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Sample records for activity measurements show

  1. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M.Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approximately 46 mb) and 585 K (approximately 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER. photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: (1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the UKMO temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; (2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; (3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  2. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements Showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec. 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 mb) and 585 K (approxi. 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: 1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; 2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; 3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  3. Arches showing UV flaring activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The UVSP data obtained in the previous maximum activity cycle show the frequent appearance of flaring events in the UV. In many cases these flaring events are characterized by at least two footpoints which show compact impulsive non-simultaneous brightenings and a fainter but clearly observed arch developes between the footpoints. These arches and footpoints are observed in line corresponding to different temperatures, as Lyman alpha, N V, and C IV, and when observed above the limb display large Doppler shifts at some stages. The size of the arches can be larger than 20 arcsec.

  4. Whole scalp resting state EEG of oscillatory brain activity shows no parametric relationship with psychoacoustic and psychosocial assessment of tinnitus: A repeated measures study.

    PubMed

    Pierzycki, Robert H; McNamara, Adam J; Hoare, Derek J; Hall, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is a perception of sound that can occur in the absence of an external stimulus. A brief review of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) literature demonstrates that there is no clear relationship between tinnitus presence and frequency band power in whole scalp or source oscillatory activity. Yet a preconception persists that such a relationship exists and that resting state EEG could be utilised as an outcome measure for clinical trials of tinnitus interventions, e.g. as a neurophysiological marker of therapeutic benefit. To address this issue, we first examined the test-retest correlation of EEG band power measures in tinnitus patients (n = 42). Second we examined the evidence for a parametric relationship between numerous commonly used tinnitus variables (psychoacoustic and psychosocial) and whole scalp EEG power spectra, directly and after applying factor reduction techniques. Test-retest correlation for both EEG band power measures and tinnitus variables were high. Yet we found no relationship between whole scalp EEG band powers and psychoacoustic or psychosocial variables. We conclude from these data that resting state whole scalp EEG should not be used as a biomarker for tinnitus and that greater caution should be exercised in regard to reporting of findings to avoid confirmation bias. The data was collected during a randomised controlled trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01541969).

  5. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of dioleoyl glyceric acids showing antitrypsin activity.

    PubMed

    Habe, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Sato, Shun; Kitamoto, Dai; Sakaki, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Previously, Lešová et al. reported the isolation and identification of metabolite OR-1, showing antitrypsin activity, produced during fermentation by Penicillium funiculosum. The structure of OR-1 was a mixture of glyceric acid (GA), esterified with C(14)-C(18) fatty acids, and oleic acid (C18:1) as the most predominant fatty acid (Folia Microbiol. 46, 21-23, 2001). In this study, dioleoyl D-GA and dioleoyl L-GA were synthesized via diesterification with oleoyl chloride, and their antitrypsin activities were evaluated using both a disk diffusion method and spectral absorption measurements. The results show that both compounds and their equivalent mixtures possess antitrypsin activities; however, their IC(50) values (approximately 2 mM) are much higher than that of OR-1 (4.25 µM), suggesting that dioleoyl GA does not play a major role in the OR-1 antitrypsin activity. PMID:21606621

  7. 21. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. Delineators: Charles L. Hillman and John McClintock. Original at the Free Library of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa. - Solitude, Zoo grounds, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 22. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. Delineators: Charles L. Hillman and John McClintock. Original at the Free Library of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa. - Solitude, Zoo grounds, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 20. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing elevations and plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing elevations and plans of Soliture. Delineators: Charles L. Hillman and John McClintock. Original at the Free Library of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa. - Solitude, Zoo grounds, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 10. DETAIL SHOWING THRUST MEASURING SYSTEM. Looking up from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL SHOWING THRUST MEASURING SYSTEM. Looking up from the test stand deck to east. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. 49. INTERIOR VIEW OF HARDENER AREA SHOWING GAUGE THAT MEASURES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. INTERIOR VIEW OF HARDENER AREA SHOWING GAUGE THAT MEASURES HARDNESS, THE NAIL MUST BREAK IN THE CENTER RANGE OF THE CURVED BAR TO HAVE THE CORRECT HARDNESS (THE NAIL WILL BREAK TOO EASILY IF TOO HARD AND WILL BEND TOO MUCH IF TOO SOFT) - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  12. Venus: new microwave measurements show no atmospheric water vapor.

    PubMed

    Janssen, M A; Hills, R E; Thornton, D D; Welch, W J

    1973-03-01

    Two sets of passive radio observations of Venus-measurements of the spectrum of the disk temperature near the 1-centimeter wavelength, and interferometric measurements of the planetary limb darkening at the 1.35-centimeter water vapor resonance-show no evidence of water vapor in the lower atmosphere of Venus. The upper limit of 2 x 10(-3) for the mixing ratio of water vapor is substantially less than the amounts derived from the Venera space probes (0.5 x 10(-2) to 2.5 x 10(-2)). This amount of water vapor cannot produce dense clouds, and it is doubtful that it may contribute significantly to a greenhouse effect.

  13. Measuring political polarization: Twitter shows the two sides of Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A. J.; Borondo, J.; Losada, J. C.; Benito, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    We say that a population is perfectly polarized when divided in two groups of the same size and opposite opinions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to study and measure the emergence of polarization from social interactions. We begin by proposing a model to estimate opinions in which a minority of influential individuals propagate their opinions through a social network. The result of the model is an opinion probability density function. Next, we propose an index to quantify the extent to which the resulting distribution is polarized. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a Twitter conversation about the late Venezuelan president, Hugo Chávez, finding a good agreement between our results and offline data. Hence, we show that our methodology can detect different degrees of polarization, depending on the structure of the network.

  14. Your Library--Greatest Show of All! Activity Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mary, Ed.

    Intended as a companion volume for librarians planning a children's summer reading program, this activity manual provides ideas for games, puzzles, puppet shows, story reading, and more, all based on the theme of "Circus Summer." The manual suggests ways to promote the program, such as visits to schools, and provides directions for registering…

  15. Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) Shows Antidiarrheal Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Anne Dayse Soares; de Melo e Silva, Karoline; Neto, José Clementino; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna F.; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Based on chemotaxonomy, we decided to investigate the possible antidiarrheal activity in mice of a crude ethanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of Croton grewioides (CG-EtOH). We tested for any possible toxicity in rat erythrocytes and acute toxicity in mice. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by determining the effect of CG-EtOH on defecation frequency, liquid stool, intestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females. CG-EtOH produced a significant and equipotent antidiarrheal activity, both in defecation frequency (ED50 = 106.0 ± 8.1 mg/kg) and liquid stools (ED50 = 105.0 ± 9.2 mg/kg). However, CG-EtOH (125 mg/kg) decreased intestinal motility by only 22.7% ± 4.4%. Moreover, extract markedly inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal contents (ED50 = 34.6 ± 5.4 mg/kg). We thus conclude that CG-EtOH is not orally lethal and contains active principles with antidiarrheal activity, and this effect seems to involve mostly changes in intestinal secretion. SUMMARY CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females.CG-EtOH probably contains active metabolites with antidiarrheal activity.CG-EtOH reduced the frequency and number of liquid stools.Metabolites presents in the CG-EtOH act mainly by reducing intestinal fluid and, to a lesser extent, reducing intestinal motility. Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect PMID:27365990

  16. Psychopaths Show Enhanced Amygdala Activation during Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Douglas H.; Balderston, Nicholas L.; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Larson, Christine L.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into “primary” and “secondary” psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional “fearlessness,” while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths. PMID:27014154

  17. Psychopaths Show Enhanced Amygdala Activation during Fear Conditioning.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Douglas H; Balderston, Nicholas L; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Larson, Christine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into "primary" and "secondary" psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional "fearlessness," while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths.

  18. Psychopaths Show Enhanced Amygdala Activation during Fear Conditioning.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Douglas H; Balderston, Nicholas L; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Larson, Christine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into "primary" and "secondary" psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional "fearlessness," while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths. PMID:27014154

  19. Milky Way a Swifter Spinner, More Massive, New Measurements Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    Fasten your seat belts -- we're faster, heavier, and more likely to collide than we thought. Astronomers making high-precision measurements of the Milky Way say our home Galaxy is rotating about 100,000 miles per hour faster than previously understood. That increase in speed, said Mark Reid, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, increases the Milky Way's mass by 50 percent, bringing it even with the Andromeda Galaxy. "No longer will we think of the Milky Way as the little sister of the Andromeda Galaxy in our Local Group family." Milky Way Artist's Conception of our Milky Way Galaxy: Blue, green dots indicate distance measurements. CREDIT: Robert Hurt, IPAC; Mark Reid, CfA, NRAO/AUI/NSF JPEG graphic with scale marks on sides PostScript graphic with scale marks on sides The larger mass, in turn, means a greater gravitational pull that increases the likelihood of collisions with the Andromeda galaxy or smaller nearby galaxies. Our Solar System is about 28,000 light-years from the Milky Way's center. At that distance, the new observations indicate, we're moving at about 600,000 miles per hour in our Galactic orbit, up from the previous estimate of 500,000 miles per hour. The scientists are using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to remake the map of the Milky Way. Taking advantage of the VLBA's unparalleled ability to make extremely detailed images, the team is conducting a long-term program to measure distances and motions in our Galaxy. They reported their results at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Long Beach, California. The scientists observed regions of prolific star formation across the Galaxy. In areas within these regions, gas molecules are strengthening naturally-occuring radio emission in the same way that lasers strengthen light beams. These areas, called cosmic masers, serve as bright landmarks for the sharp radio vision of the VLBA. By observing these regions repeatedly at times

  20. Tetrahdroxysqualene from Rhus taitensis Shows Antimycobacterial Activity Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Noro, Jeffrey C.; Barrows, Louis R.; Gideon, Osia G.; Ireland, Chris M.; Koch, Michael; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Piskaut, Pius; Pond, Christopher D.; Bugni, Tim S.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis has become a major health problem, in particular with the emergence of extremely drug resistant tuberculosis (XDRTB). In our search for new therapeutic leads against TB, we isolated a new triterpene (1) from the plant Rhus taitensis collected in Papua New Guinea. Tetrahydroxysqualene (1) was isolated using bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of R. taitensis leaves and twigs. The structure of tetrahydroxysqualene (1) was elucidated on the basis of HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR spectra. Tetrahydroxysqualene (1) exhibited anti–tuberculosis activity with an MIC of 10.0 μg/mL while showing only modest cytotoxicity. PMID:18710283

  1. Sirt5 Deacylation Activities Show Differential Sensitivities to Nicotinamide Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Suenkel, Benjamin; Lakshminarasimhan, Mahadevan; Schutkowski, Mike; Steegborn, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    Sirtuins are protein deacylases regulating metabolism and aging processes, and the seven human isoforms are considered attractive therapeutic targets. Sirtuins transfer acyl groups from lysine sidechains to ADP-ribose, formed from the cosubstrate NAD+ by release of nicotinamide, which in turn is assumed to be a general Sirtuin inhibitor. Studies on Sirtuin regulation have been hampered, however, by shortcomings of available assays. Here, we describe a mass spectrometry–based, quantitative deacylation assay not requiring any substrate labeling. Using this assay, we show that the deacetylation activity of human Sirt5 features an unusual insensitivity to nicotinamide inhibition. In contrast, we find similar values for Sirt5 and Sirt3 for the intrinsic NAD+ affinity as well as the apparent NAD+ affinity in presence of peptide. Structure comparison and mutagenesis identify an Arg neighboring to the Sirt5 nicotinamide binding pocket as a mediator of nicotinamide resistance, and statistical sequence analyses along with testing further Sirtuins reveal a network of coevolved residues likely defining a nicotinamide-insensitive Sirtuin deacetylase family. The same Arg was recently reported to render Sirt5 a preferential desuccinylase, and we find that this Sirt5 activity is highly sensitive to nicotinamide inhibition. Analysis of Sirt5 structures and activity data suggest that an Arg/succinate interaction is the molecular basis of the differential nicotinamide sensitivities of the two Sirt5 activities. Our results thus indicate a Sirtuin subfamily with nicotinamide-insensitive deacetylase activity and suggest that the molecular features determining nicotinamide sensitivity overlap with those dominating deacylation specificity, possibly suggesting that other subfamily members might also prefer other acylations than acetylations. PMID:23028781

  2. The Oral Antimalarial Drug Tafenoquine Shows Activity against Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Luis; Martínez-García, Marta; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Manzano, José Ignacio; Yardley, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease that requires new, safer, and more effective treatments. Repurposing oral drugs could reduce both the time and cost involved in sleeping sickness drug discovery. Tafenoquine (TFQ) is an oral antimalarial drug belonging to the 8-aminoquinoline family which is currently in clinical phase III. We show here that TFQ efficiently kills different T. brucei spp. in the submicromolar concentration range. Our results suggest that TFQ accumulates into acidic compartments and induces a necrotic process involving cell membrane disintegration and loss of cytoplasmic content, leading to parasite death. Cell lysis is preceded by a wide and multitarget drug action, affecting the lysosome, mitochondria, and acidocalcisomes and inducing a depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, elevation of intracellular Ca2+, and production of reactive oxygen species. This is the first report of an 8-aminoquinoline demonstrating significant in vitro activity against T. brucei. PMID:26195527

  3. The Oral Antimalarial Drug Tafenoquine Shows Activity against Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luis; Martínez-García, Marta; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Manzano, José Ignacio; Yardley, Vanessa; Gamarro, Francisco; Pérez-Victoria, José M

    2015-10-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease that requires new, safer, and more effective treatments. Repurposing oral drugs could reduce both the time and cost involved in sleeping sickness drug discovery. Tafenoquine (TFQ) is an oral antimalarial drug belonging to the 8-aminoquinoline family which is currently in clinical phase III. We show here that TFQ efficiently kills different T. brucei spp. in the submicromolar concentration range. Our results suggest that TFQ accumulates into acidic compartments and induces a necrotic process involving cell membrane disintegration and loss of cytoplasmic content, leading to parasite death. Cell lysis is preceded by a wide and multitarget drug action, affecting the lysosome, mitochondria, and acidocalcisomes and inducing a depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, elevation of intracellular Ca(2+), and production of reactive oxygen species. This is the first report of an 8-aminoquinoline demonstrating significant in vitro activity against T. brucei. PMID:26195527

  4. A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Sakakibara, Norikazu; Maruyama, Tokumi; Igarashi, Junsuke; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Kubota, Yasuo; Tokuda, Masaaki; Ashino, Hiromi; Hattori, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Konishi, Ryoji

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. {yields} It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. {yields} 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. {yields} Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. {yields} A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 {mu}M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

  5. High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in Hα, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

  6. NASA's Fermi Shows How Active Galaxies Can Be

    NASA Video Gallery

    Active galaxies called blazars make up the largest class of objects detected by Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT). Massive black holes in the hearts of these galaxies fire particle jets in our dir...

  7. Ultraviolet imaging spectroscopy shows an active saturnian system.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Larry W; Colwell, Joshua E; Larsen, Kristopher; McClintock, William E; Stewart, A Ian F; Hallett, Janet Tew; Shemansky, Donald E; Ajello, Joseph M; Hansen, Candice J; Hendrix, Amanda R; West, Robert A; Keller, H Uwe; Korth, Axel; Pryor, Wayne R; Reulke, Ralf; Yung, Yuk L

    2005-02-25

    Neutral oxygen in the saturnian system shows variability, and the total number of oxygen atoms peaks at 4 x 10(34). Saturn's aurora brightens in response to solar-wind forcing, and the auroral spectrum resembles Jupiter's. Phoebe's surface shows variable water-ice content, and the data indicate it originated in the outer solar system. Saturn's rings also show variable water abundance, with the purest ice in the outermost A ring. This radial variation is consistent with initially pure water ice bombarded by meteors, but smaller radial structures may indicate collisional transport and recent renewal events in the past 10(7) to 10(8) years.

  8. Insurance Applications of Active Fault Maps Showing Epistemic Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    Insurance loss modeling for earthquakes utilizes available maps of active faulting produced by geoscientists. All such maps are subject to uncertainty, arising from lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history. Field work to undertake geological fault investigations drains human and monetary resources, and this inevitably limits the resolution of fault parameters. Some areas are more accessible than others; some may be of greater social or economic importance than others; some areas may be investigated more rapidly or diligently than others; or funding restrictions may have curtailed the extent of the fault mapping program. In contrast with the aleatory uncertainty associated with the inherent variability in the dynamics of earthquake fault rupture, uncertainty associated with lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history is epistemic. The extent of this epistemic uncertainty may vary substantially from one regional or national fault map to another. However aware the local cartographer may be, this uncertainty is generally not conveyed in detail to the international map user. For example, an area may be left blank for a variety of reasons, ranging from lack of sufficient investigation of a fault to lack of convincing evidence of activity. Epistemic uncertainty in fault parameters is of concern in any probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard, not least in insurance earthquake risk applications. A logic-tree framework is appropriate for incorporating epistemic uncertainty. Some insurance contracts cover specific high-value properties or transport infrastructure, and therefore are extremely sensitive to the geometry of active faulting. Alternative Risk Transfer (ART) to the capital markets may also be considered. In order for such insurance or ART contracts to be properly priced, uncertainty should be taken into account. Accordingly, an estimate is needed for the likelihood of surface rupture capable of causing severe damage. Especially where a

  9. Phenolic compounds from leaves of Casimiroa edulis showed adipogenesis activity.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    Casimiroa edulis is known as cochitzapotl, and it belongs to a species of tropical fruiting tree in the family Rutaceae, native to eastern Mexico and Central America south to Costa Rica. In this study, we isolated two furocoumarins and two polymethoxyflavones from leaves of C. edulis and evaluated the functions of glucose and lipid metabolism activity with 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We discovered that the addition of furocoumarins increased glucose uptake and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte. These results suggest that furocoumarin compounds can be used as functional food-derived compounds, to regulate adipocyte functioning for the management of metabolic syndrome, which is associated with dysfunctions of glucose and lipid metabolism. PMID:25036684

  10. Sulfur dioxide - Episodic injection shows evidence for active Venus volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    1984-03-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  11. Sulfur dioxide: episodic injection shows evidence for active venus volcanism.

    PubMed

    Esposito, L W

    1984-03-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in Earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent Earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  12. Added value measures in education show genetic as well as environmental influence.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Claire M A; Asbury, Kathryn; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2011-02-02

    Does achievement independent of ability or previous attainment provide a purer measure of the added value of school? In a study of 4000 pairs of 12-year-old twins in the UK, we measured achievement with year-long teacher assessments as well as tests. Raw achievement shows moderate heritability (about 50%) and modest shared environmental influences (25%). Unexpectedly, we show that for indices of the added value of school, genetic influences remain moderate (around 50%), and the shared (school) environment is less important (about 12%). The pervasiveness of genetic influence in how and how much children learn is compatible with an active view of learning in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities.

  13. Measurement of enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Harris, T K; Keshwani, M M

    2009-01-01

    To study and understand the nature of living cells, scientists have continually employed traditional biochemical techniques aimed to fractionate and characterize a designated network of macromolecular components required to carry out a particular cellular function. At the most rudimentary level, cellular functions ultimately entail rapid chemical transformations that otherwise would not occur in the physiological environment of the cell. The term enzyme is used to singularly designate a macromolecular gene product that specifically and greatly enhances the rate of a chemical transformation. Purification and characterization of individual and collective groups of enzymes has been and will remain essential toward advancement of the molecular biological sciences; and developing and utilizing enzyme reaction assays is central to this mission. First, basic kinetic principles are described for understanding chemical reaction rates and the catalytic effects of enzymes on such rates. Then, a number of methods are described for measuring enzyme-catalyzed reaction rates, which mainly differ with regard to techniques used to detect and quantify concentration changes of given reactants or products. Finally, short commentary is given toward formulation of reaction mixtures used to measure enzyme activity. Whereas a comprehensive treatment of enzymatic reaction assays is not within the scope of this chapter, the very core principles that are presented should enable new researchers to better understand the logic and utility of any given enzymatic assay that becomes of interest.

  14. Hybrid [FeFe]-hydrogenases with modified active sites show remarkable residual enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Siebel, Judith F; Adamska-Venkatesh, Agnieszka; Weber, Katharina; Rumpel, Sigrun; Reijerse, Edward; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-02-24

    [FeFe]-hydrogenases are to date the only enzymes for which it has been demonstrated that the native inorganic binuclear cofactor of the active site Fe2(adt)(CO)3(CN)2 (adt = azadithiolate = [S-CH2-NH-CH2-S](2-)) can be synthesized on the laboratory bench and subsequently inserted into the unmaturated enzyme to yield fully functional holo-enzyme (Berggren, G. et al. (2013) Nature 499, 66-70; Esselborn, J. et al. (2013) Nat. Chem. Biol. 9, 607-610). In the current study, we exploit this procedure to introduce non-native cofactors into the enzyme. Mimics of the binuclear subcluster with a modified bridging dithiolate ligand (thiodithiolate, N-methylazadithiolate, dimethyl-azadithiolate) and three variants containing only one CN(-) ligand were inserted into the active site of the enzyme. We investigated the activity of these variants for hydrogen oxidation as well as proton reduction and their structural accommodation within the active site was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Interestingly, the monocyanide variant with the azadithiolate bridge showed ∼50% of the native enzyme activity. This would suggest that the CN(-) ligands are not essential for catalytic activity, but rather serve to anchor the binuclear subsite inside the protein pocket through hydrogen bonding. The inserted artificial cofactors with a propanedithiolate and an N-methylazadithiolate bridge as well as their monocyanide variants also showed residual activity. However, these activities were less than 1% of the native enzyme. Our findings indicate that even small changes in the dithiolate bridge of the binuclear subsite lead to a rather strong decrease of the catalytic activity. We conclude that both the Brønsted base function and the conformational flexibility of the native azadithiolate amine moiety are essential for the high catalytic activity of the native enzyme. PMID:25633077

  15. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  16. Satellite microglia show spontaneous electrical activity that is uncorrelated with activity of the attached neuron.

    PubMed

    Wogram, Emile; Wendt, Stefan; Matyash, Marina; Pivneva, Tatyana; Draguhn, Andreas; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    Microglia are innate immune cells of the brain. We have studied a subpopulation of microglia, called satellite microglia. This cell type is defined by a close morphological soma-to-soma association with a neuron, indicative of a direct functional interaction. Indeed, ultrastructural analysis revealed closely attached plasma membranes of satellite microglia and neurons. However, we found no apparent morphological specializations of the contact, and biocytin injection into satellite microglia showed no dye-coupling with the apposed neurons or any other cell. Likewise, evoked local field potentials or action potentials and postsynaptic potentials of the associated neuron did not lead to any transmembrane currents or non-capacitive changes in the membrane potential of the satellite microglia in the cortex and hippocampus. Both satellite and non-satellite microglia, however, showed spontaneous transient membrane depolarizations that were not correlated with neuronal activity. These events could be divided into fast-rising and slow-rising depolarizations, which showed different characteristics in satellite and non-satellite microglia. Fast-rising and slow-rising potentials differed with regard to voltage dependence. The frequency of these events was not affected by the application of tetrodotoxin, but the fast-rising event frequency decreased after application of GABA. We conclude that microglia show spontaneous electrical activity that is uncorrelated with the activity of adjacent neurons.

  17. ACTIVITIES: Centimeter and Millimeter Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolster, L. Carey

    1974-01-01

    An activity is suggested which will give junior high school students practice in estimating and measuring in centimeters and millimeters. Three worksheets are given, one of which is a model for making a metric caliper. (LS)

  18. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... segment thereof) of the members of the qualifying organization; and (iii) The show is designed to achieve...— (i) Activities designed to attract to the show members of the sponsoring organization, members of an... interest in, and demand for such products or services; (ii) Activities designed to educate persons in...

  19. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... segment thereof) of the members of the qualifying organization; and (iii) The show is designed to achieve...— (i) Activities designed to attract to the show members of the sponsoring organization, members of an... interest in, and demand for such products or services; (ii) Activities designed to educate persons in...

