Science.gov

Sample records for activity measurements based

  1. Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kari, Jaana T.; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T.; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity. PMID:26317865

  2. Unobtrusive measurement of indoor energy expenditure using an infrared sensor-based activity monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bosun; Han, Jonghee; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an unobtrusive energy expenditure (EE) measurement system using an infrared (IR) sensor-based activity monitoring system to measure indoor activities and to estimate individual quantitative EE. IR-sensor activation counts were measured with a Bluetooth-based monitoring system and the standard EE was calculated using an established regression equation. Ten male subjects participated in the experiment and three different EE measurement systems (gas analyzer, accelerometer, IR sensor) were used simultaneously in order to determine the regression equation and evaluate the performance. As a standard measurement, oxygen consumption was simultaneously measured by a portable metabolic system (Metamax 3X, Cortex, Germany). A single room experiment was performed to develop a regression model of the standard EE measurement from the proposed IR sensor-based measurement system. In addition, correlation and regression analyses were done to compare the performance of the IR system with that of the Actigraph system. We determined that our proposed IR-based EE measurement system shows a similar correlation to the Actigraph system with the standard measurement system. PMID:19035796

  3. Measurement of the activity of an artificial neutrino source based on {sup 37}Ar

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, D. N.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Mirmov, I. N. Shikhin, A. A.; Yants, V. E.; Barsanov, V. I.; Dzhanelidze, A. A.; Zlokazov, S. B.; Markov, S. Yu.; Shakirov, Z. N.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2007-02-15

    The activity of an artificial neutrino source based on {sup 37}Ar was measured by a specially developed method of directly counting {sup 37}Ar decays in a proportional counter. This source was used to irradiate the target of the SAGE radiochemical gallium-germanium neutrino telescope at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow), whereupon the measurements were performed at the Institute of Reactor Materials (Zarechny, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia). The method used to prepare gaseous samples for measurements in proportional counters and the counting procedure are described. The measured activity of the {sup 37}Ar neutrino source is 405.1 {+-} 3.7 kCi (corrected for decays that occurred within the period between the instant of activity measurement and the commencement of the irradiation of Ga target at 04:00 Moscow time, 30.04.2004)

  4. An activity-based probe for high-throughput measurements of triacylglycerol lipases.

    PubMed

    Tam, John; Henault, Martin; Li, Lianhai; Wang, Zhaoyin; Partridge, Anthony W; Melnyk, Roman A

    2011-07-15

    Modulating the activity of lipases involved in the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins is an attractive approach for developing lipid raising/lowering therapies to treat cardiovascular disease. Identifying small molecule inhibitors for these membrane-active enzymes, however, is complicated by difficulties associated with measuring lipase activity and inhibition at the water-membrane interface; substrate and compound dynamics at the particle interface have the potential to confound data interpretation. Here, we describe a novel ELISA-based lipase activity assay that employs as "bait" a biotinylated active-site probe that irreversibly binds to the catalytic active-site serine of members of the triacylglycerol lipase family (hepatic lipase, lipoprotein lipase, and endothelial lipase) in solution with high affinity. Detection of "captured" (probe-enzyme) complexes on streptavidin-coated plates using labeled secondary antibodies to specific primary antibodies offers several advantages over conventional assays, including the ability to eliminate enzyme-particle and compound-particle effects; specifically measure lipase activity in complex mixtures in vitro; preferentially identify active-site-directed inhibitors; and distinguish between reversible and irreversible inhibitors through a simple assay modification. Using EL as an exemplar, we demonstrate the versatility of this assay both for high-throughput screening and for compound mechanism-of-action studies. PMID:21397586

  5. Measurement of polyphenol oxidase activity using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Woo-Yeon

    2015-02-15

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an important quality index during food processing involving heat-treatment and sensitive determination of PPO activity has been a critical concern in the food industry. In this study, a new measurement of PPO activity exploiting an optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor is presented using a polyclonal anti-PPO antibody that was immobilized in situ to the surface of a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-treated optical grating coupler activated with glutaraldehyde. When analysed with a purified PPO fraction from potato tubers, a linear relationship was found between PPO activities of 0.0005607-560.7U/mL and the sensor responses obtained. The sensor was applicable to measurement of PPO activity in real samples that were prepared from potato tubers, grapes and Kimchi cabbage, and the analytical results were compared with those obtained by a conventional colorimetric assay measuring PPO activity. When tested for long-term stability, the sensor was reusable up to 10th day after preparation. PMID:25236218

  6. Performance Evaluation of RTLS Based on Active RFID Power Measurement for Dense Moving Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyu; Lee, Jin; Lee, Seungbeom; Park, Sin-Chong

    Tracking a large quantity of moving target tags simultaneously is essential for the localization and guidance of people in welfare facilities like hospitals and sanatoriums for the aged. The locating system using active RFID technology consists of a number of fixed RFID readers and tags carried by the target objects, or senior people. We compare the performances of several determination algorithms which use the power measurement of received signals emitted by the moving active RFID tags. This letter presents a study on the effect of collision in tracking large quantities of objects based on active RFID real time location system (RTLS). Traditional trilateration, fingerprinting, and well-known LANDMARC algorithm are evaluated and compared with varying number of moving tags through the SystemC-based computer simulation. From the simulation, we show the tradeoff relationship between the number of moving tags and estimation accuracy.

  7. An Analysis Technique for Active Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Based on First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G; Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William S; Peerani, Paolo

    2012-08-13

    Passive neutron multiplicity counting is commonly used to quantify the total mass of plutonium in a sample, without prior knowledge of the sample geometry. However, passive neutron counting is less applicable to uranium measurements due to the low spontaneous fission rates of uranium. Active neutron multiplicity measurements are therefore used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in a sample. Unfortunately, there are still additional challenges to overcome for uranium measurements, such as the coupling of the active source and the uranium sample. Techniques, such as the coupling method, have been developed to help reduce the dependence of calibration curves for active measurements on uranium samples; although, they still require similar geometry known standards. An advanced active neutron multiplicity measurement method is being developed by Texas A&M University, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in an attempt to overcome the calibration curve requirements. This method can be used to quantify the {sup 235}U mass in a sample containing uranium without using calibration curves. Furthermore, this method is based on existing detectors and nondestructive assay (NDA) systems, such as the LANL Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). This method uses an inexpensive boron carbide liner to shield the uranium sample from thermal and epithermal neutrons while allowing fast neutrons to reach the sample. Due to the relatively low and constant fission and absorption energy dependent cross-sections at high neutron energies for uranium isotopes, fast neutrons can penetrate the sample without significant attenuation. Fast neutron interrogation therefore creates a homogeneous fission rate in the sample, allowing for first principle methods to be used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in the sample. This paper discusses the measurement method concept and development, including measurements and simulations performed to date, as well as the potential

  8. A Cell-Based Assay for Measuring Endogenous BcrAbl Kinase Activity and Inhibitor Resistance.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Steven B; Noel, Brett M; Parker, Laurie L

    2016-01-01

    Kinase enzymes are an important class of drug targets, particularly in cancer. Cell-based kinase assays are needed to understand how potential kinase inhibitors act on their targets in a physiologically relevant context. Current cell-based kinase assays rely on antibody-based detection of endogenous substrates, inaccurate disease models, or indirect measurements of drug action. Here we expand on previous work from our lab to introduce a 96-well plate compatible approach for measuring cell-based kinase activity in disease-relevant human chronic myeloid leukemia cell lines using an exogenously added, multi-functional peptide substrate. Our cellular models natively express the BcrAbl oncogene and are either sensitive or have acquired resistance to well-characterized BcrAbl tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This approach measures IC50 values comparable to established methods of assessing drug potency, and its robustness indicates that it can be employed in drug discovery applications. This medium-throughput assay could bridge the gap between single target focused, high-throughput in vitro assays and lower-throughput cell-based follow-up experiments. PMID:27598410

  9. Silica exposure during construction activities: statistical modeling of task-based measurements from the literature.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Jean-François; Beaudry, Charles; Bégin, Denis; Dion, Chantal; Gérin, Michel; Lavoué, Jérôme

    2013-05-01

    Many construction activities can put workers at risk of breathing silica containing dusts, and there is an important body of literature documenting exposure levels using a task-based strategy. In this study, statistical modeling was used to analyze a data set containing 1466 task-based, personal respirable crystalline silica (RCS) measurements gathered from 46 sources to estimate exposure levels during construction tasks and the effects of determinants of exposure. Monte-Carlo simulation was used to recreate individual exposures from summary parameters, and the statistical modeling involved multimodel inference with Tobit models containing combinations of the following exposure variables: sampling year, sampling duration, construction sector, project type, workspace, ventilation, and controls. Exposure levels by task were predicted based on the median reported duration by activity, the year 1998, absence of source control methods, and an equal distribution of the other determinants of exposure. The model containing all the variables explained 60% of the variability and was identified as the best approximating model. Of the 27 tasks contained in the data set, abrasive blasting, masonry chipping, scabbling concrete, tuck pointing, and tunnel boring had estimated geometric means above 0.1mg m(-3) based on the exposure scenario developed. Water-fed tools and local exhaust ventilation were associated with a reduction of 71 and 69% in exposure levels compared with no controls, respectively. The predictive model developed can be used to estimate RCS concentrations for many construction activities in a wide range of circumstances. PMID:23223272

  10. Active and passive compensation of APPLE II-introduced multipole errors through beam-based measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Ting-Yi; Huang, Szu-Jung; Fu, Huang-Wen; Chang, Ho-Ping; Chang, Cheng-Hsiang; Hwang, Ching-Shiang

    2016-08-01

    The effect of an APPLE II-type elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) on the beam dynamics were investigated using active and passive methods. To reduce the tune shift and improve the injection efficiency, dynamic multipole errors were compensated using L-shaped iron shims, which resulted in stable top-up operation for a minimum gap. The skew quadrupole error was compensated using a multipole corrector, which was located downstream of the EPU for minimizing betatron coupling, and it ensured the enhancement of the synchrotron radiation brightness. The investigation methods, a numerical simulation algorithm, a multipole error correction method, and the beam-based measurement results are discussed.

  11. Measurement of filter paper activities of cellulase with microplate-based assay

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yan; Cui, Yuxiao; Cheng, Qiyue; Zhang, Zaixiao; Lu, Jia Hui; Meng, Qingfan; Teng, Lirong; Ren, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    It is always a challenge to determine the total cellulase activity efficiently without reducing accuracy. The most common total cellulase activity assay is the filter paper assay (FPA) established by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). A new procedure to measure the FPA with microplate-based assay was studied in this work, which followed the main idea of IUPAC to dilute cellulase preparation to get fixed glucose release. FPAs of six cellulase preparations were determined with the microplate-based assay. It is shown that FPAs of cellulase Youtell, RCconc, R-10, Lerkam, Yishui and Sinopharm were 67.9, 46.0, 46.1, 27.4, 7.6 and 8.0 IU/ml respectively. There was no significant difference at the 95% confidence level between the FPA determined with IUPAC and the microplate-based assay. It could be concluded that the FPA could be determined by the microplate-based assay with the same accuracy and much more efficiency compared with that by IUPAC. PMID:26858572

  12. Measurement of filter paper activities of cellulase with microplate-based assay.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yan; Cui, Yuxiao; Cheng, Qiyue; Zhang, Zaixiao; Lu, Jia Hui; Meng, Qingfan; Teng, Lirong; Ren, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    It is always a challenge to determine the total cellulase activity efficiently without reducing accuracy. The most common total cellulase activity assay is the filter paper assay (FPA) established by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). A new procedure to measure the FPA with microplate-based assay was studied in this work, which followed the main idea of IUPAC to dilute cellulase preparation to get fixed glucose release. FPAs of six cellulase preparations were determined with the microplate-based assay. It is shown that FPAs of cellulase Youtell, RCconc, R-10, Lerkam, Yishui and Sinopharm were 67.9, 46.0, 46.1, 27.4, 7.6 and 8.0 IU/ml respectively. There was no significant difference at the 95% confidence level between the FPA determined with IUPAC and the microplate-based assay. It could be concluded that the FPA could be determined by the microplate-based assay with the same accuracy and much more efficiency compared with that by IUPAC. PMID:26858572

  13. Measuring the activity of a 51Cr neutrino source based on the gamma-radiation spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, V. V.; Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    A technique for the measurement of activities of intense β sources by measuring the continuous gamma-radiation (internal bremsstrahlung) spectra is developed. A method for reconstructing the spectrum recorded by a germanium semiconductor detector is described. A method for the absolute measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of 51Cr is presented.

  14. Online educative activities for solar ultraviolet radiation based on measurements of cloud amount and solar exposures.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J; Amar, A

    2016-09-01

    A set of online activities for children and the community that are based on an integrated real-time solar UV and cloud measurement system are described. These activities use the functionality of the internet to provide an educative tool for school children and the public on the influence of cloud and the angle of the sun above the horizon on the global erythemal UV or sunburning UV, the diffuse erythemal UV, the global UVA (320-400nm) and the vitamin D effective UV. Additionally, the units of UV exposure and UV irradiance are investigated, along with the meaning and calculation of the UV index (UVI). This research will help ensure that children and the general public are better informed about sun safety by improving their personal understanding of the daily and the atmospheric factors that influence solar UV radiation and the solar UV exposures of the various wavebands in the natural environment. The activities may correct common misconceptions of children and the public about UV irradiances and exposure, utilising the widespread reach of the internet to increase the public's awareness of the factors influencing UV irradiances and exposures in order to provide clear information for minimizing UV exposure, while maintaining healthy, outdoor lifestyles. PMID:27450297

  15. Overview of a FPGA-based nuclear instrumentation dedicated to primary activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Bobin, C; Bouchard, J; Pierre, S; Thiam, C

    2012-09-01

    In National Metrology Institutes like LNE-LNHB, renewal and improvement of the instrumentation is an important task. Nowadays, the current trend is to adopt digital boards, which present numerous advantages over the standard electronics. The feasibility of an on-line fulfillment of nuclear-instrumentation functionalities using a commercial FPGA-based (Field-Programmable Gate Array) board has been validated in the case of TDCR primary measurements (Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio method based on liquid scintillation). The new applications presented in this paper have been included to allow either an on-line processing of the information or a raw-data acquisition for an off-line treatment. Developed as a complementary tool for TDCR counting, a time-to-digital converter specifically designed for this technique has been added. In addition, the description is given of a spectrometry channel based on the connection between conventional shaping amplifiers and the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) input available on the same digital board. First results are presented in the case of α- and γ-counting related to, respectively, the defined solid angle and well-type NaI(Tl) primary activity techniques. The combination of two different channels (liquid scintillation and γ-spectrometry) implementing the live-time anticoincidence processing is also described for the application of the 4πβ-γ coincidence method. The need for an optimized coupling between the analog chain and the ADC stage is emphasized. The straight processing of the signals delivered by the preamplifier connected to a HPGe detector is also presented along with the first development of digital filtering. PMID:22405958

  16. Enhancing Maritime Education and Training: Measuring a Ship Navigator's Stress Based on Salivary Amylase Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murai, Koji; Wakida, Shin-Ichi; Miyado, Takashi; Fukushi, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yuji; Stone, Laurie C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that the measurement of salivary amylase activity is an effective index to evaluate the stress of a ship navigator for safe navigation training and education. Design/methodology/approach: Evaluation comes from the simulator and actual on-board experiments. The subjects are real captains who have…

  17. Measurement of Contractile Activity in Small Animal's Digestive Organ by Carbon Nanotube-Based Force Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Takamichi; Takeda, Naoki; Tsutsui, Chihiro; Koike, Kanako; Shimatani, Yuichi; Sakai, Takafumi; Akiya, Masahiro; Taguchi, Akira

    2011-03-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT)-based force transducer designed to be embedded in the body of a live animal was fabricated and implanted into the stomach of a rat omit to measure contractile movement. The transducer comprised dispersed poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted multiwalled CNTs applied to a comb-like Au-electrode formed on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) sheet. The implanted rat was injected with acetylcholine to induce muscular contractions and changes in the resistance of the transducer were measured. Such changes arise owing to strain in the CNT network upon distortion. The measured resistance change was found to be proportional to the concentration of injected acetylcholine.

  18. An Activity-Based Study on Providing Basic Knowledge and Skills of Measurement in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maral, Sahide; Oguz-Unver, Ayse; Yurumezoglu, Kemal

    2012-01-01

    Even though one of the prerequisites of inquiry-based science classes is acquiring measuring skills, there is not enough emphasis in the schools today on developing these skills. The current study, which has been designed with the thought that this situation may be caused by the fact that teachers do not have a sufficient level of measurement…

  19. A Homogeneous Cell-Based Assay for Measurement of Endogenous PON1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Syed; Carter, Jade J.; Scott, John E.

    2010-01-01

    PON1 is a high density lipoprotein-associated enzyme that plays an important role in organophosphate detoxification and prevention of atherosclerosis. Thus, there is significant interest in identifying nutritional and pharmacological enhancers of PON1 activity. In order to identify such compounds, we developed a rapid homogeneous assay to detect endogenous cell-associated PON1 activity. PON1 activity was measured by the simple addition of fluorigenic PON1 substrate DEPFMU to live Huh7 cells in media and monitoring change in fluorescence. A specific PON1 inhibitor, 2-hydroxyquinoline, was used to confirm that the observed activity was due to PON1. The assay was optimized and characterized with regard to time course, substrate and sodium chloride concentration, number of cells and tolerance to DMSO and serum. Aspirin, quercetin and simvastatin are compounds reported to increase PON1 expression. Consistent with the literature and western blot data, these compounds enhanced PON1 activity in this assay with comparable efficacies and potencies. A known toxic compound did not increase assay signal. This assay method also detected PON1 activity in normal hepatocytes. Thus, a novel, homogenous assay for detection of endogenous PON1 expression has been developed and is amenable to high throughput screening for the identification of small molecules that enhance PON1 expression. PMID:20096260

  20. COHN analysis: Body composition measurements based on the associated particle imaging and prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measurement of the body's carbon (C), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), and nitrogen (N) content can be used to calculate the relative amounts of fat, protein, and water. A system based on prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), coupled with the associated particle imaging (API) technique, is...

  1. Comparing the cloud vertical structure derived from several methods based on measured atmospheric profiles and active surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Surós, M.; Calbó, J.; González, J. A.; Long, C. N.

    2013-06-01

    The cloud vertical distribution and especially the cloud base height, which is linked to cloud type, is an important characteristic in order to describe the impact of clouds in a changing climate. In this work several methods to estimate the cloud vertical structure (CVS) based on atmospheric sounding profiles are compared, considering number and position of cloud layers, with a ground based system which is taken as a reference: the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL). All methods establish some conditions on the relative humidity, and differ on the use of other variables, the thresholds applied, or the vertical resolution of the profile. In this study these methods are applied to 125 radiosonde profiles acquired at the ARM Southern Great Plains site during all seasons of year 2009 and endorsed by GOES images, to confirm that the cloudiness conditions are homogeneous enough across their trajectory. The overall agreement for the methods ranges between 44-88%; four methods produce total agreements around 85%. Further tests and improvements are applied on one of these methods. In addition, we attempt to make this method suitable for low resolution vertical profiles, which could be useful in atmospheric modeling. The total agreement, even when using low resolution profiles, can be improved up to 91% if the thresholds for a moist layer to become a cloud layer are modified to minimize false negatives with the current data set, thus improving overall agreement.

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sallis, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is usually done in specific types of places, referred to as physical activity environments. These often include parks, trails, fitness centers, schools, and streets. In recent years, scientific interest has increased notably in measuring physical activity environments. The present paper provides an historical overview of the contributions of the health, planning, and leisure studies fields to the development of contemporary measures. The emphasis is on attributes of the built environment that can be affected by policies to contribute to the promotion of physical activity. Researchers from health fields assessed a wide variety of built environment variables expected to be related to recreational physical activity. Settings of interest were schools, workplaces, and recreation facilities, and most early measures used direct observation methods with demonstrated inter-observer reliability. Investigators from the city planning field evaluated aspects of community design expected to be related to people’s ability to walk from homes to destinations. GIS was used to assess walkability defined by the 3Ds of residential density, land-use diversity, and pedestrian-oriented designs. Evaluating measures for reliability or validity was rarely done in the planning-related fields. Researchers in the leisure studies and recreation fields studied mainly people’s use of leisure time rather than physical characteristics of parks and other recreation facilities. Although few measures of physical activity environments were developed, measures of aesthetic qualities are available. Each of these fields made unique contributions to the contemporary methods used to assess physical activity environments. PMID:19285214

  3. Accelerometer-based physical activity: total volume per day and standardized measures.

    PubMed

    Bassett, David R; Troiano, Richard P; McClain, James J; Wolff, Dana L

    2015-04-01

    The use of accelerometers in physical activity (PA) research has increased exponentially over the past 20 yr. The first commercially available accelerometer for assessing PA, the Caltrac, was worn on the waist and estimated PA energy expenditure in kilocalories. Around 1995, the emphasis shifted to measuring minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), especially for bouts of 10 min or longer. Recent studies, however, show that light-intensity PA and intermittent (nonbout) MVPA also have important health benefits. The total volume of PA performed is an important variable because it takes the frequency, intensity, and duration of activity bouts and condenses them down into a single metric. The total volume of PA is appropriate for many research applications and can enhance comparisons between studies. In the future, machine learning algorithms will provide improved accuracy for activity type recognition and estimation of PA energy expenditure. However, in the current landscape of objectively measured PA, total activity counts per day (TAC/d) is a proxy for the total volume of PA. TAC/d percentiles for age- and gender-specific groups have been developed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ActiGraph data (2003-2006), providing a novel way to assess PA. The use of TAC/d or standardized units of acceleration could harmonize PA across studies. TAC/d should be viewed as an additional metric, not intended to replace other metrics (e.g., sedentary time, light-intensity PA, moderate PA, and vigorous PA) that may also be related to health. As future refinements to wearable monitors occur, researchers should continue to consider metrics that reflect the total volume of PA in addition to existing PA metrics. PMID:25102292

  4. Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, T. H.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Flitcroft, I.; Su, H.

    1990-01-01

    The fraction, of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation, F sub ipar, is an important requirement for estimating vegetation biomass productivity and related quantities. This was an integral part of a large international effort; the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The main objective of FIFE was to study the effects of vegetation on the land atmosphere interactions and to determine if these interactions can be assessed from satellite spectral measurements. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well measurements of F sub ipar relate to ground, helicopter, and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F sub ipar and ground, helicopter, and satellite based measurements were taken at 13 tall grass prairie sites in Kansas. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements.

  5. A self-sensing active magnetic bearing based on a direct current measurement approach.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Andries C; van Schoor, George; du Rand, Carel P

    2013-01-01

    Active magnetic bearings (AMBs) have become a key technology in various industrial applications. Self-sensing AMBs provide an integrated sensorless solution for position estimation, consolidating the sensing and actuating functions into a single electromagnetic transducer. The approach aims to reduce possible hardware failure points, production costs, and system complexity. Despite these advantages, self-sensing methods must address various technical challenges to maximize the performance thereof. This paper presents the direct current measurement (DCM) approach for self-sensing AMBs, denoting the direct measurement of the current ripple component. In AMB systems, switching power amplifiers (PAs) modulate the rotor position information onto the current waveform. Demodulation self-sensing techniques then use bandpass and lowpass filters to estimate the rotor position from the voltage and current signals. However, the additional phase-shift introduced by these filters results in lower stability margins. The DCM approach utilizes a novel PA switching method that directly measures the current ripple to obtain duty-cycle invariant position estimates. Demodulation filters are largely excluded to minimize additional phase-shift in the position estimates. Basic functionality and performance of the proposed self-sensing approach are demonstrated via a transient simulation model as well as a high current (10 A) experimental system. A digital implementation of amplitude modulation self-sensing serves as a comparative estimator. PMID:24030681

  6. A Self-Sensing Active Magnetic Bearing Based on a Direct Current Measurement Approach

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, Andries C.; van Schoor, George; du Rand, Carel P.

    2013-01-01

    Active magnetic bearings (AMBs) have become a key technology in various industrial applications. Self-sensing AMBs provide an integrated sensorless solution for position estimation, consolidating the sensing and actuating functions into a single electromagnetic transducer. The approach aims to reduce possible hardware failure points, production costs, and system complexity. Despite these advantages, self-sensing methods must address various technical challenges to maximize the performance thereof. This paper presents the direct current measurement (DCM) approach for self-sensing AMBs, denoting the direct measurement of the current ripple component. In AMB systems, switching power amplifiers (PAs) modulate the rotor position information onto the current waveform. Demodulation self-sensing techniques then use bandpass and lowpass filters to estimate the rotor position from the voltage and current signals. However, the additional phase-shift introduced by these filters results in lower stability margins. The DCM approach utilizes a novel PA switching method that directly measures the current ripple to obtain duty-cycle invariant position estimates. Demodulation filters are largely excluded to minimize additional phase-shift in the position estimates. Basic functionality and performance of the proposed self-sensing approach are demonstrated via a transient simulation model as well as a high current (10 A) experimental system. A digital implementation of amplitude modulation self-sensing serves as a comparative estimator. PMID:24030681

  7. Comparing the cloud vertical structure derived from several methods based on measured atmospheric profiles and active surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Surós, M.; Calbó, J.; González, J. A.; Long, C. N.

    2014-04-01

    The cloud vertical distribution and especially the cloud base height, which is linked to cloud type, is an important characteristic in order to describe the impact of clouds on climate. In this work several methods to estimate the cloud vertical structure (CVS) based on atmospheric sounding profiles are compared, considering number and position of cloud layers, with a ground based system which is taken as a reference: the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL). All methods establish some conditions on the relative humidity, and differ on the use of other variables, the thresholds applied, or the vertical resolution of the profile. In this study these methods are applied to 193 radiosonde profiles acquired at the ARM Southern Great Plains site during all seasons of year 2009 and endorsed by GOES images, to confirm that the cloudiness conditions are homogeneous enough across their trajectory. The perfect agreement (i.e. when the whole CVS is correctly estimated) for the methods ranges between 26-64%; the methods show additional approximate agreement (i.e. when at least one cloud layer is correctly assessed) from 15-41%. Further tests and improvements are applied on one of these methods. In addition, we attempt to make this method suitable for low resolution vertical profiles, like those from the outputs of reanalysis methods or from the WMO's Global Telecommunication System. The perfect agreement, even when using low resolution profiles, can be improved up to 67% (plus 25% of approximate agreement) if the thresholds for a moist layer to become a cloud layer are modified to minimize false negatives with the current data set, thus improving overall agreement.

  8. Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, T. H.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Flitcroft, I. D.; Su, H.

    1992-01-01

    The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by vegetation, F(sub ipar) is an important parameter for modeling the interactions between the land-surface and atmosphere and for estimating vegetation biomass productivity. This study was, therefore, an integral part of FIFE. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well definitive measurements of F(sub ipar) on the ground relate to near-ground and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F(sub ipar) and ground, helicopter, and satellite based reflectance measurements were taken at thirteen tall-grass prairie sites within the FIFE experimental area. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements. The ground and helicopter based reflectance measurements were taken on the same day or few days from the time of the overpass of LANDSAT and SPOT satellites. Ground-based reflectance measurements and sun photometer readings taken at the times of the satellite overpasses were used to correct for atmospheric attenuation. Hand-held radiometer spectral indices were strongly correlated with helicopter and satellite based values (r = 0.94 for helicopter, 0.93 for LANDSAT Thematic Mapper, and 0.86 for SPOT). However, the ground, helicopter, and satellite based normalized difference spectral vegetation indices showed low sensitivity to changes in F(sub ipar). Reflectance measurements were only moderately well correlated with measurements of F(sub ipar) (r = 0.82 for hand-held radiometer, 0.84 for helicopter measurements, and 0.75 for the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and SPOT). Improved spectral indices which can compensate for site differences are needed in order to monitor F(sub ipar) more reliably.

  9. Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, T. H.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Flitcroft, I.; Su, H.

    1991-01-01

    The fraction, of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by vegetation, F(sub ipar) is an important parameter for modeling the interactions between the land-surface and atmosphere and for estimating vegetation biomass productivity. This study was; therefore, an integral part of FIFE. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well definitive measurements of F(sub ipar) on the ground relate to near-ground and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F(sub ipar) and ground, helicopter, and satellite based reflectance measurements were taken at thirteen tall-grass prairie sites within the FIFE experimental area. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements. The ground and helicopter based reflectance measurements were taken on the same day or few days from the time of the overpass of LANDSAT and SPOT satellites. Ground-based reflectance measurements and sun photometer readings taken at the times of the satellite overpasses were used to correct for atmospheric attenuation. Hand-held radiometer spectral indices were strongly correlated with helicopter and satellite based values (r=0.94 for helicopter, 0.93 for LANDSAT Thematic Mapper, and 0.86 for SPOT). However, the ground, helicopter, and satellite based normalized difference spectral vegetation indices showed low sensitivity to changes in F(sub ipar). Reflectance measurements were only moderately well correlated with measurements of F(sub ipar) (r=0.82 for hand-held radiometer, 0.84 for helicopter measurements, and 0.75 for the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and SPOT). Improved spectral indices which can compensate for site differences are needed in order to monitor F(sub ipar) more reliably.

  10. Functional activity maps based on significance measures and Independent Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Murcia, F J; Górriz, J M; Ramírez, J; Puntonet, C G; Illán, I A

    2013-07-01

    The use of functional imaging has been proven very helpful for the process of diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In many cases, the analysis of these images is performed by manual reorientation and visual interpretation. Therefore, new statistical techniques to perform a more quantitative analysis are needed. In this work, a new statistical approximation to the analysis of functional images, based on significance measures and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is presented. After the images preprocessing, voxels that allow better separation of the two classes are extracted, using significance measures such as the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon U-Test (MWW) and Relative Entropy (RE). After this feature selection step, the voxels vector is modelled by means of ICA, extracting a few independent components which will be used as an input to the classifier. Naive Bayes and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers are used in this work. The proposed system has been applied to two different databases. A 96-subjects Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) database from the "Virgen de las Nieves" Hospital in Granada, Spain, and a 196-subjects Positron Emission Tomography (PET) database from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Values of accuracy up to 96.9% and 91.3% for SPECT and PET databases are achieved by the proposed system, which has yielded many benefits over methods proposed on recent works. PMID:23660005

  11. Toxmatch--a chemical classification and activity prediction tool based on similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Saliner, Ana; Poater, Albert; Jeliazkova, Nina; Patlewicz, Grace; Worth, Andrew P

    2008-11-01

    Chemical similarity forms the underlying basis for the development of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships ((Q)SARs), expert systems and chemical groupings. Recently a new software tool to facilitate chemical similarity calculations named Toxmatch was developed. Toxmatch encodes a number of similarity indices to help in the systematic development of chemical groupings, including endpoint specific groupings and read-across, and the comparison of model training and test sets. Two rule-based classification schemes were additionally implemented, namely: the Verhaar scheme for assigning mode of action for aquatic toxicants and the BfR rulebase for skin irritation and corrosion. In this study, a variety of different descriptor-based similarity indices were used to evaluate and compare the BfR training set with respect to its test set. The descriptors utilised in this comparison were the same as those used to derive the original BfR rules i.e. the descriptors selected were relevant for skin irritation/corrosion. The Euclidean distance index was found to be the most predictive of the indices in assessing the performance of the rules. PMID:18617309

  12. Flow injection catalase activity measurement based on gold nanoparticles/carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    El Nashar, Rasha Mohamed

    2012-07-15

    Amperometric flow injection method of hydrogen peroxide analysis was developed based on catalase enzyme (CAT) immobilization on a glassy carbon electrode (GC) modified with electrochemically deposited gold nanoparticles on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes/chitosan film. The resulting biosensor was applied to detect hydrogen peroxide with a linear response range 1.0×10(-7)-2.5×10(-3)M with a correlation coefficient 0.998 and response time less than 10s. The optimum conditions of film deposition such as potential applied, deposition time and pH were tested and the flow injection conditions were optimized to be: flow rate of 3ml/min, sample volume 75μl and saline phosphate buffer of pH 6.89. Catalase enzyme activity was successfully determined in liver homogenate samples of rats, raised under controlled dietary plan, using a flow injection analysis system involving the developed biosensor simultaneously with spectrophotometric detection, which is the common method of enzymatic assay. PMID:22817944

  13. Endogenous auditory frequency-based attention modulates electroencephalogram-based measures of obligatory sensory activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, Caroline M; Power, Alan J; Reilly, Richard B; Crosse, Michael J; Loughnane, Gerard M; Lalor, Edmund C

    2014-03-01

    Auditory selective attention is the ability to enhance the processing of a single sound source, while simultaneously suppressing the processing of other competing sound sources. Recent research has addressed a long-running debate by showing that endogenous attention produces effects on obligatory sensory responses to continuous and competing auditory stimuli. However, until now, this result has only been shown under conditions where the competing stimuli differed in both their frequency characteristics and, importantly, their spatial location. Thus, it is unknown whether endogenous selective attention based only on nonspatial features modulates obligatory sensory processing. Here, we investigate this issue using a diotic paradigm, such that competing auditory stimuli differ in frequency, but had no separation in space. We find a significant effect of attention on electroencephalogram-based measures of obligatory sensory processing at several poststimulus latencies. We discuss these results in terms of previous research on feature-based attention and by comparing our findings with the previous work using stimuli that differed both in terms of spatial and frequency-based characteristics. PMID:24231831

  14. Single molecule measurements of DNA helicase activity with magnetic tweezers and t-test based step-finding analysis.

    PubMed

    Seol, Yeonee; Strub, Marie-Paule; Neuman, Keir C

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic tweezers is a versatile and easy to implement single-molecule technique that has become increasingly prevalent in the study of nucleic acid based molecular motors. Here, we provide a description of the magnetic tweezers instrument and guidelines for measuring and analyzing DNA helicase activity. Along with experimental methods, we describe a robust method of single-molecule trajectory analysis based on the Student's t-test that accommodates continuous transitions in addition to the discrete transitions assumed in most widely employed analysis routines. To illustrate the single-molecule unwinding assay and the analysis routine, we provide DNA unwinding measurements of Escherichia coli RecQ helicase under a variety of conditions (Na+, ATP, temperature, and DNA substrate geometry). These examples reveal that DNA unwinding measurements under various conditions can aid in elucidating the unwinding mechanism of DNA helicase but also emphasize that environmental effects on DNA helicase activity must be considered in relation to in vivo activity and mechanism. PMID:27131595

  15. SO2 on Venus: IUE, HST and ground-based measurements, and the active volcanism connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Na, C. Y.; Barker, E. S.; Stern, S. A.; Esposito, L. W.

    1993-01-01

    Magellan images have shown that the volcanic features are widespread over the surface of Venus. The question of whether there is active volcanism is important for understanding both the atmospheric and the geological processes on Venus. The thick cloud cover of Venus precludes any direct observation of active volcanoes even if they exist. The only means of monitoring the active volcanism on Venus at present seems to be remote sensing from Earth. Continuous monitoring of SO2 is important to establish the long term trend of SO2 abundance and to understand the physical mechanism responsible for the change.

  16. Automated determination of wakefulness and sleep in rats based on non-invasively acquired measures of movement and respiratory activity

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Tao; Mott, Christopher; Mollicone, Daniel; Sanford, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The current standard for monitoring sleep in rats requires labor intensive surgical procedures and the implantation of chronic electrodes which have the potential to impact behavior and sleep. With the goal of developing a non-invasive method to determine sleep and wakefulness, we constructed a non-contact monitoring system to measure movement and respiratory activity using signals acquired with pulse Doppler radar and from digitized video analysis. A set of 23 frequency and time-domain features were derived from these signals and were calculated in 10 s epochs. Based on these features, a classification method for automated scoring of wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) and REM in rats was developed using a support vector machine (SVM). We then assessed the utility of the automated scoring system in discriminating wakefulness and sleep by comparing the results to standard scoring of wakefulness and sleep based on concurrently recorded EEG and EMG. Agreement between SVM automated scoring based on selected features and visual scores based on EEG and EMG were approximately 91% for wakefulness, 84% for NREM and 70% for REM. The results indicate that automated scoring based on non-invasively acquired movement and respiratory activity will be useful for studies requiring discrimination of wakefulness and sleep. However, additional information or signals will be needed to improve discrimination of NREM and REM episodes within sleep. PMID:22178621

  17. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) as a measure of energy expenditure during classroom-based physical activity.

    PubMed

    Honas, Jeffery J; Washburn, Richard A; Smith, Bryan K; Greene, Jerry L; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and demographic information. PAEE (portable indirect calorimeter) and physical activity (SOFIT) were simultaneously assessed in 38, 2nd through 5th grade children. PAEE and SOFIT were 3.04 +/- 1.1 (kcal/min) and 3.8 +/- 0.4 (score), respectively. PAEE was predicted from SOFIT score and body weight [PAEE (kcal/min) = (1.384*SOFIT + 0.084*weight (kg)--5.126), R = .81, SEE = 1.23 kcal/min]. PAEE measured by indirect calorimeter and predicted from SOFIT and body weight were 3.04 +/- 1.1 (kcal/min) and 3.04 +/- 0.9 kcal/min) respectively. SOFIT and body weight may provide a useful measure of PAEE associated with classroom based physical activity. PMID:19168920

  18. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) as a Measure of Energy Expenditure During Classroom-Based Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Jerry L.; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and demographic information. PAEE (portable indirect calorimeter) and physical activity (SOFIT) were simultaneously assessed in 38, 2nd through 5th grade children. PAEE and SOFIT were 3.04 ± 1.1 (kcal/min) and 3.8 ± 0.4 (score), respectively. PAEE was predicted from SOFIT score and body weight [PAEE (kcal/min) = (1.384*SOFIT + 0.084*weight (kg)—5.126), R = .81, SEE = 1.23 kcal/min]. PAEE measured by indirect calorimeter and predicted from SOFIT and body weight were 3.04 ± 1.1 (kcal/min) and 3.04 ± 0.9 kcal/min) respectively. SOFIT and body weight may provide a useful measure of PAEE associated with classroom based physical activity. PMID:19168920

  19. Fabrication of Electrochemical Model Influenza A Virus Biosensor Based on the Measurements of Neuroaminidase Enzyme Activity.

    PubMed

    Anik, Ülkü; Tepeli, Yudum; Diouani, Mohamed F

    2016-06-21

    Neuroaminidase (NA) enzyme is a kind of glycoprotein that is found on the influenza A virus. During infection, NA is important for the release of influenza virions from the host cell surface together with viral aggregates. It may also be involved in targeting the virus to respiratory epithelial cells. In this study, a model electrochemical influenza A viral biosensor in which receptor-binding properties have been based on NA was developed for the first time. The biosensor's working principle is based on monitoring the interactions between fetuin A and NA enzyme. The assay was monitored step by step by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. PMID:27281347

  20. Proteolytic Enzymes in Detergents: Evidence of Their Presence through Activity Measurements Based on Electrophoresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperas, Nuria; Fonfria-Subiros, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise uses a problem-based approach to expose students to some basic concepts relating to proteins and enzymes. One of the main applications of enzymes at the industrial level is their use in the detergent market. The students examine a detergent sample to ascertain whether proteolytic enzymes are a component and, if so, which…

  1. Optimized DPPH assay in a detergent-based buffer system for measuring antioxidant activity of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nicklisch, Sascha C.T.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The free radical method using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) is a well established assay for the in vitro determination of antioxidant activity in food and biological extracts. The standard DPPH assay uses methanol or ethanol as solvents, or buffered alcoholic solutions in a ratio of 40%/60% (buffer/alcohol, v/v) to keep the hydrophobic hydrazyl radical and phenolic test compounds soluble while offering sufficient buffering capacity at different pHs tested. Following this protocol, we were unable to keep proteinaceous antioxidants soluble at different pHs to test for their antioxidant activity. Thus, the assay protocol was modified as follows to improve its utility:•Non-ionic detergents were added to keep the DPPH radical soluble and to provide a mild and non-denaturing environment for the antioxidant protein.•Maximal concentration of DPPH was limited to 100 μM to stay within the sensitivity range of the detector at the given wavelength (515 nm) and to increase the dynamic range of the assay.•0.1 M citrate phosphate buffer was introduced to prevent experimental artifacts due to changing buffer compositions at different pHs. PMID:25530949

  2. A DAQ-Device-Based Continuous Wave Near-Infrared Spectroscopy System for Measuring Human Functional Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiaomin

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is getting more and more popular as a neuroimaging technique. The fNIRS instrument can be used to measure local hemodynamic response, which indirectly reflects the functional neural activities in human brain. In this study, an easily implemented way to establish DAQ-device-based fNIRS system was proposed. Basic instrumentation components (light sources driving, signal conditioning, sensors, and optical fiber) of the fNIRS system were described. The digital in-phase and quadrature demodulation method was applied in LabVIEW software to distinguish light sources from different emitters. The effectiveness of the custom-made system was verified by simultaneous measurement with a commercial instrument ETG-4000 during Valsalva maneuver experiment. The light intensity data acquired from two systems were highly correlated for lower wavelength (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.92, P < 0.01) and higher wavelength (r = 0.84, P < 0.01). Further, another mental arithmetic experiment was implemented to detect neural activation in the prefrontal cortex. For 9 participants, significant cerebral activation was detected in 6 subjects (P < 0.05) for oxyhemoglobin and in 8 subjects (P < 0.01) for deoxyhemoglobin. PMID:25180044

  3. A DAQ-device-based continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy system for measuring human functional brain activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Duan; Liu, Xiaomin

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is getting more and more popular as a neuroimaging technique. The fNIRS instrument can be used to measure local hemodynamic response, which indirectly reflects the functional neural activities in human brain. In this study, an easily implemented way to establish DAQ-device-based fNIRS system was proposed. Basic instrumentation components (light sources driving, signal conditioning, sensors, and optical fiber) of the fNIRS system were described. The digital in-phase and quadrature demodulation method was applied in LabVIEW software to distinguish light sources from different emitters. The effectiveness of the custom-made system was verified by simultaneous measurement with a commercial instrument ETG-4000 during Valsalva maneuver experiment. The light intensity data acquired from two systems were highly correlated for lower wavelength (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.92, P < 0.01) and higher wavelength (r = 0.84, P < 0.01). Further, another mental arithmetic experiment was implemented to detect neural activation in the prefrontal cortex. For 9 participants, significant cerebral activation was detected in 6 subjects (P < 0.05) for oxyhemoglobin and in 8 subjects (P < 0.01) for deoxyhemoglobin. PMID:25180044

  4. Characterization of the CALIBAN Critical Assembly Neutron Spectra using Several Adjustment Methods Based on Activation Foils Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casoli, Pierre; Grégoire, Gilles; Rousseau, Guillaume; Jacquet, Xavier; Authier, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    CALIBAN is a metallic critical assembly managed by the Criticality, Neutron Science and Measurement Department located on the French CEA Center of Valduc. The reactor is extensively used for benchmark experiments dedicated to the evaluation of nuclear data, for electronic hardening or to study the effect of the neutrons on various materials. Therefore CALIBAN irradiation characteristics and especially its central cavity neutron spectrum have to be very accurately evaluated. In order to strengthen our knowledge of this spectrum, several adjustment methods based on activation foils measurements are being studied for a few years in the laboratory. Firstly two codes included in the UMG package have been tested and compared: MAXED and GRAVEL. More recently, the CALIBAN cavity spectrum has been studied using CALMAR, a new adjustment tool currently under development at the CEA Center of Cadarache. The article will discuss and compare the results and the quality of spectrum rebuilding obtained with the UMG codes and with the CALMAR software, from a set of activation measurements carried out in the CALIBAN irradiation cavity.

  5. Linking cost control measures to health care services by using activity-based information.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, R E; Lay, C M

    1995-11-01

    Canada's health care institutions are under pressure to limit expenditures, maintain or increase productivity, and assimilate new technology. Even though more than 75% of hospital operating expenditures are controllable, according to a study by the Economic Council of Canada, cost systems are needed to provided essential management information. The new Canadian Management Information System (MIS) Guidelines for health care are designed to provide accurate cost measurement of patient treatment and to help managers evaluate the impact of planned program changes on areas of operational responsibility. Other potential benefits of implementing the MIS guidelines include correcting dysfunctional funding of health care units with benchmarking and setting high reporting standards for resource use at the patient level (MIS, 1991). This paper focuses on one important aspect of bringing these costs under control by examining the relation between cost deviations (variances) and underlying cost drivers. Our discussion will lead to the conclusion that incompatibility of DRG methodology and traditional cost accounting models may be an important source of cost variability within diagnostically-related disease groupings. PMID:10153271

  6. Establishment of a New Cell-Based Assay To Measure the Activity of Sweeteners in Fluorescent Food Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Taste receptors have been defined at the molecular level in the past decade, and cell-based assays have been developed using cultured cells heterologously expressing these receptors. The most popular approach to detecting the cellular response to a tastant is to measure changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration using Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes. However, this method cannot be applied to food-derived samples that contain fluorescent substances. To establish an assay system that would be applicable to fluorescent samples, we tested the use of Ca2+-sensitive photoproteins, such as aequorin and mitochondrial clytin-II, as Ca2+ indicators in a human sweet taste receptor assay. Using these systems, we successfully detected receptor activation in response to sweetener, even when fluorescent compounds coexisted. This luminescence-based assay will be a powerful tool to objectively evaluate the sweetness of food-derived samples even at an industry level. PMID:21981007

  7. Establishment of a new cell-based assay to measure the activity of sweeteners in fluorescent food extracts.

    PubMed

    Toda, Yasuka; Okada, Shinji; Misaka, Takumi

    2011-11-23

    Taste receptors have been defined at the molecular level in the past decade, and cell-based assays have been developed using cultured cells heterologously expressing these receptors. The most popular approach to detecting the cellular response to a tastant is to measure changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration using Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dyes. However, this method cannot be applied to food-derived samples that contain fluorescent substances. To establish an assay system that would be applicable to fluorescent samples, we tested the use of Ca(2+)-sensitive photoproteins, such as aequorin and mitochondrial clytin-II, as Ca(2+) indicators in a human sweet taste receptor assay. Using these systems, we successfully detected receptor activation in response to sweetener, even when fluorescent compounds coexisted. This luminescence-based assay will be a powerful tool to objectively evaluate the sweetness of food-derived samples even at an industry level. PMID:21981007

  8. A novel cell-based assay to measure activity of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP2 protease.

    PubMed

    Campos-Gomez, Javier; Ahmad, Fahim; Rodriguez, Efrain; Saeed, Mohammad F

    2016-09-01

    The encephalitic alphaviruses encode nsP2 protease (nsP2pro), which because of its vital role in virus replication, represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. To facilitate the discovery of nsP2 inhibitors we have developed a novel assay for quantitative measurement of nsP2pro activity in a cell-based format. The assay is based on a substrate fusion protein consisting of eGFP and Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) linked together by a small peptide containing a VEEV nsp2pro cleavage sequence. The expression of the substrate protein in cells along with recombinant nsP2pro results in cleavage of the substrate protein resulting in extracellular release of free Gluc. The Gluc activity in supernatants corresponds to intracellular nsP2pro-mediated substrate cleavage; thus, providing a simple and convenient way to quantify nsP2pro activity. Here, we demonstrate potential utility of the assay in identification of nsP2pro inhibitors, as well as in investigations related to molecular characterization of nsP2pro. PMID:27261892

  9. Modeling complexity in pathologist workload measurement: the Automatable Activity-Based Approach to Complexity Unit Scoring (AABACUS).

    PubMed

    Cheung, Carol C; Torlakovic, Emina E; Chow, Hung; Snover, Dale C; Asa, Sylvia L

    2015-03-01

    Pathologists provide diagnoses relevant to the disease state of the patient and identify specific tissue characteristics relevant to response to therapy and prognosis. As personalized medicine evolves, there is a trend for increased demand of tissue-derived parameters. Pathologists perform increasingly complex analyses on the same 'cases'. Traditional methods of workload assessment and reimbursement, based on number of cases sometimes with a modifier (eg, the relative value unit (RVU) system used in the United States), often grossly underestimate the amount of work needed for complex cases and may overvalue simple, small biopsy cases. We describe a new approach to pathologist workload measurement that aligns with this new practice paradigm. Our multisite institution with geographically diverse partner institutions has developed the Automatable Activity-Based Approach to Complexity Unit Scoring (AABACUS) model that captures pathologists' clinical activities from parameters documented in departmental laboratory information systems (LISs). The model's algorithm includes: 'capture', 'export', 'identify', 'count', 'score', 'attribute', 'filter', and 'assess filtered results'. Captured data include specimen acquisition, handling, analysis, and reporting activities. Activities were counted and complexity units (CUs) generated using a complexity factor for each activity. CUs were compared between institutions, practice groups, and practice types and evaluated over a 5-year period (2008-2012). The annual load of a clinical service pathologist, irrespective of subspecialty, was ∼40,000 CUs using relative benchmarking. The model detected changing practice patterns and was appropriate for monitoring clinical workload for anatomical pathology, neuropathology, and hematopathology in academic and community settings, and encompassing subspecialty and generalist practices. AABACUS is objective, can be integrated with an LIS and automated, is reproducible, backwards compatible

  10. [On-line Estimation for the Amount of Stored PHA in Activated Sludge Based on OUR-HPR Measurements].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shan-wen; Wang, Ze-yu; Gao, Jing; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Dai-jun; Lu, Pei-li

    2015-05-01

    Activated sludge process is an important approach for industrial Polyhydroxyalkanoate ( PHA ) production. Off-line measurement with a time lag and complex analysis, is a common method for PHA, but is not suitable for the process control of PHA production. Based on a model for simultaneous storage and growth-soluble microbial products (SSAG-SMP), it is assumed that there is the linear relationship between the PHA synthesized and OUR or HPR, respectively. Further, a novel method to estimate PHA content based on in-situ monitoring data of oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and hydrogen-ion production rate (HPR) is established in this paper. The results of modeling OUR and HPR under different substrate concentrations showed that oxygen consumption proportion (kPHA,OUR) and proton consumption proportion (kPHA,HPR) of PHA synthesis were 0.67 and 0.57, respectively. The predicted results based on the linear relationship were essentially consistent with measured ones, and indicated that the method is feasible PMID:26314121

  11. The Effect of Electrode Designs Based on the Anatomical Heart Location for the Non-Contact Heart Activity Measurement.

