ray spectra obtained for acquisitions lasting a few hours, or a few days. Determination of the detection limit in evaluating the cross sections for the target irradiated at Ec . m = 3 MeV indicates the fact that it is possible to measure gamma spectrum in underground laboratory down to Ec . m = 2 . 6 MeV. Cleaning the spectra with beta-gamma coincidences and increasing beam intensity 20 times will take as further down. The measurements are motivated by the study of the 12 C +12 C reaction at astrophysical energies.

  2. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M.Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approximately 46 mb) and 585 K (approximately 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER. photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: (1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the UKMO temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; (2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; (3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  3. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements Showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec. 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 mb) and 585 K (approxi. 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: 1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; 2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; 3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  4. The solar activity measurements experiments (SAMEX) for improved scientific understanding of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Activity Measurements Experiments (SAMEX) mission is described. It is designed to provide a look at the interactions of magnetic fields and plasmas that create flares and other explosive events on the sun in an effort to understand solar activity and the nature of the solar magnetic field. The need for this mission, the instruments to be used, and the expected benefits of SAMEX are discussed.

  5. What Is Measured in Mathematics Tests? Construct Validity of Curriculum-Based Mathematics Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Robin Schul; Shinn, Mark R.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Mathematics curriculum-based measurement (M-CBM) is one tool that has been developed for formative evaluation in mathematics. This study examines what constructs M-CBM actually measures in the context of a range of other mathematics measures. Results indicated that a two-factor model of mathematics where Computation and Applications were distinct…

  6. Technical Adequacy and Acceptability of Curriculum-Based Measurement and the Measures of Academic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    January, Stacy-Ann A.; Ardoin, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement in reading (CBM-R) and the Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) are assessment tools widely employed for universal screening in schools. Although a large body of research supports the validity of CBM-R, limited empirical evidence exists supporting the technical adequacy of MAP or the acceptability of either measure for…

  7. Feature-Based Measuring Advisor, Version 2.1

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of Feature-Based Measuring Advisor (FBMeas Advisor) is a graphical user interface enabling users to more effectively interact with a solid model for measuring applications. Specifically, the FBMeas Advisor provides a user interface to the functions and capabilities of the FBMeas component technology. The FBMeas Advisor allows end users to visualize, organize, and document their measuring process plans and to facilitate the generation of a coordinate measuring machine part programs before a workpiece ismore » fabricated. The FBMeas Advisor permits the user to interact with an FBTol-enabled solid model to interactively and/or automatically create a set of measuring features (e.g., cylinders, planes, slots) that comply with national and international interface standards (i.e., DMIS (Dimensional Measuring Interface Standard, ISO 22063)). Measuring plans include defining measuring features interactively or automatically. Associating measuring features with appropriate tolerances and datum features via FBTol. Determining what measuring tasks (e.g., measure this feature to validate a size tolerance, measure this feature to establish a primary datum for a specific datum reference frame) are necessary to measure the feature. Assigning a measuring method to perform the task. For coordinate metrology measuring methods, measure points are determined interactively or automatically. Sensors and sensor configurations are defined, represented, and assigned to measuring methods. Measuring machines are defined, represented, and assigned to measure operations. Upon completion of a coordinate metrology measuring plan, FBMeas allows DMIS code segments to be generated, which can be used for DMIS-based CMM part programs.« less

  8. Observational attachment theory-based parenting measures predict children's attachment narratives independently from social learning theory-based measures.

    PubMed

    Matias, Carla; O'Connor, Thomas G; Futh, Annabel; Scott, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms.

  9. Inequivalence of correlation-based measures of non-Markovianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Alaor Cervati; Karpat, Göktuǧ; Fanchini, Felipe Fernandes

    2016-09-01

    We conclusively show that the entanglement- and the mutual-information-based measures of quantum non-Markovianity are inequivalent. To this aim, we first analytically solve the optimization problem in the definition of the entanglement-based measure for a two-level system. We demonstrate that the optimal initial bipartite state of the open system and the ancillary is always given by one of the Bell states for any one-qubit dynamics. On top of this result, we present an explicit example dynamics where memory effects emerge according to the mutual-information-based measure, even though the time evolution remains memoryless with respect to the entanglement-based measure. Finally, we explain this disagreement between the two measures in terms of the information dynamics of the open system, exploring the accessible and inaccessible parts of information.

  10. Randomized benchmarking in measurement-based quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Rafael N.; Turner, Peter S.; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2016-09-01

    Randomized benchmarking is routinely used as an efficient method for characterizing the performance of sets of elementary logic gates in small quantum devices. In the measurement-based model of quantum computation, logic gates are implemented via single-site measurements on a fixed universal resource state. Here we adapt the randomized benchmarking protocol for a single qubit to a linear cluster state computation, which provides partial, yet efficient characterization of the noise associated with the target gate set. Applying randomized benchmarking to measurement-based quantum computation exhibits an interesting interplay between the inherent randomness associated with logic gates in the measurement-based model and the random gate sequences used in benchmarking. We consider two different approaches: the first makes use of the standard single-qubit Clifford group, while the second uses recently introduced (non-Clifford) measurement-based 2-designs, which harness inherent randomness to implement gate sequences.

  11. Information Theoretic Similarity Measures for Content Based Image Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachary, John; Iyengar, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval is based on the idea of extracting visual features from images and using them to index images in a database. Proposes similarity measures and an indexing algorithm based on information theory that permits an image to be represented as a single number. When used in conjunction with vectors, this method displays…

  12. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P; Reis, Jared P; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-10-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth. PMID:26384937

  13. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; McIver, Kerry; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P.; Reis, Jared P.; Carroll, Dianna D.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth. PMID:26384937

  14. Health monitoring of aeronautical structures based on vibrations measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovio, Igor; Lecce, Leonardo

    2006-03-01

    Purpose of the paper is to present an innovative application inside the Non Destructive Testing field based on vibrations measurements, developed by the authors during the last three years, and already tested for analysing damage of many structural elements. The proposed new method is based on the acquisition and comparison of Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) of the monitored structure before and after an occurred damage. Structural damage modify the dynamical behaviour of the structure such as mass, stiffened and damping, and consequently the FRFs of the damaged structure in comparison with the FRFs of the sound structure, making possible to identify, to localize and quantify a structural damage. The activities, presented in the paper, mostly focused on a new FRFs processing technique based on the determining of a representative "Damage Index" for identifying and analysing damage both on real scale aeronautical structural components, like large-scale fuselage reinforced panels, and on aeronautical composite panels. Besides it has been carried out a dedicated neural network algorithm aiming at obtaining a "recognition-based learning"; this kind of learning methodology permits to train the neural network in order to let it recognises only "positive" examples discarding as a consequence the "negative" ones. Within the structural NDT a "positive" example means "healthy" state of the analysed structural component and, obviously, a "negative" one means a "damaged" or perturbed state. From an architectural point of view piezoceramic patches have been tested as actuators and sensors. Besides it has been used a laser-scanning vibrometer system to validate the behaviour of the piezoceramic patches.

  15. The Utility of Auroral Image-based Activities Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germany, G.; Spann, J.; Deverapalli, C.; Hung, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Auroral activity indices such as Hemispheric Power and Auroral Boundary are currently key data products used for space weather predictions and nowcasting. However, these products are necessarily based on limited observations which must be extrapolated to provide global coverage. The advent of routine space-based auroral imaging in the last decade offers the seeming advantage of more detailed measures of auroral activity. Examples of image-derived products include energy deposition maps, oval location, cap size, and morphological classification. However, activity metrics derived from auroral images have shortcomings, as well. For example, limited fields-of-view and orbital motion prevent full coverage of the auroral regions. This paper will examine the utility of activity metrics derived h m auroral images for operational purposes. The eight-year collection of Polar UVI images databased in the UVI Online Search Tool (OST) will be used to illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of auroral activity metrics. The potential role of other currently-active imaging missions will also be examined and correlative studies to date using auroral imaging will be summarized.

  16. The effect of different inter-pad distances on the determination of active drag using the Measuring Active Drag system.

    PubMed

    Schreven, S; Toussaint, H M; Smeets, J B J; Beek, P J

    2013-07-26

    The Measuring Active Drag (MAD) system was developed to determine active drag in swimming by measuring the push-off force exerted at fixed pads placed below the waterline. The imposed inter-pad distance, which to date has been kept constant while using the MAD system, could affect the active drag because it requires the use of different stroke frequencies. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the effect of inter-pad distance on active drag at a given speed. In particular, drag-velocity curves at three different inter-pad distances (1.25m, 1.35m and 1.45m) were determined using the MAD system for eleven competitive swimmers. Variation of 16% in inter-pad distance (14% change in stroke frequency) revealed no significant difference in calculated active drag between different inter-pad distances and a low (<5%) average coefficient of variation over different inter-pad distances was found. In addition, inter-test reliability, which was determined for the two 1.35m conditions only, was high (ICC>0.90) for measurements on two consecutive days. The results suggest that it may not be necessary to adapt the inter-pad distance of the MAD system based on anthropometric characteristics of the subject or the velocity-related stroke length in free swimming. PMID:23791187

  17. The effect of different inter-pad distances on the determination of active drag using the Measuring Active Drag system.

    PubMed

    Schreven, S; Toussaint, H M; Smeets, J B J; Beek, P J

    2013-07-26

    The Measuring Active Drag (MAD) system was developed to determine active drag in swimming by measuring the push-off force exerted at fixed pads placed below the waterline. The imposed inter-pad distance, which to date has been kept constant while using the MAD system, could affect the active drag because it requires the use of different stroke frequencies. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the effect of inter-pad distance on active drag at a given speed. In particular, drag-velocity curves at three different inter-pad distances (1.25m, 1.35m and 1.45m) were determined using the MAD system for eleven competitive swimmers. Variation of 16% in inter-pad distance (14% change in stroke frequency) revealed no significant difference in calculated active drag between different inter-pad distances and a low (<5%) average coefficient of variation over different inter-pad distances was found. In addition, inter-test reliability, which was determined for the two 1.35m conditions only, was high (ICC>0.90) for measurements on two consecutive days. The results suggest that it may not be necessary to adapt the inter-pad distance of the MAD system based on anthropometric characteristics of the subject or the velocity-related stroke length in free swimming.

  18. Cyst-based measurements for assessing lymphangioleiomyomatosis in computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, P. Brown, M. S.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Goldin, J. G.; Argula, R.; Strange, C.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a new family of measurements made on individual pulmonary cysts extracted from computed tomography (CT) for assessing the severity of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Methods: CT images were analyzed using thresholding to identify a cystic region of interest from chest CT of LAM patients. Individual cysts were then extracted from the cystic region by the watershed algorithm, which separates individual cysts based on subtle edges within the cystic regions. A family of measurements were then computed, which quantify the amount, distribution, and boundary appearance of the cysts. Sequential floating feature selection was used to select a small subset of features for quantification of the severity of LAM. Adjusted R{sup 2} from multiple linear regression and R{sup 2} from linear regression against measurements from spirometry were used to compare the performance of our proposed measurements with currently used density based CT measurements in the literature, namely, the relative area measure and the D measure. Results: Volumetric CT data, performed at total lung capacity and residual volume, from a total of 49 subjects enrolled in the MILES trial were used in our study. Our proposed measures had adjusted R{sup 2} ranging from 0.42 to 0.59 when regressing against the spirometry measures, with p < 0.05. For previously used density based CT measurements in the literature, the best R{sup 2} was 0.46 (for only one instance), with the majority being lower than 0.3 or p > 0.05. Conclusions: The proposed family of CT-based cyst measurements have better correlation with spirometric measures than previously used density based CT measurements. They show potential as a sensitive tool for quantitatively assessing the severity of LAM.

  19. 3-D measuring of engine camshaft based on machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jianxin; Tan, Liang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2008-12-01

    The non-touch 3D measuring based on machine vision is introduced into camshaft precise measuring. Currently, because CCD 3-dimensional measuring can't meet requirements for camshaft's measuring precision, it's necessary to improve its measuring precision. In this paper, we put forward a method to improve the measuring method. A Multi-Character Match method based on the Polygonal Non-regular model is advanced with the theory of Corner Extraction and Corner Matching .This method has solved the problem of the matching difficulty and a low precision. In the measuring process, the use of the Coded marked Point method and Self-Character Match method can bring on this problem. The 3D measuring experiment on camshaft, which based on the Multi-Character Match method of the Polygonal Non-regular model, proves that the normal average measuring precision is increased to a new level less than 0.04mm in the point-clouds photo merge. This measuring method can effectively increase the 3D measuring precision of the binocular CCD.

  20. Interpretation of Spectrometric Measurements of Active Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, D.; Wade, G.

    2014-09-01

    Over 5000 visible near-infrared (VNIR) spectrometric measurements of active geostationary satellites have been collected with the National Research Council (NRC) 1.8m Plaskett telescope located at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria, Canada. The objective of this ongoing experiment is to study how reflectance spectroscopy can be used to reliably identify specific material types on the surface of artificial Earth-orbiting objects. Active geostationary satellites were selected as the main subjects for this experiment since their orientation is stable and can be estimated to a high-level of confidence throughout a night of observation. Furthermore, for most geostationary satellites, there is a wide variety of sources that can provide some level of information as to their external surface composition. Notwithstanding the high number of measurements that have been collected to date, it was assumed that the experimenters would have a much greater success rate in material identification given the choice experimental subjects. To date, only the presence of aluminum has been confidently identified in some of the reflectance spectra that have been collected. Two additional material types, namely photovoltaic cells and polyimide film, the first layer of multi-layer insulation (MLI), have also been possibly identified. However uncertainties in the reduced spectral measurements prevent any definitive conclusion with respect to these materials at this time. The surprising lack of results with respect to material identification have forced the experimenters to use other data interpretation methods to characterize the spectral scattering characteristics of the studied satellites. The results from this study have already led to improvements in the ways that reflectance spectra from spacecraft are collected and analysed. Equally important, the data interpretation techniques elaborated over the course of this experiment will also serve to increase the body of

  1. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Dyck, Delfien Van; Hinckson, Erica; Schipperijn, Jasper; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Owen, Neville; Davey, Rachel C; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Mitáš, Josef; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Schofield, Grant; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived environmental attributes with objectively-measured PA outcomes; between-site differences in such associations; and, the extent to which perceived environmental attributes explain between-site differences in PA. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 16 cities located in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA. Participants were 6,968 adults residing in administrative units stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. Predictors were 10 perceived neighborhood environmental attributes. Outcome measures were accelerometry-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and meeting the PA guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention (420 min/week of MVPA). Results Most perceived neighborhood attributes were positively associated with the PA outcomes in the pooled, site-adjusted, single-predictor models. Associations were generalizable across geographical locations. Aesthetics and land use mix – access were significant predictors of both PA outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. Environmental attributes accounted for within-site variability in MVPA corresponding to a 3 min/d or 21 min/week standard deviation. Large between-site differences in PA outcomes were observed: 15.9% to 16.8% of these differences were explained by perceived environmental attributes. All neighborhood attributes were associated with between-site differences in the total effects of the perceived environment on PA outcomes. Conclusions Residents’ perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines

  2. Physical Activity Measurement Device Agreement: Pedometer Steps/Minute and Physical Activity Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Mungen, Jonathan D.; Oh, Yoonsin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine agreement between the Walk4Life DUO pedometer (W4L; Walk4Life, Plainfield, Illinois, USA) and two criterion instruments in the measurement of physical activity. Participants (N = 189, M = 16.74 years, SD = 0.99) in high school physical education concurrently wore the DUO (i.e., comparison instrument) and…

  3. Using a Single-Item Physical Activity Measure to Describe and Validate Parents' Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.; Cuddihy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of health-related physical activity (PA), often interpreted as either 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) or at least 30 min of at least moderate-intensity PA on 5 or more days per week (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing [AGDHA], 2005;…

  4. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-08-31

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan has been developed for this process.

  5. Indoor radon activity concentration measurements in the great historical museums of University of Naples, Italy.

    PubMed

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; Loffredo, Filomena; La Verde, Giuseppe; Roca, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Indoor radon activity concentrations were measured in seven Museums of University of Naples, very old buildings of great historical value. The measurements were performed using a time-integrated technique based on LR-115 solid-state nuclear track detectors. The annual average concentrations were found to range from 40 up to 1935 Bq m(-3) and in 26 % of measurement sites, the values were higher than 500 Bq m(-3) which is the limit value of Italian legislation for workplace. Moreover, we analysed the seasonal variations of radon concentrations observing the highest average in cold weather than in warm.

  6. Biological aerosol detection with combined passive-active infrared measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifarraguerri, Agustin I.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Ben-David, Avishai

    2004-12-01

    A data collection experiment was performed in November of 2003 to measure aerosol signatures using multiple sensors, all operating in the long-wave infrared. The purpose of this data collection experiment was to determine whether combining passive hyperspectral and LIDAR measurements can substantially improve biological aerosol detection performance. Controlled releases of dry aerosols, including road dust, egg albumin and two strains of Bacillus Subtilis var. Niger (BG) spores were performed using the ECBC/ARTEMIS open-path aerosol test chamber located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD. The chamber provides a ~ 20' path without optical windows. Ground truth devices included 3 aerodynamic particle sizers, an optical particle size spectrometer, 6 nephelometers and a high-volume particle sampler. Two sensors were used to make measurements during the test: the AIRIS long-wave infrared imaging spectrometer and the FAL CO2 LIDAR. The AIRIS and FAL data sets were analyzed for detection performance relative to the ground truth. In this paper we present experimental results from the individual sensors as well as results from passive-active sensor fusion. The sensor performance is presented in the form of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  7. PARduino: A Simple Device Measuring and Logging Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, H. R.; Findley, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) is one of the primary controls of forest carbon and water relations. In complex terrain, PAR has high spatial-variability. Given the high cost of commercial datalogging equipment, spatially-distributed measurements of PAR have been typically modeled using geographic coordinates and terrain indices. Here, we present a design for a low cost, field-deployable device for measuring and logging PAR built around an Arduino microcontroller (we named it PARduino). PARduino provides for widely distributed sensor arrays and tests the feasibility of using hobbyist-grade electronics for collecting scientific data. PARduino components include a LiCor quantum sensor, EME Systems signal converter/amplifier, and Sparkfun's Arduino Pro Mini microcontroller. Additional components include a real time clock, a microSD flash memory card, and a custom printed circuit board (PCB). We selected the components with an eye towards ease of assembly. Everything can be connected to the PCB using through-hole soldering techniques. Since the device will be deployed in remote research plots that lack easy access to line power, battery life was also a consideration in the design. Extended deployment is possible because PARduino's software keeps it in a low-power sleep mode until ready to make a measurement. PARduino will be open-source hardware for use and improvement by others.

  8. Wavelet-based coherence measures of global seismic noise properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubushin, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    The coherent behavior of four parameters characterizing the global field of low-frequency (periods from 2 to 500 min) seismic noise is studied. These parameters include generalized Hurst exponent, multifractal singularity spectrum support width, the normalized entropy of variance, and kurtosis. The analysis is based on the data from 229 broadband stations of GSN, GEOSCOPE, and GEOFON networks for a 17-year period from the beginning of 1997 to the end of 2013. The entire set of stations is subdivided into eight groups, which, taken together, provide full coverage of the Earth. The daily median values of the studied noise parameters are calculated in each group. This procedure yields four 8-dimensional time series with a time step of 1 day with a length of 6209 samples in each scalar component. For each of the four 8-dimensional time series, a multiple correlation measure is estimated, which is based on computing robust canonical correlations for the Haar wavelet coefficients at the first detail level within a moving time window of the length 365 days. These correlation measures for each noise property demonstrate essential increasing starting from 2007 to 2008 which was continued till the end of 2013. Taking into account a well-known phenomenon of noise correlation increasing before catastrophes, this increasing of seismic noise synchronization is interpreted as indicators of the strongest (magnitudes not less than 8.5) earthquakes activation which is observed starting from the Sumatra mega-earthquake of 26 Dec 2004. This synchronization continues growing up to the end of the studied period (2013), which can be interpreted as a probable precursor of the further increase in the intensity of the strongest earthquakes all over the world.