  20. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... segment thereof) of the members of the qualifying organization; and (iii) The show is designed to achieve...— (i) Activities designed to attract to the show members of the sponsoring organization, members of an... interest in, and demand for such products or services; (ii) Activities designed to educate persons in...

  1. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... segment thereof) of the members of the qualifying organization; and (iii) The show is designed to achieve...— (i) Activities designed to attract to the show members of the sponsoring organization, members of an... interest in, and demand for such products or services; (ii) Activities designed to educate persons in...

  2. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... segment thereof) of the members of the qualifying organization; and (iii) The show is designed to achieve...— (i) Activities designed to attract to the show members of the sponsoring organization, members of an... interest in, and demand for such products or services; (ii) Activities designed to educate persons in...

  3. Measuring Substantial Reductions in Activity

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Charles; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard A.; So, Suzanna; Brown, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The case definitions for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) each include a disability criterion requiring substantial reductions in activity in order to meet diagnostic criteria. Difficulties have been encountered in defining and operationalizing the substantial reduction disability criterion within these various illness definitions. The present study sought to relate measures of past and current activities in several domains including the SF-36, an objective measure of activity (e.g. actigraphy), a self-reported quality of life scale, and measures of symptom severity. Results of the study revealed that current work activities had the highest number of significant associations with domains such as the SF-36 subscales, actigraphy, and symptom scores. As an example, higher self-reported levels of current work activity were associated with better health. This suggests that current work related activities may provide a useful domain for helping operationalize the construct of substantial reductions in activity. PMID:25584524

  4. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells

  5. HATS-2b: A transiting extrasolar planet orbiting a K-type star showing starspot activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohler-Fischer, M.; Mancini, L.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Penev, K.; Bayliss, D.; Jordán, A.; Csubry, Z.; Zhou, G.; Rabus, M.; Nikolov, N.; Brahm, R.; Espinoza, N.; Buchhave, L. A.; Béky, B.; Suc, V.; Csák, B.; Henning, T.; Wright, D. J.; Tinney, C. G.; Addison, B. C.; Schmidt, B.; Noyes, R. W.; Papp, I.; Lázár, J.; Sári, P.; Conroy, P.

    2013-10-01

    We report the discovery of HATS-2b, the second transiting extrasolar planet detected by the HATSouth survey. HATS-2b is moving on a circular orbit around a V = 13.6 mag, K-type dwarf star (GSC 6665-00236), at a separation of 0.0230 ± 0.0003 AU and with a period of 1.3541 days. The planetary parameters have been robustly determined using a simultaneous fit of the HATSouth, MPG/ESO 2.2 m/GROND, Faulkes Telescope South/Spectral transit photometry, and MPG/ESO 2.2 m/FEROS, Euler 1.2 m/CORALIE, AAT 3.9 m/CYCLOPS radial-velocity measurements. HATS-2b has a mass of 1.37 ± 0.16 MJ, a radius of 1.14 ± 0.03 RJ, and an equilibrium temperature of 1567 ± 30 K. The host star has a mass of 0.88 ± 0.04 M⊙ and a radius of 0.89 ± 0.02 R⊙, and it shows starspot activity. We characterized the stellar activity by analyzing two photometric follow-up transit light curves taken with the GROND instrument, both obtained simultaneously in four optical bands (covering the wavelength range of 3860-9520 Å). The two light curves contain anomalies compatible with starspots on the photosphere of the host star along the same transit chord. Tables of the individual photometric measurements are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/558/A55

  6. Physically active men show better semen parameters and hormone values than sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, Diana; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Barrera, Natalibeth; Vaamonde-Lemos, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Physical exercise promotes many health benefits. The present study was undertaken to assess possible semen and hormone differences among physically active (PA) subjects and sedentary subjects (SE). The analyzed qualitative sperm parameters were: volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology; where needed, additional testing was performed. The measured hormones were: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and the ratio between T and C (T/C). Maximum oxygen consumption was also assessed to check for differences in fitness level. Statistically significant differences were found for several semen parameters such as total progressive motility (PA: 60.94 ± 5.03; SE: 56.07 ± 4.55) and morphology (PA: 15.54 ± 1.38, SE: 14.40 ± 1.15). The seminological values observed were supported by differences in hormones, with FSH, LH, and T being higher in PA than in SE (5.68 ± 2.51 vs. 3.14 ± 1.84; 5.95 ± 1.11 vs. 5.08 ± 0.98; 7.68 ± 0.77 vs. 6.49 ± 0.80, respectively). Likewise, the T/C ratio, index of anabolic versus catabolic status, was also higher in PA (0.46 ± 0.11 vs. 0.32 ± 0.07), which further supports the possibility of an improved hormonal environment. The present study shows that there are differences in semen and hormone values of physically active subjects and sedentary subjects. Physically active subjects seem to have a more anabolic hormonal environment and a healthier semen production.

  7. Syzyguim guineense Extracts Show Antioxidant Activities and Beneficial Activities on Oxidative Stress Induced by Ferric Chloride in the Liver Homogenate

    PubMed Central

    Pieme, Constant Anatole; Ngoupayo, Joseph; Khou-Kouz Nkoulou, Claude Herve; Moukette Moukette, Bruno; Njinkio Nono, Borgia Legrand; Ama Moor, Vicky Jocelyne; Ze Minkande, Jacqueline; Yonkeu Ngogang, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging property and the beneficial effects of extracts of various parts of Syzygium guineense in reducing oxidative stress damage in the liver. The effects of extracts on free radicals were determined on radicals DPPH, ABTS, NO and OH followed by the antioxidant properties using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP) and hosphomolybdenum (PPMB). The phytochemical screening of these extracts was performed by determination of the phenolic content. The oxidative damage inhibition in the liver was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase. Overall, the bark extract of the ethanol/water or methanol showed the highest radical scavenging activities against DPPH, ABTS and OH radicals compared to the other extracts. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolic compounds towards the antioxidant activities. However, the methanol extract of the root demonstrated the highest protective effects of SOD and CAT against ferric chloride while the hydro-ethanol extract of the leaves exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that antioxidant properties of S. guineense extracts could be attributed to phenolic compounds revealed by phytochemical studies. Thus, the present results indicate clearly that the extracts of S. guineense possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavengers, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. The antioxidant properties of the bark extract may thus sustain its various biological activities. PMID:26785075

  8. GRACE, GLDAS and measured groundwater data products show water storage loss in Western Jilin, China.

    PubMed

    Moiwo, Juana Paul; Lu, Wenxi; Tao, Fulu

    2012-01-01

    Water storage depletion is a worsening hydrological problem that limits agricultural production in especially arid/semi-arid regions across the globe. Quantifying water storage dynamics is critical for developing water resources management strategies that are sustainable and protective of the environment. This study uses GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) and measured groundwater data products to quantify water storage in Western Jilin (a proxy for semi-arid wetland ecosystems) for the period from January 2002 to December 2009. Uncertainty/bias analysis shows that the data products have an average error <10% (p < 0.05). Comparisons of the storage variables show favorable agreements at various temporal cycles, with R(2) = 0.92 and RMSE = 7.43 mm at the average seasonal cycle. There is a narrowing soil moisture storage change, a widening groundwater storage loss, and an overall storage depletion of 0.85 mm/month in the region. There is possible soil-pore collapse, and land subsidence due to storage depletion in the study area. Invariably, storage depletion in this semi-arid region could have negative implications for agriculture, valuable/fragile wetland ecosystems and people's livelihoods. For sustainable restoration and preservation of wetland ecosystems in the region, it is critical to develop water resources management strategies that limit groundwater extraction rate to that of recharge rate.

  9. A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Andrew M; Velappan, Nileena; Schmidt, Jurgen G

    2008-01-01

    M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

  10. A piperidine amide extracted from Piper longum L. fruit shows activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Guei; Lee, Hee-Kwon; Kim, Moo-Key; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2002-06-19

    Mosquito larvicidal activity of Piper longum fruit-derived materials against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti was examined. A crude methanol extract of P. longum fruits was found to be active against the larvae, and the hexane fraction of the methanol extract showed a strong larvicidal activity of 100% mortality. The biologically active component of P. longum fruits was characterized as pipernonaline by spectroscopic analyses. The LC(50) value of pipernonaline was 0.25 mg/L. The toxicity of pipernonaline is comparable to that of pirimiphos-methyl as a mosquito larvicide. In tests with available components derived from P. longum, no activity was observed with piperettine, piperine, or piperlongumine.

  11. Measuring activity in ant colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, C.; Fernández, J.; Pérez-Penichet, C.; Altshuler, E.

    2006-12-01

    Ants, as paradigm of social insects, have become a recurrent example of efficient problem solvers via self-organization. In spite of the simple behavior of each individual, the colony as a whole displays "swarm intelligence:" the organization of ant trails for foraging is a typical output of it. But conventional techniques of observation can hardly record the amount of data needed to get a detailed understanding of self-organization of ant swarms in the wild. Here we are presenting a measurement system intended to monitor ant activity in the field comprising massive data acquisition and high sensitivity. A central role is played by an infrared sensor devised specifically to monitor relevant parameters to the activity of ants through the exits of the nest, although other sensors detecting temperature and luminosity are added to the system. We study the characteristics of the activity sensor and its performance in the field. Finally, we present massive data measured at one exit of a nest of Atta insularis, an ant endemic to Cuba, to illustrate the potential of our system.

  12. Distributive Education--Fashion Show. Kit No. 88. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Brenda B.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on fashion shows are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of distributive education. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  13. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Showing Antioxidative and Probiotic Activities from Kimchi and Infant Feces.

    PubMed

    Ji, Keunho; Jang, Na Young; Kim, Young Tae

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lactic acid bacteria with antioxidative and probiotic activities isolated from Korean healthy infant feces and kimchi. Isolates A1, A2, S1, S2, and S3 were assigned to Lactobacillus sp. and isolates A3, A4, E1, E2, E3, and E4 were assigned to Leuconostoc sp. on the basis of their physiological properties and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Most strains were confirmed as safe bioresources through nonhemolytic activities and non-production of harmful enzymes such as β-glucosidase, β- glucuronidase and tryptophanase. The 11 isolates showed different resistance to acid and bile acids. In addition, they exhibited antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, all strains showed significantly high levels of hydrophobicity. The antioxidant effects of culture filtrates of the 11 strains included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2.2'- azino-bis (2-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase activity. The results revealed that most of the culture filtrates have effective scavenging activity for DPPH and ABTS radicals. All strains appeared to have effective superoxide dismutase activity. In conclusion, the isolated strains A1, A3, S1, and S3 have significant probiotic activities applicable to the development of functional foods and health-related products. These strains might also contribute to preventing and controlling several diseases associated with oxidative stress, when used as probiotics.

  14. Bipolar I disorder and major depressive disorder show similar brain activation during depression

    PubMed Central

    Cerullo, Michael A; Eliassen, James C; Smith, Christopher T; Fleck, David E; Nelson, Erik B; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Lamy, Martine; DelBello, Melissa P; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Despite different treatments and course of illness, depressive symptoms appear similar in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar I disorder (BP-I). This similarity of depressive symptoms suggests significant overlap in brain pathways underlying neurovegetative, mood, and cognitive symptoms of depression. These shared brain regions might be expected to exhibit similar activation in individuals with MDD and BP-I during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods fMRI was used to compare regional brain activation in participants with BP-I (n = 25) and MDD (n = 25) during a depressive episode as well as 25 healthy comparison (HC) participants. During the scans, participants performed an attentional task that incorporated emotional pictures. Results During the viewing of emotional images, subjects with BP-I showed decreased activation in the middle occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus compared to both subjects with MDD and HC participants. During attentional processing, participants with MDD had increased activation in the parahippocampus, parietal lobe, and postcentral gyrus. However, among these regions, only the postcentral gyrus also showed differences between MDD and HC participants. Conclusions No differences in cortico-limbic regions were found between participants with BP-I and MDD during depression. Instead, the major differences occurred in primary and secondary visual processing regions with decreased activation in these regions in BP-I compared to major depression. These differences were driven by abnormal decreases in activation seen in the participants with BP-I. Posterior activation changes are a common finding in studies across mood states in participants with BP-I. PMID:24990479

  15. Nonlinear analysis of motor activity shows differences between schizophrenia and depression: a study using Fourier analysis and sample entropy.

    PubMed

    Hauge, Erik R; Berle, Jan Øystein; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Holsten, Fred; Fasmer, Ole Bernt

    2011-01-28

    The purpose of this study has been to describe motor activity data obtained by using wrist-worn actigraphs in patients with schizophrenia and major depression by the use of linear and non-linear methods of analysis. Different time frames were investigated, i.e., activity counts measured every minute for up to five hours and activity counts made hourly for up to two weeks. The results show that motor activity was lower in the schizophrenic patients and in patients with major depression, compared to controls. Using one minute intervals the depressed patients had a higher standard deviation (SD) compared to both the schizophrenic patients and the controls. The ratio between the root mean square successive differences (RMSSD) and SD was higher in the schizophrenic patients compared to controls. The Fourier analysis of the activity counts measured every minute showed that the relation between variance in the low and the high frequency range was lower in the schizophrenic patients compared to the controls. The sample entropy was higher in the schizophrenic patients compared to controls in the time series from the activity counts made every minute. The main conclusions of the study are that schizophrenic and depressive patients have distinctly different profiles of motor activity and that the results differ according to period length analysed.

  16. The wildgeographer avatar shows how to measure soil erosion rates by means of a rainfall simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Iserloh, Thomas; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    This contribution to the immersed worlds wish to develop the avatar that will teach the students and other scientists how to develop measurements of soil erosion, surface runoff and wetting fronts by means of simulated rainfall experiments. Rainfall simulation is a well established and knows methodology to measure the soil erosion rates and soil hydrology under controlled conditions (Cerdà 1998a; Cerdà, 1998b; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011; Dunkerley, 2012; Iserloh et al., 2012; Iserloh et al., 2013; Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013; Butzen et al., 2014). However, is a method that requires a long training and expertise to avoid mismanagement and mistaken. To use and avatar can help in the teaching of the technique and the dissemination of the findings. This contribution will show to other avatars how to develop an experiment with simulated rainfall and will help to take the right decision in the design of the experiments. Following the main parts of the experiments and measurements the Wildgeographer avatar must develop: 1. Determine the objectives and decide which rainfall intensity and distribution, and which plot size to be used. Choose between a laboratory or a field rainfall simulation. 2. Design of the rainfall simulator to achieve the objectives: type of rainfall simulator (sprayer or drop former) and calibrate. 3. The experiments are carried out. 4. The results are show. Acknowledgements To the "Ministerio de Economía and Competitividad" of Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R). The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Butzen, V., Seeger, M., Wirtz, S., Huemann, M., Mueller, C., Casper, M., Ries, J. B. 2014. Quantification of Hortonian overland flow generation and soil erosion in a Central European low mountain range using rainfall experiments. Catena, 113, 202-212. Cerdà, A

  17. Task Control Signals in Pediatric Tourette Syndrome Show Evidence of Immature and Anomalous Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Church, Jessica A.; Wenger, Kristin K.; Dosenbach, Nico U. F.; Miezin, Francis M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2009-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a pediatric movement disorder that may affect control signaling in the brain. Previous work has proposed a dual-networks architecture of control processing involving a task-maintenance network and an adaptive control network (Dosenbach et al., 2008). A prior resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) analysis in TS has revealed functional immaturity in both putative control networks, with “anomalous” correlations (i.e., correlations outside the typical developmental range) limited to the adaptive control network (Church et al., 2009). The present study used functional MRI (fMRI) to study brain activity related to adaptive control (by studying start-cues signals), and to task-maintenance (by studying signals sustained across a task set). Two hypotheses from the previous rs-fcMRI results were tested. First, adaptive control (i.e., start-cue) activity will be altered in TS, including activity inconsistent with typical development (“anomalous”). Second, group differences found in task-maintenance (i.e., sustained) activity will be consistent with functional immaturity in TS. We examined regions found through a direct comparison of adolescents with and without TS, as well as regions derived from a previous investigation that showed differences between unaffected children and adults. The TS group showed decreased start-cue signal magnitude in regions where start-cue activity is unchanged over typical development, consistent with anomalous adaptive control. The TS group also had higher magnitude sustained signals in frontal cortex regions that overlapped with regions showing differences over typical development, consistent with immature task-maintenance in TS. The results demonstrate task-related fMRI signal differences anticipated by the atypical functional connectivity found previously in adolescents with TS, strengthening the evidence for functional immaturity and anomalous signaling in control networks in adolescents with TS

  18. Functional characterization of a Plagiochasma appendiculatum flavone synthase I showing flavanone 2-hydroxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Yi-Feng; Gao, Shuai; Yu, Hai-Na; Xu, Rui-Xue; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Cheng, Ai-Xia

    2014-06-27

    FNS I is a 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenase (2-ODD) found mainly in species of the Apiaceae family. Here, an FNS I cDNA sequence was isolated from the liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum (Aytoniaceae) and characterized. The recombinant protein exhibited high FNS I activity catalyzing the conversion of naringenin to apigenin and 2-hydroxynaringenin. The critical residue for flavanone-2-hydroxylation activity was Tyr240, as identified from homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. The recombinant protein also showed some flavonol synthase activity, as it can convert dihydrokaempferol to kaempferol. When the Leu311 residue was mutated to Phe, the enzyme's capacity to convert dihydrokaempferol to kaempferol was substantially increased. PaFNS I represents a 2-ODD in which a hydrophobic π-stacking interaction between the key residue and the naringenin A-ring determines 2-hydroxyflavanone formation.

  19. Meropenem-clavulanic acid shows activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    England, Kathleen; Boshoff, Helena I M; Arora, Kriti; Weiner, Danielle; Dayao, Emmanuel; Schimel, Daniel; Via, Laura E; Barry, Clifton E

    2012-06-01

    The carbapenems imipenem and meropenem in combination with clavulanic acid reduced the bacterial burden in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages by 2 logs over 6 days. Despite poor stability in solution and a short half-life in rodents, treatment of chronically infected mice revealed significant reductions of bacterial burden in the lungs and spleens. Our results show that meropenem has activity in two in vivo systems, but stability and pharmacokinetics of long-term administration will offer significant challenges to clinical evaluation.

  20. The three catalases in Deinococcus radiodurans: Only two show catalase activity.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sun-Wook; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Min-Kyu; Seo, Ho Seong; Lim, Heon-Man; Lim, Sangyong

    2016-01-15

    Deinococcus radiodurans, which is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress, is known to have three catalases (DR1998, DRA0146, and DRA0259). In this study, to investigate the role of each catalase, we constructed catalase mutants (Δdr1998, ΔdrA0146, and ΔdrA0259) of D. radiodurans. Of the three mutants, Δdr1998 exhibited the greatest decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) resistance and the highest increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels following H2O2 treatments, whereas ΔdrA0146 showed no change in its H2O2 resistance or ROS level. Catalase activity was not attenuated in ΔdrA0146, and none of the three bands detected in an in-gel catalase activity assay disappeared in ΔdrA0146. The purified His-tagged recombinant DRA0146 did not show catalase activity. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis of the deinococcal catalases revealed that the DR1998-type catalase is common in the genus Deinococcus, but the DRA0146-type catalase was found in only 4 of 23 Deinococcus species. Taken together, these results indicate that DR1998 plays a critical role in the anti-oxidative system of D. radiodurans by detoxifying H2O2, but DRA0146 does not have catalase activity and is not involved in the resistance to H2O2 stress.

  1. Sterols from Mytilidae show anti-aging and neuroprotective effects via anti-oxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujuan; Lin, Yanfei; Cao, Xueli; Xiang, Lan; Qi, Jianhua

    2014-11-25

    For screening anti-aging samples from marine natural products, K6001 yeast strain was employed as a bioassay system. The active mussel extract was separated to give an active sterol fraction (SF). SF was further purified, and four sterol compounds were obtained. Their structures were determined to be cholesterol (CHOL), brassicasterol, crinosterol, and 24-methylenecholesterol. All compounds showed similar anti-aging activity. To understand the action mechanism involved, anti-oxidative experiments, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, and malondialdehyde (MDA) tests were performed on the most abundant compound, CHOL. Results indicated that treatment with CHOL increases the survival rate of yeast under oxidative stress and decreases ROS and MDA levels. In addition, mutations of uth1, skn7, sod1, and sod2, which feature a K6001 background, were employed and the lifespans of the mutations were not affected by CHOL. These results demonstrate that CHOL exerts anti-aging effects via anti-oxidative stress. Based on the connection between neuroprotection and anti-aging, neuroprotective experiments were performed in PC12 cells. Paraquat was used to induce oxidative stress and the results showed that the CHOL and SF protect the PC12 cells from the injury induced by paraquat. In addition, these substance exhibited nerve growth factor (NGF) mimic activities again confirmed their neuroprotective function.

  2. The three catalases in Deinococcus radiodurans: Only two show catalase activity.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sun-Wook; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Min-Kyu; Seo, Ho Seong; Lim, Heon-Man; Lim, Sangyong

    2016-01-15

    Deinococcus radiodurans, which is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress, is known to have three catalases (DR1998, DRA0146, and DRA0259). In this study, to investigate the role of each catalase, we constructed catalase mutants (Δdr1998, ΔdrA0146, and ΔdrA0259) of D. radiodurans. Of the three mutants, Δdr1998 exhibited the greatest decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) resistance and the highest increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels following H2O2 treatments, whereas ΔdrA0146 showed no change in its H2O2 resistance or ROS level. Catalase activity was not attenuated in ΔdrA0146, and none of the three bands detected in an in-gel catalase activity assay disappeared in ΔdrA0146. The purified His-tagged recombinant DRA0146 did not show catalase activity. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis of the deinococcal catalases revealed that the DR1998-type catalase is common in the genus Deinococcus, but the DRA0146-type catalase was found in only 4 of 23 Deinococcus species. Taken together, these results indicate that DR1998 plays a critical role in the anti-oxidative system of D. radiodurans by detoxifying H2O2, but DRA0146 does not have catalase activity and is not involved in the resistance to H2O2 stress. PMID:26692481

  3. Measuring the Built Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Day, Kristen; Forsyth, Ann; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical—or built—environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential. Three categories of built environment data are being used: (1) perceived measures obtained by telephone interview or self-administered questionnaires; (2) observational measures obtained using systematic observational methods (audits); and (3) archival data sets that are often layered and analyzed with GIS. This review provides a critical assessment of these three types of built-environment measures relevant to the study of physical activity. Among perceived measures, 19 questionnaires were reviewed, ranging in length from 7 to 68 questions. Twenty audit tools were reviewed that cover community environments (i.e., neighborhoods, cities), parks, and trails. For GIS-derived measures, more than 50 studies were reviewed. A large degree of variability was found in the operationalization of common GIS measures, which include population density, land-use mix, access to recreational facilities, and street pattern. This first comprehensive examination of built-environment measures demonstrates considerable progress over the past decade, showing diverse environmental variables available that use multiple modes of assessment. Most can be considered first-generation measures, so further development is needed. In particular, further research is needed to improve the technical quality of measures, understand the relevance to various population groups, and understand the utility of measures for science and public health. PMID:19285216

  4. Sapphyrins induce apoptosis in hematopoietic tumor-derived cell lines and show in vivo antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Naumovski, Louie; Ramos, Jason; Sirisawad, Mint; Chen, Jun; Thiemann, Patti; Lecane, Philip; Magda, Darren; Wang, Zhong; Cortez, Cecilia; Boswell, Garry; Gyu Cho, Dong; Sessler, Jonathan; Miller, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Sapphyrins are pentapyrrolic, metal-free, expanded porphyrins. In the present study, the activity of sapphyrins as anticancer agents in hematopoietic-derived tumor cells was explored. It was found that a dihydroxylated water-soluble sapphyrin derivative (PCI-2000) is a potent inducer of apoptosis in a wide variety of tumor cell lines including lymphoma (Ramos, DHL-4, and HF-1), leukemia (Jurkat and HL-60), and myeloma (8226/S, 1-310, C2E3, and 1-414). PCI-2000 triggers an apoptotic pathway in these tumor cells as shown by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria; activation of caspases 9, 8, and 3; cleavage of the caspase substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; and Annexin V binding. Apoptosis can be partially inhibited by overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 or treatment with benzyloxycarbonyl-valine-alanine-aspartic acid-fluoromethylketone, a cell-permeable caspase inhibitor. Both PCI-2000 and PCI-2010, a tetrahydroxy bis-carbamate derivative of PCI-2000, result in increased levels of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation resulted in a synergistic increase of PCI-2000 cytotoxicity. PCI-2010 showed less toxicity in mice than PCI-2000 and was active in slowing the growth of Ramos and HL-60 tumor xenografts in nude mice. These results provide preclinical rationale for the further study of sapphyrins for potential use in the treatment of hematopoietic-derived tumors.