    PubMed

    Gi, Sun Ok; Lee, Young-Jae; Koo, Hye Ran; Lee, Seung Pyo; Lee, Kang-Hwi; Kim, Kyeng-Nam; Kang, Seung-Jin; Lee, Joo Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Whan

    2015-12-01

    This research is an extension of a previous research [1] on the different effects of sensor location that is relatively suitable for heart rate sensing. This research aimed to elucidate the causes of wide variations in heart rate measurements from the same sensor position among subjects, as observed in previous research [1], and to enhance designs of the inductive textile electrode to overcome these variations. To achieve this, this study comprised two parts: In part 1, X-ray examinations were performed to determine the cause of the wide variations noted in the findings from previous research [1], and we found that at the same sensor position, the heart activity signal differed with slight differences in the positions of the heart of each subject owing to individual differences in the anatomical heart location. In part 2, three types of dual-loop-type textile electrodes were devised to overcome variations in heart location that were confirmed in part 1 of the study. The variations with three types of sensor designs were compared with that with a single-round type of electrode design, by using computer simulation and by performing a t-test on the data obtained from the experiments. We found that the oval-oval shaped, dual-loop-type textile electrode was more suitable than the single round type for determining morphological characteristics as well as for measuring appropriate heart activity signals. Based on these results, the oval-oval, dual-loop-type was a better inductive textile electrode that more effectively overcomes individual differences in heart location during heart activity sensing based on the magnetic-induced conductivity principle. PMID:26490149

  12. Effect of physical activity intervention based on a pedometer on physical activity level and anthropometric measures after childbirth: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pregnancy and childbirth are associated with weight gain in women, and retention of weight gained during pregnancy can lead to obesity in later life. Diet and physical activity are factors that can influence the loss of retained pregnancy weight after birth. Exercise guidelines exist for pregnancy, but recommendations for exercise after childbirth are virtually nonexistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical activity intervention based on pedometer on physical activity level and anthropometric measures of women after childbirth. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which 66 women who had given birth 6 weeks to 6 months prior were randomly assigned to receive either a 12 week tailored program encouraging increased walking using a pedometer (intervention group, n = 32) or routine postpartum care (control group, n = 34). During the 12-week study period, each woman in the intervention group wore a pedometer and recorded her daily step count. The women were advised to increase their steps by 500 per week until they achieved the first target of 5000 steps per day and then continued to increase it to minimum of 10,000 steps per day by the end of 12th week. Assessed outcomes included anthropometric measures, physical activity level, and energy expenditure per week. Data were analyzed using the paired t-test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, chi-square, Wilcoxon, covariance analysis, and the general linear model repeated measures procedure as appropriate. Results After 12 weeks, women in the intervention group had significantly increased their physical activity and energy expenditure per week (4394 vs. 1651 calorie, p < 0.001). Significant differences between-group in weight (P = 0.001), Body Mass Index (P = 0.001), waist circumference (P = 0.001), hip circumference (P = 0.032) and waist-hip ratio (P = 0.02) were presented after the intervention. The intervention group significantly increased their mean daily step count

  13. Evaluation of drug-induced neurotoxicity based on metabolomics, proteomics and electrical activity measurements in complementary CNS in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Luise; Zurich, Marie-Gabrielle; Culot, Maxime; da Costa, Anaelle; Landry, Christophe; Bellwon, Patricia; Kristl, Theresa; Hörmann, Katrin; Ruzek, Silke; Aiche, Stephan; Reinert, Knut; Bielow, Chris; Gosselet, Fabien; Cecchelli, Romeo; Huber, Christian G; Schroeder, Olaf H-U; Gramowski-Voss, Alexandra; Weiss, Dieter G; Bal-Price, Anna

    2015-12-25

    The present study was performed in an attempt to develop an in vitro integrated testing strategy (ITS) to evaluate drug-induced neurotoxicity. A number of endpoints were analyzed using two complementary brain cell culture models and an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model after single and repeated exposure treatments with selected drugs that covered the major biological, pharmacological and neuro-toxicological responses. Furthermore, four drugs (diazepam, cyclosporine A, chlorpromazine and amiodarone) were tested more in depth as representatives of different classes of neurotoxicants, inducing toxicity through different pathways of toxicity. The developed in vitro BBB model allowed detection of toxic effects at the level of BBB and evaluation of drug transport through the barrier for predicting free brain concentrations of the studied drugs. The measurement of neuronal electrical activity was found to be a sensitive tool to predict the neuroactivity and neurotoxicity of drugs after acute exposure. The histotypic 3D re-aggregating brain cell cultures, containing all brain cell types, were found to be well suited for OMICs analyses after both acute and long term treatment. The obtained data suggest that an in vitro ITS based on the information obtained from BBB studies and combined with metabolomics, proteomics and neuronal electrical activity measurements performed in stable in vitro neuronal cell culture systems, has high potential to improve current in vitro drug-induced neurotoxicity evaluation. PMID:26026931

  14. Measuring the activity of a {sup 51}Cr neutrino source based on the gamma-radiation spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbachev, V. V. Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-12-15

    A technique for the measurement of activities of intense β sources by measuring the continuous gamma-radiation (internal bremsstrahlung) spectra is developed. A method for reconstructing the spectrum recorded by a germanium semiconductor detector is described. A method for the absolute measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of {sup 51}Cr is presented.

  15. Immunocapture and microplate-based activity and quantity measurement of pyruvate dehydrogenase in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaowen; Pervez, Hira; Andersen, Lars W; Uber, Amy; Montissol, Sophia; Patel, Parth; Donnino, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Background Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity is altered in many human disorders. Current methods require tissue samples and yield inconsistent results. We describe a modified method for measuring PDH activity from isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results/Methodology We found that PDH activity and quantity can be successfully measured in human PBMCs. Freeze-thaw cycles cannot efficiently disrupt the mitochondrial membrane. Processing time of up to 20 h does not affect PDH activity with proteinase inhibitor addition and a detergent concentration of 3.3% showed maximum yield. Sample protein concentration is correlated to PDH activity and quantity in human PBMCs from healthy subjects. Conclusion Measuring PDH activity from PBMCs is a novel, easy and less invasive way to further understand the role of PDH in human disease. PMID:25826140

  16. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  17. Monitoring and Modeling of Ionosphere Irregularities Caused By Space Weather Activity on the Base of GNSS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, I.; Zakharenkova, I.; Krankowski, A.; Shagimuratov, I.

    2014-12-01

    The ionosphere plays an important role in GNSS applications because it influences on the radio wave propagation through out. The ionosphere delay is the biggest error source for satellite navigation systems, but it can be directly measured and mitigated with using dual frequency GNSS receivers. However GNSS signal fading due to electron density gradients and irregularities in the ionosphere can decrease the operational availability of navigation system. The intensity of such irregularities on high and mid latitudes essentially rises during space weather events. For monitoring of the ionospheric irregularities data collected from all available permanent GNSS stations in the Northern Hemisphere are processed and analyzed. Here we used parameters ROT (rate of GPS TEC change) and ROTI (index of ROT) to study the occurrence of TEC fluctuations. ROTI maps are constructed with the grid of 2 deg x 2 deg resolution as a function of the magnetic local time and corrected magnetic latitude. The ROTI maps allow to estimate the overall fluctuation activity and auroral oval evolutions, in general the ROTI values are corresponded to the probability of GPS signals phase fluctuations. There were developed several models in order to represent ionospheric fluctuations and scintillation activity under different geophysical conditions, but they were calibrated with data sets, that did not include GNSS derived data. It is very actual to develop empirical model based on GNSS derived measurements which can represent strong fluctuations of the ionosphere plasma density at high latitudes. The measurements provided by the existing permanent GNSS networks accumulated in order to develop the empirical model of ionospheric irregularities over the Northern hemisphere. As initial data the daily dependences of the ROTI index are used as a function of geomagnetic Local Time on the specific grid. With ROTI index maps it was determined the irregularities oval border and averaging parameter - semi

  18. A Web-Based Non-Intrusive Ambient System to Measure and Classify Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Urwyler, Prabitha; Rampa, Luca; Müri, René; Mosimann, Urs P

    2014-01-01

    . Results In this study, 10 healthy participants (6 women, 4 men; mean age 48.8 years; SD 20.0 years; age range 28-79 years) were included. For explorative purposes, one female Alzheimer patient (Montreal Cognitive Assessment score=23, Timed Up and Go=19.8 seconds, Trail Making Test A=84.3 seconds, Trail Making Test B=146 seconds) was measured in parallel with the healthy subjects. In total, 1317 ADL were performed by the participants, 1211 ADL were classified correctly, and 106 ADL were missed. This led to an overall sensitivity of 91.27% and a specificity of 92.52%. Each subject performed an average of 134.8 ADL (SD 75). Conclusions The non-intrusive wireless sensor system can acquire environmental data essential for the classification of activities of daily living. By analyzing retrieved data, it is possible to distinguish and assign data patterns to subjects' specific activities and to identify eight different activities in daily living. The Web-based technology allows the system to improve care and provides valuable information about the patient in real-time. PMID:25048461

  19. A Home-Based Educational Intervention Improves Patient Activation Measures and Diabetes Health Indicators among Zuni Indians

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vallabh O.; Carroll, Casey; Mals, Ryan; Ghahate, Donica; Bobelu, Jeanette; Sandy, Phillip; Colleran, Kathleen; Schrader, Ronald; Faber, Thomas; Burge, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction One in three people will be diagnosed with diabetes by 2050, and the proportion will likely be higher among Native Americans. Diabetes control is currently suboptimal in underserved populations despite a plethora of new therapies. Patient empowerment is a key determinant of diabetes control, but such empowerment can be difficult to achieve due to resource limitation and cultural, language and health literacy barriers. We describe a home-based educational intervention using Community Health Representatives (CHRs), leading to improvement in Patient Activation Measures scores and clinical indicators of diabetes control. Methods Sixty participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) completed a baseline evaluation including physical exam, Point of Care (POC) testing, and the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) survey. Participants then underwent a one hour group didactic session led by Community Health Representatives (CHRs) who subsequently carried out monthly home-based educational interventions to encourage healthy lifestyles, including diet, exercise, and alcohol and cigarette avoidance until follow up at 6 months, when clinical phenotyping and the PAM survey were repeated. Results PAM scores were increased by at least one level in 35 (58%) participants, while 24 participants who started at higher baseline score did not change. Six months after intervention, mean levels of A1C decreased by 0.7 ± 1.2%; fasting blood glucose decreased by 24.0 ± 38.0 mg/dl; BMI decreased by 1.5 ± 2.1 kg/m2; total cholesterol decreased by 12.0± 28.0 mg/dl; and triglycerides decreased by 52.0 ± 71.0 mg/dl. All of these changes were statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion This six month, CHR led and community-oriented educational intervention helps inform standards of practice for the management of diabetes, engages diabetic populations in their own care, and reduces health disparities for the underserved population of Zuni Indians. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  20. Measuring Engagement in Later Life Activities: Rasch-Based Scenario Scales for Work, Caregiving, Informal Helping, and Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Larry H.; Matz-Costa, Christina; Johnson, Clair; Brown, Melissa; Besen, Elyssa; James, Jacquelyn B.

    2014-01-01

    The development of Rasch-based "comparative engagement scenarios" based on Guttman's facet theory and sentence mapping procedures is described. The scenario scales measuring engagement in work, caregiving, informal helping, and volunteering illuminate the lived experiences of role involvement among older adults and offer multiple…

  1. Model- based filtering for artifact and noise suppression with state estimation for electrodermal activity measurements in real time.

    PubMed

    Tronstad, Christian; Staal, Odd M; Saelid, Steinar; Martinsen, Orjan G

    2015-08-01

    Measurement of electrodermal activity (EDA) has recently made a transition from the laboratory into daily life with the emergence of wearable devices. Movement and nongelled electrodes make these devices more susceptible to noise and artifacts. In addition, real-time interpretation of the measurement is needed for user feedback. The Kalman filter approach may conveniently deal with both these issues. This paper presents a biophysical model for EDA implemented in an extended Kalman filter. Employing the filter on data from Physionet along with simulated noise and artifacts demonstrates noise and artifact suppression while implicitly providing estimates of model states and parameters such as the sudomotor nerve activation. PMID:26736861

  2. Intrinsic Motivation and Engagement as "Active Ingredients" in Garden-Based Education: Examining Models and Measures Derived from Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Ellen A.; Chi, Una

    2012-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory, this study presents a model of intrinsic motivation and engagement as "active ingredients" in garden-based education. The model was used to create reliable and valid measures of key constructs, and to guide the empirical exploration of motivational processes in garden-based learning. Teacher- and…

  3. Web-based Tools for Educators: Outreach Activities of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braaten, D. A.; Holvoet, J. F.; Gogineni, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Kansas (KU) has implemented extensive outreach activities focusing on Polar Regions as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project. The PRISM project is developing advanced intelligent remote sensing technology that involves radar systems, an autonomous rover, and communications systems to measure detailed ice sheet characteristics, and to determine bed conditions (frozen or wet) below active ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica. These measurements will provide a better understanding of the response of polar ice sheets to global climate change and the resulting impact the ice sheets will have on sea level rise. Many of the research and technological development aspects of the PRISM project, such as robotics, radar systems, climate change and exploration of harsh environments, can kindle an excitement and interest in students about science and technology. These topics form the core of our K-12 education and training outreach initiatives, which are designed to capture the imagination of young students, and prompt them to consider an educational path that will lead them to scientific or engineering careers. The K-12 PRISM outreach initiatives are being developed and implemented in a collaboration with the Advanced Learning Technology Program (ALTec) of the High Plains Regional Technology in Education Consortium (HPR*TEC). ALTec is associated with the KU School of Education, and is a well-established educational research center that develops and hosts web tools to enable teachers nationwide to network, collaborate, and share resources with other teachers. An example of an innovative and successful web interface developed by ALTec is called TrackStar. Teachers can use TrackStar over the Web to develop interactive, resource-based lessons (called tracks) on-line for their students. Once developed, tracks are added to the TrackStar database and can be accessed and modified

  4. L-band active/passive time series measurements over a growing season usign the COMRAD ground-based SMAP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scheduled to launch in October 2014, NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will provide high-resolution global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every 2-3 days. These new measurements of the hydrological condition of the Earth’s surface will build on data from European Spa...

  5. ACTIVITIES: Centimeter and Millimeter Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolster, L. Carey

    1974-01-01

    An activity is suggested which will give junior high school students practice in estimating and measuring in centimeters and millimeters. Three worksheets are given, one of which is a model for making a metric caliper. (LS)

  6. Development of an accelerator based system for in vivo neutron activation analysis measurements of manganese in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michelle Lynn

    2001-11-01

    Manganese is required by the human body, but as with many heavy elements, in large amounts it can be toxic, producing a neurological disorder similar to that of Parkinson's Disease. The primary industrial uses of the element are for the manufacturing of steel and alkali batteries. Environmental exposure may occur via drinking water or exhaust emissions from vehicles using gasoline with the manganese containing compound MMT as an antiknock agent (MMT has been approved for use in both Canada and the United States). Preclinical symptoms of toxicity have recently been detected in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne manganese at levels below the present threshold limit value set by the EPA. Evidence also suggests that early detection of manganese toxicity is crucial since once the symptoms have developed past a certain point, the syndrome will continue to progress even if manganese exposure ceases. The development of a system for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) measurement of manganese levels was investigated, with the goal being to have a means of monitoring both over exposed and manganese deficient populations. The McMaster KN-accelerator was used to provide low-energy neutrons, activation within an irradiation site occurred via the 55Mn(n,gamma) 56Mn capture reaction, and the 847 keV gamma-rays emitted when 56Mn decayed were measured using one or more Nal(TI) detectors. The present data regarding manganese metabolism and storage within the body are limited, and it is unclear what the optimal measurement site would be to provide a suitable biomarker of past exposure. Therefore the feasibility of IVNAA measurements in three sites was examined---the liver, brain and hand bones. Calibration curves were derived, minimum detectable limits determined and resulting doses calculated for each site (experimentally in the case of the liver and hand bones, and through computer simulations for the brain). Detailed analytical calculations of the 7Li(p,n) 7Be

  7. Observation of mitochondrial activity based on temporal and spatial pH variations measured by near-field fluorescent ratiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongbo; Shionhara, Ryosuke; Iwami, Kentaro; Ohta, Yoshihiro; Umeda, Norihiro

    2011-12-01

    A novel method combining dual wavelength fluorescent ratiometry with scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) is proposed and developed to measure the concentration and distribution of protons in the vicinity of biological samples. This method involves immersing mitochondria in a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye solution instead of injecting the dye into the surface of the mitochondrial membrane. It uses a dual emission pH-sensitive dye and SNOM with a thermally pulled and metal-coated optical fiber probe to improve the spatial resolution. The time dependence of the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) under acid addition and the response of mitochondria to nutritional supplementation were studied by using this method. Activation of mitochondria and a distance-dependent delay in the FIR response were observed. The results confirmed that mitochondrial activity could be observed by using this method.

  8. Assessing the Validity of a Stage Measure on Physical Activity in a Population-Based Sample of Individuals with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lippke, Sonia; Reinbold-Matthews, Melissa; Courneya, Kerry S.; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J.; Birkett, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to test the validity of a transtheoretical model's physical activity (PA) stage measure with intention and different intensities of behavior in a large population-based sample of adults living with diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, n = 697; Type 2 diabetes, n = 1,614) and examine different age groups. The overall "specificity"…

  9. The Development and Evaluation of an Achievement Test for Measuring the Efficacy of Task-Based Writing Activities to Enhance Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…

  10. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities…

  11. Antioxidant Activity/Capacity Measurement. 2. Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT)-Based, Mixed-Mode (Electron Transfer (ET)/HAT), and Lipid Peroxidation Assays.

    PubMed

    Apak, Reşat; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Çapanoğlu, Esra

    2016-02-10

    Measuring the antioxidant activity/capacity levels of food extracts and biological fluids is useful for determining the nutritional value of foodstuffs and for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of numerous oxidative stress-related diseases. Biologically, antioxidants play their health-beneficial roles via transferring a hydrogen (H) atom or an electron (e(-)) to reactive species, thereby deactivating them. Antioxidant activity assays imitate this action; that is, antioxidants are measured by their H atom transfer (HAT) or e(-) transfer (ET) to probe molecules. Antioxidant activity/capacity can be monitored by a wide variety of assays with different mechanisms, including HAT, ET, and mixed-mode (ET/HAT) assays, generally without distinct boundaries between them. Understanding the principal mechanisms, advantages, and disadvantages of the measurement assays is important for proper selection of method for valid evaluation of antioxidant properties in desired applications. This work provides a general and up-to-date overview of HAT-based, mixed-mode (ET/HAT), and lipid peroxidation assays available for measuring antioxidant activity/capacity and the chemistry behind them, including a critical evaluation of their advantages and drawbacks. PMID:26805392

  12. Measurement-based quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwerger, M.; Briegel, H. J.; Dür, W.

    2016-03-01

    We review and discuss the potential of using measurement-based elements in quantum communication schemes, where certain tasks are realized with the help of entangled resource states that are processed by measurements. We consider long-range quantum communication based on the transmission of encoded quantum states, where encoding, decoding and syndrome readout are implemented using small-scale resource states. We also discuss entanglement-based schemes and consider measurement-based quantum repeaters. An important element in these schemes is entanglement purification, which can also be implemented in a measurement-based way. We analyze the influence of noise and imperfections in these schemes and show that measurement-based implementation allows for very large error thresholds of the order of 10 % noise per qubit and more. We show how to obtain optimal resource states for different tasks and discuss first experimental realizations of measurement-based quantum error correction using trapped ions and photons.

  13. Measuring Active Learning to Predict Course Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John E.; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether active learning within computer-based training courses can be measured and whether it serves as a predictor of learner-perceived course quality. A major corporation participated in this research, providing access to internal employee training courses, training representatives, and historical course evaluation data.…

  14. On the Measurement and Visualization of Analysis Activity: A Study of Successful Strategies for Web-Based Information Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelik, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) has a history built, in part, on leveraging representational design to improve system performance. Traditionally, however, CSE has focused on visual representation of "monitored" processes--active, ongoing, and interconnected activities occurring in a system of interest and monitored by human…

  15. Measuring activity in ant colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, C.; Fernández, J.; Pérez-Penichet, C.; Altshuler, E.

    2006-12-01

    Ants, as paradigm of social insects, have become a recurrent example of efficient problem solvers via self-organization. In spite of the simple behavior of each individual, the colony as a whole displays "swarm intelligence:" the organization of ant trails for foraging is a typical output of it. But conventional techniques of observation can hardly record the amount of data needed to get a detailed understanding of self-organization of ant swarms in the wild. Here we are presenting a measurement system intended to monitor ant activity in the field comprising massive data acquisition and high sensitivity. A central role is played by an infrared sensor devised specifically to monitor relevant parameters to the activity of ants through the exits of the nest, although other sensors detecting temperature and luminosity are added to the system. We study the characteristics of the activity sensor and its performance in the field. Finally, we present massive data measured at one exit of a nest of Atta insularis, an ant endemic to Cuba, to illustrate the potential of our system.

  16. An assay for 26S proteasome activity based on fluorescence anisotropy measurements of dye-labeled protein substrates.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sucharita; Renn, Jonathan P; Yu, Houqing; Marko, John F; Matouschek, Andreas

    2016-09-15

    The 26S proteasome is the molecular machine at the center of the ubiquitin proteasome system and is responsible for adjusting the concentrations of many cellular proteins. It is a drug target in several human diseases, and assays for the characterization of modulators of its activity are valuable. The 26S proteasome consists of two components: a core particle, which contains the proteolytic sites, and regulatory caps, which contain substrate receptors and substrate processing enzymes, including six ATPases. Current high-throughput assays of proteasome activity use synthetic fluorogenic peptide substrates that report directly on the proteolytic activity of the proteasome, but not on the activities of the proteasome caps that are responsible for protein recognition and unfolding. Here, we describe a simple and robust assay for the activity of the entire 26S proteasome using fluorescence anisotropy to follow the degradation of fluorescently labeled protein substrates. We describe two implementations of the assay in a high-throughput format and show that it meets the expected requirement of ATP hydrolysis and the presence of a canonical degradation signal or degron in the target protein. PMID:27296635

  17. Effect of heavy metals on nitrification activity as measured by RNA- and DNA-based function-specific assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metals can inhibit nitrification, a key process for nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. The transcriptional responses of functional genes (amoA, hao, nirK and norB) were measured in conjunction with specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR) for nitrifying enrichment cultures...

  18. Magnetic Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Biomonitoring of Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides and Nerve Agents Based on Simultaneous Measurement of Total Enzyme Amount and Enzyme Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Limin; Lu, Donglai; Smith, Jordan N.; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-05-15

    We report a new approach for electrochemical quantification of enzymatic inhibition and phosphorylation for biomonitoring of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents based on a magnetic beads (MBs) immunosensing platform. The principle of this approach is based on the combination of MBs immuno-capture based enzyme activity assay and competitive immunoassay of total amount of enzyme for simultaneous detection of enzyme inhibition and phosphorylation in biological fluids. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was chosen as a model enzyme. In competitive immunoassay, the target total BChE in a sample (mixture of OP-inhibited BChE and active BChE) competes with the BChE modified on the MBs to bind to the limited anti-BChE antibody labeled with quantum dots (QDs-anti-BChE), and followed by electrochemical stripping analysis of the bound QDs conjugate on the MBs. This assay shows a linear response over the total BChE concentration range of 0.1~20 nM. Simultaneously, real time BChE activity was measured on an electrochemical carbon nanotube-based sensor coupled with microflow injection system after immuno-capture by MBs-anti-BChE conjugate. Therefore, the formed phosphorylated adduct (OP-BChE) can be estimated by the difference values of the total amount BChE (including active and OP-inhibited) and active BChE from established calibration curves. This approach not only eliminates the difficulty in screening of low-dose OP exposure (less than 20% inhibition of BChE) because of individual variation of BChE values, but also avoids the drawback of the scarce availability of OP-BChE antibody. It is sensitive enough to detect 0.5 nM OP-BChE, which is less than 2% BChE inhibition. This method offers a new method for rapid, accurate, selective and inexpensive quantification of phosphorylated adducts and enzyme inhibition for biomonitoring of OP and nerve agent exposures.

  19. Disparate Proteome Responses of Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Aspergilli to Human Serum Measured by Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Ansong, Charles; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pederson, Leeanna M.; Fortuin, Suereta; Hofstad, Beth A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the primary pathogen causing the devastating pulmonary disease Invasive Aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. Genomic analysis shows high synteny between A. fumigatus and closely related rarely pathogenic Neosartorya fischeri and Aspergillus clavatus genomes. To investigate the presence of unique or highly inducible protein reactivity in the pathogen, we applied activity-based protein profiling to compare protein reactivity of all three fungi over time in minimal media growth and in response to human serum. We found 350 probe-reactive proteins exclusive to A. fumigatus, including known virulence associated proteins, and 13 proteins associated with stress response exclusive to A. fumigatus culture in serum. Though the fungi are highly orthologous, A. fumigatus has significantly more activity across varied biological process. Only 50% of expected orthologs of measured A. fumigatus reactive proteins were observed in N. fischeri and A. clavatus. Human serum induced processes uniquely or significantly represented in A. fumigatus include actin organization and assembly, transport, and fatty acid, cell membrane, and cell wall synthesis. Additionally, signaling proteins regulating vegetative growth, conidiation, and cell wall integrity, required for appropriate cellular response to external stimuli, had higher reactivity over time in A. fumigatus and N. fisheri, but not in A. clavatus. Together, we show that measured proteins and physiological processes identified solely or significantly over-represented in A. fumigatus reveal a unique adaptive response to human protein not found in closely related, but rarely aspergilli. These unique protein reactivity responses may reveal how A. fumigatus initiates pulmonary invasion leading to Invasive Aspergillosis.

  20. Disease Activity Measures in Paediatric Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Nadia J.; Feldman, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Disease activity refers to potentially reversible aspects of a disease. Measurement of disease activity in paediatric rheumatic diseases is a critical component of patient care and clinical research. Disease activity measures are developed systematically, often involving consensus methods. To be useful, a disease activity measure must be feasible, valid, and interpretable. There are several challenges in quantifying disease activity in paediatric rheumatology; namely, the conditions are multidimensional, the level of activity must be valuated in the context of treatment being received, there is no gold standard for disease activity, and it is often difficult to incorporate the patient's perspective of their disease activity. To date, core sets of response variables are defined for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus, and juvenile dermatomyositis, as well as definitions for improvement in response to therapy. Several specific absolute disease activity measures also exist for each condition. Further work is required to determine the optimal disease activity measures in paediatric rheumatology. PMID:24089617

  1. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2010-01-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual’s segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial–ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces. PMID:21643546

  2. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, David W. S.; Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2011-06-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual's segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial-ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces.

  3. Wavelet-based algorithm for auto-detection of daily living activities of older adults captured by multiple inertial measurement units (IMUs).

    PubMed

    Ayachi, Fouaz S; Nguyen, Hung P; Lavigne-Pelletier, Catherine; Goubault, Etienne; Boissy, Patrick; Duval, Christian

    2016-03-01

    A recent trend in human motion capture is the use of inertial measurement units (IMUs) for monitoring and performance evaluation of mobility in the natural living environment. Although the use of such systems have grown significantly, the development of methods and algorithms to process IMU data for clinical purposes is still limited. The aim of this work is to develop algorithms based on wavelet transform and discrete-time detection of events for the automatic segmentation of tasks related activities of daily living (ADL) from body worn IMUs. Seven healthy older adults (73  ±  4 years old) performed 10 ADL tasks in a simulated apartment during trials of different durations (3, 4, and 5 min). They wore a suit (Synertial UK Ltd IGS-180) comprised of 17 IMUs positioned strategically on body segments to capture full body motion. The proposed method automatically detected the number of template waveforms (representing each movement separately) using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete-time detection of events based on angular velocity, linear acceleration and 3D orientation data of pertinent IMUs. The sensitivity (Se.) and specificity (Sp.) of detection for the proposed method was established using time stamps of10tasks obtained from visual segmentation of each trial using the video records and the avatar provided by the system's software. At first, we identified six pertinent sensors that were strongly associated to different activities (at most two sensors/task) that allowed detection of tasks with high accuracy. The proposed algorithm exhibited significant global accuracy (N events  =  1999, Se.  =  97.5%, Sp.  =  94%), despite the variation in the occurrences of the performed tasks (free living). The Se. varied from 94% to 100% for all the detected ADL tasks and Sp. ranged from 90% to 100% with the worst Sp.  =  85 and 87% for Release_mid (reaching for object held just beyond reach at chest height) and Turning

  4. Brazil current eddy activity near cape São Tomé based on direct ADCP data measurements from 2006 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, N. D.; Gabioux, M.; Guerra, L. D.; Paiva, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    structure, the variability associated with the meandering of the stream and the eddy generation, had a significant barotropic component. Some eddies pinched off from the current, while others were reabsorbed by the Brasil Current, in accordance with the proposed conceptual model. Reference LIMA, N. D., GUERRA, L. D., PAIVA, A. M., 2010. Brazil Current eddy-activity near cape São Tomé based on direct ADCP measurements, 2010 Meeting of the Americas, Foz do Iguaçu.

  5. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  6. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  7. An updated model for nitrate uptake modelling in plants. II. Assessment of active root involvement in nitrate uptake based on integrated root system age: measured versus modelled outputs

    PubMed Central

    Malagoli, Philippe; Le Deunff, Erwan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims An updated version of a mechanistic structural–functional model was developed to predict nitrogen (N) uptake throughout the growth cycle by a crop of winter oilseed rape, Brassica napus, grown under field conditions. Methods The functional component of the model derives from a revisited conceptual framework that combines the thermodynamic Flow–Force interpretation of nitrate uptake isotherms and environmental and in planta effects on nitrate influx. Estimation of the root biomass (structural component) is based upon a combination of root mapping along the soil depth profile in the field and a relationship between the specific root length and external nitrate concentration. The root biomass contributing actively to N uptake was determined by introduction of an integrated root system age that allows assignment of a root absorption capacity at a specific age of the root. Key Results Simulations were well matched to measured data of N taken up under field conditions for three levels of N fertilization. The model outputs indicated that the two topsoil layers (0–30 and 30–60 cm) contained 75–88 % of the total root length and biomass, and accounted for 90–95 % of N taken up at harvest. Conclusions This conceptual framework provides a model of nitrate uptake that is able to respond to external nitrate fluctuations at both functional and structural levels. PMID:24709791

  8. An updated model for nitrate uptake modelling in plants. II. Assessment of active root involvement in nitrate uptake based on integrated root system age: measured versus modelled outputs.

    PubMed

    Malagoli, Philippe; Le Deunff, Erwan

    2014-05-01

    Background and Aims An updated version of a mechanistic structural-functional model was developed to predict nitrogen (N) uptake throughout the growth cycle by a crop of winter oilseed rape, Brassica napus, grown under field conditions. Methods The functional component of the model derives from a revisited conceptual framework that combines the thermodynamic Flow-Force interpretation of nitrate uptake isotherms and environmental and in planta effects on nitrate influx. Estimation of the root biomass (structural component) is based upon a combination of root mapping along the soil depth profile in the field and a relationship between the specific root length and external nitrate concentration. The root biomass contributing actively to N uptake was determined by introduction of an integrated root system age that allows assignment of a root absorption capacity at a specific age of the root. Key Results Simulations were well matched to measured data of N taken up under field conditions for three levels of N fertilization. The model outputs indicated that the two topsoil layers (0-30 and 30-60 cm) contained 75-88 % of the total root length and biomass, and accounted for 90-95 % of N taken up at harvest. Conclusions This conceptual framework provides a model of nitrate uptake that is able to respond to external nitrate fluctuations at both functional and structural levels. PMID:24709791

  9. Vision-based force measurement.

    PubMed

    Greminger, Michael A; Nelson, Bradley J

    2004-03-01

    This paper demonstrates a method to visually measure the force distribution applied to a linearly elastic object using the contour data in an image. The force measurement is accomplished by making use of the result from linear elasticity that the displacement field of the contour of a linearly elastic object is sufficient to completely recover the force distribution applied to the object. This result leads naturally to a deformable template matching approach where the template is deformed according to the governing equations of linear elasticity. An energy minimization method is used to match the template to the contour data in the image. This technique of visually measuring forces we refer to as vision-based force measurement (VBFM). VBFM has the potential to increase the robustness and reliability of micromanipulation and biomanipulation tasks where force sensing is essential for success. The effectiveness of VBFM is demonstrated for both a microcantilever beam and a microgripper. A sensor resolution of less than +/- 3 nN for the microcantilever and +/- 3 mN for the microgripper was achieved using VBFM. Performance optimizations for the energy minimization problem are also discussed that make this algorithm feasible for real-time applications. PMID:15376877

  10. Active Learning: The Importance of Developing a Comprehensive Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…

  11. Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Absolute Activity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loidl, M.; Leblanc, E.; Rodrigues, M.; Bouchard, J.; Censier, B.; Branger, T.; Lacour, D.

    2008-05-01

    We present a prototype of metallic magnetic calorimeters that we are developing for absolute activity measurements of low energy emitting radionuclides. We give a detailed description of the realization of the prototype, containing an 55Fe source inside the detector absorber. We present the analysis of first data taken with this detector and compare the result of activity measurement with liquid scintillation counting. We also propose some ways for reducing the uncertainty on the activity determination with this new technique.

  12. Electroencephalogram-based pharmacodynamic measures: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bewernitz, Michael; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can provide a useful modeling framework for predicting drug activity and can serve as a basis for dose optimization. Determining a suitable biomarker or surrogate measure of drug effect for pharmacodynamic models can be challenging. The electroencephalograph is a widely-available and non-invasive tool for recording brain-wave activity simultaneously from multiple brain regions. Certain drug classes (such as drugs that act on the central nervous system) also generate a reproducible electroencephalogram (EEG) effect. Characterization of such a drug-induced EEG effect can produce pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models useful for titrating drug levels and expediting development of chemically-similar drug analogs. This paper reviews the relevant concepts involved in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling using EEG-based pharmacodynamic measures. In addition, examples of such models for various drugs are organized by drug activity as well as chemical structure and presented. PMID:22373830

  13. Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated

  14. Measurement-Based Classical Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoban, Matty J.; Wallman, Joel J.; Anwar, Hussain; Usher, Naïri; Raussendorf, Robert; Browne, Dan E.

    2014-04-01

    Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) is a model of quantum computation, in which computation proceeds via adaptive single qubit measurements on a multiqubit quantum state. It is computationally equivalent to the circuit model. Unlike the circuit model, however, its classical analog is little studied. Here we present a classical analog of MBQC whose computational complexity presents a rich structure. To do so, we identify uniform families of quantum computations [refining the circuits introduced by Bremner et al. Proc. R. Soc. A 467, 459 (2010)] whose output is likely hard to exactly simulate (sample) classically. We demonstrate that these circuit families can be efficiently implemented in the MBQC model without adaptive measurement and, thus, can be achieved in a classical analog of MBQC whose resource state is a probability distribution which has been created quantum mechanically. Such states (by definition) violate no Bell inequality, but, if widely held beliefs about computational complexity are true, they, nevertheless, exhibit nonclassicality when used as a computational resource—an imprint of their quantum origin.

  15. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  16. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities of BA. The tested scale sought to capture the type of assignment, realm of functioning targeted, extent of completion, and assignment difficulty. Homework assignments were drawn from 12 (mean age = 48, 83% female) clients in two trials of a 10-session BA manual targeting treatment-resistant depression in primary care. The two coders demonstrated acceptable or better reliability on most codes, and unreliable codes were dropped from the proposed scale. In addition, correlations between homework completion and outcome were strong, providing some support for construct validity. Ultimately, this line of research aims to develop a user-friendly, reliable measure of BA homework completion that can be completed by a therapist during session. PMID:20562324

  17. Measurement of short-base deformations in one of the regions of active fracturing in the Hanoi depression (the Socialist Republic of Vietnam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmaleeva, R. M.; Yem, Nguyen Trong; Tu, Nguyen Dinh; Quoc, Le Minh; Chan Quoc, Hung

    1992-02-01

    Observations of deformation processes were carried out in one of the regions of active fracturing in the territory of the Hanoi depression, with the purpose of determining the rates of recent crustal movements during time intervals of about 1 yr to several years. The measurements were conducted with deformometers and hydrostatic levellers installed in a 5 m deep trench. The observation data for the 1985-1988 period indicate a high tectonic activity in the region studied. The horizontal deformation rates are (1-10) 10 -5/yr, and the vertical rates are 10 -4-10 -3/yr. Spectral characteristics of recorded processes have been obtained as well as meteorological effects.

  18. Measurement of Larval Activity in the Drosophila Activity Monitor

    PubMed Central

    McParland, Aidan L.; Follansbee, Taylor L.; Ganter, Geoffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila larvae are used in many behavioral studies, yet a simple device for measuring basic parameters of larval activity has not been available. This protocol repurposes an instrument often used to measure adult activity, the TriKinetics Drosophila activity monitor (MB5 Multi-Beam Activity Monitor) to study larval activity. The instrument can monitor the movements of animals in 16 individual 8 cm glass assay tubes, using 17 infrared detection beams per tube. Logging software automatically saves data to a computer, recording parameters such as number of moves, times sensors were triggered, and animals’ positions within the tubes. The data can then be analyzed to represent overall locomotion and/or position preference as well as other measurements. All data are easily accessible and compatible with basic graphing and data manipulation software. This protocol will discuss how to use the apparatus, how to operate the software and how to run a larval activity assay from start to finish. PMID:25993121

  19. Quantitative measurement of epidermal growth factor receptor-mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction using a nine-plex, peptide-based immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Rauh-Adelmann, Christine; Moskow, John M; Graham, James R; Yen, Lucy G; Boucher, Jeffrey I; Murphy, Cheryl E; Nadler, Timothy K; Gordon, Neal F; Radding, Jeffrey A

    2008-04-15

    Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ErbB1) signaling is implicated in cell transformation, motility, and invasion in a variety of cell types, and EGFR is the target of several anticancer drugs. However, the kinetics of EGFR signaling and the individual contributions of site-specific phosphorylation events remain largely unknown. A peptide-based, multiplex immunoassay approach was developed to simultaneously measure both total and phosphorylated protein in a single sample. The approach involves the proteolytic digestion of proteins prior to the isolation and quantitation of site-specific phosphorylation events within an individual protein. Quantitation of phosphorylated and total proteins, in picomolar to nanomolar concentrations, were interpolated from standard curves generated with synthetic peptides that correspond to the peptide targets used in the immunoassays. In this study, a bead-based, nine-plex immunoassay measuring total and phosphorylated protein was constructed to measure temporal, site-specific phosphorylation of key members of the EGFR pathway (ErbB1 receptor, MEK1, MEK2, ERK1, and ERK2) in A431 cells stimulated with epidermal growth factor. The effect of MEK inhibition on this pathway was determined using a known MEK kinase inhibitor, SL327. The results reported herein are the first quantitative measurements of site-specific phosphorylation events and total proteins in a single sample, at the same time representing a new paradigm for standardized protein and phosphorylation analysis using multiplexed, peptide-based, sandwich immunoassays. PMID:18275835

  20. Measurement of lysine-specific demethylase-1 activity in the nuclear extracts by flow-injection based time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Chiharu; Ohta, Hiromichi; Shidoji, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A), a histone-modifying enzyme, is upregulated in many cancers, especially in neuroblastoma, breast cancer and hepatoma. We have established a simple method to measure LSD1 activity using a synthetic N-terminal 21-mer peptide of histone H3, which is dimethylated at Lys-4 (H3K4me2). After the enzyme reaction, a substrate of H3K4me2 and two demethylated products, H3K4me1 and H3K4me0, were quantitatively determined by flow injection time-of-flight mass spectrometry (FI-TOF/MS). By using recombinant human LSD1, a nonlinear fitting simulation of the data obtained by FI-TOF/MS produced typical consecutive-reaction kinetics. Apparent Km and kcat values of hLSD1 for the first and second demethylation reactions were found to be in the range of reported values. Tranylcypromine was shown to inhibit LSD1 activity with an IC50 of 6.9 µM for the first demethylation reaction and 5.8 µM for the second demethylation reaction. The FI-TOF/MS assay revealed that the endogenous LSD1 activity was higher in the nuclear extracts of SH-SY5Y cells than in HeLa or PC-3 cells, and this is in accordance with the immunoblotting data using an anti-LSD1 antibody. A simple, straightforward FI-TOF/MS assay is described to efficiently measure LSD1 activity in the nuclear extracts of cultured cells. PMID:25759518

  1. Measurement of lysine-specific demethylase-1 activity in the nuclear extracts by flow-injection based time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sakane, Chiharu; Ohta, Hiromichi; Shidoji, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A), a histone-modifying enzyme, is upregulated in many cancers, especially in neuroblastoma, breast cancer and hepatoma. We have established a simple method to measure LSD1 activity using a synthetic N-terminal 21-mer peptide of histone H3, which is dimethylated at Lys-4 (H3K4me2). After the enzyme reaction, a substrate of H3K4me2 and two demethylated products, H3K4me1 and H3K4me0, were quantitatively determined by flow injection time-of-flight mass spectrometry (FI-TOF/MS). By using recombinant human LSD1, a nonlinear fitting simulation of the data obtained by FI-TOF/MS produced typical consecutive-reaction kinetics. Apparent K m and k cat values of hLSD1 for the first and second demethylation reactions were found to be in the range of reported values. Tranylcypromine was shown to inhibit LSD1 activity with an IC50 of 6.9 µM for the first demethylation reaction and 5.8 µM for the second demethylation reaction. The FI-TOF/MS assay revealed that the endogenous LSD1 activity was higher in the nuclear extracts of SH-SY5Y cells than in HeLa or PC-3 cells, and this is in accordance with the immunoblotting data using an anti-LSD1 antibody. A simple, straightforward FI-TOF/MS assay is described to efficiently measure LSD1 activity in the nuclear extracts of cultured cells. PMID:25759518

  2. Detection of Telomerase Activity Using Capacitance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bong Keun; Lee, Ri Mi; Choi, Ahmi; Jung, Hyo-Il; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2007-03-01

    Telomerase activity has been found in about 85% cancer cells, while no activity observed in normal cells, so that telomerase has been proposed as a marker for cancer detection. Here, we describe electrical detection of telomerase activity using capacitance measurements. We have investigated the length dependence of capacitance on DNA solutions and found that the capacitance of DNA solutions were dependent on the DNA length. In addition, upon adding telomerase into the solution of telomeric substrate primer, the capacitance was observed to change as a function of time due to the telomeric elongation. These results suggest that this novel nanosensor may be used for rapid detection of telomerase activity.

  3. Measuring the Built Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Day, Kristen; Forsyth, Ann; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical—or built—environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential. Three categories of built environment data are being used: (1) perceived measures obtained by telephone interview or self-administered questionnaires; (2) observational measures obtained using systematic observational methods (audits); and (3) archival data sets that are often layered and analyzed with GIS. This review provides a critical assessment of these three types of built-environment measures relevant to the study of physical activity. Among perceived measures, 19 questionnaires were reviewed, ranging in length from 7 to 68 questions. Twenty audit tools were reviewed that cover community environments (i.e., neighborhoods, cities), parks, and trails. For GIS-derived measures, more than 50 studies were reviewed. A large degree of variability was found in the operationalization of common GIS measures, which include population density, land-use mix, access to recreational facilities, and street pattern. This first comprehensive examination of built-environment measures demonstrates considerable progress over the past decade, showing diverse environmental variables available that use multiple modes of assessment. Most can be considered first-generation measures, so further development is needed. In particular, further research is needed to improve the technical quality of measures, understand the relevance to various population groups, and understand the utility of measures for science and public health. PMID:19285216

  4. Feature Based Measuring, Version 2.1

    2002-07-22

    A model-based tool that uses Measurement Features for generating measurement plans that facilitate DMIS compliant CMM Measurement part programs for both manufacturing verification and/or product acceptance.

  5. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-02-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine's list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996-2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  6. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship

    PubMed Central

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine’s list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996–2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  7. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Chettle, D. R.

    2008-02-15

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the {sup 26}Mg(n,{gamma}){sup 27}Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4{pi} geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when {sup 27}Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1{sigma}). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96{+-}1.25 ({+-}1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several

  8. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Pejović-Milić, A; McNeill, F E; Byun, S H; Prestwich, W V; Chettle, D R

    2008-02-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the 26Mg (n, gamma) 27Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4 pi geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when 27Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1 sigma). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96 +/- 1.25 (+/- 1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several studies using in

  9. Projection-based polygonality measurement.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Phuong; Hoang, Thai V

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the degree to which a shape resembles a polygon (referred to as polygonality) is a difficult problem due to the intrinsic diversity in the form and distortion of shapes caused by digitization and similarity transformation. This paper proposes a generic approach for this problem by performing the measurement in the projection space where the Radon image of some primitive shapes, which compose the shape, becomes apparent. The obtained measures take value in (0, 1] with 1 corresponding to analytical polygons. They are robust to additive noise and boundary distortion, and is invariant to similarity transformation. The new framework generalizes existing polygonal measures such as triangularity and quadrangularity. In addition, the ability to estimate polygon's geometric quantities in the projection space allows approximating a shape by analytical polygons. The efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated through a number of experiments on both synthetic and real data sets. PMID:25415985

  10. Measurements of thermospheric response to auroral activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okano, S.; Kim, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    The Joule heating produced by auroral electrojets and its thermospheric response can be studied by monitoring the thermospheric temperatures by optical methods; simultaneously, the concurrent auroral electrojet activities can be investigated by using geomagnetic records obtained from stations along a meridian close to the observation site of optical measurements. The measurements are reported of thermospheric response to auroral activities which were made at Albany (42.68 deg N, 73.82 deg W), New York on September 2, 1978 (UT) when an isolated substorm occured. The thermospheric temperatures were measured by using a high resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer that determines the line profiles of the (OI) 6300A line emission. The intensities and latitudinal positions of auroral electrojets were obtained by the analysis of magnetograms from the IMS Fort Churchill meridian chain stations.

  11. Advanced (Measurement) Applications of Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Yaacov; Cummings, Kelli Dawn; Biancarosa, Gina; Fien, Hank

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a commentary on the current state of several measurement issues pertaining to curriculum-based measures of reading (R-CBM). We begin by providing an overview of the utility of R-CBM, followed by a presentation of five specific measurements considerations: (a) the reliability of R-CBM oral reading fluency…

  12. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  13. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    PubMed

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). PMID:22280793

  14. Studying longterm effects of micro gravity on basic immune functions - The development of an application based on the measuring of phagocytosis activity of Blue Mussel hemocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, Eckehardt

    The immunsystem of astronauts exposed to microgravity is declining. Whether this effect is caused by microgravity or in combination with cosmic radiation is so far not clear. The immune system of vertebrates has several defence strategies but the basic immune response (Phagocytosis) is present as well in invertebrates. Phagocytotic cells are drawn by chemotaxis to the origin of an infection. By adhesion, ingestion and phagosome formation foreign particles, bacteria etc are transported inside of a cell were they are destroyed by native powerful biocides. Related to this biocide production is the formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). ROS can be measured by luminescence. The effects of microgravity will be simultaneously tested by exposure of phagocytotic hemocytes on orbit under microgravity, artificial gravity and, on ground under natural gravity. To address this purpose defined pools of Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis) hemocytes will be launched frozen to the ISS. References for all batches will stay on ground. Shortly after arrival and then in three-month intervals batches of the same pool will be thawed and reconstituted. The phagocytosis related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonized Zymosan. Luminescence will be measured and the data will be sent to ground. The experiment is scheduled for the Columbus Biolab early 2009. In preparation of this flight experiments the following procedures were investigated and the results will be presented: - a protocol for the cryoconservation and reconstituton of blue mussel hemocytes. - preliminary results of phagocytosis activity by reconstituted hemocytes after cryo-conservation and hemocytes without cryo-conservation treatment. The TRIPLELUX-B Experiment contributes to risk assessment concerning longterm immunotoxicity under space flight conditions. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The choice of the phagocytes from invertebrates is justified by the claim to study the

  15. Sample classroom activities based on climate science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miler, T.

    2009-09-01

    We present several activities developed for the middle school education based on a climate science. The first activity was designed to teach about the ocean acidification. A simple experiment can prove that absorption of CO2 in water increases its acidity. A liquid pH indicator is suitable for the demonstration in a classroom. The second activity uses data containing coordinates of a hurricane position. Pupils draw a path of a hurricane eye in a tracking chart (map of the Atlantic ocean). They calculate an average speed of the hurricane, investigate its direction and intensity development. The third activity uses pictures of the Arctic ocean on September when ice extend is usually the lowest. Students measure the ice extend for several years using a square grid printed on a plastic foil. Then they plot a graph and discuss the results. All these activities can be used to improve the natural science education and increase the climate change literacy.

  16. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

  17. Measurement of glutathione in activated sludges.

    PubMed

    Dziurla, M A; Leroy, P; Strünkmann, G W; Salhi, M; Lee, D U; Camacho, P; Heinz, V; Müller, J A; Paul, E; Ginestet, Ph; Audic, J M; Block, J C

    2004-01-01

    Thermal, electric, mechanical or oxidative stress seem a promising way to reduce the production of excess activated sludge during biological wastewater treatment. However, the adaptation and the resistance of the sludge microbial ecosystem to stress conditions is a major question as it may definitively limit the effect of some treatments. Defence mechanisms developed by aerobic organisms, in particular, in response to oxidative stress involve various antioxidant activities and compounds such as glutathione. An HPLC method was developed for measuring reduced and total glutathione (GSH and GSHt) in perchloric acid sludge extracts. The method was sensitive, highly specific and validated for linearity, precision and recovery. Considering the extraction yield and the oxidation of GSH during extract storage, the measured GSH concentration was estimated to represent 60% of the GSH content from activated sludges. GSHt ranged from 0.32 to 3.34micromolg(-1) volatile solids and the GSH/GSHt ratio ranged from 32% to 91%. Measurements performed on sludges stressed in precise conditions selected to reach a reduction of sludge production showed a decrease of GSH and GSHt concentrations with thermal, mechanical, electric and ozone stress. PMID:14630122

  18. Status of LDEF activation measurements and archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. Alan; Parnell, Thomas A.; Laird, Christopher E.