  9. ApoHRP-based assay to measure intracellular regulatory heme.

    PubMed

    Atamna, Hani; Brahmbhatt, Marmik; Atamna, Wafa; Shanower, Gregory A; Dhahbi, Joseph M

    2015-02-01

    The majority of the heme-binding proteins possess a "heme-pocket" that stably binds to heme. Usually known as housekeeping heme-proteins, they participate in a variety of metabolic reactions (e.g., catalase). Heme also binds with lower affinity to the "Heme-Regulatory Motifs" (HRM) in specific regulatory proteins. This type of heme binding is known as exchangeable or regulatory heme (RH). Heme binding to HRM proteins regulates their function (e.g., Bach1). Although there are well-established methods for assaying total cellular heme (e.g., heme-proteins plus RH), currently there is no method available for measuring RH independent of the total heme (TH). The current study describes and validates a new method to measure intracellular RH. This method is based on the reconstitution of apo-horseradish peroxidase (apoHRP) with heme to form holoHRP. The resulting holoHRP activity is then measured with a colorimetric substrate. The results show that apoHRP specifically binds RH but not with heme from housekeeping heme-proteins. The RH assay detects intracellular RH. Furthermore, using conditions that create positive (hemin) or negative (N-methyl protoporphyrin IX) controls for heme in normal human fibroblasts (IMR90), the RH assay shows that RH is dynamic and independent of TH. We also demonstrated that short-term exposure to subcytotoxic concentrations of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), or amyloid-β (Aβ) significantly alters intracellular RH with little effect on TH. In conclusion the RH assay is an effective assay to investigate intracellular RH concentration and demonstrates that RH represents ∼6% of total heme in IMR90 cells. PMID:25525887

  10. ApoHRP-based Assay to Measure Intracellular Regulatory Heme

    PubMed Central

    Atamna, Hani; Brahmbhatt, Marmik; Atamna, Wafa; Shanower, Gregory A.; Dhahbi, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the heme-binding proteins possess a “heme-pocket” that stably binds with heme. Usually known as housekeeping heme-proteins, they participate in a variety of metabolic reactions (e.g., catalase). Heme also binds with lower affinity to the “Heme-Regulatory Motifs” (HRM) in specific regulatory proteins. This type of heme binding is known as exchangeable or regulatory heme (RH). Heme binding to HRM proteins regulates their function (e.g., Bach1). Although there are well-established methods for assaying total cellular heme (e.g., heme-proteins plus RH), currently there is no method available for measuring RH independently from the total heme (TH). The current study describes and validates a new method to measure intracellular RH. The method is based on the reconstitution of apo-horseradish peroxidase (apoHRP) with heme to form holoHRP. The resulting holoHRP activity is then measured with a colorimetric substrate. The results show that apoHRP specifically binds RH but not with heme from housekeeping heme-proteins. The RH assay detects intracellular RH. Furthermore, using conditions that create positive (hemin) or negative (N-methyl protoporphyrin IX) controls for heme in normal human fibroblasts (IMR90), the RH assay shows that RH is dynamic and independent from TH. We also demonstrated that short-term exposure to subcytotoxic concentrations of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), or amyloid-β(Aβ) significantly alters intracellular RH with little effect on TH. In conclusion the RH assay is an effective assay to investigate intracellular RH concentration and demonstrates that RH represents ~6% of total heme in IMR90 cells. PMID:25525887

  11. Measurement of Activity of Indium in Liquid Bi-In-Sn Alloys by EMF Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. R.; Mohan, S.; Behera, C. K.

    2016-08-01

    The electrochemical technique based on a molten salt electrolyte galvanic cell has been used to measure the activity of indium in liquid Bi-In-Sn alloys in the temperature range of 723 K to 855 K along three ternary sections. The activity of tin in Bi-Sn binary alloys has also been measured by the same technique in the above temperature range. The activity of indium in Bi-In-Sn alloys shows negative deviation from Raoult's law for most of the compositions and slight positive deviations for a few indium-rich compositions. The ternary excess molar free energies have been calculated by Darken's treatment. Isoactivity curves at 813 K in the ternary Bi-In-Sn alloys were derived by combining the activity data of In-Sn and Bi-In alloys. The values of excess molar free energy obtained in this study are compared with those calculated from the Muggianu model at 813 K.

  12. SU-E-T-543: Measurement of Neutron Activation From Different High Energy Varian Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, T; Madsen, S; Sudowe, R; Meigooni, A Soleimani

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Linear accelerators producing photons above 10 MeV may induce photonuclear reactions in high Z components of the accelerator. These liberated neutrons can then activate the structural components of the accelerator and other materials in the beam path through neutron capture reactions. The induced activity within the accelerator may contribute to additional dose to both patients and personnel. This project seeks to determine the total activity and activity per activated isotope following irradiation in different Varian accelerators at energies above 10 MeV. Methods: A Varian 21IX accelerator was used to irradiate a 30 cm × 30 cm × 20 cm solid water phantom with 15 MV x-rays. The phantom was placed at an SSD of 100 cm and at the center of a 20 cm × 20 cm field. Activation induced gamma spectra were acquired over a 5 minute interval after 1 and 15 minutes from completion of the irradiation. All measurements were made using a CANBERRA Falcon 5000 Portable HPGe detector. The majority of measurements were made in scattering geometry with the detector situated at 90° to the incident beam, 30 cm from the side of the phantom and approximately 10 cm from the top. A 5 minute background count was acquired and automatically subtracted from all subsequent measurements. Photon spectra were acquired for both open and MLC fields. Results: Based on spectral signatures, nuclides have been identified and their activities calculated for both open and MLC fields. Preliminary analyses suggest that activities from the activation products in the microcurie range. Conclusion: Activation isotopes have been identified and their relative activities determined. These activities are only gross estimates since efficiencies have not been determined for this source-detector geometry. Current efforts are focused on accurate determination of detector efficiencies using Monte Carlo calculations.

  13. Intercomparison of 131I and 99mTc activity measurements in Brazilian nuclear medicine services.

    PubMed

    Iwahara, A; De Oliveira, A E; Tauhata, L; da Silva, C J; Lopes, R T

    2001-03-01

    This work outlines the quality assurance program for the activity measurements of the most used radionuclides at Brazilian Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). The program aims to guarantee that the patient is given the correct prescribed amount of activity in diagnostic or therapeutic applications. This accurate administration depends upon proper use and calibration of the activity meters by the NMS. Underestimation of administered activity in diagnostic practices could delay correct diagnosis disturbing the value of the investigation. On the other hand, the overestimation would be worse, mainly in therapeutic applications, because an unnecessarily high absorbed dose would be delivered to the patient. The preliminary results of intercomparison for 131I and 99mTc showed that many activity meters used at NMS's present problems giving results up to 41% greater than the reference values determined at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI) which is recognized as the Brazilian authorized metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation. These results have demonstrated that the NMS should improve the accuracy of the activity measurements of the radionuclides administered to the patients and establish the traceability to the national standards of measurements. These standards are based on a pressurized well-type ionization chamber installed at LNMRI and calibrated with reference sources standardized by absolute methods. The protocol of the intercomparison and recommendations made in order to minimize errors in measuring procedures are described and results are discussed.

  14. Effects of reconstructed magnetic field from sparse noisy boundary measurements on localization of active neural source.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui-min; Lee, Kok-Meng; Hu, Liang; Foong, Shaohui; Fu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Localization of active neural source (ANS) from measurements on head surface is vital in magnetoencephalography. As neuron-generated magnetic fields are extremely weak, significant uncertainties caused by stochastic measurement interference complicate its localization. This paper presents a novel computational method based on reconstructed magnetic field from sparse noisy measurements for enhanced ANS localization by suppressing effects of unrelated noise. In this approach, the magnetic flux density (MFD) in the nearby current-free space outside the head is reconstructed from measurements through formulating the infinite series solution of the Laplace's equation, where boundary condition (BC) integrals over the entire measurements provide "smooth" reconstructed MFD with the decrease in unrelated noise. Using a gradient-based method, reconstructed MFDs with good fidelity are selected for enhanced ANS localization. The reconstruction model, spatial interpolation of BC, parametric equivalent current dipole-based inverse estimation algorithm using reconstruction, and gradient-based selection are detailed and validated. The influences of various source depths and measurement signal-to-noise ratio levels on the estimated ANS location are analyzed numerically and compared with a traditional method (where measurements are directly used), and it was demonstrated that gradient-selected high-fidelity reconstructed data can effectively improve the accuracy of ANS localization. PMID:26358243

  15. Structure-Activity Relationship of Azaindole-Based Glucokinase Activators.

    PubMed

    Paczal, Attila; Bálint, Balázs; Wéber, Csaba; Szabó, Zoltán B; Ondi, Levente; Theret, Isabelle; De Ceuninck, Frédéric; Bernard, Catherine; Ktorza, Alain; Perron-Sierra, Francoise; Kotschy, András

    2016-01-28

    7-Azaindole has been identified as a novel bidentate anchor point for allosteric glucokinase activators. A systematic investigation around three principal parts of the new small molecule glucokinase activators led to a robust SAR in agreement with structural data that also helped to assess the conformational flexibility of the allosteric activation site. The increase in glucose uptake resulting from glucokinase activation in hepatocytes in vitro translated into the efficient lowering of glucose levels in vivo with the best compounds. PMID:26685731

  16. Measurement of nitrous oxide reductase activity in aquatic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.; Paulsen, S.

    1986-01-01

    Denitrification in aquatic sediments was measured by an N2O reductase assay. Sediments consumed small added quantities of N2O over short periods (a few hours). In experiments with sediment slurries, N2O reductase activity was inhibited by O2, C2H2, heat treatment, and by high levels of nitrate (1 mM) or sulfide (10 mM). However, ambient levels of nitrate (<100 μM) did not influence activity, and moderate levels (about 150 μM) induced only a short lag before reductase activity began. Moderate levels of sulfide (<1 mM) had no effect on N2O reductase activity. Nitrous oxide reductase displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in sediments from freshwater (Km = 2.17 μM), estuarine (Km = 14.5 μM), and alkaline-saline (Km = 501 μM) environments. An in situ assay was devised in which a solution of N2O was injected into sealed glass cores containing intact sediment. Two estimates of net rates of denitrification in San Francisco Bay under approximated in situ conditions were 0.009 and 0.041 mmol of N2O per m2 per h. Addition of chlorate to inhibit denitrification in these intact-core experiments (to estimate gross rates of N2O consumption) resulted in approximately a 14% upward revision of estimates of net rates. These results were comparable to an in situ estimate of 0.022 mmol of N2O per m2 per h made with the acetylene block assay.

  17. THE MEANINGFUL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION ASSESSMENT: A MEASURE OF ENGAGEMENT IN PERSONALLY VALUED ACTIVITIES*

    PubMed Central

    EAKMAN, AARON M.; CARLSON, MIKE E.; CLARK, FLORENCE A.

    2011-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and objective indicators of activity engagement. PMID:20649161

  18. The Validation of Ground Based Ozone Measurements over Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, K. H.; Kim, J. H.; Herman, J. R.; Haffner, D. P.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Validation of Ground Based Ozone Measurements over KoreaKorea will launch GEMS instrument in 2018 onboard the Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite to monitor tropospheric gas concentrations in both high temporal and spatial resolution. In order to utilize information from satellite, it is crucial to carry out validation of satellite data with respect to ground-based measurements because satellite retrievals suffer from large error. The purpose of this study is to examine the performance of total ozone measurements from Pandora, Brewer, and Dobson which will be used for validation of GEMS ozone product. Because single version of the satellite retrieval algorithm is used to process the entire data set for a given satellite instrument and satellite instrument characteristics are typically changing slowly, it is assumed that sudden jumps or large drifts in ground-satellite total ozone measurements difference for individual sites are commonly related to problems with ground-based measurements. Thereby, satellite measurements can be used to estimate the performance of the ground-based measurement network as well as to identify potential problems residing in individual station. As a reference of satellite ozone measurements, we have selected ozone data derived from OMI-TOMS V8.5 algorithm because it is a very robust algorithm that has well studied about various error sources such as the effects of aerosols and clouds, variation in shape of ozone profiles with season, latitude, and total ozone. For the future validation of GEMS measurements, Korea has planned to use Pandora measurement that has been started operating since 2012. However, Pandora measurements reported to have unusual high total column ozone in the presence of clouds from the comparison of Pandora with OMI total ozone during DISCOVERY-AQ campaign. In this study, we will analyze the Pandora measurements associated with cloud and introduce the statistical technique, Kalman Filter, to correct the

  19. Relation between measures of speech-in-noise performance and measures of efferent activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Brad; Harkrider, Ashley; Burchfield, Samuel; Nabelek, Anna

    2003-04-01

    Individual differences in auditory perceptual abilities in noise are well documented but the factors causing such variability are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if individual differences in responses measured from the auditory efferent system were correlated to individual variations in speech-in-noise performance. The relation between behavioral performance on three speech-in-noise tasks and two objective measures of the efferent auditory system were examined in thirty normal-hearing, young adults. Two of the speech-in-noise tasks measured an acceptable noise level, the maximum level of speech-babble noise that a subject is willing to accept while listening to a story. For these, the acceptable noise level was evaluated using both an ipsilateral (story and noise in same ear) and a contralateral (story and noise in opposite ears) paradigm. The third speech-in-noise task evaluated speech recognition using monosyllabic words presented in competing speech babble. Auditory efferent activity was assessed by examining the resulting suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions following the introduction of a contralateral, broad-band stimulus and the activity of the ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic reflex arc was evaluated using tones and broad-band noise. Results will be discussed relative to current theories of speech in noise performance and auditory inhibitory processes.

  20. Prediction of Solar Activity Based on Neuro-Fuzzy Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, Abdel-Fattah; Abdel-Hamid, Rabab; Quassim, Maha

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents an application of the neuro-fuzzy modeling to analyze the time series of solar activity, as measured through the relative Wolf number. The neuro-fuzzy structure is optimized based on the linear adapted genetic algorithm with controlling population size (LAGA-POP). Initially, the dimension of the time series characteristic attractor is obtained based on the smallest regularity criterion (RC) and the neuro-fuzzy model. Then the performance of the proposed approach, in forecasting yearly sunspot numbers, is favorably compared to that of other published methods. Finally, a comparison predictions for the remaining part of the 22nd and the whole 23rd cycle of the solar activity are presented.

  1. Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing in Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Yun, Brian J; Prabhakar, Anand M; Warsh, Jonathan; Kaplan, Robert; Brennan, John; Dempsey, Kyle E; Raja, Ali S

    2016-06-01

    Value in emergency medicine is determined by both patient-important outcomes and the costs associated with achieving them. However, measuring true costs is challenging. Without an understanding of costs, emergency department (ED) leaders will be unable to determine which interventions might improve value for their patients. Although ongoing research may determine which outcomes are meaningful, an accurate costing system is also needed. This article reviews current costing mechanisms in the ED and their pitfalls. It then describes how time-driven activity-based costing may be superior to these current costing systems. Time-driven activity-based costing, in addition to being a more accurate costing system, can be used for process improvements in the ED. PMID:26365921

  2. Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing in Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Yun, Brian J; Prabhakar, Anand M; Warsh, Jonathan; Kaplan, Robert; Brennan, John; Dempsey, Kyle E; Raja, Ali S

    2016-06-01

    Value in emergency medicine is determined by both patient-important outcomes and the costs associated with achieving them. However, measuring true costs is challenging. Without an understanding of costs, emergency department (ED) leaders will be unable to determine which interventions might improve value for their patients. Although ongoing research may determine which outcomes are meaningful, an accurate costing system is also needed. This article reviews current costing mechanisms in the ED and their pitfalls. It then describes how time-driven activity-based costing may be superior to these current costing systems. Time-driven activity-based costing, in addition to being a more accurate costing system, can be used for process improvements in the ED.

  3. Norm Referenced and Criterion Based Measures with Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacTurk, Robert H.; Neisworth, John T.

    1978-01-01

    Seventeen handicapped and nonhandicapped preschool children were given both the norm referenced Gesell Developmental Schedules and the criterion based HICOMP progress measure on a quarterly (10 week) basis. (Author/SBH)

  4. Chromosome positioning from activity-based segregation.

    PubMed

    Ganai, Nirmalendu; Sengupta, Surajit; Menon, Gautam I

    2014-04-01

    Chromosomes within eukaryotic cell nuclei at interphase are not positioned at random, since gene-rich chromosomes are predominantly found towards the interior of the cell nucleus across a number of cell types. The physical mechanisms that could drive and maintain the spatial segregation of chromosomes based on gene density are unknown. Here, we identify a mechanism for such segregation, showing that the territorial organization of chromosomes, another central feature of nuclear organization, emerges naturally from our model. Our computer simulations indicate that gene density-dependent radial segregation of chromosomes arises as a robust consequence of differences in non-equilibrium activity across chromosomes. Arguing that such differences originate in the inhomogeneous distribution of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling and transcription machinery on each chromosome, we show that a variety of non-random positional distributions emerge through the interplay of such activity, nuclear shape and specific interactions of chromosomes with the nuclear envelope. Results from our model are in reasonable agreement with experimental data and we make a number of predictions that can be tested in experiments. PMID:24459132

  5. Oscillatory motion based measurement method and sensor for measuring wall shear stress due to fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, William D.; Naughton, Jonathan; Lindberg, William R.

    2008-09-02

    A shear stress sensor for measuring fluid wall shear stress on a test surface is provided. The wall shear stress sensor is comprised of an active sensing surface and a sensor body. An elastic mechanism mounted between the active sensing surface and the sensor body allows movement between the active sensing surface and the sensor body. A driving mechanism forces the shear stress sensor to oscillate. A measuring mechanism measures displacement of the active sensing surface relative to the sensor body. The sensor may be operated under periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor measurably changes the amplitude or phase of the motion of the active sensing surface, or changes the force and power required from a control system in order to maintain constant motion. The device may be operated under non-periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor change the transient motion of the active sensor surface or change the force and power required from a control system to maintain a specified transient motion of the active sensor surface.

  6. A voice coil motor based measuring force control system for tactile scanning profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shengdong; Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Liangzhou; Zhou, Liping; Lu, Wenlong

    2015-02-01

    In tactile scanning profiler, the measuring force would change in a wide range when it was used for profile measurement in a large range, which could possibly destroy the measured surface. To solve the problem, measuring force control system for tactile scanning profiler was needed. In the paper, a voice coil motor-based measuring force control system for tactile scanning profiler was designed. In the design, a low stiffness coefficient spring was used to provide contact force, while a voice coil motor (VCM) to balance the spring force so that the contact force could be kept for constant measuring force. A VCM was designed specially, and for active measuring force control, a precision current source circuit under the control of a DSP unit was designed to drive the VCM. The performance of voice coil motor based measuring force control system had been tested, and its good characteristics were verified.