  5. Commercial runs show TiO/sub 2/ Claus catalyst retains activity

    SciTech Connect

    Nougayrede, J.; Philippe, A.; Quesmerel, E.; Vermeersch, R.

    1987-08-10

    Commercial data are given for the CRS 31 Claus catalyst, jointly developed by Rhone Poulenc and Societe Nationale Elf Aquitane (Production) (SNEA). The data confirm laboratory results that show the catalyst's ability to deliver more complete hydrolysis in the first reactor of Claus sulfur recovery plants, and its ability to maintain activity in the second and third reactors. The most important losses in sulfur yields in Claus plants generally come from COS and CS/sub 2/ formed in the thermal steps of the process in the first reactor, and from the low Claus activity of alumina-based catalysts in the second and third reactors. In the first reactor, loaded with alumina-based catalyst, hydrolysis is only partial. Low Claus activity in second and third reactors is caused by the inevitable sulfation of the alumina. Catalytic-activity decrease of aluminas is caused particularly by the presence of oxygen, even in trace amounts, in the Claus gases. Therefore, in the first reactor, the CS/sub 2/ hydrolysis rate is lowered in the subsequent reactors, the H/sub 2/ + SO/sub 2/ conversion significantly drops. The chemical composition of CRS 31, TiO/sub 2/ only, in the same operating conditions, causes a significant improvement in activity because of its increased resistance to sulfation. The economics of the process are given.

  6. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-01-01

    Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal

  7. Negatively charged liposomes show potent adjuvant activity when simply admixed with protein antigens

    PubMed Central

    Yanasarn, Nijaporn; Sloat, Brian R.; Cui, Zhengrong

    2011-01-01

    Liposomes have been investigated extensively as a vaccine delivery system. Herein the adjuvant activities of liposomes with different net surface charges (neutral, positive, or negative) were evaluated when admixed with protein antigens, ovalbumin (OVA, pI = 4.7), Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein (PA, pI = 5.6), or cationized OVA (cOVA). Mice immunized subcutaneously with OVA admixed with different liposomes generated different antibody responses. Interestingly, OVA admixed with net negatively charged liposomes prepared with DOPA was as immunogenic as OVA admixed with positively charged liposomes prepared with DOTAP. Immunization of mice with the anthrax PA protein admixed with the net negatively charged DOPA liposomes also induced a strong and functional anti-PA antibody response. When the cationized OVA was used as a model antigen, liposomes with net neutral, negative, or positive charges showed comparable adjuvant activities. Immunization of mice with the OVA admixed with DOPA liposomes also induced OVA-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and significantly delayed the growth of OVA-expressing B16-OVA tumors in mice. However, not all net negatively charged liposomes showed a strong adjuvant activity. The adjuvant activity of the negatively charged liposomes may be related to the liposome’s ability (i) to up-regulate the expression of molecules related to the activation and maturation of antigen-presenting cells and (ii) to slightly facilitate the uptake of the antigens by antigen-presenting cells. Simply admixing certain negatively charged liposomes with certain protein antigens of interest may represent a novel platform for vaccine development. PMID:21615153

  8. Field measures show methanotroph sensitivity to soil moisture follows precipitation regime of the grassland sites across the US Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, A.; Webb, C. T.; Johnson, N. G.; Brewer, P. E.; von Fischer, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Methane uptake rates are known to have temporal variation in response to changing soil moisture levels. However, the relative importance of soil diffusivity vs. methanotroph physiology has not been disentangled to date. Testing methanotroph physiology in the laboratory can lead to misleading results due to changes in the fine-scale habitat where methanotrophs reside. To assay the soil moisture sensitivity of methanotrophs under field conditions, we studied 22 field plots scattered across eight Great Plains grassland sites that differed in precipitation regime and soil moisture, making ca. bi-weekly measures during the growing seasons over three years. Quantification of methanotroph activity was achieved from chamber-based measures of methane uptake coincident with SF6-derived soil diffusivity, and interpretation in a reaction-diffusion model. At each plot, we also measured soil water content (SWC), soil temperature and inorganic nitrogen (N) contents. We also assessed methanotroph community composition via 454 sequencing of the pmoA gene. Statistical analyses showed that methanotroph activity had a parabolic response with SWC (concave down), and significant differences in the shape of this response among sites. Moreover, we found that the SWC at peak methanotroph activity was strongly correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP) of the site. The sequence data revealed distinct composition patterns, with structure that was associated with variation in MAP and soil texture. These results suggest that local precipitation regime shapes methanotroph community composition, which in turn lead to unique sensitivity of methane uptake rates with soil moisture. Our findings suggest that methanotroph activity may be more accurately modeled when the biological and environmental responses are explicitly described.

  9. Triterpenoids of sour jujube show pronounced inhibitory effect on human tumor cells and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Aimin; Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Zhang, Zhenxue; He, Xiangjiu

    2014-10-01

    Sour jujube is a common fruit and traditional medicine in China. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of sour jujube was used to determine the chemical identity of potent antiproliferative and antioxidant constituents. Four novel ursane-type triterpenoids, together with 8 known were isolated and identified. The new triterpenoids were elucidated to be 2α,3β,13β,23-tetrahydroxy-urs-11-en-28-oic acid (3), 2α,3β-dihydroxy-urs-20(30)-en-28-oic acid (9), 2α,3β,28-trihydroxy-urs-20(30)-ene (10), and 3β,12β,13β-trihydroxy-ursan-28-oic acid (11). Among the triterpenoids isolated, 2α,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (7), 9 and 10 showed high potent inhibitory activity toward the proliferation of HepG2 cells, which the IC50 values were lower than 5 μM. Compounds 9 and 10 also exhibited pronounced activity against MCF-7 cells, with IC50 value of 0.8 ± 0.03 and 1.5 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Compound 10 showed high antioxidant activity with an EC50 of 0.8 ± 0.02 μM, which was 18.9 times higher than ascorbic acid in antioxidant capacity.

  10. Variegation of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in regions showing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Fornasier, S.; Pajola, M.; Besse, S.; Davidsson, B. J. R.; Lara, L. M.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Sierks, H.; Barucci, A. M.; Scholten, F.; Preusker, F.; Pommerol, A.; Masoumzadeh, N.; Lazzarin, M.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Bodewits, D.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Güttler, C.; Hall, I.; Hofmann, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lin, Z.-Y.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Moreno, F.; Shi, X.; Thomas, N.; Toth, I.; Tubiana, C.

    2016-02-01

    Aims.We carried out an investigation of the surface variegation of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the detection of regions showing activity, the determination of active and inactive surface regions of the comet with spectral methods, and the detection of fallback material. Methods: We analyzed multispectral data generated with Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) narrow angle camera (NAC) observations via spectral techniques, reflectance ratios, and spectral slopes in order to study active regions. We applied clustering analysis to the results of the reflectance ratios, and introduced the new technique of activity thresholds to detect areas potentially enriched in volatiles. Results: Local color inhomogeneities are detected over the investigated surface regions. Active regions, such as Hapi, the active pits of Seth and Ma'at, the clustered and isolated bright features in Imhotep, the alcoves in Seth and Ma'at, and the large alcove in Anuket, have bluer spectra than the overall surface. The spectra generated with OSIRIS NAC observations are dominated by cometary emissions of around 700 nm to 750 nm as a result of the coma between the comet's surface and the camera. One of the two isolated bright features in the Imhotep region displays an absorption band of around 700 nm, which probably indicates the existence of hydrated silicates. An absorption band with a center between 800-900 nm is tentatively observed in some regions of the nucleus surface. This absorption band can be explained by the crystal field absorption of Fe2+, which is a common spectral feature seen in silicates.

  11. Side Chain Degradable Cationic-Amphiphilic Polymers with Tunable Hydrophobicity Show in Vivo Activity.

    PubMed

    Uppu, Divakara S S M; Samaddar, Sandip; Hoque, Jiaul; Konai, Mohini M; Krishnamoorthy, Paramanandham; Shome, Bibek R; Haldar, Jayanta

    2016-09-12

    Cationic-amphiphilic antibacterial polymers with optimal amphiphilicity generally target the bacterial membranes instead of mammalian membranes. To date, this balance has been achieved by varying the cationic charge or side chain hydrophobicity in a variety of cationic-amphiphilic polymers. Optimal hydrophobicity of cationic-amphiphilic polymers has been considered as the governing factor for potent antibacterial activity yet minimal mammalian cell toxicity. However, the concomitant role of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity with constant cationic charge in the interactions of antibacterial polymers with bacterial membranes is not understood. Also, degradable polymers that result in nontoxic degradation byproducts offer promise as safe antibacterial agents. Here we show that amide- and ester (degradable)-bearing cationic-amphiphilic polymers with tunable side chain hydrophobicity can modulate antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that an amide polymer can be a potent antibacterial agent with lower hydrophobicity whereas the corresponding ester polymer needs a relatively higher hydrophobicity to be as effective as its amide counterpart. Our studies reveal that at higher hydrophobicities both amide and ester polymers have similar profiles of membrane-active antibacterial activity and mammalian cell toxicity. On the contrary, at lower hydrophobicities, amide and ester polymers are less cytotoxic, but the former have potent antibacterial and membrane activity compared to the latter. Incorporation of amide and ester moieties made these polymers side chain degradable, with amide polymers being more stable than the ester polymers. Further, the polymers are less toxic, and their degradation byproducts are nontoxic to mice. More importantly, the optimized amide polymer reduces the bacterial burden of burn wound infections in mice models. Our design introduces a new strategy of interplay between the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions

  12. The novel AKT inhibitor afuresertib shows favorable safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Andrew; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Harrison, Simon J.; Morris, Shannon R.; Smith, Deborah A.; Brigandi, Richard A.; Gauvin, Jennifer; Kumar, Rakesh; Opalinska, Joanna B.

    2014-01-01

    The PI3K/AKT pathway is constitutively active in hematologic malignancies, providing proliferative and antiapoptotic signals and possibly contributing to drug resistance. We conducted an open-label phase 1 study to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity of afuresertib—an oral AKT inhibitor—in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. Seventy-three patients were treated at doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg per day. The MTD was established at 125 mg per day because of 2 dose-limiting toxicities in the 150-mg cohort (liver function test abnormalities). The most frequent adverse events were nausea (35.6%), diarrhea (32.9%), and dyspepsia (24.7%). Maximum plasma concentrations and area under the plasma concentration-time curves from time 0 to 24 hours were generally dose proportional at >75-mg doses; the median time to peak plasma concentrations was 1.5 to 2.5 hours post dose, with a half-life of approximately 1.7 days. Three multiple myeloma patients attained partial responses; an additional 3 attained minimal responses. Clinical activity was also observed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Langerhan's cell histiocytosis, and Hodgkin disease. Single-agent afuresertib showed a favorable safety profile and demonstrated clinical activity against hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00881946. PMID:25075128

  13. Plant vermicides of Haitian Vodou show in vitro activity against larval hookworm.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Beverly J; Beauvoir, Max G; Wells, Elizabeth Fortson; Hawdon, John M

    2008-10-01

    Haitian Vodou priests (houngans) and priestesses (mambos) use plant remedies to treat many illnesses, including intestinal parasite infections. The present study screened 12 plants used in Vodou treatments for intestinal parasites to detect in vitro activity against infective-stage larvae of the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. Water-soluble extracts of 4 of the 12 plants inhibited serum-stimulated feeding by larval A. caninum in a dose-dependent manner. All 4 plant extracts inhibited feeding induced by the muscarinic agonist arecoline, suggesting that these plant extracts may inhibit the insulin-like signaling pathway involved in the recovery and resumption of development of arrested A. caninum larvae. These results indicate that at least some of the plants used in traditional Haitian medicine as vermifuges show activity against nematode physiological processes.

  14. Two Analogues of Fenarimol Show Curative Activity in an Experimental Model of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is an increasing threat to global health. Available medicines were introduced over 40 years ago, have undesirable side effects, and give equivocal results of cure in the chronic stage of the disease. We report the development of two compounds, 6 and (S)-7, with PCR-confirmed curative activity in a mouse model of established T. cruzi infection after once daily oral dosing for 20 days at 20 mg/kg 6 and 10 mg/kg (S)-7. Compounds 6 and (S)-7 have potent in vitro activity, are noncytotoxic, show no adverse effects in vivo following repeat dosing, are prepared by a short synthetic route, and have druglike properties suitable for preclinical development. PMID:24304150

  15. Elasticity measurements show the existence of thin rigid cores inside mitotic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Houchmandzadeh, B; Dimitrov, S

    1999-04-19

    Chromosome condensation is one of the most critical steps during cell division. However, the structure of condensed mitotic chromosomes is poorly understood. In this paper we describe a new approach based on elasticity measurements for studying the structure of in vitro assembled mitotic chromosomes in Xenopus egg extract. The approach is based on a unique combination of measurements of both longitudinal deformability and bending rigidity of whole chromosomes. By using specially designed micropipettes, the chromosome force-extension curve was determined. Analysis of the curvature fluctuation spectrum allowed for the measurement of chromosome bending ridigity. The relationship between the values of these two parameters is very specific: the measured chromosome flexibility was found to be 2,000 times lower than the flexibility calculated from the experimentally determined Young modulus. This requires the chromosome structure to be formed of one or a few thin rigid elastic axes surrounded by a soft envelope. The properties of these axes are well-described by models developed for the elasticity of titin-like molecules. Additionally, the deformability of in vitro assembled chromosomes was found to be very similar to that of native somatic chromosomes, thus demonstrating the existence of an essentially identical structure.

  16. Meropenem-Clavulanic Acid Shows Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    England, Kathleen; Boshoff, Helena I. M.; Arora, Kriti; Weiner, Danielle; Dayao, Emmanuel; Schimel, Daniel; Via, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    The carbapenems imipenem and meropenem in combination with clavulanic acid reduced the bacterial burden in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages by 2 logs over 6 days. Despite poor stability in solution and a short half-life in rodents, treatment of chronically infected mice revealed significant reductions of bacterial burden in the lungs and spleens. Our results show that meropenem has activity in two in vivo systems, but stability and pharmacokinetics of long-term administration will offer significant challenges to clinical evaluation. PMID:22450968

  17. Endolymphatic Sac Tumor Showing Increased Activity on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2016-10-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are rare tumors arising from the epithelium of the endolymphatic sac and duct that can be either sporadic or associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. We report a case of a VHL patient with histologically proven residual ELST who underwent Ga DOTATATE PET/CT showing increased activity (SUVmax, 6.29) by the ELST. The presented case of a VHL-associated ELST with increased Ga DOTATATE uptake indicates cell-surface expression of somatostatin receptors by this tumor, suggesting the potential application of somatostatin receptor imaging using Ga DOTA-conjugated peptides in the workup and management of these patients. PMID:27454593

  18. Honey, pollen, and propolis extracts show potent inhibitory activity against the zinc metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Sahin, H; Aliyazicioglu, R; Yildiz, O; Kolayli, S; Innocenti, A; Supuran, C T

    2011-06-01

    Three different honey extracts from the endemic plant in the Black Sea region Rhododendron ponticum, were investigated for their inhibitory effects against the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), more precisely the human (h) isoforms hCA I and hCA II. Hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water solid-phase extractions (SPEs) showed inhibitory activity towards the two CA isozymes which were related to the total phenolic content. The highest inhibitory effects (0.036-0.039 mg/mL) were those of propolis methanolic extract. Among the three different samples investigated here, the aqueous extracts showed lower inhibitory effects compared to the organic solvent SPE extracts (in the range of 1.150- 5.144 mg/mL). The studied honey extracts constitute an interesting source of phenolic derivatives that might serve to identify lead compounds, targeting the physiologically relevant enzymes CA I and CA II.

  19. Youth at risk for obesity show greater activation of striatal and somatosensory regions to food.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle S; Epstein, Leonard H; Small, Dana M

    2011-03-23

    Obese humans, compared with normal-weight humans, have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake; weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward-deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, as overeating reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity, reward sensitivity, and striatal response to food. Obese humans also show greater striatal, amygdalar, orbitofrontal cortex, and somatosensory region response to food images than normal-weight humans do, which predicts weight gain for those not at genetic risk for compromised dopamine signaling, consonant with the reward-surfeit theory of obesity. However, after pairings of palatable food intake and predictive cues, DA signaling increases in response to the cues, implying that eating palatable food contributes to increased responsivity. Using fMRI, we tested whether normal-weight adolescents at high- versus low-risk for obesity showed aberrant activation of reward circuitry in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward. High-risk youth showed greater activation in the caudate, parietal operculum, and frontal operculum in response to food intake and in the caudate, putamen, insula, thalamus, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to monetary reward. No differences emerged in response to anticipated food or monetary reward. Data indicate that youth at risk for obesity show elevated reward circuitry responsivity in general, coupled with elevated somatosensory region responsivity to food, which may lead to overeating that produces blunted dopamine signaling and elevated responsivity to food cues.

  20. Youth at Risk for Obesity Show Greater Activation of Striatal and Somatosensory Regions to Food

    PubMed Central

    Stice, E; Yokum, S; Burger, KS; Epstein, LH; Small, DM

    2011-01-01

    Obese versus normal-weight humans have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake, and weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, as overeating reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity, reward sensitivity, and striatal response to food. Obese versus normal-weight humans also show greater striatal, amygdalar, orbitofrontal cortex, and somatosensory region response to food images, which predicts weight gain for those not at genetic risk for compromised dopamine signaling, consonant with the reward surfeit theory of obesity. However, after pairings of palatable food intake and predictive cues, DA signaling increases in response to the cues, implying that eating palatable food contributes to increased responsivity. We tested whether normal-weight adolescents at high- versus low-risk for obesity showed aberrant activation of reward circuitry in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward using fMRI. High-risk youth showed greater activation in the caudate, parietal operculum, and frontal operculum in response to food intake and in the caudate, putamen, insula, thalamus, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to monetary reward. No differences emerged in response to anticipated food or monetary reward. Data indicate that youth at risk for obesity show elevated reward circuitry responsivity in general coupled with elevated somatosensory region responsivity to food, which may lead to overeating that produces blunted dopamine signaling and elevated responsivity to food cues. PMID:21430137

  1. Youth at risk for obesity show greater activation of striatal and somatosensory regions to food.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle S; Epstein, Leonard H; Small, Dana M

    2011-03-23

    Obese humans, compared with normal-weight humans, have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake; weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward-deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, as overeating reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity, reward sensitivity, and striatal response to food. Obese humans also show greater striatal, amygdalar, orbitofrontal cortex, and somatosensory region response to food images than normal-weight humans do, which predicts weight gain for those not at genetic risk for compromised dopamine signaling, consonant with the reward-surfeit theory of obesity. However, after pairings of palatable food intake and predictive cues, DA signaling increases in response to the cues, implying that eating palatable food contributes to increased responsivity. Using fMRI, we tested whether normal-weight adolescents at high- versus low-risk for obesity showed aberrant activation of reward circuitry in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward. High-risk youth showed greater activation in the caudate, parietal operculum, and frontal operculum in response to food intake and in the caudate, putamen, insula, thalamus, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to monetary reward. No differences emerged in response to anticipated food or monetary reward. Data indicate that youth at risk for obesity show elevated reward circuitry responsivity in general, coupled with elevated somatosensory region responsivity to food, which may lead to overeating that produces blunted dopamine signaling and elevated responsivity to food cues. PMID:21430137

  2. Isolation of natural compounds from Phlomis stewartii showing α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Bushra; Riaz, Naheed; Saleem, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad Akram; Ashraf, Muhammad; Alam, Umber; Rafiq, Hafiza Mehwish; Tareen, Rasool Bakhsh; Jabbar, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    Stewartiiside (1), a phenylethanoid glycoside and three 28-nortriterpenoids: stewertiisins A-C [(17R)-19(18→17)-abeo-3α,18β,23,24-tetrahydroxy-28-norolean-12-ene, 2; (17R)-19(18→17)-abeo-2α,16β,18β,23,24-pentahydroxy-28-norolean-12-en-3-one, 3; (17R)-19(18→17)-abeo-2α,3α,23,24-tetrahydroxy-28-noroleane-11,13-diene, 4] together with eight known compounds: lunariifolioside (5), notohamosin A (6), phlomispentanol (7), isorhamnetin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), tiliroside (9), caffeic acid (10), p-hydrxybenzoic acid (11) and oleanolic acid (12) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of whole plant of Phlomis stewartii. The structures of these isolates (1-12) were elucidated by the combination of 1D ((1)H and (13)C NMR), 2D (HMQC, HMBC COSY, NOESY) NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (EIMS, HREIMS, FABMS, HRFABMS) and in comparison with literature data of related compounds. All the isolates (1-12) showed α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging between 14.5 and 355.4 μM, whereas, compounds 1, 5, 9 and 10 showed promising α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values below 30 μM.

  3. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides with double stem-loops show strong immunostimulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Wu, Xiuli; Wan, Min; Yu, Yue; Yu, Yongli; Wang, Liying

    2013-01-01

    Based on the current understanding of TLR9 recognition of CpG ODN, we have tried to design a series of CpG ODNs that display double stem-loops when being analyzed for their secondary structures using 'mfold web server'. Proliferation of human PBMC and bioassay for IFN production were used as technical platforms in primary screening. Interestingly, two of them, designated as DSL01 and D-SL03, belonging to B class CpG ODN and C class CpG ODN respectively, showed vigorous immunostimulatory activity and were chosen for further tests. Flow cytometry analysis showed that both of them could activate human B cells, NK cells, mononuclear cells and T cells and up-regulate expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR on the surface of subsets in human PBMCs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that those two ODNs potently stimulated proliferation of PBMC/splenocytes obtained from diverse vertebrate species. Noticeably, both of them displayed anti-breast cancer effect in mice when administered by peritumoral injection. PMID:23142503

  4. Adolescent earthquake survivors' show increased prefrontal cortex activation to masked earthquake images as adults.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Ganzel, Barbara L; Kim, Pilyoung; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    The great Sichuan earthquake in China on May 12, 2008 was a traumatic event to many who live near the earthquake area. However, at present, there are few studies that explore the long-term impact of the adolescent trauma exposure on adults' brain function. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the brain activation evoked by masked trauma-related stimuli (earthquake versus neutral images) in 14 adults who lived near the epicenter of the great Sichuan earthquake when they were adolescents (trauma-exposed group) and 14 adults who lived farther from the epicenter of the earthquake when they were adolescents (control group). Compared with the control group, the trauma-exposed group showed significant elevation of activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in response to masked earthquake-related images. In the trauma-exposed group, the right ACC activation was negatively correlated with the frequency of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These findings differ markedly from the long-term effects of trauma exposure in adults. This suggests that trauma exposure during adolescence may have a unique long-term impact on ACC/MPFC function, top-down modulation of trauma-related information, and subsequent symptoms of PTSD.