    1995-01-01

    We review the status of induced radioactivity measurements for the LDEF spacecraft which includes studies of the nuclide, target, directional and depth dependences of the activation. Analysis of the data has focused on extraction of the specific activities for many materials to develop a global picture of the low Earth orbital environment to which the LDEF was subjected. Preliminary comparisons of data in a previous review showed that it was possible to make meaningful intercomparisons between results obtained at different facilities. Generally these comparisons were good and gave results to within 10-20 percent, although some analysis remains. These results clearly provide constraints for recent calculations being performed of the radiation environment of the LDEF. We are not anticipating a period of production of final activation results. An archive is being prepared jointly between NASA/Marshall and Eastern Kentucky University which will include gamma ray spectra and other intermediate results.

  19. Neutron and proton activation measurements from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    Radioactivity induced by high-energy protons and secondary neutrons (from nuclear interactions) in various samples returned from different locations in Skylab was measured directly by gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of decay gamma rays from the samples. Incident fluxes were derived from the activation measurements, using known nuclear cross-section. Neutron and proton flux values were found to range from 0.2 to 5 particles/sq cm-sec, depending on the energy range and location in Skylab. The thermal neutron flux was less than 0.07 neutrons/sq cm-sec. The results are useful for data analysis and planning of future high-energy astronomy experiments.

  20. Estimating Snow Water Equivalent in the Swedish mountains by scaling snow depth measurements based on in situ data and local topography using passive and active remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingvander, Susanne; Johansson, Cecilia; Brandel, Malin; Brown, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Estimating the snow water equivalent (SWE) of the seasonal snow pack in the Swedish mountains is key information for the prediction of spring flood rates and the contribution to water reservoirs in Hydro-power production. The snow pack properties determining the SWE (snow depth and snow density) show spatial variations caused by synoptic scale weather patterns (air temperature gradients, wind and precipitation patterns) topography and vegetation. By establishing the relationship between accumulation patterns and physical parameters in the landscape a model of the spatial organization of the snow pack and its change over the season can be determined. By identifying the frequency and amplitude of topography in the Swedish mountain regions and by measuring snow accumulation in these regions we can increase the accuracy of the estimation of SWE. By using multiple parameters sampled in the snow pack from four sites in the Swedish mountains we quantify the local variability of SWE. This information will then be up-scaled to local coverage based on interpolation weighted on topography and vegetation. By validation of satellite imagery and existing snow cover products the information can be up-scaled from high-resolution field data to regional scale covering the Swedish mountain range in order to derive new satellite algorithms.

  1. Metabolic Thresholds and Validated Accelerometer Cutoff Points for the Actigraph GT1M in Young Children Based on Measurements of Locomotion and Play Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimmy, Gerda; Dossegger, Alain; Seiler, Roland; Mader, Urs

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine metabolic thresholds and subsequent activity intensity cutoff points for the ActiGraph GT1M with various epochs spanning from 5 to 60 sec in young children. Twenty-two children, aged 4 to 9 years, performed 10 different activities including locomotion and play activities. Energy expenditure was…

  2. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574316

  3. Noninvasive ambulatory measurement system of cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Pino, Esteban J; Chavez, Javier A P; Aqueveque, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    This work implements a noninvasive system that measures the movements caused by cardiac activity. It uses unobtrusive Electro-Mechanical Films (EMFi) on the seat and on the backrest of a regular chair. The system detects ballistocardiogram (BCG) and respiration movements. Real data was obtained from 54 volunteers. 19 of them were measured in the laboratory and 35 in a hospital waiting room. Using a BIOPAC acquisition system, the ECG was measured simultaneously to the BCG for comparison. Wavelet Transform (WT) is a better option than Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) for signal extraction and produces higher effective measurement time. In the laboratory, the best results are obtained on the seat. The correlation index was 0.9800 and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement were 0.7136 ± 4.3673 [BPM]. In the hospital waiting room, the best results are also from the seat sensor. The correlation index was 0.9840, and the limits of agreement were 0.4386 ± 3.5884 [BPM]. The system is able to measure BCG in an unobtrusive way and determine the cardiac frequency with high precision. It is simple to use, which means the system can easily be used in non-standard settings: resting in a chair or couch, at the gym, schools or in a hospital waiting room, as shown. PMID:26738057

  4. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active

  5. Acausal measurement-based quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-01

    In measurement-based quantum computing, there is a natural "causal cone" among qubits of the resource state, since the measurement angle on a qubit has to depend on previous measurement results in order to correct the effect of by-product operators. If we respect the no-signaling principle, by-product operators cannot be avoided. Here we study the possibility of acausal measurement-based quantum computing by using the process matrix framework [Oreshkov, Costa, and Brukner, Nat. Commun. 3, 1092 (2012), 10.1038/ncomms2076]. We construct a resource process matrix for acausal measurement-based quantum computing restricting local operations to projective measurements. The resource process matrix is an analog of the resource state of the standard causal measurement-based quantum computing. We find that if we restrict local operations to projective measurements the resource process matrix is (up to a normalization factor and trivial ancilla qubits) equivalent to the decorated graph state created from the graph state of the corresponding causal measurement-based quantum computing. We also show that it is possible to consider a causal game whose causal inequality is violated by acausal measurement-based quantum computing.

  6. Comparisons of activity measurements with radionuclide calibrators.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, P; Hernández, A T; Serra, R; Martínez, E; Varela, C

    2003-01-01

    The correct administration to a patient of the prescribed activity of a radiopharmaceutical is an important factor to ensure the confidence in the diagnosis or the therapeutic efficiency, while at the same time keeping the unnecessary human exposure as low as possible. Comparisons of activity measurements for 131I, 201Tl and 99mTc with radionuclide calibrators were organized the first time in Cuba during 2002 with the aim of obtaining information about the quality of administration of radiopharmaceuticals. Ten Cuban nuclear medicine departments and the laboratories involved in the production of these kinds of compounds participated in the comparison runs. The results presented in this paper facilitated the identification of several problems and initiated corrective actions. In addition, they indicate the necessity of establishing Quality Systems in nuclear medicine in Cuba. PMID:14622940

  7. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Brown, Barbara B.; Werner, Carol M.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a spatially disaggregate level (such as street blocks) or at a spatially aggregate level (such as census block groups). A key issue is determining the spatial units for walkability measures so that they reflect potential walking behavior. This paper develops methods for assessing walkability within individual activity spaces: the geographic region accessible to an individual during a given walking trip. We first estimate street network-based activity spaces using the shortest path between known trip starting/ending points and a travel time budget that reflects potential alternative paths. Based on objective walkability measures of the street blocks, we use three summary measures for walkability within activity spaces: i) the average walkability score across block segments (representing the general level of walkability in the activity space); ii) the standard deviation (representing the walkability variation), and; iii) the network autocorrelation (representing the spatial coherence of the walkability pattern). We assess the method using data from an empirical study of built environment walkability and walking behavior in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. We visualize and map these activity space summary measures to compare walkability among individuals’ trips within their neighborhoods. We also compare summary measures for activity spaces versus census block groups, with the result that they agree less than half of the time. PMID:27213027

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF HUMAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS ON PERSONAL PM EXPOSURE: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FILTER-BASED AND CONTINUOUS PARTICLE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored 1998 Baltimore and 1999 Fresno PM Exposure Studies were analyzed to identify important microenvironments and activities that may lead to increased particle exposure for select elderly ...

  9. Measuring Gains in Critical Thinking in Food Science and Human Nutrition Courses: The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Problem-Based Learning Activities, and Student Journal Entries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…

  10. Validation of Self-Report Measures of Physical Activity: A Case Study Using the New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Lisa M.; Schofield, Grant M.; Schluter, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is fundamentally important in epidemiological research of physical activity behavior. A widely used telephone-based physical activity questionnaire was compared with other methods of administration and objective measures (pedometers and accelerometers) among 80 adults (43 women). The telephone…

  11. Development of a simple model for anaerobic digestion based on preliminary measurements of the bacterial sulphur activity in wastewater stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Harerimana, Casimir; Keffala, Chéma; Jupsin, Hugues; Vasel, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop a simple and practical model for anaerobic digestion, encompassing sulphate reduction and sulphur oxidation, in a waste stabilization pond. The basic microbiological phases of the model consisted of four processes, namely acidogenesis, methanogenesis, sulphate reduction and sulphur oxidation. It also incorporated multiple reaction stoichiometry and substrate utilization kinetics. The study also aimed to investigate the mutual interaction between sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and photosynthetic sulphur bacteria (PSB) in an anaerobic sludge consortia using batch reactors. The results revealed that for an initial concentration of sulphate ranging between 250 and 2800 mg x l(-1), SRB activity ranged between 20 and 190 mgSO4(2-)(reduced). The gVSS(-1) x d(-1) and PSB activity varied between 60 and 320 mgSO4(2-)(produced). gVSS(-1) x d(-1), and PSB activity was noted to be twice as high as that of SRB. PSB can, therefore, be used effectively in the fight against odors. The most important environmental factors affecting the sulphur cycle in the waste stabilization pond were likely to be the availability of sulphate and light for SRB and PSB, respectively. PMID:24350475

  12. Measures of activity-based pedestrian exposure to the risk of vehicle-pedestrian collisions: space-time path vs. potential path tree methods.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shenjun; Loo, Becky P Y; Lam, Winnie W Y

    2015-02-01

    Research on the extent to which pedestrians are exposed to road collision risk is important to the improvement of pedestrian safety. As precise geographical information is often difficult and costly to collect, this study proposes a potential path tree method derived from time geography concepts in measuring pedestrian exposure. With negative binomial regression (NBR) and geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) models, the proposed probabilistic two-anchor-point potential path tree (PPT) approach (including the equal and weighted PPT methods) are compared with the deterministic space-time path (STP) method. The results indicate that both STP and PPT methods are useful tools in measuring pedestrian exposure. While the STP method can save much time, the PPT methods outperform the STP method in explaining the underlying vehicle-pedestrian collision pattern. Further research efforts are needed to investigate the influence of walking speed and route choice. PMID:25555021

  13. Insights on the long-term activity of Piton de la Fournaise Volcano from noise-based seismic velocity changes measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivet, D. N.; Brenguier, F.; Shapiro, N.; Clarke, D. S.; Peltier, A.; Campillo, M.

    2013-12-01

    We study the dynamics of Piton de la Fournaise (PdF) Volcano through the observation of continuous seismic velocity changes from 2000 to 2013. We compute cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise recorded at more than 30 short period and broadband stations of the Undervolc and PdF Volcano Observatory networks. The velocity changes are estimated from the travel time delays measured on the coda of noise cross-correlations computed between pairs of stations. We average the relative velocity changes for all pairs of stations and obtain a time series of the velocity change of Piton de la Fournaise volcano over 13 years. At short periods (0.5-4s), the depth sensitivity of the velocity change ranges from approximately 100m to 2500m. Some short-term velocity changes are produced by volcanic eruptions and intrusions (e.g. April 2007, October 2010 and December 2010), while others correlate clearly with periods of strong rainfall. Additionally, we observe a long-term velocity change. A slow decrease of velocity is measured from 2000 and ends with a major eruption that occurred in April 2007. This eruptive episode is followed by an increase of velocity that lasts until the end of 2012. These long-term changes are consistent with geodetic measurements that indicate a constant inter-eruptive inflation of the volcanic edifice prior to April 2007 and a deflation since then.The portion of the coda we use to measure velocity changes consists predominantly of surface waves, the depth sensitivity of which varies with frequency. Short period waves are sensitive to the shallow structure of the volcano, while longer period waves are sensitive to its deeper structure. Using this property of surface waves, we try to estimate the velocity perturbation at different depths.

  14. General SIC measurement-based entanglement detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Li, Tao; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2015-06-01

    We study the quantum separability problem by using general symmetric informationally complete measurements and present separability criteria for both -dimensional bipartite and multipartite systems. The criterion for bipartite quantum states is effective in detecting several well-known classes of quantum states. For isotropic states, it becomes both necessary and sufficient. Furthermore, our criteria can be experimentally implemented, and the criterion for two-qudit states requires less local measurements than the one based on mutually unbiased measurements.

  15. Using activity-based costing in surgery.

    PubMed

    Grandlich, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING is an accounting technique that allows organizations to determine actual costs associated with their services based on the resources they consume. THIS TECHNIQUE can be used in a variety of ways, including targeting high-cost activities, forecasting financial baselines, and supporting resource allocation. FOUR STEPS should be followed when applying activity-based costing to surgical procedures. THIS ARTICLE explores how Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, used activity-based costing. PMID:14763586

  16. Curriculum-Based Measures: Development and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deno, Stanley L.

    2003-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of curriculum-based measurement (CBM), clarifies its relationship to curriculum-based assessment, summarizes the primary features of CBM, and gives a rationale for its design. Extensions of CBM to new research domains are identified, and a perspective is provided in the place of CBM in the broader context of…

  17. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra and Temperature Analyses based on Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Moore, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Some initial results of soft x-ray spectral (0.5 to 3.0 nm) observations of active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) from a sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT are reported. These observations were made by a Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a rocket version of the EUV Variability Experiment’s (EVE) channel, a pinhole camera modified for EVE rocket suite of instruments to include a free-standing transmission grating (200 nm period), which provided spectrally-resolved images of the solar disk. Intensity ratios for strong emission lines extracted from temporally averaged SAM spectral profiles of the ARs were compared to appropriately convolved modeled CHIANTI spectra. These ratios represent the AR’s temperature structures, which are compared to the structures derived from some other observations and temperature models.

  18. Measuring emotion in advertising research: prefrontal brain activity.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Richard B; Nield, Geoffrey E

    2012-01-01

    With the current interest in the role of emotion in advertising and advertising research, there has been an increasing interest in the use of various brain activity measures to access nonverbal emotional responses. One such approach relies on measuring the difference between left and right hemisphere prefrontal cortical activity to assess like and dislike. This approach is based on electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging work, suggesting that the approach/withdrawal (frequently but not always associated with like/dislike) dimension of emotion is indicated by the balance of activity between the left and right prefrontal cortex. Much of this work was initiated by Richard Davidson in the early 1990s. An early study by Davidson et al. measured brain electrical activity to assess patterns of activation during the experience of happiness and disgust. The authors reported that disgust was found to be associated with increased right-sided activation in the frontal and anterior temporal regions compared with happiness. In contrast, happiness was found to be accompanied by left-sided activation in the anterior temporal region compared with disgust. Early reports suggested that frontal laterality indexes motivational valence with positive emotions (happy, like) associated with left greater than the right frontal activity and vice versa. Although these findings appear to be consistent with personality traits (e.g., optimism pessimism), state changes in frontal laterality appears to index approach withdraw rather than emotional valence. Interestingly, the behavioral and motivational correlates of prefrontal asymmetric activity are not restricted to humans or even primates but have been observed in numerous species such as birds and fish (see [4]). Henceforth, we use the term motivational valence (MV) rather than the more cumbersome term approach withdraw. PMID:22678836

  19. Lunar base activities and the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon is an attractive site for astronomical observatories and other facilities because of the absence of a substantial lunar atmosphere and the stability of the lunar surface. The present lunar atmosphere is sufficiently transparent that there is no significant image distortion due to absorption or refraction. This thin atmosphere results from a combination of small sources and prompt losses. The major source that has been identified is the solar wind, whose total mass input into the lunar atmosphere is approximately 50 gm/sec. The major components of the solar wind are light elements (H and He) that promptly escape from the lunar surface by exospheric evaporation (Jeans' escape). The principal atmospheric loss mechanism for heavier gases is photoionization within a period of weeks to months, followed by immediate loss to the solar wind. Lunar base activities will modify the lunar atmosphere if gas is released at a larger rate than that now occurring naturally. Possible gas sources are rocket exhaust, processing of lunar materials, venting of pressurized volumes, and astronaut life support systems. For even modest lunar base activity, such sources will substantially exceed natural sources, although effects are expected to be localized and transient. The Apollo database serves as a useful reference for both measurements of the natural lunar environment and its modification by lunar base activities.

  20. A novel method for the activity measurement of large-area beta reference sources.

    PubMed

    Stanga, D; De Felice, P; Keightley, J; Capogni, M; Ioan, M R

    2016-03-01

    A novel method has been developed for the activity measurement of large-area beta reference sources. It makes use of two emission rate measurements and is based on the weak dependence between the source activity and the activity distribution for a given value of transmission coefficient. The method was checked experimentally by measuring the activity of two ((60)Co and (137)Cs) large-area reference sources constructed from anodized aluminum foils. Measurement results were compared with the activity values measured by gamma spectrometry. For each source, they agree within one standard uncertainty and also agree within the same limits with the certified values of the source activity. PMID:26701656

  1. Correlation between pedometer and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire on physical activity measurement in office workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the correlation of physical activity levels assessed by pedometer and those by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a population of office workers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 office workers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to each office worker by hand. Physical activity level was objectively assessed by a pedometer for 7 consecutive days and subjectively assessed by the GPAQ. Based on the pedometer and GPAQ outcomes, participants were classified into 3 groups: inactive, moderately active, and highly active. Results No correlation in the physical activity level assessed by the pedometer and GPAQ was found (rs = .08, P = 0.15). When considering the pedometer as the criterion for comparison, 65.3% of participants had underestimated their physical activity level using the GPAQ, whereas 9.3% of participants overestimated their physical activity level. Conclusions Physical activity level in office workers assessed by a subjective measure was greatly different from assessed by an objective tool. Consequently, research on physical activity level, especially in those with sedentary lifestyle, should consider using an objective measure to ensure that it closely reflects a person’s physical activity level. PMID:24886593

  2. Activity-Based Costing Systems for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Dennis H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines traditional costing models utilized in higher education and pinpoints shortcomings related to proper identification of costs. Describes activity-based costing systems as a superior alternative for cost identification, measurement, and allocation. (MLF)

  3. Active-imaging-based underwater navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnin, David; Schmitt, Gwenaël.; Fischer, Colin; Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are widely used for the localization and the navigation of unmanned and remotely operated vehicles (ROV). In contrast to ground or aerial vehicles, GNSS cannot be employed for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) without the use of a communication link to the water surface, since satellite signals cannot be received underwater. However, underwater autonomous navigation is still possible using self-localization methods which determines the relative location of an AUV with respect to a reference location using inertial measurement units (IMU), depth sensors and even sometimes radar or sonar imaging. As an alternative or a complementary solution to common underwater reckoning techniques, we present the first results of a feasibility study of an active-imaging-based localization method which uses a range-gated active-imaging system and can yield radiometric and odometric information even in turbid water.

  4. Measurement-based reliability/performability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsueh, Mei-Chen

    1987-01-01

    Measurement-based models based on real error-data collected on a multiprocessor system are described. Model development from the raw error-data to the estimation of cumulative reward is also described. A workload/reliability model is developed based on low-level error and resource usage data collected on an IBM 3081 system during its normal operation in order to evaluate the resource usage/error/recovery process in a large mainframe system. Thus, both normal and erroneous behavior of the system are modeled. The results provide an understanding of the different types of errors and recovery processes. The measured data show that the holding times in key operational and error states are not simple exponentials and that a semi-Markov process is necessary to model the system behavior. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the significance of using a semi-Markov process, as opposed to a Markov process, to model the measured system.

  5. Quantifying Ant Activity Using Vibration Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Oberst, Sebastian; Baro, Enrique Nava; Lai, Joseph C. S.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2014-01-01

    Ant behaviour is of great interest due to their sociality. Ant behaviour is typically observed visually, however there are many circumstances where visual observation is not possible. It may be possible to assess ant behaviour using vibration signals produced by their physical movement. We demonstrate through a series of bioassays with different stimuli that the level of activity of meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus) can be quantified using vibrations, corresponding to observations with video. We found that ants exposed to physical shaking produced the highest average vibration amplitudes followed by ants with stones to drag, then ants with neighbours, illuminated ants and ants in darkness. In addition, we devised a novel method based on wavelet decomposition to separate the vibration signal owing to the initial ant behaviour from the substrate response, which will allow signals recorded from different substrates to be compared directly. Our results indicate the potential to use vibration signals to classify some ant behaviours in situations where visual observation could be difficult. PMID:24658467

  6. Infiltration rate measurement by active perfluorocarbon monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Menzies, K.T.; Pong, C.M.; Randel, M.A. )

    1987-01-01

    The rate of air infiltration in homes and buildings is a significant factor affecting the magnitude of human exposure to air pollutants in the indoor environment. Several techniques have been utilized for the determination of air infiltration. These include building pressurization and tracer analysis, e.g., SF/sub 6/. Dietz and Cote at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have developed a simple, steady-state tracer kit that can be utilized by homeowners. This kit includes a source(s) of perfluorocarbon, i.e., perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH) or perfluorodimethylcyclohexane (PDCH), and a passive sampling tube containing Ambersorb XE-347. Typically, the sampling tube is deployed for several days and then returned to a laboratory for analysis by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/electron capture detection. The authors developed an alternative sampling and analysis technique for PMCH/PDCH in homes. In order to facilitate monitoring of short-term infiltration rates (i.e., less than one day) they developed an active sorbent sampling method and solvent desorption/gas chromatography/electron capture detection analytical method. The method is based on the collection of PMCH on charcoal. The method validation, which is discussed in this article, includes analytical method development, selection of a solid sorbent, determination of desorption efficiency, analysis of breakthrough, testing of storage stability, and assessment of precision and accuracy in both the laboratory and field environment.

  7. Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.

  8. Wavelet based image quality self measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah

    2010-04-01

    Noise in general is considered to be degradation in image quality. Moreover image quality is measured based on the appearance of the image edges and their clarity. Most of the applications performance is affected by image quality and level of different types of degradation. In general measuring image quality and identifying the type of noise or degradation is considered to be a key factor in raising the applications performance, this task can be very challenging. Wavelet transform now a days, is widely used in different applications. These applications are mostly benefiting from the wavelet localisation in the frequency domain. The coefficients of the high frequency sub-bands in wavelet domain are represented by Laplace histogram. In this paper we are proposing to use the Laplace distribution histogram to measure the image quality and also to identify the type of degradation affecting the given image. Image quality and the level of degradation are mostly measured using a reference image with reasonable quality. The discussed Laplace distribution histogram provides a self testing measurement for the quality of the image. This measurement is based on constructing the theoretical Laplace distribution histogram of the high frequency wavelet sub-band. This construction is based on the actual standard deviation, then to be compared with the actual Laplace distribution histogram. The comparison is performed using histogram intersection method. All the experiments are performed using the extended Yale database.

  9. A Simple and Rapid Method Based on Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Measurement of α-L-Iduronidase Activity in Dried Blood Spots: An Application to Mucopolysaccharidosis I (Hurler) Screening

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jeong Soo; Min, Hye Kyeong; Oh, Hyeon Ju; Woo, Hye In; Lee, Soo-Youn; Kim, Jong-Won; Song, Junghan

    2015-01-01

    Background We developed an analytical method to measure α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) activity in dried blood spots. This was achieved by using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. Methods Chromatographic separation was completed using mobile phase involving water-formic acid and acetonitrile-formic acid over 2.8 min of run time on a column with a Kinetex XB-C18 (Phenomenex, USA). The detection of column effluent was performed using a Xevo TQ-S triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Waters, USA) in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode. This method was verified with blank and control samples at four activity levels: base, low, medium, and high. Control materials were provided from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Results Intra- and inter-day precisions were between 2.6% and 16.5% and between 7.9% and 17.0%, respectively. A correlative regression study on the IDUA activity in CDC-control samples performed to assess the validity of the developed method showed a highly significant linear association (r2=0.9976) between the calculated and CDC-reported values and an obvious difference in activity among the four levels. This reliable analytical method was applied to mucopolysaccharidosis I (Hurler) screening of patients under treatment (n=4) and in normal controls (n=129). IDUA activity ranged from 8.98 to 77.12 µmol/hr/L) in normal controls, and patients undergoing medical treatment showed low IDUA activity. Conclusions This method had advantages of simplicity, rapid sample preparation, and liquid chromatographic separation, which efficiently inhibited ionization suppression induced by matrix effects in mass spectrometric detection. PMID:25553279

  10. Color measurements based on a color camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszalec, Elzbieta A.; Pietikaeinen, Matti

    1997-08-01

    The domain of color camera applications is increasing all time due to recent progress in color machine vision research. Colorimetric measurement tasks are quite complex as the purpose of color measurement is to provide a quantitative evaluation of the phenomenon of colors as perceived by human vision. A proper colorimetric calibration of the color camera system is needed in order to make color a practical tool in machine vision. This paper discuses two approaches to color measurements based on a color camera and includes an overview of practical approaches to color camera calibration under unstable illumination conditions.

  11. Magnetic space-based field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Satellite measurements of the geomagnetic field began with the launch of Sputnik 3 in May 1958 and have continued sporadically in the intervening years. A list of spacecraft that have made significant contributions to an understanding of the near-earth geomagnetic field is presented. A new era in near-earth magnetic field measurements began with NASA's launch of Magsat in October 1979. Attention is given to geomagnetic field modeling, crustal magnetic anomaly studies, and investigations of the inner earth. It is concluded that satellite-based magnetic field measurements make global surveys practical for both field modeling and for the mapping of large-scale crustal anomalies. They are the only practical method of accurately modeling the global secular variation. Magsat is providing a significant contribution, both because of the timeliness of the survey and because its vector measurement capability represents an advance in the technology of such measurements.

  12. Radiometer Design Analysis Based Upon Measurement Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racette, Paul E.; Lang, Roger H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for predicting the performance of a radiometer design based on calculating the measurement uncertainty. The variety in radiometer designs and the demand for improved radiometric measurements justify the need for a more general and comprehensive method to assess system performance. Radiometric resolution, or sensitivity, is a figure of merit that has been commonly used to characterize the performance of a radiometer. However when evaluating the performance of a calibration design for a radiometer, the use of radiometric resolution has limited application. These limitations are overcome by considering instead the measurement uncertainty. A method for calculating measurement uncertainty for a generic radiometer design including its calibration algorithm is presented. The result is a generalized technique by which system calibration architectures and design parameters can be studied to optimize instrument performance for given requirements and constraints. Example applications demonstrate the utility of using measurement uncertainty as a figure of merit.

  13. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Jane Louie Fresco; Kashihara, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values. PMID:26421312

  14. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Jane Louie Fresco; Kashihara, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values. PMID:26421312

  15. Measuring In Vitro ATPase Activity for Enzymatic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Rule, Chelsea S; Patrick, Marcella; Sandkvist, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes, or ATPases, play a critical role in a diverse array of cellular functions. These dynamic proteins can generate energy for mechanical work, such as protein trafficking and degradation, solute transport, and cellular movements. The protocol described here is a basic assay for measuring the in vitro activity of purified ATPases for functional characterization. Proteins hydrolyze ATP in a reaction that results in inorganic phosphate release, and the amount of phosphate liberated is then quantitated using a colorimetric assay. This highly adaptable protocol can be adjusted to measure ATPase activity in kinetic or endpoint assays. A representative protocol is provided here based on the activity and requirements of EpsE, the AAA+ ATPase involved in Type II Secretion in the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The amount of purified protein needed to measure activity, length of the assay and the timing and number of sampling intervals, buffer and salt composition, temperature, co-factors, stimulants (if any), etc. may vary from those described here, and thus some optimization may be necessary. This protocol provides a basic framework for characterizing ATPases and can be performed quickly and easily adjusted as necessary. PMID:27584824

  16. Human body contour data based activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate. PMID:24111015

  17. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  18. Activity Based Curriculum for Elementary Education. Additional Activities, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Public Schools, KS.

    This elementary curriculum is a vehicle to provide manipulative activities that reinforce academic skills through meaningful, relevant, activity-based awareness of modern society. The twenty-six activity plans included in the curriculum place a major emphasis upon realistic or concrete experiences that deal with the manipulation and exploration of…

  19. Demystifying Results-Based Performance Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorjani, Hamid

    Many evaluators are convinced that Results-based Performance Measurement (RBPM) is an effective tool to improve service delivery and cost effectiveness in both public and private sectors. Successful RBPM requires self-directed and cross-functional work teams and the supporting infrastructure to make it work. There are many misconceptions and…

  20. Curriculum-Based Measurement for Reading Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Victoria Groves; Weishaar, Mary Konya

    2003-01-01

    This article suggests detailed steps to assist in the construction and implementation of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) to track reading progress. Information includes how to construct and organize a CBM, how to administer and score a CBM, how to use the information for instructional changes, and how to use data collected to inform parents…

  1. Vehicle Lateral State Estimation Based on Measured Tyre Forces

    PubMed Central

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2009-01-01

    Future active safety systems need more accurate information about the state of vehicles. This article proposes a method to evaluate the lateral state of a vehicle based on measured tyre forces. The tyre forces of two tyres are estimated from optically measured tyre carcass deflections and transmitted wirelessly to the vehicle body. The two remaining tyres are so-called virtual tyre sensors, the forces of which are calculated from the real tyre sensor estimates. The Kalman filter estimator for lateral vehicle state based on measured tyre forces is presented, together with a simple method to define adaptive measurement error covariance depending on the driving condition of the vehicle. The estimated yaw rate and lateral velocity are compared with the validation sensor measurements. PMID:22291535

  2. Calibrating a novel multi-sensor physical activity measurement system

    PubMed Central

    John, D; Liu, S; Sasaki, J E; Howe, C A; Staudenmayer, J; Gao, R X; Freedson, P S

    2011-01-01

    Advancing the field of physical activity (PA) monitoring requires the development of innovative multi-sensor measurement systems that are feasible in the free-living environment. The use of novel analytical techniques to combine and process these multiple sensor signals is equally important. This paper, describes a novel multi-sensor ‘Integrated PA Measurement System’ (IMS), the lab-based methodology used to calibrate the IMS, techniques used to predict multiple variables from the sensor signals, and proposes design changes to improve the feasibility of deploying the IMS in the free-living environment. The IMS consists of hip and wrist acceleration sensors, two piezoelectric respiration sensors on the torso, and an ultraviolet radiation sensor to obtain contextual information (indoors vs. outdoors) of PA. During lab-based calibration of the IMS, data were collected on participants performing a PA routine consisting of seven different ambulatory and free-living activities while wearing a portable metabolic unit (criterion measure) and the IMS. Data analyses on the first 50 adult participants are presented. These analyses were used to determine if the IMS can be used to predict the variables of interest. Finally, physical modifications for the IMS that could enhance feasibility of free-living use are proposed and refinement of the prediction techniques is discussed. PMID:21813941

  3. Measurement of optical activity of honey bee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Salgado-Verduzco, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Optical activity of some substances, such as chiral molecules, often exhibits circular birefringence. Circular birefringence causes rotation of the vibration plane of the plane polarized light as it passes through the substance. In this work we present optical characterization of honey as function of the optical activity when it is placed in a polariscope that consists of a light source and properly arranged polarizing elements.

  4. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  5. Data base management systems activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Data Management System-1100 is designed to operate in conjunction with the UNIVAC 1100 Series Operating System on any 1100 Series computer. DMS-1100 is divided into the following four major software components: (1) Data Definition Languages (DDL); (2) Data Management Routine (DMR); (3) Data Manipulation Languages (DML); and (4) Data Base Utilities (DBU). These software components are described in detail.

  6. Methods of measuring Protein Disulfide Isomerase activity: a critical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Monica; Laurindo, Francisco; Fernandes, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is an essential redox chaperone from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is responsible for correct disulfide bond formation in nascent proteins. PDI is also found in other cellular locations in the cell, particularly the cell surface. Overall, PDI contributes to ER and global cell redox homeostasis and signaling. The knowledge about PDI structure and function progressed substantially based on in vitro studies using recombinant PDI and chimeric proteins. In these experimental scenarios, PDI reductase and chaperone activities are readily approachable. In contrast, assays to measure PDI isomerase activity, the hallmark of PDI family, are more complex. Assessment of PDI roles in cells and tissues mainly relies on gain- or loss-of-function studies. However, there is limited information regarding correlation of experimental readouts with the distinct types of PDI activities. In this mini-review, we evaluate the main methods described for measuring the different kinds of PDI activity: thiol reductase, thiol oxidase, thiol isomerase and chaperone. We emphasize the need to use appropriate controls and the role of critical interferents (e.g., detergent, presence of reducing agents). We also discuss the translation of results from in vitro studies with purified recombinant PDI to cellular and tissue samples, with critical comments on the interpretation of results.

  7. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. M.; Counsell, G.; Johnson, D.; Vasu, P.; Zvonkov, A.

    2010-10-15

    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale ({approx}1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  8. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic systema)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Counsell, G.; Johnson, D.; Vasu, P.; Zvonkov, A.

    2010-10-01

    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale (˜1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  9. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: challenges, explanations, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten K; Mâsse, Louise C; Timperio, Anna; Frenn, Marilyn D; Saunders, Julie; Mendoza, Jason A; Gobbi, Erica; Hanson, Phillip; Trost, Stewart G

    2013-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference workshop to the 2012 International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity annual meeting, a PA parenting workgroup met to: (1) Discuss challenges in PA parenting research that may limit its translation, (2) identify explanations or reasons for such challenges, and (3) recommend strategies for future research. Challenges discussed by the workgroup included a proliferation of disconnected and inconsistently measured constructs, a limited understanding of the dimensions of PA parenting, and a narrow conceptualization of hypothesized moderators of the relationship between PA parenting and child PA. Potential reasons for such challenges emphasized by the group included a disinclination to employ theory when developing measures and examining predictors and outcomes of PA parenting as well as a lack of agreed-upon measurement standards. Suggested solutions focused on the need to link PA parenting research with general parenting research, define and adopt rigorous standards of measurement, and identify new methods to assess PA parenting. As an initial step toward implementing these recommendations, the workgroup developed a conceptual model that: (1) Integrates parenting dimensions from the general parenting literature into the conceptualization of PA parenting, (2) draws on behavioral and developmental theory, and (3) emphasizes areas which have been neglected to date including precursors to PA parenting and effect modifiers. PMID:23944918

  10. Measurement of dust concentration based on VBAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, You; Wang, Ninghui

    2013-03-01

    There are almost no economic and management solutions in automated measurement of dust concentration of magnesium oxide smelting electric arc furnace mouth. Nearly a thousand degrees of heat and the strong magnetic fields created by high-current Constitutes a serious interference with the sensor. This makes close-contact measurement method becomes almost impossible. To solve the above problem, this paper proposes a measurement scheme based on VBAI (Vision Builder for Automated Inspection, a software developed by National Instruments) to calculate the dust concentration. It uses visual analysis of the means to calculate the number of dust particles per unit volume of. And then it calculates the dust concentration. Though the analysis of the actual photo of the smelting site, the relative dust concentration in the mouth of the furnace is calculate. This method will be applied to the precipitator 70 kW motor inverter control and has a high recognition rate and significant application prospects.

  11. Trusted Measurement Model Based on Multitenant Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Zhen-Hu; Shen, Chang-Xiang; Zhao, Yong; Liang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    With a fast growing pervasive computing, especially cloud computing, the behaviour measurement is at the core and plays a vital role. A new behaviour measurement tailored for Multitenants in cloud computing is needed urgently to fundamentally establish trust relationship. Based on our previous research, we propose an improved trust relationship scheme which captures the world of cloud computing where multitenants share the same physical computing platform. Here, we first present the related work on multitenant behaviour; secondly, we give the scheme of behaviour measurement where decoupling of multitenants is taken into account; thirdly, we explicitly explain our decoupling algorithm for multitenants; fourthly, we introduce a new way of similarity calculation for deviation control, which fits the coupled multitenants under study well; lastly, we design the experiments to test our scheme. PMID:24987731

  12. Norm-based measurement of quantum correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yuchun; Guo Guangcan

    2011-06-15

    In this paper we derived a necessary and sufficient condition for classical correlated states and proposed a norm-based measurement Q of quantum correlation. Using the max norm of operators, we gave the expression of the quantum correlation measurement Q and investigated the dynamics of Q in Markovian and non-Markovian cases, respectively. Q decays exponentially and vanishes only asymptotically in the Markovian case and causes periodical death and rebirth in the non-Markovian case. In the pure state, the quantum correlation Q is always larger than the entanglement, which was different from other known measurements. In addition, we showed that locally broadcastable and broadcastable are equivalent and reproved the density of quantum correlated states.

  13. A creatinine biosensor based on admittance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Sun, Tai-Ping; Jheng, Deng-Yun; Tsai, Hou-Wei; Shieh, Hsiu-Li

    2015-08-01

    Regular check of blood creatinine level is very important as it is a measurement of renal function. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a simple and reliable creatinine biosensor based on admittance measurement for precise determination of creatinine. The creatinine biosensor was fabricated with creatinine deiminase immobilized on screen-printed carbon electrodes. Admittance measurement at a specific frequency ranges (22.80 - 84.71 Hz) showed that the biosensor has an excellent linear (r2 > 0.95) response range (50 - 250 uM), which covers the normal physiological and pathological ranges of blood creatinine levels. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed that the biosensor has excellent reliability and validity (ICC = 0.98). In conclusion, a simple and reliable creatinine biosensor was developed and it is capable of precisely determining blood creatinine levels in both the normal physiological and pathological ranges.

  14. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  15. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  16. Property-Based Software Engineering Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1997-01-01

    Little theory exists in the field of software system measurement. Concepts such as complexity, coupling, cohesion or even size are very often subject to interpretation and appear to have inconsistent definitions in the literature. As a consequence, there is little guidance provided to the analyst attempting to define proper measures for specific problems. Many controversies in the literature are simply misunderstandings and stem from the fact that some people talk about different measurement concepts under the same label (complexity is the most common case). There is a need to define unambiguously the most important measurement concepts used in the measurement of software products. One way of doing so is to define precisely what mathematical properties characterize these concepts, regardless of the specific software artifacts to which these concepts are applied. Such a mathematical framework could generate a consensus in the software engineering community and provide a means for better communication among researchers, better guidelines for analysts, and better evaluation methods for commercial static analyzers for practitioners. In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework which is generic, because it is not specific to any particular software artifact and rigorous, because it is based on precise mathematical concepts. We use this framework to propose definitions of several important measurement concepts (size, length, complexity, cohesion, coupling). It does not intend to be complete or fully objective; other frameworks could have been proposed and different choices could have been made. However, we believe that the formalisms and properties we introduce are convenient and intuitive. This framework contributes constructively to a firmer theoretical ground of software measurement.

  17. Property-Based Software Engineering Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1995-01-01

    Little theory exists in the field of software system measurement. Concepts such as complexity, coupling, cohesion or even size are very often subject to interpretation and appear to have inconsistent definitions in the literature. As a consequence, there is little guidance provided to the analyst attempting to define proper measures for specific problems. Many controversies in the literature are simply misunderstandings and stem from the fact that some people talk about different measurement concepts under the same label (complexity is the most common case). There is a need to define unambiguously the most important measurement concepts used in the measurement of software products. One way of doing so is to define precisely what mathematical properties characterize these concepts regardless of the specific software artifacts to which these concepts are applied. Such a mathematical framework could generate a consensus in the software engineering community and provide a means for better communication among researchers, better guidelines for analysis, and better evaluation methods for commercial static analyzers for practitioners. In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework which is generic, because it is not specific to any particular software artifact, and rigorous, because it is based on precise mathematical concepts. This framework defines several important measurement concepts (size, length, complexity, cohesion, coupling). It is not intended to be complete or fully objective; other frameworks could have been proposed and different choices could have been made. However, we believe that the formalism and properties we introduce are convenient and intuitive. In addition, we have reviewed the literature on this subject and compared it with our work. This framework contributes constructively to a firmer theoretical ground of software measurement.

  18. [An electrochemical method for measuring metabolic activity and counting cells].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, B a; Khlupova, M e; Shleev, S V; Kaprel'iants, A S; Iaropolov, A I

    2006-01-01

    An express electrochemical method for determining the metabolic activity of live cells based on the possibility of an electron exchange between an electrode and elements of the biological electron transfer chain in the presence of a mediator is proposed. This method is useful for studying any live cells (animal, plant, and microbial), including anaerobic, dormant, and spore cells. The sample preparation and measurement itself does not take more than 30 min. The detection limit in a volume of 15 ml amounts to 10-5 cells/ml. The applicability of the assessment method of the metabolic activity level during the transition of the bacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis into an uncultivable dormant state was demonstrated. This method is of special value for medicine and environmental control, detecting latent forms of pathogens. An optimal combination of the methods for the express analysis of latent pathogens is proposed. PMID:17066962

  19. Non-contact Laser-based Human Respiration Rate Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalise, L.; Marchionni, P.; Ercoli, I.

    2011-08-01

    At present the majority of the instrumentation, used in clinical environments, to measure human respiration rate are based on invasive and contact devices. The gold standard instrument is considered the spirometer which is largely used; it needs a direct contact and requires a collaboration by the patient. Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDVi) is an optical, non-contact measurement system for the assessment of a surface velocity and displacement. LDVi has already been used for the measurement of the cardiac activity and for the measurement of the chest-wall displacements. The aims of this work are to select the best measurement point on the thoracic surface for LDVi monitoring of the respiration rate (RR) and to compare measured data with the RR valued provided by the spirometer. The measurement system is composed by a LDV system and a data acquisition board installed on a PC. Tests were made on 10 different point of the thorax for each patient. Patients population was composed by 33 subjects (17 male and 16 female). The optimal measurement point was chosen considering the maximum peak-to-peak value of the displacement measured by LDV. Before extracting RR we have used a special wavelet decomposition for better selection of the expiration peaks. A standard spirometer was used for the validation of the data. From tests it results that the optimal measurement point, namely is located on the inferior part of the thoracic region (left, front side). From our tests we have obtained a close correlation between the RR values measured by the spirometer and those measured by the proposed method: a difference of 14±211 ms on the RR value is reported for the entire population of 33 subjects. Our method allows a no-contact measurement of lungs activity (respiration period), reducing the electric and biological risks. Moreover it allows to measure in critical environment like in RMN or in burned skin where is difficult or impossible to apply electrodes.

  20. Active doublet method for measuring small changes in physical properties

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Peter M.; Fehler, Michael C.; Johnson, Paul A.; Phillips, W. Scott

    1994-01-01

    Small changes in material properties of a work piece are detected by measuring small changes in elastic wave velocity and attenuation within a work piece. Active, repeatable source generate coda wave responses from a work piece, where the coda wave responses are temporally displaced. By analyzing progressive relative phase and amplitude changes between the coda wave responses as a function of elapsed time, accurate determinations of velocity and attenuation changes are made. Thus, a small change in velocity occurring within a sample region during the time periods between excitation origin times (herein called "doublets") will produce a relative delay that changes with elapsed time over some portion of the scattered waves. This trend of changing delay is easier to detect than an isolated delay based on a single arrival and provides a direct measure of elastic wave velocity changes arising from changed material properties of the work piece.

  1. Towards Fast In-line Measurement of Water Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J.; Andreasen, M. B.; Pedersen, M.; Rasmussen, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    Water activity is widely used as a key parameter in controlling the quality of food and feed products, among others. For determining the water activity, the material is sampled from the manufacturing process and measured in the laboratory with water activity analyzers. The sampling procedure can lead to non-representative measurements, the measurement process is time consuming, and much of the produced material may be wasted before the measurement results are available. To reduce waste and to be able to optimize production processes, industry requires in-line measurement of relevant quality determining parameters, hereunder the water activity. In cooperation with a manufacturer of systems for automatic in-line sampling and measurement of moisture, density, and the size of items, a project was defined to also enable the manufacturer's existing products to perform automatic measurement of the water activity in a sample. The aim was to develop a measurement system with the ability to operate in an industrial environment, which in the end would increase the measurement speed significantly and minimize the problems related to the handling of samples. In the paper the selection and characterization of the sensors, the design of a measurement chamber, and various issues of modeling and methods to reduce measurement time are discussed. The paper also presents water activity measurements obtained from food and feed products with the system, and shows that reliable results can be obtained in a few minutes with a proper design of the measurement chamber and selection of a model.

  2. A Method to Measure Hydrolytic Activity of Adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases)

    PubMed Central

    Bartolommei, Gianluca; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The detection of small amounts (nanomoles) of inorganic phosphate has a great interest in biochemistry. In particular, phosphate detection is useful to evaluate the rate of hydrolysis of phosphatases, that are enzymes able to remove phosphate from their substrate by hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolysis rate is correlated to enzyme activity, an extremely important functional parameter. Among phosphatases there are the cation transporting adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases), that produce inorganic phosphate by cleavage of the γ-phosphate of ATP. These membrane transporters have many fundamental physiological roles and are emerging as potential drug targets. ATPase hydrolytic activity is measured to test enzyme functionality, but it also provides useful information on possible inhibitory effects of molecules that interfere with the hydrolytic process. We have optimized a molybdenum-based protocol that makes use of potassium antimony (III) oxide tartrate (originally employed for phosphate detection in environmental analysis) to allow its use with phosphatase enzymes. In particular, the method was successfully applied to native and recombinant ATPases to demonstrate its reliability, validity, sensitivity and versatility. Our method introduces significant improvements to well-established experimental assays, which are currently employed for ATPase activity measurements. Therefore, it may be valuable in biochemical and biomedical investigations of ATPase enzymes, in combination with more specific tests, as well as in high throughput drug screening. PMID:23472215

  3. Measuring Physical Activity in Outdoor Community Recreational Environments: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sydney A.; Stransky, Michelle; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major contributors to escalating health care costs in the USA. Physical activity is an important protective factor against CVD, and the National Prevention Strategy recognizes active living (defined as a way of life that integrates physical activity into everyday routines) as a priority for improving the nation’s health. This paper focuses on developing more inclusive measures of physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, specifically parks and trails, to enhance their usability for at-risk populations such as persons with mobility limitations. We develop an integrated conceptual framework for measuring physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, describe examples of evidence-based tools for measuring physical activity in these settings, and discuss strategies to improve measurement of physical activity for persons with mobility limitations. Addressing these measurement issues is critically important to making progress towards national CVD goals pertaining to active community environments. PMID:26005510

  4. Neutron Yield Measurements via Aluminum Activation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-08

    Neutron activation of aluminum may occur by several neutron capture reactions. Four such reactions are described here: {sup 27}Al + n = {sup 28}Al, {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na, {sup 27}Al(n, 2n){sup 26}Al and {sup 27}Al(n,p){sup 27}Mg. The radioactive nuclei {sup 28}Al, {sup 24}Na, and {sup 27}Mg, which are produced via the {sup 27}Al + n = {sup 28}Al, {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na and {sup 27}Al(n,p){sup 27}Mg neutron reactions, beta decay to excited states of {sup 28}Si, {sup 24}Mg and {sup 27}Al respectively. These excited states then emit gamma rays as the nuclei de-excite to their respective ground states.

  5. Comparison of Mercury Measurement Methods Using Two Active Filter Measurement Methods and a Tekran Speciation Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, A.; Gustin, M. S.; Huang, J.; Heidecorn, K.

    2014-12-01

    Three active mercury (Hg) measurement methods were operated side by side at an urban site (University of Nevada, Reno College of Agriculture Greenhouse facility, elev. 1370 m) in Reno, and at a high elevation site (Peavine Peak, elev. 2515 m) adjacent to Reno from December 2013 to October 2014. A model 602 BetaPlus Teledyne Advanced Pollution Instrumentation (TAPI, San Diego, CA USA) particulate measurement system was used to collect particulate matter on a 47 mm diameter cation exchange membrane (CEM, PN# MSTGS3R Mustang S, Pall Corp. Port Washington, NY) at a rate of 16.7 lpm for 24 hours to four days. Particulate concentrations were calculated using beta attenuation across the filters (non-destructive to filter material); the CEM filters were then analyzed for total Hg on a Tekran Total Hg Analysis system (model 2600, Tekran Instruments Corp. Knoxville, TN, USA). Concurrently, samples were collected on an active Hg membrane system. The active Hg membrane system consisted of 3 CEM filters sampling at a rate of 1 lpm for one to two weeks. CEM filters were then analyzed on the Tekran 2600. A Tekran speciation unit (model 1130, 1135, 2537) was also in operation and ambient air samples were analyzed for gaseous elemental Hg (GEM), gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM), and particulate bound Hg (PBM). Both the 602 BetaPlus system and the active Hg membrane system should collect RM on the CEM filters. The active Hg membrane system most likely captures mainly GOM based on previous tests with the Teflon inlet setup that indicated there was high static electricity effective in removing particulate matter. Flow rate and length of measurement (24 hours vs. four days) affected the Hg concentrations on the 602 BetaPlus system. Based on these measurements we hypothesize that, due to the high flow rate, and therefore short retention time, the 602 BetaPlus only captured PBM. It is also possible that there was loss of Hg to inlet walls due to the longer inlet on the 602 BetaPlus system

  6. The Measurement of Physical Activity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Melody; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents data from two studies determining the validity of various measures of physical activity in preschool children. One explored how certain measures of activity predicted observed behavior. The other examined the Caltrac motion sensor's predictive validity. Results indicate the Caltrac monitor is sensitive to children's individual differences…

  7. 12 CFR 1806.201 - Measuring and reporting Qualified Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measuring and reporting Qualified Activities. 1806.201 Section 1806.201 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.201 Measuring and reporting Qualified Activities. (a) General. An Applicant...