  7. Vertebral shape: automatic measurement with dynamically sequenced active appearance models.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M G; Cootes, T F; Adams, J E

    2005-01-01

    The shape and appearance of vertebrae on lateral dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were statistically modelled. The spine was modelled by a sequence of overlapping triplets of vertebrae, using Active Appearance Models (AAMs). To automate vertebral morphometry, the sequence of trained models was matched to previously unseen scans. The dataset includes a significant number of pathologies. A new dynamic ordering algorithm was assessed for the model fitting sequence, using the best quality of fit achieved by multiple sub-model candidates. The accuracy of the search was improved by dynamically imposing the best quality candidate first. The results confirm the feasibility of substantially automating vertebral morphometry measurements even with fractures or noisy images.

  8. Measuring Disorientation Based on the Needleman-Wunsch Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güyer, Tolga; Atasoy, Bilal; Somyürek, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study offers a new method to measure navigation disorientation in web based systems which is powerful learning medium for distance and open education. The Needleman-Wunsch algorithm is used to measure disorientation in a more precise manner. The process combines theoretical and applied knowledge from two previously distinct research areas,…

  9. Curriculum-Based Measurement for Beginning Writers (K-2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombek, Jennifer L.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Assessment and instruction of reading tend to dominate current discussions of early literacy. Shifting the focus to writing, this article addresses the assessment of writing for students in kindergarten through second grade. Using curriculum-based measurement of written expression for beginning writers, teachers can measure growth of smaller…

  10. Developing Learning Progression-Based Teacher Knowledge Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Shin, HyoJeong; Johnson, Michele E.; Kim, JinHo; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    This study developed learning progression-based measures of science teachers' content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The measures focus on an important topic in secondary science curriculum using scientific reasoning (i.e., tracing matter, tracing energy, and connecting scales) to explain plants gaining weight and…

  11. Survey-Based Measurement of Public Management and Policy Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Adam Douglas; Lubell, Mark; McCoy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and…

  12. Entanglement bound for multipartite pure states based on local measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Lizhen; Chen Xiaoyu; Ye Tianyu

    2011-10-15

    An entanglement bound based on local measurements is introduced for multipartite pure states. It is the upper bound of the geometric measure and the relative entropy of entanglement. It is the lower bound of the minimal-measurement entropy. For pure bipartite states, the bound is equal to the entanglement entropy. The bound is applied to pure tripartite qubit states and the exact tripartite relative entropy of entanglement is obtained for a wide class of states.

  13. [Welding arc temperature field measurements based on Boltzmann spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Si, Hong; Hua, Xue-Ming; Zhang, Wang; Li, Fang; Xiao, Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Arc plasma, as non-uniform plasma, has complicated energy and mass transport processes in its internal, so plasma temperature measurement is of great significance. Compared with absolute spectral line intensity method and standard temperature method, Boltzmann plot measuring is more accurate and convenient. Based on the Boltzmann theory, the present paper calculates the temperature distribution of the plasma and analyzes the principle of lines selection by real time scanning the space of the TIG are measurements. PMID:23240385

  14. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (P<0.001), five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002), daily steps (P=0.003), and MV-PA (P=0.022) compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001) and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014) in the COPD group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion Impairments in balance and reductions in physical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity. PMID:27445470

  15. Measuring Chitinase and Protease Activity in Cultures of Fungal Entomopathogens.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Peter; Glare, Travis R; Rostás, Michael; Haines, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi produce a variety of destructive enzymes and metabolites to overcome the unique defense mechanisms of insects. In a first step, fungal chitinases and proteinases need to break down the insect's cuticle. Both enzyme classes support the infection process by weakening the chitin barrier and by producing nutritional cleavage products for the fungus. In a second step, the pathogen can now mechanically penetrate the weakened cuticle and reach the insect's hemolymph where it starts proliferating. The critical enzymes chitinase and proteinase are also excreted into the supernatants of fungal cultures and can be used as indicators of virulence. Chromogenic assays adapted for 96-well microtiter plates that measure these enzymes provide a sensitive, fast, and easy screening method for evaluating the potential biocontrol activity of fungal isolates and may be considered as an alternative to laborious and time-consuming bioassays. Furthermore, monitoring fungal enzyme production in dependence of time, nutrient sources, or other factors can facilitate in establishing optimal growth and harvesting conditions for selected isolates with the aim of achieving maximum biocontrol activity. PMID:27565500

  16. Active region emission measure distributions and implications for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect

    Cargill, P. J.

    2014-03-20

    The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of active regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ∼ T{sup a} below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (T{sub N} ) and the distribution of nanoflare energies. If T{sub N} is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the distribution of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly distributed, or a power law. Power law distributions where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, T{sub N} must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.

  17. Functional Status Assessment of Patients With COPD: A Systematic Review of Performance-Based Measures and Patient-Reported Measures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Li, Honghe; Ding, Ning; Wang, Ningning; Wen, Deliang

    2016-05-01

    Presently, there is no recommendation on how to assess functional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study aimed to summarize and systematically evaluate these measures.Studies on measures of COPD patients' functional status published before the end of January 2015 were included using a search filters in PubMed and Web of Science, screening reference lists of all included studies, and cross-checking against some relevant reviews. After title, abstract, and main text screening, the remaining was appraised using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) 4-point checklist. All measures from these studies were rated according to best-evidence synthesis and the best-rated measures were selected.A total of 6447 records were found and 102 studies were reviewed, suggesting 44 performance-based measures and 14 patient-reported measures. The majority of the studies focused on internal consistency, reliability, and hypothesis testing, but only 21% of them employed good or excellent methodology. Their common weaknesses include lack of checks for unidimensionality, inadequate sample sizes, no prior hypotheses, and improper methods. On average, patient-reported measures perform better than performance-based measures. The best-rated patient-reported measures are functional performance inventory (FPI), functional performance inventory short form (FPI-SF), living with COPD questionnaire (LCOPD), COPD activity rating scale (CARS), University of Cincinnati dyspnea questionnaire (UCDQ), shortness of breath with daily activities (SOBDA), and short-form pulmonary functional status scale (PFSS-11), and the best-rated performance-based measures are exercise testing: 6-minute walk test (6MWT), endurance treadmill test, and usual 4-meter gait speed (usual 4MGS).Further research is needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of performance-based measures since present studies failed to provide convincing

  18. Attributes and templates from active measurements with {sup 252}Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Mattingly, J.K.

    2000-02-01

    Active neutron interrogation is useful for the detection of shielded HEU and could also be used for Pu. In an active technique, fissile material is stimulated by an external neutron source to produce fission with the emanation of neutrons and gamma rays. The time distribution of particles leaving the fissile material is measured with respect to the source emission in a variety of ways. A variety of accelerator and radioactive sources can be used. Active interrogation of nuclear weapons/components can be used in two ways: template matching or attribute estimation. Template matching compares radiation signatures with known reference signatures and for treaty applications has the problem of authentication of the reference signatures along with storage and retrieval of templates. Attribute estimation determines, for example, the fissile mass from various features of the radiation signatures and does not require storage of radiation signatures but does require calibration, which can be repeated as necessary. A nuclear materials identification system (NMIS) has been in use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for verification of weapons components being received and in storage by template matching and has been used with calibrations for attribute (fissile mass) estimation for HEU metal. NMIS employs a {sup 252}Cf source of low intensity (< 2 x 10{sup 6} n/sec) such that the dose at 1 m is approximately twice that on a commercial airline at altitude. The use of such a source presents no significant safety concerns either for personnel or nuclear explosive safety, and has been approved for use at the Pantex Plant on fully assembled weapons systems.

  19. A New Quantum Sensor for Measuring Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.; Thomas, T.; Heinicke, D.; Peterson, R.; Morgan, P.; McDermitt, D. K.; Burba, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    A quantum sensor measures photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, in μmol of photons m-2 s-1) in the 400 nm to 700 nm waveband. Plants utilize this radiation to drive photosynthesis, though individual plant responses to incident radiation may vary within this range. The new quantum sensor (model LI-190R, LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE), with an optical filter and silicon photodiode detector housed in a cosine-corrected head, is designed to provide a better response to incident radiation across the 400-700 nm range. The new design is expected to significantly improve spectral response due to uniformity across the PAR waveband, but particularly in the wavebands from 520 nm to 600 nm and 665 nm to 680 nm, and sharp cutoffs in the regions below and above the PAR waveband. Special care was taken to make sure that PAR sensor would not substantially respond to incident radiation above the 700 nm threshold because this can lead to errors when performing measurements in environments with a large proportion of near-infrared radiation, such as canopy understory. The physical housing of the sensor is designed to be weather-resistant, to effectively shed precipitation, provide protection at high temperature and high humidity conditions, and has a cosine-corrected response to 82° zenith angle. The latter is particularly important when measuring incident radiation at low elevation angles, diffuse light, or low light conditions. This presentation describes the principles of the new design, and shows the performance results from field experiments and laboratory tests.

  20. Interrelations of graph distance measures based on topological indices.

    PubMed

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Shi, Yongtang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we derive interrelations of graph distance measures by means of inequalities. For this investigation we are using graph distance measures based on topological indices that have not been studied in this context. Specifically, we are using the well-known Wiener index, Randić index, eigenvalue-based quantities and graph entropies. In addition to this analysis, we present results from numerical studies exploring various properties of the measures and aspects of their quality. Our results could find application in chemoinformatics and computational biology where the structural investigation of chemical components and gene networks is currently of great interest. PMID:24759679

  1. Mapping methane emission sources over California based on airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Guha, A.; Peischl, J.; Misztal, P. K.; Jonsson, H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Ryerson, T. B.

    2011-12-01

    dairy tracer. The elevated CH4 mixing ratios, along the eastern edge of the San Joaquin valley, highlight the contribution of local meteorology, topography and emissions transport to local ambient levels of CH4. High mixing ratios of CH4, along with high levels of benzene and toluene, are observed while flying along the western edge of Kern County which is home to some of the largest active oil fields in the state. The scale of these operations and their contribution of < 3% to the state CH4 inventory suggest there is a likelihood of under-estimation of fugitive emissions from oil and gas extraction processes. VOC tracer analysis is used to evaluate the source of high CH4 emissions encountered along the eastern edge of the central Sacramento valley where fugitive emissions from natural gas fields and cultivation of rice are likely sources. Enhancement ratios of CH4 to CO2 and other VOC tracers are compared to existing emission factors from ground based measurements, dairy chamber studies, previous airplane measurements and inventory data.

  2. NASA's Potential Contributions to Avalanche Forecasting Using Active and Passive Microwave Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution is based on using active and passive microwave measurements acquired from NASA satellites to improve USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) Forest Service forecasting of avalanche danger. Regional Avalanche Centers prepare avalanche forecasts using ground measurements of snowpack and mountain weather conditions. In this Solution, range of the in situ observations is extended by adding remote sensing measurements of snow depth, snow water equivalent, and snowfall rate acquired by satellite missions that include Aqua, CloudSat, future GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), and the proposed SCLP (Snow and Cold Land Processes). Measurements of snowpack conditions and time evolution are improved by combining the in situ and satellite observations with a snow model. Recurring snow observations from NASA satellites increase accuracy of avalanche forecasting, which helps the public and the managers of public facilities make better avalanche safety decisions.

  3. Association of proximity and density of parks and objectively measured physical activity in the United States: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Carolyn; Joshi, Spruha; Rundle, Andrew; Hutson, Malo; Chong, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher C; Genkinger, Jeanine; Neckerman, Kathryn; Lovasi, Gina

    2015-08-01

    One strategy for increasing physical activity is to create and enhance access to park space. We assessed the literature on the relationship of parks and objectively measured physical activity in population-based studies in the United States (US) and identified limitations in current built environment and physical activity measurement and reporting. Five English-language scholarly databases were queried using standardized search terms. Abstracts were screened for the following inclusion criteria: 1) published between January 1990 and June 2013; 2) US-based with a sample size greater than 100 individuals; 3) included built environment measures related to parks or trails; and 4) included objectively measured physical activity as an outcome. Following initial screening for inclusion by two independent raters, articles were abstracted into a database. Of 10,949 abstracts screened, 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Five articles reported a significant positive association between parks and physical activity. Nine studies found no association, and six studies had mixed findings. Our review found that even among studies with objectively measured physical activity, the association between access to parks and physical activity varied between studies, possibly due to heterogeneity of exposure measurement. Self-reported (vs. independently-measured) neighborhood park environment characteristics and smaller (vs. larger) buffer sizes were more predictive of physical activity. We recommend strategies for further research, employing standardized reporting and innovative study designs to better understand the relationship of parks and physical activity.

  4. 12 CFR 324.205 - VaR-based measure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... risk-based capital requirements. The FDIC-supervised institution must update data sets at least monthly... observation period of at least one year. Data used to determine the VaR-based measure must be relevant to the... portfolio over a full business cycle. An FDIC-supervised institution using this option must update its...

  5. Sharing Technology-Based Activity Ideas with Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to share technology-based lessons with other teachers. Includes an outline for documenting activity suggestions and offers recommendations for preparing print resources for colleagues. Includes essential elements of a published technology-based activity. (JOW)

  6. Autonomous star tracker based on active pixel sensors (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, U.

    2004-06-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used onboard of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years, star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The Jena-Optronik GmbH is active in the field of opto-electronic sensors like star trackers since the early 80-ties. Today, with the product family ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15, all marked segments like earth observation, scientific applications and geo-telecom are supplied to European and Overseas customers. A new generation of star trackers can be designed based on the APS detector technical features. The measurement performance of the current CCD based star trackers can be maintained, the star tracker functionality, reliability and robustness can be increased while the unit costs are saved.

  7. Nonwoven fabric active electrodes for biopotential measurement during normal daily activity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae-Ho; Merritt, Carey R; Grant, Edward; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Nagle, H Troy

    2008-01-01

    Body movement is responsible for most of the interference during physiological data acquisition during normal daily activities. In this paper, we introduce nonwoven fabric active electrodes that provide the comfort required for clothing while robustly recording physiological data in the presence of body movement. The nonwoven fabric active electrodes were designed and fabricated using both hand- and screen-printing thick-film techniques. Nonstretchable nonwoven (Evolon 100) was chosen as the flexible fabric substrate and a silver filled polymer ink (Creative Materials CMI 112-15) was used to form a transducer layer and conductive lines on the nonwoven fabrics. These nonwoven fabric active electrodes can be easily integrated into clothing for wearable health monitoring applications. Test results indicate that nonwoven textile-based sensors show considerable promise for physiological data acquisition in wearable healthcare monitoring applications.

  8. Accurate measurement method for tube's endpoints based on machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaoli; Jin, Peng; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Peng

    2016-08-01

    Tubes are used widely in aerospace vehicles, and their accurate assembly can directly affect the assembling reliability and the quality of products. It is important to measure the processed tube's endpoints and then fix any geometric errors correspondingly. However, the traditional tube inspection method is time-consuming and complex operations. Therefore, a new measurement method for a tube's endpoints based on machine vision is proposed. First, reflected light on tube's surface can be removed by using photometric linearization. Then, based on the optimization model for the tube's endpoint measurements and the principle of stereo matching, the global coordinates and the relative distance of the tube's endpoint are obtained. To confirm the feasibility, 11 tubes are processed to remove the reflected light and then the endpoint's positions of tubes are measured. The experiment results show that the measurement repeatability accuracy is 0.167 mm, and the absolute accuracy is 0.328 mm. The measurement takes less than 1 min. The proposed method based on machine vision can measure the tube's endpoints without any surface treatment or any tools and can realize on line measurement.

  9. Online monitoring of Mezcal fermentation based on redox potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Escalante-Minakata, P; Ibarra-Junquera, V; Rosu, H C; De León-Rodríguez, A; González-García, R

    2009-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the continuous monitoring of the biomass and ethanol concentrations as well as the growth rate in the Mezcal fermentation process. The algorithm performs its task having available only the online measurements of the redox potential. The procedure combines an artificial neural network (ANN) that relates the redox potential to the ethanol and biomass concentrations with a nonlinear observer-based algorithm that uses the ANN biomass estimations to infer the growth rate of this fermentation process. The results show that the redox potential is a valuable indicator of the metabolic activity of the microorganisms during Mezcal fermentation. In addition, the estimated growth rate can be considered as a direct evidence of the presence of mixed culture growth in the process. Usually, mixtures of microorganisms could be intuitively clear in this kind of processes; however, the total biomass data do not provide definite evidence by themselves. In this paper, the detailed design of the software sensor as well as its experimental application is presented at the laboratory level.

  10. Magnesium Based Materials and their Antimicrobial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Duane Allan

    The overall goals of this body of work were to characterize the antimicrobial properties of magnesium (Mg) metal and nano-magnesium oxide (nMgO) in vitro, to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Mg metal, and to incorporate MgO nanoparticles into a polymeric implant coating and evaluate its in vitro antimicrobial properties. In the course of this work it was found that Mg metal, Mg-mesh, and nMgO have in vitro antimicrobial properties that are similar to a bactericidal antibiotic. For Mg metal, the mechanism of this activity appears to be related to an increase in pH (i.e. a more alkaline environment) and not an increase in Mg2+. Given that Mg-mesh is a Mg metal powder, the assumption is that it has the same mechanism of activity as Mg metal. The mechanism of activity for nMgO remains to be elucidated and may be related to a combination of interaction of the nanoparticles with the bacteria and the alkaline pH. It was further demonstrated that supernatants from suspensions of Mg-mesh and nMgO had the same antimicrobial effect as was noted when the particles were used. The supernatant from Mg-mesh and nMgO was also noted to prevent biofilm formation for two Staphylococcus strains. Finally, poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) composites of Mg-mesh (PCL+Mg-mesh) and nMgO (PCL+nMgO) were produced. Coatings applied to screws inhibited growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in thin disc format inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in addition to the E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Pure Mg metal was noted to have some cytotoxic effect on murine fibroblast and osteoblast cell lines, although this effect needs to be characterized further. To address the need for an in vivo model for evaluating implant associated infections, a new closed fracture osteomyelitis model in the femur of the rat was developed. Magnesium, a readily available and inexpensive metal was shown to have antimicrobial properties that appear to be related to its corrosion products and

  11. Activity-based analyses lead to better decision making.

    PubMed

    Player, S

    1998-08-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and activity-based management (ABM) are cost-management tools that are relatively new to the healthcare industry. ABC is used for strategic decision making. It assesses the costs associated with specific activities and resources and links those costs to specific internal and external customers of the healthcare enterprise (e.g., patients, service lines, and physician groups) to determine the costs associated with each customer. This cost information then can be adjusted to account for anticipated changes and to predict future costs. ABM, on the other hand, supports operations by focusing on the causes of costs and how costs can be reduced. It assesses cost drivers that directly affect the cost of a product or service, and uses performance measures to evaluate the financial or nonfinancial benefit an activity provides. By identifying each cost driver and assessing the value the element adds to the healthcare enterprise, ABM provides a basis for selecting areas that can be changed to reduce costs. PMID:10182280

  12. Measurement of antioxidant activity with trifluoperazine dihydrochloride radical cation.

    PubMed

    Asghar, M N; Khan, I U

    2008-06-01

    A novel, rapid and cost-effective trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFPH) decolorization assay is described for the screening of antioxidant activity. A chromogenic reaction between TFPH and potassium persulfate at low pH produces an orange-red radical cation with maximum absorption at 502 nm in its first-order derivative spectrum. TFPH was dissolved in distilled water to give a 100 mM solution. The TFPH radical cation solution was made by reacting 0.5 mL of the solution with K2S2O8 (final concentration: 0.1 mM) and diluting to 100 mL with 4 M H2SO4 solution. A linear inhibition of color production was observed with linearly increasing amounts of antioxidants, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.999 to 0.983. The antioxidant capacity of standard solutions of an antioxidant was evaluated by comparing with the inhibition curve using Trolox as the standard. Comparison of antioxidant capacity determined with this newly developed TFPH assay and with the well-known 2,2'-azinobis-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] (ABTS)-persulfate decolorization assay indicated the efficacy and sensitivity of the procedure. The proposed assay is less expensive (costs about US$4 per 100 assays) and requires only 20 min for preparation of radical cation solution in comparison with ABTS assay, in which almost 12-16 h are required for preparation of a stable ABTS radical cation solution. The present assay has the advantage over ABTS assay that it can be used to measure the antioxidant activity of the samples, which are naturally found at a pH as low as 1, because the radical cation itself has been stabilized at low pH.