  5. Arctigenin blocks the unfolded protein response and shows therapeutic antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Young; Hwang, Ji-Hwan; Cha, Mi-Ran; Yoon, Mi-Young; Son, Eun-Soon; Tomida, Akihiro; Ko, Bosung; Song, Si-Whan; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Hwang, Yong-il; Park, Hae-Ryong

    2010-07-01

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized solid tumors are constantly or intermittently exposed to stressful microenvironments, including glucose deprivation, hypoxia, and other forms of nutrient starvation. These tumor-specific conditions, especially glucose deprivation, activate a signaling pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which enhances cell survival by induction of the stress proteins. We have established a screening method to discover anticancer agents that could preferentially inhibit tumor cell viability under glucose-deprived conditions. Here we identify arctigenin (ARC-G) as an active compound that shows selective cytotoxicity and inhibits the UPR during glucose deprivation. Indeed, ARC-G blocked expression of UPR target genes such as phosphorylated-PERK, ATF4, CHOP, and GRP78, which was accompanied by enhanced phosphorylation of eIF2 alpha during glucose deprivation. The UPR inhibition led to apoptosis involving a mitochondrial pathway by activation of caspase-9 and -3. Furthermore, ARC-G suppressed tumor growth of colon cancer HT-29 xenografts. Our results demonstrate that ARC-G can be served as a novel type of antitumor agent targeting the UPR in glucose-deprived solid tumors.

  6. Apratoxin A Shows Novel Pancreas-Targeting Activity through the Binding of Sec 61.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuan-Chun; Chen, Zhihong; Jiang, Yimin; Akare, Sandeep; Kolber-Simonds, Donna; Condon, Krista; Agoulnik, Sergei; Tendyke, Karen; Shen, Yongchun; Wu, Kuo-Ming; Mathieu, Steven; Choi, Hyeong-Wook; Zhu, Xiaojie; Shimizu, Hajime; Kotake, Yoshihiko; Gerwick, William H; Uenaka, Toshimitsu; Woodall-Jappe, Mary; Nomoto, Kenichi

    2016-06-01

    Apratoxin A is a natural product with potent antiproliferative activity against many human cancer cell lines. However, we and other investigators observed that it has a narrow therapeutic window in vivo Previous mechanistic studies have suggested its involvement in the secretory pathway as well as the process of chaperone-mediated autophagy. Still the link between the biologic activities of apratoxin A and its in vivo toxicity has remained largely unknown. A better understanding of this relationship is critically important for any further development of apratoxin A as an anticancer drug. Here, we describe a detailed pathologic analysis that revealed a specific pancreas-targeting activity of apratoxin A, such that severe pancreatic atrophy was observed in apratoxin A-treated animals. Follow-up tissue distribution studies further uncovered a unique drug distribution profile for apratoxin A, showing high drug exposure in pancreas and salivary gland. It has been shown previously that apratoxin A inhibits the protein secretory pathway by preventing cotranslational translocation. However, the molecule targeted by apratoxin A in this pathway has not been well defined. By using a (3)H-labeled apratoxin A probe and specific Sec 61α/β antibodies, we identified that the Sec 61 complex is the molecular target of apratoxin A. We conclude that apratoxin A in vivo toxicity is likely caused by pancreas atrophy due to high apratoxin A exposure. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(6); 1208-16. ©2016 AACR.

  7. Tobacco-expressed Brassica juncea chitinase BjCHI1 shows antifungal activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fung, King-Leung; Zhao, Kai-Jun; He, Zhu-Mei; Chye, Mee-Len

    2002-09-01

    We have previously isolated a Brassica juncea cDNA encoding BjCHI1, a novel chitinase with two chitin-binding domains, and have shown that its mRNA is induced by wounding and methyl jasmonate treatment (K.-J. Zhao and M.-L. Chye, Plant Mol. Biol. 40 (1999) 1009-1018). By the presence of two chitin-binding domains, BjCHI1 resembles the precursor of UDA (Urtica dioica agglutinin) but, unlike UDA, BjCHI1 retains its chitinase catalytic domain after post-translational processing. Here, we indicate the role of BjCHI1 in plant defense by demonstrating its mRNA induction upon Aspergillus niger infection or caterpillar Pieris rapae (L.) feeding. To further investigate the biological properties of BjCHI1, we transformed tobacco with a construct expressing the BjCHI1 cDNA from the CaMV 35S promoter. Subsequently, we purified BjCHI1 from the resultant transgenic Ro plants using a regenerated chitin column followed by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Also, the significance of the second chitin-binding domain in BjCHI1 was investigated by raising transgenic tobacco plants expressing BjCHI2, a deletion derivative of BjCHI1 lacking one chitin-binding domain. Colorimetric chitinase assays at 25 degrees C, pH 5, showed no significant differences between the activities of BjCHI1 and BjCHI2, suggesting that chitinase activity, due to the catalytic domain, is not enhanced by the presence of a second chitin-binding domain. Both BjCHI1 and BjCHI2 show in vitro anti-fungal activity toward Trichoderma viride, causing reductions in hyphal diameter, hyphal branching and conidia size. PMID:12175020

  8. Children’s Number-Line Estimation Shows Development of Measurement Skills (Not Number Representations)

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Dale J.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

    2016-01-01

    Children’s understanding of numbers is often assessed using a number-line task, where the child is shown a line labeled with 0 at one end and a higher number (e.g., 100) at the other end. The child is then asked where on the line some intermediate number (e.g., 70) should go. Performance on this task changes predictably during childhood, and this has often been interpreted as evidence of a change in the child’s psychological representation of integer quantities. The present article presents theoretical and empirical evidence that the change in number-line performance actually reflects the development of measurement skills used in the task. We compare 2 versions of the number-line task: the bounded version used in the literature and a new, unbounded version. Results indicate that it is only children’s performance on the bounded task (which requires subtraction or division) that changes markedly with age. In contrast, children’s performance on the unbounded task (which requires only addition) remains fairly constant as they get older. Thus, developmental changes in performance on the traditional bounded number-line task likely reflect the growth of task-specific measurement skills rather than changes in the child’s understanding of numerical quantities. PMID:24512172

  9. Measuring cholinesterase activity in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Claus Henn, Birgit; McMaster, Suzanne; Padilla, Stephanie

    2006-10-01

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 different collection methods: a disposable plastic pipette, and a cotton-wool roll. A brief questionnaire was conducted each week to document changes in exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors for the duration of the sampling. To measure cholinesterase activity, an existing radiometric method was modified to make it suitable for human saliva. Using this method, cholinesterase activity was measurable in saliva, and duplicate samples showed reliable repeatability. Activity in both collection methods ranged from 3 to 265 nmol/h/ml saliva (mean = 52 +/- 37 [SD] nmol/h/ml saliva). For some individuals, enzyme activity was consistent over the five sampling weeks; for others, activity was highly variable. Coefficients of variation (CVs) were calculated to assess variability, and mean CVs were the same for both collection methods (about 35%). Adjusting for protein concentration in the pipette-collected samples did not change results. Both collection methods worked well for collecting between 1 and 3 ml saliva, but at the majority of visits (86%), participants preferred the cotton-wool roll. Results from this study suggest that saliva may be a useful indicator of potential neurotoxic effects from exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides, but that factors affecting variability should be explored further.

  10. In situ evolutionary rate measurements show ecological success of recently emerged bacterial hybrids.

    PubMed

    Denef, Vincent J; Banfield, Jillian F

    2012-04-27

    Few data are available on how quickly free-living microorganisms evolve. We analyzed biofilms collected from a well-defined acid mine drainage system over 9 years to investigate the processes and determine rates of bacterial evolution directly in the environment. Population metagenomic analyses of the dominant primary producer yielded the nucleotide substitution rate, which we used to show that proliferation of a series of recombinant bacterial strains occurred over the past few decades. The ecological success of hybrid bacterial types highlights the role of evolutionary processes in rapid adaptation within natural microbial communities. PMID:22539719

  11. In situ evolutionary rate measurements show ecological success of recently emerged bacterial hybrids.

    PubMed

    Denef, Vincent J; Banfield, Jillian F

    2012-04-27

    Few data are available on how quickly free-living microorganisms evolve. We analyzed biofilms collected from a well-defined acid mine drainage system over 9 years to investigate the processes and determine rates of bacterial evolution directly in the environment. Population metagenomic analyses of the dominant primary producer yielded the nucleotide substitution rate, which we used to show that proliferation of a series of recombinant bacterial strains occurred over the past few decades. The ecological success of hybrid bacterial types highlights the role of evolutionary processes in rapid adaptation within natural microbial communities.

  12. Polyethylenimine-cyclodextrin-tegafur conjugate shows anti-cancer activity and a potential for gene delivery*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qi-da; Fan, Hui; Lou, Wei-jian; Wang, Qing-qing; Tang, Gu-ping

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylenimine-cyclodextrin-tegafur (PEI-CyD-tegafur) conjugate was synthesized as a novel multifunctional prodrug of tegafur for co-delivery of chemotherapeutic agent tegafur and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter plasmid DNA. Conjugation of tegafur to PEI-CyD via chemical linkage was characterized by 1H NMR spectrometry and ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry. PEI-CyD-tegafur was able to condense plasmid DNA into complexes of around 150 nm with positive charge at the N/P ratio of 25, in accordance with electron microscopy observation of compact and monodisperse nanoparticles. The results of in vitro experiments showed enhanced cytotoxicity and considerable transfection efficiency in B16F10 cell line. Therefore, PEI-CyD-tegafur may have great potential as a co-delivery system with anti-cancer activity and potential for gene delivery. PMID:21887847

  13. Acidophilic actinobacteria synthesised silver nanoparticles showed remarkable activity against fungi-causing superficial mycoses in humans.

    PubMed

    Anasane, N; Golińska, P; Wypij, M; Rathod, D; Dahm, H; Rai, M

    2016-03-01

    Superficial mycoses are limited to the most external part of the skin and hair and caused by Malassezia sp., Trichophyton sp. and Candida sp. We report extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by acidophilic actinobacteria (SF23, C9) and its in vitro antifungal activity against fungi-causing superficial mycoses. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strains SF23 and C9 showed that they are most closely related to Pilimelia columellifera subsp. pallida GU269552(T). The detection of AgNPs was confirmed by visual observation of colour changes from colourless to brown, and UV-vis spectrophotometer analysis, which showed peaks at 432 and 427 nm, respectively. These AgNPs were further characterised by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), Zeta potential, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FTIR analysis exhibited the presence of proteins as capping agents. The TEM analysis revealed the formation of spherical and polydispersed nanoparticles in the size range of 4-36 nm and 8-60 nm, respectively. The biosynthesised AgNPs were screened against fungi-causing superficial mycoses viz., Malassezia furfur, Trichophyton rubrum, Candida albicans and C. tropicalis. The highest antifungal activity of AgNPs from SF23 and C9 against T. rubrum and the least against M. furfur and C. albicans was observed as compared to other tested fungi. The biosynthesised AgNPs were found to be potential anti-antifungal agent against fungi-causing superficial mycoses.

  14. The Reverse Transcription Inhibitor Abacavir Shows Anticancer Activity in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, Agnese; Parisi, Chiara; Bozzuto, Giuseppina; Toccacieli, Laura; Formisano, Giuseppe; De Orsi, Daniela; Paradisi, Silvia; Grober, OlÌ Maria Victoria; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Arcieri, Romano; Vella, Stefano; Gaudi, Simona

    2010-01-01

    Background Transposable Elements (TEs) comprise nearly 45% of the entire genome and are part of sophisticated regulatory network systems that control developmental processes in normal and pathological conditions. The retroviral/retrotransposon gene machinery consists mainly of Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs-1) and Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) that code for their own endogenous reverse transcriptase (RT). Interestingly, RT is typically expressed at high levels in cancer cells. Recent studies report that RT inhibition by non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) induces growth arrest and cell differentiation in vitro and antagonizes growth of human tumors in animal model. In the present study we analyze the anticancer activity of Abacavir (ABC), a nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor (NRTI), on PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. Principal Findings ABC significantly reduces cell growth, migration and invasion processes, considerably slows S phase progression, induces senescence and cell death in prostate cancer cells. Consistent with these observations, microarray analysis on PC3 cells shows that ABC induces specific and dose-dependent changes in gene expression, involving multiple cellular pathways. Notably, by quantitative Real-Time PCR we found that LINE-1 ORF1 and ORF2 mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated by ABC treatment. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the potential of ABC as anticancer agent able to induce antiproliferative activity and trigger senescence in prostate cancer cells. Noteworthy, we show that ABC elicits up-regulation of LINE-1 expression, suggesting the involvement of these elements in the observed cellular modifications. PMID:21151977

  15. Optical volume and mass measurements show that mammalian cells swell during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, Ewa; Monnier, Sylvain; Cappello, Giovanni; Le Berre, Mael

    2015-01-01

    The extent, mechanism, and function of cell volume changes during specific cellular events, such as cell migration and cell division, have been poorly studied, mostly because of a lack of adequate techniques. Here we unambiguously report that a large range of mammalian cell types display a significant increase in volume during mitosis (up to 30%). We further show that this increase in volume is tightly linked to the mitotic state of the cell and not to its spread or rounded shape and is independent of the presence of an intact actomyosin cortex. Importantly, this volume increase is not accompanied by an increase in dry mass and thus corresponds to a decrease in cell density. This mitotic swelling might have important consequences for mitotic progression: it might contribute to produce strong pushing forces, allowing mitotic cells to round up; it might also, by lowering cytoplasmic density, contribute to the large change of physicochemical properties observed in mitotic cells. PMID:26598614

  16. Optical volume and mass measurements show that mammalian cells swell during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, Ewa; Monnier, Sylvain; Cappello, Giovanni; Le Berre, Mael; Piel, Matthieu

    2015-11-23

    The extent, mechanism, and function of cell volume changes during specific cellular events, such as cell migration and cell division, have been poorly studied, mostly because of a lack of adequate techniques. Here we unambiguously report that a large range of mammalian cell types display a significant increase in volume during mitosis (up to 30%). We further show that this increase in volume is tightly linked to the mitotic state of the cell and not to its spread or rounded shape and is independent of the presence of an intact actomyosin cortex. Importantly, this volume increase is not accompanied by an increase in dry mass and thus corresponds to a decrease in cell density. This mitotic swelling might have important consequences for mitotic progression: it might contribute to produce strong pushing forces, allowing mitotic cells to round up; it might also, by lowering cytoplasmic density, contribute to the large change of physicochemical properties observed in mitotic cells.

  17. Sphaeropsidin A shows promising activity against drug-resistant cancer cells by targeting regulatory volume increase.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Véronique; Chantôme, Aurélie; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Miklos, Walter; Paulitschke, Verena; Mohr, Thomas; Maddau, Lucia; Kornienko, Alexander; Berger, Walter; Vandier, Christophe; Evidente, Antonio; Delpire, Eric; Kiss, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Despite the recent advances in the treatment of tumors with intrinsic chemotherapy resistance, such as melanoma and renal cancers, their prognosis remains poor and new chemical agents with promising activity against these cancers are urgently needed. Sphaeropsidin A, a fungal metabolite whose anticancer potential had previously received little attention, was isolated from Diplodia cupressi and found to display specific anticancer activity in vitro against melanoma and kidney cancer subpanels in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60-cell line screen. The NCI data revealed a mean LC50 of ca. 10 µM and a cellular sensitivity profile that did not match that of any other agent in the 765,000 compound database. Subsequent mechanistic studies in melanoma and other multidrug-resistant in vitro cancer models showed that sphaeropsidin A can overcome apoptosis as well as multidrug resistance by inducing a marked and rapid cellular shrinkage related to the loss of intracellular Cl(-) and the decreased HCO3 (-) concentration in the culture supernatant. These changes in ion homeostasis and the absence of effects on the plasma membrane potential were attributed to the sphaeropsidin A-induced impairment of regulatory volume increase (RVI). Preliminary results also indicate that depending on the type of cancer, the sphaeropsidin A effects on RVI could be related to Na-K-2Cl electroneutral cotransporter or Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) anion exchanger(s) targeting. This study underscores the modulation of ion-transporter activity as a promising therapeutic strategy to combat drug-resistant cancers and identifies the fungal metabolite, sphaeropsidin A, as a lead to develop anticancer agents targeting RVI in cancer cells. PMID:25868554

  18. DC-159a Shows Inhibitory Activity against DNA Gyrases of Mycobacterium leprae

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Nakajima, Chie

    2016-01-01

    Background Fluoroquinolones are a class of antibacterial agents used for leprosy treatment. Some new fluoroquinolones have been attracting interest due to their remarkable potency that is reportedly better than that of ofloxacin, the fluoroquinolone currently recommended for treatment of leprosy. For example, DC-159a, a recently developed 8-methoxy fluoroquinolone, has been found to be highly potent against various bacterial species. Nonetheless, the efficacy of DC-159a against Mycobacterium leprae is yet to be examined. Methodology/Principal Findings To gather data that can support highly effective fluoroquinolones as candidates for new remedies for leprosy treatment, we conducted in vitro assays to assess and compare the inhibitory activities of DC-159a and two fluoroquinolones that are already known to be more effective against M. leprae than ofloxacin. The fluoroquinolone-inhibited DNA supercoiling assay using recombinant DNA gyrases of wild type and ofloxacin-resistant M. leprae revealed that inhibitory activities of DC-159a and sitafloxacin were at most 9.8- and 11.9-fold higher than moxifloxacin. Also the fluoroquinolone–mediated cleavage assay showed that potencies of those drugs were at most 13.5- and 9.8-fold higher than moxifloxacin. In addition, these two drugs retained their inhibitory activities even against DNA gyrases of ofloxacin-resistant M. leprae. Conclusions/Significance The results indicated that DC-159a and sitafloxacin are more effective against wild type and mutant M. leprae DNA gyrases than moxifloxacin, suggesting that these antibacterial drugs can be good candidates that may supersede current fluoroquinolone remedies. DC-159a in particular is very promising because it is classified in a subgroup of fluoroquinolones that is known to be less likely to cause adverse effects. Our results implied that DC-159a is well worth further investigation to ascertain its in vivo effectiveness and clinical safety for humans. PMID:27681932

  19. Sphaeropsidin A shows promising activity against drug-resistant cancer cells by targeting regulatory volume increase

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Véronique; Chantôme, Aurélie; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Miklos, Walter; Paulitschke, Verena; Mohr, Thomas; Maddau, Lucia; Kornienko, Alexander; Berger, Walter; Vandier, Christophe; Evidente, Antonio; Delpire, Eric; Kiss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent advances in the treatment of tumors with intrinsic chemotherapy resistance, such as melanoma and renal cancers, their prognosis remains poor and new chemical agents with promising activity against these cancers are urgently needed. Sphaeropsidin A, a fungal metabolite whose anticancer potential had previously received little attention, was isolated from Diplodia cupressi and found to display specific anticancer activity in vitro against melanoma and kidney cancer subpanels in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60-cell line screen. The NCI data revealed a mean LC50 of ca. 10 μM and a cellular sensitivity profile that did not match that of any other agent in the 765,000 compound database. Subsequent mechanistic studies in melanoma and other multidrug-resistant in vitro cancer models showed that sphaeropsidin A can overcome apoptosis as well as multidrug resistance by inducing a marked and rapid cellular shrinkage related to the loss of intracellular Cl− and the decreased HCO3− concentration in the culture supernatant. These changes in ion homeostasis and the absence of effects on the plasma membrane potential were attributed to the sphaeropsidin A-induced impairment of regulatory volume increase (RVI). Preliminary results also indicate that depending on the type of cancer, the sphaeropsidin A effects on RVI could be related to Na–K–2Cl electroneutral cotransporter or Cl−/HCO3− anion exchanger(s) targeting. This study underscores the modulation of ion-transporter activity as a promising therapeutic strategy to combat drug-resistant cancers and identifies the fungal metabolite, sphaeropsidin A, as a lead to develop anticancer agents targeting RVI in cancer cells. PMID:25868554

  20. Transgenic tobacco expressing a foreign calmodulin gene shows an enhanced production of active oxygen species.

    PubMed Central

    Harding, S A; Oh, S H; Roberts, D M

    1997-01-01

    A strategy for elucidating specific molecular targets of calcium and calmodulin in plant defense responses has been developed. We have used a dominant-acting calmodulin mutant (VU-3, Lys to Arg115) to investigate the oxidative burst and nicotinamide co-enzyme fluxes after various stimuli (cellulase, harpin, incompatible bacteria, osmotic and mechanical) that elicit plant defense responses in transgenic tobacco cell cultures. VU-3 calmodulin differs from endogenous plant calmodulin in that it cannot be methylated post-translationally, and as a result it hyperactivates calmodulin-dependent NAD kinase. Cells expressing VU-3 calmodulin exhibited a stronger active oxygen burst that occurred more rapidly than in normal control cells challenged with the same stimuli. Increases in NADPH level were also greater in VU-3 cells and coincided both in timing and magnitude with development of the active oxygen species (AOS) burst. These data show that calmodulin is a target of calcium fluxes in response to elicitor or environmental stress, and provide the first evidence that plant NAD kinase may be a downstream target which potentiates AOS production by altering NAD(H)/NADP(H) homeostasis. PMID:9135130

  1. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    PubMed

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year).

  2. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

  3. Disease Activity Measures in Paediatric Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Nadia J.; Feldman, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Disease activity refers to potentially reversible aspects of a disease. Measurement of disease activity in paediatric rheumatic diseases is a critical component of patient care and clinical research. Disease activity measures are developed systematically, often involving consensus methods. To be useful, a disease activity measure must be feasible, valid, and interpretable. There are several challenges in quantifying disease activity in paediatric rheumatology; namely, the conditions are multidimensional, the level of activity must be valuated in the context of treatment being received, there is no gold standard for disease activity, and it is often difficult to incorporate the patient's perspective of their disease activity. To date, core sets of response variables are defined for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus, and juvenile dermatomyositis, as well as definitions for improvement in response to therapy. Several specific absolute disease activity measures also exist for each condition. Further work is required to determine the optimal disease activity measures in paediatric rheumatology. PMID:24089617

  4. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(104)] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950–2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones. PMID:23836646

  5. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Kerry A

    2013-07-23

    A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(10(4))] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950-2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones.

  6. Total alkaloids of Rubus alceifolius Poir shows anti-angiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinyan; Lin, Wei; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zhong, Xiaoyong; Cao, Zhiyun; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Total alkaloids is an active ingredient of the natural plant Rubus alceifolius Poir, commonly used for the treatment of various cancers. Antitumor effects may be mediated through anti-angiogenic mechanisms. As such, the goal of the present study was to investigate and evaluate the effect of total alkaloids in Rubus alceifolius Poir (TARAP) on tumor angiogenesis and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of TARAP action in vivo and in vitro. A chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay was used to assess angiogenesis in vivo. An MTT assay was performed to determine the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with and without treatment. Cell cycle progression of HUVECs was examined by FACS analysis with propidium iodide staining. HUVEC migration was determined using a scratch wound method. Tube formation of HUVECs was assessed with an ECMatrix gel system, and mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HUVECs and HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were examined by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Our results showed that TARAP inhibited angiogenesis in the CAM model in vivo and inhibited HUVEC proliferation via blocking cell cycle G1 to S progression in a dose- and time-dependent manners in vitro. Moreover, TARAP inhibited HUVEC migration and tube formation and downregulated mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HepG2 cells and HUVECs. Our findings suggest that the anti-angiogenic activity of TARAP may partly contribute to its antitumor properties and may be valuable for the treatment of diseases involving pathologic angiogenesis such as cancer.

  7. Hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids from the Pacific krill show high ligand activities for PPARs[S

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hidetoshi; Oshiro, Eriko; Kikuchi, Sayaka; Hakozaki, Mayuka; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kimura, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    PPARs regulate the expression of genes for energy metabolism in a ligand-dependent manner. PPARs can influence fatty acid oxidation, the level of circulating triglycerides, glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate that 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE), 8-HEPE, 9-HEPE, 12-HEPE and 18-HEPE (hydroxylation products of EPA) obtained from methanol extracts of Pacific krill (Euphausia pacifica) can act as PPAR ligands. Two of these products, 8-HEPE and 9-HEPE, enhanced the transcription levels of GAL4-PPARs to a significantly greater extent than 5-HEPE, 12-HEPE, 18-HEPE, EPA, and EPA ethyl-ester. 8-HEPE also activated significantly higher transcription of GAL4-PPARα, GAL4-PPARγ, and GAL4-PPARδ than EPA at concentrations greater than 4, 64, and 64 μM, respectively. We also demonstrated that 8-HEPE increased the expression levels of genes regulated by PPARs in FaO, 3T3-F442A, and C2C12 cells. Furthermore, 8-HEPE enhanced adipogenesis and glucose uptake. By contrast, at the same concentrations, EPA showed weak or little effect, indicating that 8-HEPE was the more potent inducer of physiological effects. PMID:24668940

  8. Using analogy role-play activity in an undergraduate biology classroom to show central dogma revision.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego® blocks (Lego System A/S, Denmark). Students were studying in the course of mathematics, physics, or chemistry, so biology was not among their usual studies. In this exercise, students perform the central dogma role-play and respectively act out nuclear matrix proteins, a transcription factor, an RNA polymerase II, an mRNA transport protein, nuclear pore proteins, a large ribosomal subunit, a small ribosomal subunit, and several amino-acyl tRNA synthetases. Questionnaire results obtained after the activity show that this central dogma role-play analogy holds student interest in the practical molecular biological processes of transcription and translation.