  8. Measuring Reading Activity: An Inventory. Instructional Resource No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; And Others

    Noting that the amount of reading students do is related to their reading achievement, this booklet presents an instrument designed to measure the amount and breadth of students' reading in and out of school. The first part of the booklet discusses the Reading Activity Inventory (RAI) and how it differs from other reading activity measures, uses…

  9. A Measurement Activity to Encourage Exploration of Calculus Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuffey, William

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an activity that incorporates measurement in order to lead students to discover and explore fundamental concepts of calculus. Students are provided with an experientially real starting point involving measurement and are encouraged to engage in mathematical discussions in a low-stakes environment. I describe the activity as…

  10. Peptide biosensors for the electrochemical measurement of protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kerman, Kagan; Song, Haifeng; Duncan, James S; Litchfield, David W; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2008-12-15

    The kinase activities are elucidated using the novel redox-active cosubstrate adenosine 5'-[gamma-ferrocene] triphosphate (Fc-ATP), which enables the kinase-catalyzed transfer of a redox active gamma-phosphate-Fc to a hydroxyamino acid. In this report, a versatile electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring the activity and inhibition of a serine/threonine kinase, casein kinase 2 (CK2), and protein tyrosine kinases, Abl1-T315I and HER2, in buffered solutions and in cell lysates. The method is based on the labeling of a specific phosphorylation event with Fc, followed by electrochemical detection. The electrochemical response obtained from the "ferrocenylated" peptides enables monitoring the activity of the kinase and its substrate, as well as the inhibition of small molecule inhibitors on protein phosphorylation. Kinetic information was extracted from the electrochemical measurements for the determination of K(m) and V(m) values, which were in agreement with those previously reported. Kinase reactions were also performed in the presence of well-defined inhibitors of CK2, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-azabenzimidazole, 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole, and E-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrabromophenyl)acrylic acid as well as the nonspecific kinase inhibitors, staurosporine and N-benzoylstaurosporine. On the basis of the dependency of the Fc signal on inhibitor concentration, K(i) of the inhibitors was estimated, which were also in agreement with the literature values. The performance of the biosensor was optimized including the kinase reaction, incubation with Fc-ATP, and the small molecule inhibitors. Peptide modified electrochemical biosensors are promising candidates for cost-effective in vitro kinase activity and inhibitor screening assays. PMID:18989981

  11. Electromagnetic Measurements in an Active Oilfield Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, K. A.; Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Weiss, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    An important issue in oilfield development pertains to mapping and monitoring of the fracture distributions (either natural or man-made) controlling subsurface fluid flow. Although microseismic monitoring and analysis have been used for this purpose for several decades, there remain several ambiguities and uncertainties with this approach. We are investigating a novel electromagnetic (EM) technique for detecting and mapping hydraulic fractures in a petroleum reservoir by injecting an electrically conductive contrast agent into an open fracture. The fracture is subsequently illuminated by a strong EM field radiated by a large engineered antenna. Specifically, a grounded electric current source is applied directly to the steel casing of the borehole, either at/near the wellhead or at a deep downhole point. Transient multicomponent EM signals (both electric and magnetic) scattered by the conductivity contrast are then recorded by a surface receiver array. We are presently utilizing advanced 3D numerical modeling algorithms to accurately simulate fracture responses, both before and after insertion of the conductive contrast agent. Model results compare favorably with EM field data recently acquired in a Permian Basin oilfield. However, extraction of the very-low-amplitude fracture signatures from noisy data requires effective noise suppression strategies such as long stacking times, rejection of outliers, and careful treatment of natural magnetotelluric fields. Dealing with the ever-present "episodic EM noise" typical in an active oilfield environment (associated with drilling, pumping, machinery, traffic, etc.) constitutes an ongoing problem. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Active material based active sealing technology: Part 1. Active seal requirements vs. active material actuator properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Christopher P.; Carter, William; Herrera, Guillermo A.; McKnight, Geoffrey P.; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.; Bazzi, Imad F.

    2010-04-01

    Current seals used for vehicle closures/swing panels are essentially flexible, frequently hollow structures whose designs are constrained by numerous requirements, many of them competing, including door closing effort (both air bind and seal compression), sound isolation, prevention of water leaks, and accommodation of variations in vehicle build. This paper documents the first portion of a collaborative research study/exploration of the feasibility of and approaches for using active materials with shape and stiffness changing attributes to produce active seal technologies, seals with improved performance. An important design advantage of an active material approach compared to previous active seal technologies is the distribution of active material regions throughout the seal length, which would enable continued active function even with localized failure. Included as a major focus of this study was the assessment of polymeric active materials because of their potential ease of integration into the current seal manufacturing process. In Part 1 of this study, which is documented in this paper, potential materials were evaluated in terms of their cost, activation mechanisms, and mechanical and actuation properties. Based on these properties, simple designs were proposed and utilized to help determine which materials are best suited for active seals. Shape memory alloys (SMA) and electroactive polymers (EAP) were judged to be the most promising.

  13. Why activity-based costing works.

    PubMed

    Gabram, S G; Mendola, R A; Rozenfeld, J; Gamelli, R L

    1997-01-01

    With advancing technology and the quest for delineating the true cost of a procedure or diagnostic test, cost accounting techniques are being re-explored in the health care setting. Activity-based costing (ABC), adopted from other businesses, is one such example that has applications in the health industry. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of health care costs among physician providers, emphasizing a new approach--activity-based costing. PMID:10169347

  14. Twin Knudsen Cell Configuration for Activity Measurements by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.

    1996-01-01

    A twin Knudsen cell apparatus for alloy activity measurements by mass spectrometry is described. Two Knudsen cells - one containing an alloy and one containing a pure component - are mounted on a single flange and translated into the sampling region via a motorized x-y table. Mixing of the molecular beams from the cells is minimized by a novel system of shutters. Activity measurements were taken on two well-characterized alloys to verify the operation of the system. Silver activity measurements are reported for Ag-Cu alloys and aluminum activity measurements are reported for Fe-Al alloys. The temperature dependence of activity for a 0.474 mol fraction Al-Fe alloy gives a partial molar heat of aluminum. Measurements taken with the twin cell show good agreement with literature values for these alloys.

  15. Measurement of uterine activity in vitro by integrating muscle tension

    PubMed Central

    Styles, P. R.; Sullivan, T. J.

    1962-01-01

    Spontaneous or electrically stimulated activity of the uterus is measured isometrically in vitro by integrating tension against time. Uterine contractions move the operating rod of a potentiometer transducer, the output voltage from which is coupled to an electrical integrator motor and a servo recorder. Several parameters of uterine activity can be expressed in a single measurement, and a record of isometric contractions is obtained simultaneously. Oxytocin can be assayed accurately and the effect of drugs on uterine motility can be measured. PMID:13918066

  16. Validity of physical activity measures in individuals after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Gustavo J.; Wert, David M.; Brower, Kelly S.; Piva, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the concurrent criterion-related validity of two activity monitors in comparison to the criterion method of indirect calorimetry in older adults after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). DESIGN Validation study. SETTING Subjects completed 9 increasingly demanding daily activities in a research laboratory; each activity was performed for 7 minutes, for a total of 80-minutes while the activity monitors and criterion method were used concurrently. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-one subjects, 67% female, mean age 68±7 years old, and BMI 29±4. INTERVENTIONS not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Energy expenditure (EE) in kcal/min measured by accelerometer-based and multisensor-based monitors, and the criterion method. Validity was assessed by paired t-test, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman plots comparing the measurements from the activity monitors to the criterion method. RESULTS Measurements from the accelerometer-based monitor were significantly lower than those of the criterion method across all walking and non-walking activities. The underestimations ranged from 40% to 100%. The accelerometer-based monitor demonstrated small to moderate agreement compared to the criterion method (ICCs from 0 to 0.38). Measurements from the multisensor-based monitor were significantly lower than the criterion method during several non-walking activities; yet, the differences were minor (2% to 19%). Measurements from the multisensor-based monitor during walking activities were not different compared to the criterion method. The multisensor-based monitor demonstrated moderate to excellent agreement with the criterion method (ICCs from 0.48 to 0.81). CONCLUSION The multisensor-based monitor showed better criterion-related validity than the accelerometer-based monitor, and should be considered as a tool to measure physical activity in individuals after TKA. PMID:25450127

  17. Diffraction measurements with a boron-based GEM neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croci, Gabriele; Albani, Giorgia; Cazzaniga, Carlo; Perelli Cippo, Enrico; Schooneveld, Erik; Claps, Gerardo; Cremona, Anna; Grosso, Giovanni; Muraro, Andrea; Murtas, Fabrizio; Rebai, Marica; Scherillo, Antonella; Tardocchi, Marco; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    The research of reliable substitutes of 3He detectors is an important task for the affordability of new neutron scattering instrumentation for future spallation sources like the European Spallation Source. GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier)-based detectors represent a valid alternative since they can combine high-rate capability, coverage of up to 1\\ \\text{m}^{2} area and good intrinsic spatial resolution (for this detector class it can be better than 0.5 mm). The first neutron diffraction measurements performed using a borated GEM detector are reported. The detector has an active area of 10 \\times 5\\ \\text{cm}^{2} and is equipped with a borated cathode. The GEM detector was read out using the standard ISIS Data Acquisition System. The comparison with measurements performed with standard 3He detectors shows that the broadening of the peaks measured on the diffractogram obtained with the GEM is 20-30% wider than the one obtained by 3He tubes but the active area of the GEM is twice that of 3He tubes. The GEM resolution is improved if half of its active area is considered. The signal-to-background ratio of the GEM is about 1.5 to 2 times lower than that of 3He. This measurement proves that GEM detectors can be used for neutron diffraction measurements and paves the way for their use at future neutron spallation sources.

  18. Improved installation prototype for measurement of low argon-37 activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    efficiency is possible to imply the TDCR method, similar with the classical liquid scintillation measurements method, based on the triple to double coincidence ratios correction. The prototype of installation is contracted and being evaluated now. Preliminary estimated value of minimum measured argon-37 activity in the sample of the liquid argon of 20 cm3 volume is about 0.1 Bq for a 5-hour exposure. For the volume of processed air about 2 m3 it corresponds to 50 mBq/m3 subsurface argon-37 measurements sensitivity.

  19. Photocurrent measurements of pentacene-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masurkar, Amrita; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2015-09-01

    Photocurrent spectroscopy (PCS) and photocurrent microscopy (PCM) are powerful tools that can probe the underlying mechanisms of charge generation and transport in organic semiconductor devices. There has been significant progress in the use of these techniques, which has yielded a number of insights into the underlying materials and operation of the devices. Despite the potential for PCS and PCM to become standard tools, however, a consensus has not been reached on (1) its uses and (2) the underlying mechanisms which produce the photoresponse. This is particularly true for measurements of pentacene devices, as the energy dynamics of pentacene are complex. Accordingly, here we report the current body of PCS and PCM of pentacene devices, offer interpretations of the data, and discuss which questions remain unanswered. We have divided the reviewed work into four categories based on the goals of the study and the technique used: photocurrent spectroscopy, scanning photocurrent microscopy, mobility, and trap density-of-states.

  20. Resin {sup 90}Y microsphere activity measurements for liver brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dezarn, William A.; Kennedy, Andrew S.

    2007-06-15

    The measurement of the radioactivity administered to the patient is one of the major components of {sup 90}Y microsphere liver brachytherapy. The activity of {sup 90}Y microspheres in a glass delivery vial was measured in a dose calibrator. The calibration value to use for {sup 90}Y in the dose calibrator was verified using an activity calibration standard provided by the microsphere manufacturer. This method allowed for the determination of a consistent, reproducible local activity standard. Additional measurements were made to determine some of the factors that could affect activity measurement. The axial response of the dose calibrator was determined by the ratio of activity measurements at the bottom and center of the dose calibrator. The axial response was 0.964 for a glass shipping vial, 1.001 for a glass V-vial, and 0.988 for a polycarbonate V-vial. Comparisons between activity measurements in the dose calibrator and those using a radiation survey meter were found to agree within 10%. It was determined that the dose calibrator method was superior to the survey meter method because the former allowed better defined measurement geometry and traceability of the activity standard back to the manufacturer. Part of the preparation of resin {sup 90}Y microspheres for patient delivery is to draw out a predetermined activity from a shipping vial and place it into a V-vial for delivery to the patient. If the drawn activity was placed in a glass V-vial, the activity measured in the dose calibrator with a glass V-vial was 4% higher than the drawn activity from the shipping vial standard. If the drawn activity was placed in a polycarbonate V-vial, the activity measured in the dose calibrator with a polycarbonate V-vial activity was 20% higher than the drawn activity from the shipping vial standard. Careful characterization of the local activity measurement standard is recommended instead of simply accepting the calibration value of the dose calibrator manufacturer.

  1. Aspheric mirror measurement based on fringe reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xianyu; Tang, Yan; Liu, Yuankun; Zhang, Qican; Xiang, Liqun

    2009-05-01

    The aspheric mirror can correct aberrations and improve imaging quality of optical system . M oreover using such mirror can reduce the num ber of optical elem ents in an optical system and further reduce the weight and size of the system . In order to improve the accuracy of aspheric mirror fabrication, there are many methods used to m easure aspheric mirror. Am ong these methods, the most popular one is interferom etry which can m easure the surface with very high accuracy. However, interferom etry commonly requires com plicated and expensive assistant optics, and its m easurem ent range is limited. In order to measure aspheric mirror conveniently and effectively, we further evolve the well know n approaches of 'Phase M easuring Deflectom ety'(PM D) to measure such surface. In this study, we present a novel m ethod based on fringe reflection to m easure aspheric m irror. In the m easurem ent process, the screen and the cam era are m oved along the mirror optical axis, respectively. Using the phase information of the recording fringe patterns, for each cam era pixel, we can calculate the slope and coordinate of its corresponding point on the surface to be tested. By integrating, the absolute height of the tested surface can be reconstructed. Com pared with traditional PM D, this m ethod can m easure the absolute height of an aspheric m irror unam biguously and doesn't need com plex calibration.

  2. Charged fusion product loss measurements using nuclear activation.

    PubMed

    Bonheure, G; Hult, M; González de Orduña, R; Arnold, D; Dombrowski, H; Laubenstein, M; Wieslander, E; Vermaercke, P; Murari, A; Popovichev, S; Mlynar, J

    2010-10-01

    In ITER, α particle loss measurements will be required in order to understand the alpha particle physics. Techniques capable of operating in a fusion reactor environment need further development. Recent experimental studies on JET demonstrated the potential of nuclear activation to measure the flux of escaping MeV ions. New results from MeV ion induced activation of metallic, ceramic, and crystal samples placed near the plasma edge are reported. Activation products were measured as function of orientation with respect to the magnetic field as well as function of the distance to the plasma. Sample activity was measured using ultralow-level gamma-ray spectrometry. Distribution of 14.68 MeV fusion proton induced activation products is strongly anisotropic in agreement with simulations and falls off sharply with increasing distance to the plasma. Prospects for using the technique in ITER are discussed. PMID:21058458

  3. The effect of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention on objectively measured physical activity in Belgian preschool boys and girls of high and low SES: the ToyBox-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ToyBox-study developed an evidence- and theory-based intervention to improve preschoolers’ energy balance-related behaviours – including physical activity (PA) – by targeting the kindergarten environment and involving their parents/caregivers. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention on increasing Belgian preschoolers’ objectively measured PA levels. Methods A sample of 472 preschoolers (4.43 ± 0.55 years; 55.1% boys) from 27 kindergartens (15 intervention, 12 control kindergartens) in Flanders, Belgium were included in the data analyses. Preschoolers wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for six consecutive days and were included in the data analyses if they had a minimum of two weekdays and one weekend day, both at baseline and follow-up (one year later). Preschoolers’ PA outcomes were estimated for an average day, weekday, weekend day, during school hours, and during after school hours. To assess intervention effects, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted for the total sample, and for sub-groups (according to sex, kindergarten levels of socio-economic status (SES) and risk groups (low levels of PA at baseline)) of preschoolers. Results Small intervention effects were found in the total sample. Most intervention effects were found in boys and in preschoolers from high SES kindergartens. Boys from the intervention group had an increase in vigorous PA (ß = 1.47, p = 0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (ß = 1.27, p = 0.03) from baseline to follow-up, whereas PA levels in boys from the control group stagnated or decreased. In preschoolers from high SES kindergartens, the largest effects were found for PA outcomes during school hours and during after school hours. Conclusion The results from the Belgian sample demonstrate that effects of the PA-component of the ToyBox-intervention on objectively measured PA were found in preschool boys and in preschoolers from high SES kindergartens

  4. Dynamic plasmapause model based on THEMIS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Liu, W.; Cao, J. B.; Fu, H. S.; Yu, J.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a dynamic plasmapause location model established based on 5 years of Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) measurements from 2009 to 2013. In total, 5878 plasmapause crossing events are identified, sufficiently covering all 24 magnetic local time (MLT) sectors. Based on this plasmapause crossing database, we investigate the correlations between plasmapause locations with solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. Input parameters for the best fits are obtained for different MLT sectors, and finally, we choose five input parameters to build a plasmapause location model, including 5 min-averaged SYM-H, AL, and AU indices as well as hourly-averaged AE and Kp indices. two out-of-sample comparisons on the evolution of the plasmapause is shown during two magnetic storms, demonstrating good agreement between model results and observations. Two major advantages are achieved by this model. First, this model provides plasmapause locations at 24 MLT sectors, still providing good consistency with observations. Second, this model is able to reproduce dynamic variations of the plasmapause on timescales as short as 5 min.

  5. Method for measuring surface activity of silicon nitride powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanno, Y.; Imai, H.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous, alpha-, and beta-Si3N4 powders were activated by vibration ball milling in purified MeOH, and the surface activity of ground powders was determined by the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method using NH3 gas. The concentration of active sites with a potential energy equivalent to the peak temperature in the spectrum increased was markedly by ball milling the amorphous Si3N4. The alpha- and beta-Si3N4 also had active sites produced by ball milling. The concentration of active site increased with increased ball milling time. A method for measuring surface activity of ceramic raw materials by TPD is proposed.

  6. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  7. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2009-06-09

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  8. Ice nucleus activity measurements of solid rocket motor exhaust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The ice Nucleus activity of exhaust particles generated from combustion of Space Shuttle propellant in small rocket motors has been measured. The activity at -20 C was substantially lower than that of aerosols generated by unpressurized combustion of propellant samples in previous studies. The activity decays rapidly with time and is decreased further in the presence of moist air. These tests corroborate the low effectivity ice nucleus measurement results obtained in the exhaust ground cloud of the Space Shuttle. Such low ice nucleus activity implies that Space Shuttle induced inadvertent weather modification via an ice phase process is extremely unlikely.

  9. Teaching Activity-Based Taxicab Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ada, Tuba

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed on the process of teaching taxicab geometry, a non-Euclidean geometry that is easy to understand and similar to Euclidean geometry with its axiomatic structure. In this regard, several teaching activities were designed such as measuring taxicab distance, defining a taxicab circle, finding a geometric locus in taxicab geometry, and…

  10. Activity-based differentiation of pathologists' workload in surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Meijer, G A; Oudejans, J J; Koevoets, J J M; Meijer, C J L M

    2009-06-01

    Adequate budget control in pathology practice requires accurate allocation of resources. Any changes in types and numbers of specimens handled or protocols used will directly affect the pathologists' workload and consequently the allocation of resources. The aim of the present study was to develop a model for measuring the pathologists' workload that can take into account the changes mentioned above. The diagnostic process was analyzed and broken up into separate activities. The time needed to perform these activities was measured. Based on linear regression analysis, for each activity, the time needed was calculated as a function of the number of slides or blocks involved. The total pathologists' time required for a range of specimens was calculated based on standard protocols and validated by comparing to actually measured workload. Cutting up, microscopic procedures and dictating turned out to be highly correlated to number of blocks and/or slides per specimen. Calculated workload per type of specimen was significantly correlated to the actually measured workload. Modeling pathologists' workload based on formulas that calculate workload per type of specimen as a function of the number of blocks and slides provides a basis for a comprehensive, yet flexible, activity-based costing system for pathology. PMID:19399515

  11. Laser-Based Measurement Of Torsional Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, P. G.; Halliwell, N. A.

    1986-07-01

    Investigations of the torsional vibration characteristics of shaft systems which transmit pulsating torques are an important part of a machinery designer's responsibility. Satisfactory operation of such systems depends to a large extent on successful treatment of this vibration problem, since incorrectly or insufficiently controlled torsional oscillations can lead to fatigue failure, rapid bearing wear, gear hammer etc. The problem is particularly severe in engine crankshaft design where numerous failures have been traced to abnormal vibration at "critical" speeds. Traditionally, the monitoring of torsional oscillation has been performed using strain gauges, slip rings and a variety of mechanical and electrical "torsiographs". More recently systems employing slotted discs or toothed wheels together with proximity transducers have been preferred, but a disadvantage arises from all these methods in that they require contact with the rotating component which necessitates "downtime" for transducer attachment. Moreover, physical access to the rotating surface is often restricted thus making the use of such methods impractical. The "cross-beam" laser velocimeter provides a means of measuring torsional vibration by a non-contact method, thus effectively overcoming the disadvantages of previous measurement systems. This well established laser-based instrument provides a time-resolved voltage analogue of shaft tangential surface velocity and laboratory and field tests have shown it to be both accurate and reliable. The versatility of this instrument, however, is restricted by the need for accurate positioning, since the velocimeter must be arranged so that the rotating surface always traverses the beam intersection region, which is typically only a fraction of a millimetre in length. As a consequence use is restricted to components of circular cross section. This paper compares and contrasts the "cross-beam" system with a new laser instrument, the laser torsional vibrometer

  12. A web-based tool for ranking landslide mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasse, S.; Vaciago, G.; Choi, Y. J.; Kalsnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    As part of the research done in the European project SafeLand "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies", a compendium of structural and non-structural mitigation measures for different landslide types in Europe was prepared, and the measures were assembled into a web-based "toolbox". Emphasis was placed on providing a rational and flexible framework applicable to existing and future mitigation measures. The purpose of web-based toolbox is to assist decision-making and to guide the user in the choice of the most appropriate mitigation measures. The mitigation measures were classified into three categories, describing whether the mitigation measures addressed the landslide hazard, the vulnerability or the elements at risk themselves. The measures considered include structural measures reducing hazard and non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences (or vulnerability and exposure of elements at risk). The structural measures include surface protection and control of surface erosion; measures modifying the slope geometry and/or mass distribution; measures modifying surface water regime - surface drainage; measures mo¬difying groundwater regime - deep drainage; measured modifying the mechanical charac¬teristics of unstable mass; transfer of loads to more competent strata; retaining structures (to modify slope geometry and/or to transfer stress to compe¬tent layer); deviating the path of landslide debris; dissipating the energy of debris flows; and arresting and containing landslide debris or rock fall. The non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences: early warning systems; restricting or discouraging construction activities; increasing resistance or coping capacity of elements at risk; relocation of elements at risk; sharing of risk through insurance. The measures are described in the toolbox with fact sheets providing a

  13. Computerised system for measurement of muscle thickness based on ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alexander; Gallagher, Kaitlin M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a computerised system for measuring muscle thicknesses of the transverse abdominus (TrA), internal oblique and external oblique muscles based on ultrasonography is presented. The system is designed to allow for quantitative analysis of changes in muscle recruitment and activity, which facilitates the study of such changes and its relationship with low back pain. The abdominal muscle area was localised and imaged under different standing conditions using B-mode ultrasonography. To account for issues such as misalignments due to probe and subject motion as well as speckle noise inherent to ultrasonography, automatic ensemble registration is performed on the acquired images using a sequential quadratic programming approach based on a novel log-Rayleigh likelihood function. Regions of interest are then automatically identified based on the medial border of the TrA for the purpose of quantitative muscle thickness measurements. Experimental results show that the proposed system achieves registration errors of under 0.4 mm when compared with ground-truth measurements, as well as allow for the measurement of muscle thickness changes in the millimetre range. The proposed system is currently in operational use as an analysis tool for studying the relationship between abdominal muscle thickness changes and postural changes. PMID:22372597

  14. Neutron activation analysis: A primary method of measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Robert R.; Bode, Peter; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.

    2011-03-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), based on the comparator method, has the potential to fulfill the requirements of a primary ratio method as defined in 1998 by the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière — Métrologie en Chimie (CCQM, Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance — Metrology in Chemistry). This thesis is evidenced in this paper in three chapters by: demonstration that the method is fully physically and chemically understood; that a measurement equation can be written down in which the values of all parameters have dimensions in SI units and thus having the potential for metrological traceability to these units; that all contributions to uncertainty of measurement can be quantitatively evaluated, underpinning the metrological traceability; and that the performance of NAA in CCQM key-comparisons of trace elements in complex matrices between 2000 and 2007 is similar to the performance of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS), which had been formerly designated by the CCQM as a primary ratio method.

  15. Earthworm Biomass Measurement: A Science Activity for Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Jonathan; Levine, Elissa; Carey, Pauline B.; Niepold III, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity on biomass measurement which, in this case, is the weight of a group of living things in a given area. The earthworm activity gives students a greater understanding of ecology, practical math applications, and the scientific method. (ASK)

  16. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  17. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  18. Should soil testing services measure soil biological activity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health of agricultural soils depends largely on conservation management to promote soil organic C accumulation. Total soil organic C changes slowly, but active fractions are more dynamic. A key indicator of healthy soil is potential biological activity, which could be measured rapidly with soil te...

  19. LOFT experimental measurements uncertainty analyses. Volume XX. Fluid-velocity measurement using pulsed-neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.; Taylor, D.J.N.

    1982-08-01

    Analyses of uncertainty components inherent in pulsed-neutron-activation (PNA) measurements in general and the Loss-of-Fluid-Test (LOFT) system in particular are given. Due to the LOFT system's unique conditions, previously-used techniques were modified to make the volocity measurement. These methods render a useful, cost-effective measurement with an estimated uncertainty of 11% of reading.

  20. Measurement of action spectra of light-activated processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Justin; Zvyagin, Andrei V.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Upcroft, Jacqui; Upcroft, Peter; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina H.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a new experimental technique suitable for measurement of light-activated processes, such as fluorophore transport. The usefulness of this technique is derived from its capacity to decouple the imaging and activation processes, allowing fluorescent imaging of fluorophore transport at a convenient activation wavelength. We demonstrate the efficiency of this new technique in determination of the action spectrum of the light mediated transport of rhodamine 123 into the parasitic protozoan Giardia duodenalis.

  1. Maximal Holevo Quantity Based on Weak Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Kun; Fei, Shao-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Xi; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    The Holevo bound is a keystone in many applications of quantum information theory. We propose “ maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements” as the generalization of the maximal Holevo quantity which is defined by the optimal projective measurements. The scenarios that weak measurements is necessary are that only the weak measurements can be performed because for example the system is macroscopic or that one intentionally tries to do so such that the disturbance on the measured system can be controlled for example in quantum key distribution protocols. We evaluate systematically the maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements for Bell-diagonal states and find a series of results. Furthermore, we find that weak measurements can be realized by noise and project measurements. PMID:26090962

  2. Development of the Patient Activation Measure for mental health.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Perrin, Nancy A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Hibbard, Judith H; Tusler, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Our objective was to adapt the physical health Patient Activation Measure (PAM) for use among people with mental health conditions (PAM-MH). Data came from three studies among people with chronic mental health conditions and were combined in Rasch analyses. The PAM-MH's psychometric properties equal those of the original 13-item PAM. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity were good, and the PAM-MH showed sensitivity to change. The PAM-MH appears to be a reliable and valid measure of patient activation among individuals with mental health problems. It appears to have potential for use in assessing change in activation. PMID:19728074

  3. MCG measurement in the environment of active magnetic shield.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Kato, K; Kobayashi, K; Igarashi, A; Sato, T; Haga, A; Kasai, N

    2004-01-01

    MCG (Magnetocardiography) measurement by a SQUID gradiometer was attempted with only active magnetic shielding (active shielding). A three-axis-canceling-coil active shielding system, where three 16-10-16 turns-coil sets were put in the orthogonal directions, produces a homogeneous magnetic field in a considerable volume surrounding the center. Fluxgate sensors were used as the reference sensors of the system. The system can reduce environmental magnetic noise at low frequencies of less than a few Hz, at 50 Hz and at 150 Hz. Reducing such disturbances stabilizes biomagnetic measurement conditions for SQUIDs in the absence of magnetically shielded rooms (MSR). After filtering and averaging the measured MCG data by a first-order SQUID gradiometer with only the active shielding during the daytime, the QRS complex and T wave was clearly presented. PMID:16012640

  4. Solar irradiance measurements - Minimum through maximum solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. B., III; Gibson, M. A.; Shivakumar, N.; Wilson, R.; Kyle, H. L.; Mecherikunnel, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the NOAA-9 spacecraft solar monitors were used to measure the total solar irradiance during the period October 1984 to December 1989. Decreasing trends in the irradiance measurements were observed as sunspot activity decreased to minimum levels in 1986; after 1986, increasing trends were observed as sunspot activity increased. The magnitude of the irradiance variability was found to be approximately 0.1 percent between sunspot minimum and maximum (late 1989). When compared with the 1984 to 1989 indices of solar magnetic activity, the irradiance trends appear to be in phase with the 11-year sunspot cycle. Both irradiance series yielded 1,365/sq Wm as the mean value of the solar irradiance, normalized to the mean earth/sun distance. The monitors are electrical substitution, active-cavity radiometers with estimated measurement precisions and accuracies of less than 0.02 and 0.2 percent, respectively.

  5. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  6. Space based astronomy: Teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Carla B. (Editor); Weiler, Edward; Morrow, Cherilyn; Bacon, Pamela M.; Thorne, Muriel; Blanchard, Paul A.; Howard, Sethane; Pengra, Patricia R.; Brown, Deborah A.; Winrich, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy - astronomical observations made from outer space. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. Instead, it tells the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The guide begins with a survey of astronomy related NASA spacecraft. This is followed by a collection of activities in four units: (1) the atmospheric filter; (2) the electromagnetic spectrum; (3) collecting electromagnetic radiation; and (4) down to Earth. A curriculum index identifies the curriculum areas each activity addresses. The guide concludes with a glossary, reference list, a NASA Resources list, and an evaluation card. It is designed for students in grades 5 through 8.

  7. Comparisons of Space-based GPS Occultation Ionospheric Scintillation Measurements with Ground-based VHF Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, F. H.; Groves, K. M.; Starks, M. J.; Beach, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    Ionospheric irregularities are known to cause scintillation of transionospheric radio signals and can affect space-based UHF/VHF communications, causing outages, and degrade GPS accuracy and precision. Current capability for characterizing and predicting ionospheric scintillation utilizes a network of ground- based receivers to detect scintillation and then extrapolate for short-term forecasts. Practical limits on deploying the ground receivers limits the accuracy and spatial coverage one can achieve with this approach. A more global approach is to use a set of space-based satellites equipped with GPS receivers, such as the COSMIC satellite constellation, to measure scintillations observed during so-called occultations with GPS satellites. The term occultation refers to the geometry where the clear line-of-sight path between the space- based GPS receiver and the GPS satellite is ultimately blocked, or occulted, by the earth's surface. Before or after occultation the ray-path passes through the lower atmosphere and ionosphere providing information on the total electron content (TEC) and irregularities between the transmitter and the receiver. In this paper the signal-to-noise values of GPS L1 signals received on the COSMIC (and possibly C/NOFS if available) satellites are examined to help identify areas of ionospheric scintillation. The S4 scintillation index values from these occultations are compared with ground-based VHF S4 scintillation measurements from several equatorial stations. Preliminary results show that while there are cases where both the occultation and ground measurements indicate enhanced scintillation, there are also a number of cases where the occultation GPS S4 is significantly larger than the ground-based VHF S4, somewhat contrary to expectations given that scintillation effects generally increase with decreasing frequency. Reasons for high GPS S4 in the presence of relatively low VHF S4 include geometry differences between space- and ground-based

  8. Activity-based probes for detection of active MALT1 paracaspase in immune cells and lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Eitelhuber, Andrea C; Vosyka, Oliver; Nagel, Daniel; Bognar, Miriam; Lenze, Dido; Lammens, Katja; Schlauderer, Florian; Hlahla, Daniela; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Lenz, Georg; Hummel, Michael; Verhelst, Steven H L; Krappmann, Daniel

    2015-01-22

    MALT1 paracaspase is activated upon antigen receptor stimulation to promote lymphocyte activation. In addition, deregulated MALT1 protease activity drives survival of distinct lymphomas such as the activated B cell type of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). Here, we designed fluorophore or biotin-coupled activity based-probes (ABP) that covalently modify the active center of MALT1. MALT1-ABPs are exclusively labeling an active modified full length form of MALT1 upon T cell stimulation. Further, despite the CARMA1 requirement for initial MALT1 activation, the MALT1-ABPs show that protease activity is not confined to the high-molecular CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complex. Using biotin-coupled ABPs, we developed a robust assay for sensitive and selective detection of active MALT1 in cell lines, primary lymphocytes, and DLBCL tumor biopsies. Taken together, MALT1-ABPs represent powerful chemical tools to measure cellular MALT1 activation, determine efficacy of small molecule inhibitors, and classify lymphomas based on MALT1 activity status. PMID:25556945

  9. Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement. II - Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Yungel, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    Reported here for the first time is the use of a single airborne instrument to make concurrent measurements of oceanic chlorophyll concentration by (1) laser-induced fluorescence, (2) passive upwelling radiance, and (3) solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. Results from field experiments conducted with the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL) in the New York Bight demonstrate the capability of a single active-passive instrument to perform new and potentially important ocean color studies related to (1) active lidar validation of passive ocean color in-water algorithms, (2) chlorophyll a in vivo fluorescence yield variability, (3) calibration of active multichannel lidar systems, (4) effect of sea state on passive and active ocean color measurements, (5) laser/solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence investigations, and (6) subsequent improvement of satellite-borne ocean color scanners. For validation and comparison purposes a separate passive ocean color sensor was also flown along with the new active-passive sensor during these initial field trials.

  10. Orthogonality Measurement for Homogenous Projects-Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivan, Ion; Sandu, Andrei; Popa, Marius

    2009-01-01

    The homogenous projects-base concept is defined. Next, the necessary steps to create a homogenous projects-base are presented. A metric system is built, which then will be used for analyzing projects. The indicators which are meaningful for analyzing a homogenous projects-base are selected. The given hypothesis is experimentally verified. The…

  11. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M.; Scholz, M.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Pytel, K.

    2014-08-21

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, α){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting β{sup −} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β–particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β–source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5–the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β{sup −} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  12. Spectral-based inferential measurement of grey-body's temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Feng; Liu, Liying; Zhu, Lingxi; Huan, Kewei; Li, Ye; Shi, Xiaoguang

    2015-11-01

    Aiming at the problems of temperature measurement and the defects of radiance thermometry theory, one method of spectral-based inferential measurement is proposed, which adopts the Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM) functional model as the temperature measurement model. Then, the radiance thermometry theory and inferential measurement technology are discussed comparatively. Temperatures of some targets, such and tungsten lamp and solar surface, are measured by spectral-based inferential measurement.

  13. DNA-based control of protein activity

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, W.; Janssen, B. M. G.

    2016-01-01

    DNA has emerged as a highly versatile construction material for nanometer-sized structures and sophisticated molecular machines and circuits. The successful application of nucleic acid based systems greatly relies on their ability to autonomously sense and act on their environment. In this feature article, the development of DNA-based strategies to dynamically control protein activity via oligonucleotide triggers is discussed. Depending on the desired application, protein activity can be controlled by directly conjugating them to an oligonucleotide handle, or expressing them as a fusion protein with DNA binding motifs. To control proteins without modifying them chemically or genetically, multivalent ligands and aptamers that reversibly inhibit their function provide valuable tools to regulate proteins in a noncovalent manner. The goal of this feature article is to give an overview of strategies developed to control protein activity via oligonucleotide-based triggers, as well as hurdles yet to be taken to obtain fully autonomous systems that interrogate, process and act on their environments by means of DNA-based protein control. PMID:26812623

  14. DNA-based control of protein activity.

    PubMed

    Engelen, W; Janssen, B M G; Merkx, M

    2016-03-01

    DNA has emerged as a highly versatile construction material for nanometer-sized structures and sophisticated molecular machines and circuits. The successful application of nucleic acid based systems greatly relies on their ability to autonomously sense and act on their environment. In this feature article, the development of DNA-based strategies to dynamically control protein activity via oligonucleotide triggers is discussed. Depending on the desired application, protein activity can be controlled by directly conjugating them to an oligonucleotide handle, or expressing them as a fusion protein with DNA binding motifs. To control proteins without modifying them chemically or genetically, multivalent ligands and aptamers that reversibly inhibit their function provide valuable tools to regulate proteins in a noncovalent manner. The goal of this feature article is to give an overview of strategies developed to control protein activity via oligonucleotide-based triggers, as well as hurdles yet to be taken to obtain fully autonomous systems that interrogate, process and act on their environments by means of DNA-based protein control. PMID:26812623

  15. Comparative Validity of Physical Activity Measures in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    COLBERT, LISA H.; MATTHEWS, CHARLES E.; HAVIGHURST, THOMAS C.; KIM, KYUNGMANN; SCHOELLER, DALE A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the validity of various physical activity measures with doubly labeled water (DLW)–measured physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in free-living older adults. Methods Fifty-six adults aged ≥65 yr wore three activity monitors (New Lifestyles pedometer, ActiGraph accelerometer, and a SenseWear (SW) armband) during a 10-d free-living period and completed three different surveys (Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS), Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), and a modified Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (modPASE)). Total energy expenditure was measured using DLW, resting metabolic rate was measured with indirect calorimetry, the thermic effect of food was estimated, and from these, estimates of PAEE were calculated. The degree of linear association between the various measures and PAEE was assessed, as were differences in group PAEE, when estimable by a given measure. Results All three monitors were significantly correlated with PAEE (r = 0.48–0.60, P < 0.001). Of the questionnaires, only CHAMPS was significantly correlated with PAEE (r = 0.28, P = 0.04). Statistical comparison of the correlations suggested that the monitors were superior to YPAS and modPASE. Mean squared errors for all correlations were high, and the median PAEE from the different tools was significantly different from DLW for all but the YPAS and regression-estimated PAEE from the ActiGraph. Conclusions Objective devices more appropriately rank PAEE than self-reported instruments in older adults, but absolute estimates of PAEE are not accurate. Given the cost differential and ease of use, pedometers seem most useful in this population when ranking by physical activity level is adequate. PMID:20881882

  16. Brain mechanical property measurement using MRE with intrinsic activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John B.; Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-11-01

    Many pathologies alter the mechanical properties of tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been developed to noninvasively characterize these quantities in vivo. Typically, small vibrations are induced in the tissue of interest with an external mechanical actuator. The resulting displacements are measured with phase contrast sequences and are then used to estimate the underlying mechanical property distribution. Several MRE studies have quantified brain tissue properties. However, the cranium and meninges, especially the dura, are very effective at damping externally applied vibrations from penetrating deeply into the brain. Here, we report a method, termed ‘intrinsic activation’, that eliminates the requirement for external vibrations by measuring the motion generated by natural blood vessel pulsation. A retrospectively gated phase contrast MR angiography sequence was used to record the tissue velocity at eight phases of the cardiac cycle. The velocities were numerically integrated via the Fourier transform to produce the harmonic displacements at each position within the brain. The displacements were then reconstructed into images of the shear modulus based on both linear elastic and poroelastic models. The mechanical properties produced fall within the range of brain tissue estimates reported in the literature and, equally important, the technique yielded highly reproducible results. The mean shear modulus was 8.1 kPa for linear elastic reconstructions and 2.4 kPa for poroelastic reconstructions where fluid pressure carries a portion of the stress. Gross structures of the brain were visualized, particularly in the poroelastic reconstructions. Intra-subject variability was significantly less than the inter-subject variability in a study of six asymptomatic individuals. Further, larger changes in mechanical properties were observed in individuals when examined over time than when the MRE procedures were repeated on the same day. Cardiac pulsation

  17. Brain Mechanical Property Measurement Using MRE with Intrinsic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Problem Addressed Many pathologies alter the mechanical properties of tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been developed to noninvasively characterize these quantities in vivo. Typically, small vibrations are induced in the tissue of interest with an external mechanical actuator. The resulting displacements are measured with phase contrast sequences and are then used to estimate the underlying mechanical property distribution. Several MRE studies have quantified brain tissue properties. However, the cranium and meninges, especially the dura, are very effective at damping externally applied vibrations from penetrating deeply into the brain. Here, we report a method, termed ‘intrinsic activation’, that eliminates the requirement for external vibrations by measuring the motion generated by natural blood vessel pulsation. Methodology A retrospectively gated phase contrast MR angiography sequence was used to record the tissue velocity at eight phases of the cardiac cycle. The velocities were numerically integrated via the Fourier transform to produce the harmonic displacements at each position within the brain. The displacements were then reconstructed into images of the shear modulus based on both linear elastic and poroelastic models. Results, Significance and Potential Impact The mechanical properties produced fall within the range of brain tissue estimates reported in the literature and, equally important, the technique yielded highly reproducible results. The mean shear modulus was 8.1 kPa for linear elastic reconstructions and 2.4 kPa for poroelastic reconstructions where fluid pressure carries a portion of the stress. Gross structures of the brain were visualized, particularly in the poroelastic reconstructions. Intra-subject variability was significantly less than the inter-subject variability in a study of 6 asymptomatic individuals. Further, larger changes in mechanical properties were observed in individuals when examined over time than when

  18. Measurement of the components of nonexercise activity thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Levine, J; Melanson, E L; Westerterp, K R; Hill, J O

    2001-10-01

    Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) accounts for the vast majority of nonresting metabolic rate and changes in NEAT-predicted susceptibility to fat gain with overfeeding. Measuring physical activity and its components in free-living humans has been a long-standing challenge. In this study, we combine information about lightweight sensors that capture data on body position and motion with laboratory measures of energy expenditure to calculate nonfidgeting NEAT. This measurement of nonfidgeting NEAT was compared with total NEAT measured in a room calorimeter in 11 healthy subjects. The measurement of nonfidgeting NEAT accounted for 85 +/- 9% of total NEAT measured in the room calorimeter. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the two methods was 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.56, 0.96; P < 0.05). This suggests that 86% of the variance is attributable to between-subject variance and 14% to between-method disagreement. These instruments are applicable to free-living subjects; they are stand-alone, are lightweight, and allow normal daily activities. This novel technology has potential application for not only assessing NEAT but also tracking physical activity in free-living humans. PMID:11551842

  19. New ITF measure method based on fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qiaoran; Liu, Shijie; Gao, Wanrong; Zhou, You; Liu, HuanHuan

    2016-01-01

    With the unprecedented developments of the intense laser and aerospace projects', the interferometer is widely used in detecting middle frequency indicators of the optical elements, which put forward very high request towards the interferometer system transfer function (ITF). Conventionally, the ITF is measured by comparing the power spectra of known phase objects such as high-quality phase step. However, the fabrication of phase step is complex and high-cost, especially in the measurement of large-aperture interferometer. In this paper, a new fringe method is proposed to measure the ITF without additional objects. The frequency was changed by adjusting the number of fringes, and the normalized transfer function value was measured at different frequencies. The ITF value measured by fringe method was consistent with the traditional phase step method, which confirms the feasibility of proposed method. Moreover, the measurement error caused by defocus was analyzed. The proposed method does not require the preparation of a step artifact, which greatly reduces the test cost, and is of great significance to the ITF measurement of large aperture interferometer.

  20. Computer-Based Experiments to Measure RC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Francis X.

    2000-01-01

    Finds that few electricity and magnetism experiments make use of computers for data acquisition. Reports on the use of a Vernier system for the measurement of the RC time constant for the charging and discharging of a capacitor. (CCM)

  1. Methodological considerations for measuring spontaneous physical activity in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    When exploring biological determinants of spontaneous physical activity (SPA), it is critical to consider whether methodological factors differentially affect rodents and the measured SPA. We determined whether acclimation time, sensory stimulation, vendor, or chamber size affected measures in rodents with varying propensity for SPA. We used principal component analysis to determine which SPA components (ambulatory and vertical counts, time in SPA, and distance traveled) best described the variability in SPA measurements. We compared radiotelemetry and infrared photobeams used to measure SPA and exploratory activity. Acclimation time, sensory stimulation, vendor, and chamber size independently influenced SPA, and the effect was moderated by the propensity for SPA. A 24-h acclimation period prior to SPA measurement was sufficient for habituation. Principal component analysis showed that ambulatory and vertical measurements of SPA describe different dimensions of the rodent's SPA behavior. Smaller testing chambers and a sensory attenuation cubicle around the chamber reduced SPA. SPA varies between rodents purchased from different vendors. Radiotelemetry and infrared photobeams differ in their sensitivity to detect phenotypic differences in SPA and exploratory activity. These data highlight methodological considerations in rodent SPA measurement and a need to standardize SPA methodology. PMID:24598463

  2. Measuring the activities of higher organisms in activated sludge by means of mechanical shearing pretreatment and oxygen uptake rate.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaodi; Wang, Qilin; Cao, Yali; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2010-07-01

    A pretreatment method was developed to assess the activities of higher organisms. The method is based on mechanical shearing to damage the large cells of the protozoan and metazoan community in activated sludge. The procedure was confirmed through experimentation to be effective in determining the activities of higher organisms by comparing oxygen uptake rates (OURs) before and after the higher organisms were eradicated. Shearing led to disintegration of flocs, which could be effectively reconstituted by centrifugation. The reconstitution of the sludge flocs was essential since otherwise the activity of the floc mass would be too high due to lack of diffusion limitation. Mechanical shearing had no influence on the morphology, quantity and specific activity of yeasts, and it was inferred that bacteria smaller than yeasts in size would also not be influenced by the applied shearing procedure. Moreover, the effect of filamentous organisms on the measured activities of higher organisms was experimentally demonstrated and analyzed, and determined to be so weak that it could be ignored. Based on these tests, five typical activated sludge processes were selected to measure the contribution of higher organisms to the original OUR. The measured activities of higher organisms ranged from 9.4 to 25.0% of the original OURs. PMID:20605188

  3. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  4. Copper activation deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Cooper, G W; Ruiz, C L; Leeper, R J; Chandler, G A; Hahn, K D; Nelson, A J; Torres, J A; Smelser, R M; McWatters, B R; Bleuel, D L; Yeamans, C B; Knittel, K M; Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Petrasso, R D; Styron, J D

    2012-10-01

    A DT neutron yield diagnostic based on the reactions, (63)Cu(n,2n)(62)Cu(β(+)) and (65)Cu(n,2n)( 64) Cu(β(+)), has been fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The induced copper activity is measured using a NaI γ-γ coincidence system. Uncertainties in the 14-MeV DT yield measurements are on the order of 7% to 8%. In addition to measuring yield, the ratio of activities induced in two, well-separated copper samples are used to measure the relative anisotropy of the fuel ρR to uncertainties as low as 5%. PMID:23126920

  5. Plant-based active photoprotectants for sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Cefali, L C; Ataide, J A; Moriel, P; Foglio, M A; Mazzola, P G

    2016-08-01

    Excessive exposure to the sun's radiation is the major exogenous mediator of skin damage, which accelerates skin ageing and increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Compounds with photoprotectant activity are extremely useful for decreasing the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin; however, numerous sun filters, especially organic sunscreens, are allergenic. Therefore, the development of formulations containing plant extracts, which may be potentially safer, is extensively being explored. Plant-based cosmetics are commonly used to avoid skin ageing because they contain antioxidant agents that minimize free radical activity, and numerous studies have investigated the skin-protectant effects of related plant species. In addition to their antioxidant properties, plant-based cosmetics protect the skin against solar radiation because they contain polyphenols such as flavonoids and carotenoids. Therefore, this study aims to present a review of plant species commonly used in sunscreens to protect the skin against damage due to sunlight exposure. PMID:26919163

  6. The Elastic Body Model: A Pedagogical Approach Integrating Real Time Measurements and Modelling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, C.; Guastella, I.; Tarantino, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a pedagogical approach to elastic body movement based on measurements of the contact times between a metallic rod and small bodies colliding with it and on modelling of the experimental results by using a microcomputer-based laboratory and simulation tools. The experiments and modelling activities have been built in the…

  7. An Alternative Measure of Solar Activity from Detailed Sunspot Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraközy, J.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    2016-05-01

    The sunspot number is analyzed by using detailed sunspot data, including aspects of observability, sunspot sizes, and proper identification of sunspot groups as discrete entities of solar activity. The tests show that in addition to the subjective factors there are also objective causes of the ambiguities in the series of sunspot numbers. To introduce an alternative solar-activity measure, the physical meaning of the sunspot number has to be reconsidered. It contains two components whose numbers are governed by different physical mechanisms and this is one source of the ambiguity. This article suggests an activity index, which is the amount of emerged magnetic flux. The only long-term proxy measure is the detailed sunspot-area dataset with proper calibration to the magnetic flux. The Debrecen sunspot databases provide an appropriate source for the establishment of the suggested activity index.

  8. Photospheric Magnetic Diffusion by Measuring Moments of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engell, Alexander; Longcope, D.

    2013-07-01

    Photospheric magnetic surface diffusion is an important constraint for the solar dynamo. The HMI Active Region Patches (HARPs) program automatically identify all magnetic regions above a certain flux. In our study we measure the moments of ARs that are no longer actively emerging and can thereby give us good statistical constraints on photospheric diffusion. We also present the diffusion properties as a function of latitude, flux density, and single polarity (leading or following) within each HARP.

  9. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  10. Spectrometric measurements of radioisotope activity in the thyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osko, Jakub; Golnik, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    The results of measurements of iodine 131I and technetium 99mTc uptake in human thyroid, performed with scintillation or semiconductor detectors can exhibit a considerable uncertainty due to the differences in the thyroid position in the patient's neck. Basic physical laws of radiation attenuation and scattering show that the final shape of the registered spectrum should depends on the thyroid position in the neck and on the thickness of the tissue between the thyroid and the detector. The use of the spectrometric measuring method is proposed in this work for determination of the iodine gathering effective depth. The performed studies showed that the measurements results can be used for improving the accuracy of the iodine 131I activity in thyroid measurements and for selection of the group of patients for whom the anatomical position of the thyroid or the spatial distribution of the iodine gathering is much different than the standard one, assumed during the calibration of the counters. The results of the measurements were in agreement with Monte-Carlo calculations of the detector response. The method was used in routine monitoring of occupationally exposed persons, using the thyroid counter. A group of six persons with measurable internal contamination was selected and the measurements were performed on consecutive days, so the results could be registered at decreasing iodine activities in the thyroid. Larger series of measurements were performed at Brodno Regional Hospital in Warsaw, for a group of 95 patients after diagnostic administration of iodine 131I.