  13. Measuring Activity Limitation Outcomes in Youth with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Mary D.; Mulcahey, MJ; Calhoun, Christina; Ni, Pengsheng; Vogel, Lawrence C.; Haley, Stephen M.; Jette, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional Objectives The Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury Activity Measure (PEDI-SCI AM), which includes calibrated item banks (child and parent versions) for General Mobility, Daily Routines, Wheeled Mobility and Ambulation, can be administered using computerized adaptive tests (CATs) or short forms (SFs). The study objectives are: 1.) examine the psychometric properties of the PEDISCI AM item banks and 10-item CATs); 2.) develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of PEDI-SCI AM SFs. Setting U.S. Shriners Hospitals for Children (California, Illinois and Pennsylvania). Methods Calibration data from a convenience sample of 381 children and adolescents with SCI and 322 parents or caregivers were used to examine PEDI-SCI AM item banks, 10-item CATs and SF scores. We calculated group reliability, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), and interclass coefficients (ICCs) to assess agreement between 10-item CATs, SFs and item banks. The percent of the sample with highest (ceiling) and lowest (floor) scores was also determined. An expert panel selected items for 14 SFs. Results PEDI-SCI item banks, 10-item CATs and SFs demonstrate acceptable group reliability (0.73-0.96) and internal consistency (0.77-0.98). ICC values show strong agreement with item banks for 10-item CATs (0.72-0.99) and SFs. Floor effects are minimal (<15%). Ceiling effects are minimal for children with tetraplegia, but high in children with paraplegia for General Mobility (13.41-26.05%) and Daily Activities (12.99-32.71%). Conclusions The PEDI-SCI AM exhibited strong psychometric properties for children with tetraplegia. Replenishment of the General Mobility and Daily Routines item banks is needed to reduce ceiling effects noted for youth with paraplegia. PMID:26572606

  14. Measurement matrix optimization method based on matrix orthogonal similarity transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jinfeng

    2016-05-01

    Optimization of the measurement matrix is one of the important research aspects of compressive sensing theory. A measurement matrix optimization method is presented based on the orthogonal similarity transformation of the information operator's Gram matrix. In terms of the fact that the information operator's Gram matrix is a singular symmetric matrix, a simplified orthogonal similarity transformation is deduced, and thus the simplified diagonal matrix that is orthogonally similar to it is obtained. Then an approximation of the Gram matrix is obtained by letting all the nonzero diagonal entries of the simplified diagonal matrix equal their average value. Thus an optimized measurement matrix can be acquired according to its relationship with the information operator. Results of experiments show that the optimized measurement matrix compared to the random measurement matrix is less coherent with dictionaries. The relative signal recovery error also declines when the proposed measurement matrix is utilized.

  15. Measurements of the effects of smoke on active circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformally coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 Mohm) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the contacts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems.

  16. Measurements of the Effects of Smoke on Active Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1999-02-09

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformably coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 M{Omega}) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the cent acts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray-capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems.

  17. Fluorometric cell-based assay for β-galactosidase activity in probiotic gram-positive bacterial cells - Lactobacillus helveticus.

    PubMed

    Watson, Amanda L; Chiu, Norman H L

    2016-09-01

    Although methods for measuring β-galactosidase activity in intact gram-negative bacterial cells have been reported, the methods may not be applicable to measuring β-galactosidase activity in gram-positive bacterial cells. This report focuses on the development of a fluorometric cell-based assay for measuring β-galactosidase activity in gram-positive cells.

  18. Assessment of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure: An Overview of Objective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Andrew P.; Mokhtar, Najat; Byrne, Nuala M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to assess energy expenditure (EE) and estimate physical activity (PA) in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity), and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that PA and EE are different constructs with PA defined as any bodily movement that results in EE and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of PA. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate PA in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of PA and their relationship with EE. The measures discussed include those based on EE or oxygen uptake including DLW, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures. PMID:25988109

  19. Field Assessment of Acoustic-Doppler Based Discharge Measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.S.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The use of equipment based on the Doppler principle for measuring water velocity and computing discharge is common within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The instruments and software have changed appreciably during the last 5 years; therefore, the USGS has begun a field validation of the instruments currently (2002) available for making discharge measurements from a moving boat in streams of various sizes. Instruments manufactured by SonTek/YSI2 and RD Instruments, Inc. were used to collect discharge data at five different sites. One or more traditional discharge measurements were made by the use of a Price AA current meter and standard USGS procedures with the acoustic instruments at each site during data collection. The discharges measured with the acoustic instruments were compared with the discharges measured with Price AA meters and the current USGS stage-discharge rating for each site. The mean discharges measured by each acoustic instrument were within 5 percent of the Price AA-based measurement and (or) discharge from the stage-discharge rating. Additional analysis of the data collected indicates that the coefficient of variation of the discharge measurements consistently was less for the RD Instruments, Inc. Rio Grandes than it was for the SonTek/YSI RiverSurveyors. The bottom-tracking referenced measurement had a lower coefficient of variation than the differentially corrected global positioning system referenced measurements. It was observed that the higher frequency RiverSurveyors measured a moving bed more often than the lower frequency Rio Grandes. The detection of a moving bed caused RiverSurveyors to be consistently biased low when referenced to bottom tracking. Differentially corrected global positioning system data may be used to remove the bias observed in the bottom-tracking referenced measurements.

  20. Performance Based Education. Technology Activity Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Rodney L., Ed.

    These Technology Activity Modules are designed to serve as an implementation resource for technology education teachers as they integrate technology education with Missouri's Academic Performance Standards and provide a source of activities and activity ideas that can be used to integrate and reinforce learning across the curriculum. The modules…

  1. Measuring School Improvement: A Few Experientially Based Words of Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scollay, Susan J.; Everson, Susan Toft

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the use of standardized achievement scores to measure the quality of practice-oriented school improvement activities in school districts. Focuses on four areas of concern: the multiple functions of schooling; documentation and data collection; real world complexities; and ethics. Recommends that cautions be taken against exclusive…

  2. A neutron activation technique for manganese measurements in humans.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, C; Byun, S H; Chettle, D R; Inskip, M J; Prestwich, W V

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for humans, animals, and plants and is required for growth, development, and maintenance of health. Studies show that Mn metabolism is similar to that of iron, therefore, increased Mn levels in humans could interfere with the absorption of dietary iron leading to anemia. Also, excess exposure to Mn dust, leads to nervous system disorders similar to Parkinson's disease. Higher exposure to Mn is essentially related to industrial pollution. Thus, there is a benefit in developing a clean non-invasive technique for monitoring such increased levels of Mn in order to understand the risk of disease and development of appropriate treatments. To this end, the feasibility of Mn measurements with their minimum detection limits (MDL) has been reported earlier from the McMaster group. This work presents improvement to Mn assessment using an upgraded system and optimized times of irradiation and counting for induced gamma activity of Mn. The technique utilizes the high proton current Tandetron accelerator producing neutrons via the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction at McMaster University and an array of nine NaI (Tl) detectors in a 4 π geometry for delayed counting of gamma rays. The neutron irradiation of a set of phantoms was performed with protocols having different proton energy, current and time of irradiation. The improved MDLs estimated using the upgraded set up and constrained timings are reported as 0.67 μgMn/gCa for 2.3 MeV protons and 0.71 μgMn/gCa for 2.0 MeV protons. These are a factor of about 2.3 times better than previous measurements done at McMaster University using the in vivo set-up. Also, because of lower dose-equivalent and a relatively close MDL, the combination of: 2.0 MeV; 300 μA; 3 min protocol is recommended as compared to 2.3 MeV; 400 μA; 45 s protocol for further measurements of Mn in vivo. PMID:25169978

  3. Measurement of chest wall displacement based on terahertz wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Lv, Hao; Jiao, Teng; Lu, Guohua; Li, Sheng; Li, Zhao; Liu, Miao; Jing, Xijing; Wang, Jianqi

    2015-02-01

    Measurement of chest wall displacement is an important approach for measuring mechanics of chest wall, which has considerable significance for assessing respiratory system and diagnosing pulmonary diseases. However, existing optical methods for measuring chest wall displacement are inconvenient for some specific patients such as the female patients and the patients with bandaged chest. In this letter, we proposed a method for measuring chest wall displacement based on terahertz wave and established corresponding mathematic model and set up a terahertz measurement system. The main advantages of this method are that it can measure the chest wall displacement of the subjects without taking off clothes or arranging any markers. To validate this method and assess the performance of the terahertz system, in vitro, the displacement of a water module driven by a linear guide rail was measured by the terahertz system and compared with the actual displacement of the water module. The results showed that the waveforms measured with two methods have a good agreement, and the relative error is less than 5% and sufficiently good for measurement demands. In vivo, the synchronous experiment was performed on five human volunteers with the terahertz system and a respiratory belt transducer. The results demonstrate that this method has good performance and promising prospects for measuring chest wall displacement.

  4. Batch Mode Active Sampling based on Marginal Probability Distribution Matching.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Rita; Wang, Zheng; Fan, Wei; Davidson, Ian; Panchanathan, Sethuraman; Ye, Jieping

    2012-01-01

    Active Learning is a machine learning and data mining technique that selects the most informative samples for labeling and uses them as training data; it is especially useful when there are large amount of unlabeled data and labeling them is expensive. Recently, batch-mode active learning, where a set of samples are selected concurrently for labeling, based on their collective merit, has attracted a lot of attention. The objective of batch-mode active learning is to select a set of informative samples so that a classifier learned on these samples has good generalization performance on the unlabeled data. Most of the existing batch-mode active learning methodologies try to achieve this by selecting samples based on varied criteria. In this paper we propose a novel criterion which achieves good generalization performance of a classifier by specifically selecting a set of query samples that minimizes the difference in distribution between the labeled and the unlabeled data, after annotation. We explicitly measure this difference based on all candidate subsets of the unlabeled data and select the best subset. The proposed objective is an NP-hard integer programming optimization problem. We provide two optimization techniques to solve this problem. In the first one, the problem is transformed into a convex quadratic programming problem and in the second method the problem is transformed into a linear programming problem. Our empirical studies using publicly available UCI datasets and a biomedical image dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in comparison with the state-of-the-art batch-mode active learning methods. We also present two extensions of the proposed approach, which incorporate uncertainty of the predicted labels of the unlabeled data and transfer learning in the proposed formulation. Our empirical studies on UCI datasets show that incorporation of uncertainty information improves performance at later iterations while our studies on 20

  5. A Comparison between Lightning Activity and Passive Microwave Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kevin, Driscoll T.; Hugh, Christian J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    A recent examination of data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) suggests that storm with the highest frequency of lightning also possess the most pronounced microwave scattering signatures at 37 and 85 GHz. This study demonstrates a clear dependence between lightning and the passive microwave measurements, and accentuates how direct the relationship really is between cloud ice and lightning activity. In addition, the relationship between the quantity of ice content and the frequency of lightning (not just the presence of lightning) , is consistent throughout the seasons in a variety of regimes. Scatter plots will be presented which show the storm-averaged brightness temperatures as a function of the lightning density of the storms (L/Area) . In the 85 GHz and 37 GHz scatter plots, the brightness temperature is presented in the form Tb = k1 x log10(L/Area) + k2, where the slope of the regression, k1, is 58 for the 85 GHz relationship and 30.7 for the 37 GHz relationship. The regression for both these fits showed a correlation of 0.76 (r2 = 0.58), which is quite promising considering the simple procedure used to make the comparisons, which have not yet even been corrected for the view angle differences between the instruments, or the polarization corrections in the microwave imager.

  6. A Fluorescence-based Assay of Phospholipid Scramblase Activity.

    PubMed

    Ploier, Birgit; Menon, Anant K

    2016-01-01

    Scramblases translocate phospholipids across the membrane bilayer bidirectionally in an ATP-independent manner. The first scramblase to be identified and biochemically verified was opsin, the apoprotein of the photoreceptor rhodopsin. Rhodopsin is a G protein-coupled receptor localized in rod photoreceptor disc membranes of the retina where it is responsible for the perception of light. Rhodopsin's scramblase activity does not depend on its ligand 11-cis-retinal, i.e., the apoprotein opsin is also active as a scramblase. Although constitutive and regulated phospholipid scrambling play an important role in cell physiology, only a few phospholipid scramblases have been identified so far besides opsin. Here we describe a fluorescence-based assay of opsin's scramblase activity. Opsin is reconstituted into large unilamellar liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and a trace quantity of fluorescent NBD-labeled PC (1-palmitoyl-2-{6-[7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazole-4-yl)amino]hexanoyl}-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine). Scramblase activity is determined by measuring the extent to which NBD-PC molecules located in the inner leaflet of the vesicle are able to access the outer leaflet where their fluorescence is chemically eliminated by a reducing agent that cannot cross the membrane. The methods we describe have general applicability and can be used to identify and characterize scramblase activities of other membrane proteins. PMID:27684510

  7. Measurement of residual 152Eu activity induced by atomic bomb neutrons in Nagasaki and the contribution of environmental neutrons to this activity.

    PubMed

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takada, Jun; Ishikawa, Masayori; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi; Oka, Takamitsu; Fujita, Shoichiro; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Yamashita, Tomoaki; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2003-06-01

    Residual 152Eu activities induced by neutrons from the Nagasaki atomic bomb were measured for nine mineral samples located up to 1,061 m in the slant range and one control sample at 2,850 m from the hypocenter. A chemical separation to prepare europium-enriched samples was performed for all samples, and gamma ray measurements were carried out with a low background well-type germanium detector. In this paper, the measured specific activities of 152Eu are compared with activation calculations based on the DS86 neutron fluence and the 93Rev one. The calculated-to-measured ratios are also compared with those of 60Co and 36Cl. The present results indicate that the measurements agree to the calculation within a factor of three as observed in the nuclear tests at Nevada. The activation level of environmental neutrons and the detection limit for 152Eu are also discussed. PMID:13678342

  8. Filmless versus film-based systems in radiographic examination costs: an activity-based costing method

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since the shift from a radiographic film-based system to that of a filmless system, the change in radiographic examination costs and costs structure have been undetermined. The activity-based costing (ABC) method measures the cost and performance of activities, resources, and cost objects. The purpose of this study is to identify the cost structure of a radiographic examination comparing a filmless system to that of a film-based system using the ABC method. Methods We calculated the costs of radiographic examinations for both a filmless and a film-based system, and assessed the costs or cost components by simulating radiographic examinations in a health clinic. The cost objects of the radiographic examinations included lumbar (six views), knee (three views), wrist (two views), and other. Indirect costs were allocated to cost objects using the ABC method. Results The costs of a radiographic examination using a filmless system are as follows: lumbar 2,085 yen; knee 1,599 yen; wrist 1,165 yen; and other 1,641 yen. The costs for a film-based system are: lumbar 3,407 yen; knee 2,257 yen; wrist 1,602 yen; and other 2,521 yen. The primary activities were "calling patient," "explanation of scan," "take photographs," and "aftercare" for both filmless and film-based systems. The cost of these activities cost represented 36.0% of the total cost for a filmless system and 23.6% of a film-based system. Conclusions The costs of radiographic examinations using a filmless system and a film-based system were calculated using the ABC method. Our results provide clear evidence that the filmless system is more effective than the film-based system in providing greater value services directly to patients. PMID:21961846

  9. Dynamic positioning system based on active disturbance rejection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhengling; Guo, Chen; Fan, Yunsheng

    2015-08-01

    A dynamically positioned vessel, by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the certifying class societies (DNV, ABS, LR, etc.), is defined as a vessel that maintains its position and heading (fixed location or pre-determined track) exclusively by means of active thrusters. The development of control technology promotes the upgrading of dynamic positioning (DP) systems. Today there are two different DP systems solutions available on the market: DP system based on PID regulator and that based on model-based control. Both systems have limited disturbance rejection capability due to their design principle. In this paper, a new DP system solution is proposed based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) technology. This technology is composed of Tracking-Differentiator (TD), Extended State Observer (ESO) and Nonlinear Feedback Combination. On one hand, both TD and ESO can act as filters and can be used in place of conventional filters; on the other hand, the total disturbance of the system can be estimated and compensated by ESO, which therefore enhances the system's disturbance rejection capability. This technology's advantages over other methods lie in two aspects: 1) This method itself can not only achieve control objectives but also filter noisy measurements without other specialized filters; 2) This method offers a new useful approach to suppress the ocean disturbance. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity of peroxide-based bleaching agents.

    PubMed

    Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; de Oliveira, Rogério; Reis, André Figueiredo; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno; Giannini, Marcelo

    2007-06-01

    Antibacterial activity of 4 commercial bleaching agents (Day White, Colgate Platinum, Whiteness 10% and 16%) on 6 oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus sanguinis, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. A chlorhexidine solution was used as a positive control, while distilled water was the negative control. Bleaching agents and control materials were inserted in sterilized stainless-steel cylinders that were positioned under inoculated agar plate (n = 4). After incubation according to the appropriate period of time for each microorganism, the inhibition zones were measured. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (a = 0.05). All bleaching agents and the chlorhexidine solution produced antibacterial inhibition zones. Antimicrobial activity was dependent on peroxide-based bleaching agents. For most microorganisms evaluated, bleaching agents produced inhibition zones similar to or larger than that observed for chlorhexidine. C albicans, L casei, and L acidophilus were the most resistant microorganisms. PMID:17625621

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activity of peroxide-based bleaching agents.

    PubMed

    Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; de Oliveira, Rogério; Reis, André Figueiredo; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno; Giannini, Marcelo

    2007-06-01

    Antibacterial activity of 4 commercial bleaching agents (Day White, Colgate Platinum, Whiteness 10% and 16%) on 6 oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus sanguinis, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. A chlorhexidine solution was used as a positive control, while distilled water was the negative control. Bleaching agents and control materials were inserted in sterilized stainless-steel cylinders that were positioned under inoculated agar plate (n = 4). After incubation according to the appropriate period of time for each microorganism, the inhibition zones were measured. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (a = 0.05). All bleaching agents and the chlorhexidine solution produced antibacterial inhibition zones. Antimicrobial activity was dependent on peroxide-based bleaching agents. For most microorganisms evaluated, bleaching agents produced inhibition zones similar to or larger than that observed for chlorhexidine. C albicans, L casei, and L acidophilus were the most resistant microorganisms.