  9. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  10. Active tectonics west of New Zealand's Alpine Fault: South Westland Fault Zone activity shows Australian Plate instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pascale, Gregory P.; Chandler-Yates, Nicholas; Dela Pena, Federico; Wilson, Pam; May, Elijah; Twiss, Amber; Cheng, Che

    2016-04-01

    The 300 km long South Westland Fault Zone (SWFZ) is within the footwall of the Central Alpine Fault (<20 km away) and has 3500 m of dip-slip displacement, but it has been unknown if the fault is active. Here the first evidence for SWFZ thrust faulting in the "stable" Australian Plate is shown with cumulative dip-slip displacements up to 5.9 m (with 3 m throw) on Pleistocene and Holocene sediments and gentle hanging wall anticlinal folding. Cone penetration test (CPT) stratigraphy shows repeated sequences within the fault scarp (consistent with thrusting). Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating constrains the most recent rupture post-12.1 ± 1.7 ka with evidence for three to four events during earthquakes of at least Mw 6.8. This study shows significant deformation is accommodated on poorly characterized Australian Plate structures northwest of the Alpine Fault and demonstrates that major active and seismogenic structures remain uncharacterized in densely forested regions on Earth.

  11. Trans Fatty Acid Derived Phospholipids Show Increased Membrane Cholesterol and Reduced Receptor Activation as Compared to Their Cis Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shui-Lin; Mitchell, Drake C.; Litman, Burton J.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of trans fatty acid (TFA) is linked to the elevation of LDL cholesterol and is considered to be a major health risk factor for coronary heart disease. Despite several decades of extensive research on this subject, the underlying mechanism of how TFA modulates serum cholesterol levels remains elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular interaction of TFA-derived phospholipid with cholesterol and the membrane receptor rhodopsin in model membranes. Rhodopsin is a prototypical member of the G-protein coupled receptor family. It has a well-characterized structure and function and serves as a model membrane receptor in this study. Phospholipid–cholesterol affinity was quantified by measuring cholesterol partition coefficients. Phospholipid–receptor interactions were probed by measuring the level of rhodopsin activation. Our study shows that phospholipid derived from TFA had a higher membrane cholesterol affinity than their cis analogues. TFA phospholipid membranes also exhibited a higher acyl chain packing order, which was indicated by the lower acyl chain packing free volume as determined by DPH fluorescence and the higher transition temperature for rhodopsin thermal denaturation. The level of rhodopsin activation was diminished in TFA phospholipids. Since membrane cholesterol level and membrane receptors are involved in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, the combination of higher cholesterol content and reduced receptor activation associated with the presence of TFA–phospholipid could be factors contributing to the elevation of LDL cholesterol. PMID:15766276

  12. Quercetin and quercetin 3-O-glycosides from Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. show anti-Mayaro virus activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The arthropod-borne Mayaro virus (MAYV) causes ‘Mayaro fever’, a disease of medical significance, primarily affecting individuals in permanent contact with forested areas in tropical South America. Recently, MAYV has attracted attention due to its likely urbanization. Currently, there are no licensed drugs against most mosquito-transmitted viruses. Here, we investigated the in vitro anti-MAYV activity of the flavonoids quercetin and its derivatives from the Brazilian shrub Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. Methods Flavonoids were purified by chromatographic fractionation from leaf extracts of B. longifolia and chemically identified as quercetin and quercetin glycosides using spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxicity of purified flavonoids and of EtOAc- and n-BuOH-containing flavonoid mixtures was measured by the dye-uptake assay while their antiviral activity was evaluated by a virus yield inhibition assay. Results The following flavonoids were purified from B. longifolia leaves: non-glycosylated quercetin and its glycosides guaijaverin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and hyperin. EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions containing these flavonoids demonstrated the highest antiviral activity of all tested substances, while quercetin had the highest antiviral activity amongst purified flavonoids. Quercetin, EtOAc, or n-BuOH fractions inhibited MAYV production by more than 90% at 25 μg/mL, displaying a stronger antiviral effect than the licensed antiviral ribavirin. A mixture of the isomers isoquercitrin and hyperin had a modest antiviral effect (IC90 = 104.9), while guaijaverin and quercitrin did not show significant antiviral activity. Conclusions B. longifolia is a good source of flavonoids with anti-Mayaro virus activity. This is the first report of the activity of quercetin and its derivatives against an alphavirus. PMID:24678592

  13. Regional brain activation during meditation shows time and practice effects: an exploratory FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Baron Short, E; Kose, Samet; Mu, Qiwen; Borckardt, Jeffery; Newberg, Andrew; George, Mark S; Kozel, F Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13), and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8) and long-term (n = 5) practitioners (>10 years) revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners.

  14. Male-to-female transsexuals show sex-atypical hypothalamus activation when smelling odorous steroids.

    PubMed

    Berglund, H; Lindström, P; Dhejne-Helmy, C; Savic, I

    2008-08-01

    One working hypothesis behind transsexuality is that the normal sex differentiation of certain hypothalamic networks is altered. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the pattern of cerebral activation in 12 nonhomosexual male-to-female transsexuals (MFTRs) when smelling 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST). These steroids are reported to activate the hypothalamic networks in a sex-differentiated way. Like in female controls the hypothalamus in MFTRs activated with AND, whereas smelling of EST engaged the amygdala and piriform cortex. Male controls, on the other hand, activated the hypothalamus with EST. However, when restricting the volume of interest to the hypothalamus activation was detected in MFTR also with EST, and explorative conjunctional analysis revealed that MFTR shared a hypothalamic cluster with women when smelling AND, and with men when smelling EST. Because the EST effect was limited, MFTR differed significantly only from male controls, and only for EST-AIR and EST-AND. These data suggest a pattern of activation away from the biological sex, occupying an intermediate position with predominantly female-like features. Because our MFTRs were nonhomosexual, the results are unlikely to be an effect of sexual practice. Instead, the data implicate that transsexuality may be associated with sex-atypical physiological responses in specific hypothalamic circuits, possibly as a consequence of a variant neuronal differentiation.

  15. Indonesian fire activity and smoke pollution in 2015 show persistent nonlinear sensitivity to El Niño-induced drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Robert D.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M.

    2016-08-01

    The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for 2 mo. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have nonlinear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4 mm/d of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will reoccur during future droughts, usually associated with El Niño events.

  16. Indonesian fire activity and smoke pollution in 2015 show persistent nonlinear sensitivity to El Niño-induced drought.

    PubMed

    Field, Robert D; van der Werf, Guido R; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M

    2016-08-16

    The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for 2 mo. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have nonlinear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4 mm/d of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will reoccur during future droughts, usually associated with El Niño events. PMID:27482096

  17. Indonesian fire activity and smoke pollution in 2015 show persistent nonlinear sensitivity to El Niño-induced drought.

    PubMed

    Field, Robert D; van der Werf, Guido R; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M

    2016-08-16

    The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for 2 mo. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have nonlinear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4 mm/d of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will reoccur during future droughts, usually associated with El Niño events.

  18. Residue organic mixtures from drinking water show in vitro mutagenic and transforming activity.

    PubMed

    Loper, J C; Lang, D R; Schoeny, R S; Richmond, B B; Gallagher, P M; Smith, C C

    1978-01-01

    Indications of possible health effects of residue organics in drinking water have been sought using short-term tests of mutagenic and transforming activity. Ten percent or less of the total organic material in drinking water has been identified; the remainder is believed to include thousands of unknown nonvolatile compounds. Residual organics were concentrated from drinking water from representative U.S. cities by reverse osmosis followed by liquid-liquid extraction [yielding the reverse osmosis concentrate-organic extract (ROC-OE) fraction] and sorption-desorption on XAD-2 resin. Samples of these residue organics were provided by the Environmental Protection Agency for bioassay. They were examined for mutagenic activity by using Salmonella tester strains (primarily TA98 and TA100) and for transforming activity by using mouse fibroblasts (BALB/3T3 clone 1-13). City-specific patterns of dose-dependent bacterial mutagenesis and of bacterial toxicity were observed for these samples and for subfractions generated by sequential extractions with hexane, ethyl ether, and acetone. Mutagenic effects were essentially independent of a microsome activation system prepared from liver of Aroclor 1254-induced rats. On the basis of strain-specific effects in mutagenesis and differential distributions of mutagenic activity during liquid-liquid extraction, at least some of the active compounds are thought to be acidic, frameshift mutagens. The ROC-OE fraction of a New Orleans sample transformed BALB/3T3 cells in replicate experiments. By comparison with the bacterial mutagenesis data, cell transformation is a relatively sensitive method for detecting possible mutagenic and carcinogenic activity in this sample. The appropriateness of these systems for the assay of complex mixtures and the degree to which reverse osmosis concentrates contain the unaltered organic compounds in the original samples are discussed.

  19. A transgenic apple callus showing reduced polyphenol oxidase activity and lower browning potential.

    PubMed

    Murata, M; Nishimura, M; Murai, N; Haruta, M; Homma, S; Itoh, Y

    2001-02-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is responsible for enzymatic browning of apples. Apples lacking PPO activity might be useful not only for the food industry but also for studies of the metabolism of polyphenols and the function of PPO. Transgenic apple calli were prepared by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the kanamycin (KM) resistant gene and antisense PPO gene. Four KM-resistant callus lines were obtained from 356 leaf explants. Among these transgenic calli, three calli grew on the medium containing KM at the same rate as non-transgenic callus on the medium without KM. One callus line had an antisense PPO gene, in which the amount and activity of PPO were reduced to half the amount and activity in non-transgenic callus. The browning potential of this line, which was estimated by adding chlorogenic acid, was also half the browning potential of non-transgenic callus.

  20. Isolation and analysis of polysaccharide showing high hyaluronidase inhibitory activity in Nostochopsis lobatus MAC0804NAN.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yuji; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2016-03-01

    An active substance with high hyaluronidase inhibitory effect was isolated from the edible cyanobacterium Nostochopsis lobatus MAC0804NAN strain and characterized. The active component in the hot water extract was purified by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography and was found to be a polysaccharide. The IC(50) against hyaluronidase of the purified polysaccharide was 7.18 μg/ml whose inhibitory activity is 14.5 times stronger than that of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), an anti-allergy medication. The carbohydrate composition which was analyzed by GC-MS and NMR was found to be composed mainly of glucose, glucuronic acid, fucose, 2-O-methylfucose, mannose, galactose and xylose.

  1. Systematic Review Shows Only Few Reliable Studies of Physical Activity Intervention in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leão, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

  2. Water Works: A Great Show on Earth. Classroom Activities for Third and Fourth Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Judy; Clark, Neil

    This curriculum guide is divided into five lessons, each containing several activities that reflect the natural path of inquiry that third or fourth grade students might take in considering the water that arrives in their bathroom sinks each morning. Starting from the familiar faucet, the students are encouraged to reflect on their own habits and…

  3. AHTN and HHCB show weak estrogenic--but no uterotrophic activity.

    PubMed

    Seinen, W; Lemmen, J G; Pieters, R H; Verbruggen, E M; van der Burg, B

    1999-12-20

    The ubiquitous presence of the polycyclic musks AHTN (6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetraline) and HHCB (1,2,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-b enzopyreen) in surface waters and their identification in human milk fat together with their polycyclic nature, which makes them potential candidates for interference with estrogen receptors, prompted us to assess these compounds for their potential estrogenic effects. We therefore investigated the effects of AHTN and HHCB in ERalpha- and ERbeta-dependent gene transcription assays with Human Embryonal Kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, which have proven to be very suitable to estimate the estrogenic activity of compounds with low binding activity (Kuiper, G.G., Lemmen, J.G., Carlsson, B., Corton, J.C., Safe, S.H., Van der Saag, P.T., Van der Burg, B., Gustafsson, J.A., 1998. Interaction of estrogenic chemicals and phytoestrogens with estrogen receptor beta. Endocrinology 139, 4252-4264). Both AHTN and HHCB were found to induce a slight but dose-dependent stimulation of transcriptional activity in the transiently ERalpha transfected HEK293 cells. This weak estrogenic response was not observed in the ERbeta transiently transfected cells. However, these cells were less responsive to estradiol than the ERalpha transfected HEK293 cells. Also, no significant increase in transcriptional activity was observed in HEK293 cell lines, permanently expressing the same estrogen-responsive reporter gene construct and either ERalpha or ERbeta. In the classical uterine weight assay performed in juvenile Balb/c mice, no uterotrophic activity of AHTN and HHCB was noted at relatively high dietary exposure levels up to 50 and 300 ppm, respectively, at which levels an increase in liver weight was evident. Also the vitellogenin production by carp hepatocytes, a sensitive marker of estrogenic activity, was not affected by these two fragrance materials (Smeets, J.M.W., Rouhani Rankouhi, T., Nichols, K.M., Komen, H., Kaminsky, N

  4. Cerato-platanin shows expansin-like activity on cellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Baccelli, Ivan; Luti, Simone; Bernardi, Rodolfo; Scala, Aniello; Pazzagli, Luigia

    2014-01-01

    Cerato-platanin (CP) is a non-catalytic protein with a double ψβ-barrel fold located in the cell wall of the phytopathogenic fungus Ceratocystis platani. CP is released during growth and induces defence-related responses in plants. CP is also the first member of the "cerato-platanin family" (CPF) (Pfam PF07249). In the CPF, the molecular mechanism of action on plants and above all the biological role in fungal life are little-known aspects. However, an expansin-like function has recently been suggested concerning CP. Expansin-like proteins have the ability to act non-hydrolytically on cellulose. In the present work, the expansin-like activity of CP and Pop1, a CP family member, was investigated. Like expansins, CP and Pop1 were able to weaken filter paper in a concentration-dependent manner and without the production of reducing sugars. A metal-dependent polysaccharide monooxygenase-like activity was excluded. The optimum of activity was pH5.0, 38 °C. CP was also able to cause fragmentation of the crystalline cellulose Avicel and the breakage and defibration of cotton fibres. However, the interaction did not involve a stable bond with the substrates and CP did not significantly enhance the hydrolytic activity of cellulase. On the other hand, CP and Pop1 bound quickly to chitin. We consider CP as a novel one-domain expansin-like protein. We propose a structural role for CP in the fungal cell wall due to the ability to bind chitin, and hypothesize a functional role in the interaction of the fungus with the plant for the weakening activity shown on cellulose.

  5. Intervention to increase physical activity in irritable bowel syndrome shows long-term positive effects

    PubMed Central

    Johannesson, Elisabet; Ringström, Gisela; Abrahamsson, Hasse; Sadik, Riadh

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the long-term effects of physical activity on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and on quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. METHODS: Seventy-six patients from a previous randomized controlled interventional study on increased physical activity in IBS were asked to participate in this long-term follow-up study. The included patients attended one visit in which they filled out questionnaires and they underwent a submaximal cycle ergometer test. The primary end point was the change in the IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) at baseline, i.e., before the intervention and at follow-up. The secondary endpoints were changes in quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. RESULTS: A total of 39 [32 women, median age 45 (28-61) years] patients were included in this follow-up. Median follow-up time was 5.2 (range: 3.8-6.2) years. The IBS symptoms were improved compared with baseline [IBS-SSS: 276 (169-360) vs 218 (82-328), P = 0.001]. This was also true for the majority of the dimensions of psychological symptoms such as disease specific quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. The reported time of physical activity during the week before the visit had increased from 3.2 (0.0-10.0) h at baseline to 5.2 (0.0-15.0) h at follow-up, P = 0.019. The most common activities reported were walking, aerobics and cycling. There was no significant difference in the oxygen uptake 31.8 (19.7-45.8) mL per min per kg at baseline vs 34.6 (19.0-54.6) mL/min per kg at follow-up. CONCLUSION: An intervention to increase physical activity has positive long-term effects on IBS symptoms and psychological symptoms. PMID:25593485

  6. A novel solubility-enhanced curcumin formulation showing stability and maintenance of anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Koh, Gar Yee; Jeansonne, Duane P; Hollingsworth, Javoris; Russo, Paul S; Vicente, Graca; Stout, Rhett W; Liu, Zhijun

    2011-07-01

    Curcumin (CUR) is an active food compound, but its insolubility and instability in water contributes to low bioavailability. In this study, the solubility of CUR was enhanced by utilizing the solubilizing properties of rubusoside (RUB). The solubility of CUR in water increased linearly from 61 μg/mL to 2.318 mg/mL in the presence of RUB ranging from 1% to 10% (w/v). Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy studies found that CUR and RUB formed CUR-RUB nanoparticle (∼8 nm) complexes. The RUB-solubilized CUR was stable in physiological conditions and did not precipitate when diluted or degrade when spray-dried to a completely reconstitutable powder. Furthermore, cell viability assays demonstrated the efficacy of RUB-solubilized CUR against human colon, breast, and pancreatic cancer cell lines. The development of this new solubilized, stable, and biologically active CUR formulation lays the foundation for future bioavailability improvement.

  7. Echinomycin, a potential binder of FKBP12, shows minor effect on calcineurin activity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikramjeet; Nand, Amita; Chen, Caixia; Li, ZhiPeng; Li, Sheng-Jie; Wang, Songbai; Yang, Mo; Merino, Alejandro; Zhang, Lixin; Zhu, Jingsong

    2014-10-01

    Echinomycin, a member of the quinoxaline family of antibiotics, is known to be a small-molecule inhibitor of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) DNA binding activity. Recently, it has been shown to suppress mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and growth in leukemia cell lines. In this study, we investigated whether echinomycin interacts with the FKBP12 protein. Molecular docking was used, and the predicted binding energy was -10.61 kcal/mol. Moreover, surface plasmon resonance imaging and fluorescence quenching techniques were used to validate this interaction. Echinomycin binds to FKBP12 with a strong binding affinity comparable with rapamycin. Furthermore, the echinomycin-FKBP12 complex has been shown to affect calcineurin activity when tested in a calcineurin phosphatase inhibition assay. All of these studies have shown that echinomycin may have a double impact on HIF signaling by direct inhibition and through mTOR.

  8. X-ray microtomography shows pore structure and tortuosity in alkali-activated binders

    SciTech Connect

    Provis, John L.; Myers, Rupert J.; White, Claire E.; Rose, Volker; Deventer, Jannie S.J. van

    2012-06-15

    Durability of alkali-activated binders is of vital importance in their commercial application, and depends strongly on microstructure and pore network characteristics. X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) offers, for the first time, direct insight into microstructural and pore structure characteristics in three dimensions. Here, {mu}CT is performed on a set of sodium metasilicate-activated fly ash/slag blends, using a synchrotron beamline instrument. Segmentation of the samples into pore and solid regions is then conducted, and pore tortuosity is calculated by a random walker method. Segmented porosity and diffusion tortuosity are correlated, and vary as a function of slag content (slag addition reduces porosity and increases tortuosity), and sample age (extended curing gives lower porosity and higher tortuosity). This is particularly notable for samples with {>=} 50% slag content, where a space-filling calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate gel provides porosity reductions which are not observed for the sodium aluminosilicate ('geopolymer') gels which do not chemically bind water of hydration.

  9. Bacillus cereus strain S2 shows high nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita by producing sphingosine

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Huijuan; Qi, Gaofu; Yin, Rong; Zhang, Hongchun; Li, Chenggang; Zhao, Xiuyun

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause serious crop losses worldwidely. This study intended to discover the antagonistic mechanism of Bacillus cereus strain S2 against Meloidogyne incognita. Treatment with B. cereus strain S2 resulted in a mortality of 77.89% to Caenorhabditis elegans (a model organism) and 90.96% to M. incognita. In pot experiment, control efficiency of B. cereus S2 culture or supernatants were 81.36% and 67.42% towards M. incognita, respectively. In field experiment, control efficiency was 58.97% towards M. incognita. Nematicidal substances were isolated from culture supernatant of B. cereus S2 by polarity gradient extraction, silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. Two nematicidal compounds were identified as C16 sphingosine and phytosphingosine by LC-MS. The median lethal concentration of sphingosine was determined as 0.64 μg/ml. Sphingosine could obviously inhibit reproduction of C. elegans, with an inhibition rate of 42.72% for 24 h. After treatment with sphingosine, ROS was induced in intestinal tract, and genital area disappeared in nematode. Furthermore, B. cereus S2 could induce systemic resistance in tomato, and enhance activity of defense-related enzymes for biocontrol of M. incognita. This study demonstrates the nematicidal activity of B. cereus and its product sphingosine, as well provides a possibility for biocontrol of M. incognita. PMID:27338781

  10. The diverse members of the mammalian HSP70 machine show distinct chaperone-like activities.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Jurre; van Waarde, Maria A W H; Zylicz, Alicja; Walerych, Dawid; Kampinga, Harm H

    2011-04-01

    Humans contain many HSP (heat-shock protein) 70/HSPA- and HSP40/DNAJ-encoding genes and most of the corresponding proteins are localized in the cytosol. To test for possible functional differences and/or substrate specificity, we assessed the effect of overexpression of each of these HSPs on refolding of heat-denatured luciferase and on the suppression of aggregation of a non-foldable polyQ (polyglutamine)-expanded Huntingtin fragment. Overexpressed chaperones that suppressed polyQ aggregation were found not to be able to stimulate luciferase refolding. Inversely, chaperones that supported luciferase refolding were poor suppressors of polyQ aggregation. This was not related to client specificity itself, as the polyQ aggregation inhibitors often also suppressed heat-induced aggregation of luciferase. Surprisingly, the exclusively heat-inducible HSPA6 lacks both luciferase refolding and polyQ aggregation-suppressing activities. Furthermore, whereas overexpression of HSPA1A protected cells from heat-induced cell death, overexpression of HSPA6 did not. Inversely, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated blocking of HSPA6 did not impair the development of heat-induced thermotolerance. Yet, HSPA6 has a functional substrate-binding domain and possesses intrinsic ATPase activity that is as high as that of the canonical HSPA1A when stimulated by J-proteins. In vitro data suggest that this may be relevant to substrate specificity, as purified HSPA6 could not chaperone heat-unfolded luciferase but was able to assist in reactivation of heat-unfolded p53. So, even within the highly sequence-conserved HSPA family, functional differentiation is larger than expected, with HSPA6 being an extreme example that may have evolved to maintain specific critical functions under conditions of severe stress.

  11. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  12. Montmorillonite enhanced ciprofloxacin transport in saturated porous media with sorbed ciprofloxacin showing antibiotic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Gao, Bin; Yang, Liu-Yan; Ma, Lena Q.

    2015-02-01

    Antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) is immobile in the subsurface but it has been frequently detected in the aquatic system. Therefore it is important to investigate the factors impacting CIP's mobilization in aquifer. Laboratory columns packed with sand were used to test colloid-facilitated CIP transport by 1) using kaolinite or montmorillonite to mobilize presorbed-CIP in a column or 2) co-transporting with CIP by pre-mixing them before transport. The Langmuir model showed that CIP sorption by montmorillonite (23 g kg- 1) was 100 times more effective than sand or kaolinite. Even with strong CIP complexation ability to Fe/Al coating on sand surface, montmorillonite promoted CIP transport, but not kaolinite. All presorbed-CIP by sand was mobilized by montmorillonite after 3 pore volumes through co-transporting of CIP with montmorillonite. The majority of CIP was fixed onto the montmorillonite interlayer but still showed inhibition of bacteria growth. Our results suggested that montmorillonite with high CIP sorption ability can act as a carrier to enhance CIP's mobility in aquifer.