  11. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil. PMID:25953787

  12. Automated MRI Cerebellar Size Measurements Using Active Appearance Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Price, Mathew; Cardenas, Valerie A.; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Although the human cerebellum has been increasingly identified as an important hub that shows potential for helping in the diagnosis of a large spectrum of disorders, such as alcoholism, autism, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, the high costs associated with manual segmentation, and low availability of reliable automated cerebellar segmentation tools, has resulted in a limited focus on cerebellar measurement in human neuroimaging studies. We present here the CATK (Cerebellar Analysis Toolkit), which is based on the Bayesian framework implemented in FMRIB’s FIRST. This approach involves training Active Appearance Models (AAM) using hand-delineated examples. CATK can currently delineate the cerebellar hemispheres and three vermal groups (lobules I–V, VI–VII, and VIII–X). Linear registration with the low-resolution MNI152 template is used to provide initial alignment, and Point Distribution Models (PDM) are parameterized using stellar sampling. The Bayesian approach models the relationship between shape and texture through computation of conditionals in the training set. Our method varies from the FIRST framework in that initial fitting is driven by 1D intensity profile matching, and the conditional likelihood function is subsequently used to refine fitting. The method was developed using T1-weighted images from 63 subjects that were imaged and manually labeled: 43 subjects were scanned once and were used for training models, and 20 subjects were imaged twice (with manual labeling applied to both runs) and used to assess reliability and validity. Intraclass correlation analysis shows that CATK is highly reliable (average test-retest ICCs of 0.96), and offers excellent agreement with the gold standard (average validity ICC of 0.87 against manual labels). Comparisons against an alternative atlas-based approach, SUIT (Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial Template), that registers images with a high-resolution template of the cerebellum, show that our AAM

  13. Magnetic space-based field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Because the near Earth magnetic field is a complex combination of fields from outside the Earth of fields from its core and of fields from its crust, measurements from space prove to be the only practical way to obtain timely, global surveys. Due to difficulty in making accurate vector measurements, early satellites such as Sputnik and Vanguard measured only the magnitude survey. The attitude accuracy was 20 arc sec. Both the Earth's core fields and the fields arising from its crust were mapped from satellite data. The standard model of the core consists of a scalar potential represented by a spherical harmonics series. Models of the crustal field are relatively new. Mathematical representation is achieved in localized areas by arrays of dipoles appropriately located in the Earth's crust. Measurements of the Earth's field are used in navigation, to map charged particles in the magnetosphere, to study fluid properties in the Earth's core, to infer conductivity of the upper mantels, and to delineate regional scale geological features.

  14. IMAGE-BASED EROSION MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two and three - dimensional analysis using close range digital photographs can be very useful in measuring changes in erosion on the landscape. Computer software exists for conducting photographic analysis but is often either cost prohibitive or very labor intensive to use. This paper describes a ...

  15. Asset-Based Measurement of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandolini, Andrea; Magri, Silvia; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is generally defined as income or expenditure insufficiency, but the economic condition of a household also depends on its real and financial asset holdings. This paper investigates measures of poverty that rely on indicators of household net worth. We review and assess two main approaches followed in the literature: income-net worth…

  16. GIFTS EDU Ground-based Measurement Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, W. L., Sr.; Zollinger, L. J.; Huppi, R. J.; Reisse, R. A.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, X.; Tansock, J. J., Jr.; Jensen, S. M.; Revercomb, H. E.; Feltz, W. F.; Bingham, G. E.

    2007-01-01

    Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is an imaging infrared spectrometer designed for atmospheric soundings. The EDU groundbased measurement experiment was held in Logan, Utah during September 2006 to demonstrate its extensive capabilities for geosynchronous and other applications.

  17. Multifractality as a Measure of Complexity in Solar Flare Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Asok K.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we use the notion of multifractality to describe the complexity in H α flare activity during the solar cycles 21, 22, and 23. Both northern and southern hemisphere flare indices are analyzed. Multifractal behavior of the flare activity is characterized by calculating the singularity spectrum of the daily flare index time series in terms of the Hölder exponent. The broadness of the singularity spectrum gives a measure of the degree of multifractality or complexity in the flare index data. The broader the spectrum, the richer and more complex is the structure with a higher degree of multifractality. Using this broadness measure, complexity in the flare index data is compared between the northern and southern hemispheres in each of the three cycles, and among the three cycles in each of the two hemispheres. Other parameters of the singularity spectrum can also provide information about the fractal properties of the flare index data. For instance, an asymmetry to the left or right in the singularity spectrum indicates a dominance of high or low fractal exponents, respectively, reflecting a relative abundance of large or small fluctuations in the total energy emitted by the flares. Our results reveal that in the even (22nd) cycle the singularity spectra are very similar for the northern and southern hemispheres, whereas in the odd cycles (21st and 23rd) they differ significantly. In particular, we find that in cycle 21, the northern hemisphere flare index data have higher complexity than its southern counterpart, with an opposite pattern prevailing in cycle 23. Furthermore, small-scale fluctuations in the flare index time series are predominant in the northern hemisphere in the 21st cycle and are predominant in the southern hemisphere in the 23rd cycle. Based on these findings one might suggest that, from cycle to cycle, there exists a smooth switching between the northern and southern hemispheres in the multifractality of the flaring process. This new

  18. Bridge continuous deformation measurement technology based on fiber optic gyro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Weibing; Hu, Wenbin; Liu, Fang; Tang, Jianguang; Li, Sheng; Yang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Bridge is an important part of modern transportation systems and deformation is a key index for bridge's safety evaluation. To achieve the long span bridge curve measurement rapidly and timely and accurately locate the bridge maximum deformation, the continuous deformation measurement system (CDMS) based on inertial platform is presented and validated in this paper. Firstly, based on various bridge deformation measurement methods, the method of deformation measurement based on the fiber optic gyro (FOG) is introduced. Secondly, the basic measurement principle based on FOG is presented and the continuous curve trajectory is derived by the formula. Then the measurement accuracy is analyzed in theory and the relevant factors are presented to ensure the measurement accuracy. Finally, the deformation measurement experiments are conducted on a bridge across the Yangtze River. Experimental results show that the presented deformation measurement method is feasible, practical, and reliable; the system can accurately and quickly locate the maximum deformation and has extensive and broad application prospects.

  19. Satellite measurements of recent volcanic activity at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Kervyn, Matthieu; Realmuto, Vince; Abrams, Michael; Hook, Simon J.

    2008-06-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) is the only active volcano in the world that produces natrocarbonatite lava. These carbonate-rich lavas are unique in that they have relatively low temperatures (495-590 °C) and very low viscosity. OL has been erupting intermittently since 1983, mostly with small lava flows, pools and spatter cones (hornitos) confined to the summit crater. Explosive, ash-producing eruptions are rare, however, on September 4, 2007 the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured the first satellite image of an ash plume erupting from OL, which may be indicative of a new phase of more silica-rich products and explosive activity that has not occurred since 1966-1967. In the months prior to the eruption, thermal infrared (TIR) satellite monitoring detected an increasing number of thermal anomalies around OL. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor analyzed with the MODLEN algorithm detected more than 30 hot spots in the last week of August and first week of September 2007, some of which were from bush fires ignited by lava flows or spatter around the volcano. Higher-resolution ASTER data confirmed the location of these burn scars associated with lava flows. ASTER also detected the appearance of an anomalous hot spot at the summit of OL in mid-June with temperatures ~ 440 °C, the presence of several new lava flows in the crater in July and August, and on September 4 measured higher temperatures (~ 550 °C) possibly suggesting a more silicate-rich eruption. ASTER spectral emissivity data were interpreted to indicate a mixture of carbonate and silicate ash in the eruption plume from September 4. Based on the analysis of both ASTER and MODIS data combined with occasional field observations, there appear to have been 2 distinct eruptive events so far in 2007: a typical natrocarbonatite eruption confined to the summit crater in June-July, and a more intense eruption in August-September consisting of

  20. Torsional ultrasonic wave based level measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David E.; Kisner, Roger A.

    2012-07-10

    A level measurement system suitable for use in a high temperature and pressure environment to measure the level of coolant fluid within the environment, the system including a volume of coolant fluid located in a coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment and having a level therein; an ultrasonic waveguide blade that is positioned within the desired coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment; a magnetostrictive electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment and configured to operate in the environment and cooperate with the waveguide blade to launch and receive ultrasonic waves; and an external signal processing system located outside of the high temperature and pressure environment and configured for communicating with the electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment.

  1. Exploring Patient Activation in the Clinic: Measurement from Three Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Christy J. W.; Ledford, Christopher C.; Childress, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To further conceptualize and operationalize patient activation (PA), using measures from patient, physician, and researcher perspectives. Data Source/Study Setting. Multimethod observation in 2010 within a family medicine clinic. Study Design. Part of an intervention with 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, this observational study…

  2. Measuring Perceived Benefits and Perceived Barriers for Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Seth A.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the psychometric properties and relationship to physical activity levels of the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) among college students. Methods: A total of 398 college students completed the EBBS and a measure of self-efficacy, the Physical Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale. In addition, a subsample of 275 students also…

  3. Measurement of the Construct of Attitude Toward Student Activism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Joel A.; And Others

    The study measures individual differences in attitude toward student activism on an 18-item Likert type scale. A validity comparison of a known extreme group with a sample from the general student population yielded a significant difference between the means of the groups. Construct validity was evaluated by first testing the differences between…

  4. A Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    2005-01-01

    There are multiple approaches to measuring physical activity. Among these are direct observation, electronic monitoring, direct and indirect calorimetry, and self-report instruments. Self-report instruments are the most practical and cost effective option for use with a large group. In a study by Motl, Dishman, Dowda, and Pate (2004), two groups…

  5. Measurement for Work. Teaching Guide and Sample Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Margo; Bolton, Chris

    This document is intended to help Australian technical and further education instructors in New South Wales (TAFE NSW) identify teaching principles and learning activities that they can use to help adult learners master the mathematics processes, knowledge, and skills needed to perform basic measurement tasks in today's workplace. The materials…

  6. Measurement of Perceived School Climate for Active Travel in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Ward, Dianne S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the development of an original scale that measures perceived school climate for active travel in fourth- and fifth-grade girls and boys. Methods: The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to provide evidence of factorial validity, factorial invariance, and construct validity. Results: The CFA supported…

  7. NAIS: Nuclear activation-based imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Günther, M. M.; Britz, A.; Harres, K.; Hoffmeister, G.; Nürnberg, F.; Otten, A.; Pelka, A.; Roth, M.; Clarke, R. J.; Vogt, K.

    2013-07-15

    In recent years, the development of high power laser systems led to focussed intensities of more than 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} at high pulse energies. Furthermore, both, the advanced high power lasers and the development of sophisticated laser particle acceleration mechanisms facilitate the generation of high energetic particle beams at high fluxes. The challenge of imaging detector systems is to acquire the properties of the high flux beam spatially and spectrally resolved. The limitations of most detector systems are saturation effects. These conventional detectors are based on scintillators, semiconductors, or radiation sensitive films. We present a nuclear activation-based imaging spectroscopy method, which is called NAIS, for the characterization of laser accelerated proton beams. The offline detector system is a combination of stacked metal foils and imaging plates (IP). After the irradiation of the stacked foils they become activated by nuclear reactions, emitting gamma decay radiation. In the next step, an autoradiography of the activated foils using IPs and an analysis routine lead to a spectrally and spatially resolved beam profile. In addition, we present an absolute calibration method for IPs.

  8. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Maleki Dizaj, Solmaz; Mennati, Afsaneh; Jafari, Samira; Khezri, Khadejeh; Adibkia, Khosro

    2015-01-01

    Due to the vast and inappropriate use of the antibiotics, microorganisms have begun to develop resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. So therefore, development of the new and effective antimicrobial agents seems to be necessary. According to some recent reports, carbon-based nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (especially single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)) and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles show potent antimicrobial properties. In present review, we have briefly summarized the antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanoparticles together with their mechanism of action. Reviewed literature show that the size of carbon nanoparticles plays an important role in the inactivation of the microorganisms. As major mechanism, direct contact of microorganisms with carbon nanostructures seriously affects their cellular membrane integrity, metabolic processes and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanostructures may interestingly be investigated in the near future owing to their high surface/volume ratio, large inner volume and other unique chemical and physical properties. In addition, application of functionalized carbon nanomaterials as carriers for the ordinary antibiotics possibly will decrease the associated resistance, enhance their bioavailability and provide their targeted delivery. PMID:25789215

  10. Localizing Region-Based Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Lankton, Shawn; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a natural framework that allows any region-based segmentation energy to be re-formulated in a local way. We consider local rather than global image statistics and evolve a contour based on local information. Localized contours are capable of segmenting objects with heterogeneous feature profiles that would be difficult to capture correctly using a standard global method. The presented technique is versatile enough to be used with any global region-based active contour energy and instill in it the benefits of localization. We describe this framework and demonstrate the localization of three well-known energies in order to illustrate how our framework can be applied to any energy. We then compare each localized energy to its global counterpart to show the improvements that can be achieved. Next, an in-depth study of the behaviors of these energies in response to the degree of localization is given. Finally, we show results on challenging images to illustrate the robust and accurate segmentations that are possible with this new class of active contour models. PMID:18854247

  11. Competency-Based Education: A Framework for Measuring Quality Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Jackie; Dias, Laura Portolese; Schedler, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The growth of competency-based education in an online environment requires the development and measurement of quality competency-based courses. While quality measures for online courses have been developed and standardized, they do not directly align with emerging best practices and principles in the design of quality competency-based online…

  12. The activity-based anorexia mouse model.

    PubMed

    Klenotich, Stephanie J; Dulawa, Stephanie C

    2012-01-01

    Animals housed with running wheels and subjected to daily food restriction show paradoxical reductions in food intake and increases in running wheel activity. This phenomenon, known as activity-based anorexia (ABA), leads to marked reductions in body weight that can ultimately lead to death. Recently, ABA has been proposed as a model of anorexia nervosa (AN). AN affects about 8 per 100,000 females and has the highest mortality rate among all psychiatric illnesses. Given the reductions in quality of life, high mortality rate, and the lack of pharmacological treatments for AN, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying AN-like behavior is greatly needed. This chapter provides basic guidelines for conducting ABA experiments using mice. The ABA mouse model provides an important tool for investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of AN-like behavior and identifying novel treatments. PMID:22231828

  13. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2015-02-01

    Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP) in conjunction with multimodal characterization techniques has yielded impactful findings in microbiology, particularly in pathogen, bioenergy, drug discovery, and environmental research. Using small molecule chemical probes that react irreversibly with specific proteins or protein families in complex systems has provided insights in enzyme functions in central metabolic pathways, drug-protein interactions, and regulatory protein redox, for systems ranging from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria to mycobacteria, and combining live cell or cell extract ABPP with proteomics, molecular biology, modeling, and other techniques has greatly expanded our understanding of these systems. New opportunities for application of ABPP to microbial systems include: enhancing protein annotation, characterizing protein activities in myriad environments, and reveal signal transduction and regulatory mechanisms in microbial systems.

  14. A direct measurement of strontium-89 activity in bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Ben-Josef, E; Maughan, R L; Vasan, S; Porter, A T

    1995-06-01

    The total absorbed dose after systemic administration of 89Sr has been determined by measuring directly its activity in bone metastases. Autoradiography was performed on sections of bones obtained from patients treated with 89Sr to study the pattern of deposition. Discs of 5 and 8 mm diameter were cut from metastatic sites and normal bone. The beta-ray activity was determined with a scintillation counter, which was calibrated using similar bovine cancellous bone discs, onto which a known activity of 89Sr was transferred by pipette. From the activity measured, the initial activity (at the time of 89Sr administration) was calculated. The absorbed dose was estimated using the methodology described in NCRP Report No. 58. The estimated initial activity of 89Sr in the bone metastases varied from 2.3 to 240 MBq kg-1, with a mean value of 31 +/- 27 MBq kg-1. The total absorbed dose ranged from 1.3 to 64 Gy, with a mean of 18 +/- 16 Gy. The average total dose to normal bone sites was 1.1 +/- 0.4 Gy. The metastases to normal bone dose ratio in individual samples varied from 8 +/- 4 to 40 +/- 25. These estimates are in agreement with those obtained previously by indirect methods. PMID:7675358

  15. Variance-based interaction index measuring heteroscedasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Keiichi; Couckuyt, Ivo; Poles, Silvia; Dhaene, Tom

    2016-06-01

    This work is motivated by the need to deal with models with high-dimensional input spaces of real variables. One way to tackle high-dimensional problems is to identify interaction or non-interaction among input parameters. We propose a new variance-based sensitivity interaction index that can detect and quantify interactions among the input variables of mathematical functions and computer simulations. The computation is very similar to first-order sensitivity indices by Sobol'. The proposed interaction index can quantify the relative importance of input variables in interaction. Furthermore, detection of non-interaction for screening can be done with as low as 4 n + 2 function evaluations, where n is the number of input variables. Using the interaction indices based on heteroscedasticity, the original function may be decomposed into a set of lower dimensional functions which may then be analyzed separately.

  16. Market-based control of active surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Andrew A.; Hogg, Tad; Jackson, Warren B.

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a market-based approach to controlling a smart matter-based object transport system, in which an array of distributed air jets applies forces to levitate and control the motion of a planar object. In the smart matter regime, the effects of spatial and temporal variation of operating parameters among a multiplicity of sensor, actuators, and controllers make it desirable for a control strategy to exhibit a minimal dependence on system models, and to be able to arbitrate among conflicting goals. A market-based strategy is introduced that aggregates the control requirements of multiple relatively simple local controllers, each of which seeks to optimize the performance of the system within a limited spatial and temporal range. These local controllers act as the market's consumers, and two sets of distributed air jets act as the producers. Experiments are performed comparing the performance of the market-based strategy to a near-optimal model-derived benchmark, as well as to a hand-tuned PD controller. Results indicate that even though the local controllers in the market are not based on a detailed model of the system dynamics, the market is able to effectively approximate the performance of the model-based benchmark. In certain specialized cases, such as tracking a step trajectory, the performance of the market surpasses the performance of the model-based benchmark by balancing the needs of conflicting control goals. A brief overview of the active surface smart matter prototype being developed at Xerox PARC that is the motivation behind this work is also presented.

  17. Feature-Based Measuring Advisor, Version 2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Curtis

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of Feature-Based Measuring Advisor (FBMeas Advisor) is a graphical user interface enabling users to more effectively interact with a solid model for measuring applications. Specifically, the FBMeas Advisor provides a user interface to the functions and capabilities of the FBMeas component technology. The FBMeas Advisor allows end users to visualize, organize, and document their measuring process plans and to facilitate the generation of a coordinate measuring machine part programs before a workpiece is fabricated. The FBMeas Advisor permits the user to interact with an FBTol-enabled solid model to interactively and/or automatically create a set of measuring features (e.g., cylinders, planes, slots) that comply with national and international interface standards (i.e., DMIS (Dimensional Measuring Interface Standard, ISO 22063)). Measuring plans include defining measuring features interactively or automatically. Associating measuring features with appropriate tolerances and datum features via FBTol. Determining what measuring tasks (e.g., measure this feature to validate a size tolerance, measure this feature to establish a primary datum for a specific datum reference frame) are necessary to measure the feature. Assigning a measuring method to perform the task. For coordinate metrology measuring methods, measure points are determined interactively or automatically. Sensors and sensor configurations are defined, represented, and assigned to measuring methods. Measuring machines are defined, represented, and assigned to measure operations. Upon completion of a coordinate metrology measuring plan, FBMeas allows DMIS code segments to be generated, which can be used for DMIS-based CMM part programs.

  18. A Time-Measurement System Based on Isotopic Ratios.

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Duc T.; Karpius, P. J.; MacArthur, D. W.; Thron, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    A time-measurement system can be built based on the ratio of gamma-ray peak intensities from two radioactive isotopes. The ideal system would use a parent isotope with a short half-life decaying to a long half-life daughter. The activities of the parent-daughter isotopes would be measured using a gamma-ray detector system. The time can then be determined from the ratio of the activities. The best-known candidate for such a system is the {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am parent-daughter pair. However, this {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am system would require a high-purity germanium detector system and sophisticated software to separate and distinguish between the many gamma-ray peaks produced by the decays of the two isotopes. An alternate system would use two different isotopes, again one with a short half-life and one with a half-life that is long relative to the other. The pair of isotopes {sup 210}Pb and {sup 241}Am (with half-lives of 22 and 432 years, respectively) appears suitable for such a system. This time-measurement system operates by measuring the change in the ratio of the 47-keV peak of {sup 210}Pb to the 60-keV peak of {sup 241}Am. For the system to work reasonably well, the resolution of the detector would need to be such that the two gamma-ray peaks are well separated so that their peak areas can be accurately determined using a simple region-of-interest (ROI) method. A variety of detectors were tested to find a suitable system for this application. The results of these tests are presented here.

  19. Development of microcontroller based water flow measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, Muhammad Miftahul; Surachman, Arif; Fathonah, Indra Wahyudin; Billah, Muhammad Aziz; Khairurrijal, Mahfudz, Hernawan; Rimawan, Ririn; Lestari, Slamet

    2015-04-01

    A digital instrument for measuring water flow was developed using an AT89S52 microcontroller, DS1302 real time clock (RTC), and EEPROM for an external memory. The sensor used for probing the current was a propeller that will rotate if immersed in a water flow. After rotating one rotation, the sensor sends one pulse and the number of pulses are counted for a certain time of counting. The measurement data, i.e. the number of pulses per unit time, are converted into water flow velocity (m/s) through a mathematical formula. The microcontroller counts the pulse sent by the sensor and the number of counted pulses are stored into the EEPROM memory. The time interval for counting is provided by the RTC and can be set by the operator. The instrument was tested under various time intervals ranging from 10 to 40 seconds and several standard propellers owned by Experimental Station for Hydraulic Structure and Geotechnics (BHGK), Research Institute for Water Resources (Pusair). Using the same propellers and water flows, it was shown that water flow velocities obtained from the developed digital instrument and those found by the provided analog one are almost similar.

  20. LED-based digital diameter measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleuver, Wolfram; Becker, Lothar

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a new industrial sensor for measuring diameters of extreme thin objects. The system is divided in two parts. The first is the emitter and the second the receiver. It is possible to use this system for the automatic inspection of files and wires in the textile industries and wire works. Another application for the sensor is the control of production of chemical files in an extruder. Furthermore we can measure more than one object in the lightbeam because we get information not only about the dimensions also about the position of the objects in the beam. The innovation in this system is the using of a light emitting diode (LED) as emitter and the realization of a long distance of about two or more meters between the two sensorheads. The results of this development are a special kind of optical layout in the emitter to reduce the loss of intensity and minimize the divergence of the lightbeam. It is not necessary to develop an intensity distribution, which is equal over the complete width of the sensorhead. We can show that we have a better dynamic in the system with this feature. The experiments prove that we get the same resolution as a laserbeamsensor. Furthermore one advantage is the eye-safety.

  1. Preparation of gaseous CRMs from the primary system for (222)Rn activity measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, B J; Kim, B C; Lee, K B; Lee, J M; Park, T S

    2016-03-01

    For disseminating the gaseous radon standard traceable to the KRISS primary system based on the defined solid angle counting method, two kinds of radon CRM (a glass ampule type and a stainless steel cylinder type) were developed. The activity of the CRM was certified by subtracting a residual activity from the measured activity by the primary system. After certification, the ampule CRM was used to calibrate a radon-monitoring instrument and the cylinder CRM to calibrate an HPGe system. We also improved the measurement procedure of the radon primary system. In a typical radon energy spectrum, the radon peak overlaps with the polonium peak. For more reliable and accurate measurement of radon activity, a fitting method was adopted for the evaluation of radon area in the alpha energy spectrum. The result of radon activity evaluated by using the fitting method is in good agreement with that by the previous integration method. PMID:26778761

  2. Modeling of Neutron Spectra Based on Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovancevic, N.; Fridman, M.; Daraban, L.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Hult, M.; Lutter, G.; Marissens, G.; Stroh, H.

    Safe and economical use of nuclear energy and particularly the development of GEN-IV reactors impose a better understanding of prompt neutron emission in fission, as well as of the fission process as such. Therefore, accurate measurements of the prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) are very important. In this work, we are testing the possibility to determine the PFNS by an activation method called DONA (DOsimetry and Spectroscopy using Neuron Activation) recently developed at IRMM (Wieslander et al., 2010, Lövestam et al., 2009). This type of modeling of the neutron spectra, based on the activation analysis, can provide new information about an old problem which still exists today, i.e. the discrepancy between measured integral and differential data (Capote et al., 2012). The problem is that the calculated average cross section for a certain neutron reaction, by using the differential experimental PFNS, in many cases cannot reproduce satisfactorily the integral measured cross section values. The modeling of the neutron spectra by the DONA technique was tested with the standard neutron spectrum of the spontaneous fission of 252Cf. We analyzed the sensitivity of the unfolding procedure to the initial neutron energy spectrum, the influence of the neutron scattering, the possibility of using different activation reactions and we also made an estimation of the lowest measurable neutron fluence rate.

  3. A Variance Based Active Learning Approach for Named Entity Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Keyvanpour, Mohammadreza

    The cost of manually annotating corpora is one of the significant issues in many text based tasks such as text mining, semantic annotation and generally information extraction. Active Learning is an approach that deals with reduction of labeling costs. In this paper we proposed an effective active learning approach based on minimal variance that reduces manual annotation cost by using a small number of manually labeled examples. In our approach we use a confidence measure based on the model's variance that reaches a considerable accuracy for annotating entities. Conditional Random Field (CRF) is chosen as the underlying learning model due to its promising performance in many sequence labeling tasks. The experiments show that the proposed method needs considerably fewer manual labeled samples to produce a desirable result.

  4. Measurements of the PLT and PDX device activation

    SciTech Connect

    Stavely, J.; Barnes, C.W.; Chrien, R.E.; Strachan, J.D.

    1981-09-01

    Measurements of the activation levels around the PLT and PDX tokamaks have been made using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometer and a Geiger counter. The activation results from radiation induced in the plasma by 14 MeV neutrons from the d(t,n)..cap alpha.. fusion reaction, 14.7 MeV protons from the d(/sup 3/He,p)..cap alpha.. fusion reaction, 10 ..-->.. 20 MeV hard x-rays from runaway electron induced bremmstrahlung, and 2.5 MeV neutrons from the d(d,n)/sup 3/He fusion reaction. The magnitude of the activation is compared to that predicted for PDX on the basis of one-dimensional activation codes.

  5. Self-reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Adults with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Grace E.; Chmiel, Joan S.; Dunlop, Dorothy D.; Helenowski, Irene; Semanik, Pamela A.; Song, Jing; Ainsworth, Barbara; Chang, Rowland W.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Objective Most estimates of physical activity (PA) patterns in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are based on subjective self-report measures prone to error. The aims of this study were to obtain objective measurements of PA using an accelerometer and estimates of energy expenditure based on the self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and to describe their relationship. Methods The “Activity in Lupus To Energize and Renew” (ALTER) study, a cross-sectional study of PA, included 129 persons with SLE. Accelerometer measures over 7 days included total daily activity counts and minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Each person completed the IPAQ via telephone interview. Spearman correlations (r) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) assessed associations between accelerometer and IPAQ. Results Daily PA means (SD) from accelerometer measures were total daily activity counts, 502,910 (118,755) and MVPA, 40 (30) minutes. The median (interquartile range) MET-min per day for IPAQ intensities were: total 400 (159–693); walking, 83 (26–184); and moderate-vigorous, 231 (77–514), and domains were: work 0 (0–73); active transportation 28 (0–85); domestic and garden 77 (26–231); and leisure 57 (0–213). Associations between accelerometer measures and IPAQ were: 1) total daily count vs. IPAQ total, r=0.21, 95% CI: (0.03, 0.37); and 2) MVPA vs. IPAQ moderate-vigorous, r=0.16, 95% CI: (-0.02, 0.33). Conclusion Accelerometer measures and IPAQ energy expenditure estimates were moderately correlated. IPAQ provided descriptive PA data whereas accelerometers captured all daily activities and can help assess guideline attainment. The choice of IPAQ versus accelerometer measure should consider the purpose for which PA is measured. PMID:25251755

  6. Predictability of sacral base levelness based on iliac crest measurements.

    PubMed

    Dott, G A; Hart, C L; McKay, C

    1994-05-01

    A level sacral base plane is necessary to allow normalization of complex lumbosacral mechanics. Palpatory examinations are often used to evaluate for leg length discrepancy and pelvic obliquity despite improved accuracy and consistency of radiographic techniques. Treatment based on palpatory examinations suppose a direct and consistent relationship between the pelvic bones (innominates) and the sacral base. To evaluate the relationship between iliac crest levelness and sacral base levelness, a radiographic postural survey in the upright, weight-bearing position was performed on 358 men and women thought to have pelvic obliquity. Of these subjects, 293 demonstrated unlevel iliac crest heights or sacral base > or = 3/16 inch (4.76 mm), with iliac crest heights accurately predicting sacral base position 62% of the time. At > or = 3/8 inch (9.53 mm), 68% of the cases were accurately predicted. When the criterion for unlevelness was increased to > or = 1/2 inch (12.70 mm), the predictive accuracy improved to 83%. Radiographic findings in this study demonstrate a significant difference between iliac crest heights and sacral base position. In cases of mild to moderate short leg syndromes, the iliac crest height is an unreliable predictor of the direction or degree of sacral base levelness. PMID:8056627

  7. Thermodynamic Activity Measurements with Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan H.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2001-01-01

    Coupling the Knudsen effusion method with mass spectrometry has proven to be one of the most useful experimental techniques for studying the equilibrium between condensed phases and complex vapors. The Knudsen effusion method involves placing a condensed sample in a Knudsen cell, a small "enclosure", that is uniformly heated and held until equilibrium is attained between the condensed and vapor phases. The vapor is continuously sampled by effusion through a small orifice in the cell. A molecular beam is formed from the effusing vapor and directed into a mass spectrometer for identification and pressure measurement of the species in the vapor phase. Knudsen cell mass spectrometry (KCMS) has been used for nearly fifty years now and continues to be a leading technique for obtaining thermodynamic data. Indeed, much of the well-established vapor specie data in the JANAF tables has been obtained from this technique. This is due to the extreme versatility of the technique. All classes of materials can be studied and all constituents of the vapor phase can be measured over a wide range of pressures (approximately 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -11) bar) and temperatures (500-2800 K). The ability to selectively measure different vapor species makes KCMS a very powerful tool for the measurement of component activities in metallic and ceramic solutions. Today several groups are applying KCMS to measure thermodynamic functions in multicomponent metallic and ceramic systems. Thermodynamic functions, especially component activities, are extremely important in the development of CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) type thermodynamic descriptions. These descriptions, in turn, are useful for modeling materials processing and predicting reactions such as oxide formation and fiber/matrix interactions. The leading experimental methods for measuring activities are the Galvanic cell or electro-motive force (EMF) technique and the KCMS technique. Each has specific advantages, depending on

  8. Measuring Cysteine Cathepsin Activity to Detect Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Repnik, Urška; Česen, Maruša Hafner; Turk, Boris

    2016-01-01

    During lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), lysosomal lumenal contents can be released into the cytosol. Small molecules are more likely to be released, and cysteine cathepsins, with mature forms possessing a mass of 25-30 kDa, are among the smallest lumenal lysosomal enzymes. In addition, specific substrates for cysteine cathepsins are available to investigators, and therefore the measurement of the cathepsin activity as a hallmark of LMP works well. Here, we present a protocol for measuring the activity of these enzymes after selective plasma membrane permeabilization with a low concentration of digitonin and after total cell membrane lysis with a high concentration of digitonin. A fluorogenic substrate can be added either directly to the well with lysed cells to show LMP or to the cell-free extract to show that the lysosomal membrane has been sufficiently destabilized to allow the translocation of lysosomal enzymes. Although the content of lysosomal cysteine cathepsins differs between cell lines, this method has general applicability, is sensitive, and has high throughput. The presented protocol shows how to measure cysteine cathepsin activity in the presence of lysed cells and also in cell-free extracts. Depending on the aim of the study, one or both types of measurements can be performed. PMID:27140915

  9. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: Challenges, explanations, and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference worksh...

  10. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  11. Evaluation of wind electric energy based on martian wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Y.; Kurita, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since Mars is characterized by strong surface wind, electric power generation by the wind activity has been proposed as a possible power source for martian base station as well as that for exploration module (George James et al., 1999, Vimal Kumar et al., 2010). George and Vimal estimated total power as 19kW and 500W, which they conclude is sufficient value as a power source of small exploration module. These values seem comparable to that used in MER( 900Wh per day ). But their estimate largely depends on the model of wind velocity and reevaluation is necessary based on plausible wind model as well as more realistic assumptions about power generation. This study evaluates plausible range of available power by using surface wind model estimated by Viking Lander measurements. Meteorological package of Viking Lander measured wind velocity and its direction at 1.6m hight at every 60 min. for 200 sols. We estimate wind statistics by using Weibull distribution function and elevation offset. We calculate the wind energy by wind turbines as the integrated value of power produced in a Martian day, and compare with solar panel and nuclear battery under various conditions (Mars ground roughness, blade length, shape of wind turbine and rotor height from the ground). As a result of the calculations, we obtain reasonable amount of wind electricity (1000 Wh per day ), which can be used if we select proper locations and suitable wind turbine.

  12. Activity-based costing for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Croyle, D.R.; Schapiro, I.A.; Keglevic, P.M. )

    1992-08-01

    This EPRI report is a primer'' on Activity-Based Costing (ABC). ABC is a cost management aproach which can make an important contribution to understanding and controlling the changing costs in the electric utility industry. It is a method for attributing costs to activities, products and services by better understanding the underlying factors which drive those costs. ABC can help utility managers make better decisions through the application of more accurate process and product cost information and a fuller understanding of which activities add value and which do not. Armed with such information, utility managers are better equipped to address many of the strategic and operating decisions which they routinely face. The report introduces the ABC concept and approach to utility managers and offers insights into how ABC can be and is being used to control costs and improve strategic and operating decisions in electric utilities and other industries. The report (1) describes the ABC approach, (2) discusses the value of ABC to elecuic utilities, (3) identifies potential applications of ABC to current utility issues, (4) describes a step-by-step approach to developing and implementing ABC in the utility environment, and (5) presents a survey of more than 30 electric utilities and several detailed case studies of electric utilities and other companies who have adopted and are using ABC.

  13. Calculating Capstone depleted uranium aerosol concentrations from beta activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Szrom, Frances; Falo, Gerald A; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Alberth, David P

    2009-03-01

    Beta activity measurements were used as surrogate measurements of uranium mass in aerosol samples collected during the field testing phase of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. These aerosol samples generated by the perforation of armored combat vehicles were used to characterize the DU source term for the subsequent Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) of Capstone aerosols. Establishing a calibration curve between beta activity measurements and uranium mass measurements is straightforward if the uranium isotopes are in equilibrium with their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny. For DU samples collected during the Capstone study, it was determined that the equilibrium between the uranium isotopes and their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny had been disrupted when penetrators had perforated target vehicles. Adjustments were made to account for the disrupted equilibrium and for wall losses in the aerosol samplers. Values for the equilibrium fraction ranged from 0.16 to 1, and the wall loss correction factors ranged from 1 to 1.92. This paper describes the process used and adjustments necessary to calculate uranium mass from proportional counting measurements. PMID:19204483

  14. Measuring thermal budgets of active volcanoes by satellite remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, L.; Francis, P. W.; Rothery, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper measurements of the total radiant energy flux Q at Lascar volcano in north Chile for December 1984 are reported. The results are consistent with the earlier suggestion that a lava lake is the source of a reported thermal budget anomaly, and with values for 1985-1986 that are much lower, suggesting that fumarolic activity was then a more likely heat source. The results show that satellite remote sensing may be used to monitor the activity of a volcano quantitatively, in a way not possible by conventional ground studies, and may provide a method for predicting eruptions.

  15. Device for measuring oxygen activity in liquid sodium

    DOEpatents

    Roy, P.; Young, R.S.

    1973-12-01

    A composite ceramic electrolyte in a configuration (such as a closed end tube or a plate) suitable to separate liquid sodium from a reference electrode with a high impedance voltmeter connected to measure EMF between the sodium and the reference electrode as a measure of oxygen activity in the sodium is described. The composite electrolyte consists of zirconiacalcia with a bonded layer of thoria-yttria. The device is used with a gaseous reference electrode on the zirconia-calcia side and liquid sodium on the thoria-yttria side of the electrolyte. (Official Gazette)

  16. Environmental Measurements Laboratory fiscal year 1998: Accomplishments and technical activities

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) is government-owned, government-operated, and programmatically under the DOE Office of Environmental Management. The Laboratory is administered by the Chicago Operations Office. EML provides program management, technical assistance and data quality assurance for measurements of radiation and radioactivity relating to environmental restoration, global nuclear nonproliferation, and other priority issues for the Department of Energy, as well as for other government, national, and international organizations. This report presents the technical activities and accomplishments of EML for Fiscal Year 1998.

  17. Electroencephalogram measurement using polymer-based dry microneedle electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Miyako; Nishinaka, Yuya; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we report a successful electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement using polymer-based dry microneedle electrodes. The electrodes consist of needle-shaped substrates of SU-8, a silver film, and a nanoporous parylene protective film. Differently from conventional wet electrodes, microneedle electrodes do not require skin preparation and a conductive gel. SU-8 is superior as a structural material to poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS; Dow Corning Toray Sylgard 184) in terms of hardness, which was used in our previous work, and facilitates the penetration of needles through the stratum corneum. SU-8 microneedles can be successfully inserted into the skin without breaking and could maintain a sufficiently low skin-electrode contact impedance for EEG measurement. The electrodes successfully measured EEG from the frontal pole, and the quality of acquired signals was verified to be as high as those obtained using commercially available wet electrodes without any skin preparation or a conductive gel. The electrodes are readily applicable to record brain activities for a long period with little stress involved in skin preparation to the users.

  18. Chief Complaint-Based Performance Measures: A New Focus For Acute Care Quality Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Griffey, Richard T; Pines, Jesse M.; Farley, Heather L.; Phelan, Michael P; Beach, Christopher; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Venkatesh, Arjun K.

    2014-01-01

    Performance measures are increasingly important to guide meaningful quality improvement efforts and value-based reimbursement. Populations included in most current hospital performance measures are defined by recorded diagnoses using International Disease Classification (ICD)-9 codes in administrative claims data. While the diagnosis-centric approach allows the assessment of disease-specific quality, it fails to measure one of the primary functions of emergency department (ED) care which involves diagnosing, risk-stratifying, and treating patients’ potentially life-threatening conditions based on symptoms (i.e. chief complaints). In this paper we propose chief complaint-based quality measures as a means to enhance the evaluation of quality and value in emergency care. We discuss the potential benefits of chief-complaint based measures, describe opportunities to mitigate challenges, propose an example measure set, and present several recommendations to advance this paradigm in ED-based performance measurement. PMID:25443989

  19. Accelerometer based calf muscle pump activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Karol J; O'Keeffe, Derek T; Grace, Pierce A; Lyons, Gerard M

    2005-10-01

    Long distance travel is associated with increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). There is an increased risk of travel related DVT in passengers with a predisposition to thrombosis. Assisting blood circulation in the lower limb will reduce the risk of DVT. Leg exercises are recommended as a DVT preventative measure while flying but this fails to account for a passenger who is distracted by in flight entertainment or who falls asleep for an extended period. A method for monitoring calf muscle pump activity using accelerometers has been developed and evaluated. The proposed technique could be used to alert the traveller that there is a need to exercise their calf muscle, thus reducing the risk of DVT. PMID:16139770

  20. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-08-31

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan has been developed for this process.

  1. Neutron spectrum measurements in DT discharges using activation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, B.; Bertalot, L.; Loughlin, M.; Roquemore, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    The JET activation system has eight irradiation ends where samples may be irradiated in the neutron flux from the plasma. There is one end, re-entrant into the top of the vessel, for which there is little intervening material between it and the plasma; the other ends, including two beneath the divertor coils, have increasingly larger amounts of intervening structure. The local neutron spectrum at each irradiation end was measured by simultaneously activating several elemental foils (Al, Au, Co, Fe, In, Mg, Nb, Ni, Ti, Zr). There were 15 activation reactions in the energy range of 0.5-16 MeV which were used as input to the SNL-SAND-II code to determine the neutron energy spectrum. The results are compared with neutron transport calculations both from the MCNP and FURNACE codes: the average standard deviation between measured to SNL-SAND-II calculated activity ratios was as low as 5%. The results demonstrate the reliability of the neutronics calculations and have implications for the design of diagnostics and blankets for the next generation of large tokamaks such as ITER. The 377.9 keV line of the 54Fe(n,2n)53Fe reaction (threshold ˜13.9 MeV, not a dosimetric standard) has also been measured in different plasma conditions. The ratio of the saturated activity from this reaction to that from the 56Fe(n,p)56Mn reaction (threshold ˜4.5 MeV) provides information on the broadening of the 14 MeV fusion peak.

  2. Emission measure distribution for diffuse regions in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2014-11-01

    Our knowledge of the diffuse emission that encompasses active regions is very limited. In this paper we investigate two off-limb active regions, namely, AR 10939 and AR 10961, to probe the underlying heating mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used spectral observations from Hinode/EIS and employed the emission measure (EM) technique to obtain the thermal structure of these diffuse regions. Our results show that the characteristic EM distributions of the diffuse emission regions peak at log T = 6.25 and the coolward slopes are in the range 1.4-3.3. This suggests that both low- as well as high-frequency nanoflare heating events are at work. Our results provide additional constraints on the properties of these diffuse emission regions and their contribution to the background/foreground when active region cores are observed on-disk.

  3. Measurement of Daily Activity in Restrictive Type Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ann M.; McAlpine, Donald E.; Shirbhate, Rashmi; Manohar, Chinmay U.; Levine, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The assessment of daily activity in patients with restrictive type anorexia nervosa is limited by an absence of accurate and precise technology. We wanted to test a daily activity detecting device named, the Physical Activity Monitoring System (PAMS). Method Women participants with restrictive type anorexia nervosa (n = 8, 36 ± 11 years, 17 ± 2 kg/m2) and healthy women participants (n = 8, 30 ± 11 years, 27 ± 7 kg/m2) were asked to lie, sit and stand motionless, and walk at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mph whilst wearing PAMS. Results For all restrictive type anorexia nervosa and healthy participants, body posture was correctly detected for all measurements (300/300). There was excellent correlation of an individual’s body acceleration with walking velocity and walking energy expenditure (r2> 0.99). Conclusions The PAMS technology could serve as a tool for lending insight into the pathophysiology of restrictive type anorexia nervosa; and potentially measuring compliance with activity recommendations for medical professionals treating individuals with restrictive type anorexia nervosa. PMID:18004719

  4. A system for automatic measurement of circadian activity deviations in telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Virone, Gilles; Noury, Norbert; Demongeot, Jacques

    2002-12-01

    A system for the automatic measurement of the circadian activity deviations in telemedicine has been developed within the framework of a "Health Integrated Smart Home Information System" (HIS2). HIS2 is an experimental platform for the evaluation and the development of technologies in order to ensure the security and quality of life for patients who need home based medical monitoring. Location sensors are placed in each room of the HIS2, allowing the monitoring of patient's successive activity phases within the patient's home environment. We proceeded with a sampling in an hourly schedule to detect weak rhythmic variations. Based on numerous measurements, we established a mean value with confidence limits. These also allowed us to define a zone within which the patient's activity is qualified to be "predictable." Alerts are set off if the patient's activity deviates from this zone. PMID:12542242

  5. Active transmission isolation/rotor loads measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenigsberg, I. J.; Defelice, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Modifications were incorporated into a helicopter active transmission isolation system to provide the capability of utilizing the system as a rotor force measuring device. These included; (1) isolator redesign to improve operation and minimize friction, (2) installation of pressure transducers in each isolator, and (3) load cells in series with each torque restraint link. Full scale vibration tests performed during this study on a CH-53A helicopter airframe verified that these modifications do not degrade the systems wide band isolation characteristics. Bench tests performed on each isolator unit indicated that steady and transient loads can be measured to within 1 percent of applied load. Individual isolator vibratory load measurement accuracy was determined to be 4 percent. Load measurement accuracy was found to be independent of variations in all basic isolator operating characteristics. Full scale system load calibration tests on the CH-53A airframe established the feasibility of simultaneously providing wide band vibration isolation and accurate measurement of rotor loads. Principal rotor loads (lift, propulsive force, and torque) were measured to within 2 percent of applied load.

  6. Calculating Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Concentrations from Beta Activity Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Szrom, Fran; Falo, Gerald A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Alberth, David P.

    2009-03-01

    Beta activity measurements were used as surrogate measurements of uranium mass in aerosol samples collected during the field testing phase of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. These aerosol samples generated by the perforation of armored combat vehicles were used to characterize the depleted uranium (DU) source term for the subsequent human health risk assessment (HHRA) of Capstone aerosols. Establishing a calibration curve between beta activity measurements and uranium mass measurements is straightforward if the uranium isotopes are in equilibrium with their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny. For DU samples collected during the Capstone study, it was determined that the equilibrium between the uranium isotopes and their immediate short lived, beta-emitting progeny had been disrupted when penetrators had perforated target vehicles. Adjustments were made to account for the disrupted equilibrium and for wall losses in the aerosol samplers. Correction factors for the disrupted equilibrium ranged from 0.16 to 1, and the wall loss correction factors ranged from 1 to 1.92.

  7. 12 CFR 3.205 - VaR-based measure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... portfolio of correlation trading positions that is modeled under § 3.209. A national bank or Federal savings... proxies are used. (b) Quantitative requirements for VaR-based measure. (1) The VaR-based measure must be... association's trading portfolio over a full business cycle. A national bank or Federal savings...

  8. 12 CFR 324.205 - VaR-based measure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of correlation trading positions that is modeled under § 324.209. An FDIC-supervised institution may.... (b) Quantitative requirements for VaR-based measure. (1) The VaR-based measure must be calculated on... of at least six months representing the volatility of the FDIC-supervised institution's...

  9. The Reliability of Randomly Generated Math Curriculum-Based Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, Gerald G.; Smith, Bradley H.; Pender, Carolyn; Malone, Patrick S.; Roberts, Jarod; Hall, John D.

    2015-01-01

    "Curriculum-Based Measurement" (CBM) is a direct method of academic assessment used to screen and evaluate students' skills and monitor their responses to academic instruction and intervention. Interventioncentral.org offers a math worksheet generator at no cost that creates randomly generated "math curriculum-based measures"…

  10. A NEW COSMOLOGICAL DISTANCE MEASURE USING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.; Denney, K. D.; Vestergaard, M.; Davis, T. M.

    2011-10-20

    Accurate distances to celestial objects are key to establishing the age and energy density of the universe and the nature of dark energy. A distance measure using active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has been sought for more than 40 years, as they are extremely luminous and can be observed at very large distances. We report here the discovery of an accurate luminosity distance measure using AGNs. We use the tight relationship between the luminosity of an AGN and the radius of its broad-line region established via reverberation mapping to determine the luminosity distances to a sample of 38 AGNs. All reliable distance measures up to now have been limited to moderate redshift-AGNs will, for the first time, allow distances to be estimated to z {approx} 4, where variations of dark energy and alternate gravity theories can be probed.

  11. Measurement-based Coherency Identification and Aggregation for Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaobu; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang; Zhou, Ning

    2012-07-26

    In power system model reduction, a high reduction ratio is often desired to handle much more complex power systems. The bottleneck of traditional methods lies in: Coherency identification methods are conservative. Some coherency generators are not detected when system topology or operating points change, because coherency identification depends on system topology or operating points. There are some solitary generators in external systems. These generators do not belong to any coherency group. However, sometimes these solitary generators have little impact on tie-line power flow, and it might be possible to ignore their dynamics in model reduction. But because they do not belong to any coherency group, existing reduction methods cannot handle them well. In order to overcome the first problem, a measurement-based online coherency identification method is presented in this paper. By analyzing post-fault trajectories measured by Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), coherency generators are identified through principal component analysis. The method can track time-varying system topology and operating points. In order to address the second problem, this paper introduces sensitivity analysis into traditional reduction methods. The sensitivity of tie-line power flow against injected active power of external system generators is derived. Those generators having loose connection with tie-line power are identified through the sensitivity analysis, and their dynamics are ignored by replacing them with negative impedances. We test if the sensitivity, based on static power flow, provides good guidance to reduce the dynamic model. Case studies show that the proposed method can handle well these solitary generators and the reduction ratio can be enhanced through this method. Future work will include generalization of the sensitivity method.

  12. Concurrent measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plants.

    PubMed

    Bellik, Yuva; Iguer-Ouada, Mokrane

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, a multitude of analytical methods for measuring antioxidant activity of plant extracts has been developed. However, when using methods to determine hemoglobin released from human erythrocytes treated with ginger extracts, we found hemoglobin concentrations were significantly higher than in untreated control samples. This suggests in the presence of antioxidants that measuring hemoglobin alone is not sufficient to determine hemolysis. We show concurrent measurement of erythrocyte concentration and hemoglobin is essential in such assays, and describe a new protocol based on simultaneous measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin. PMID:26212998

  13. The Direct Measurement of Base Drag for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Zhi-guo; Li, Guo-jun; Jiang, Hua; Zhao, Rong-juan; Wang, Gang; Huang, Jun

    A new base drag measurement method has been introduced in this paper. In tradition method, the base drag of the model was measured by the pressure transducer located on the bottom of the model. In this method, the base drag was measured with piezoelectric balance directly. The drag force was measured twice by fixing the model base segment to the model or the balance, the difference between these two measurements is considered as the base drag of the model. The wind tunnel test was carried out in φ0.6m shock tunnel of CARDC with a cone model. The base drag of cone model was measured in the flow field of M(=8.42, Re(l=9.67(106/m with the attack angle of 0(. The results showed that the base drag coefficient of the cone model is 0.0015. It means that the base drag can't be ignored in high precision tests, and it can be measured by piezoelectric balance in shock tunnel. The length of the tail sting affects the axis force test result. In the same attack angle, the base drag of high lift/drag ratio model decreases with the increasing of flow field Mach number.