  12. Hydrogeology, chemical and microbial activity measurement through deep permafrost.

    PubMed

    Stotler, Randy L; Frape, Shaun K; Freifeld, Barry M; Holden, Brian; Onstott, Tullis C; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Chan, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about hydrogeochemical conditions beneath thick permafrost, particularly in fractured crystalline rock, due to difficulty in accessing this environment. The purpose of this investigation was to develop methods to obtain physical, chemical, and microbial information about the subpermafrost environment from a surface-drilled borehole. Using a U-tube, gas and water samples were collected, along with temperature, pressure, and hydraulic conductivity measurements, 420 m below ground surface, within a 535 m long, angled borehole at High Lake, Nunavut, Canada, in an area with 460-m-thick permafrost. Piezometric head was well above the base of the permafrost, near land surface. Initial water samples were contaminated with drill fluid, with later samples <40% drill fluid. The salinity of the non-drill fluid component was <20,000 mg/L, had a Ca/Na ratio above 1, with δ(18) O values ∼5‰ lower than the local surface water. The fluid isotopic composition was affected by the permafrost-formation process. Nonbacteriogenic CH(4) was present and the sample location was within methane hydrate stability field. Sampling lines froze before uncontaminated samples from the subpermafrost environment could be obtained, yet the available time to obtain water samples was extended compared to previous studies. Temperature measurements collected from a distributed temperature sensor indicated that this issue can be overcome easily in the future. The lack of methanogenic CH(4) is consistent with the high sulfate concentrations observed in cores. The combined surface-drilled borehole/U-tube approach can provide a large amount of physical, chemical, and microbial data from the subpermafrost environment with few, controllable, sources of contamination.

  13. Hydrogeology, chemical and microbial activity measurement through deep permafrost

    SciTech Connect

    Stotler, R.L.; Frape, S.K.; Freifeld, B.M.; Holden, B.; Onstott, T.C.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Chan, E.

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about hydrogeochemical conditions beneath thick permafrost, particularly in fractured crystalline rock, due to difficulty in accessing this environment. The purpose of this investigation was to develop methods to obtain physical, chemical, and microbial information about the subpermafrost environment from a surface-drilled borehole. Using a U-tube, gas and water samples were collected, along with temperature, pressure, and hydraulic conductivity measurements, 420 m below ground surface, within a 535 m long, angled borehole at High Lake, Nunavut, Canada, in an area with 460-m-thick permafrost. Piezometric head was well above the base of the permafrost, near land surface. Initial water samples were contaminated with drill fluid, with later samples <40% drill fluid. The salinity of the non-drill fluid component was <20,000 mg/L, had a Ca/Na ratio above 1, with {delta}{sup 18}O values {approx}5{per_thousand} lower than the local surface water. The fluid isotopic composition was affected by the permafrost-formation process. Nonbacteriogenic CH{sub 4} was present and the sample location was within methane hydrate stability field. Sampling lines froze before uncontaminated samples from the subpermafrost environment could be obtained, yet the available time to obtain water samples was extended compared to previous studies. Temperature measurements collected from a distributed temperature sensor indicated that this issue can be overcome easily in the future. The lack of methanogenic CH{sub 4} is consistent with the high sulfate concentrations observed in cores. The combined surface-drilled borehole/U-tube approach can provide a large amount of physical, chemical, and microbial data from the subpermafrost environment with few, controllable, sources of contamination.

  14. Hydrogeology, Chemical and Microbial Activity Measurement Through Deep Permafrost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stotler, R.L.; Frape, S.K.; Freifeld, B.M.; Holden, B.; Onstott, T.C.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Chan, E.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about hydrogeochemical conditions beneath thick permafrost, particularly in fractured crystalline rock, due to difficulty in accessing this environment. The purpose of this investigation was to develop methods to obtain physical, chemical, and microbial information about the subpermafrost environment from a surface-drilled borehole. Using a U-tube, gas and water samples were collected, along with temperature, pressure, and hydraulic conductivity measurements, 420 m below ground surface, within a 535 m long, angled borehole at High Lake, Nunavut, Canada, in an area with 460-m-thick permafrost. Piezometric head was well above the base of the permafrost, near land surface. Initial water samples were contaminated with drill fluid, with later samples <40% drill fluid. The salinity of the non-drill fluid component was <20,000 mg/L, had a Ca/Na ratio above 1, with ??18O values ???5??? lower than the local surface water. The fluid isotopic composition was affected by the permafrost-formation process. Nonbacteriogenic CH4 was present and the sample location was within methane hydrate stability field. Sampling lines froze before uncontaminated samples from the subpermafrost environment could be obtained, yet the available time to obtain water samples was extended compared to previous studies. Temperature measurements collected from a distributed temperature sensor indicated that this issue can be overcome easily in the future. The lack of methanogenic CH4 is consistent with the high sulfate concentrations observed in cores. The combined surface-drilled borehole/U-tube approach can provide a large amount of physical, chemical, and microbial data from the subpermafrost environment with few, controllable, sources of contamination. ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  15. Rapid and quantitative measuring of telomerase activity using an electrochemiluminescent sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da; Zhu, Debin; Jia, Li

    2007-11-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds telomeric repeats to the 3'end of chromosomal DNA for maintaining chromosomal integrity and stability. This strong association of telomerase activity with tumors establishing it is the most widespread cancer marker. A number of assays based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been developed for the evaluation of telomerase activity. However, those methods require gel electrophoresis and some staining procedures. We developed an electrochemiluminescent (ECL) sensor for the measuring of telomerase activity to overcome these problems such as troublesome post-PCR procedures and semi-quantitative assessment in the conventional method. In this assay 5'-biotinylated telomerase synthesis (TS) primer serve as the substrate for the extension of telomeric repeats under telomerase. The extension products were amplified with this TS primer and a tris-(2'2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled reversed primer. The amplified products was separated and enriched in the surface of electrode by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and detected by measuring the ECL signals of the TBR labeled. Measuring telomerase activity use the sensor is easy, sensitive, rapid, and applicable to quantitative analysis, should be clinically useful for the detection and monitoring of telomerase activity.

  16. Assessment of free-living physical activity in humans: an overview of currently available and proposed new measures.

    PubMed

    Schutz, Y; Weinsier, R L; Hunter, G R

    2001-06-01

    The number of physical activity measures and indexes used in the human literature is large and may result in some difficulty for the average investigator to choose the most appropriate measure. Accordingly, this review is intended to provide information on the utility and limitations of the various measures. Its primary focus is the objective assessment of free-living physical activity in humans based on physiological and biomechanical methods. The physical activity measures have been classified into three categories: Measures based on energy expenditure or oxygen uptake, such as activity energy expenditure, activity-related time equivalent, physical activity level, physical activity ratio, metabolic equivalent, and a new index of potential interest, daytime physical activity level. Measures based on heart rate monitoring, such as net heart rate, physical activity ratio heart rate, physical activity level heart rate, activity-related time equivalent, and daytime physical activity level heart rate. Measures based on whole-body accelerometry (counts/U time). Quantification of the velocity and duration of displacement in outdoor conditions by satellites using the Differential Global Positioning System may constitute a surrogate for physical activity, because walking is the primary activity of man in free-living conditions. A general outline of the measures and indexes described above is presented in tabular form, along with their respective definition, usual applications, advantages, and shortcomings. A practical example is given with typical values in obese and non-obese subjects. The various factors to be considered in the selection of physical activity methods include experimental goals, sample size, budget, cultural and social/environmental factors, physical burden for the subject, and statistical factors, such as accuracy and precision. It is concluded that no single current technique is able to quantify all aspects of physical activity under free

  17. Simultaneous measurement of neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics by unshielded magnetoencephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Yusuke; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Kandori, Akihiko; Maki, Atsushi; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2012-10-01

    The correlation between neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics, namely, neurovascular coupling (NVC), is important to shed light on the mechanism of a variety of brain functions or neuronal diseases. NVC can be studied by simultaneously measuring neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics. Consequently, noninvasive measurements of the NVC have been widely studied using both electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, electromagnetic interference between EEG and fMRI is still a major problem. On the other hand, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is another promising tool for detecting cortical hemodynamics because it can be combined with EEG or magnetoencephalography (MEG) without any electromagnetic interference. Accordingly, in the present study, a simultaneous measurement system-combining an unshielded MEG using a two-dimensional gradiometer based on a low-T superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and an NIRS using nonmagnetic thin probes-was developed. This combined system was used to simultaneously measure both an auditory-evoked magnetic field and blood flow change in the auditory cortex. It was experimentally demonstrated that the combined unshielded MEG/NIRS system can simultaneously measure neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics.

  18. Determination of biological activity from fluorescence-lifetime measurements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, F.; Baselt, T.; Lempe, B.; Taudt, C.; Hartmann, P.

    2015-03-01

    The importance of fluorescence lifetime measurement as an optical analysis tool is growing. Many applications already exist in order to determine the fluorescence lifetime, but the majority of these require the addition of fluorescence-active substances to enable measurements. Every usage of such foreign materials has an associated risk. This paper investigates the use of auto-fluorescing substances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) as a risk free alternative to fluorescence-active substance enabled measurements. The experimental setup uses a nitrogen laser with a pulse length of 350 ps and a wavelength of 337 nm. The excited sample emits light due to fluorescence of NADH/NADPH and collagen. A fast photodiode collects the light at the output of an appropriate high-pass edge-filter at 400 nm. Fluorescence lifetimes can be determined from the decay of the measurement signals, which in turn characterizes the individual materials and their surrounding environment. Information about the quantity of the fluorescence active substances can also be measured based on the received signal intensity. The correlation between the fluorescence lifetime and the metabolic state of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and is presented here.

  19. Is the Intergenerational Transmission of High Cultural Activities Biased by the Retrospective Measurement of Parental High Cultural Activities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Jannes; de Graaf, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we study the bias caused by the conventional retrospective measurement of parental high cultural activities in the effects of parental high cultural activities and educational attainment on son's or daughter's high cultural activities. Multi-informant data show that there is both random measurement error and correlated error in the…

  20. A component based software framework for vision measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lingsong; Bei, Lei

    2011-12-01

    In vision measurement applications, it is usually used to achieve an optimal result by combing different processing steps and algorithms .This paper proposes a component based software framework for vision measurement. First, commonly used processing algorithms of vision measurement are encapsulated into components that contained in a components library. The component which is designed to have its own properties also provides I/O interfaces for extern calls. Second, a software bus is proposed which can plug components and assemble them to form a vision measurement application. Besides components managing and data line linking, the software bus also provides service of message distribution, which is used to drive all the plugged components working properly. Third, a XML based script language is proposed to record the plugging and assembling process of a vision measurement application, which can be used to rebuild the vision measurement application later. At last, based on this framework, an application of landmark extraction that applied in camera calibration is introduced to show how it works.

  1. Ground-based lidar for atmospheric boundary layer ozone measurements.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-05-20

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than ±10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

  2. Ground-Based Lidar for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Ozone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J.; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than 10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

  3. Developing Respondent Based Multi-Media Measures of Exposure to Sexual Content

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Hennessy, Michal; Jordan, Amy; Chernin, Ariel; Stevens, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Despite the interest in the effects of the media on sexual behavior, there is no single method for assessing exposure to a particular type of media content (e.g., sex). This paper discusses the development of six sexual content exposure measures based on adolescents’ own subjective ratings of the sexual content in titles in 4 media (i.e., television, music, magazines, videogames). We assessed the construct and criterion validity of these measures by examining the associations among each of these measures of exposure to sexual content as well as their associations with adolescents’ sexual activity. Data were collected in summer 2005 through a web-based survey using a quota sample of 547 youth aged 14–16 from the Philadelphia area. Adolescents rated how often they were exposed to specific television shows, magazine titles, etc. on 4-point never to often scales. They also rated the sexual content of those titles on 4-point no sexual content to a lot of sexual content scales. Sexual behavior was measured using an ordered index of lifetime pre-coital and coital sexual activity. The strength of association between exposure to sexual content and sexual activity varied by medium and measure. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of a multiple media weighted sum measure. This measure produces findings that are consistent with those of similar studies. PMID:20411048

  4. Radon Diffusion Measurement in Polyethylene based on Alpha Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, Wolfgang

    2011-04-27

    We present a method to measure the diffusion of Radon in solid materials based on the alpha decay of the radon daughter products. In contrast to usual diffusion measurements which detect the radon that penetrates a thin barrier, we let the radon diffuse into the material and then measure the alpha decays of the radon daughter products in the material. We applied this method to regular and ultra high molecular weight poly ethylene and find diffusion lengths of order of mm as expected. However, the preliminary analysis shows significant differences between two different approaches we have chosen. These differences may be explained by the different experimental conditions.

  5. Tethered balloon-based measurements of meteorological variables and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentell, R. J.; Storey, R. W.; Chang, J. J. C.; Jacobsen, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tethered balloon based measurements of the vertical distributions of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and aerosol concentrations were taken over a 4-hour period beginning at sunrise on June 29, 1976, at Wallops Island, Virginia. Twelve consecutive profiles of each variable were obtained from ground to about 500 meters. These measurements were in conjuction with a noise propagation study on remotely arrayed acoustic range (ROMAAR) at Wallops Flight Center. An organized listing of these vertical soundings is presented. The tethered balloon system configuration utilized for these measurements is described.

  6. Research of optical rotation measurement system based on centroid algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Junjie; Jia, Hongzhi; Shen, Xinrong; Jiang, Shixin

    2016-09-01

    An optical rotation measurement system based on digital signal processor, modulated laser, and step motor rotating stage is established. Centroid algorithm featured fast and simple calculation is introduced to process light signals with or without sample to obtain the optical rotating angle through the step difference between two centroids. The system performance is proved experimentally with standard quartz tubes and glucose solutions. After various measurements, the relative error and precision of the system are determined to 0.4% and 0.004°, which demonstrates the reliable repeatability and high accuracy of whole measurement system.

  7. Measurement of Separase Proteolytic Activity in Single Living Cells by a Fluorogenic Flow Cytometry Assay

    PubMed Central

    Haaß, Wiltrud; Kleiner, Helga; Müller, Martin C.; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Fabarius, Alice; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    ESPL1/Separase, an endopeptidase, is required for centrosome duplication and separation of sister-chromatides in anaphase of mitosis. Overexpression and deregulated proteolytic activity of Separase as frequently observed in human cancers is associated with the occurrence of supernumerary centrosomes, chromosomal missegregation and aneuploidy. Recently, we have hypothesized that increased Separase proteolytic activity in a small subpopulation of tumor cells may serve as driver of tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Currently, there is no quantitative assay to measure Separase activity levels in single cells. Therefore, we have designed a flow cytometry-based assay that utilizes a Cy5- and rhodamine 110 (Rh110)-biconjugated Rad21 cleavage site peptide ([Cy5-D-R-E-I-M-R]2-Rh110) as smart probe and intracellular substrate for detection of Separase enzyme activity in living cells. As measured by Cy5 fluorescence the cellular uptake of the fluorogenic peptide was fast and reached saturation after 210 min of incubation in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. Separase activity was recorded as the intensity of Rh110 fluorescence released after intracellular peptide cleavage providing a linear signal gain within a 90–180 min time slot. Compared to conventional cell extract-based methods the flow cytometric assay delivers equivalent results but is more reliable, bypasses the problem of vague loading controls and unspecific proteolysis associated with whole cell extracts. Especially suited for the investigaton of blood- and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells the flow cytometric Separase assay allows generation of Separase activity profiles that tell about the number of Separase positive cells within a sample i.e. cells that currently progress through mitosis and about the range of intercellular variation in Separase activity levels within a cell population. The assay was used to quantify Separase proteolytic activity in leukemic

  8. Measuring neuronal branching patterns using model-based approach.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Artur

    2010-01-01

    Neurons have complex branching systems which allow them to communicate with thousands of other neurons. Thus understanding neuronal geometry is clearly important for determining connectivity within the network and how this shapes neuronal function. One of the difficulties in uncovering relationships between neuronal shape and its function is the problem of quantifying complex neuronal geometry. Even by using multiple measures such as: dendritic length, distribution of segments, direction of branches, etc, a description of three dimensional neuronal embedding remains incomplete. To help alleviate this problem, here we propose a new measure, a shape diffusiveness index (SDI), to quantify spatial relations between branches at the local and global scale. It was shown that growth of neuronal trees can be modeled by using diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) process. By measuring "how easy" it is to reproduce the analyzed shape by using the DLA algorithm it can be measured how "diffusive" is that shape. Intuitively, "diffusiveness" measures how tree-like is a given shape. For example shapes like an oak tree will have high values of SDI. This measure is capturing an important feature of dendritic tree geometry, which is difficult to assess with other measures. This approach also presents a paradigm shift from well-defined deterministic measures to model-based measures, which estimate how well a model with specific properties can account for features of analyzed shape. PMID:21079752

  9. Beam-based alignment measurements of the LANSCE linac

    SciTech Connect

    McCrady, R. C.; Rybarcyk, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    We have made measurements of the alignment of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) Drift Tube linac (DTL) and Side Coupled linac (SCL) using beam position measurements and analyzing them with linear models. In the DTL, we varied the injection steering and focusing lattice strengths, measured the beam position after each DTL tank, and analyzed the data with a linear model using R-matrices that were either computed by the Trace-3D computer program or extracted from analysis of the data. The analysis model allowed for tank-to-tank misalignments. The measurements were made similarly in the SCL, where the analysis model allowed for misalignments of each quadrupole doublet lens. We present here the analysis techniques and the resulting beam-based alignment measurements.

  10. Performance evaluation of algorithms for SAW-based temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Stefan; Scheiblhofer, Stefan; Reindl, Leonhard; Stelzer, Andreas

    2006-06-01

    Whenever harsh environmental conditions such as high temperatures, accelerations, radiation, etc., prohibit usage of standard temperature sensors, surface acoustic wave-based temperature sensors are the first choice for highly reliable wireless temperature measurement. Interrogation of these sensors is often based on frequency modulated or frequency stepped continuous wave-based radars (FMCW/FSCW). We investigate known algorithms regarding their achievable temperature accuracy and their applicability in practice. Furthermore, some general rules of thumb for FMCW/FSCW radar-based range estimation by means of the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for frequency and phase estimation are provided. The theoretical results are verified on both simulated and measured data. PMID:16846150

  11. A Secure LFSR Based Random Measurement Matrix for Compressive Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Sudhish N.; Pattathil, Deepthi P.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for generating the secure measurement matrix for compressive sensing (CS) based on linear feedback shift register (LFSR) is presented. The basic idea is to select the different states of LFSR as the random entries of the measurement matrix and normalize these values to get independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables with zero mean and variance , where N is the number of input samples. The initial seed for the LFSR system act as the key to the user to provide security. Since the measurement matrix is generated from the LFSR system, and memory overload to store the measurement matrix is avoided in the proposed system. Moreover, the proposed system can provide security maintaining the robustness to noise of the CS system. The proposed system is validated through different block-based CS techniques of images. To enhance security, the different blocks of images are measured with different measurement matrices so that the proposed encryption system can withstand known plaintext attack. A modulo division circuit is used to reseed the LFSR system to generate multiple random measurement matrices, whereby after each fundamental period of LFSR, the feedback polynomial of the modulo circuit is modified in terms of a chaotic value. The proposed secure robust CS paradigm for images is subjected to several forms of attacks and is proven to be resistant against the same. From experimental analysis, it is proven that the proposed system provides better performance than its counterparts.

  12. A reliability measure of protein-protein interactions and a reliability measure-based search engine.

    PubMed

    Park, Byungkyu; Han, Kyungsook

    2010-02-01

    Many methods developed for estimating the reliability of protein-protein interactions are based on the topology of protein-protein interaction networks. This paper describes a new reliability measure for protein-protein interactions, which does not rely on the topology of protein interaction networks, but expresses biological information on functional roles, sub-cellular localisations and protein classes as a scoring schema. The new measure is useful for filtering many spurious interactions, as well as for estimating the reliability of protein interaction data. In particular, the reliability measure can be used to search protein-protein interactions with the desired reliability in databases. The reliability-based search engine is available at http://yeast.hpid.org. We believe this is the first search engine for interacting proteins, which is made available to public. The search engine and the reliability measure of protein interactions should provide useful information for determining proteins to focus on.