  13. Montmorillonite enhanced ciprofloxacin transport in saturated porous media with sorbed ciprofloxacin showing antibiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Gao, Bin; Yang, Liu-Yan; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-02-01

    Antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) is immobile in the subsurface but it has been frequently detected in the aquatic system. Therefore it is important to investigate the factors impacting CIP's mobilization in aquifer. Laboratory columns packed with sand were used to test colloid-facilitated CIP transport by 1) using kaolinite or montmorillonite to mobilize presorbed-CIP in a column or 2) co-transporting with CIP by pre-mixing them before transport. The Langmuir model showed that CIP sorption by montmorillonite (23gkg(-1)) was 100 times more effective than sand or kaolinite. Even with strong CIP complexation ability to Fe/Al coating on sand surface, montmorillonite promoted CIP transport, but not kaolinite. All presorbed-CIP by sand was mobilized by montmorillonite after 3 pore volumes through co-transporting of CIP with montmorillonite. The majority of CIP was fixed onto the montmorillonite interlayer but still showed inhibition of bacteria growth. Our results suggested that montmorillonite with high CIP sorption ability can act as a carrier to enhance CIP's mobility in aquifer. PMID:25528132

  14. Towards Fast In-line Measurement of Water Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J.; Andreasen, M. B.; Pedersen, M.; Rasmussen, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    Water activity is widely used as a key parameter in controlling the quality of food and feed products, among others. For determining the water activity, the material is sampled from the manufacturing process and measured in the laboratory with water activity analyzers. The sampling procedure can lead to non-representative measurements, the measurement process is time consuming, and much of the produced material may be wasted before the measurement results are available. To reduce waste and to be able to optimize production processes, industry requires in-line measurement of relevant quality determining parameters, hereunder the water activity. In cooperation with a manufacturer of systems for automatic in-line sampling and measurement of moisture, density, and the size of items, a project was defined to also enable the manufacturer's existing products to perform automatic measurement of the water activity in a sample. The aim was to develop a measurement system with the ability to operate in an industrial environment, which in the end would increase the measurement speed significantly and minimize the problems related to the handling of samples. In the paper the selection and characterization of the sensors, the design of a measurement chamber, and various issues of modeling and methods to reduce measurement time are discussed. The paper also presents water activity measurements obtained from food and feed products with the system, and shows that reliable results can be obtained in a few minutes with a proper design of the measurement chamber and selection of a model.

  15. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities…

  16. Active cell mechanics: Measurement and theory.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Fodor, Étienne; Betz, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Living cells are active mechanical systems that are able to generate forces. Their structure and shape are primarily determined by biopolymer filaments and molecular motors that form the cytoskeleton. Active force generation requires constant consumption of energy to maintain the nonequilibrium activity to drive organization and transport processes necessary for their function. To understand this activity it is necessary to develop new approaches to probe the underlying physical processes. Active cell mechanics incorporates active molecular-scale force generation into the traditional framework of mechanics of materials. This review highlights recent experimental and theoretical developments towards understanding active cell mechanics. We focus primarily on intracellular mechanical measurements and theoretical advances utilizing the Langevin framework. These developing approaches allow a quantitative understanding of nonequilibrium mechanical activity in living cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology.

  17. Twin Knudsen Cell Configuration for Activity Measurements by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.

    1996-01-01

    A twin Knudsen cell apparatus for alloy activity measurements by mass spectrometry is described. Two Knudsen cells - one containing an alloy and one containing a pure component - are mounted on a single flange and translated into the sampling region via a motorized x-y table. Mixing of the molecular beams from the cells is minimized by a novel system of shutters. Activity measurements were taken on two well-characterized alloys to verify the operation of the system. Silver activity measurements are reported for Ag-Cu alloys and aluminum activity measurements are reported for Fe-Al alloys. The temperature dependence of activity for a 0.474 mol fraction Al-Fe alloy gives a partial molar heat of aluminum. Measurements taken with the twin cell show good agreement with literature values for these alloys.

  18. Measure of Legionella penumophila activity in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Fliermans, C.B.; Soracco, R.J.; Pope, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Detection of Legionella pneumophila by serogroup-specific fluorescent antibodies was combined with a tetrazolium dye (INT) to measure electron transport activity. The biological uptake and reduction of the INT dye was studied in pure cultures and in natural water samples with respect to temperature. Uptake was complete within 60 min. Controls inhibited with formaldehyde demonstrated little activity. Both the in vitro and in situ determinations suggested that the electron transport system of Legionella was active over a temperature range of 25 to 60/sup 0/C.

  19. Measure of Legionella pneumophila activity in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Fliermans, C.B.; Soracco, R.J.; Pope, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Detection of Legionella pneumophila by serogroup-specific fluorescent antibodies was combined with a tetrazolium dye (INT) to measure electron transport activity. The biological uptake and reduction of the INT dye was studied in pure cultures and in natural water samples with respect to temperature. Uptake was complete within 60 minutes. Controls inhibited with formaldehyde demonstrated little activity. Both the in vitro and in situ determinations suggested that the electron transport system of Legionella was active over a temperature range of 25/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/C.

  20. Field and controlled environment measurements show strong seasonal acclimation in photosynthesis and respiration potential in boreal Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Kolari, Pasi; Chan, Tommy; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Bäck, Jaana; Nikinmaa, Eero; Juurola, Eija

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the seasonality of photosynthesis in boreal evergreen trees and its control by the environment requires separation of the instantaneous and slow responses, as well as the dynamics of light reactions, carbon reactions, and respiration. We determined the seasonality of photosynthetic light response and respiration parameters of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the field in southern Finland and in controlled laboratory conditions. CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured in the field using a continuously operated automated chamber setup and fluorescence monitoring systems. We also carried out monthly measurements of photosynthetic light, CO2 and temperature responses in standard conditions with a portable IRGA and fluorometer instrument. The field and response measurements indicated strong seasonal variability in the state of the photosynthetic machinery with a deep downregulation during winter. Despite the downregulation, the photosynthetic machinery retained a significant capacity during winter, which was not visible in the field measurements. Light-saturated photosynthesis (P sat) and the initial slope of the photosynthetic light response (α) obtained in standard conditions were up to 20% of their respective summertime values. Respiration also showed seasonal acclimation with peak values of respiration in standard temperature in spring and decline in autumn. Spring recovery of all photosynthetic parameters could be predicted with temperature history. On the other hand, the operating quantum yield of photosystem II and the initial slope of photosynthetic light response stayed almost at the summertime level until late autumn while at the same time P sat decreased following the prevailing temperature. Comparison of photosynthetic parameters with the environmental drivers suggests that light and minimum temperature are also decisive factors in the seasonal acclimation of photosynthesis in boreal evergreen trees. PMID:25566291

  1. Electrochemical and colorimetric measurements show the dominant role of FeS in a permanently anoxic lake.

    PubMed

    Bura-Nakić, Elvira; Viollier, Eric; Ciglenečki, Irena

    2013-01-15

    Recent publications have shown that the anodic reaction between FeS and Hg can be used for electrochemical detection of colloidal and particulate FeS in natural waters. Anodic waves that were recorded around -0.45 V (vs Ag/AgCl) in model solutions correspond to the electrochemical transformation of nanoparticulate FeS to HgS. Here, as a further step, the proposed approach is tested on anoxic, sulfidic, and iron-rich samples of a meromictic freshwater lake (Lake Pavin, France). Based on new and more comprehensive work on FeS electrochemistry in model and anoxic Lake Pavin samples, a new interpretation is given for previously recorded voltammetric signals in sulfide and iron rich environment, usually designated FeS(aq), and its role in controlling solubility of different FeS phases. A comparison of the depth profiles of S(-II) measured by voltammetry and the methylene blue method showed that the majority of S(-II) is in the form of FeS. In the monimolimnion layer, thermodynamic calculations based on total Fe(II) and S(-II) concentration, measured by ferrozine and the methylene blue method, predict precipitation of FeS with log K(s) values between -3.6 and -3.8, very close to mackinawite's K(s) value. In the upper part of the same layer, precipitation of greigite is predicted. It is shown that modification of a Hg electrode by surface-formed FeS has a significant influence on voltammetric Fe(II) determination, since reduction of Fe(II) under such conditions occurs both on bare (-1.4 V) and on FeS modified Hg surfaces (-1.1 V); Fe(II) may be underdetermined when only the -1.4 V peak is measured.

  2. Novel nuclear targeting coiled-coil protein of Helicobacter pylori showing Ca(2+)-independent, Mg(2+)-dependent DNase I activity.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Chul; Kim, Sinil; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Je Chul; Cho, Myung-Je; Lee, Woo-Kon; Kang, Hyung-Lyun; Song, Jae-Young; Baik, Seung Chul; Ro, Hyeon Su

    2016-05-01

    HP0059, an uncharacterized gene of Helicobacter pylori, encodes a 284-aa-long protein containing a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and multiple leucine-rich heptad repeats. Effects of HP0059 proteins in human stomach cells were assessed by incubation of recombinant HP0059 proteins with the AGS human gastric carcinoma cell line. Wild-type HP0059 proteins showed cytotoxicity in AGS cells in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas NLS mutant protein showed no effect, suggesting that the cytotoxicity is attributed to host nuclear localization. AGS cells transfected with pEGFP-HP0059 plasmid showed strong GFP signal merged to the chromosomal DNA region. The chromosome was fragmented into multiple distinct dots merged with the GFP signal after 12 h of incubation. The chromosome fragmentation was further explored by incubation of AGS chromosomal DNA with recombinant HP0059 proteins, which leaded to complete degradation of the chromosomal DNA. HP0059 protein also degraded circular plasmid DNA without consensus, being an indication of DNase I activity. The DNase was activated by MgCl2, but not by CaCl2. The activity was completely blocked by EDTA. The optimal pH and temperature for DNase activity were 7.0-8.0 and 55°C, respectively. These results indicate that HP0059 possesses a novel DNase I activity along with a role in the genomic instability of human gastric cells, which may result in the transformation of gastric cells. PMID:27095458

  3. Magnetosomes extracted from Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 showed enhanced peroxidase-like activity under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Kefeng; Chen, Chuanfang; Chen, Changyou; Wang, Yuzhan; Wei, Zhao; Pan, Weidong; Song, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Magnetosomes are intracellular structures produced by magnetotactic bacteria and are magnetic nanoparticles surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. Magnetosomes reportedly possess intrinsic enzyme mimetic activity similar to that found in horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and can scavenge reactive oxygen species depending on peroxidase activity. Our previous study has demonstrated the phototaxis characteristics of Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 cells, but the mechanism is not well understood. Therefore, we studied the relationship between visible-light irradiation and peroxidase-like activity of magnetosomes extracted from M. magneticum strain AMB-1. We then compared this characteristic with that of HRP, iron ions, and naked magnetosomes using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as a peroxidase substrate in the presence of H2O2. Results showed that HRP and iron ions had different activities from those of magnetosomes and naked magnetosomes when exposed to visible-light irradiation. Magnetosomes and naked magnetosomes had enhanced peroxidase-like activities under visible-light irradiation, but magnetosomes showed less affinity toward substrates than naked magnetosomes under visible-light irradiation. These results suggested that the peroxidase-like activity of magnetosomes may follow an ordered ternary mechanism rather than a ping-pong mechanism. This finding may provide new insight into the function of magnetosomes in the phototaxis in magnetotactic bacteria.

  4. Fungal α-arabinofuranosidases of glycosyl hydrolase families 51 and 54 show a dual arabinofuranosyl- and galactofuranosyl-hydrolyzing activity.

    PubMed

    Tefsen, Boris; Lagendijk, Ellen L; Park, Joohae; Akeroyd, Michiel; Schachtschabel, Doreen; Winkler, Robert; van Die, Irma; Ram, Arthur F J

    2012-08-01

    Aspergillus niger possesses a galactofuranosidase activity, however, the corresponding enzyme or gene encoding this enzyme has never been identified. As evidence is mounting that enzymes exist with affinity for both arabinofuranose and galactofuranose, we investigated the possibility that α-L-arabinofuranosidases, encoded by the abfA and abfB genes, are responsible for the galactofuranosidase activity of A. niger. Characterization of the recombinant AbfA and AbfB proteins revealed that both enzymes do not only hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside (pNp-α-Araf) but are also capable of hydrolyzing p-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactofuranoside (pNp-β-Galf). Molecular modeling of the AbfB protein with pNp-β-Galf confirmed the possibility for AbfB to interact with this substrate, similarly as with pNp-α-Araf. We also show that galactomannan, a cell wall compound of A. niger, containing β-linked terminal and internal galactofuranosyl moieties, can be degraded by an enzyme activity that is present in the supernatant of inulin-grown A. niger. Interestingly, purified AbfA and AbfB did not show this hydrolyzing activity toward A. nigergalactomannan. In summary, our studies demonstrate that AbfA and AbfB, α-L-arabinofuranosidases from different families, both contain a galactofuranose (Galf)-hydrolyzing activity. In addition, our data support the presence of a Galf-hydrolase activity expressed by A. niger that is capable of degrading fungal galactomannan.

  5. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach.

    PubMed

    Wong, David W S; Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2011-06-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual's segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial-ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces.

  6. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2010-01-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual’s segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial–ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces. PMID:21643546

  7. Development of the Patient Activation Measure for mental health.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Perrin, Nancy A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Hibbard, Judith H; Tusler, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Our objective was to adapt the physical health Patient Activation Measure (PAM) for use among people with mental health conditions (PAM-MH). Data came from three studies among people with chronic mental health conditions and were combined in Rasch analyses. The PAM-MH's psychometric properties equal those of the original 13-item PAM. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity were good, and the PAM-MH showed sensitivity to change. The PAM-MH appears to be a reliable and valid measure of patient activation among individuals with mental health problems. It appears to have potential for use in assessing change in activation. PMID:19728074

  8. In Vitro Analysis of Albendazole Sulfoxide Enantiomers Shows that (+)-(R)-Albendazole Sulfoxide Is the Active Enantiomer against Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H.; Cass, Quezia B.

    2013-01-01

    Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (−)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (−)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (−)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole. PMID:23229490

  9. In vitro analysis of albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers shows that (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide is the active enantiomer against Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Cass, Quezia B

    2013-02-01

    Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (-)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole.

  10. A chimeric protein of aluminum-activated malate transporter generated from wheat and Arabidopsis shows enhanced response to trivalent cations.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Tsuchiya, Yoshiyuki; Ariyoshi, Michiyo; Ryan, Peter R; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2016-07-01

    TaALMT1 from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and AtALMT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana encode aluminum (Al)-activated malate transporters, which confer acid-soil tolerance by releasing malate from roots. Chimeric proteins from TaALMT1 and AtALMT1 (Ta::At, At::Ta) were previously analyzed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Those studies showed that Al could activate malate efflux from the Ta::At chimera but not from At::Ta. Here, functions of TaALMT1, AtALMT1 and the chimeric protein Ta::At were compared in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells. We focused on the sensitivity and specificity of their activation by trivalent cations. The activation of malate efflux by Al was at least two-fold greater in the chimera than the native proteins. All proteins were also activated by lanthanides (erbium, ytterbium, gadolinium, and lanthanum), but the chimera again released more malate than TaALMT1 or AtALMT1. In Xenopus oocytes, Al, ytterbium, and erbium activated inward currents from the native TaALMT1 and the chimeric protein, but gadolinium only activated currents from the chimera. Lanthanum inhibited currents from both proteins. These results demonstrated that function of the chimera protein was altered compared to the native proteins and was more responsive to a range of trivalent cations when expressed in plant cells. PMID:27039280

  11. Measuring psychological engagement in youth activity involvement.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Heather L; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Busseri, Michael A; Gadbois, Shannon; Bowker, Anne; Findlay, Leanne

    2015-12-01

    Although psychological engagement (e.g., enjoyment, concentration) may be critical in fostering positive outcomes of youth activity participation, too few studies have been conducted to establish its role in development. Furthermore, an established measurement tool is lacking. In the current study, we evaluated a brief engagement measure with two Canadian samples of youth (Sample 1, N = 290, mean age = 16.9 years, 62% female; Sample 2, N = 1827, mean age = 13.1 years, 54% female). We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized structure of the model. We also assessed the measure's validity by testing relations between engagement and both perceived outcomes and positive features of activity settings. Psychological engagement was best captured by three latent cognitive, affective, and relational/spiritual factors and a second-order latent factor. Also, as anticipated, psychological engagement was associated with features of the activity setting and perceived impact.

  12. A specific cathepsin-L-like protease purified from an insect midgut shows antibacterial activity against gut symbiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Jin Hee; Seo, Eun Sil; Lee, Jun Beom; Lee, Min Ja; Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Yoo, Jin Wook; Jung, Yunjin; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-11-01

    Because gut symbiotic bacteria affect host biology, host insects are expected to evolve some mechanisms for regulating symbiont population. The bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, harbors the Burkholderia genus as a gut symbiont in the midgut organ, designated as the M4 region. Recently, we demonstrated that the lysate of M4B, the region adjacent to M4, harbors potent antibacterial activity against symbiotic Burkholderia but not to cultured Burkholderia. However, the bona fide substance responsible for observed antibacterial activity was not identified in the previous study. Here, we report that cathepsin-L-like protease purified from the lysate of M4B showed strong antibacterial activity against symbiotic Burkholderia but not the cultured Burkholderia. To further confirm this activity, recombinant cathepsin-L-like protease expressed in Escherichia coli also showed antibacterial activity against symbiotic Burkholderia. These results suggest that cathepsin-L-like protease purified from the M4B region plays a critical role in controlling the population of the Burkholderia gut symbiont.

  13. Autistic adolescents show atypical activation of the brain's mentalizing system even without a prior history of mentalizing problems.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah J; Frith, Uta; Rellecke, Julian; Al-Noor, Zainab; Gilbert, Sam J

    2014-04-01

    Some autistic children pass classic Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks that others fail, but the significance of this finding is at present unclear. We identified two such groups of primary school age (labelled ToM+ and ToM-) and a matched comparison group of typically developing children (TD). Five years later we tested these participants again on a ToM test battery appropriate for adolescents and conducted an fMRI study with a story based ToM task. We also assessed autistic core symptoms at these two time points. At both times the ToM- group showed more severe social communication impairments than the ToM+ group, and while showing an improvement in mentalizing performance, they continued to show a significant impairment compared to the NT group. Two independent ROI analyses of the BOLD signal showed activation of the mentalizing network including medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate and lateral temporal cortices. Strikingly, both ToM+ and ToM- groups showed very similar patterns of heightened activation in comparison with the NT group. No differences in other brain regions were apparent. Thus, autistic adolescents who do not have a history of mentalizing problems according to our ToM battery showed the same atypical neurophysiological response during mentalizing as children who did have such a history. This finding indicates that heterogeneity at the behavioural level may nevertheless map onto a similar phenotype at the neuro-cognitive level.

  14. Neutron and proton activation measurements from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    Radioactivity induced by high-energy protons and secondary neutrons (from nuclear interactions) in various samples returned from different locations in Skylab was measured directly by gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of decay gamma rays from the samples. Incident fluxes were derived from the activation measurements, using known nuclear cross-section. Neutron and proton flux values were found to range from 0.2 to 5 particles/sq cm-sec, depending on the energy range and location in Skylab. The thermal neutron flux was less than 0.07 neutrons/sq cm-sec. The results are useful for data analysis and planning of future high-energy astronomy experiments.

  15. Measure, Then Show: Grasping Human Evolution Through an Inquiry-Based, Data-driven Hominin Skulls Lab

    PubMed Central

    Luberda, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Incomprehension and denial of the theory of evolution among high school students has been observed to also occur when teachers are not equipped to deliver a compelling case also for human evolution based on fossil evidence. This paper assesses the outcomes of a novel inquiry-based paleoanthropology lab teaching human evolution to high-school students. The inquiry-based Be a Paleoanthropologist for a Day lab placed a dozen hominin skulls into the hands of high-school students. Upon measuring three variables of human evolution, students explain what they have observed and discuss findings. In the 2013/14 school year, 11 biology classes in 7 schools in the Greater New Orleans area participated in this lab. The interviewed teacher cohort unanimously agreed that the lab featuring hominin skull replicas and stimulating student inquiry was a pedagogically excellent method of delivering the subject of human evolution. First, the lab’s learning path of transforming facts to data, information to knowledge, and knowledge to acceptance empowered students to themselves execute part of the science that underpins our understanding of deep time hominin evolution. Second, although challenging, the hands-on format of the lab was accessible to high-school students, most of whom were readily able to engage the lab’s scientific process. Third, the lab’s exciting and compelling pedagogy unlocked higher order thinking skills, effectively activating the cognitive, psychomotor and affected learning domains as defined in Bloom’s taxonomy. Lastly, the lab afforded students a formative experience with a high degree of retention and epistemic depth. Further study is warranted to gauge the degree of these effects. PMID:27513927

  16. Measure, Then Show: Grasping Human Evolution Through an Inquiry-Based, Data-driven Hominin Skulls Lab.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Chris N; Luberda, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Incomprehension and denial of the theory of evolution among high school students has been observed to also occur when teachers are not equipped to deliver a compelling case also for human evolution based on fossil evidence. This paper assesses the outcomes of a novel inquiry-based paleoanthropology lab teaching human evolution to high-school students. The inquiry-based Be a Paleoanthropologist for a Day lab placed a dozen hominin skulls into the hands of high-school students. Upon measuring three variables of human evolution, students explain what they have observed and discuss findings. In the 2013/14 school year, 11 biology classes in 7 schools in the Greater New Orleans area participated in this lab. The interviewed teacher cohort unanimously agreed that the lab featuring hominin skull replicas and stimulating student inquiry was a pedagogically excellent method of delivering the subject of human evolution. First, the lab's learning path of transforming facts to data, information to knowledge, and knowledge to acceptance empowered students to themselves execute part of the science that underpins our understanding of deep time hominin evolution. Second, although challenging, the hands-on format of the lab was accessible to high-school students, most of whom were readily able to engage the lab's scientific process. Third, the lab's exciting and compelling pedagogy unlocked higher order thinking skills, effectively activating the cognitive, psychomotor and affected learning domains as defined in Bloom's taxonomy. Lastly, the lab afforded students a formative experience with a high degree of retention and epistemic depth. Further study is warranted to gauge the degree of these effects. PMID:27513927

  17. Planarity of heteroaryldithiocarbazic acid derivatives showing tuberculostatic activity. III. Mono- and diesters of 3-(pyrazin-2-ylcarbonyl)dithiocarbazic acid.

    PubMed

    Szczesio, Małgorzata; Olczak, Andrzej; Gołka, Jolanta; Gobis, Katarzyna; Foks, Henryk; Główka, Marek L

    2011-07-01

    Methyl 2-(pyrazin-2-ylcarbonyl)hydrazinecarbodithioate, C(7)H(8)N(4)OS(2), (E1), N'-[bis(methylsulfanyl)methylidene]pyrazine-2-carbohydrazide, C(8)H(10)N(4)OS(2), (F1), N'-[bis(methylsulfanyl)methylidene]-6-methoxypyrazine-2-carbohydrazide, C(9)H(12)N(4)O(2)S(2), (F2), and methyl 1-methyl-2-(pyrazin-2-ylcarbonyl)hydrazinecarbodithioate, C(8)H(10)N(4)OS(2), (G1), can be considered as derivatives of classical (thio)amide-type tuberculostatics, and all are moderately active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This study was undertaken in a search for relationships between activity and specific intramolecular interactions, especially conjugations and hydrogen-bond contacts, and the molecular structures were compared with respective amine analogues, also active against the pathogen. Despite the differences between the amine and carbonyl groups with opposite functions in the hydrogen bond, the two types of structure show a surprisingly similar planar geometry, mostly due to the conjugations aided by the bifurcated intramolecular hydrogen-bond contact between the N-H group of the central hydrazide group as donor and a pyrazine N atom and an S atom of the dithio function as acceptors. Planarity was suggested to be crucial for the tuberculostatic activity of these compounds. The N-methylated derivative (G1) showed a significant twist at the N-N bond [torsion angle = -121.9 (3)°] due to the methyl substitution, which precludes an intramolecular N-H···S contact and the planarity of the whole molecule. Nonetheless, the compound shows moderate tuberculostatic activity.