  14. Structure-Activity Relationship of Azaindole-Based Glucokinase Activators.

    PubMed

    Paczal, Attila; Bálint, Balázs; Wéber, Csaba; Szabó, Zoltán B; Ondi, Levente; Theret, Isabelle; De Ceuninck, Frédéric; Bernard, Catherine; Ktorza, Alain; Perron-Sierra, Francoise; Kotschy, András

    2016-01-28

    7-Azaindole has been identified as a novel bidentate anchor point for allosteric glucokinase activators. A systematic investigation around three principal parts of the new small molecule glucokinase activators led to a robust SAR in agreement with structural data that also helped to assess the conformational flexibility of the allosteric activation site. The increase in glucose uptake resulting from glucokinase activation in hepatocytes in vitro translated into the efficient lowering of glucose levels in vivo with the best compounds. PMID:26685731

  15. Performance-Based Measurement: Action for Organizations and HPT Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Moseley, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Basic measurements and applications of six selected general but critical operational performance-based indicators--effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, return on investment, and benefit-cost ratio--are presented. With each measurement, goals and potential impact are explored. Errors, risks, limitations to measurements, and a…

  16. Measurement Theory in Deutsch's Algorithm Based on the Truth Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new measurement theory, in qubits handling, based on the truth values, i.e., the truth T (1) for true and the falsity F (0) for false. The results of measurement are either 0 or 1. To implement Deutsch's algorithm, we need both observability and controllability of a quantum state. The new measurement theory can satisfy these two. Especially, we systematically describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using raw data in a thoughtful experiment.

  17. Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing in Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Yun, Brian J; Prabhakar, Anand M; Warsh, Jonathan; Kaplan, Robert; Brennan, John; Dempsey, Kyle E; Raja, Ali S

    2016-06-01

    Value in emergency medicine is determined by both patient-important outcomes and the costs associated with achieving them. However, measuring true costs is challenging. Without an understanding of costs, emergency department (ED) leaders will be unable to determine which interventions might improve value for their patients. Although ongoing research may determine which outcomes are meaningful, an accurate costing system is also needed. This article reviews current costing mechanisms in the ED and their pitfalls. It then describes how time-driven activity-based costing may be superior to these current costing systems. Time-driven activity-based costing, in addition to being a more accurate costing system, can be used for process improvements in the ED. PMID:26365921

  18. Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

  19. Measurements of Microbial Community Activities in Individual Soil Macroaggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Fansler, Sarah J.; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeff L.; Konopka, Allan

    2012-05-01

    The functional potential of single soil aggregates may provide insights into the localized distribution of microbial activities better than traditional assays conducted on bulk quantities of soil. Thus, we scaled down enzyme assays for {beta}-glucosidase, N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine aminopeptidase to measure of the enzyme potential of individual aggregates (250-1000 {mu}m diameter). Across all enzymes, the smallest aggregates had the greatest activity and the range of enzyme activities observed in all aggregates supports the hypothesis that functional potential in soil may be distributed in a patchy fashion. Paired analyses of ATP as a surrogate for active microbial biomass and {beta}-glucosidase on the same aggregates suggest the presence of both extracellular {beta}-glucosidase functioning in aggregates with no detectable ATP and also of relatively active microbial communities (high ATP) that have low {beta}-glucosidase potentials. Studying function at a scale more consistent with microbial habitat presents greater opportunity to link microbial community structure to microbial community function.

  20. II. Physical activity: measurement and behavioral patterns in children and youth.

    PubMed

    Wójcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward

    2014-12-01

    With physical activity levels among children and adolescents at an all-time low, there is a critical need for scientists and public health officials alike to further examine the physical activity behaviors of this population. Accordingly, this chapter will act as an entrée to the rest of the monograph by providing a general overview of the epidemiology of physical activity among youth in the United States. In so doing, we discuss the following: public health guidelines for youth-based physical activity, current rates and trends of physical activity participation in youth, issues related to physical education rates in school systems, lifestyle practices that encourage sedentary behaviors and attendant disease states, a synopsis of the health-related benefits of a physically active lifestyle, promotion of and opportunities for increased engagement, and comparisons of objective and subjective methods of measuring physical activity. PMID:25387413

  1. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  2. Protein Translation Activity: A New Measure of Host Immune Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Seedhom, Mina O; Hickman, Heather D; Wei, Jiajie; David, Alexandre; Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2016-08-15

    We describe the in vivo ribopuromycylation (RPM) method, which uses a puromycin-specific Ab to fluorescently label ribosome-bound puromycylated nascent chains, enabling measurement of translational activity via immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry. Tissue staining provides a unique view of virus-induced activation of adaptive, innate, and stromal immune cells. RPM flow precisely quantitates virus-induced activation of lymphocytes and innate immune cells, and it provides a unique measure of immune cell deactivation and quiescence. Using RPM we find that high endothelial cells in draining lymph nodes rapidly increase translation in the first day of vaccinia virus infection. We also find a population of constitutively activated splenic T cells in naive mice and further that most bone marrow T cells activate 3 d after vaccinia virus infection. Bone marrow T cell activation is nonspecific, IL-12-dependent, and induces innate memory T cell phenotypic markers. Thus, RPM measures translational activity to uniquely identify cell populations that participate in the immune response to pathogens, other foreign substances, and autoantigens. PMID:27385780

  3. Information Technology Measurement and Testing Activities at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Michael D.; Carnahan, Lisa J.; Carpenter, Robert J.; Flater, David W.; Fowler, James E.; Frechette, Simon P.; Gray, Martha M.; Johnson, L. Arnold; McCabe, R. Michael; Montgomery, Douglas; Radack, Shirley M.; Rosenthal, Robert; Shakarji, Craig M.

    2001-01-01

    Our high technology society continues to rely more and more upon sophisticated measurements, technical standards, and associated testing activities. This was true for the industrial society of the 20th century and remains true for the information society of the 21st century. Over the last half of the 20th century, information technology (IT) has been a powerful agent of change in almost every sector of the economy. The complexity and rapidly changing nature of IT have presented unique technical challenges to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and to the scientific measurement community in developing a sound measurement and testing infrastructure for IT. This measurement and testing infrastructure for the important non-physical and non-chemical properties associated with complex IT systems is still in an early stage of development. This paper explains key terms and concepts of IT metrology, briefly reviews the history of the National Bureau of Standards/National Institute of Standards and Technology (NBS/NIST) in the field of IT, and reviews NIST’s current capabilities and work in measurement and testing for IT. It concludes with a look at what is likely to occur in the field of IT over the next ten years and what metrology roles NIST is likely to play. PMID:27500026

  4. Measurement bias in activation-recovery intervals from unipolar electrograms.

    PubMed

    Western, David; Hanson, Ben; Taggart, Peter

    2015-02-15

    The activation-recovery interval (ARI) calculated from unipolar electrograms is regularly used as a convenient surrogate measure of local cardiac action potential durations (APD). This method enables important research bridging between computational studies and in vitro and in vivo human studies. The Wyatt method is well established as a theoretically sound method for calculating ARIs; however, some studies have observed that it is prone to a bias error in measurement when applied to positive T waves. This article demonstrates that recent theoretical and computational studies supporting the use of the Wyatt method are likely to have underestimated the extent of this bias in many practical experimental recording scenarios. This work addresses these situations and explains the measurement bias by adapting existing theoretical expressions of the electrogram to represent practical experimental recording configurations. A new analytic expression for the electrogram's local component is derived, which identifies the source of measurement bias for positive T waves. A computer implementation of the new analytic model confirms our hypothesis that the bias is systematically dependent on the electrode configuration. These results provide an aid to electrogram interpretation in general, and this work's outcomes are used to make recommendations on how to minimize measurement error. PMID:25398981

  5. Physical Activity in Vietnam: Estimates and Measurement Issues

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Tan Van; Blizzard, Christopher Leigh; Luong, Khue Ngoc; Truong, Ngoc Le Van; Tran, Bao Quoc; Otahal, Petr; Srikanth, Velandai; Nelson, Mark Raymond; Au, Thuy Bich; Ha, Son Thai; Phung, Hai Ngoc; Tran, Mai Hoang; Callisaya, Michele; Gall, Seana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aims were to provide the first national estimates of physical activity (PA) for Vietnam, and to investigate issues affecting their accuracy. Methods Measurements were made using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) on a nationally-representative sample of 14706 participants (46.5% males, response 64.1%) aged 25−64 years selected by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. Results Approximately 20% of Vietnamese people had no measureable PA during a typical week, but 72.9% (men) and 69.1% (women) met WHO recommendations for PA by adults for their age. On average, 52.0 (men) and 28.0 (women) Metabolic Equivalent Task (MET)-hours/week (largely from work activities) were reported. Work and total PA were higher in rural areas and varied by season. Less than 2% of respondents provided incomplete information, but an additional one-in-six provided unrealistically high values of PA. Those responsible for reporting errors included persons from rural areas and all those with unstable work patterns. Box-Cox transformation (with an appropriate constant added) was the most successful method of reducing the influence of large values, but energy-scaled values were most strongly associated with pathophysiological outcomes. Conclusions Around seven-in-ten Vietnamese people aged 25–64 years met WHO recommendations for total PA, which was mainly from work activities and higher in rural areas. Nearly all respondents were able to report their activity using the GPAQ, but with some exaggerated values and seasonal variation in reporting. Data transformation provided plausible summary values, but energy-scaling fared best in association analyses. PMID:26485044

  6. Observational attachment theory-based parenting measures predict children's attachment narratives independently from social learning theory-based measures.

    PubMed

    Matias, Carla; O'Connor, Thomas G; Futh, Annabel; Scott, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms. PMID:24283669

  7. Feature-Based Measuring Advisor, Version 2.1

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of Feature-Based Measuring Advisor (FBMeas Advisor) is a graphical user interface enabling users to more effectively interact with a solid model for measuring applications. Specifically, the FBMeas Advisor provides a user interface to the functions and capabilities of the FBMeas component technology. The FBMeas Advisor allows end users to visualize, organize, and document their measuring process plans and to facilitate the generation of a coordinate measuring machine part programs before a workpiece ismore » fabricated. The FBMeas Advisor permits the user to interact with an FBTol-enabled solid model to interactively and/or automatically create a set of measuring features (e.g., cylinders, planes, slots) that comply with national and international interface standards (i.e., DMIS (Dimensional Measuring Interface Standard, ISO 22063)). Measuring plans include defining measuring features interactively or automatically. Associating measuring features with appropriate tolerances and datum features via FBTol. Determining what measuring tasks (e.g., measure this feature to validate a size tolerance, measure this feature to establish a primary datum for a specific datum reference frame) are necessary to measure the feature. Assigning a measuring method to perform the task. For coordinate metrology measuring methods, measure points are determined interactively or automatically. Sensors and sensor configurations are defined, represented, and assigned to measuring methods. Measuring machines are defined, represented, and assigned to measure operations. Upon completion of a coordinate metrology measuring plan, FBMeas allows DMIS code segments to be generated, which can be used for DMIS-based CMM part programs.« less

  8. Discoveries from Revisiting Apollo Direct Active Measurements of Lunar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Brian

    2010-05-01

    New missions to the moon being developed by China, Japan, India, USA, Russia and Europe and possibilities of human missions about 2020 face the reality that 6 Apollo expeditions did not totally manage or mitigate effects of easily-mobilised and very "sticky" lunar dust on humans and hardware. Laboratory and theoretical modelling cannot reliably simulate the complex lunar environments that affect dynamical movements of lunar dust. The only direct active measurements of lunar dust during Apollo were made by matchbox-sized minimalist Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) deployed to transmit some 30 million digital measurements from Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15. These were misplaced or relatively ignored until 2009, when a self-funded suite of discoveries (O'Brien Geophys. Research Letters FIX 6 May 2099) revealed unexpected properties of lunar dust, such as the adhesive force being stronger as illumination increased. We give the first reports of contrasting effects, contamination or cleansing, from rocket exhausts of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 Lunar Modules leaving the moon. We further strengthen the importance of collateral dust inadvertently splashed on Apollo hardware by human activities. Dust management designs and mission plans require optimum use of such in situ measurements, extended by laboratory simulations and theoretical modelling.

  9. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  10. Evaluating Procedures for Reducing Measurement Error in Math Curriculum-Based Measurement Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Methe, Scott A.; Briesch, Amy M.; Hulac, David

    2015-01-01

    At present, it is unclear whether math curriculum-based measurement (M-CBM) procedures provide a dependable measure of student progress in math computation because support for its technical properties is based largely upon a body of correlational research. Recent investigations into the dependability of M-CBM scores have found that evaluating…

  11. Evaluation of 16 measures of mental workload using a simulated flight task emphasizing mediational activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwille, W. W.; Rahimi, M.; Casali, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    As aircraft and other systems become more automated, a shift is occurring in human operator participation in these systems. This shift is away from manual control and toward activities that tap the higher mental functioning of human operators. Therefore, an experiment was performed in a moving-base flight simulator to assess mediational (cognitive) workload measurement. Specifically, 16 workload estimation techniques were evaluated as to their sensitivity and intrusion in a flight task emphasizing mediational behavior. Task loading, using navigation problems presented on a display, was treated as an independent variable, and workload-measure values were treated as dependent variables. Results indicate that two mediational task measures, two rating scale measures, time estimation, and two eye behavior measures were reliably sensitive to mediational loading. The time estimation measure did, however, intrude on mediational task performance. Several of the remaining measures were completely insensitive to mediational load.

  12. Slice-Based Formal Specification Measures -- Mapping Coupling and Cohesion Measures to Formal Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollin, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that existing slice-based measures can reasonably be mapped to the field of state-based specification languages. By making use of Z specifications this contribution renews the idea of slice-profiles and derives coupling and cohesion measures for them. The measures are then assessed by taking a critical look at their sensitiveness in respect to modifications on the specification source. The presented study shows that slice-based coupling and cohesion measures have the potential to be used as quality indicators for specifications as they reflect the changes in the structure of a specification as accustomed from their program-related pendants.

  13. Information Theoretic Similarity Measures for Content Based Image Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachary, John; Iyengar, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval is based on the idea of extracting visual features from images and using them to index images in a database. Proposes similarity measures and an indexing algorithm based on information theory that permits an image to be represented as a single number. When used in conjunction with vectors, this method displays…

  14. PFNA-based measurements for non-intrusive waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Pentaleri, E.

    1994-12-31

    Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) is a non-intrusive technique for inspecting bulk samples whose size may range from that of a suitcase to that of a commercial-cargo truck trailer. In an earlier paper, the authors discussed techniques for performing PFNA-based TRU assays on waste drums, and described why such measurements would yield improved accuracy, sensitivity, and throughput over existing instruments. Here they describe a set of non-intrusive measurements useful for further improving the accuracy of TRU assay results, certifying compliance with waste acceptance criteria, or enhancing the control of waste-treatment processes. In principle, these measurements, based mainly upon the analysis of inelastic-neutron-scattering and neutron-capture gamma rays, can be performed concurrently with TRU-assay measurements. Based on the measurements described, a single PFNA-based waste inspection system would allow substantially complete non-intrusive characterization of waste containers to be performed.

  15. Perceived and Objective Measures of Neighborhood Environment for Physical Activity Among Mexican Adults, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Deborah; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández, Bernardo; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A.; Pratt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Environmental supports for physical activity may help residents to be physically active. However, such supports might not help if residents’ perceptions of the built environment do not correspond with objective measures. We assessed the associations between objective and perceived measures of the built environment among adults in Cuernavaca, Mexico, and examined whether certain variables modified this relationship. Methods We conducted a population-based (n = 645) study in 2011 that used objective (based on geographic information systems) and perceived (by questionnaire) measures of the following features of the built environment: residential density, mixed-land use, intersection density, and proximity to parks and transit stops. We used linear regression to assess the adjusted associations between these measures and to identify variables modifying these relationships. Results Adjusted associations were significant for all features (P < .05) except intersection density and proximity to transit stops. Significantly stronger associations between perceived and objective measures were observed among participants with low socioeconomic status, participants who did not own a motor vehicle or did not meet physical activity recommendations, and participants perceiving parks as safe. Conclusion Perceived measures of residential density, mixed-land use, and proximity to parks are associated with objective environmental measures related to physical activity. However, in Mexico, it should not be assumed that perceived measures of intersection density and proximity to transit stops are the same as objective measures. Our results are consistent with those from high-income countries in that associations between perceived and objective measures are modified by individual sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. PMID:27281391

  16. Health monitoring of aeronautical structures based on vibrations measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovio, Igor; Lecce, Leonardo

    2006-03-01

    Purpose of the paper is to present an innovative application inside the Non Destructive Testing field based on vibrations measurements, developed by the authors during the last three years, and already tested for analysing damage of many structural elements. The proposed new method is based on the acquisition and comparison of Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) of the monitored structure before and after an occurred damage. Structural damage modify the dynamical behaviour of the structure such as mass, stiffened and damping, and consequently the FRFs of the damaged structure in comparison with the FRFs of the sound structure, making possible to identify, to localize and quantify a structural damage. The activities, presented in the paper, mostly focused on a new FRFs processing technique based on the determining of a representative "Damage Index" for identifying and analysing damage both on real scale aeronautical structural components, like large-scale fuselage reinforced panels, and on aeronautical composite panels. Besides it has been carried out a dedicated neural network algorithm aiming at obtaining a "recognition-based learning"; this kind of learning methodology permits to train the neural network in order to let it recognises only "positive" examples discarding as a consequence the "negative" ones. Within the structural NDT a "positive" example means "healthy" state of the analysed structural component and, obviously, a "negative" one means a "damaged" or perturbed state. From an architectural point of view piezoceramic patches have been tested as actuators and sensors. Besides it has been used a laser-scanning vibrometer system to validate the behaviour of the piezoceramic patches.

  17. Technical Adequacy and Acceptability of Curriculum-Based Measurement and the Measures of Academic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    January, Stacy-Ann A.; Ardoin, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement in reading (CBM-R) and the Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) are assessment tools widely employed for universal screening in schools. Although a large body of research supports the validity of CBM-R, limited empirical evidence exists supporting the technical adequacy of MAP or the acceptability of either measure for…

  18. The solar activity measurements experiments (SAMEX) for improved scientific understanding of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Activity Measurements Experiments (SAMEX) mission is described. It is designed to provide a look at the interactions of magnetic fields and plasmas that create flares and other explosive events on the sun in an effort to understand solar activity and the nature of the solar magnetic field. The need for this mission, the instruments to be used, and the expected benefits of SAMEX are discussed.

  19. Recent volcanic activity on Venus - Evidence from radiothermal emissivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Cordula A.; Wood, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Radiothermal emissivity measurements are analyzed in order to study large volcanic constructs on Venus and to correlate details of the reflectivity/emissivity patterns with geological landforms and stratigraphy visible in corresponding SAR images. There appears to be a correlation between locations on Venus where high emissivity at high altitudes and low emissivity at low altitudes are observed. These phenomena are attributed here to relatively recent volcanic activity: the former to summit eruptions that have not had time to weather to the low-emissivity state, the latter to continuing emission of volcanic gases from neighboring small plains volcanoes. The pattern of reflectivity and emissivity on Maat Mons is examined in the light of these findings. It is concluded that Maat Mons has undergone the most recent episode of volcanic activity of all the volcanoes studied here.

  20. Effect of fluorocarbons on acetylcholinesterase activity and some counter measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W.; Parker, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    An isolated vagal sympathetic heart system has been successfully used for the study of the effect of fluorocarbons (FCs) on cardiac performance and in situ enzyme activity. Dichlorodifluoromethane sensitizes this preparation to sympathetic stimulation and to exogenous epinephrine challenge. Partial and complete A-V block and even cardiac arrest have been induced by epinephrine challenge in the FC sensitized heart. Potassium chloride alone restores the rhythmicity but not the normal contractility of the heart in such a situation. Addition of glucose will, however, completely restore the normal function of the heart which is sensitized by dichlorodifluoromethane. The ED 50 values of acetylcholinesterase activity which are used as a measure of relative effectiveness of fluorocarbons are compared with the maximum permissible concentration. Kinetic studies indicate that all the fluorocarbons tested so far are noncompetitive.

  1. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-07-16

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.

  2. THE COLD SHOULDER: EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACTIVE REGION CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.

    2012-09-10

    The coronal heating mechanism for active region core loops is difficult to determine because these loops are often not resolved and cannot be studied individually. Rather, we concentrate on the 'inter-moss' areas between loop footpoints. We use observations from the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer and the X-Ray Telescope to calculate the emission measure distributions of eight inter-moss areas in five different active regions. The combined data sets provide both high- and low-temperature constraints and ensure complete coverage in the temperature range appropriate for active regions. For AR 11113, the emission can be modeled with heating events that occur on timescales less than the cooling time. The loops in the core regions appear to be close to equilibrium and are consistent with steady heating. The other regions studied, however, appear to be dominated by nanoflare heating. Our results are consistent with the idea that active region age is an important parameter in determining whether steady or nanoflare heating is primarily responsible for the core emission, that is, older regions are more likely to be dominated by steady heating, while younger regions show more evidence of nanoflares.

  3. Measuring initiator caspase activation by bimolecular fluorescence complementation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Melissa J; Bouchier-Hayes, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Initiator caspases, including caspase-2, -8, and -9, are activated by the proximity-driven dimerization that occurs after their recruitment to activation platforms. Here we describe the use of caspase bimolecular fluorescence complementation (caspase BiFC) to measure this induced proximity. BiFC assays rely on the use of a split fluorescent protein to identify protein-protein interactions in cells. When fused to interacting proteins, the fragments of the split fluorescent protein (which do not fluoresce on their own) can associate and fluoresce. In this protocol, we use the fluorescent protein Venus, a brighter and more photostable variant of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), to detect the induced proximity of caspase-2. Plasmids encoding two fusion products (caspase-2 fused to either the amino- or carboxy-terminal halves of Venus) are transfected into cells. The cells are then treated with an activating (death) stimulus. The induced proximity (and subsequent activation) of caspase-2 in the cells is visualized as Venus fluorescence. The proportion of Venus-positive cells at a single time point can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. Alternatively, the increase in fluorescence intensity over time can be evaluated by time-lapse confocal microscopy. The caspase BiFC strategy described here should also work for other initiator caspases, such as caspase-8 or -9, as long as the correct controls are used. PMID:25561623

  4. A method for measuring total thiaminase activity in fish tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, J.L.; Tillitt, D.E.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Brown, S.B.; Fitzsimons, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    An accurate, quantitative, and rapid method for the measurement of thiaminase activity in fish samples is required to provide sufficient information to characterize the role of dietary thiaminase in the onset of thiamine deficiency in Great Lakes salmonines. A radiometric method that uses 14C-thiamine was optimized for substrate and co-substrate (nicotinic acid) concentrations, incubation time, and sample dilution. Total thiaminase activity was successfully determined in extracts of selected Great Lakes fishes and invertebrates. Samples included whole-body and selected tissues of forage fishes. Positive control material prepared from frozen alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in Lake Michigan enhanced the development and application of the method. The method allowed improved discrimination of thiaminolytic activity among forage fish species and their tissues. The temperature dependence of the thiaminase activity observed in crude extracts of Lake Michigan alewives followed a Q10 = 2 relationship for the 1-37??C temperature range, which is consistent with the bacterial-derived thiaminase I protein. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  5. Active calibration target for bistatic radar cross-section measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pienaar, M.; Odendaal, J. W.; Joubert, J.; Cilliers, J. E.; Smit, J. C.

    2016-05-01

    Either passive calibration targets are expensive and complex to manufacture or their bistatic radar cross section (RCS) levels are significantly lower than the monostatic RCS levels of targets such as spheres, dihedral, and trihedral corner reflectors. In this paper the performance of an active calibration target with relative high bistatic RCS values is illustrated as a reference target for bistatic RCS measurements. The reference target is simple to manufacture, operates over a wide frequency range, and can be configured to calibrate all four polarizations (VV, HH, HV, and VH). Bistatic RCS measurements of canonical targets, performed in a controlled environment, are calibrated with the reference target and the results are compared to simulated results using FEKO.

  6. Magnesium Based Materials and their Antimicrobial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Duane Allan

    The overall goals of this body of work were to characterize the antimicrobial properties of magnesium (Mg) metal and nano-magnesium oxide (nMgO) in vitro, to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Mg metal, and to incorporate MgO nanoparticles into a polymeric implant coating and evaluate its in vitro antimicrobial properties. In the course of this work it was found that Mg metal, Mg-mesh, and nMgO have in vitro antimicrobial properties that are similar to a bactericidal antibiotic. For Mg metal, the mechanism of this activity appears to be related to an increase in pH (i.e. a more alkaline environment) and not an increase in Mg2+. Given that Mg-mesh is a Mg metal powder, the assumption is that it has the same mechanism of activity as Mg metal. The mechanism of activity for nMgO remains to be elucidated and may be related to a combination of interaction of the nanoparticles with the bacteria and the alkaline pH. It was further demonstrated that supernatants from suspensions of Mg-mesh and nMgO had the same antimicrobial effect as was noted when the particles were used. The supernatant from Mg-mesh and nMgO was also noted to prevent biofilm formation for two Staphylococcus strains. Finally, poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) composites of Mg-mesh (PCL+Mg-mesh) and nMgO (PCL+nMgO) were produced. Coatings applied to screws inhibited growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in thin disc format inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in addition to the E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Pure Mg metal was noted to have some cytotoxic effect on murine fibroblast and osteoblast cell lines, although this effect needs to be characterized further. To address the need for an in vivo model for evaluating implant associated infections, a new closed fracture osteomyelitis model in the femur of the rat was developed. Magnesium, a readily available and inexpensive metal was shown to have antimicrobial properties that appear to be related to its corrosion products and

  7. Cyst-based measurements for assessing lymphangioleiomyomatosis in computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, P. Brown, M. S.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Goldin, J. G.; Argula, R.; Strange, C.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a new family of measurements made on individual pulmonary cysts extracted from computed tomography (CT) for assessing the severity of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Methods: CT images were analyzed using thresholding to identify a cystic region of interest from chest CT of LAM patients. Individual cysts were then extracted from the cystic region by the watershed algorithm, which separates individual cysts based on subtle edges within the cystic regions. A family of measurements were then computed, which quantify the amount, distribution, and boundary appearance of the cysts. Sequential floating feature selection was used to select a small subset of features for quantification of the severity of LAM. Adjusted R{sup 2} from multiple linear regression and R{sup 2} from linear regression against measurements from spirometry were used to compare the performance of our proposed measurements with currently used density based CT measurements in the literature, namely, the relative area measure and the D measure. Results: Volumetric CT data, performed at total lung capacity and residual volume, from a total of 49 subjects enrolled in the MILES trial were used in our study. Our proposed measures had adjusted R{sup 2} ranging from 0.42 to 0.59 when regressing against the spirometry measures, with p < 0.05. For previously used density based CT measurements in the literature, the best R{sup 2} was 0.46 (for only one instance), with the majority being lower than 0.3 or p > 0.05. Conclusions: The proposed family of CT-based cyst measurements have better correlation with spirometric measures than previously used density based CT measurements. They show potential as a sensitive tool for quantitatively assessing the severity of LAM.

  8. Emission Measure Distribution and Heating of Two Active Region Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode, we have studied the coronal plasma in the core of two active regions. Concentrating on the area between opposite polarity moss, we found emission measure distributions having an approximate power-law form EM/T(exp 2.4) from log T = 5.55 up to a peak at log T = 6.57. The observations are explained extremely well by a simple nanoflare model. However, in the absence of additional constraints, the observations could possibly also be explained by steady heating.

  9. Wavelet-based coherence measures of global seismic noise properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubushin, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    The coherent behavior of four parameters characterizing the global field of low-frequency (periods from 2 to 500 min) seismic noise is studied. These parameters include generalized Hurst exponent, multifractal singularity spectrum support width, the normalized entropy of variance, and kurtosis. The analysis is based on the data from 229 broadband stations of GSN, GEOSCOPE, and GEOFON networks for a 17-year period from the beginning of 1997 to the end of 2013. The entire set of stations is subdivided into eight groups, which, taken together, provide full coverage of the Earth. The daily median values of the studied noise parameters are calculated in each group. This procedure yields four 8-dimensional time series with a time step of 1 day with a length of 6209 samples in each scalar component. For each of the four 8-dimensional time series, a multiple correlation measure is estimated, which is based on computing robust canonical correlations for the Haar wavelet coefficients at the first detail level within a moving time window of the length 365 days. These correlation measures for each noise property demonstrate essential increasing starting from 2007 to 2008 which was continued till the end of 2013. Taking into account a well-known phenomenon of noise correlation increasing before catastrophes, this increasing of seismic noise synchronization is interpreted as indicators of the strongest (magnitudes not less than 8.5) earthquakes activation which is observed starting from the Sumatra mega-earthquake of 26 Dec 2004. This synchronization continues growing up to the end of the studied period (2013), which can be interpreted as a probable precursor of the further increase in the intensity of the strongest earthquakes all over the world.

  10. Detection limit for activation measurements in ultralow background sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trache, Livius; Chesneanu, D.; Margineanu, R.; Pantelica, A.; Ghita, D. G.; Burducea, I.; Straticiuc, M.; Tang, X. D.

    2014-09-01

    We used 12C +13C fusion at the beam energies E = 6, 7 and 8 MeV to determine the sensitivity and the limits of activation method measurements in ultralow background sites. A 13C beam of 0.5 μA from the 3 MV Tandem accelerator of the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH impinged on thick graphite targets. After about 24 hrs of irradiation targets were measured in two different laboratories: one with a heavy shielded Ge detector in the institute (at the surface) and one located underground in the microBequerel laboratory, in the salt mine of Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The 1369- and 2754 keV peaks from 24Na deactivation were clearly observed in the γ-ray spectra obtained for acquisitions lasting a few hours, or a few days. Determination of the detection limit in evaluating the cross sections for the target irradiated at Ec . m = 3 MeV indicates the fact that it is possible to measure gamma spectrum in underground laboratory down to Ec . m = 2 . 6 MeV. Cleaning the spectra with beta-gamma coincidences and increasing beam intensity 20 times will take as further down. The measurements are motivated by the study of the 12 C +12 C reaction at astrophysical energies.

  11. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements Showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec. 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 mb) and 585 K (approxi. 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: 1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; 2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; 3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  12. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M.Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approximately 46 mb) and 585 K (approximately 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER. photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: (1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the UKMO temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; (2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; (3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  13. Atmospheric Neutron Measurements using a Small Scintillator Based Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kole, Merlin; Pearce, Mark; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Fukuda, Kentaro; Ishizu, Sumito; Jackson, Miranda; Kamae, Tune; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Kawano, Takafumi; Kiss, Mozsi; Moretti, Elena; Yanagida, Takayuki; Chauvin, Maxime; Mikhalev, Victor; Rydstrom, Stefan; Takahashi, Hiromitsu

    PoGOLino is a standalone scintillator-based neutron detector designed for balloon-borne missions. Its main purpose is to provide data of the neutron flux in 2 different energy ranges in the high altitude / high latitude region where the highest neutron flux in the atmosphere is found. Furthermore the influence of the Solar activity upon the neutron environment in this region is relatively strong. As a result both short and long term time fluctuations are strongest in this region. At high altitudes neutrons can form a source of background for balloon-borne scientific measurements. They can furthermore form a major source for single event upsets in electronics. A good understanding of the high altitude / high latitude neutron environment is therefore important. Measurements of the neutron environment in this region are however lacking. PoGOLino contains two 5 mm thick Lithium Calcium Aluminium Fluoride (LiCAF) scintillators used for neutron detection. The LiCAF crystals are sandwiched between 2 Bismuth Germanium Oxide (BGO) scintillating crystals, which serve to veto signals produced by gamma-rays and charged particles. The veto system makes measurements of the neutron flux possible even in high radiation environments. One LiCAF detector is shielded with polyethylene while the second remains unshielded, making the detectors sensitive in different energy ranges. The choice of a scintillator crystals as the detection material ensures a high detection efficiency while keeping the instrument small, robust and light weight. The full standalone cylindrical instrument has a radius of 120 mm, a height of 670 mm and a total mass of 13 kg, making it suitable as a piggy back mission. PoGOLino was successfully launched on March 20th 2013 from the Esrange Space Center in Northern Sweden to an altitude of 30.9 km. A detailed description of the detector design is presented, along with results of of the flight. The neutron flux measured during flight is compared to predictions based

  14. The effect of different inter-pad distances on the determination of active drag using the Measuring Active Drag system.

    PubMed

    Schreven, S; Toussaint, H M; Smeets, J B J; Beek, P J

    2013-07-26

    The Measuring Active Drag (MAD) system was developed to determine active drag in swimming by measuring the push-off force exerted at fixed pads placed below the waterline. The imposed inter-pad distance, which to date has been kept constant while using the MAD system, could affect the active drag because it requires the use of different stroke frequencies. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the effect of inter-pad distance on active drag at a given speed. In particular, drag-velocity curves at three different inter-pad distances (1.25m, 1.35m and 1.45m) were determined using the MAD system for eleven competitive swimmers. Variation of 16% in inter-pad distance (14% change in stroke frequency) revealed no significant difference in calculated active drag between different inter-pad distances and a low (<5%) average coefficient of variation over different inter-pad distances was found. In addition, inter-test reliability, which was determined for the two 1.35m conditions only, was high (ICC>0.90) for measurements on two consecutive days. The results suggest that it may not be necessary to adapt the inter-pad distance of the MAD system based on anthropometric characteristics of the subject or the velocity-related stroke length in free swimming. PMID:23791187

  15. Highly concentrated active nonlinear media based on oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Bakin, D.V.; Dorozhkin, L.M.; Krasilov, Yu.I.; Kuznetsov, N.T.; Potemkin, A.V.; Tadzhi-Aglaev, K.S.; Shestakov, A.V.

    1987-07-01

    Important characteristics of highly concentrated active nonlinear media were studied which were based on oxide compounds of phosphates, niobates, tantalates, and titanates of neodymium with alkaline earth metals. Compounds of the indicated classes were synthesized and their spectral luminescent and nonlinear optical properties were studied. Single crystals were grown from the selected compounds (5-8mm) and preliminary measurements of the laser and nonlinear optical parameters were taken. Formulas are given for materials that demonstrated high nonlinear and luminescent properties simultaneously. Spectroscopic and nonlinear optical properties of some oxygen compounds of rare earth elements are shown.

  16. Photoluminescent thermometry based on europium-activated calcium sulphide.

    PubMed

    Samulski, T V; Chopping, P T; Haas, B

    1982-01-01

    A photoluminescent thermometer, based on the transient emission response of a europium-activated calcium sulphide phosphor, is described in detail. This optical thermometry system has special advantages for temperature measurements in microwave and RF fields and potential application in electromagnetically induced clinical hyperthermia. A laboratory system has been constructed which utilises a fibreoptic probe with external diameter 0.8 mm. A system temperature resolution of 0.1 degree C has been achieved in the range 37-47 degrees C. PMID:6965160

  17. Active X based standards for healthcare integration.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, D S; Welcker, B

    1998-02-01

    With cost pressures brought to the forefront by the growth of managed care, the integration of healthcare information systems is more important than ever. Providers of healthcare information are under increasing pressure to provide timely information to end users in a cost effective manner. Organizations have had to decide between the strong functionality that a multi-vendor 'best of breed' architecture provides and the strong integration provided by a single-vendor solution. As connectivity between systems increased, these interfaces were migrated to work across serial and eventually, network, connections. In addition, the content of the information became standardized through efforts like HL7 and ANSI X12 and Edifact. Although content-based standards go a long way towards facilitating interoperability, there is also quite a bit of work required to connect two systems even when they both adhere to the standard. A key to accomplishing this goal is increasing the connectivity between disparate systems in the healthcare environment. Microsoft is working with healthcare organizations and independent software vendors to bring Microsoft's powerful enterprise object technology, ActiveX, to the healthcare industry. Whilst object orientation has been heralded as the 'next big thing' in computer applications development, Microsoft believe that, in fact, component software is the technology which will provide the greatest benefit to end users. PMID:9600418

  18. Measuring the activity of inhaled ²²²Rn using a lung counting system.

    PubMed

    Zhiwei, Cheng; Mingyan, Jia; Maoquan, Shen

    2015-02-01

    A new method of directly measuring (222)Rn progeny in a worker's lung using a lung counting system is introduced. To determine the efficiency of the lung counting system, a torso phantom manufactured by the China Institute for Radiation Protection was used, where activated carbon that had been loaded in a radon chamber with a defined quantity of radon represented the lungs, which were usually made of urethane foam. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) of (214)Bi, one of the (222)Rn progenies, was estimated to be 7.3 Bq for a measurement time of 4000 s. Based on the time (222)Rn progenies stay in the lung, it may be concluded that the lung counting system described can be well used for directly measuring the activity of (214)Bi in the lung short time after a worker inhaled (222)Rn at his/her workplace. PMID:24803514

  19. Activity-based analyses lead to better decision making.

    PubMed

    Player, S

    1998-08-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and activity-based management (ABM) are cost-management tools that are relatively new to the healthcare industry. ABC is used for strategic decision making. It assesses the costs associated with specific activities and resources and links those costs to specific internal and external customers of the healthcare enterprise (e.g., patients, service lines, and physician groups) to determine the costs associated with each customer. This cost information then can be adjusted to account for anticipated changes and to predict future costs. ABM, on the other hand, supports operations by focusing on the causes of costs and how costs can be reduced. It assesses cost drivers that directly affect the cost of a product or service, and uses performance measures to evaluate the financial or nonfinancial benefit an activity provides. By identifying each cost driver and assessing the value the element adds to the healthcare enterprise, ABM provides a basis for selecting areas that can be changed to reduce costs. PMID:10182280

  20. Measurement of Cysteine Dioxygenase Activity and Protein Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Stipanuk, Martha H.; Dominy, John E.; Ueki, Iori; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.

    2009-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase is an iron (Fe2+)-dependent thiol dioxygenase that uses molecular oxygen to oxidize the sulfhydryl group of cysteine to generate 3-sulfinoalanine (commonly called cysteinesulfinic acid). Cysteine dioxygenase activity is routinely assayed by measuring cysteinesulfinate formation from substrate L-cysteine at pH 6.1 in the presence of ferrous ions to saturate the enzyme with metal cofactor, a copper chelator to diminish substrate oxidation, and hydroxylamine to inhibit pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent degradation of product. The amount of cysteine dioxygenase may be measured by immunoblotting. Upon SDS-PAGE, cysteine dioxygenase can be separated into two major bands, with the upper band representing the 23-kDa protein and the lower band representing the mature enzyme that has undergone formation of an internal thioether cross link in the active site. Formation of this cross link is dependent upon the catalytic turnover of substrate and produces an enzyme with a higher catalytic efficiency and catalytic half-life. PMID:19885389

  1. Performance Based Education. Technology Activity Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Rodney L., Ed.

    These Technology Activity Modules are designed to serve as an implementation resource for technology education teachers as they integrate technology education with Missouri's Academic Performance Standards and provide a source of activities and activity ideas that can be used to integrate and reinforce learning across the curriculum. The modules…

  2. Literature-Based Reading Activities. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Hallie Kay; Yopp, Ruth Helen

    Designed to be used with a wide variety of literature selections in classroom settings, the activities in this book are open-ended, encourage critical thinking and discussion, and serve as springboards for writing. All activities in the book have been classroom tested and many have been the subject of research. Each activity may be used at any…

  3. Using a Single-Item Physical Activity Measure to Describe and Validate Parents' Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.; Cuddihy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of health-related physical activity (PA), often interpreted as either 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) or at least 30 min of at least moderate-intensity PA on 5 or more days per week (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing [AGDHA], 2005;…

  4. Physical Activity Measurement Device Agreement: Pedometer Steps/Minute and Physical Activity Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Mungen, Jonathan D.; Oh, Yoonsin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine agreement between the Walk4Life DUO pedometer (W4L; Walk4Life, Plainfield, Illinois, USA) and two criterion instruments in the measurement of physical activity. Participants (N = 189, M = 16.74 years, SD = 0.99) in high school physical education concurrently wore the DUO (i.e., comparison instrument) and…

  5. Integrated measures for rough sets based on general binary relations.

    PubMed

    Teng, Shuhua; Liao, Fan; He, Mi; Lu, Min; Nian, Yongjian

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty measures are important for knowledge discovery and data mining. Rough set theory (RST) is an important tool for measuring and processing uncertain information. Although many RST-based methods for measuring system uncertainty have been investigated, the existing measures cannot adequately characterise the imprecision of a rough set. Moreover, these methods are suitable only for complete information systems, and it is difficult to generalise methods for complete information systems to incomplete information systems. To overcome these shortcomings, we present new uncertainty measures, integrated accuracy and integrated roughness, that are based on general binary relations, and we study important properties of these measures. A theoretical analysis and examples show that the proposed integrated measures are more precise than existing uncertainty measures, they are suitable for both complete and incomplete information systems, and they are logically consistent. Therefore, integrated accuracy and integrated roughness overcome the limitations of existing measures. This research not only develops the theory of uncertainty, it also expands the application domain of uncertainty measures and provides a theoretical basis for knowledge acquisition in information systems based on general binary relations. PMID:26900539

  6. Calcium II K Line as a Measure of Activity: Meshing Sac Peak and Solis Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, Elana; Earley, J.; Keil, S.

    2012-05-01

    The Calcium II K line is an important indicator of solar and stellar activity. Disk integrated Ca K measurements have been taken at the Evans Solar Facility at Sacramento Peak Observatory since 1976. This instrument will be shut down by the end of the year, and the observations will be continued by the Solis Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer (ISS), which has been taking measurements since 2006. We attempt to regress the measurements from Sacramento Peak and ISS. In addition, we compare the Ca K measurements with disk averaged line of sight magnetic field measurements, which will help us predict the magnetic field of other stars. We also compare the measurements with Lyman α, allowing us to use Ca K as an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) proxy. This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) [or Research Experiences for Teachers (RET)] site program, which is co-funded by the Department of Defense in partnership with the National Science Foundation REU/RET Program. The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  7. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P; Reis, Jared P; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-10-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth. PMID:26384937

  8. Measurement of physiological parameters during brain activation usingfMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ching-Mei Janet

    The changes in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) are correlated with the changes in blood deoxyhemoglobin content that determine the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal. Both CBF and CBV have been widely measured and well understood by previous studies, while CMRO2 measurement is still in development. The central hypothesis of the proposed study is that those physiological parameters can be simulated by biophysical models with fixed parameters and measured directly. The goal of this proposal is to test the central hypothesis. In summary, this dissertation focused on measurements of physiological parameters in two image modalities. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) were studied in chapters II to IV. It is going to help to understand human brain metabolism during neuronal activity. Chapter V compared two image modalities---MR and PET and furthermore determine beta* in existing MR model for clinic use. This dissertation shows that the characteristics of BOLD signal can be examined by balloon model in both block-designed and event-related designed paradigm. The dynamic change of CMRO2 and OER using event-related fMRI can be measured using existing biophysical model proposed by Kim and his coworker in 1999. Furthermore, PET experiment was used to determine the parameters contained in Kim's model. This dissertation verify the central hypothesis that we made early on and we expect CMRO2 model with fixed parameters will bring a big impact in research and clinical use.

  9. Measurement of Activity of Indium in Liquid Bi-In-Sn Alloys by EMF Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. R.; Mohan, S.; Behera, C. K.

    2016-08-01

    The electrochemical technique based on a molten salt electrolyte galvanic cell has been used to measure the activity of indium in liquid Bi-In-Sn alloys in the temperature range of 723 K to 855 K along three ternary sections. The activity of tin in Bi-Sn binary alloys has also been measured by the same technique in the above temperature range. The activity of indium in Bi-In-Sn alloys shows negative deviation from Raoult's law for most of the compositions and slight positive deviations for a few indium-rich compositions. The ternary excess molar free energies have been calculated by Darken's treatment. Isoactivity curves at 813 K in the ternary Bi-In-Sn alloys were derived by combining the activity data of In-Sn and Bi-In alloys. The values of excess molar free energy obtained in this study are compared with those calculated from the Muggianu model at 813 K.

  10. Measurement of Activity of Indium in Liquid Bi-In-Sn Alloys by EMF Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. R.; Mohan, S.; Behera, C. K.

    2016-05-01

    The electrochemical technique based on a molten salt electrolyte galvanic cell has been used to measure the activity of indium in liquid Bi-In-Sn alloys in the temperature range of 723 K to 855 K along three ternary sections. The activity of tin in Bi-Sn binary alloys has also been measured by the same technique in the above temperature range. The activity of indium in Bi-In-Sn alloys shows negative deviation from Raoult's law for most of the compositions and slight positive deviations for a few indium-rich compositions. The ternary excess molar free energies have been calculated by Darken's treatment. Isoactivity curves at 813 K in the ternary Bi-In-Sn alloys were derived by combining the activity data of In-Sn and Bi-In alloys. The values of excess molar free energy obtained in this study are compared with those calculated from the Muggianu model at 813 K.

  11. Building performance-based accountability with limited empirical evidence: performance measurement for public health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Shoshana R; Nelson, Christopher D; McLees, Anita W; Mumford, Karen; Thomas, Craig

    2013-08-01

    Efforts to respond to performance-based accountability mandates for public health emergency preparedness have been hindered by a weak evidence base linking preparedness activities with response outcomes. We describe an approach to measure development that was successfully implemented in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Emergency Preparedness Cooperative Agreement. The approach leverages insights from process mapping and experts to guide measure selection, and provides mechanisms for reducing performance-irrelevant variation in measurement data. Also, issues are identified that need to be addressed to advance the science of measurement in public health emergency preparedness. PMID:24229520

  12. Predicting Classroom Achievement from Active Responding on a Computer-Based Groupware System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Deno, Stanley L.; Robinson, Steven L.; Marston, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    The predictive validity of active responding on a computer-based groupware system was examined with 48 second graders. Results showed that active responding correlated highly with initial and final performance measures and that active responding contributed significantly to predicting final performance when initial performance was controlled.…

  13. SU-E-T-543: Measurement of Neutron Activation From Different High Energy Varian Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, T; Madsen, S; Sudowe, R; Meigooni, A Soleimani

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Linear accelerators producing photons above 10 MeV may induce photonuclear reactions in high Z components of the accelerator. These liberated neutrons can then activate the structural components of the accelerator and other materials in the beam path through neutron capture reactions. The induced activity within the accelerator may contribute to additional dose to both patients and personnel. This project seeks to determine the total activity and activity per activated isotope following irradiation in different Varian accelerators at energies above 10 MeV. Methods: A Varian 21IX accelerator was used to irradiate a 30 cm × 30 cm × 20 cm solid water phantom with 15 MV x-rays. The phantom was placed at an SSD of 100 cm and at the center of a 20 cm × 20 cm field. Activation induced gamma spectra were acquired over a 5 minute interval after 1 and 15 minutes from completion of the irradiation. All measurements were made using a CANBERRA Falcon 5000 Portable HPGe detector. The majority of measurements were made in scattering geometry with the detector situated at 90° to the incident beam, 30 cm from the side of the phantom and approximately 10 cm from the top. A 5 minute background count was acquired and automatically subtracted from all subsequent measurements. Photon spectra were acquired for both open and MLC fields. Results: Based on spectral signatures, nuclides have been identified and their activities calculated for both open and MLC fields. Preliminary analyses suggest that activities from the activation products in the microcurie range. Conclusion: Activation isotopes have been identified and their relative activities determined. These activities are only gross estimates since efficiencies have not been determined for this source-detector geometry. Current efforts are focused on accurate determination of detector efficiencies using Monte Carlo calculations.

  14. A voice coil motor based measuring force control system for tactile scanning profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shengdong; Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Liangzhou; Zhou, Liping; Lu, Wenlong

    2015-02-01

    In tactile scanning profiler, the measuring force would change in a wide range when it was used for profile measurement in a large range, which could possibly destroy the measured surface. To solve the problem, measuring force control system for tactile scanning profiler was needed. In the paper, a voice coil motor-based measuring force control system for tactile scanning profiler was designed. In the design, a low stiffness coefficient spring was used to provide contact force, while a voice coil motor (VCM) to balance the spring force so that the contact force could be kept for constant measuring force. A VCM was designed specially, and for active measuring force control, a precision current source circuit under the control of a DSP unit was designed to drive the VCM. The performance of voice coil motor based measuring force control system had been tested, and its good characteristics were verified.

  15. Minimum Detectable Activity in gamma spectrometry and its use in low level activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Done, L; Ioan, M-R

    2016-08-01

    In this paper there are described three different algorithms of Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) calculus, and its use in high resolution gamma spectrometry. In the first part, few introductive theoretical aspects related to the MDA are presented. Further, the theory was applied to real gamma rays spectrometry measurements and the results were compared with the activities reference values. Two different gamma spectrometry systems, both of them using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors, but having different efficiencies, were used. Samples having different geometries and radionuclides content were measured. The measured samples were made by dissolving of some acids containing anthropogenic radionuclides in water, obtaining a density of 1g/cm(3). Choosing this type of matrix was done because of its high homogeneity. PMID:27172893

  16. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Dyck, Delfien Van; Hinckson, Erica; Schipperijn, Jasper; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Owen, Neville; Davey, Rachel C; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Mitáš, Josef; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Schofield, Grant; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived environmental attributes with objectively-measured PA outcomes; between-site differences in such associations; and, the extent to which perceived environmental attributes explain between-site differences in PA. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 16 cities located in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA. Participants were 6,968 adults residing in administrative units stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. Predictors were 10 perceived neighborhood environmental attributes. Outcome measures were accelerometry-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and meeting the PA guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention (420 min/week of MVPA). Results Most perceived neighborhood attributes were positively associated with the PA outcomes in the pooled, site-adjusted, single-predictor models. Associations were generalizable across geographical locations. Aesthetics and land use mix – access were significant predictors of both PA outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. Environmental attributes accounted for within-site variability in MVPA corresponding to a 3 min/d or 21 min/week standard deviation. Large between-site differences in PA outcomes were observed: 15.9% to 16.8% of these differences were explained by perceived environmental attributes. All neighborhood attributes were associated with between-site differences in the total effects of the perceived environment on PA outcomes. Conclusions Residents’ perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines

  17. Interpretation of Spectrometric Measurements of Active Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, D.; Wade, G.