  13. Solar activity variations of ionosonde measurements and modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altadill, D.; Arrazola, D.; Blanch, E.; Buresova, D.

    2008-08-01

    The time series of hourly electron density profiles N(h) obtained at several mid-latitude stations in Europe have been used to obtain N(h) profiles on a monthly basis and to extract both the expected bottomside parameters and a proxy of the ionospheric variability as functions of time and height. With these data we present advances on a “Local Model” technique for the parameters B0 and B1, its applicability to other ionospheric stations, to other bottomside ionospheric parameters, and to modeling the time/height variability of the profile. The Local Model (LM) is an empirical model based on the experimental results of the solar activity dependence of the daily and seasonal behavior of the above parameters. The LM improves the IRI-2001 prediction of the B0 and B1 by factor of two at mid-latitudes. Moreover, the LM can be used to simulate other ionospheric parameters and to build mean N(h) profiles and the deviations from them. The modeling of both the average N(h) profiles and their deviations is an useful tool for ionospheric model users who want to know both the expected patterns and their deviations.

  14. In vivo measurement of 241Am in the lungs confounded by activity deposited in other organs.

    PubMed

    Lobaugh, Megan L; Spitz, Henry B; Glover, Samuel E

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive material deposited in multiple organs of the body is likely to confound a result of an in vivo measurement performed over the lungs, the most frequently monitored organ for occupational exposure. The significance of this interference was evaluated by measuring anthropometric torso phantoms containing lungs, liver, skeleton, and axillary lymph nodes, each with a precisely known quantity of 241Am uniformly distributed in the organs. Arrays of multiple high-resolution germanium detectors were positioned over organs within the torso phantom containing 241Am or over proximal organs without activity to determine the degree of measurement confounding due to photons emitted from other source organs. A set of four mathematical response functions describes the measured count rate with detectors positioned over each of the relevant organs and 241Am contained in the measured organ or one of the other organs selected as a confounder. Simultaneous solution of these equations by matrix algebra, where the diagonal terms of the matrix are calibration factors for a direct measurement of activity in an organ and the off-diagonal terms reflect the contribution (i.e., interference or cross-talk) produced by 241Am in a confounding organ, yields the activity deposited in each of the relevant organs. The matrix solution described in this paper represents a method for adjusting a result of 241Am measured directly in one organ for interferences that may arise from 241Am deposited elsewhere and represents a technically valid procedure to aid in evaluating internal dose based upon in vivo measurements for those radioactive materials known to deposit in multiple organs.

  15. In vivo measurement of 241Am in the lungs confounded by activity deposited in other organs.

    PubMed

    Lobaugh, Megan L; Spitz, Henry B; Glover, Samuel E

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive material deposited in multiple organs of the body is likely to confound a result of an in vivo measurement performed over the lungs, the most frequently monitored organ for occupational exposure. The significance of this interference was evaluated by measuring anthropometric torso phantoms containing lungs, liver, skeleton, and axillary lymph nodes, each with a precisely known quantity of 241Am uniformly distributed in the organs. Arrays of multiple high-resolution germanium detectors were positioned over organs within the torso phantom containing 241Am or over proximal organs without activity to determine the degree of measurement confounding due to photons emitted from other source organs. A set of four mathematical response functions describes the measured count rate with detectors positioned over each of the relevant organs and 241Am contained in the measured organ or one of the other organs selected as a confounder. Simultaneous solution of these equations by matrix algebra, where the diagonal terms of the matrix are calibration factors for a direct measurement of activity in an organ and the off-diagonal terms reflect the contribution (i.e., interference or cross-talk) produced by 241Am in a confounding organ, yields the activity deposited in each of the relevant organs. The matrix solution described in this paper represents a method for adjusting a result of 241Am measured directly in one organ for interferences that may arise from 241Am deposited elsewhere and represents a technically valid procedure to aid in evaluating internal dose based upon in vivo measurements for those radioactive materials known to deposit in multiple organs. PMID:25437522

  16. Creating Stimulating Learning and Thinking Using New Models of Activity-Based Learning and Metacognitive-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a novel way to stimulate learning, creativity, and thinking based on a new understanding of activity-based learning (ABL) and two methods for developing metacognitive-based activities for the classroom. ABL, in this model, is based on the premise that teachers are distillers and facilitators of information…

  17. Information quality measurement of medical encoding support based on usability.

    PubMed

    Puentes, John; Montagner, Julien; Lecornu, Laurent; Cauvin, Jean-Michel

    2013-12-01

    Medical encoding support systems for diagnoses and medical procedures are an emerging technology that begins to play a key role in billing, reimbursement, and health policies decisions. A significant problem to exploit these systems is how to measure the appropriateness of any automatically generated list of codes, in terms of fitness for use, i.e. their quality. Until now, only information retrieval performance measurements have been applied to estimate the accuracy of codes lists as quality indicator. Such measurements do not give the value of codes lists for practical medical encoding, and cannot be used to globally compare the quality of multiple codes lists. This paper defines and validates a new encoding information quality measure that addresses the problem of measuring medical codes lists quality. It is based on a usability study of how expert coders and physicians apply computer-assisted medical encoding. The proposed measure, named ADN, evaluates codes Accuracy, Dispersion and Noise, and is adapted to the variable length and content of generated codes lists, coping with limitations of previous measures. According to the ADN measure, the information quality of a codes list is fully represented by a single point, within a suitably constrained feature space. Using one scheme, our approach is reliable to measure and compare the information quality of hundreds of codes lists, showing their practical value for medical encoding. Its pertinence is demonstrated by simulation and application to real data corresponding to 502 inpatient stays in four clinic departments. Results are compared to the consensus of three expert coders who also coded this anonymized database of discharge summaries, and to five information retrieval measures. Information quality assessment applying the ADN measure showed the degree of encoding-support system variability from one clinic department to another, providing a global evaluation of quality measurement trends.

  18. Information quality measurement of medical encoding support based on usability.

    PubMed

    Puentes, John; Montagner, Julien; Lecornu, Laurent; Cauvin, Jean-Michel

    2013-12-01

    Medical encoding support systems for diagnoses and medical procedures are an emerging technology that begins to play a key role in billing, reimbursement, and health policies decisions. A significant problem to exploit these systems is how to measure the appropriateness of any automatically generated list of codes, in terms of fitness for use, i.e. their quality. Until now, only information retrieval performance measurements have been applied to estimate the accuracy of codes lists as quality indicator. Such measurements do not give the value of codes lists for practical medical encoding, and cannot be used to globally compare the quality of multiple codes lists. This paper defines and validates a new encoding information quality measure that addresses the problem of measuring medical codes lists quality. It is based on a usability study of how expert coders and physicians apply computer-assisted medical encoding. The proposed measure, named ADN, evaluates codes Accuracy, Dispersion and Noise, and is adapted to the variable length and content of generated codes lists, coping with limitations of previous measures. According to the ADN measure, the information quality of a codes list is fully represented by a single point, within a suitably constrained feature space. Using one scheme, our approach is reliable to measure and compare the information quality of hundreds of codes lists, showing their practical value for medical encoding. Its pertinence is demonstrated by simulation and application to real data corresponding to 502 inpatient stays in four clinic departments. Results are compared to the consensus of three expert coders who also coded this anonymized database of discharge summaries, and to five information retrieval measures. Information quality assessment applying the ADN measure showed the degree of encoding-support system variability from one clinic department to another, providing a global evaluation of quality measurement trends. PMID:23958646

  19. Projection Moire Interferometry for Rotorcraft Applications: Deformation Measurements of Active Twist Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Soto, Hector L.; South, Bruce W.

    2002-01-01

    Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) has been used during wind tunnel tests to obtain azimuthally dependent blade bending and twist measurements for a 4-bladed Active Twist Rotor (ATR) system in simulated forward flight. The ATR concept offers a means to reduce rotor vibratory loads and noise by using piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators embedded in the blade structure to twist each blade as they rotate throughout the rotor azimuth. The twist imparted on the blades for blade control causes significant changes in blade loading, resulting in complex blade deformation consisting of coupled bending and twist. Measurement of this blade deformation is critical in understanding the overall behavior of the ATR system and the physical mechanisms causing the reduction in rotor loads and noise. PMI is a non-contacting, video-based optical measurement technique capable of obtaining spatially continuous structural deformation measurements over the entire object surface within the PMI system field-of-view. When applied to rotorcraft testing, PMI can be used to measure the azimuth-dependent blade bending and twist along the full span of the rotor blade. This paper presents the PMI technique as applied to rotorcraft testing, and provides results obtained during the ATR tests demonstrating the PMI system performance. PMI measurements acquired at select blade actuation conditions generating minimum and maximum rotor loads are provided to explore the interrelationship between rotor loads, blade bending, and twist.

  20. Objectively measured physical activity of young Canadian children using accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Heale, Liane D; Anderson, Laura N; Tremblay, Mark S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to describe objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers and determine the proportion meeting Canadian age-specific PA guidelines. Ninety children (47 girls, 43 boys; mean age 32 (range, 4-70) months) attending scheduled health supervision visits and in the TARGet Kids! (The Applied Research Group for Kids) cohort wore an Actical accelerometer for 7 days. Participants with 4 or more valid days were included in the analysis. Time, in mean minutes per day (min/day), spent sedentary and in light PA, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and total PA was determined using published cut-points; age groups were compared using ANOVA. Twenty-three percent of children <18 months (n = 28) and 76% of children aged 18-59 months (n = 45) met the guideline of 180 min/day of total PA; 13% of children ≥60 months (n = 17) met the guideline of 60 min/day of MVPA. Children <18 months spent more of their waking time per day engaged in sedentary behaviours (79%; ∼7.3 h) compared with children aged 18-59 months (63%; ∼6.6 h) and children ≥60 months (58%; ∼6.6 h). In conclusion, most children aged 18-59 months met the Canadian PA guidelines for children aged 0-4 years, whereas few younger than 18 months met the same guidelines. Only 13% of children ≥5 years met their age-specific PA guidelines. Further research is needed to develop, test, and implement effective strategies to promote PA and reduce sedentary behaviour in very young children.

  1. Objectively measured physical activity of young Canadian children using accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Heale, Liane D; Anderson, Laura N; Tremblay, Mark S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to describe objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers and determine the proportion meeting Canadian age-specific PA guidelines. Ninety children (47 girls, 43 boys; mean age 32 (range, 4-70) months) attending scheduled health supervision visits and in the TARGet Kids! (The Applied Research Group for Kids) cohort wore an Actical accelerometer for 7 days. Participants with 4 or more valid days were included in the analysis. Time, in mean minutes per day (min/day), spent sedentary and in light PA, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and total PA was determined using published cut-points; age groups were compared using ANOVA. Twenty-three percent of children <18 months (n = 28) and 76% of children aged 18-59 months (n = 45) met the guideline of 180 min/day of total PA; 13% of children ≥60 months (n = 17) met the guideline of 60 min/day of MVPA. Children <18 months spent more of their waking time per day engaged in sedentary behaviours (79%; ∼7.3 h) compared with children aged 18-59 months (63%; ∼6.6 h) and children ≥60 months (58%; ∼6.6 h). In conclusion, most children aged 18-59 months met the Canadian PA guidelines for children aged 0-4 years, whereas few younger than 18 months met the same guidelines. Only 13% of children ≥5 years met their age-specific PA guidelines. Further research is needed to develop, test, and implement effective strategies to promote PA and reduce sedentary behaviour in very young children. PMID:26573442

  2. New critical dimension uniformity measurement concept based reticle inspection tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Kangjoon; Kim, MunSik; Kim, Sang Chul; Shin, JaeCheon; Kim, ChangYeol; Miller, John; Dayal, Aditya; Hutchinson, Trent; Park, KiHun

    2010-05-01

    The Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification on photo-mask is getting increasingly tighter which each successive node. The ITRS roadmap for optical masks indicates that, the CDU (3 sigma) for dense lines for binary or attenuated phase shift mask is 3.4nm for 45nm half-pitch (45HP) node and will go down to 2.4nm for 32HP node. The current variability in mask shop processes results in CDU variation across the photo-mask of ~2-3nm. Hence, we are entering in a phase where the mask CDU specification is approaching the limit of the capability of the current POR (process on record). Hence, mask shops have started exploring more active mechanisms to improve or compensate for the CDU of the masks. A typical application is in feeding back the CDU data to adjust the mask writer dose and compensate for non-uniformity in the CDs, resulting in improved quality of subsequent masks. Another option is to feed the CD uniformity information forward into the wafer FAB and adjust the scanner dose to correct for reticle non-uniformity. For these purposes mask makers prefer a dense measurement of CDs across the reticle in a short time. Mask makers are currently using the CD-SEM tool for data collection. While the resolution of SEM data ensures its position as the industry standard, an output map of CDU from a reticle inspection tool has the advantage of denser sampling over larger areas on the mask. High NA reticle inspection systems scan the entire reticle at high throughput, and are ideally suited for collecting CDU data on a dense grid. In this paper, we describe the basic theory of a new, reticle inspection-based CDU tool, and results on advanced memory masks. We discuss possible applications of CDU maps for optimizing the mask manufacturing and wafer production processes.

  3. Measuring Activity Level with Actometers: Reliability, Validity, and Arm Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.

    1983-01-01

    The gross-motor activity of 27 three- and four- year-olds was assessed through teacher ratings, parent responses to the activity scale of the Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory, and data from uncalibrated actometers worn by children during free play. Activity scores composited across multiple actometers had high reliability and correlated…

  4. A universal method for measuring functional activity of complement in humans, laboratory, domestic, and agricultural animals, amphibians, and birds.

    PubMed

    Kuleshina, O N; Kozlov, L V; Cheremnykh, E G

    2014-06-01

    A new universal method for measuring activity of the serum complement system in humans, laboratory, domestic, agricultural animals, birds and amphibians is based on automated evaluation of the mortality of ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis under the effect of the complement system. In contrast to the hemolytic method, measured activity of the complement shows no erroneously high results caused by reactive lysis in febrile patients. The method can be used for studies of the complement system in humans and animals without species-specific adaptation.

  5. Integrated method for the measurement of trace atmospheric bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, D.; Stihle, J.; Petit, J.-E.; Bonnet, C.; Depernon, L.; Liu, O.; Kennedy, S.; Latimer, R.; Burgoyne, M.; Wanger, D.; Webster, A.; Casunuran, S.; Hidalgo, S.; Thomas, M.; Moss, J. A.; Baum, M. M.

    2011-09-01

    Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is standard to most laboratories. In this work, an integrated approach to measuring trace atmospheric nitrogenous bases has been developed and validated. The method uses a simple acid scrubbing step to capture and concentrate the bases as their phosphite salts, which then are derivatized and analyzed using GC/MS and/or LC/MS. The advantages of both techniques in the context of the present measurements are discussed. The approach is sensitive, selective, reproducible, as well as convenient to implement and has been validated for different sampling strategies. The limits of detection for the families of tested compounds are suitable for ambient measurement applications, as supported by field measurements in an urban park and in the exhaust of on-road vehicles.

  6. Integrated method for the measurement of trace nitrogenous atmospheric bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, D.; Stihle, J.; Petit, J.-E.; Bonnet, C.; Depernon, L.; Liu, O.; Kennedy, S.; Latimer, R.; Burgoyne, M.; Wanger, D.; Webster, A.; Casunuran, S.; Hidalgo, S.; Thomas, M.; Moss, J. A.; Baum, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is standard to most laboratories. In this work, an integrated approach to measuring trace, atmospheric, gaseous nitrogenous bases has been developed and validated. The method uses a simple acid scrubbing step to capture and concentrate the bases as their phosphite salts, which then are derivatized and analyzed using GC/MS and/or LC/MS. The advantages of both techniques in the context of the present measurements are discussed. The approach is sensitive, selective, reproducible, as well as convenient to implement and has been validated for different sampling strategies. The limits of detection for the families of tested compounds are suitable for ambient measurement applications (e.g., methylamine, 1 pptv; ethylamine, 2 pptv; morpholine, 1 pptv; aniline, 1 pptv; hydrazine, 0.1 pptv; methylhydrazine, 2 pptv), as supported by field measurements in an urban park and in the exhaust of on-road vehicles.

  7. Seamless measurement technology of transient signals based on approximate entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Tian, Shulin; Guo, Lianping; Huang, Wuhuang

    2016-10-01

    The acquisition of waveforms and the analysis of transient characteristics of signals are the fundamental tasks for time-domain measurement, while the reduction of the measuring gap till seamless measurement is extremely important to the acquisition, measurement, and analysis of transient signals. This paper, aimed at the seamless time-domain measurement of non-stationary transient signals, proposes an approximate entropy-based characteristic signal extraction algorithm on the basis of information entropy theories. The algorithm quantitatively describes the complexity (amount of information) of sampled signals using the approximate entropy value, self-adaptively captures characteristic signals under the control of the approximate entropy in real time, extracts the critical or useful information, and removes redundant or useless information so as to reduce the time consumption of processing data and displaying waveforms and realize the seamless time-domain measurement of transient signals finally. Experimental results show that the study could provide a new method for the design of electronic measuring instrument with seamless measurement capability.

  8. Caspase-3 Activity in the Rat Amygdala Measured by Spectrofluorometry After Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kim; Godbout, Roger; Rousseau, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) has dramatic mid- and long-term consequences at the physiological and behavioral levels, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear. Our laboratory has developed a rat model of post-MI syndrome that displays impaired cardiac functions, neuronal loss in the limbic system, cognitive deficits and behavioral signs of depression. At the neuronal level, caspase-3 activation mediates post-MI apoptosis in different limbic regions, such as the amygdala - peaking at 3 days post-MI. Cognitive and behavioral impairments appear 2-3 weeks post-MI and these correlate statistically with measures of caspase-3 activity. The protocol described here is used to induce MI, collect amygdala tissue and measure caspase-3 activity using spectrofluorometry. To induce MI, the descending coronary artery is occluded for 40 min. The protocol for evaluation of caspase-3 activation starts 3 days after MI: the rats are sacrificed and the amygdala isolated rapidly from the brain. Samples are quickly frozen in liquid nitrogen and kept at -80 °C until actual analysis. The technique performed to assess caspase-3 activation is based on cleavage of a substrate (DEVD-AMC) by caspase-3, which releases a fluorogenic compound that can be measured by spectrofluorometry. The methodology is quantitative and reproducible but the equipment required is expensive and the procedure for quantifying the samples is time-consuming. This technique can be applied to other tissues, such as the heart and kidneys. DEVD-AMC can be replaced by other substrates to measure the activity of other caspases. PMID:26862955

  9. Caspase-3 Activity in the Rat Amygdala Measured by Spectrofluorometry After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Kim; Godbout, Roger; Rousseau, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) has dramatic mid- and long-term consequences at the physiological and behavioral levels, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear. Our laboratory has developed a rat model of post-MI syndrome that displays impaired cardiac functions, neuronal loss in the limbic system, cognitive deficits and behavioral signs of depression. At the neuronal level, caspase-3 activation mediates post-MI apoptosis in different limbic regions, such as the amygdala – peaking at 3 days post-MI. Cognitive and behavioral impairments appear 2-3 weeks post-MI and these correlate statistically with measures of caspase-3 activity. The protocol described here is used to induce MI, collect amygdala tissue and measure caspase-3 activity using spectrofluorometry. To induce MI, the descending coronary artery is occluded for 40 min. The protocol for evaluation of caspase-3 activation starts 3 days after MI: the rats are sacrificed and the amygdala isolated rapidly from the brain. Samples are quickly frozen in liquid nitrogen and kept at -80 °C until actual analysis. The technique performed to assess caspase-3 activation is based on cleavage of a substrate (DEVD-AMC) by caspase-3, which releases a fluorogenic compound that can be measured by spectrofluorometry. The methodology is quantitative and reproducible but the equipment required is expensive and the procedure for quantifying the samples is time-consuming. This technique can be applied to other tissues, such as the heart and kidneys. DEVD-AMC can be replaced by other substrates to measure the activity of other caspases. PMID:26862955

  10. Simple Radiowave-Based Method For Measuring Peripheral Blood Flow Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Project objective is to design small radio frequency based flow probes for the measurement of blood flow velocity in peripheral arteries such as the femoral artery and middle cerebral artery. The result will be the technological capability to measure peripheral blood flow rates and flow changes during various environmental stressors such as microgravity without contact to the individual being monitored. This technology may also lead to an easier method of detecting venous gas emboli during extravehicular activities.