  18. Noninvasive ambulatory measurement system of cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Pino, Esteban J; Chavez, Javier A P; Aqueveque, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    This work implements a noninvasive system that measures the movements caused by cardiac activity. It uses unobtrusive Electro-Mechanical Films (EMFi) on the seat and on the backrest of a regular chair. The system detects ballistocardiogram (BCG) and respiration movements. Real data was obtained from 54 volunteers. 19 of them were measured in the laboratory and 35 in a hospital waiting room. Using a BIOPAC acquisition system, the ECG was measured simultaneously to the BCG for comparison. Wavelet Transform (WT) is a better option than Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) for signal extraction and produces higher effective measurement time. In the laboratory, the best results are obtained on the seat. The correlation index was 0.9800 and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement were 0.7136 ± 4.3673 [BPM]. In the hospital waiting room, the best results are also from the seat sensor. The correlation index was 0.9840, and the limits of agreement were 0.4386 ± 3.5884 [BPM]. The system is able to measure BCG in an unobtrusive way and determine the cardiac frequency with high precision. It is simple to use, which means the system can easily be used in non-standard settings: resting in a chair or couch, at the gym, schools or in a hospital waiting room, as shown. PMID:26738057

  19. Actinobacteria from Termite Mounds Show Antiviral Activity against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model for Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Marina Aiello; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira; Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Martini, Matheus Cavalheiro; Barnabé, Ana Caroline de Souza; Kohn, Luciana Konecny; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Bomfim, Getúlio Freitas; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2015-01-01

    Extracts from termite-associated bacteria were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Two bacterial strains were identified as active, with percentages of inhibition (IP) equal to 98%. Both strains were subjected to functional analysis via the addition of virus and extract at different time points in cell culture; the results showed that they were effective as posttreatments. Moreover, we performed MTT colorimetric assays to identify the CC50, IC50, and SI values of these strains, and strain CDPA27 was considered the most promising. In parallel, the isolates were identified as Streptomyces through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Specifically, CDPA27 was identified as S. chartreusis. The CDPA27 extract was fractionated on a C18-E SPE cartridge, and the fractions were reevaluated. A 100% methanol fraction was identified to contain the compound(s) responsible for antiviral activity, which had an SI of 262.41. GC-MS analysis showed that this activity was likely associated with the compound(s) that had a peak retention time of 5 min. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new information for antiviral research using natural sources, demonstrate the antiviral potential of Streptomyces chartreusis compounds isolated from termite mounds against BVDV, and lay the foundation for further studies on the treatment of HCV infection.

  20. Actinobacteria from Termite Mounds Show Antiviral Activity against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model for Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Marina Aiello; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira; Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Martini, Matheus Cavalheiro; Barnabé, Ana Caroline de Souza; Kohn, Luciana Konecny; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Bomfim, Getúlio Freitas; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2015-01-01

    Extracts from termite-associated bacteria were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Two bacterial strains were identified as active, with percentages of inhibition (IP) equal to 98%. Both strains were subjected to functional analysis via the addition of virus and extract at different time points in cell culture; the results showed that they were effective as posttreatments. Moreover, we performed MTT colorimetric assays to identify the CC50, IC50, and SI values of these strains, and strain CDPA27 was considered the most promising. In parallel, the isolates were identified as Streptomyces through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Specifically, CDPA27 was identified as S. chartreusis. The CDPA27 extract was fractionated on a C18-E SPE cartridge, and the fractions were reevaluated. A 100% methanol fraction was identified to contain the compound(s) responsible for antiviral activity, which had an SI of 262.41. GC-MS analysis showed that this activity was likely associated with the compound(s) that had a peak retention time of 5 min. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new information for antiviral research using natural sources, demonstrate the antiviral potential of Streptomyces chartreusis compounds isolated from termite mounds against BVDV, and lay the foundation for further studies on the treatment of HCV infection. PMID:26579205

  1. Actinobacteria from Termite Mounds Show Antiviral Activity against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model for Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Marina Aiello; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira; Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Martini, Matheus Cavalheiro; Barnabé, Ana Caroline de Souza; Kohn, Luciana Konecny; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Bomfim, Getúlio Freitas; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2015-01-01

    Extracts from termite-associated bacteria were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Two bacterial strains were identified as active, with percentages of inhibition (IP) equal to 98%. Both strains were subjected to functional analysis via the addition of virus and extract at different time points in cell culture; the results showed that they were effective as posttreatments. Moreover, we performed MTT colorimetric assays to identify the CC50, IC50, and SI values of these strains, and strain CDPA27 was considered the most promising. In parallel, the isolates were identified as Streptomyces through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Specifically, CDPA27 was identified as S. chartreusis. The CDPA27 extract was fractionated on a C18-E SPE cartridge, and the fractions were reevaluated. A 100% methanol fraction was identified to contain the compound(s) responsible for antiviral activity, which had an SI of 262.41. GC-MS analysis showed that this activity was likely associated with the compound(s) that had a peak retention time of 5 min. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new information for antiviral research using natural sources, demonstrate the antiviral potential of Streptomyces chartreusis compounds isolated from termite mounds against BVDV, and lay the foundation for further studies on the treatment of HCV infection. PMID:26579205

  2. Fluorescence measurements show stronger cold inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions in Scots pine compared to Norway spruce as well as during spring compared to autumn.

    PubMed

    Linkosalo, Tapio; Heikkinen, Juha; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    We studied the photosynthetic activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) in relation to air temperature changes from March 2013 to February 2014. We measured the chlorophyll fluorescence of approximately 50 trees of each species growing in southern Finland. Fluorescence was measured 1-3 times per week. We began by measuring shoots present in late winter (i.e., March 2013) before including new shoots once they started to elongate in spring. By July, when the spring shoots had achieved similar fluorescence levels to the older ones, we proceeded to measure the new shoots only. We analyzed the data by fitting a sigmoidal model containing four parameters to link sliding averages of temperature and fluorescence. A parameter defining the temperature range over which predicted fluorescence increased most rapidly was the most informative with in describing temperature dependence of fluorescence. The model generated similar fluorescence patterns for both species, but differences were observed for critical temperature and needle age. Down regulation of the light reaction was stronger in spring than in autumn. Pine showed more conservative control of the photosynthetic light reactions, which were activated later in spring and more readily attenuated in autumn. Under the assumption of a close correlation of fluorescence and photosynthesis, spruce should therefore benefit more than pine from the increased photosynthetic potential during warmer springs, but be more likely to suffer frost damage with a sudden cooling following a warm period. The winter of 2013-2014 was unusually mild and similar to future conditions predicted by global climate models. During the mild winter, the activity of photosynthetic light reactions of both conifers, especially spruce, remained high. Because light levels during winter are too low for photosynthesis, this activity may translate to a net carbon loss due to respiration.

  3. Arctic organic aerosol measurements show particles from mixed combustion in spring haze and from frost flowers in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, P. M.; Russell, L. M.; Jefferson, A.; Quinn, P. K.

    2010-05-01

    Submicron atmospheric aerosol particles were collected between 1 March 2008 and 1 March 2009 at Barrow, Alaska, to characterize the organic mass (OM) in the Arctic aerosol. Organic functional group concentrations and trace metals were measured with FTIR on submicron particles collected on Teflon filters. The OM varied from 0.07 μg m-3 in summer to 0.43 μg m-3 in winter, and 0.35 μg m-3 in spring, showing a transition in OM composition between spring and winter. Most of the OM in spring could be attributed to anthropogenic sources, consisting primarily of alkane and carboxylic acid functional groups and correlated to elemental tracers of industrial pollution, biomass burning, and shipping emissions. PMF analysis associated OM with two factors, a Mixed Combustion factor (MCF) and an Ocean-derived factor (ODF). Back trajectory analysis revealed that the highest fractions of the MCF were associated with air masses that had originated from northeastern Asia and the shipping lanes south of the Bering Straits. The ODF consisted of organic hydroxyl groups and correlated with organic and inorganic seawater components. The ODF accounted for more than 55% of OM in winter when the sampled air masses originated along the coastal and lake regions of the Northwest Territories of Canada. Frost flowers with organic-salt coatings that arise by brine rejection during sea ice formation may account for this large source of carbohydrate-like OM during the ice-covered winter season. While the anthropogenic sources contributed more than 0.3 μg m-3 of the springtime haze OM, ocean-derived particles provided comparable OM sources in winter.

  4. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    PubMed

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly. PMID:27030628

  5. Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-27

    The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils.

  6. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    PubMed

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly.

  7. Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-27

    The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils. PMID:25110971

  8. Rosmarinic acid from eelgrass shows nematicidal and antibacterial activities against pine wood nematode and its carrying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Pan, Xueru; Han, Yi; Guo, Daosen; Guo, Qunqun; Li, Ronggui

    2012-12-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD), a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA). RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC₅₀ (50% lethal concentration) to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L₉ (3⁴) orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v). The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight). The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL) and RosA (1 mg/mL) also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina. PMID:23201594

  9. Rosmarinic acid from eelgrass shows nematicidal and antibacterial activities against pine wood nematode and its carrying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Pan, Xueru; Han, Yi; Guo, Daosen; Guo, Qunqun; Li, Ronggui

    2012-12-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD), a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA). RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC₅₀ (50% lethal concentration) to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L₉ (3⁴) orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v). The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight). The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL) and RosA (1 mg/mL) also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina.

  10. Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated

  11. One novel quinoxaline derivative as a potent human cyclophilin A inhibitor shows highly inhibitory activity against mouse spleen cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Li; Wang, Feng; Gui, Chunshan; Zhang, Li; Qin, Yu; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Hong; Nan, Fajun; Shen, Jingkang; Bai, Donglu; Chen, Kaixian; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang

    2006-08-15

    Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a ubiquitous cellular enzyme playing critical roles in many biological processes, and its inhibitor has been reported to have potential immunosuppressive activity. In this work, we reported a novel quinoxaline derivative, 2,3-di(furan-2-yl)-6-(3-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-piperidino)carbonylamino quinoxaline (DC838, 3), which was confirmed to be a potent inhibitor against human CypA. By using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence titration techniques, the kinetic analysis of CypA/DC838 interaction was quantitatively performed. CypA peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity inhibition assay showed that DC838 demonstrated highly CypA PPIase inhibitory activity. In vivo assay results showed that DC838 could inhibit mouse spleen cell proliferation induced by concanavalin A (Con A). Molecular docking simulation further elucidated the specific DC838 binding to CypA at the atomic level. The current work should provide useful information in the discovery of immunosuppressor based on CypA inhibitor.

  12. High affinity and covalent-binding microtubule stabilizing agents show activity in chemotherapy-resistant acute myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Pera, Benet; Calvo-Vidal, M. Nieves; Ambati, Srikanth; Jordi, Michel; Kahn, Alissa; Díaz, J. Fernando; Fang, Weishuo; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Cerchietti, Leandro; Moore, Malcolm A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is frequently due to the persistence of a cell population resistant to chemotherapy through different mechanisms, in which drug efflux via ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, specifically P-glycoprotein, is one of the most recognized. However, disappointing results from clinical trials employing inhibitors for these transporters have demonstrated the need to adopt different strategies. We hypothesized that microtubule targeting compounds presenting high affinity or covalent binding could overcome the effect of ABC transporters. We therefore evaluated the activity of the high-affinity paclitaxel analog CTX-40 as well as the covalent binder zampanolide (ZMP) in AML cells. Both molecules were active in chemosensitive as well as in chemoresistant cell lines overexpressing P-glycoprotein. Moreover, ZMP or CTX-40 in combination with daunorubicin showed synergistic killing without increased in vitro hematopoietic toxicity. In a primary AML sample, we further demonstrated that ZMP and CTX-40 are active in progenitor and differentiated leukemia cell populations. In sum, our data indicate that high affinity and covalent-binding anti-microtubule agents are active in AML cells otherwise chemotherapy resistant. PMID:26277539

  13. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil.

  14. Silk gland-specific proteinase inhibitor serpin16 from the Bombyx mori shows cysteine proteinase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng-Chao; Dong, Zhaoming; Xiao, Li; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yan; He, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2015-01-30

    Serpins (serine proteinase inhibitors) are widely distributed in different species and are well known for their inhibitory activities towards serine proteinases. Here, we report the functional characterization of Bombyx mori serpin16. Expression analysis showed that serpin16 was specifically expressed at high levels in the silk gland at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, homology modeling and multi-sequence alignment suggested that serpin16 had a canonical serpin fold, but it contained a unique reactive center loop, which was obviously shorter than that of typical serpins. Inhibitory activity analyses revealed that the target proteinase of serpin18 is a cysteine proteinase, rather than a serine proteinase. Furthermore, a Michaelis complex model of serpin16 with its target proteinase was constructed to explain the structural basis of how serpin16 recognizes the cysteine proteinase and its target specificity.

  15. Doxifluridine-conjugated 2-5A analog shows strong RNase L activation ability and tumor suppressive effect.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kito, Seiya; Nakashima, Remi; Tanaka, Katsuki; Nagaoka, Kumi; Kitade, Yukio

    2016-08-15

    RNase L is activated by 2',5'-oligoadenylates (2-5A) at subnanomolar levels to cleave single-stranded RNA. We previously reported the hypothesis that the introduction of an 8-methyladenosine residue at the 2'-terminus of the 2-5A tetramer shifts the 2-5A binding site of RNase L. In this study, we synthesized various 5'-modified 2-5A analogs with 8-methyladenosine at the 2'-terminus. The doxifluridine-conjugated 8-methyladenosine-substituted 2-5A analog was significantly more effective as an activator of RNase L than the parent 5'-monophophorylated 2-5A tetramer and showed a tumor suppressive effect against human cervical cancer cells. PMID:27364610

  16. Map showing recently active breaks along the San Andreas Fault between Pt. Delgada and Bolinas Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Robert D.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    1970-01-01

    This strip map is one of a series of maps showing recently active fault breaks along the San Andreas and other active faults in California. It is designed to inform persons who are concerned with land use near the fault of the location of those fault breaks that have moved recently. The lines on the map are lines of rupture and creep that can be identified by field evidence and that clearly affect the present surface of the land. Map users should keep in mind that these lines are intended primarily as guides to help locate the fault; the mapped lines are not necessarily shown with the precision demanded by some engineering or land utilization needs.

  17. Epididymal Cystadenomas in von Hippel-Lindau Disease Showing Increased Activity on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2016-10-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a familial cancer syndrome characterized by the development of a variety of malignant and benign tumors, including epididymal cystadenomas. We report a case of a VHL patient with bilateral epididymal cystadenomas who was evaluated with Ga DOTATATE PET/CT, showing intensely increased activity (SUVmax, 21.6) associated with the epididymal cystadenomas, indicating cell-surface overexpression of somatostatin receptors. The presented case supports the usefulness of somatostatin receptor imaging using Ga DOTA-conjugated peptides for detection and follow-up of VHL manifestations, as well as surveillance of asymptomatic gene carriers. PMID:27454594

  18. Measuring the Enzyme Activity of Arabidopsis Deubiquitylating Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Kamila; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Isono, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Deubiquitylating enzymes, or DUBs, are important regulators of ubiquitin homeostasis and substrate stability, though the molecular mechanisms of most of the DUBs in plants are not yet understood. As different ubiquitin chain types are implicated in different biological pathways, it is important to analyze the enzyme characteristic for studying a DUB. Quantitative analysis of DUB activity is also important to determine enzyme kinetics and the influence of DUB binding proteins on the enzyme activity. Here, we show methods to analyze DUB activity using immunodetection, Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining, and fluorescence measurement that can be useful for understanding the basic characteristic of DUBs.

  19. An Alternative Measure of Solar Activity from Detailed Sunspot Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraközy, J.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    2016-05-01

    The sunspot number is analyzed by using detailed sunspot data, including aspects of observability, sunspot sizes, and proper identification of sunspot groups as discrete entities of solar activity. The tests show that in addition to the subjective factors there are also objective causes of the ambiguities in the series of sunspot numbers. To introduce an alternative solar-activity measure, the physical meaning of the sunspot number has to be reconsidered. It contains two components whose numbers are governed by different physical mechanisms and this is one source of the ambiguity. This article suggests an activity index, which is the amount of emerged magnetic flux. The only long-term proxy measure is the detailed sunspot-area dataset with proper calibration to the magnetic flux. The Debrecen sunspot databases provide an appropriate source for the establishment of the suggested activity index.

  20. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate shows anti-proliferative activity in HeLa cells targeting tubulin-microtubule equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Subhendu; Ganguli, Arnab; Das, Amlan; Nag, Debasish; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2015-12-01

    In this study our main objective was to find out a novel target of the major bioactive green tea polyphenol, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), in cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. We found that EGCG showed antiproliferative activity against HeLa cells through depolymerization of cellular microtubule. EGCG also prevented the reformation of the cellular microtubule network distorted by cold treatment and inhibited polymerization of tubulin in cell-free system with IC50 of 39.6 ± 0.63 μM. Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis showed that EGCG prevented colchicine binding to tubulin and in silico study revealed that EGCG bound to the α-subunit of tubulin at the interphase of the α-and β-heterodimers and very close to colchicine binding site. The binding is entropy driven (ΔS(0) was 18.75 ± 1.48 cal K(-1) mol(-1)) with Kd value of 3.50 ± 0.40 μM. This is a novel mechanism of antipriliferative activity of EGCG.

  1. Polyphenol-rich strawberry extract (PRSE) shows in vitro and in vivo biological activity against invasive breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Amatori, Stefano; Mazzoni, Luca; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè Miguel; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Yuliett; Afrin, Sadia; Errico Provenzano, Alfredo; Persico, Giuseppe; Mezzetti, Bruno; Amici, Augusto; Fanelli, Mirco; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    We describe the biological effects of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract (PRSE), obtained from the “Alba” variety, on the highly aggressive and invasive basal-like breast cancer cell line A17. Dose-response and time-course experiments showed that PRSE is able to decrease the cellular viability of A17 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. PRSE effect on cell survival was investigated in other tumor and normal cell lines of both mouse and human origin, demonstrating that PRSE is more active against breast cancer cells. Cytofluorimetric analysis of A17 cells demonstrated that sub-lethal doses of PRSE reduce the number of cells in S phase, inducing the accumulation of cells in G1 phase of cell cycle. In addition, the migration of A17 cells was studied monitoring the ability of PRSE to inhibit cellular mobility. Gene expression analysis revealed the modulation of 12 genes playing different roles in the cellular migration, adhesion and invasion processes. Finally, in vivo experiments showed the growth inhibition of A17 cells orthotopically transplanted into FVB syngeneic mice fed with PRSE. Overall, we demonstrated that PRSE exerts important biological activities against a highly invasive breast cancer cell line both in vitro and in vivo suggesting the strawberry extracts as preventive/curative food strategy. PMID:27498973

  2. Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oil prevented biofilm formation and showed antibacterial activity against planktonic and sessile bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Schillaci, Domenico; Napoli, Edoardo Marco; Cusimano, Maria Grazia; Vitale, Maria; Ruberto, Andgiuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Essential oils from six different populations of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum were compared for their antibiofilm properties. The six essential oils (A to F) were characterized by a combination of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector analyses. All oils showed weak activity against the planktonic form of a group of Staphylococcus aureus strains and against a Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 reference strain. The ability to inhibit biofilm formation was investigated at sub-MIC levels of 200, 100, and 50 m g/ml by staining sessile cells with safranin. Sample E showed the highest average effectiveness against all tested strains at 50 m g/ml and had inhibition percentages ranging from 30 to 52%. In the screening that used preformed biofilm from the reference strain P. aeruginosa, essential oils A through E were inactive at 200 m g/ml; F was active with a percentage of inhibition equal to 53.2%. Oregano essential oil can inhibit the formation of biofilms of various food pathogens and food spoilage organisms. PMID:24112575

  3. Polyphenol-rich strawberry extract (PRSE) shows in vitro and in vivo biological activity against invasive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Amatori, Stefano; Mazzoni, Luca; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè Miguel; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Yuliett; Afrin, Sadia; Errico Provenzano, Alfredo; Persico, Giuseppe; Mezzetti, Bruno; Amici, Augusto; Fanelli, Mirco; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    We describe the biological effects of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract (PRSE), obtained from the "Alba" variety, on the highly aggressive and invasive basal-like breast cancer cell line A17. Dose-response and time-course experiments showed that PRSE is able to decrease the cellular viability of A17 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. PRSE effect on cell survival was investigated in other tumor and normal cell lines of both mouse and human origin, demonstrating that PRSE is more active against breast cancer cells. Cytofluorimetric analysis of A17 cells demonstrated that sub-lethal doses of PRSE reduce the number of cells in S phase, inducing the accumulation of cells in G1 phase of cell cycle. In addition, the migration of A17 cells was studied monitoring the ability of PRSE to inhibit cellular mobility. Gene expression analysis revealed the modulation of 12 genes playing different roles in the cellular migration, adhesion and invasion processes. Finally, in vivo experiments showed the growth inhibition of A17 cells orthotopically transplanted into FVB syngeneic mice fed with PRSE. Overall, we demonstrated that PRSE exerts important biological activities against a highly invasive breast cancer cell line both in vitro and in vivo suggesting the strawberry extracts as preventive/curative food strategy. PMID:27498973

  4. Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oil prevented biofilm formation and showed antibacterial activity against planktonic and sessile bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Schillaci, Domenico; Napoli, Edoardo Marco; Cusimano, Maria Grazia; Vitale, Maria; Ruberto, Andgiuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Essential oils from six different populations of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum were compared for their antibiofilm properties. The six essential oils (A to F) were characterized by a combination of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector analyses. All oils showed weak activity against the planktonic form of a group of Staphylococcus aureus strains and against a Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 reference strain. The ability to inhibit biofilm formation was investigated at sub-MIC levels of 200, 100, and 50 m g/ml by staining sessile cells with safranin. Sample E showed the highest average effectiveness against all tested strains at 50 m g/ml and had inhibition percentages ranging from 30 to 52%. In the screening that used preformed biofilm from the reference strain P. aeruginosa, essential oils A through E were inactive at 200 m g/ml; F was active with a percentage of inhibition equal to 53.2%. Oregano essential oil can inhibit the formation of biofilms of various food pathogens and food spoilage organisms.

  5. Do different implant surfaces exposed in the oral cavity of humans show different biofilm compositions and activities?