    2014-09-01

    Over 5000 visible near-infrared (VNIR) spectrometric measurements of active geostationary satellites have been collected with the National Research Council (NRC) 1.8m Plaskett telescope located at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria, Canada. The objective of this ongoing experiment is to study how reflectance spectroscopy can be used to reliably identify specific material types on the surface of artificial Earth-orbiting objects. Active geostationary satellites were selected as the main subjects for this experiment since their orientation is stable and can be estimated to a high-level of confidence throughout a night of observation. Furthermore, for most geostationary satellites, there is a wide variety of sources that can provide some level of information as to their external surface composition. Notwithstanding the high number of measurements that have been collected to date, it was assumed that the experimenters would have a much greater success rate in material identification given the choice experimental subjects. To date, only the presence of aluminum has been confidently identified in some of the reflectance spectra that have been collected. Two additional material types, namely photovoltaic cells and polyimide film, the first layer of multi-layer insulation (MLI), have also been possibly identified. However uncertainties in the reduced spectral measurements prevent any definitive conclusion with respect to these materials at this time. The surprising lack of results with respect to material identification have forced the experimenters to use other data interpretation methods to characterize the spectral scattering characteristics of the studied satellites. The results from this study have already led to improvements in the ways that reflectance spectra from spacecraft are collected and analysed. Equally important, the data interpretation techniques elaborated over the course of this experiment will also serve to increase the body of

  18. Microelectrode Measurements of the Activity Distribution in Nitrifying Bacterial Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, D.; van den Heuvel, J. C.; Ottengraf, S. P. P.

    1993-01-01

    Microelectrodes for ammonium, oxygen, nitrate, and pH were used to study nitrifying aggregates grown in a fluidized-bed reactor. Local reactant fluxes and distribution of microbial activity could be determined from the microprofiles. The interfacial fluxes of the reactants closely reflected the stoichiometry of bacterial nitrification. Both ammonium consumption and nitrate production were localized in the outer shells, with a thickness of approximately 100 to 120 μm, of the aggregates. Under conditions in which ammonium and oxygen penetrated the whole aggregate, nitrification was restricted to this zone; oxygen was consumed in the central parts of the aggregates as well, probably because of oxidation of dead biomass. A sudden increase of the oxygen concentration to saturation (pure oxygen) was inhibitory to nitrification. The pH profiles showed acidification in the aggregates, but not to an inhibitory level. The distribution of activity was determined by the penetration depth of oxygen during aggregate development in the reactor. Mass transfer was significantly limited by the boundary layer surrounding the aggregates. Microelectrode measurements showed that the thickness of this layer was correlated with the diffusion coefficient of the species. Determination of the distribution of nitrifying activity required the use of ammonium or nitrate microelectrodes, whereas the use of oxygen microelectrodes alone would lead to erroneous results. Images PMID:16348875

  19. Copper activation deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J.; Styron, J. D.; Ruiz, C. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Chandler, G. A.; Hahn, K. D.; Torres, J. A.; Smelser, R. M.; McWatters, B. R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Yeamans, C. B.; Knittel, K. M.; Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2012-10-15

    A DT neutron yield diagnostic based on the reactions, {sup 63}Cu(n,2n){sup 62}Cu({beta}{sup +}) and {sup 65}Cu(n,2n) {sup 64} Cu({beta}{sup +}), has been fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The induced copper activity is measured using a NaI {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence system. Uncertainties in the 14-MeV DT yield measurements are on the order of 7% to 8%. In addition to measuring yield, the ratio of activities induced in two, well-separated copper samples are used to measure the relative anisotropy of the fuel {rho}R to uncertainties as low as 5%.

  20. Moisture measurement for high-level-waste tanks using copper activation probe in cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Reeves, J.H.; Wilson, W.E.

    1995-10-01

    Laboratory tests have established the feasibility of using neutron activation of copper as a means for measuring the moisture in Hanford`s high-level radioactive waste tanks. The performance of the neutron activation technique to measure moisture is equivalent to the neutron moisture gauges or neutron logs commonly used in commercial well-logging. The principle difference is that the activation of {sup 64}Cu (t{sub 1/2} = 12.7 h) replaces the neutron counters used in moisture gauges or neutron logs. For application to highly radioactive waste tanks, the Cu activation technique has the advantage that it is insensitive to very strong gamma radiation fields or high temperatures. In addition, this technique can be deployed through tortuous paths or in confined spaces such as within the bore of a cone penetrometer. However, the results are not available in ``real-time``. The copper probe`s sensitivity to moisture was measured using simulated tank waste of known moisture content. This report describes the preparation of the simulated waste mixtures and the experiments performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the neutron activation technique. These experiments included determination of the calibration curve of count rate versus moisture content using a single copper probe, measurement of the calibration curve based on ``near-field `` to ``far-field`` counting ratios using a multiple probe technique, and profiling the activity of the copper probe as a function of the vertical height within a simulated waste barrel.

  1. Biological aerosol detection with combined passive-active infrared measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifarraguerri, Agustin I.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Ben-David, Avishai

    2004-12-01

    A data collection experiment was performed in November of 2003 to measure aerosol signatures using multiple sensors, all operating in the long-wave infrared. The purpose of this data collection experiment was to determine whether combining passive hyperspectral and LIDAR measurements can substantially improve biological aerosol detection performance. Controlled releases of dry aerosols, including road dust, egg albumin and two strains of Bacillus Subtilis var. Niger (BG) spores were performed using the ECBC/ARTEMIS open-path aerosol test chamber located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD. The chamber provides a ~ 20' path without optical windows. Ground truth devices included 3 aerodynamic particle sizers, an optical particle size spectrometer, 6 nephelometers and a high-volume particle sampler. Two sensors were used to make measurements during the test: the AIRIS long-wave infrared imaging spectrometer and the FAL CO2 LIDAR. The AIRIS and FAL data sets were analyzed for detection performance relative to the ground truth. In this paper we present experimental results from the individual sensors as well as results from passive-active sensor fusion. The sensor performance is presented in the form of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  2. PARduino: A Simple Device Measuring and Logging Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, H. R.; Findley, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) is one of the primary controls of forest carbon and water relations. In complex terrain, PAR has high spatial-variability. Given the high cost of commercial datalogging equipment, spatially-distributed measurements of PAR have been typically modeled using geographic coordinates and terrain indices. Here, we present a design for a low cost, field-deployable device for measuring and logging PAR built around an Arduino microcontroller (we named it PARduino). PARduino provides for widely distributed sensor arrays and tests the feasibility of using hobbyist-grade electronics for collecting scientific data. PARduino components include a LiCor quantum sensor, EME Systems signal converter/amplifier, and Sparkfun's Arduino Pro Mini microcontroller. Additional components include a real time clock, a microSD flash memory card, and a custom printed circuit board (PCB). We selected the components with an eye towards ease of assembly. Everything can be connected to the PCB using through-hole soldering techniques. Since the device will be deployed in remote research plots that lack easy access to line power, battery life was also a consideration in the design. Extended deployment is possible because PARduino's software keeps it in a low-power sleep mode until ready to make a measurement. PARduino will be open-source hardware for use and improvement by others.

  3. A helium gas scintillator active target for photoreaction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Jebali, Ramsey; Annand, John R. M.; Adler, Jan-Olof; Akkurt, Iskender; Buchanan, Emma; Brudvik, Jason; Fissum, Kevin; Gardner, Simon; Hamilton, David J.; Hansen, Kurt; Isaksson, Lennart; Livingston, Kenneth; Lundin, Magnus; McGeorge, John C.; MacGregor, Ian J. D.; MacRae, Roderick; Middleton, Duncan G.; Reiter, Andreas J. H.; Rosner, Günther; Schröder, Bent; Sjögren, Johan; Sokhan, Daria; Strandberg, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    A multi-cell He gas scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 g/cm3 at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of N2 to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has a timing resolution of around 1 ns and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in 4He, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response.

  4. Developing Learning Progression-Based Teacher Knowledge Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Shin, HyoJeong; Johnson, Michele E.; Kim, JinHo; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    This study developed learning progression-based measures of science teachers' content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The measures focus on an important topic in secondary science curriculum using scientific reasoning (i.e., tracing matter, tracing energy, and connecting scales) to explain plants gaining weight and…

  5. Shape Measures for Content Based Image Retrieval: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehtre, Babu M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Explores the evaluation of image and multimedia information-retrieval systems, particularly the effectiveness of several shape measures for content-based retrieval of similar images. Shape feature measures, or vectors, are computed automatically and can either be used for retrieval or stored in the database for future queries. (57 references)…

  6. Survey-Based Measurement of Public Management and Policy Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Adam Douglas; Lubell, Mark; McCoy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and…

  7. Measuring Self-Regulation in Computer-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    I provide a summary of the four invited articles in this special issue and compare and contrast different methods for measuring self-regulation in computer-based learning environments (CBLEs). I present a taxonomy that distinguishes between offline and online measures and further distinguishes subcategories within each of these categories. I…

  8. Literature Synthesis on Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayman, Miya Miura; Wallace, Teri; Wiley, Hilda Ives; Ticha, Renata; Espin, Christine A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the research on curriculum-based measurement (CBM) in reading published since the time of Marston's 1989 review. They focus on the technical adequacy of CBM related to measures, materials, and representation of growth. The authors conclude by discussing issues to be addressed in future research, and they raise…

  9. Measuring Disorientation Based on the Needleman-Wunsch Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güyer, Tolga; Atasoy, Bilal; Somyürek, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study offers a new method to measure navigation disorientation in web based systems which is powerful learning medium for distance and open education. The Needleman-Wunsch algorithm is used to measure disorientation in a more precise manner. The process combines theoretical and applied knowledge from two previously distinct research areas,…

  10. [Welding arc temperature field measurements based on Boltzmann spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Si, Hong; Hua, Xue-Ming; Zhang, Wang; Li, Fang; Xiao, Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Arc plasma, as non-uniform plasma, has complicated energy and mass transport processes in its internal, so plasma temperature measurement is of great significance. Compared with absolute spectral line intensity method and standard temperature method, Boltzmann plot measuring is more accurate and convenient. Based on the Boltzmann theory, the present paper calculates the temperature distribution of the plasma and analyzes the principle of lines selection by real time scanning the space of the TIG are measurements. PMID:23240385

  11. Entanglement bound for multipartite pure states based on local measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Lizhen; Chen Xiaoyu; Ye Tianyu

    2011-10-15

    An entanglement bound based on local measurements is introduced for multipartite pure states. It is the upper bound of the geometric measure and the relative entropy of entanglement. It is the lower bound of the minimal-measurement entropy. For pure bipartite states, the bound is equal to the entanglement entropy. The bound is applied to pure tripartite qubit states and the exact tripartite relative entropy of entanglement is obtained for a wide class of states.

  12. Effects of reconstructed magnetic field from sparse noisy boundary measurements on localization of active neural source.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui-min; Lee, Kok-Meng; Hu, Liang; Foong, Shaohui; Fu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Localization of active neural source (ANS) from measurements on head surface is vital in magnetoencephalography. As neuron-generated magnetic fields are extremely weak, significant uncertainties caused by stochastic measurement interference complicate its localization. This paper presents a novel computational method based on reconstructed magnetic field from sparse noisy measurements for enhanced ANS localization by suppressing effects of unrelated noise. In this approach, the magnetic flux density (MFD) in the nearby current-free space outside the head is reconstructed from measurements through formulating the infinite series solution of the Laplace's equation, where boundary condition (BC) integrals over the entire measurements provide "smooth" reconstructed MFD with the decrease in unrelated noise. Using a gradient-based method, reconstructed MFDs with good fidelity are selected for enhanced ANS localization. The reconstruction model, spatial interpolation of BC, parametric equivalent current dipole-based inverse estimation algorithm using reconstruction, and gradient-based selection are detailed and validated. The influences of various source depths and measurement signal-to-noise ratio levels on the estimated ANS location are analyzed numerically and compared with a traditional method (where measurements are directly used), and it was demonstrated that gradient-selected high-fidelity reconstructed data can effectively improve the accuracy of ANS localization. PMID:26358243

  13. THE MEANINGFUL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION ASSESSMENT: A MEASURE OF ENGAGEMENT IN PERSONALLY VALUED ACTIVITIES*

    PubMed Central

    EAKMAN, AARON M.; CARLSON, MIKE E.; CLARK, FLORENCE A.

    2011-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and objective indicators of activity engagement. PMID:20649161

  14. Oscillatory motion based measurement method and sensor for measuring wall shear stress due to fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, William D.; Naughton, Jonathan; Lindberg, William R.

    2008-09-02

    A shear stress sensor for measuring fluid wall shear stress on a test surface is provided. The wall shear stress sensor is comprised of an active sensing surface and a sensor body. An elastic mechanism mounted between the active sensing surface and the sensor body allows movement between the active sensing surface and the sensor body. A driving mechanism forces the shear stress sensor to oscillate. A measuring mechanism measures displacement of the active sensing surface relative to the sensor body. The sensor may be operated under periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor measurably changes the amplitude or phase of the motion of the active sensing surface, or changes the force and power required from a control system in order to maintain constant motion. The device may be operated under non-periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor change the transient motion of the active sensor surface or change the force and power required from a control system to maintain a specified transient motion of the active sensor surface.

  15. Ambulatory measurement of knee motion and physical activity: preliminary evaluation of a smart activity monitor

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, James; Alaiti, Amer; Goldvasser, Dov; Scarborough, Donna; Freiberg, Andrew; Rubash, Harry; Malchau, Henrik; Harris, William; Krebs, David

    2006-01-01

    Background There is currently a paucity of devices available for continuous, long-term monitoring of human joint motion. Non-invasive, inexpensive devices capable of recording human activity and joint motion have many applications for medical research. Such a device could be used to quantify range of motion outside the gait laboratory. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the modified Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) in measuring knee flexion angles, to detect different physical activities, and to quantify how often healthy subjects use deep knee flexion in the ambulatory setting. Methods We compared Biomotion Laboratory (BML) "gold standard" data to simultaneous IDEEA measures of knee motion and gait, step up/down, and stair descent in 5 healthy subjects. In addition, we used a series of choreographed physical activities outside the BML to confirm the IDEEA's ability to accurately measure 7 commonly-performed physical activities. Subjects then continued data collection during ordinary activities outside the gait laboratory. Results Pooled correlations between the BML and IDEEA knee flexion angles were .97 +/- .03 for step up/down, .98 +/- .02 for stair descent, and .98 +/- .01 for gait. In the BML protocol, the IDEEA accurately identified gait, but was less accurate in identifying step up/down and stair descent. During sampling outside the BML, the IDEEA accurately detected walking, running, stair ascent, stair descent, standing, lying, and sitting. On average, subjects flexed their knees >120° for 0.17% of their data collection periods outside the BML. Conclusion The modified IDEEA system is a useful clinical tool for evaluating knee motion and multiple physical activities in the ambulatory setting. These five healthy subjects rarely flexed their knees >120°. PMID:16970818

  16. Dynamic positioning system based on active disturbance rejection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhengling; Guo, Chen; Fan, Yunsheng

    2015-08-01

    A dynamically positioned vessel, by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the certifying class societies (DNV, ABS, LR, etc.), is defined as a vessel that maintains its position and heading (fixed location or pre-determined track) exclusively by means of active thrusters. The development of control technology promotes the upgrading of dynamic positioning (DP) systems. Today there are two different DP systems solutions available on the market: DP system based on PID regulator and that based on model-based control. Both systems have limited disturbance rejection capability due to their design principle. In this paper, a new DP system solution is proposed based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) technology. This technology is composed of Tracking-Differentiator (TD), Extended State Observer (ESO) and Nonlinear Feedback Combination. On one hand, both TD and ESO can act as filters and can be used in place of conventional filters; on the other hand, the total disturbance of the system can be estimated and compensated by ESO, which therefore enhances the system's disturbance rejection capability. This technology's advantages over other methods lie in two aspects: 1) This method itself can not only achieve control objectives but also filter noisy measurements without other specialized filters; 2) This method offers a new useful approach to suppress the ocean disturbance. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Family Measures

    PubMed Central

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Gold, Jeffrey I.; Cutuli, J. J.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Goldbeck, Lutz; Chambers, Christine T.; Abad, Mona; Spetter, Dante; Patterson, Joän

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide a review of the evidence base of family measures relevant to pediatric psychology. Method Twenty-nine family measures were selected based upon endorsement by Division 54 listserv members, expert judgment, and literature review. Spanning observational and self-report methods, the measures fell into three broad assessment categories: Family functioning, Dyadic family relationships, and Family functioning in the context of childhood chronic health conditions. Measures were categorized as: “Well-established”, “Approaching well-established”, or “Promising.” Results Nineteen measures met “well-established” criteria and the remaining ten were “approaching well-established.” “Well-established” measures were documented for each of the broad assessment categories named above. Conclusions Many measures deemed “well-established” in the general population are proving to be reliable and useful in pediatric samples. More evidence of the validity of family measures is needed in this context. This review should prove helpful to clinicians and researchers as they strive to make evidence-based decisions regarding family measures. PMID:17905801

  18. Active steganalysis for histogram-shifting based reversible data hiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Der-Chyuan; Chou, Chao-Lung; Tso, Hao-Kuan; Chiu, Chung-Cheng

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents an innovative active steganalysis algorithm for reversible data hiding schemes based on histogram shifting. These schemes use histogram shifting to embed secret data in cover-images. However, some histogram patterns originating during the embedding procedure may be recognized readily by a steganalyst. The proposed algorithm analyzes the characteristics of histogram changing during the data embedding procedure, and then models these features into reference templates by using a 1 × 4 sliding window. A support vector machine is trained as the classifier for discriminating between cover-images and stego-images by adopting the template matching techniques. The hidden messages located at the histogram peak of the cover-image were further estimated by measuring the feature of adjacent histogram differences. Experimental results indicate that the proposed active steganalysis algorithm can effectively detect stego-images at low bit rates and estimate the hidden messages locations.

  19. In vitro antimicrobial activity of peroxide-based bleaching agents.

    PubMed

    Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; de Oliveira, Rogério; Reis, André Figueiredo; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno; Giannini, Marcelo

    2007-06-01

    Antibacterial activity of 4 commercial bleaching agents (Day White, Colgate Platinum, Whiteness 10% and 16%) on 6 oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus sanguinis, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. A chlorhexidine solution was used as a positive control, while distilled water was the negative control. Bleaching agents and control materials were inserted in sterilized stainless-steel cylinders that were positioned under inoculated agar plate (n = 4). After incubation according to the appropriate period of time for each microorganism, the inhibition zones were measured. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (a = 0.05). All bleaching agents and the chlorhexidine solution produced antibacterial inhibition zones. Antimicrobial activity was dependent on peroxide-based bleaching agents. For most microorganisms evaluated, bleaching agents produced inhibition zones similar to or larger than that observed for chlorhexidine. C albicans, L casei, and L acidophilus were the most resistant microorganisms. PMID:17625621

  20. Measurement of nitrous oxide reductase activity in aquatic sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.; Paulsen, S.

    1986-01-01

    Denitrification in aquatic sediments was measured by an N/sub 2/O reductase assay. Sediments consumed small added quantities of N/sub 2/O over short periods (a few hours). In experiments with sediment slurries, N/sub 2/O reductase activity was inhibited by 0/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, heat treatment, and by high levels of nitrate (1 mM) or sulfide (10 mM). However, ambient levels of nitrate (<100 ..mu..M) did not influence activity, and moderate levels (about 150 ..mu..M) induced only a short lag before reductase activity began. Moderate levels of sulfide (<1 mM) had no effect on N/sub 2/O reductase activity. Nitrous oxide reductase displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in sediments from freshwater, estuarine, and alkaline-saline environments. An in situ assay was devised in which a solution of N/sub 2/O was injected into sealed glass cores containing intact sediment. Two estimates of net rates of denitrification in San Francisco Bay under approximated in situ conditions were 0.009 and 0.041 mmol of N/sub 2/O per m/sup 2/ per h. Addition of chlorate to inhibit denitrification in these intact-core experiments (to estimate gross rates of N/sub 2/O consumption) resulted in approximately a 14% upward revision of estimates of net rates. These results were comparable to an in situ estimate of 0.022 mmol of N/sub 2/O per m/sup 2/ per h made with the acetylene block assay.

  1. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-08-16

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan for the Prototype vertical Denitration Calciner has been developed for this process.

  2. Mapping methane emission sources over California based on airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Guha, A.; Peischl, J.; Misztal, P. K.; Jonsson, H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Ryerson, T. B.

    2011-12-01

    dairy tracer. The elevated CH4 mixing ratios, along the eastern edge of the San Joaquin valley, highlight the contribution of local meteorology, topography and emissions transport to local ambient levels of CH4. High mixing ratios of CH4, along with high levels of benzene and toluene, are observed while flying along the western edge of Kern County which is home to some of the largest active oil fields in the state. The scale of these operations and their contribution of < 3% to the state CH4 inventory suggest there is a likelihood of under-estimation of fugitive emissions from oil and gas extraction processes. VOC tracer analysis is used to evaluate the source of high CH4 emissions encountered along the eastern edge of the central Sacramento valley where fugitive emissions from natural gas fields and cultivation of rice are likely sources. Enhancement ratios of CH4 to CO2 and other VOC tracers are compared to existing emission factors from ground based measurements, dairy chamber studies, previous airplane measurements and inventory data.

  3. Interrelations of graph distance measures based on topological indices.

    PubMed

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Shi, Yongtang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we derive interrelations of graph distance measures by means of inequalities. For this investigation we are using graph distance measures based on topological indices that have not been studied in this context. Specifically, we are using the well-known Wiener index, Randić index, eigenvalue-based quantities and graph entropies. In addition to this analysis, we present results from numerical studies exploring various properties of the measures and aspects of their quality. Our results could find application in chemoinformatics and computational biology where the structural investigation of chemical components and gene networks is currently of great interest. PMID:24759679

  4. Interrelations of Graph Distance Measures Based on Topological Indices

    PubMed Central

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Shi, Yongtang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we derive interrelations of graph distance measures by means of inequalities. For this investigation we are using graph distance measures based on topological indices that have not been studied in this context. Specifically, we are using the well-known Wiener index, Randić index, eigenvalue-based quantities and graph entropies. In addition to this analysis, we present results from numerical studies exploring various properties of the measures and aspects of their quality. Our results could find application in chemoinformatics and computational biology where the structural investigation of chemical components and gene networks is currently of great interest. PMID:24759679

  5. Dental pulp vitality measurement based on multiwavelength photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkela, Ville; Kopola, Harri K.; Oikarinen, Kyosti; Herrala, Esko

    1995-01-01

    Observation of the intradental blood supply is important in cases of dental trauma, but difficult. As the methods used by dentists to measure pulp vitality are not very reliable, a dental pulp vitalometer based on fiberoptic reflectance measurement and measurement of the absorption of blood has been designed and built. In addition to the fiber optic probe and reflectance sensor electronics, the vitalometer includes a data acquisition card, a PC and data processing programs. The thick dentin and enamel layers and the small amount of blood in a tooth are major problems for optical measurement of its vitality, and scattered light from the enamel and the dentin surrounding the pulpa also causes a problem in measurements based on reflectance. These problems are assessed here by means of theoretical models and calculations. The advantage of reflectance measurement is that only one probe is used, which is easy to put against the tooth. Thus measurements are simple to make. Three wavelengths (560 nm, 650 nm, 850 nm) are used to measure photoplethysmographic signals, and these should allow the oxygen saturation of the blood in a tooth to be measured as well in the future. Series of measurements have been performed on vital and non-vital teeth by recording photoplethysmographic signals, using the vitalometer and using a commercial laser-Doppler instrument. Verifications of the laser-Doppler and vitalometer results are presented and deduced here.

  6. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (P<0.001), five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002), daily steps (P=0.003), and MV-PA (P=0.022) compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001) and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014) in the COPD group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion Impairments in balance and reductions in physical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity. PMID:27445470

  7. A review of physical activity measures used among U.S. Latinos: Guidelines for developing culturally appropriate measures

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Suzanna M.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Elder, John

    2013-01-01

    As the U.S. population continues to grow and diversify, there is a need for progressive physical activity measurement and cross-cultural research. Studies suggest that U.S.-Latinos are among the most sedentary of ethnic groups compared to others; however, study findings may be biased given that some measures may not be culturally sensitive for assessing behaviors that are not characterized as leisure time physical activity. The primary objective of this review was to identify and evaluate measures used to quantify physical activity among U.S. Latinos. A review of the literature was performed and studies examining levels of physical activity among Spanish and English speaking Latinos were documented. This process involved identifying existing guidelines for the purpose of culturally adapting and/or translating [into Spanish] physical activity measures for the Latino population. These guidelines were used as the minimal criteria for the evaluation of the 13 identified measures of physical activity. Of these 13 measures, four were available in English and nine were available in Spanish. One English measure met the guidelines for being culturally adapted for assessing physical activity among Latinos. There were no Spanish measures that met all the guidelines for physical activity assessment among Spanish speaking Latinos. Lastly, the identified guidelines for developing culturally appropriate measures were improved to advance physical activity measurement among ethnic and cultural groups. Future research should merit the use of culturally appropriate guidelines to increase the understanding of physical activity patterns in the U.S. PMID:18855091

  8. Functional Status Assessment of Patients With COPD: A Systematic Review of Performance-Based Measures and Patient-Reported Measures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Li, Honghe; Ding, Ning; Wang, Ningning; Wen, Deliang

    2016-05-01

    Presently, there is no recommendation on how to assess functional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study aimed to summarize and systematically evaluate these measures.Studies on measures of COPD patients' functional status published before the end of January 2015 were included using a search filters in PubMed and Web of Science, screening reference lists of all included studies, and cross-checking against some relevant reviews. After title, abstract, and main text screening, the remaining was appraised using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) 4-point checklist. All measures from these studies were rated according to best-evidence synthesis and the best-rated measures were selected.A total of 6447 records were found and 102 studies were reviewed, suggesting 44 performance-based measures and 14 patient-reported measures. The majority of the studies focused on internal consistency, reliability, and hypothesis testing, but only 21% of them employed good or excellent methodology. Their common weaknesses include lack of checks for unidimensionality, inadequate sample sizes, no prior hypotheses, and improper methods. On average, patient-reported measures perform better than performance-based measures. The best-rated patient-reported measures are functional performance inventory (FPI), functional performance inventory short form (FPI-SF), living with COPD questionnaire (LCOPD), COPD activity rating scale (CARS), University of Cincinnati dyspnea questionnaire (UCDQ), shortness of breath with daily activities (SOBDA), and short-form pulmonary functional status scale (PFSS-11), and the best-rated performance-based measures are exercise testing: 6-minute walk test (6MWT), endurance treadmill test, and usual 4-meter gait speed (usual 4MGS).Further research is needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of performance-based measures since present studies failed to provide convincing

  9. Development of Portable Beta Spectrometer for Sr-90 Activity Measurements in Field Conditions and Its Application in Rehabilitation Activities at RRC Kurchatov Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, V.N.; Volkovich, A.G.; Ivanov, O.P.; Stepanov, V.E.; Smirnov, S.V.; Volkov, V.G.

    2006-07-01

    A new method to measure the Sr-90 ground specific activity in situ was developed. It is based on the count-rates determination in selected energy ranges of two registered apparatus spectra: total {beta} + {gamma} spectrum and {gamma} spectrum. A numerical simulation of the detector performance defined these energy ranges used for calculation of activity. For implementation of the proposed method a portable instrument was developed and manufactured. Parameters of the instrument are the following: the range of measurement for a specific activity mode - (60 - 3.0x10{sup 6}) Bq/kg; the range for total activity countable mode (0.5 - 2.0x10{sup 4}) Bq; minimum measurable specific activity Sr-90 for samples containing natural radionuclides - 60 Bq/kg, minimum measurable activity for samples not containing NRN - 0.5 Bq. (authors)

  10. Screw thread parameter measurement system based on image processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Zhimin; Huang, Kanggao; Mao, Jiandong; Zhang, Yaya; Zhang, Fan

    2013-08-01

    In the industrial production, as an important transmission part, the screw thread is applied extensively in many automation equipments. The traditional measurement methods of screw thread parameter, including integrated test methods of multiparameters and the single parameter measurement method, belong to contact measurement method. In practical the contact measurement exists some disadvantages, such as relatively high time cost, introducing easily human error and causing thread damage. In this paper, as a new kind of real-time and non-contact measurement method, a screw thread parameter measurement system based on image processing method is developed to accurately measure the outside diameter, inside diameter, pitch diameter, pitch, thread height and other parameters of screw thread. In the system the industrial camera is employed to acquire the image of screw thread, some image processing methods are used to obtain the image profile of screw thread and a mathematics model is established to compute the parameters. The C++Builder 6.0 is employed as the software development platform to realize the image process and computation of screw thread parameters. For verifying the feasibility of the measurement system, some experiments were carried out and the measurement errors were analyzed. The experiment results show the image measurement system satisfies the measurement requirements and suitable for real-time detection of screw thread parameters mentioned above. Comparing with the traditional methods the system based on image processing method has some advantages, such as, non-contact, easy operation, high measuring accuracy, no work piece damage, fast error analysis and so on. In the industrial production, this measurement system can provide an important reference value for development of similar parameter measurement system.

  11. Creating Stimulating Learning and Thinking Using New Models of Activity-Based Learning and Metacognitive-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a novel way to stimulate learning, creativity, and thinking based on a new understanding of activity-based learning (ABL) and two methods for developing metacognitive-based activities for the classroom. ABL, in this model, is based on the premise that teachers are distillers and facilitators of information…

  12. Sensitivity evaluation of dynamic speckle activity measurements using clustering methods

    SciTech Connect

    Etchepareborda, Pablo; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.

    2010-07-01

    We evaluate and compare the use of competitive neural networks, self-organizing maps, the expectation-maximization algorithm, K-means, and fuzzy C-means techniques as partitional clustering methods, when the sensitivity of the activity measurement of dynamic speckle images needs to be improved. The temporal history of the acquired intensity generated by each pixel is analyzed in a wavelet decomposition framework, and it is shown that the mean energy of its corresponding wavelet coefficients provides a suited feature space for clustering purposes. The sensitivity obtained by using the evaluated clustering techniques is also compared with the well-known methods of Konishi-Fujii, weighted generalized differences, and wavelet entropy. The performance of the partitional clustering approach is evaluated using simulated dynamic speckle patterns and also experimental data.

  13. Performance on indirect measures of race evaluation predicts amygdala activation.

    PubMed

    Phelps, E A; O'Connor, K J; Cunningham, W A; Funayama, E S; Gatenby, J C; Gore, J C; Banaji, M R

    2000-09-01

    We used fMRI to explore the neural substrates involved in the unconscious evaluation of Black and White social groups. Specifically, we focused on the amygdala, a subcortical structure known to play a role in emotional learning and evaluation. In Experiment 1, White American subjects observed faces of unfamiliar Black and White males. The strength of amygdala activation to Black-versus-White faces was correlated with two indirect (unconscious) measures of race evaluation (Implicit Association Test [IAT] and potentiated startle), but not with the direct (conscious) expression of race attitudes. In Experiment 2, these patterns were not obtained when the stimulus faces belonged to familiar and positively regarded Black and White individuals. Together, these results suggest that amygdala and behavioral responses to Black-versus-White faces in White subjects reflect cultural evaluations of social groups modified by individual experience. PMID:11054916

  14. Association of proximity and density of parks and objectively measured physical activity in the United States: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Carolyn; Joshi, Spruha; Rundle, Andrew; Hutson, Malo; Chong, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher C; Genkinger, Jeanine; Neckerman, Kathryn; Lovasi, Gina

    2015-08-01

    One strategy for increasing physical activity is to create and enhance access to park space. We assessed the literature on the relationship of parks and objectively measured physical activity in population-based studies in the United States (US) and identified limitations in current built environment and physical activity measurement and reporting. Five English-language scholarly databases were queried using standardized search terms. Abstracts were screened for the following inclusion criteria: 1) published between January 1990 and June 2013; 2) US-based with a sample size greater than 100 individuals; 3) included built environment measures related to parks or trails; and 4) included objectively measured physical activity as an outcome. Following initial screening for inclusion by two independent raters, articles were abstracted into a database. Of 10,949 abstracts screened, 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Five articles reported a significant positive association between parks and physical activity. Nine studies found no association, and six studies had mixed findings. Our review found that even among studies with objectively measured physical activity, the association between access to parks and physical activity varied between studies, possibly due to heterogeneity of exposure measurement. Self-reported (vs. independently-measured) neighborhood park environment characteristics and smaller (vs. larger) buffer sizes were more predictive of physical activity. We recommend strategies for further research, employing standardized reporting and innovative study designs to better understand the relationship of parks and physical activity. PMID:26043433

  15. Biocidal activity of some Mannich base cationic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Negm, Nabel A; Morsy, Salwa M I; Said, Medhat M

    2005-11-01

    A novel series of cationic surfactants was prepared based on Mannich base (produced from the condensation of piperidine and/or morpholine as secondary amine and paraformaldehyde in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline). The chemical structures of the synthesized cationic surfactants were confirmed using elemental analyses, FTIR spectroscopy and 1H NMR. Surface activities of the prepared surfactants were measured including: surface tension (gamma), critical micelle concentration (CMC), effectiveness (pi(CMC)), efficiency (Pc20), maximum surface excess (Gamma(max)), minimum surface area (A(min)), interfacial tension (gamma(IT)), emulsification power and foaming power at 25 degrees C. The structural influences on their surface activities and adsorption free energy were discussed. The synthesized cationic surfactants were evaluated for their biocidal activity towards Gram +ve bacteria (Staph. Cocu., Bacillus), Gram -ve bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli), fungi (A. terrus., A. flav.) and yeast (Candida) at 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0mg/mL, respectively. The target compounds showed good inhibition towards Gram +ve bacteria, Gram -ve bacteria and yeast. Meanwhile, excellent fungicidal results were obtained against the various types of fungi under investigation. PMID:16154748

  16. Measuring Chitinase and Protease Activity in Cultures of Fungal Entomopathogens.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Peter; Glare, Travis R; Rostás, Michael; Haines, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi produce a variety of destructive enzymes and metabolites to overcome the unique defense mechanisms of insects. In a first step, fungal chitinases and proteinases need to break down the insect's cuticle. Both enzyme classes support the infection process by weakening the chitin barrier and by producing nutritional cleavage products for the fungus. In a second step, the pathogen can now mechanically penetrate the weakened cuticle and reach the insect's hemolymph where it starts proliferating. The critical enzymes chitinase and proteinase are also excreted into the supernatants of fungal cultures and can be used as indicators of virulence. Chromogenic assays adapted for 96-well microtiter plates that measure these enzymes provide a sensitive, fast, and easy screening method for evaluating the potential biocontrol activity of fungal isolates and may be considered as an alternative to laborious and time-consuming bioassays. Furthermore, monitoring fungal enzyme production in dependence of time, nutrient sources, or other factors can facilitate in establishing optimal growth and harvesting conditions for selected isolates with the aim of achieving maximum biocontrol activity. PMID:27565500

  17. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Is Associated with Brain Volumetric Measurements in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Hubbard, Elizabeth A.; Motl, Robert W.; Pilutti, Lara A.; Wetter, Nathan C.; Sutton, Bradley P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Little is known about physical activity and its association with volumes of whole brain gray matter and white matter and deep gray matter structures in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Purpose. This study examined the association between levels of physical activity and brain volumetric measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in MS. Method. 39 persons with MS wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period and underwent a brain MRI. Normalized GM volume (NGMV), normalized WM volume (NWMV), and deep GM structures were calculated from 3D T1-weighted structural brain images. We conducted partial correlations (pr) controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Results. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significantly associated with NGMV (pr = 0.370, p < 0.05), NWMV (pr = 0.433, p < 0.01), hippocampus (pr = 0.499, p < 0.01), thalamus (pr = 0.380, p < 0.05), caudate (pr = 0.539, p < 0.01), putamen (pr = 0.369, p < 0.05), and pallidum (pr = 0.498, p < 0.01) volumes, when controlling for sex, age, clinical course of MS, and Expanded Disability Status Scale score. There were no associations between sedentary and light physical activity with MRI outcomes. Conclusion. Our results provide the first evidence that MVPA is associated with volumes of whole brain GM and WM and deep GM structures that are involved in motor and cognitive functions in MS. PMID:26146460

  18. USING A DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURE AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS IN AN ACTIVE REGION CORE TO TEST A STEADY HEATING MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Schmelz, Joan T.; Warren, Harry P.; Saar, Steve H.; Kashyap, Vinay L.

    2011-10-10

    The frequency of heating events in the corona is an important constraint on the coronal heating mechanisms. Observations indicate that the intensities and velocities measured in active region cores are effectively steady, suggesting that heating events occur rapidly enough to keep high-temperature active region loops close to equilibrium. In this paper, we couple observations of active region (AR) 10955 made with the X-Ray Telescope and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode to test a simple steady heating model. First we calculate the differential emission measure (DEM) of the apex region of the loops in the active region core. We find the DEM to be broad and peaked around 3 MK. We then determine the densities in the corresponding footpoint regions. Using potential field extrapolations to approximate the loop lengths and the density-sensitive line ratios to infer the magnitude of the heating, we build a steady heating model for the active region core and find that we can match the general properties of the observed DEM for the temperature range of 6.3 < log T < 6.7. This model, for the first time, accounts for the base pressure, loop length, and distribution of apex temperatures of the core loops. We find that the density-sensitive spectral line intensities and the bulk of the hot emission in the active region core are consistent with steady heating. We also find, however, that the steady heating model cannot address the emission observed at lower temperatures. This emission may be due to foreground or background structures, or may indicate that the heating in the core is more complicated. Different heating scenarios must be tested to determine if they have the same level of agreement.

  19. New Measurements of Activation Volume in Olvine Under Anhydrous Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, W.; Mei, S; Kohlstedt, D; Wang, L; Dixon, N

    2009-01-01

    A new cell assembly for the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) shows promise for limiting the water content of samples and providing a more mechanically stable environment for deformation. The 6-mm cubic cell consists of a 6-mm diameter mullite sphere cradled in a web of unfired pyrophyllite. The pyrophyllite flows during initial compression of the D-DIA to form gaskets between the six anvils while the mullite flows to become a nearly cubic-shaped pressure medium. Measurements on olivine indicate more than one order of magnitude drop in water content to <40 ppm H/Si compared with the boron-epoxy medium. Improved mechanical stability is achieved by elimination of the thermocouple from the assembly and determination of temperature from calibration curves of furnace power vs. temperature. Three samples of polycrystalline orthopyroxene-buffer San Carlos olivine have been deformed in high-temperature creep in the new cell, at pressures of 2.7-4.9 GPa and temperatures near 1473 K. Strength is consistent with that measured in the gas-apparatus at lower pressures. Over the pressure range investigated we resolve an activation volume for creep of dry olivine of V* = 9.5 {+-} 7 x 10-6 m3/mol.

  20. Active region emission measure distributions and implications for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect

    Cargill, P. J.

    2014-03-20

    The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of active regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ∼ T{sup a} below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (T{sub N} ) and the distribution of nanoflare energies. If T{sub N} is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the distribution of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly distributed, or a power law. Power law distributions where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, T{sub N} must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.

  1. NASA's Potential Contributions to Avalanche Forecasting Using Active and Passive Microwave Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution is based on using active and passive microwave measurements acquired from NASA satellites to improve USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) Forest Service forecasting of avalanche danger. Regional Avalanche Centers prepare avalanche forecasts using ground measurements of snowpack and mountain weather conditions. In this Solution, range of the in situ observations is extended by adding remote sensing measurements of snow depth, snow water equivalent, and snowfall rate acquired by satellite missions that include Aqua, CloudSat, future GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), and the proposed SCLP (Snow and Cold Land Processes). Measurements of snowpack conditions and time evolution are improved by combining the in situ and satellite observations with a snow model. Recurring snow observations from NASA satellites increase accuracy of avalanche forecasting, which helps the public and the managers of public facilities make better avalanche safety decisions.

  2. Actively stabilized optical fiber interferometry technique for online/in-process surface measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Kaiwei; Martin, Haydn; Jiang Xiangqian

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, we report the recent progress in optical-beam scanning fiber interferometry for potential online nanoscale surface measurement based on the previous research. It attempts to generate a robust and miniature measurement device for future development into a multiprobe array measurement system. In this research, both fiber-optic-interferometry and the wavelength-division-multiplexing techniques have been used, so that the optical probe and the optical interferometer are well spaced and fast surface scanning can be carried out, allowing flexibility for online measurement. In addition, this system provides a self-reference signal to stabilize the optical detection with high common-mode noise suppression by adopting an active phase tracking and stabilization technique. Low-frequency noise was significantly reduced compared with unstabilized result. The measurement of a sample surface shows an attained repeatability of 3.3 nm.

  3. Comparison between measured and predicted resting metabolic rate in moderately active adolescents.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo A; Bertini, I; Puijia, A; Testolin, G; Testolin, C

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to check the validity of predictive equations for the calculation of resting metabolic rate (RMR) in moderately active adolescents. The RMR was measured in a sample of 25 healthy 15.5-18.2-year-old boys practicing soccer. The RMR was assessed by indirect calorimetry for 30 min following an overnight fast. Body composition was estimated from skinfold thickness measurements. Among the available equations to predict RMR, we decided to use those a of Molnar et al., Harris-Benedict, Schofield, and Cunningham. Measured and predicted values were compared by means of a one-way ANOVA. Also the Bland-Altman test was performed in order to evaluate the accuracy of the prediction equations compared to the measured value. The measured RMR was found to be 1834 +/- 160 kcal/day (mean +/- SD), while the Molnar et al., Schofield, Harris-Benedict, and Cunningham predicted values were 1707 +/- 78, 1866 +/- 89, 1779 +/- 84 and 1830 +/- 87 kcal/day, respectively. On average, compared to the measured values only the Molnar et al. equation differed significantly. On an individual basis, all the equations demonstrated considerable variability between measured and predicted RMRs. The predicted values also differed significantly. As regards the moderately active subjects (16-18 years old), we recommend the use of the Schofield equation, based on simple anthropometric parameters and also that of Cunningham, even if the estimation or measurement of fat-free mass may be cumbersome for everyday pediatric use. PMID:10664318

  4. A Set of Activity-Based Probes to Visualize Human (Immuno)proteasome Activities.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Gerjan; Xin, Bo Tao; Kraus, Marianne; van der Stelt, Mario; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; Kisselev, Alexei F; Driessen, Christoph; Florea, Bogdan I; Overkleeft, Herman S

    2016-03-18

    Proteasomes are therapeutic targets for various cancers and autoimmune diseases. Constitutively expressed proteasomes have three active sites, β1c, β2c, and β5c. Lymphoid tissues also express the immunoproteasome subunits β1i, β2i, and β5i. Rapid and simultaneous measurement of the activity of these catalytic subunits would assist in the discovery of new inhibitors, improve analysis of proteasome inhibitors in clinical trials, and simplify analysis of subunit expression. In this work, we present a cocktail of activity-based probes that enables simultaneous gel-based detection of all six catalytic human proteasome subunits. We used this cocktail to develop specific inhibitors for β1c, β2c, β5c, and β2i, to compare the active-site specificity of clinical proteasome inhibitors, and to demonstrate that many hematologic malignancies predominantly express immunoproteasomes. Furthermore, we show that selective and complete inhibition of β5i and β1i is cytotoxic to primary cells from acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patients. PMID:26511210

  5. Synchronization-based approach for detecting functional activation of brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Lei; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhang, Jie; Zhuo, Zhao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Zhou, Pei-Ling

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a synchronization-based, data-driven clustering approach for the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, and specifically for detecting functional activation from fMRI data. We first define a new measure of similarity between all pairs of data points (i.e., time series of voxels) integrating both complete phase synchronization and amplitude correlation. These pairwise similarities are taken as the coupling between a set of Kuramoto oscillators, which in turn evolve according to a nearest-neighbor rule. As the network evolves, similar data points naturally synchronize with each other, and distinct clusters will emerge. The clustering behavior of the interaction network of the coupled oscillators, therefore, mirrors the clustering property of the original multiple time series. The clustered regions whose cross-correlation coefficients are much greater than other regions are considered as the functionally activated brain regions. The analysis of fMRI data in auditory and visual areas shows that the recognized brain functional activations are in complete correspondence with those from the general linear model of statistical parametric mapping, but with a significantly lower time complexity. We further compare our results with those from traditional K-means approach, and find that our new clustering approach can distinguish between different response patterns more accurately and efficiently than the K-means approach, and therefore more suitable in detecting functional activation from event-related experimental fMRI data.

  6. Steering knuckle diameter measurement based on optical 3D scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Li-mei; Li, Da-peng; Chang, Yu-lan; Xi, Jiang-tao; Guo, Qing-hua

    2014-11-01

    To achieve accurate measurements, the creating a fitting hole for internal diameter (CFHID) measurement method and the establishing multi-sectional curve for external diameter (EMCED) measurement method are proposed in this paper, which are based on computer vision principle and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. The methods are able to highlight the 3D characteristics of the scanned object and to achieve the accurate measurement of 3D data. It can create favorable conditions for realizing the reverse design and 3D reconstruction of scanned object. These methods can also be applied to dangerous work environment or the occasion that traditional contact measurement can not meet the demands, and they can improve the security in measurement.

  7. Measurement matrix optimization method based on matrix orthogonal similarity transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jinfeng

    2016-05-01

    Optimization of the measurement matrix is one of the important research aspects of compressive sensing theory. A measurement matrix optimization method is presented based on the orthogonal similarity transformation of the information operator's Gram matrix. In terms of the fact that the information operator's Gram matrix is a singular symmetric matrix, a simplified orthogonal similarity transformation is deduced, and thus the simplified diagonal matrix that is orthogonally similar to it is obtained. Then an approximation of the Gram matrix is obtained by letting all the nonzero diagonal entries of the simplified diagonal matrix equal their average value. Thus an optimized measurement matrix can be acquired according to its relationship with the information operator. Results of experiments show that the optimized measurement matrix compared to the random measurement matrix is less coherent with dictionaries. The relative signal recovery error also declines when the proposed measurement matrix is utilized.

  8. 24 CFR 92.257 - Faith-based activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Faith-based activities. 92.257... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Project Requirements § 92.257 Faith-based activities. (a) Organizations that are religious or faith-based are eligible, on the same basis as any other organization,...

  9. 24 CFR 585.406 - Faith-based activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Faith-based activities. 585.406... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Administration § 585.406 Faith-based activities. (a) Organizations that are religious or faith-based are eligible, on the same basis as any...

  10. 24 CFR 92.257 - Faith-based activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Faith-based activities. 92.257... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Project Requirements § 92.257 Faith-based activities. (a) Organizations that are religious or faith-based are eligible, on the same basis as any other organization,...

  11. Measuring Enjoyment of Physical Activity in Children: Validation of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to determine the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in elementary school children. The sample consisted of 564 3rd grade students (M age = 8.72 ± .54; 268 male, 296 female) surveyed at the beginning of the fall semester. Results indicated that the PACES displayed good internal consistency and item-total correlations. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a unidimensional factor structure. Scores on the PACES were significantly correlated with task goal orientation (r = .65, p < .01), athletic competence (r = .23, p < .01), physical appearance (r = .20, p < .01), and self-reported physical activity (r = .16, p < .01). However, results of invariance analysis suggested the factor structure is variant across sex. The present findings suggest support for the validity of the PACES as a valid measure of enjoyment of physical activity in children; nevertheless, further research examining the invariance of the factor structure across sex is warranted. PMID:20209028

  12. Demonstration of HNO3 Eddy Flux Measurements at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory Using Active Passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Herndon, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; Nelson, D. D.; Zaragoza, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Fischer, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    Eddy flux measurements of "sticky" molecules have historically proven difficult due to strong interactions with instrument surfaces. A novel approach has been developed to improve these response times, enabling flux measurements of nitric acid (HNO3) and and ammonia (NH3). Deliberate addition of the vapor of perfluorinated acids and bases into a sample stream serves to eject existing surface-bound sample molecules and passivate instrument surfaces. HNO3 response times for an Aerodyne quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS) improve by a factor of 60-fold when actively passivating. This approach was used during field measurements of HNO3 fluxes at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, where an actively passivated inertial inlet at 8 m height yielded HNO3 deposition fluxes of 0.5 - 2 nmol/m2/sec. The dependence of the deposition flux upon urban vs rural outflow is discussed.

  13. A computer vision-based approach for structural displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yunfeng

    2010-04-01

    Along with the incessant advancement in optics, electronics and computer technologies during the last three decades, commercial digital video cameras have experienced a remarkable evolution, and can now be employed to measure complex motions of objects with sufficient accuracy, which render great assistance to structural displacement measurement in civil engineering. This paper proposes a computer vision-based approach for dynamic measurement of structures. One digital camera is used to capture image sequences of planar targets mounted on vibrating structures. The mathematical relationship between image plane and real space is established based on computer vision theory. Then, the structural dynamic displacement at the target locations can be quantified using point reconstruction rules. Compared with other tradition displacement measurement methods using sensors, such as accelerometers, linear-variable-differential-transducers (LVDTs) and global position system (GPS), the proposed approach gives the main advantages of great flexibility, a non-contact working mode and ease of increasing measurement points. To validate, four tests of sinusoidal motion of a point, free vibration of a cantilever beam, wind tunnel test of a cross-section bridge model, and field test of bridge displacement measurement, are performed. Results show that the proposed approach can attain excellent accuracy compared with the analytical ones or the measurements using conventional transducers, and proves to deliver an innovative and low cost solution to structural displacement measurement.

  14. Measurement of chest wall displacement based on terahertz wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Lv, Hao; Jiao, Teng; Lu, Guohua; Li, Sheng; Li, Zhao; Liu, Miao; Jing, Xijing; Wang, Jianqi

    2015-02-01

    Measurement of chest wall displacement is an important approach for measuring mechanics of chest wall, which has considerable significance for assessing respiratory system and diagnosing pulmonary diseases. However, existing optical methods for measuring chest wall displacement are inconvenient for some specific patients such as the female patients and the patients with bandaged chest. In this letter, we proposed a method for measuring chest wall displacement based on terahertz wave and established corresponding mathematic model and set up a terahertz measurement system. The main advantages of this method are that it can measure the chest wall displacement of the subjects without taking off clothes or arranging any markers. To validate this method and assess the performance of the terahertz system, in vitro, the displacement of a water module driven by a linear guide rail was measured by the terahertz system and compared with the actual displacement of the water module. The results showed that the waveforms measured with two methods have a good agreement, and the relative error is less than 5% and sufficiently good for measurement demands. In vivo, the synchronous experiment was performed on five human volunteers with the terahertz system and a respiratory belt transducer. The results demonstrate that this method has good performance and promising prospects for measuring chest wall displacement.