  11. Metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendrill, Leslie; Petersson, Niclas

    2016-09-01

    The metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements is in its infancy—concepts such as traceability and uncertainty are as yet poorly developed. This paper reviews how a measurement system analysis approach, particularly invoking as performance metric the ability of a probe (such as a human being) acting as a measurement instrument to make a successful decision, can enable a more general metrological treatment of qualitative observations. Measures based on human observations are typically qualitative, not only in sectors, such as health care, services and safety, where the human factor is obvious, but also in customer perception of traditional products of all kinds. A principal challenge is that the usual tools of statistics normally employed for expressing measurement accuracy and uncertainty will probably not work reliably if relations between distances on different portions of scales are not fully known, as is typical of ordinal or other qualitative measurements. A key enabling insight is to connect the treatment of decision risks associated with measurement uncertainty to generalized linear modelling (GLM). Handling qualitative observations in this way unites information theory, the perceptive identification and choice paradigms of psychophysics. The Rasch invariant measure psychometric GLM approach in particular enables a proper treatment of ordinal data; a clear separation of probe and item attribute estimates; simple expressions for instrument sensitivity; etc. Examples include two aspects of the care of breast cancer patients, from diagnosis to rehabilitation. The Rasch approach leads in turn to opportunities of establishing metrological references for quality assurance of qualitative measurements. In psychometrics, one could imagine a certified reference for knowledge challenge, for example, a particular concept in understanding physics or for product quality of a certain health care service. Multivariate methods, such as Principal Component

  12. Curriculum-Based Measures of Writing for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diercks-Gransee, Barbara; Weissenburger, Jacalyn Wright; Johnson, Cindy L.; Christensen, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether technically adequate curriculum-based measures of writing could be identified for use with high school students. The participants included 10th-grade general and special education students from two public school districts in Wisconsin. Students (n = 82) completed two narrative writing samples in…

  13. Using Curriculum-Based Measurement To Monitor Kindergarteners' Mathematics Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine technical and instructional features of a kindergarten curriculum-based measurement (CBM) tool designed to track students' mathematics progress in terms of computational concepts, procedures, and counting strategies. Students in 10 kindergarten classrooms in three elementary schools completed alternate…

  14. Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Monitor Kindergarteners' Mathematics Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine technical and instructional features of a kindergarten curriculum-based measurement (CBM) tool designed to track students' mathematics progress in terms of computational concepts, procedures, and counting strategies. Students in 10 kindergarten classrooms in three elementary schools completed alternate…

  15. Effect of Instructions on Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon, Elayne Proesel; Kranzler, John H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of instructions of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) of reading on (a) the number of words read correctly and incorrectly per minute and (b) the relationship between CBM reading and reading achievement. Results indicated that the specific instructions used have a significant impact on CBM…

  16. Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Examine Summer Learning Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg Patton, Karen L.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Summer loss of reading is a potential factor in maintaining, and potentially widening, the achievement gap. This study used curriculum-based measurement of reading (R-CBM) to investigate the effect of the summer on reading. For this study, 317 students in Grades 2 to 5 were assessed in the spring and fall using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early…

  17. Classwide Decisionmaking with Computerized Curriculum-Based Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined computerized classwide applications of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) to improve teachers' math planning within large group instructional settings, using a mathematics operations curriculum in 10 sixth grade classes. Preliminary findings suggest CBM increases teachers' abilities to incorporate students with disabilities…

  18. 12 CFR 217.205 - VaR-based measure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements. The Board-regulated institution must update data sets at least monthly or more frequently as... year. Data used to determine the VaR-based measure must be relevant to the Board-regulated institution.... A Board-regulated institution using this option must update its data more frequently than...

  19. Assessing Children's Writing Products: The Role of Curriculum Based Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockrell, Julie E.; Connelly, Vincent; Walter, Kirsty; Critten, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of children's writing raises technical and practical challenges. In this paper we examine the potential use of a curriculum based measure for writing (CBM-W) to assess the written texts of pupils in Key Stage 2 (M age 107 months, range 88 to 125). Two hundred and thirty six Year three, five and six pupils completed a standardized…

  20. Filtering requirements for gradient-based optical flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Christmas, W J

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy of gradient-based optical flow algorithms depends on the ability to measure intensity gradients accurately. We show how the temporal gradient can be compromised by temporal aliasing arising from motion and how appropriate post-sampling spatial filtering improves the situation. We also demonstrate a benefit of using higher-order gradient estimators.

  1. Rotational invariant similarity measurement for content-based image indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Yong M.; Yoo, Kiwon

    2000-04-01

    We propose a similarity matching technique for contents based image retrieval. The proposed technique is invariant from rotated images. Since image contents for image indexing and retrieval would be arbitrarily extracted from still image or key frame of video, the rotation invariant property of feature description of image is important for general application of contents based image indexing and retrieval. In this paper, we propose a rotation invariant similarity measurement in cooperating with texture featuring base on HVS. To simplify computational complexity, we employed hierarchical similarity distance searching. To verify the method, experiments with MPEG-7 data set are performed.

  2. Measuring Model-Based High School Science Instruction: Development and Application of a Student Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Gavin W.; Liang, Ling L.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested a student survey to detect differences in instruction between teachers in a modeling-based science program and comparison group teachers. The Instructional Activities Survey measured teachers' frequency of modeling, inquiry, and lecture instruction. Factor analysis and Rasch modeling identified three subscales, Modeling and…

  3. REPRODUCIBILITY OF INTRA-ABDOMINAL PRESSURE MEASURED DURING PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES VIA A WIRELESS VAGINAL TRANSDUCER

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Marlene J.; Hamad, Nadia M.; Hitchcock, Robert W.; Coleman, Tanner J.; Shaw, Janet M.; Hsu, Yvonne; Nygaard, Ingrid E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims In the urodynamics laboratory setting, a wireless pressure transducer, developed to facilitate research exploring intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and pelvic floor disorders, was highly accurate. We aimed to study reproducibility of IAP measured using this transducer in women during activities performed in an exercise science laboratory. Methods Fifty seven women (mean ± SD: age 30.4 ±9.3 years; body mass index=22.4 ± 2.68 kg/m2) completed two standardized activity sessions using the same transducer at least three days apart. Pressure data for 31 activities were transmitted wirelessly to a base station and analyzed for mean net maximal IAP, area under the curve (AUC) and first moment of the area (FMA.) Activities included typical exercises, lifting 13.6 to 18.2 kg, and simulated household tasks. Analysis for test-retest reliability included Bland-Altman plots with absolute limits of agreement (ALOA), Wilcoxon signed rank tests to assess significant differences between sessions, intraclass correlations, and kappa statistics to assess inter-session agreement in highest vs. other quintiles of maximal IAP. Results Few activities exhibited significant differences between sessions in maximal IAP, or in AUC and FMA values. For 13 activities, the agreement between repeat measures of maximal IAP was better than ± 10 cm H20; for 20 activities, better than ± 15 cm H20. ALOA increased with mean IAP. The highest quintile of IAP demonstrated fair/substantial agreement between sessions in 25 of 30 activities. Conclusion Reproducibility of IAP depends on the activity undertaken. Interventions geared towards lowering IAP should account for this, and maximize efforts to improve IAP reproducibility. PMID:25730430

  4. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-02-18

    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  5. Accuracy of MRI-based Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russek, Stephen; Erdevig, Hannah; Keenan, Kathryn; Stupic, Karl

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map tissue susceptibility to identify microbleeds associated with brain injury and pathologic iron deposits associated with neurologic diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Field distortions with a resolution of a few parts per billion can be measured using MRI phase maps. The field distortion map can be inverted to obtain a quantitative susceptibility map. To determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements, a set of phantoms with paramagnetic salts and nano-iron gels were fabricated. The shapes and orientations of features were varied. Measured susceptibility of 1.0 mM GdCl3 solution in water as a function of temperature agreed well with the theoretical predictions, assuming Gd+3 is spin 7/2. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry. The paramagnetic susceptibility sits on top of the much larger diamagnetic susceptibility of water (-9.04 x 10-6), which leads to errors in the SQUID measurements. To extract out the paramagnetic contribution using standard magnetometry, measurements must be made down to low temperature (2K). MRI-based susceptometry is shown to be as or more accurate than standard magnetometry and susceptometry techniques.

  6. Simulation of a Novel Active Target for Neutron-Unbound State Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Nathan; MoNA Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Measurement of nuclei at extreme ratios of protons to neutrons is challenging due to the low production rate. New facilities will increase the production of neutron-rich isotopes, but still not reach the neutron dripline for heavier nuclei. We simulated a carbon-based active target system that could be constructed to both increase statistics while preserving the experimental resolution. This simulation is an adaptation of the in-house MoNA Collaboration C + + based simulation tool to extract the decay energy of neutron-unbound states. A number of experiments of this type have been carried out at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). In most experiments, we produce neutron-unbound nuclei by bombarding a Beryllium target with a radioactive beam. The nucleus of interest immediately decays into a charged particle and one or more neutrons. In this simulation, we have constructed a carbon-based active target that provides a measurement of energy loss, which is used to calculate the nuclear interaction point within the target. This additional information is used to improve the resolution or preserve the resolution of a thinner target while increasing statistics. This presentation will cover some aspects of the simulation process as well as show a resolution improvement of up to about 4 with a ~700 mg/cm2 active target compared to a Be-target. The simulation utilized experimental settings from published work. Work supported by National Science Foundation Grant #0969173.

  7. Reference instruments based on spectrometric measurement with Lucas Cells.

    PubMed

    Butterweck, G; Schmidt, V; Buchröder, H; Hugi, R; Hohmann, E; Foerster, E; Mayer, S

    2015-11-01

    The Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (Berlin, Germany) and the Paul Scherrer Institute (Villigen, Switzerland) both operate accredited calibration laboratories for radon gas activity concentration. Both the institutions use Lucas Cells as detector in their reference instrumentation due to the low dependence of this detector type on variations in environmental conditions. As a further measure to improve the quality of the reference activity concentration, a spectrometric method of data evaluation has been applied. The electric pulses from the photomultiplier tube coupled to the Lucas Cells are subjected to a pulse height analysis. The stored pulse height spectra are analysed retrospectively to compensate for fluctuations in the electric parameters of the instrumentation during a measurement. The reference instrumentation of both the laboratories is described with the respective spectrum evaluation procedures. The methods of obtaining traceability to the primary calibration laboratories of Germany and Switzerland and data of performance tests are presented. PMID:25948825

  8. A History of In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis in Measurement of Aluminum in Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Hedieh K; Chettle, David R

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum, as an abundant metal, has gained widespread use in human life, entering the body predominantly as an additive to various foods and drinking water. Other major sources of exposure to aluminum include medical, cosmetic, and occupational routes. As a common environmental toxin, with well-known roles in several medical conditions such as dialysis encephalopathy, aluminum is considered a potential candidate in the causality of Alzheimer's disease. Aluminum mostly accumulates in the bone, which makes bone an indicator of the body burden of aluminum and an ideal organ as a proxy for the brain. Most of the techniques developed for measuring aluminum include bone biopsy, which requires invasive measures, causing inconvenience for the patients. There has been a considerable effort in developing non-invasive approaches, which allow for monitoring aluminum levels for medical and occupational purposes in larger populations. In vivo neutron activation analysis, a method based on nuclear activation of isotopes of elements in the body and their subsequent detection, has proven to be an invaluable tool for this purpose. There are definite challenges in developing in vivo non-invasive techniques capable of detecting low levels of aluminum in healthy individuals and aluminum-exposed populations. The following review examines the method of in vivo neutron activation analysis in the context of aluminum measurement in humans focusing on different neutron sources, interference from other activation products, and the improvements made in minimum detectable limits and patient dose over the past few decades.

  9. A measurement-based performability model for a multiprocessor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilsueh, M. C.; Iyer, Ravi K.; Trivedi, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    A measurement-based performability model based on real error-data collected on a multiprocessor system is described. Model development from the raw errror-data to the estimation of cumulative reward is described. Both normal and failure behavior of the system are characterized. The measured data show that the holding times in key operational and failure states are not simple exponential and that semi-Markov process is necessary to model the system behavior. A reward function, based on the service rate and the error rate in each state, is then defined in order to estimate the performability of the system and to depict the cost of different failure types and recovery procedures.

  10. Measuring use of evidence based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Shiner, Brian; D'Avolio, Leonard W; Nguyen, Thien M; Zayed, Maha H; Young-Xu, Yinong; Desai, Rani A; Schnurr, Paula P; Fiore, Louis D; Watts, Bradley V

    2013-07-01

    To improve methods of estimating use of evidence-based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in the Veteran's health administration, we evaluated administrative data and note text for patients newly enrolling in six VHA outpatient PTSD clinics in New England during the 2010 fiscal year (n = 1,924). Using natural language processing, we developed machine learning algorithms that mimic human raters in classifying note text. We met our targets for algorithm performance as measured by precision, recall, and F-measure. We found that 6.3 % of our study population received at least one session of evidence-based psychotherapy during the initial 6 months of treatment. Evidence-based psychotherapies appear to be infrequently utilized in VHA outpatient PTSD clinics in New England. Our method could support efforts to improve use of these treatments. PMID:22535469

  11. Wheel pose measurement based on cross structure light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Ding, Xun; Wang, Xian; Zhao, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    It's necessary for automobile to detect and adjust four-wheel alignment parameters regularly, due to the significant effect on improving stability, enhancing security and reducing tire wear of automobiles. In order to measure the parameters that determined by relative position and posture of four wheels to the automobile cab, this paper proposes a method which applies monocular vision of linear structure light to wheel pose measurement. Firstly, space coordinates of feature point cloud are calculated out from the principle of structured light. Then, an algorithm is designed to determine the normal vector of wheel tangent plane and measure the wheel pose. Finally, actual experiments that by evaluation of adjusted wheel angle measurement are carried out to verify the system accuracy. The corresponding studies can be applied in designing and developing 3D four-wheel alignment system that based on structured light.

  12. Measurement-based method for verifying quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh; Caves, Carlton M.; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a measurement-based method for verifying quantum discord of any bipartite quantum system. We show that by performing an informationally complete positive operator valued measurement (IC-POVM) on one subsystem and checking the commutativity of the conditional states of the other subsystem, quantum discord from the second subsystem to the first can be verified. This is an improvement upon previous methods, which enables us to efficiently apply our method to continuous-variable systems, as IC-POVM's are readily available from homodyne or heterodyne measurements. We show that quantum discord for Gaussian states can be verified by checking whether the peaks of the conditional Wigner functions corresponding to two different outcomes of heterodyne measurement coincide at the same point in the phase space. Using this method, we also prove that the only Gaussian states with zero discord are product states; hence, Gaussian states with Gaussian discord have nonzero quantum discord.

  13. Estimation of base station position using timing advance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitoharju, Matti; Ali-Löytty, Simo; Wirola, Lauri

    2011-10-01

    Timing Advance is used in TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) systems, such as GSM and LTE, to synchronize the mobile phone to the cellular BS (Base Station). Mobile phone positioning can use TA measurements if BS positions are known, but in many cases BS positions are not in the public domain. In this work we study how to use a set of TA measurements taken by mobile phones at known positions to estimate the position of a BS. This paper describes two methods -- GMF (Gaussian Mixture Filter) and PMF (Point Mass Filter) for estimation of the BS position. Positioning performance is evaluated using simulated and real measurements. In suburban field tests, TA measurements suffice to determine BS position with an error comparable to the TA granularity (550m). GMF computes BS position much faster than PMF and is only slightly less accurate.

  14. Do Curriculum-Based Measures Predict Performance on Word-Problem-Solving Measures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisco-Taylor, Dennis; Fung, Wenson; Swanson, H. Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether curriculum-based measures (CBMs) of math word-problem contributed unique variance in predictions of performance on high-stakes tests, beyond the contribution of calculation and reading skills. CBMs were administered to a representative sample of 142 third-grade students at three time points. Results indicate that…

  15. A sensitive and facile assay for the measurement of activated protein C activity levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Orthner, C L; Kolen, B; Drohan, W N

    1993-05-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is a serine protease which plays an important role as a naturally occurring antithrombotic enzyme. APC, which is formed by thrombin-catalyzed limited proteolysis of the zymogen protein C, functions as an anticoagulant by proteolytic inactivation of the coagulation cofactors VIIIa and Va: APC is inhibited by several members of the serpin family as well a by alpha 2-macroglobulin. APC is being developed as a therapeutic for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. We have developed an assay to quantify circulating levels of enzymatically active APC during its administration to patients, in healthy individuals, and in various disease states. This assay utilizes an EDTA-dependent anti-protein C monoclonal antibody (Mab) 7D7B10 to capture both APC and protein C from plasma, prepared from blood collected in an anticoagulant supplemented with the reversible inhibitor p-aminobenzamidine. Mab 7D7B10-derivatized agarose beads are added to the wells of a 96-well filtration plate, equilibrated with Tris-buffered saline, and incubated for 10 min with 200 microliters of plasma. After washing, APC and protein C are eluted from the immunosorbent beads with a calcium-containing buffer into the wells of a 96-well microtiter plate containing antithrombin III (ATIII) and heparin. The amidolytic activity of APC is then measured on a kinetic plate reader following the addition of L-pyroglutamyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (S-2366) substrate. The rate of substrate hydrolysis was proportional to APC concentration over a 200-fold concentration range (5.0 to 1,000 ng/ml) when measured continuously over a 15 to 30 min time period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. MRI Based Diagnostics for Temperature Measurements in Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Lauren Sascha; Elkins, Christopher J.; Eaton, John K.

    2014-11-01

    Accurate modeling of the thermal diffusion in the complex turbulent flows related to cooling high temperature gas turbine blades is critical to optimize the performance and predict the lifetime of the blades. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques for temperature measurement in simple but related flows are being developed in an effort to obtain full field thermal measurements to better understand diffusion processes and support the development of more accurate computational models in these flows. Magnetic Resonance Thermometry (MRT) utilizes the temperature dependence of the hydrogen proton resonant frequency (PRF) in water. MRT is now routinely used to measure tissue temperatures during medical procedures, and a few previous studies have made velocity and temperature measurements in turbulent pipe flows. In this study, MRT is applied to the flow of a heated single hole film cooling jet (Reynolds number 3000) inclined at 30 degrees injected into a cold developing turbulent channel flow (Reynolds number 25,000 based on bulk velocity and channel height.) The jet fluid temperature is 30 degrees Celsius above the temperature in the channel. The temperature measurements compare well to previously published results for measured passive scalar concentration in the same flow although the temperature measurements show higher uncertainties of 5--10 % of the temperature difference. Techniques for reducing this uncertainty will be presented as well as procedures for applying MRT to quantify the turbulent heat transfer coefficient in turbulent internal flows.

  17. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1996-01-01

    Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

  18. Carbon-dioxide flow measurement in geodynamically active area of West Bohemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlcek, Josef; Fischer, Tomas; Heinicke, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Geodynamically active area of West Bohemia is interesting not only due to its earthquake swarms occurrence but also due to degassing flux of magmatic origin occurring in natural moffettes and mineral springs. While monitoring of earthquakes is done by a standard local seismic network, monitoring of amount of CO2 is at its initial stage. Despite lack of data, the 2014 earthquake swarm showed also very interesting increase in CO2 flow. This correlation with seismicity motivated us to develop robust and reliable methods of CO2 flow measurement, which would be sufficient to create denser monitoring network. Standard usage of gas-flowmeter for the purpose of gas flow measurement is dependent on the weather and device conditions, which makes the measurement instable in time and unreliable. Although gas-flowmeter is also accompanied with measurement of the gas pressure in the well to check flow rate value, reliability of this method is still low. This problematic behavior of the flow measurement was the reason to test new methods to measure CO2 amount - the first is based on measuring the density water with bubbles in the well by differential pressure gauge. The second one utilizes electric conductivity measurement to determine the density of bubbles in the water-gas mixture. Advantage of these methods is that their probes are directly in the well or moffette, where the concentration is measured. This approach is free of the influence of moving parts and assures the independence of measurements of environmental conditions. In this paper we show examples of obtained data series from selected sites and compare the trend of the curves, the mutual relations of the measured quantities and the influence of environmental conditions.

  19. Fluorometric microplate assay to measure glutathione S-transferase activity in insects and mites using monochlorobimane.

    PubMed

    Nauen, Ralf; Stumpf, Natascha

    2002-04-15

    Elevated levels of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a major role as a mechanism of resistance to insecticides and acaricides in resistant pest insects and mites, respectively. Such compounds are either detoxicated directly via phase I metabolism or detoxicated by phase II metabolism of metabolites as formed by microsomal monooxygenases. Here we used monochlorobimane (MCB) as an artificial substrate and glutathione to determine total GST activity in equivalents of single pest insects and spider mites in a sensitive 96-well plate-based assay system by measuring the enzymatic conversion of MCB to its fluorescent bimane-glutathione adduct. The differentiation by their GST activity between several strains of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), with different degrees of resistance to numerous acaricides was more sensitive with MCB compared to the commonly used substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). Compared to an acaricide-susceptible reference strain, one field population of T. urticae showed a more than 10-fold higher GST activity measured with MCB, in contrast to a less than 2-fold higher activity when CDNB was used. Furthermore, we showed that GST activity can be sensitively assessed with MCB in homogenates of pest insects such as Heliothis virescens, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). PMID:11950219

  20. PO-CALC: a novel tool to correct common inconsistencies in the measurement of phenoloxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Kohlmeier, Philip; Dreyer, Heiko; Meunier, Joël

    2015-04-01

    A broad range of physiological and evolutionarily studies requires standard and robust methods to assess the strength and activity of an individual's immune defense. In insects, this goal is generally reached by spectrophotometrically measuring (pro-) phenoloxidase activity, an enzymatic and non-specific process activated after wounding and parasite infections. However, the literature surprisingly lacks a standard method to calculate these values from spectrophotometer data and thus to be able to compare results across studies. In this study, we demonstrated that nine methods commonly used to extract phenoloxidase activities (1) provide inconsistent results when tested on the same data sets, at least partly due to their specific sensitivity to the noise regularly present in enzymatic reaction curves. To circumvent this issue, we then (2) developed a novel, free and simple R-based program called PO-CALC and (3) demonstrated the robustness of its calculations for the different types of noises. Overall, we show that PO-CALC corrects overlooked though important inconsistencies in the measurement of phenoloxidase activities, and claim that its broad use would increase the significance and general validity of studies on invertebrate immunity. PMID:25783957

  1. A Ten Year Record of Space Based Lightning Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Hardin, D. M.; Goodman, M.; Blakeslee, R.; Graves, S.; Jones, S.; Harrison, S.; Drewry, M.; Nair, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) is a space based instrument used to detect the distribution and variability of total lightning (cloud-to-cloud, intracloud, and cloud-to-ground lightning) that occurs in the tropical regions of the globe. LIS was launched in November 1997 aboard NASA’s Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The LIS sensor contains a staring imager which is optimized to locate and detect lightning with storm-scale resolution of 3-6 km (3 at nadir, 6 at limb) over a large region (550-550 km) of the Earth's surface. The field of view (FOV) is sufficient to observe a point on the Earth or a cloud for 80 seconds, adequate to estimate the flashing rate of many storms. The instrument records the time of occurrence of a lightning event, measures the radiant energy, and estimates the location. The excellent performance of LIS has lead to numerous scientific discoveries such as: The global lightning flash rate is on the order of 40 flashes per second as compared to the commonly accepted value of 100, an estimate that dates back to 1925. Seventy percent of all lightning activity occurs in the tropics, with the global distribution dominated by the summertime lightning activity over the N. Hemisphere land masses. A new understanding on the interplay among the intensification of updraft, lightning bursts, and the onset of severe weather lead to establishment of a validation campaign that further explored relationships between lightning and severe weather. Findings to date indicate that high flash rate storms have a high probability of becoming severe. A ten year global lightning data archive has been developed from the Lightning Imaging Sensor. This archive is maintained at the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) in Huntsville Alabama, one of NASA’s Earth science data centers, managed by the Information Technology and Systems Center of UAHuntsville. This is the most comprehensive global lightning data archive ever produced and is noteworthy for its

  2. Improved Fission Neutron Data Base for Active Interrogation of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, Sara; Czirr, J. Bart; Haight, Robert; Kovash, Michael; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2013-11-06

    This project will develop an innovative neutron detection system for active interrogation measurements. Many active interrogation methods to detect fissionable material are based on the detection of neutrons from fission induced by fast neutrons or high-energy gamma rays. The energy spectrum of the fission neutrons provides data to identify the fissionable isotopes and materials such as shielding between the fissionable material and the detector. The proposed path for the project is as follows. First, the team will develop new neutron detection systems and algorithms by Monte Carlo simulations and bench-top experiments. Next, They will characterize and calibrate detection systems both with monoenergetic and white neutron sources. Finally, high-fidelity measurements of neutron emission from fissions induced by fast neutrons will be performed. Several existing fission chambers containing U-235, Pu-239, U-238, or Th-232 will be used to measure the neutron-induced fission neutron emission spectra. The challenge for making confident measurements is the detection of neutrons in the energy ranges of 0.01 – 1 MeV and above 8 MeV, regions where the basic data on the neutron energy spectrum emitted from fission is least well known. In addition, improvements in the specificity of neutron detectors are required throughout the complete energy range: they must be able to clearly distinguish neutrons from other radiations, in particular gamma rays and cosmic rays. The team believes that all of these challenges can be addressed successfully with emerging technologies under development by this collaboration. In particular, the collaboration will address the area of fission neutron emission spectra for isotopes of interest in the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI).

  3. Measurement of chemical activities of rare earths (RE: Ce, Pr, Sm and Eu) in cadmium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sajal; Ganesan, Rajesh; Sridharan, R.; Gnanasekaran, T.

    2015-12-01

    Activity of rare earth (RE) elements, Ce, Pr, Sm and Eu is measured in each of the cadmium rich binary alloys of RE, by making use of a molten salt based electrochemical cell. The binary alloy consists of a mixture of cadmium rich intermetallic compound and a liquid phase of known composition. Four independent cells are constructed; one for each of the rare earth elements and electromotive force (EMF) is measured as a function of temperature for each cell, respectively. Partial molar Gibbs energy of these rare earth metals in liquid cadmium is derived from the EMF output over a temperature range. Gibbs energy of formation of CeCd11, PrCd11, SmCd6 and EuCd11 are deduced from the measured EMF values and the reported literature data on the solubility of rare earth elements in liquid cadmium.

  4. Novel active comb-shaped dry electrode for EEG measurement in hairy site.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Jun; Wu, Chung-Yu; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important biopotential, and has been widely applied in clinical applications. The conventional EEG electrode with conductive gels is usually used for measuring EEG. However, the use of conductive gel also encounters with the issue of drying and hardening. Recently, many dry EEG electrodes based on different conductive materials and techniques were proposed to solve the previous issue. However, measuring EEG in the hairy site is still a difficult challenge. In this study, a novel active comb-shaped dry electrode was proposed to measure EEG in hairy site. Different form other comb-shaped or spike-shaped dry electrodes, it can provide more excellent performance of avoiding the signal attenuation, phase distortion, and the reduction of common mode rejection ratio. Even under walking motion, it can effectively acquire EEG in hairy site. Finally, the experiments for alpha rhythm and steady-state visually evoked potential were also tested to validate the proposed electrode.

  5. The correction of vibration in frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system for dynamic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Absolute distance measurement systems are of significant interest in the field of metrology, which could improve the manufacturing efficiency and accuracy of large assemblies in fields such as aircraft construction, automotive engineering, and the production of modern windmill blades. Frequency scanning interferometry demonstrates noticeable advantages as an absolute distance measurement system which has a high precision and doesn't depend on a cooperative target. In this paper , the influence of inevitable vibration in the frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system is analyzed. The distance spectrum is broadened as the existence of Doppler effect caused by vibration, which will bring in a measurement error more than 103 times bigger than the changes of optical path difference. In order to decrease the influence of vibration, the changes of the optical path difference are monitored by a frequency stabilized laser, which runs parallel to the frequency scanning interferometry. The experiment has verified the effectiveness of this method.

  6. Link-Based Similarity Measures Using Reachability Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seok-Ho; Kim, Ji-Soo; Ryu, Minsoo; Choi, Ho-Jin

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach for computing link-based similarities among objects accurately by utilizing the link information pertaining to the objects involved. We discuss the problems with previous link-based similarity measures and propose a novel approach for computing link based similarities that does not suffer from these problems. In the proposed approach each target object is represented by a vector. Each element of the vector corresponds to all the objects in the given data, and the value of each element denotes the weight for the corresponding object. As for this weight value, we propose to utilize the probability of reaching from the target object to the specific object, computed using the “Random Walk with Restart” strategy. Then, we define the similarity between two objects as the cosine similarity of the two vectors. In this paper, we provide examples to show that our approach does not suffer from the aforementioned problems. We also evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in comparison with existing link-based measures, qualitatively and quantitatively, with respect to two kinds of data sets, scientific papers and Web documents. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed methods significantly outperform the existing measures. PMID:24701188

  7. Radioactivity of Potassium Solutions: A Comparison of Calculated Activity to Measured Activity from Gross Beta Counting and Gamma Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, R F

    2005-07-26

    In order to determine if the measured beta activity for a solution containing potassium was exactly as predicted, particularly since the CES gas counter is not calibrated specifically with K-40, an experiment was conducted to compare measured activities from two radioanalytical methods (gamma spectroscopy and gas proportional counting) to calculated activities across a range of potassium concentrations. Potassium, being ubiquitous and naturally radioactive, is a well-known and common interference in gross beta counting methods. By measuring the observed beta activity due to K-40 in potassium-containing solutions across a wide range of concentrations, it was found that the observed beta activity agrees well with the beta activity calculated from the potassium concentration measured by standard inorganic analytical techniques, such as ICP-OES, and that using the measured potassium concentration to calculate the expected beta activity, and comparing this to the observed beta activity to determine if potassium can account for all the observed activity in a sample, is a valid technique. It was also observed that gamma spectroscopy is not an effective means of measuring K-40 activity below approximately 700 pCi/L, which corresponds to a solution with approximately 833 mg/L total potassium. Gas proportional counting for gross beta activity has a much lower detection limit, typically 20-50 picoCi/L for a liquid low in total dissolved solids, which corresponds to a potassium concentration of approximately 30-70 ppm K.

  8. Retrospective assessment of indoor radon exposure by measurements of embedded 210Po activity in glass objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramola, R. C.; Gusain, G. S.; Prasad, Ganesh

    In most of the epidemiological studies contemporary radon measurements have been used as surrogates for radon concentrations in past decades even though changes in radon levels and residence may have occurred. Short-lived radon progeny may deposit on available surfaces in dwellings thus giving rise over time to a build up of long-lived progeny. Airborne radon decay products can be deposited and implanted through alpha recoil into the glass surfaces. On glass surface, activities of 210Po may arise as a result of the decay of recoil implanted activity following the alpha decay of surface deposited 218Po or 214Po. Measurement of 210Po implanted on a household glass is a method that can be employed to retrospectively determine the historic level of radon in dwellings. This method is based on the assumption that levels of recoil implanted 210Po in the glass provide a measure of time integrated radon concentration in the environment in which the glass has been located. The surface deposited activity of the radon progenies, which then become implanted in the glass by alpha recoil, is believed to reflect past exposure to airborne activity. Such retrospective measurements on glass are valuable in estimating the human dose derived from radon during the time of exposure. In this paper an account is given of the principles and some field applications of a retrospective technique, using the alpha track detectors, CR-39 and LR-115, to measure 210Po implanted in glass surfaces (surface traps). By using this CR-LR difference technique, the cumulative radon exposure in a dwelling in past decades may be estimated. This method provides reliable radon exposure data as a support to epidemiological studies concerning the health effects of radon exposure in the living environment.

  9. Real cell overlay measurement through design based metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Lee, Taehyeong; Ji, Sunkeun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun

    2014-04-01

    Until recent device nodes, lithography has been struggling to improve its resolution limit. Even though next generation lithography technology is now facing various difficulties, several innovative resolution enhancement technologies, based on 193nm wavelength, were introduced and implemented to keep the trend of device scaling. Scanner makers keep developing state-of-the-art exposure system which guarantees higher productivity and meets a more aggressive overlay specification. "The scaling reduction of the overlay error has been a simple matter of the capability of exposure tools. However, it is clear that the scanner contributions may no longer be the majority component in total overlay performance. The ability to control correctable overlay components is paramount to achieve the desired performance.(2)" In a manufacturing fab, the overlay error, determined by a conventional overlay measurement: by using an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO, often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area of a memory device. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion, caused by etching or CMP, also can be a source of the mismatch. Therefore, the requirement of a direct overlay measurement in the cell pattern gradually increases in the manufacturing field, and also in the development level. In order to overcome the mismatch between conventional overlay measurement and the real placement error of layer to layer in the cell area of a memory device, we suggest an alternative overlay measurement method utilizing by design, based metrology tool. A basic concept of this method is shown in figure1. A CD-SEM measurement of the overlay error between layer 1 and 2 could be the ideal method but it takes too long time to extract a lot of data from wafer level. An E-beam based DBM tool provides high speed to cover the whole wafer with high repeatability. It is enabled by using the design as a

  10. Experimental realization of generalized qubit measurements based on quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuan-yuan; Yu, Neng-kun; Kurzyński, Paweł; Xiang, Guo-yong; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-04-01

    We report an experimental implementation of a single-qubit generalized measurement scenario, the positive-operator valued measure (POVM), based on a quantum walk model. The qubit is encoded in a single-photon polarization. The photon performs a quantum walk on an array of optical elements, where the polarization-dependent translation is performed via birefringent beam displacers and a change of the polarization is implemented with the help of wave plates. We implement: (i) trine POVM, i.e., the POVM elements uniformly distributed on an equatorial plane of the Bloch sphere; (ii) symmetric-informationally-complete (SIC) POVM; and (iii) unambiguous discrimination of two nonorthogonal qubit states.

  11. Measuring Incoherence in Description Logic-Based Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guilin; Hunter, Anthony

    Ontologies play a core role in the success of the Semantic Web as they provide a shared vocabulary for different resources and applications. Developing an error-free ontology is a difficult task. A common kind of error for an ontology is logical contradiction or incoherence. In this paper, we propose some approaches to measuring incoherence in DL-based ontologies. These measures give an ontology engineer important information for maintaining and evaluating ontologies. We implement the proposed approaches using the KAON2 reasoner and provide some preliminary but encouraging empirical results.

  12. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber-Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In earlier work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  13. Defining and Computing a Value Based Cyber-Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In past work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities\\; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  14. Spatially resolved concentration measurements based on backscatter absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ze; Sanders, Scott T.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of spatially resolved measurements of gas properties using direct absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with backscattered signals. We report a 1-D distribution of H2O mole fraction with a spatial resolution of 5 mm. The peak and average discrepancy between the measured and expected mole fraction are 21.1 and 8.0 %, respectively. The demonstration experiment is related to a diesel aftertreatment system; a selective catalytic reduction brick made of cordierite is used. The brick causes volume scattering interference; advanced baseline fitting based on a genetic algorithm is used to reduce the effects of this interference by a factor of 2.3.

  15. An ABS control logic based on wheel force measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, D.; Galvagno, E.; Ondrak, V.; van Leeuwen, B.; Vigliani, A.

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents an anti-lock braking system (ABS) control logic based on the measurement of the longitudinal forces at the hub bearings. The availability of force information allows to design a logic that does not rely on the estimation of the tyre-road friction coefficient, since it continuously tries to exploit the maximum longitudinal tyre force. The logic is designed by means of computer simulation and then tested on a specific hardware in the loop test bench: the experimental results confirm that measured wheel force can lead to a significant improvement of the ABS performances in terms of stopping distance also in the presence of road with variable friction coefficient.

  16. Fiber optic displacement measurement model based on finite reflective surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuhe; Guan, Kaisen; Hu, Zhaohui

    2016-10-01

    We present a fiber optic displacement measurement model based on finite reflective plate. The theoretical model was derived, and simulation analysis of light intensity distribution, reflective plate width, and the distance between fiber probe and reflective plate were conducted in details. The three dimensional received light intensity distribution and the characteristic curve of light intensity were studied as functions of displacement of finite reflective plate. Experiments were carried out to verify the established model. The physical fundamentals and the effect of operating parameters on measuring system performance were revealed in the end.

  17. Optical sensor based system to monitor caries activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A.; Tahir, R.; Kishen, A.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the ability of a visible light based spectroscopic sensor system to monitor caries activity in saliva. In this study an optical sensor is utilized to monitor the bacterial-mediated acidogenic profile of stimulated saliva using a photosensitive pH indicator. Microbiological assessment of the saliva samples were carried out using the conventional culture methods. In addition, the shifts in the pH of saliva-sucrose samples were recorded using a pH meter. The absorption spectra obtained from the optical sensor showed peak maxima at 595nm, which decreased as a function of time. The microbiological assessment showed increase in the bacterial count as a function of time. A strong positive correlation was also observed between the rates of decrease in the absorption intensity measured using the optical sensor and the decrease in pH measured using the pH meter. This study highlights the potential advantages of using the optical sensor as a sensitive and rapid chairside system for monitoring caries activity by quantification of the acidogenic profile of saliva.

  18. A Web-Based Curriculum-Based Measurement System for Class-Wide Ongoing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuei, M. -P.

    2008-01-01

    Internet technology has offered opportunities to develop ongoing assessment systems for classroom-based evaluation--on a daily basis. In this study, the researcher developed a web-based, curriculum-based measurement system with dynamic features which could generate different types of mathematics probes, track students' progress and provide…

  19. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the

  20. Active Inquiry, Web-based Oceanography Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckels-Martin, Ellen E.; Howell, Paul D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses using web sites to develop active inquiry lessons that mimic some of the tasks and thought processes scientists use everyday. The exercises available at the web sites are designed to develop science process skills and convey basic course content. Exercises stress the interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. (Author/SAH)