  15. Altazimuth mount based dynamic calibration method for GNSS attitude measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Nan; He, Tao; Sun, Shaohua; Gu, Qing

    2015-02-01

    As the key process to ensure the test accuracy and quality, the dynamic calibration of the GNSS attitude measuring instrument is often embarrassed by the lack of the rigid enough test platform and an accurate enough calibration reference. To solve the problems, a novel dynamic calibration method for GNSS attitude measurement based on altazimuth mount is put forward in this paper. The principle and implementation of this method are presented, and then the feasibility and usability of the method are analyzed in detail involving the applicability of the mount, calibrating precision, calibrating range, base line rigidity and the satellite signal involved factors. Furthermore, to verify and test the method, a confirmatory experiment is carried out with the survey ship GPS attitude measuring instrument, and the experimental results prove that it is a feasible way to the dynamic calibration for GNSS attitude measurement.

  16. Assessment of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure: An Overview of Objective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Andrew P.; Mokhtar, Najat; Byrne, Nuala M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to assess energy expenditure (EE) and estimate physical activity (PA) in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity), and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that PA and EE are different constructs with PA defined as any bodily movement that results in EE and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of PA. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate PA in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of PA and their relationship with EE. The measures discussed include those based on EE or oxygen uptake including DLW, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures. PMID:25988109

  17. Measurement-based reliability prediction methodology. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linn, Linda Shen

    1991-01-01

    In the past, analytical and measurement based models were developed to characterize computer system behavior. An open issue is how these models can be used, if at all, for system design improvement. The issue is addressed here. A combined statistical/analytical approach to use measurements from one environment to model the system failure behavior in a new environment is proposed. A comparison of the predicted results with the actual data from the new environment shows a close correspondence.

  18. Determining Aerodynamic Loads Based on Optical Deformation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Barrows, D. A.; Burner, A. W.; Rhew, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a videogram metric technique for determining aerodynamic loads based on optical elastic deformation measurements. The data reduction methods are developed to extract the normal force and pitching moment from beam deformation data. The axial force is obtained by measuring the axial translational motion of a movable shaft in a spring/bearing device. Proof-of-concept calibration experiments are conducted to assess the accuracy of this optical technique.

  19. Fiber-based lidar for atmospheric water-vapor measurements.

    PubMed

    Little, L M; Papen, G C

    2001-07-20

    The design and evaluation of a prototype fiber-based lidar system for autonomous measurement of atmospheric water vapor are presented. The system components are described, along with current limitations and options for improvement. Atmospheric measurements show good agreement with modeled signal returns from 400 to 1000 m but are limited below 400 m as a result of errors in signal processing caused by violation of the assumptions used in the derivation of the differential absorption lidar equation. PMID:18360367

  20. Cosmetic devices based on active transdermal technologies.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jessica A; Banga, Ajay K

    2015-09-01

    Active transdermal technology, commonly associated with drug delivery, has been used in recent years by the cosmetic industry for the aesthetic restoration of skin and delivery of cosmetic agents. In this article, we provide an overview of the skin's structure, various skin types, skin's self-repair mechanisms that are stimulated from the usage of cosmetic devices and discuss cosmetic applications. Summaries of the most common active transdermal technologies such as microneedles, iontophoresis, sonophoresis, lasers and microdermabrasion will be provided, in relation to the marketed cosmetic devices available that incorporate these technologies. Lastly, we cover combinations of active technologies that allow for more enhanced cosmetic results, and the current limitations of cosmetic devices. PMID:26389853

  1. Developing Respondent Based Multi-Media Measures of Exposure to Sexual Content

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Hennessy, Michal; Jordan, Amy; Chernin, Ariel; Stevens, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Despite the interest in the effects of the media on sexual behavior, there is no single method for assessing exposure to a particular type of media content (e.g., sex). This paper discusses the development of six sexual content exposure measures based on adolescents’ own subjective ratings of the sexual content in titles in 4 media (i.e., television, music, magazines, videogames). We assessed the construct and criterion validity of these measures by examining the associations among each of these measures of exposure to sexual content as well as their associations with adolescents’ sexual activity. Data were collected in summer 2005 through a web-based survey using a quota sample of 547 youth aged 14–16 from the Philadelphia area. Adolescents rated how often they were exposed to specific television shows, magazine titles, etc. on 4-point never to often scales. They also rated the sexual content of those titles on 4-point no sexual content to a lot of sexual content scales. Sexual behavior was measured using an ordered index of lifetime pre-coital and coital sexual activity. The strength of association between exposure to sexual content and sexual activity varied by medium and measure. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of a multiple media weighted sum measure. This measure produces findings that are consistent with those of similar studies. PMID:20411048

  2. Ground-based lidar for atmospheric boundary layer ozone measurements.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-05-20

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than ±10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures. PMID:23736241

  3. A component based software framework for vision measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lingsong; Bei, Lei

    2011-12-01

    In vision measurement applications, it is usually used to achieve an optimal result by combing different processing steps and algorithms .This paper proposes a component based software framework for vision measurement. First, commonly used processing algorithms of vision measurement are encapsulated into components that contained in a components library. The component which is designed to have its own properties also provides I/O interfaces for extern calls. Second, a software bus is proposed which can plug components and assemble them to form a vision measurement application. Besides components managing and data line linking, the software bus also provides service of message distribution, which is used to drive all the plugged components working properly. Third, a XML based script language is proposed to record the plugging and assembling process of a vision measurement application, which can be used to rebuild the vision measurement application later. At last, based on this framework, an application of landmark extraction that applied in camera calibration is introduced to show how it works.

  4. Ground-Based Lidar for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Ozone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J.; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than 10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

  5. Passive detector for measurement of the implanted (sup 210)Po activity in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesen, G.; Uyttenhove, J.; Poffijn, A.; van Laere, K.; Buysse, J.

    1994-08-01

    It is a well known fact that radon is the most important factor in the natural radiation background. For complete dose calculations we need information about the radon concentration up to 25 years ago. As suggested by C. Samuelsson et al. in 1988, the activity of the implanted radon daughter (sup 210)Po can be used to reconstruct the radon activity over the past decades. For large scale surveys in dwellings a passive detector based on polycarbonate foils has been investigated. This system has a sufficient sensitivity to detect (sup 210)Po levels down to 1 Bq/m(sup 2) with a 6 month measuring period.

  6. Measurement of residual 152Eu activity induced by atomic bomb neutrons in Nagasaki and the contribution of environmental neutrons to this activity.

    PubMed

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takada, Jun; Ishikawa, Masayori; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi; Oka, Takamitsu; Fujita, Shoichiro; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Yamashita, Tomoaki; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2003-06-01

    Residual 152Eu activities induced by neutrons from the Nagasaki atomic bomb were measured for nine mineral samples located up to 1,061 m in the slant range and one control sample at 2,850 m from the hypocenter. A chemical separation to prepare europium-enriched samples was performed for all samples, and gamma ray measurements were carried out with a low background well-type germanium detector. In this paper, the measured specific activities of 152Eu are compared with activation calculations based on the DS86 neutron fluence and the 93Rev one. The calculated-to-measured ratios are also compared with those of 60Co and 36Cl. The present results indicate that the measurements agree to the calculation within a factor of three as observed in the nuclear tests at Nevada. The activation level of environmental neutrons and the detection limit for 152Eu are also discussed. PMID:13678342

  7. Improved Fission Neutron Data Base for Active Interrogation of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, Sara; Czirr, J. Bart; Haight, Robert; Kovash, Michael; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2013-11-06

    This project will develop an innovative neutron detection system for active interrogation measurements. Many active interrogation methods to detect fissionable material are based on the detection of neutrons from fission induced by fast neutrons or high-energy gamma rays. The energy spectrum of the fission neutrons provides data to identify the fissionable isotopes and materials such as shielding between the fissionable material and the detector. The proposed path for the project is as follows. First, the team will develop new neutron detection systems and algorithms by Monte Carlo simulations and bench-top experiments. Next, They will characterize and calibrate detection systems both with monoenergetic and white neutron sources. Finally, high-fidelity measurements of neutron emission from fissions induced by fast neutrons will be performed. Several existing fission chambers containing U-235, Pu-239, U-238, or Th-232 will be used to measure the neutron-induced fission neutron emission spectra. The challenge for making confident measurements is the detection of neutrons in the energy ranges of 0.01 – 1 MeV and above 8 MeV, regions where the basic data on the neutron energy spectrum emitted from fission is least well known. In addition, improvements in the specificity of neutron detectors are required throughout the complete energy range: they must be able to clearly distinguish neutrons from other radiations, in particular gamma rays and cosmic rays. The team believes that all of these challenges can be addressed successfully with emerging technologies under development by this collaboration. In particular, the collaboration will address the area of fission neutron emission spectra for isotopes of interest in the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI).

  8. Measurements of the Effects of Smoke on Active Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1999-02-09

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformably coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 M{Omega}) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the cent acts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray-capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems.

  9. Reliability of Accelerometer Scores for Measuring Sedentary and Physical Activity Behaviors in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Klaren, Rachel E; Hubbard, Elizabeth A; Zhu, Weimo; Motl, Robert W

    2016-04-01

    This brief research note examined the reliability of scores from an accelerometer as measures of sedentary and physical activity behaviors in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). The analysis was performed on a combined data set from 2 previous longitudinal investigations of physical activity in MS. We focused on the number of days required to reliably estimate sedentary behavior, based on time spent in sedentary behavior per day and number of sedentary breaks, number of long sedentary bouts, and average length of sedentary bouts per day. We further examined the number of days required to reliably estimate physical activity behavior, based on time spent in light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and average length of activity bouts per day. Between 4-6 days of monitoring and 3-7 days of monitoring were necessary for good reliability of scores from all sedentary outcomes and physical activity outcomes, respectively. These results should guide research and practice examining sedentary and physical activity behaviors using accelerometry in persons with MS. PMID:27078272

  10. Active Inquiry, Web-based Oceanography Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckels-Martin, Ellen E.; Howell, Paul D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses using web sites to develop active inquiry lessons that mimic some of the tasks and thought processes scientists use everyday. The exercises available at the web sites are designed to develop science process skills and convey basic course content. Exercises stress the interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. (Author/SAH)

  11. Activity Based Astronomy for Primary Science Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginns, Ian

    Print materials in astronomy such as books, journals, charts, and posters are typically the sources of information for teachers and children about the moon, the sun, lunar and solar eclipses, planetary sizes, distances of planets from the sun, planetary atmospheres, and so on. This paper describes and analyzes a number of activities designed to…

  12. Radon Diffusion Measurement in Polyethylene based on Alpha Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, Wolfgang

    2011-04-27

    We present a method to measure the diffusion of Radon in solid materials based on the alpha decay of the radon daughter products. In contrast to usual diffusion measurements which detect the radon that penetrates a thin barrier, we let the radon diffuse into the material and then measure the alpha decays of the radon daughter products in the material. We applied this method to regular and ultra high molecular weight poly ethylene and find diffusion lengths of order of mm as expected. However, the preliminary analysis shows significant differences between two different approaches we have chosen. These differences may be explained by the different experimental conditions.

  13. A Motor Speed Measurement System Based on Hall Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Cheng

    The working principles of Hall sensor has been introduced in this paper. To the defects of traditional methods, it proposed the designing strategy of motor speed measurement system based on single chip microcontroller with integrated chip. The hardware circuits including power module, data processing module and data display module have been described and it focuses on the analysis speed measurement module. The speed data can be obtained through counting impulse signals and displayed on LED. Experience shows that the system have high stability, it can meet the needs of DC motor speed measurement.

  14. Tethered balloon-based measurements of meteorological variables and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentell, R. J.; Storey, R. W.; Chang, J. J. C.; Jacobsen, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tethered balloon based measurements of the vertical distributions of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and aerosol concentrations were taken over a 4-hour period beginning at sunrise on June 29, 1976, at Wallops Island, Virginia. Twelve consecutive profiles of each variable were obtained from ground to about 500 meters. These measurements were in conjuction with a noise propagation study on remotely arrayed acoustic range (ROMAAR) at Wallops Flight Center. An organized listing of these vertical soundings is presented. The tethered balloon system configuration utilized for these measurements is described.

  15. Terahertz spectrum analyzer based on frequency and power measurement.

    PubMed

    Yee, Dae-Su; Jang, Yudong; Kim, Youngchan; Seo, Dae-Cheol

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate a terahertz (THz) spectrum analyzer based on frequency and power measurement. A power spectrum of a continuous THz wave is measured through optical heterodyne detection using an electromagnetic THz frequency comb and a bolometer and power measurement using a bolometer with a calibrated responsivity. The THz spectrum analyzer has a frequency precision of 1x10(-11), a frequency resolution of 1Hz, a frequency band up to 1.7THz, and an optical noise equivalent power of approximately 1 pW/Hz(1/2). PMID:20680048

  16. Description of data base management systems activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    One of the major responsibilities of the JPL Computing and Information Services Office is to develop and maintain a JPL plan for providing computing services to the JPL management and administrative community that will lead to improved productivity. The CISO plan to accomplish this objective has been titled 'Management and Administrative Support Systems' (MASS). The MASS plan is based on the continued use of JPL's IBM 3032 Computer system for administrative computing and for the MASS functions. The current candidate administrative Data Base Management Systems required to support the MASS include ADABASE, Cullinane IDMS and TOTAL. Previous uses of administrative Data Base Systems have been applied to specific local functions rather than in a centralized manner with elements common to the many user groups. Limited capacity data base systems have been installed in microprocessor based office automation systems in a few Project and Management Offices using Ashton-Tate dBASE II. These experiences plus some other localized in house DBMS uses have provided an excellent background for developing user and system requirements for a single DBMS to support the MASS program.

  17. Beam-based alignment measurements of the LANSCE linac

    SciTech Connect

    McCrady, R. C.; Rybarcyk, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    We have made measurements of the alignment of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) Drift Tube linac (DTL) and Side Coupled linac (SCL) using beam position measurements and analyzing them with linear models. In the DTL, we varied the injection steering and focusing lattice strengths, measured the beam position after each DTL tank, and analyzed the data with a linear model using R-matrices that were either computed by the Trace-3D computer program or extracted from analysis of the data. The analysis model allowed for tank-to-tank misalignments. The measurements were made similarly in the SCL, where the analysis model allowed for misalignments of each quadrupole doublet lens. We present here the analysis techniques and the resulting beam-based alignment measurements.

  18. Measuring neuronal branching patterns using model-based approach.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Artur

    2010-01-01

    Neurons have complex branching systems which allow them to communicate with thousands of other neurons. Thus understanding neuronal geometry is clearly important for determining connectivity within the network and how this shapes neuronal function. One of the difficulties in uncovering relationships between neuronal shape and its function is the problem of quantifying complex neuronal geometry. Even by using multiple measures such as: dendritic length, distribution of segments, direction of branches, etc, a description of three dimensional neuronal embedding remains incomplete. To help alleviate this problem, here we propose a new measure, a shape diffusiveness index (SDI), to quantify spatial relations between branches at the local and global scale. It was shown that growth of neuronal trees can be modeled by using diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) process. By measuring "how easy" it is to reproduce the analyzed shape by using the DLA algorithm it can be measured how "diffusive" is that shape. Intuitively, "diffusiveness" measures how tree-like is a given shape. For example shapes like an oak tree will have high values of SDI. This measure is capturing an important feature of dendritic tree geometry, which is difficult to assess with other measures. This approach also presents a paradigm shift from well-defined deterministic measures to model-based measures, which estimate how well a model with specific properties can account for features of analyzed shape. PMID:21079752

  19. Surveying converter lining erosion state based on laser measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongsheng; Shi, Tielin; Yang, Shuzi

    1998-08-01

    It is very important to survey the eroding state of the steelmaking converter lining real time so as to optimize technological process, extend converter durability and reduce steelmaking production costs. This paper gives one practical method based on the laser measure technique. It presents the basic principle of the measure technique. It presents the basic principle of the measure method, the composition of the measure system and the researches on key technological problems. The method is based on the technique of the laser range finding to net points on the surface of the surveyed converter lining, and the technology of angle finding to the laser beams. The angle signals would be used to help realizing the automatic scanning function also. The laser signals would be modulated and encoded. In the meantime, we would adopt the wavelet analysis and other filter algorithms, to denoise noisy data and extract useful information. And the main idea of some algorithms such as the net point measuring path planning and the measure device position optimal algorithm would also be given in order to improve the measure precision and real time property of the system.

  20. Artifacts associated with the measurement of oxidized DNA bases.

    PubMed Central

    Cadet, J; Douki, T; Ravanat, J L

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we review recent aspects of the measurement of oxidized DNA bases, currently a matter of debate. There has long been an interest in the determination of the level of oxidized bases in cellular DNA under both normal and oxidative stress conditions. In this respect, the situation is confusing because variations that may be as large as two orders of magnitude have been reported for the yield of the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua) in similar DNA samples. However, recent findings clearly show that application of several assays like gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and -32P--postlabeling may lead to a significant overestimation of the level of oxidized bases in cellular DNA. In particular, the silylation step, which is required to make the samples volatile for the GC-MS analysis, has been shown to induce oxidation of normal bases at the level of about one oxidized base per 10(4) normal bases. This has been found to be a general process that applies in particular to 8-oxoGua, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroadenine,5-hydroxycytosine, 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil, and 5-formyluracil. Interestingly, prepurification of the oxidized bases from DNA hydrolysate prior to the derivatization reaction prevents artefactual oxidation. Under these conditions, the level of oxidized bases measured by GC-MS is similar to that obtained by HPLC associated with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). It should be added that the level of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2;-deoxyguanosine in control cellular DNA has been found to be about fivefold lower than in earlier HPLC-EC measurements by using appropriate conditions of extraction and enzymatic digestion of DNA. Similar conclusions were reached by measuring formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase sensitive sites as revealed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Images Figure 1. PMID:9349826

  1. A neutron activation technique for manganese measurements in humans.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, C; Byun, S H; Chettle, D R; Inskip, M J; Prestwich, W V

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for humans, animals, and plants and is required for growth, development, and maintenance of health. Studies show that Mn metabolism is similar to that of iron, therefore, increased Mn levels in humans could interfere with the absorption of dietary iron leading to anemia. Also, excess exposure to Mn dust, leads to nervous system disorders similar to Parkinson's disease. Higher exposure to Mn is essentially related to industrial pollution. Thus, there is a benefit in developing a clean non-invasive technique for monitoring such increased levels of Mn in order to understand the risk of disease and development of appropriate treatments. To this end, the feasibility of Mn measurements with their minimum detection limits (MDL) has been reported earlier from the McMaster group. This work presents improvement to Mn assessment using an upgraded system and optimized times of irradiation and counting for induced gamma activity of Mn. The technique utilizes the high proton current Tandetron accelerator producing neutrons via the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction at McMaster University and an array of nine NaI (Tl) detectors in a 4 π geometry for delayed counting of gamma rays. The neutron irradiation of a set of phantoms was performed with protocols having different proton energy, current and time of irradiation. The improved MDLs estimated using the upgraded set up and constrained timings are reported as 0.67 μgMn/gCa for 2.3 MeV protons and 0.71 μgMn/gCa for 2.0 MeV protons. These are a factor of about 2.3 times better than previous measurements done at McMaster University using the in vivo set-up. Also, because of lower dose-equivalent and a relatively close MDL, the combination of: 2.0 MeV; 300 μA; 3 min protocol is recommended as compared to 2.3 MeV; 400 μA; 45 s protocol for further measurements of Mn in vivo. PMID:25169978

  2. Rapid and quantitative measuring of telomerase activity using an electrochemiluminescent sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da; Zhu, Debin; Jia, Li

    2007-11-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds telomeric repeats to the 3'end of chromosomal DNA for maintaining chromosomal integrity and stability. This strong association of telomerase activity with tumors establishing it is the most widespread cancer marker. A number of assays based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been developed for the evaluation of telomerase activity. However, those methods require gel electrophoresis and some staining procedures. We developed an electrochemiluminescent (ECL) sensor for the measuring of telomerase activity to overcome these problems such as troublesome post-PCR procedures and semi-quantitative assessment in the conventional method. In this assay 5'-biotinylated telomerase synthesis (TS) primer serve as the substrate for the extension of telomeric repeats under telomerase. The extension products were amplified with this TS primer and a tris-(2'2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled reversed primer. The amplified products was separated and enriched in the surface of electrode by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and detected by measuring the ECL signals of the TBR labeled. Measuring telomerase activity use the sensor is easy, sensitive, rapid, and applicable to quantitative analysis, should be clinically useful for the detection and monitoring of telomerase activity.

  3. A Comparison between Lightning Activity and Passive Microwave Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kevin, Driscoll T.; Hugh, Christian J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    A recent examination of data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) suggests that storm with the highest frequency of lightning also possess the most pronounced microwave scattering signatures at 37 and 85 GHz. This study demonstrates a clear dependence between lightning and the passive microwave measurements, and accentuates how direct the relationship really is between cloud ice and lightning activity. In addition, the relationship between the quantity of ice content and the frequency of lightning (not just the presence of lightning) , is consistent throughout the seasons in a variety of regimes. Scatter plots will be presented which show the storm-averaged brightness temperatures as a function of the lightning density of the storms (L/Area) . In the 85 GHz and 37 GHz scatter plots, the brightness temperature is presented in the form Tb = k1 x log10(L/Area) + k2, where the slope of the regression, k1, is 58 for the 85 GHz relationship and 30.7 for the 37 GHz relationship. The regression for both these fits showed a correlation of 0.76 (r2 = 0.58), which is quite promising considering the simple procedure used to make the comparisons, which have not yet even been corrected for the view angle differences between the instruments, or the polarization corrections in the microwave imager.

  4. Active index for content-based medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the active index for content-based medical image retrieval. The dynamic nature of the active index is its most important characteristic. With an active index, we can effectively and efficiently handle smart images that respond to accessing, probing and other actions. The main applications of the active index are to prefetch image and multimedia data, and to facilitate similarity retrieval. The experimental active index system is described. PMID:8954230

  5. Determination of biological activity from fluorescence-lifetime measurements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, F.; Baselt, T.; Lempe, B.; Taudt, C.; Hartmann, P.

    2015-03-01

    The importance of fluorescence lifetime measurement as an optical analysis tool is growing. Many applications already exist in order to determine the fluorescence lifetime, but the majority of these require the addition of fluorescence-active substances to enable measurements. Every usage of such foreign materials has an associated risk. This paper investigates the use of auto-fluorescing substances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) as a risk free alternative to fluorescence-active substance enabled measurements. The experimental setup uses a nitrogen laser with a pulse length of 350 ps and a wavelength of 337 nm. The excited sample emits light due to fluorescence of NADH/NADPH and collagen. A fast photodiode collects the light at the output of an appropriate high-pass edge-filter at 400 nm. Fluorescence lifetimes can be determined from the decay of the measurement signals, which in turn characterizes the individual materials and their surrounding environment. Information about the quantity of the fluorescence active substances can also be measured based on the received signal intensity. The correlation between the fluorescence lifetime and the metabolic state of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and is presented here.

  6. Information quality measurement of medical encoding support based on usability.

    PubMed

    Puentes, John; Montagner, Julien; Lecornu, Laurent; Cauvin, Jean-Michel

    2013-12-01

    Medical encoding support systems for diagnoses and medical procedures are an emerging technology that begins to play a key role in billing, reimbursement, and health policies decisions. A significant problem to exploit these systems is how to measure the appropriateness of any automatically generated list of codes, in terms of fitness for use, i.e. their quality. Until now, only information retrieval performance measurements have been applied to estimate the accuracy of codes lists as quality indicator. Such measurements do not give the value of codes lists for practical medical encoding, and cannot be used to globally compare the quality of multiple codes lists. This paper defines and validates a new encoding information quality measure that addresses the problem of measuring medical codes lists quality. It is based on a usability study of how expert coders and physicians apply computer-assisted medical encoding. The proposed measure, named ADN, evaluates codes Accuracy, Dispersion and Noise, and is adapted to the variable length and content of generated codes lists, coping with limitations of previous measures. According to the ADN measure, the information quality of a codes list is fully represented by a single point, within a suitably constrained feature space. Using one scheme, our approach is reliable to measure and compare the information quality of hundreds of codes lists, showing their practical value for medical encoding. Its pertinence is demonstrated by simulation and application to real data corresponding to 502 inpatient stays in four clinic departments. Results are compared to the consensus of three expert coders who also coded this anonymized database of discharge summaries, and to five information retrieval measures. Information quality assessment applying the ADN measure showed the degree of encoding-support system variability from one clinic department to another, providing a global evaluation of quality measurement trends. PMID:23958646

  7. Earthquake networks based on similar activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Joel N; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2012-10-01

    Earthquakes are a complex spatiotemporal phenomenon, the underlying mechanism for which is still not fully understood despite decades of research and analysis. We propose and develop a network approach to earthquake events. In this network, a node represents a spatial location while a link between two nodes represents similar activity patterns in the two different locations. The strength of a link is proportional to the strength of the cross correlation in activities of two nodes joined by the link. We apply our network approach to a Japanese earthquake catalog spanning the 14-year period 1985-1998. We find strong links representing large correlations between patterns in locations separated by more than 1000 kilometers, corroborating prior observations that earthquake interactions have no characteristic length scale. We find network characteristics not attributable to chance alone, including a large number of network links, high node assortativity, and strong stability over time. PMID:23214652

  8. Measurements of Active Chlorine in the Antarctic Ozone Hole: 1986 to 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, P.; Barrett, J.; Connor, B.; Mooney, T.; Parrish, A.

    2005-12-01

    We will present and compare ground-based microwave measurements of stratospheric chlorine monoxide, ClO, from 1986, 1987 and 1996 through 2005 obtained from McMurdo and Scott Base, Antarctica (78° S). These measurements demonstrate the evolution of the ClO altitude profile (from 15 to 40 km) as the ozone hole progresses from the onset of sunlight in early August until the beginning of the breakup of the vortex in early October. The measurements from 1986 and 1987 were part of the National Ozone Expedition and the 1996 to 2005 measurements are carried out as part of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change, NDSC. The 1986 measurements were the first detection of a huge excess of chlorine monoxide during the Antarctic ozone hole period and the 1987 measurements produced the first full altitude profile of ClO over Antarctica. The last 10 years of measurements were carried out with an instrument very similar to the one used in the 1980's, but automated for continuous operation. The ClO altitude profile from the older measurements will be compared to the more recent measurements and variations in the time sequence of active chlorine from year to year will be discussed. We will also report on changes and/or trends in the peak mixing ratios from year to year both within the 10 year sequence (1996 to 2005) and between the recent measurements and the data from the 1980's. The measurements will also be compared to models to test the current understanding of chlorine chemistry.

  9. Measurement of Separase Proteolytic Activity in Single Living Cells by a Fluorogenic Flow Cytometry Assay

    PubMed Central

    Haaß, Wiltrud; Kleiner, Helga; Müller, Martin C.; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Fabarius, Alice; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    ESPL1/Separase, an endopeptidase, is required for centrosome duplication and separation of sister-chromatides in anaphase of mitosis. Overexpression and deregulated proteolytic activity of Separase as frequently observed in human cancers is associated with the occurrence of supernumerary centrosomes, chromosomal missegregation and aneuploidy. Recently, we have hypothesized that increased Separase proteolytic activity in a small subpopulation of tumor cells may serve as driver of tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Currently, there is no quantitative assay to measure Separase activity levels in single cells. Therefore, we have designed a flow cytometry-based assay that utilizes a Cy5- and rhodamine 110 (Rh110)-biconjugated Rad21 cleavage site peptide ([Cy5-D-R-E-I-M-R]2-Rh110) as smart probe and intracellular substrate for detection of Separase enzyme activity in living cells. As measured by Cy5 fluorescence the cellular uptake of the fluorogenic peptide was fast and reached saturation after 210 min of incubation in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. Separase activity was recorded as the intensity of Rh110 fluorescence released after intracellular peptide cleavage providing a linear signal gain within a 90–180 min time slot. Compared to conventional cell extract-based methods the flow cytometric assay delivers equivalent results but is more reliable, bypasses the problem of vague loading controls and unspecific proteolysis associated with whole cell extracts. Especially suited for the investigaton of blood- and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells the flow cytometric Separase assay allows generation of Separase activity profiles that tell about the number of Separase positive cells within a sample i.e. cells that currently progress through mitosis and about the range of intercellular variation in Separase activity levels within a cell population. The assay was used to quantify Separase proteolytic activity in leukemic

  10. Category-based induction from similarity of neural activation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Matthew J; Osherson, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The idea that similarity might be an engine of inductive inference dates back at least as far as David Hume. However, Hume's thesis is difficult to test without begging the question, since judgments of similarity may be infected by inferential processes. We present a one-parameter model of category-based induction that generates predictions about arbitrary statements of conditional probability over a predicate and a set of items. The prediction is based on the unconditional probabilities and similarities that characterize that predicate and those items. To test Hume's thesis, we collected brain activation from various regions of the ventral visual stream during a categorization task that did not invite comparison of categories. We then calculated the similarity of those activation patterns using a simple measure of vectorwise similarity and supplied those similarities to the model. The model's outputs correlated well with subjects' judgments of conditional probability. Our results represent a promising first step toward confirming Hume's thesis; similarity, assessed without reference to induction, may well drive inductive inference. PMID:24254747

  11. Hydrogeology, Chemical and Microbial Activity Measurement Through Deep Permafrost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stotler, R.L.; Frape, S.K.; Freifeld, B.M.; Holden, B.; Onstott, T.C.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Chan, E.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about hydrogeochemical conditions beneath thick permafrost, particularly in fractured crystalline rock, due to difficulty in accessing this environment. The purpose of this investigation was to develop methods to obtain physical, chemical, and microbial information about the subpermafrost environment from a surface-drilled borehole. Using a U-tube, gas and water samples were collected, along with temperature, pressure, and hydraulic conductivity measurements, 420 m below ground surface, within a 535 m long, angled borehole at High Lake, Nunavut, Canada, in an area with 460-m-thick permafrost. Piezometric head was well above the base of the permafrost, near land surface. Initial water samples were contaminated with drill fluid, with later samples <40% drill fluid. The salinity of the non-drill fluid component was <20,000 mg/L, had a Ca/Na ratio above 1, with ??18O values ???5??? lower than the local surface water. The fluid isotopic composition was affected by the permafrost-formation process. Nonbacteriogenic CH4 was present and the sample location was within methane hydrate stability field. Sampling lines froze before uncontaminated samples from the subpermafrost environment could be obtained, yet the available time to obtain water samples was extended compared to previous studies. Temperature measurements collected from a distributed temperature sensor indicated that this issue can be overcome easily in the future. The lack of methanogenic CH4 is consistent with the high sulfate concentrations observed in cores. The combined surface-drilled borehole/U-tube approach can provide a large amount of physical, chemical, and microbial data from the subpermafrost environment with few, controllable, sources of contamination. ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  12. Hydrogeology, chemical and microbial activity measurement through deep permafrost

    SciTech Connect

    Stotler, R.L.; Frape, S.K.; Freifeld, B.M.; Holden, B.; Onstott, T.C.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Chan, E.

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about hydrogeochemical conditions beneath thick permafrost, particularly in fractured crystalline rock, due to difficulty in accessing this environment. The purpose of this investigation was to develop methods to obtain physical, chemical, and microbial information about the subpermafrost environment from a surface-drilled borehole. Using a U-tube, gas and water samples were collected, along with temperature, pressure, and hydraulic conductivity measurements, 420 m below ground surface, within a 535 m long, angled borehole at High Lake, Nunavut, Canada, in an area with 460-m-thick permafrost. Piezometric head was well above the base of the permafrost, near land surface. Initial water samples were contaminated with drill fluid, with later samples <40% drill fluid. The salinity of the non-drill fluid component was <20,000 mg/L, had a Ca/Na ratio above 1, with {delta}{sup 18}O values {approx}5{per_thousand} lower than the local surface water. The fluid isotopic composition was affected by the permafrost-formation process. Nonbacteriogenic CH{sub 4} was present and the sample location was within methane hydrate stability field. Sampling lines froze before uncontaminated samples from the subpermafrost environment could be obtained, yet the available time to obtain water samples was extended compared to previous studies. Temperature measurements collected from a distributed temperature sensor indicated that this issue can be overcome easily in the future. The lack of methanogenic CH{sub 4} is consistent with the high sulfate concentrations observed in cores. The combined surface-drilled borehole/U-tube approach can provide a large amount of physical, chemical, and microbial data from the subpermafrost environment with few, controllable, sources of contamination.

  13. Simple Radiowave-Based Method For Measuring Peripheral Blood Flow Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Project objective is to design small radio frequency based flow probes for the measurement of blood flow velocity in peripheral arteries such as the femoral artery and middle cerebral artery. The result will be the technological capability to measure peripheral blood flow rates and flow changes during various environmental stressors such as microgravity without contact to the individual being monitored. This technology may also lead to an easier method of detecting venous gas emboli during extravehicular activities.

  14. Measuring Model-Based High School Science Instruction: Development and Application of a Student Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Gavin W.; Liang, Ling L.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested a student survey to detect differences in instruction between teachers in a modeling-based science program and comparison group teachers. The Instructional Activities Survey measured teachers' frequency of modeling, inquiry, and lecture instruction. Factor analysis and Rasch modeling identified three subscales, Modeling and…

  15. Integrated method for the measurement of trace atmospheric bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, D.; Stihle, J.; Petit, J.-E.; Bonnet, C.; Depernon, L.; Liu, O.; Kennedy, S.; Latimer, R.; Burgoyne, M.; Wanger, D.; Webster, A.; Casunuran, S.; Hidalgo, S.; Thomas, M.; Moss, J. A.; Baum, M. M.

    2011-09-01

    Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is standard to most laboratories. In this work, an integrated approach to measuring trace atmospheric nitrogenous bases has been developed and validated. The method uses a simple acid scrubbing step to capture and concentrate the bases as their phosphite salts, which then are derivatized and analyzed using GC/MS and/or LC/MS. The advantages of both techniques in the context of the present measurements are discussed. The approach is sensitive, selective, reproducible, as well as convenient to implement and has been validated for different sampling strategies. The limits of detection for the families of tested compounds are suitable for ambient measurement applications, as supported by field measurements in an urban park and in the exhaust of on-road vehicles.

  16. Integrated method for the measurement of trace nitrogenous atmospheric bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, D.; Stihle, J.; Petit, J.-E.; Bonnet, C.; Depernon, L.; Liu, O.; Kennedy, S.; Latimer, R.; Burgoyne, M.; Wanger, D.; Webster, A.; Casunuran, S.; Hidalgo, S.; Thomas, M.; Moss, J. A.; Baum, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is standard to most laboratories. In this work, an integrated approach to measuring trace, atmospheric, gaseous nitrogenous bases has been developed and validated. The method uses a simple acid scrubbing step to capture and concentrate the bases as their phosphite salts, which then are derivatized and analyzed using GC/MS and/or LC/MS. The advantages of both techniques in the context of the present measurements are discussed. The approach is sensitive, selective, reproducible, as well as convenient to implement and has been validated for different sampling strategies. The limits of detection for the families of tested compounds are suitable for ambient measurement applications (e.g., methylamine, 1 pptv; ethylamine, 2 pptv; morpholine, 1 pptv; aniline, 1 pptv; hydrazine, 0.1 pptv; methylhydrazine, 2 pptv), as supported by field measurements in an urban park and in the exhaust of on-road vehicles.

  17. Adapting Document Similarity Measures for Ligand-Based Virtual Screening.

    PubMed

    Himmat, Mubarak; Salim, Naomie; Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Saeed, Faisal; Ahmed, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the similarity of molecules is considered one of the major tasks in virtual screening. There are many similarity measures that have been proposed for this purpose, some of which have been derived from document and text retrieving areas as most often these similarity methods give good results in document retrieval and can achieve good results in virtual screening. In this work, we propose a similarity measure for ligand-based virtual screening, which has been derived from a text processing similarity measure. It has been adopted to be suitable for virtual screening; we called this proposed measure the Adapted Similarity Measure of Text Processing (ASMTP). For evaluating and testing the proposed ASMTP we conducted several experiments on two different benchmark datasets: the Maximum Unbiased Validation (MUV) and the MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR). The experiments have been conducted by choosing 10 reference structures from each class randomly as queries and evaluate them in the recall of cut-offs at 1% and 5%. The overall obtained results are compared with some similarity methods including the Tanimoto coefficient, which are considered to be the conventional and standard similarity coefficients for fingerprint-based similarity calculations. The achieved results show that the performance of ligand-based virtual screening is better and outperforms the Tanimoto coefficients and other methods. PMID:27089312

  18. Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Examine Summer Learning Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg Patton, Karen L.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Summer loss of reading is a potential factor in maintaining, and potentially widening, the achievement gap. This study used curriculum-based measurement of reading (R-CBM) to investigate the effect of the summer on reading. For this study, 317 students in Grades 2 to 5 were assessed in the spring and fall using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early…

  19. Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading: Recent Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madelaine, Alison; Wheldall, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    A significant amount of literature has been published on curriculum-based measurement (CBM) in the last decade. Much of the conceptual work on CBM was done in the 1980s and early 1990s. This review concentrates on the large body of research published within the last 10 years on CBM of reading, including further research demonstrating its technical…

  20. Using Curriculum-Based Measurement To Monitor Kindergarteners' Mathematics Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine technical and instructional features of a kindergarten curriculum-based measurement (CBM) tool designed to track students' mathematics progress in terms of computational concepts, procedures, and counting strategies. Students in 10 kindergarten classrooms in three elementary schools completed alternate…

  1. Technical Features of Curriculum-Based Measures for Beginning Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Kristen L.; Du, Xiaoqing; Petursdottir, Anna-Lind

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the two studies reported in this article was to examine technical features of curriculum-based measures for beginning writers. In Study 1, 50 first graders responded to word copying, sentence copying, and story prompts. In Study 2, 50 additional first graders responded to letter, picture-word, picture-theme, and photo prompts. In…

  2. Assessing Children's Writing Products: The Role of Curriculum Based Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockrell, Julie E.; Connelly, Vincent; Walter, Kirsty; Critten, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of children's writing raises technical and practical challenges. In this paper we examine the potential use of a curriculum based measure for writing (CBM-W) to assess the written texts of pupils in Key Stage 2 (M age 107 months, range 88 to 125). Two hundred and thirty six Year three, five and six pupils completed a standardized…

  3. Curriculum-Based Measures of Writing for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diercks-Gransee, Barbara; Weissenburger, Jacalyn Wright; Johnson, Cindy L.; Christensen, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether technically adequate curriculum-based measures of writing could be identified for use with high school students. The participants included 10th-grade general and special education students from two public school districts in Wisconsin. Students (n = 82) completed two narrative writing samples in…

  4. Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Monitor Kindergarteners' Mathematics Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine technical and instructional features of a kindergarten curriculum-based measurement (CBM) tool designed to track students' mathematics progress in terms of computational concepts, procedures, and counting strategies. Students in 10 kindergarten classrooms in three elementary schools completed alternate…

  5. Evaluating Curriculum-Based Measurement from a Behavioral Assessment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Scott P.; Roof, Claire M.; Klubnick, Cynthia; Carfolite, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement Reading (CBM-R) is an assessment procedure used to evaluate students' relative performance compared to peers and to evaluate their growth in reading. Within the response to intervention (RtI) model, CBM-R data are plotted in time series fashion as a means modeling individual students' response to varying levels of…

  6. Metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendrill, Leslie; Petersson, Niclas

    2016-09-01

    The metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements is in its infancy—concepts such as traceability and uncertainty are as yet poorly developed. This paper reviews how a measurement system analysis approach, particularly invoking as performance metric the ability of a probe (such as a human being) acting as a measurement instrument to make a successful decision, can enable a more general metrological treatment of qualitative observations. Measures based on human observations are typically qualitative, not only in sectors, such as health care, services and safety, where the human factor is obvious, but also in customer perception of traditional products of all kinds. A principal challenge is that the usual tools of statistics normally employed for expressing measurement accuracy and uncertainty will probably not work reliably if relations between distances on different portions of scales are not fully known, as is typical of ordinal or other qualitative measurements. A key enabling insight is to connect the treatment of decision risks associated with measurement uncertainty to generalized linear modelling (GLM). Handling qualitative observations in this way unites information theory, the perceptive identification and choice paradigms of psychophysics. The Rasch invariant measure psychometric GLM approach in particular enables a proper treatment of ordinal data; a clear separation of probe and item attribute estimates; simple expressions for instrument sensitivity; etc. Examples include two aspects of the care of breast cancer patients, from diagnosis to rehabilitation. The Rasch approach leads in turn to opportunities of establishing metrological references for quality assurance of qualitative measurements. In psychometrics, one could imagine a certified reference for knowledge challenge, for example, a particular concept in understanding physics or for product quality of a certain health care service. Multivariate methods, such as Principal Component

  7. Measurement-based noiseless linear amplification for quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Helen M.; Walk, Nathan; Assad, Syed M.; Janousek, Jiri; Hosseini, Sara; Ralph, Timothy C.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy

    2014-04-01

    Entanglement distillation is an indispensable ingredient in extended quantum communication networks. Distillation protocols are necessarily non-deterministic and require advanced experimental techniques such as noiseless amplification. Recently, it was shown that the benefits of noiseless amplification could be extracted by performing a post-selective filtering of the measurement record to improve the performance of quantum key distribution. We apply this protocol to entanglement degraded by transmission loss of up to the equivalent of 100 km of optical fibre. We measure an effective entangled resource stronger than that achievable by even a maximally entangled resource passively transmitted through the same channel. We also provide a proof-of-principle demonstration of secret key extraction from an otherwise insecure regime. The measurement-based noiseless linear amplifier offers two advantages over its physical counterpart: ease of implementation and near-optimal probability of success. It should provide an effective and versatile tool for a broad class of entanglement-based quantum communication protocols.

  8. Monogamy of Measurement-Induced Nonlocality Based on Relative Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yu; Xi, Zheng-Jun; Li, Yong-Ming

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, using relative entropy, we study monogamous properties of measurement-induced nonlocality based on relative entropy. Depending on different measurement sides, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for two types of monogamy inequalities. By the concept of nonlocality monogamy score, we find a necessary condition of the vanished nonlocality monogamy score for arbitrary three-party states. In addition, two types of necessary and sufficient conditions of the vanished nonlocality monogamy scores are obtained for any pure states. As an application, we show that measurement-induced nonlocality based on relative entropy can be viewed as a “nonlocality witness” to distinguish generalized GHZ states from the generalized W states.

  9. The Improved Physical Activity Index for Measuring Physical Activity in EPIC Germany

    PubMed Central

    Wientzek, Angelika; Vigl, Matthäus; Steindorf, Karen; Brühmann, Boris; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Harttig, Ulrich; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), physical activity (PA) has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI) was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40–0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) r = 0.33–0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC. PMID:24642812

  10. Accuracy of MRI-based Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russek, Stephen; Erdevig, Hannah; Keenan, Kathryn; Stupic, Karl

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map tissue susceptibility to identify microbleeds associated with brain injury and pathologic iron deposits associated with neurologic diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Field distortions with a resolution of a few parts per billion can be measured using MRI phase maps. The field distortion map can be inverted to obtain a quantitative susceptibility map. To determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements, a set of phantoms with paramagnetic salts and nano-iron gels were fabricated. The shapes and orientations of features were varied. Measured susceptibility of 1.0 mM GdCl3 solution in water as a function of temperature agreed well with the theoretical predictions, assuming Gd+3 is spin 7/2. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry. The paramagnetic susceptibility sits on top of the much larger diamagnetic susceptibility of water (-9.04 x 10-6), which leads to errors in the SQUID measurements. To extract out the paramagnetic contribution using standard magnetometry, measurements must be made down to low temperature (2K). MRI-based susceptometry is shown to be as or more accurate than standard magnetometry and susceptometry techniques.

  11. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-02-18

    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  12. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-02-01

    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  13. Active vibration control based on piezoelectric smart composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Le; Lu, Qingqing; Fei, Fan; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2013-12-01

    An aircraft’s vertical fin may experience dramatic buffet loads in high angle of attack flight conditions, and these buffet loads would cause huge vibration and dynamic stress on the vertical fin structure. To reduce the dynamic vibration of the vertical fin structure, macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators were used in this paper. The drive moment equations and sensing voltage equations of the MFC actuators were developed. Finite element analysis models based on three kinds of models of simplified vertical fin structures with surface-bonded MFC actuators were established in ABAQUS. The equivalent damping ratio of the structure was employed in finite element analysis, in order to measure the effectiveness of vibration control. Further, an open-loop test for the active vibration control system of the vertical fin with MFC actuators was designed and developed. The experimental results validated the effectiveness of the MFC actuators as well as the developed methodology.

  14. Active contour based segmentation of resected livers in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelmann, Simon; Oyarzun Laura, Cristina; Drechsler, Klaus; Wesarg, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The majority of state of the art segmentation algorithms are able to give proper results in healthy organs but not in pathological ones. However, many clinical applications require an accurate segmentation of pathological organs. The determination of the target boundaries for radiotherapy or liver volumetry calculations are examples of this. Volumetry measurements are of special interest after tumor resection for follow up of liver regrow. The segmentation of resected livers presents additional challenges that were not addressed by state of the art algorithms. This paper presents a snakes based algorithm specially developed for the segmentation of resected livers. The algorithm is enhanced with a novel dynamic smoothing technique that allows the active contour to propagate with different speeds depending on the intensities visible in its neighborhood. The algorithm is evaluated in 6 clinical CT images as well as 18 artificial datasets generated from additional clinical CT images.

  15. In vivo measurement of 241Am in the lungs confounded by activity deposited in other organs.

    PubMed

    Lobaugh, Megan L; Spitz, Henry B; Glover, Samuel E

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive material deposited in multiple organs of the body is likely to confound a result of an in vivo measurement performed over the lungs, the most frequently monitored organ for occupational exposure. The significance of this interference was evaluated by measuring anthropometric torso phantoms containing lungs, liver, skeleton, and axillary lymph nodes, each with a precisely known quantity of 241Am uniformly distributed in the organs. Arrays of multiple high-resolution germanium detectors were positioned over organs within the torso phantom containing 241Am or over proximal organs without activity to determine the degree of measurement confounding due to photons emitted from other source organs. A set of four mathematical response functions describes the measured count rate with detectors positioned over each of the relevant organs and 241Am contained in the measured organ or one of the other organs selected as a confounder. Simultaneous solution of these equations by matrix algebra, where the diagonal terms of the matrix are calibration factors for a direct measurement of activity in an organ and the off-diagonal terms reflect the contribution (i.e., interference or cross-talk) produced by 241Am in a confounding organ, yields the activity deposited in each of the relevant organs. The matrix solution described in this paper represents a method for adjusting a result of 241Am measured directly in one organ for interferences that may arise from 241Am deposited elsewhere and represents a technically valid procedure to aid in evaluating internal dose based upon in vivo measurements for those radioactive materials known to deposit in multiple organs. PMID:25437522

  16. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size. PMID:23637685

  17. Solar activity variations of ionosonde measurements and modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altadill, D.; Arrazola, D.; Blanch, E.; Buresova, D.

    2008-08-01

    The time series of hourly electron density profiles N(h) obtained at several mid-latitude stations in Europe have been used to obtain N(h) profiles on a monthly basis and to extract both the expected bottomside parameters and a proxy of the ionospheric variability as functions of time and height. With these data we present advances on a “Local Model” technique for the parameters B0 and B1, its applicability to other ionospheric stations, to other bottomside ionospheric parameters, and to modeling the time/height variability of the profile. The Local Model (LM) is an empirical model based on the experimental results of the solar activity dependence of the daily and seasonal behavior of the above parameters. The LM improves the IRI-2001 prediction of the B0 and B1 by factor of two at mid-latitudes. Moreover, the LM can be used to simulate other ionospheric parameters and to build mean N(h) profiles and the deviations from them. The modeling of both the average N(h) profiles and their deviations is an useful tool for ionospheric model users who want to know both the expected patterns and their deviations.

  18. Pyrethroid activity-based probes for profiling cytochrome P450 activities associated with insecticide interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; O’Neill, Paul M.; Hong, David W.; Finn, Robert D.; Henderson, Colin J.; Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J. I.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity-based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid-metabolizing and nonmetabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes, to measure labeling specificity, plus cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using PyABPs, we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. These included P450s as well as related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes, or “pyrethrome.” Considering the central role P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid in the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450–insecticide interactions and aiding the development of unique tools for disease control. PMID:24248381

  19. Pyrethroid Activity-Based Probes for Profiling Cytochrome P450 Activities Associated with Insecticide Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; O'Neill, Paul M.; Hong, David; Finn, Robert; Henderson, Colin; Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J.

    2014-01-18

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control a diverse spectrum of diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid metabolizing and non-metabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes to measure labeling specificity, plus CPR and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using a deltamethrin mimetic PyABP we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. The most reactive enzyme was a P450, CYP2C11, which is known to metabolize deltamethrin. Furthermore, several other pyrethroid metabolizers were identified (CYPs 2C6, 3A4, 2C13 and 2D1) along with related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-g’s 2B1 - 5, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes, or ‘pyrethrome’. Considering the central role that P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450-insecticide interactions and aiding the development of new tools for disease control.

  20. Projection Moire Interferometry for Rotorcraft Applications: Deformation Measurements of Active Twist Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Soto, Hector L.; South, Bruce W.

    2002-01-01

    Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) has been used during wind tunnel tests to obtain azimuthally dependent blade bending and twist measurements for a 4-bladed Active Twist Rotor (ATR) system in simulated forward flight. The ATR concept offers a means to reduce rotor vibratory loads and noise by using piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators embedded in the blade structure to twist each blade as they rotate throughout the rotor azimuth. The twist imparted on the blades for blade control causes significant changes in blade loading, resulting in complex blade deformation consisting of coupled bending and twist. Measurement of this blade deformation is critical in understanding the overall behavior of the ATR system and the physical mechanisms causing the reduction in rotor loads and noise. PMI is a non-contacting, video-based optical measurement technique capable of obtaining spatially continuous structural deformation measurements over the entire object surface within the PMI system field-of-view. When applied to rotorcraft testing, PMI can be used to measure the azimuth-dependent blade bending and twist along the full span of the rotor blade. This paper presents the PMI technique as applied to rotorcraft testing, and provides results obtained during the ATR tests demonstrating the PMI system performance. PMI measurements acquired at select blade actuation conditions generating minimum and maximum rotor loads are provided to explore the interrelationship between rotor loads, blade bending, and twist.