    PubMed

    Groessner-Schreiber, Birte; Hannig, Matthias; Dück, Alexander; Griepentrog, Michael; Wenderoth, Dirk F

    2004-12-01

    Osseointegrated dental implants play an important role in restorative dentistry. However, plaque accumulation may cause inflammatory reactions around the implants, sometimes leading to implant failure. In this in vivo study the influence of two physical hard coatings on bacterial adhesion was examined in comparison with a pure titanium surface. Thin glass sheets coated with titanium nitride (TiN), zirconium nitride (ZrN) or pure titanium were mounted on removable intraoral splints in two adults. After 60 h of intraoral exposure, the biofilms were analyzed to determine the number of bacteria, the types of bacteria [by applying single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP analysis) of 16S rRNA genes], and whether or not the bacteria were active (by SSCP analysis of 16S rRNA). The results showed that bacterial cell counts were higher on the pure titanium-coated glass sheets than on the glass sheets coated with TiN or ZrN. The lowest number of bacterial cells was present on theZrN-coated glass. However, the metabolic activity (RNA fingerprints) of bacteria on TiN- and ZrN-coated glass sheets seemed to be lower than the activity of bacteria on the titanium-coated surfaces, whereas SSCP fingerprints based on 16S rDNA revealed that the major 16S bands are common to all of the fingerprints, independently of the surface coating. PMID:15560835

  6. CPU-12, a novel synthesized oxazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine derivative, showed superior anti-angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiping; Deng, Ya-Hui; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yijuan; Lawali, Manzo; Sun, Li-Ping; Liu, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Angiogenesis is a crucial requirement for malignant tumor growth, progression and metastasis. Tumor-derived factors stimulate formation of new blood vessels which actively support tumor growth and spread. Various of drugs have been applied to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. CPU-12, 4-chloro-N-(4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-methyloxazolo[5,4-d] pyrimidin-7-yl)amino)phenyl)benzamide, is a novel oxazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine derivative that showed potent activity in inhibiting VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and ex-vivo. In cell toxicity experiments, CPU-12 significantly inhibited the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with a low IC50 value at 9.30 ± 1.24 μM. In vitro, CPU-12 remarkably inhibited HUVEC's migration, chemotactic invasion and capillary-like tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. In ex-vivo, CPU-12 effectively inhibited new microvessels sprouting from the rat aortic ring. In addition, the downstream signalings of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), including the phosphorylation of PI3K, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, were effectively down-regulated by CPU-12. These evidences suggested that angiogenic response via the induction of VEGFR through distinct signal transduction pathways regulating proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells was significantly inhibited by the novel small molecule compound CPU-12 in vitro and ex-vivo. In conclusion, CPU-12 showed superior anti-angiogenic activity in vitro.

  7. Phosphoinositide 5- and 3-phosphatase activities of a voltage-sensing phosphatase in living cells show identical voltage dependence.

    PubMed

    Keum, Dongil; Kruse, Martin; Kim, Dong-Il; Hille, Bertil; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2016-06-28

    Voltage-sensing phosphatases (VSPs) are homologs of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] 3-phosphatase. However, VSPs have a wider range of substrates, cleaving 3-phosphate from PI(3,4)P2 and probably PI(3,4,5)P3 as well as 5-phosphate from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and PI(3,4,5)P3 in response to membrane depolarization. Recent proposals say these reactions have differing voltage dependence. Using Förster resonance energy transfer probes specific for different PIs in living cells with zebrafish VSP, we quantitate both voltage-dependent 5- and 3-phosphatase subreactions against endogenous substrates. These activities become apparent with different voltage thresholds, voltage sensitivities, and catalytic rates. As an analytical tool, we refine a kinetic model that includes the endogenous pools of phosphoinositides, endogenous phosphatase and kinase reactions connecting them, and four exogenous voltage-dependent 5- and 3-phosphatase subreactions of VSP. We show that apparent voltage threshold differences for seeing effects of the 5- and 3-phosphatase activities in cells are not due to different intrinsic voltage dependence of these reactions. Rather, the reactions have a common voltage dependence, and apparent differences arise only because each VSP subreaction has a different absolute catalytic rate that begins to surpass the respective endogenous enzyme activities at different voltages. For zebrafish VSP, our modeling revealed that 3-phosphatase activity against PI(3,4,5)P3 is 55-fold slower than 5-phosphatase activity against PI(4,5)P2; thus, PI(4,5)P2 generated more slowly from dephosphorylating PI(3,4,5)P3 might never accumulate. When 5-phosphatase activity was counteracted by coexpression of a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase, there was accumulation of PI(4,5)P2 in parallel to PI(3,4,5)P3 dephosphorylation

  8. Active microwave measurement of soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Cihlar, J.; Moore, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of radar backscatter from bare soil at 4.7, 5.9, and 7.1 GHz for incident angles of 0-70 deg have been analyzed to determine sensitivity to soil moisture. Because the effective depth of penetration of the radar signal is only about one skin depth, the observed signals were correlated with the moisture in a skin depth as characterized by the attenuation coefficient (reciprocal of skin depth). Since the attenuation coefficient is a monotonically increasing function of moisture density, it may also be used as a measure of moisture content over the distance involved, which varies with frequency and moisture content. The measurements show an approximately linear increase in scattering with attenuation coefficient of the soil at angles within 10 deg of vertical and all frequencies. At 4.7 GHz this increase continues relatively large out to 70 deg incidence, but by 7.1 GHz the sensitivity is much less even at 20 deg and practically gone at 50 deg.

  9. The polysaccharide isolated from Pleurotus nebrodensis (PN-S) shows immune-stimulating activity in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hai-Yan; Wang, Chang-Lu; Wang, Yu-Rong; Li, Zhen-Jing; Zhang, Ya-Nan

    2015-05-01

    A novel Pleurotus nebrodensis polysaccharide (PN-S) was purified and characterized, and its immune-stimulating activity was evaluated in RAW264.7 macrophages. PN-S induced the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by the MTT assay. After exposure to PN-S, the phagocytosis of the macrophages was significantly improved, with remarkable changes in morphology being observed. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that PN-S promoted RAW264.7 cells to progress through S and G2/M phases. PN-S treatment enhanced the productions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO), interferon gamma (INF-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the macrophages, with up-regulation of mRNA expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interferon gamma(INF-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) being observed in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, these results suggest that the purified PN-S can improve immunity by activating macrophages.

  10. The Nucleoside Analog BMS-986001 Shows Greater In Vitro Activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert A; Raugi, Dana N; Wu, Vincent H; Leong, Sally S; Parker, Kate M; Oakes, Mariah K; Sow, Papa Salif; Ba, Selly; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S

    2015-12-01

    Treatment options for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are restricted by the intrinsic resistance of the virus to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and the reduced susceptibility of HIV-2 to several protease inhibitors (PIs) used in antiretroviral therapy (ART). In an effort to identify new antiretrovirals for HIV-2 treatment, we evaluated the in vitro activity of the investigational nucleoside analog BMS-986001 (2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxy-4'-ethynylthymidine; also known as censavudine, festinavir, OBP-601, 4'-ethynyl stavudine, or 4'-ethynyl-d4T). In single-cycle assays, BMS-986001 inhibited HIV-2 isolates from treatment-naive individuals, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 30 to 81 nM. In contrast, EC50s for group M and O isolates of HIV-1 ranged from 450 to 890 nM. Across all isolates tested, the average EC50 for HIV-2 was 9.5-fold lower than that for HIV-1 (64 ± 18 nM versus 610 ± 200 nM, respectively; mean ± standard deviation). BMS-986001 also exhibited full activity against HIV-2 variants whose genomes encoded the single amino acid changes K65R and Q151M in reverse transcriptase, whereas the M184V mutant was 15-fold more resistant to the drug than the parental HIV-2ROD9 strain. Taken together, our findings show that BMS-986001 is an effective inhibitor of HIV-2 replication. To our knowledge, BMS-986001 is the first nucleoside analog that, when tested against a diverse collection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates, exhibits more potent activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1 in culture. PMID:26392486

  11. The Nucleoside Analog BMS-986001 Shows Greater In Vitro Activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Raugi, Dana N.; Wu, Vincent H.; Leong, Sally S.; Parker, Kate M.; Oakes, Mariah K.; Sow, Papa Salif; Ba, Selly; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment options for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are restricted by the intrinsic resistance of the virus to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and the reduced susceptibility of HIV-2 to several protease inhibitors (PIs) used in antiretroviral therapy (ART). In an effort to identify new antiretrovirals for HIV-2 treatment, we evaluated the in vitro activity of the investigational nucleoside analog BMS-986001 (2′,3′-didehydro-3′-deoxy-4′-ethynylthymidine; also known as censavudine, festinavir, OBP-601, 4′-ethynyl stavudine, or 4′-ethynyl-d4T). In single-cycle assays, BMS-986001 inhibited HIV-2 isolates from treatment-naive individuals, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 30 to 81 nM. In contrast, EC50s for group M and O isolates of HIV-1 ranged from 450 to 890 nM. Across all isolates tested, the average EC50 for HIV-2 was 9.5-fold lower than that for HIV-1 (64 ± 18 nM versus 610 ± 200 nM, respectively; mean ± standard deviation). BMS-986001 also exhibited full activity against HIV-2 variants whose genomes encoded the single amino acid changes K65R and Q151M in reverse transcriptase, whereas the M184V mutant was 15-fold more resistant to the drug than the parental HIV-2ROD9 strain. Taken together, our findings show that BMS-986001 is an effective inhibitor of HIV-2 replication. To our knowledge, BMS-986001 is the first nucleoside analog that, when tested against a diverse collection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates, exhibits more potent activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1 in culture. PMID:26392486

  12. The Nucleoside Analog BMS-986001 Shows Greater In Vitro Activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert A; Raugi, Dana N; Wu, Vincent H; Leong, Sally S; Parker, Kate M; Oakes, Mariah K; Sow, Papa Salif; Ba, Selly; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S

    2015-12-01

    Treatment options for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are restricted by the intrinsic resistance of the virus to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and the reduced susceptibility of HIV-2 to several protease inhibitors (PIs) used in antiretroviral therapy (ART). In an effort to identify new antiretrovirals for HIV-2 treatment, we evaluated the in vitro activity of the investigational nucleoside analog BMS-986001 (2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxy-4'-ethynylthymidine; also known as censavudine, festinavir, OBP-601, 4'-ethynyl stavudine, or 4'-ethynyl-d4T). In single-cycle assays, BMS-986001 inhibited HIV-2 isolates from treatment-naive individuals, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 30 to 81 nM. In contrast, EC50s for group M and O isolates of HIV-1 ranged from 450 to 890 nM. Across all isolates tested, the average EC50 for HIV-2 was 9.5-fold lower than that for HIV-1 (64 ± 18 nM versus 610 ± 200 nM, respectively; mean ± standard deviation). BMS-986001 also exhibited full activity against HIV-2 variants whose genomes encoded the single amino acid changes K65R and Q151M in reverse transcriptase, whereas the M184V mutant was 15-fold more resistant to the drug than the parental HIV-2ROD9 strain. Taken together, our findings show that BMS-986001 is an effective inhibitor of HIV-2 replication. To our knowledge, BMS-986001 is the first nucleoside analog that, when tested against a diverse collection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates, exhibits more potent activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1 in culture.

  13. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  14. The human interferon-regulated ISG95 protein interacts with RNA polymerase II and shows methyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haline-Vaz, Thais; Lima Silva, Tereza Cristina; Zanchin, Nilson I.T.

    2008-08-08

    A major mechanism of cellular resistance to viral invasion involves genes from the interferon signaling pathway, called ISGs (interferon stimulated genes). Global transcriptional profiling studies have linked increased expression of ISG95 (KIAA0082) to response to interferon treatment and viral infection, suggesting that it may be part of the cellular defense against viral replication. In this work, we show that the ISG95 promoter can drive interferon-induced transcription of a reporter gene in Vero cells. Recombinant ISG95 shows RNA- and S-adenosyl-methionine binding and protein methyltransferase activity in vitro. ISG95 interacts with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, which is consistent with its nuclear localization and with the predicted function of the WW domain found in the C-terminal region of ISG95. The results presented in this work indicate that ISG95 is part of the interferon response pathway and functions in the pre-mRNA processing events mediated by the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II.

  15. Using experienced activity spaces to measure foodscape exposure.

    PubMed

    Kestens, Yan; Lebel, Alexandre; Daniel, Mark; Thériault, Marius; Pampalon, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in understanding how food environments influence eating behavior and weight-related health outcomes. Little is known about the dose-response relationship between foodscapes and behavior or weight, with measures of food exposure having mainly focused on fixed anchor points including residential neighborhoods, schools, or workplaces. Recent calls have been made to extend the consideration of environmental influences beyond local neighborhoods and also to shift away from place-based, to people-based, measures of exposure. This report presents analyses of novel activity-space measures of exposure to foodscapes, combining travel survey data with food store locations in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada. The resulting individual activity-space experienced foodscape exposure measures differ from traditional residential-based measures, and show variations by age and income levels. Furthermore, these activity-space exposure measures once modeled, can be used as predictors of health outcomes. Hence, travel surveys can be used to estimate environmental exposure for health survey participants.

  16. Individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum show sensory processing differences as measured by the Sensory Profile

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Winnie; Strominger, Zoe; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Given reports of high pain thresholds and reduced auditory response in individuals with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum (AgCC), this study investigated whether affected participants report atypical experiences and behaviors on a well-established sensory processing measure. Methods Fourteen participants with AgCC (ages 11-59) completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (Brown & Dunn, 2001). Sensory profile scales were classified as “Atypical” if they were more than one standard deviation from the mean. Results Fifty-seven percent of participants with AgCC reported reduced sensory registration as compared to an expected 16% of the normative sample. Similarly, 50% of the AgCC participants reported atypically increased auditory processing difficulties. Conclusions Using a well-established sensory processing questionnaire, participants with AgCC reported measurable differences in multiple aspects of sensory processing. The most notable difference was in the quadrant of low sensory registration, suggesting that individuals with AgCC may require sensory information to be presented more slowly or at a higher intensity for adequate processing. The sensory modality that was most affected was the auditory system, which is consistent with increased rates of language disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorders in this population. Understanding sensory processing in individuals with AgCC can both elucidate the role of inter-hemispheric transfer in the development of intact sensory processing as well as contribute to our knowledge of the role of the corpus callosum in a range of disorders in which sensory processes are impacted. PMID:25528608

  17. Is the Intergenerational Transmission of High Cultural Activities Biased by the Retrospective Measurement of Parental High Cultural Activities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Jannes; de Graaf, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we study the bias caused by the conventional retrospective measurement of parental high cultural activities in the effects of parental high cultural activities and educational attainment on son's or daughter's high cultural activities. Multi-informant data show that there is both random measurement error and correlated error in the…

  18. A solution NMR study showing that active site ligands and nucleotides directly perturb the allosteric equilibrium in aspartate transcarbamoylase.

    PubMed

    Velyvis, Algirdas; Yang, Ying R; Schachman, Howard K; Kay, Lewis E

    2007-05-22

    The 306-kDa aspartate transcarbamoylase is a well studied regulatory enzyme, and it has emerged as a paradigm for understanding allostery and cooperative binding processes. Although there is a consensus that the cooperative binding of active site ligands follows the Monod-Wyman-Changeux (MWC) model of allostery, there is some debate about the binding of effectors such as ATP and CTP and how they influence the allosteric equilibrium between R and T states of the enzyme. In this article, the binding of substrates, substrate analogues, and nucleotides is studied, along with their effect on the R-T equilibrium by using highly deuterated, (1)H,(13)C-methyl-labeled protein in concert with methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy (TROSY) NMR. Although only the T state of the enzyme can be observed in spectra of wild-type unliganded aspartate transcarbamoylase, binding of active-site substrates shift the equilibrium so that correlations from the R state become visible, allowing the equilibrium constant (L') between ligand-saturated R and T forms of the enzyme to be measured quantitatively. The equilibrium constant between unliganded R and T forms (L) also is obtained, despite the fact that the R state is "invisible" in spectra, by means of an indirect process that makes use of relations that emerge from the fact that ligand binding and the R-T equilibrium are linked. Titrations with MgATP unequivocally establish that its binding directly perturbs the R-T equilibrium, consistent with the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model. This study emphasizes the utility of modern solution NMR spectroscopy in understanding protein function, even for systems with aggregate molecular masses in the hundreds of kilodaltons.

  19. The selective VEGFR1-3 inhibitor axitinib (AG-013736) shows antitumor activity in human neuroblastoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Jochen; Monnet, Yann; Farace, Francoise; Opolon, Paule; Daudigeos-Dubus, Estelle; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Vassal, Gilles; Geoerger, Birgit

    2011-06-01

    Tumor angiogenesis in childhood neuroblastoma is an important prognostic factor suggesting a potential role for antiangiogenic agents in the treatment of high-risk disease. Within the KidsCancerKinome project, we evaluated the new oral selective pan-VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor axitinib (AG-013736) against neuroblastoma cell lines and the subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft model IGR-N91 derived from a primary bone marrow metastasis. Axitinib reduced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with IC(50) doses between 274 and >10,000 nmol/l. Oral treatment with 30 mg/kg BID for 2 weeks in advanced tumors yielded significant tumor growth delay, with a median time to reach five times initial tumor volume of 11.4 days compared to controls (p = 0.0006) and resulted in significant reduction in bioluminescence. Simultaneous inhibition of VEGFR downstream effector mTOR using rapamycin 20 mg/kg q2d×5 did not statistically enhance tumor growth delay compared to single agent activities. Axitinib downregulated VEGFR-2 phosphorylation resulting in significantly decreased microvessel density (MVD) and overall surface fraction of tumor vessels (OSFV) in all xenografts as measured by CD34 immunohistochemical staining (mean MVD ± SD and OSFV at 14 days 21.27 ± 10.03 in treated tumors vs. 48.79 ± 17.27 in controls and 0.56% vs. 1.29%; p = 0.0006, respectively). We further explored the effects of axitinib on circulating mature endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs) measured by flow cytometry. While only transient modification was observed for CECs, CEP counts were significantly reduced during and up to 14 days after end of treatment. Axitinib has potent antiangiogenic properties that may warrant further evaluation in neuroblastoma. PMID:20715103

  20. MEG-measured auditory steady-state oscillations show high test-retest reliability: A sensor and source-space analysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, H-R M; Gross, J; Uhlhaas, P J

    2015-11-15

    Stability of oscillatory signatures across magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements is an important prerequisite for basic and clinical research that has been insufficiently addressed. Here, we evaluated the test-retest reliability of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) over two MEG sessions. The study required participants (N=13) to detect the rare occurrence of pure tones interspersed within a stream of 5 Hz or 40 Hz amplitude-modulated (AM) tones. Intraclass correlations (ICC; Shrout and Fleiss, 1979) were derived to assess stability of spectral power changes and the inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) of task-elicited neural responses. ASSRs source activity was estimated using eLORETA beamforming from bilateral auditory cortex. ASSRs to 40 Hz AM stimuli evoked stronger power modulation and phase-locking than 5 Hz stimulation. Overall, spectral power and ITPC values at both sensor- and source-level showed robust ICC values. Notably, ITPC measures yielded higher ICCs (~0.86-0.96) between sessions compared to the assessment of spectral power change (~0.61-0.82). Our data indicate that spectral modulations and phase consistency of ASSRs in MEG data are highly reproducible, providing support for MEG-measured oscillatory parameters in basic and clinical research.

  1. [Do men and women in illness and stress situations show different measures of risk attitude and therapy behaviour?].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, C

    2010-09-01

    We analyse which factors influence patient compliance decision. We built a simple therapy behaviour model reflecting the trade-off between perceived side effects and patient compliance behaviour. A total of 1,034 patients were included in the study utilising a clinical trial in Germany between 2007 and 2008. The separate evaluation of the behavioural model taking into account the variable gender led to the following result: The meaning of single parameters clearly differs for the explanation of patient's compliance behaviour between men and women. Men show more willingness to take a risk in dealing with their therapy and health than women. To do justice to the different behavioural strengths and deficits of men and women in therapy, it is indispensable to consider patient's gender by the development of risk-based health insurance rates. PMID:20865976

  2. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in response to temperature elevation shows seasonal variation in the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Jost, Jennifer A; Keshwani, Sarah S; Abou-Hanna, Jacob J

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change is affecting ectothermic species, and a variety of studies are needed on thermal tolerances, especially from cellular and physiological perspectives. This study utilized AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of cellular energy levels, to examine the effects of high water temperatures on zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) physiology. During heating, AMPK activity increased as water temperature increased to a point, and maximum AMPK activity was detected at high, but sublethal, water temperatures. This pattern varied with season, suggesting that cellular mechanisms of seasonal thermal acclimatization affect basic metabolic processes during sublethal heat stress. There was a greater seasonal variation in the water temperature at which maximum AMPK activity was measured than in lethal water temperature. Furthermore, baseline AMPK activity varied significantly across seasons, most likely reflecting altered metabolic states during times of growth and reproduction. In addition, when summer-collected mussels were lab-acclimated to winter and spring water temperatures, patterns of heat stress mirrored those of field-collected animals. These data suggest that water temperature is the main driver of the seasonal variation in physiology. This study concluded that AMPK activity, which reflects changes in energy supply and demand during heat stress, can serve as a sensitive and early indicator of temperature stress in mussels.

  3. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in response to temperature elevation shows seasonal variation in the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Jost, Jennifer A; Keshwani, Sarah S; Abou-Hanna, Jacob J

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change is affecting ectothermic species, and a variety of studies are needed on thermal tolerances, especially from cellular and physiological perspectives. This study utilized AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of cellular energy levels, to examine the effects of high water temperatures on zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) physiology. During heating, AMPK activity increased as water temperature increased to a point, and maximum AMPK activity was detected at high, but sublethal, water temperatures. This pattern varied with season, suggesting that cellular mechanisms of seasonal thermal acclimatization affect basic metabolic processes during sublethal heat stress. There was a greater seasonal variation in the water temperature at which maximum AMPK activity was measured than in lethal water temperature. Furthermore, baseline AMPK activity varied significantly across seasons, most likely reflecting altered metabolic states during times of growth and reproduction. In addition, when summer-collected mussels were lab-acclimated to winter and spring water temperatures, patterns of heat stress mirrored those of field-collected animals. These data suggest that water temperature is the main driver of the seasonal variation in physiology. This study concluded that AMPK activity, which reflects changes in energy supply and demand during heat stress, can serve as a sensitive and early indicator of temperature stress in mussels. PMID:25498351

  4. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-02-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine's list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996-2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  5. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship

    PubMed Central

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine’s list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996–2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  6. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-02-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine's list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996-2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship.

  7. Measuring thermal budgets of active volcanoes by satellite remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, L.; Francis, P. W.; Rothery, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper measurements of the total radiant energy flux Q at Lascar volcano in north Chile for December 1984 are reported. The results are consistent with the earlier suggestion that a lava lake is the source of a reported thermal budget anomaly, and with values for 1985-1986 that are much lower, suggesting that fumarolic activity was then a more likely heat source. The results show that satellite remote sensing may be used to monitor the activity of a volcano quantitatively, in a way not possible by conventional ground studies, and may provide a method for predicting eruptions.

  8. Sequential treatment with betulinic acid followed by 5-fluorouracil shows synergistic cytotoxic activity in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Jian; Liu, Jun-Bao; Dou, Yu-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Betulinic acid selectively inhibits the growth of ovarian carcinoma cell lines without affecting the normal cells. In the present study, the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and betulinic acid (BA) combination on ovarian carcinoma cells was studied. The results demonstrated that ovarian carcinoma cells on concurrent or 5-FU followed by BA treatment show increased Sub-G1 cell population, increased rate of cell apoptosis and morphological changes in mitochondrial membrane. In OVCAR 432 cells treatment with sequential combination of 5-FU and BA increased the Sub-G1 cell population to 51.3% and growth inhibition rate of > 72%. However, exposure to BA before 5-FU treatment caused a decrease in rate of inhibition to < 35%. Treatment with combination of 5 μM of 5-FU and 1 μM of BA for 48 h, led to an induction of apoptosis in 79.7% and induced morphological changes in OVCAR 432 cells. The Western blot results showed high concentration of cytochrome c in the cell cytosol after 24 h of 5-FU and BA combination treatment. Treatment of BA-responsive RMS-13 cells with 5-FU and BA combination resulted in inhibition of GLI1, GLI2, PTCH1, and IGF2 genes. In addition, we found a significant reduction in hedgehog activity of RMS-13 cells after 5-FU and BA combination treatment by means of a hedgehog-responsive reporter assay. Therefore, 5-FU and BA combination can be a promising regimen for the treatment of ovarian carcinoma. PMID:25755712

  9. Individuals at risk for Alzheimer’s disease show differential patterns of ERP brain activation during odor identification

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that older adults at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease may show olfactory processing deficits before other signs of dementia appear. Methods We studied 60 healthy non-demented individuals, half of whom were positive for the genetic risk factor the Apolipoprotein E ɛ4 allele, in three different age groups. Event-related potentials to visual and olfactory identification tasks were recorded and analyzed for latency and amplitude differences, and plotted via topographical maps. Results Varying patterns of brain activation were observed over the post-stimulus epoch for ɛ4- versus ɛ4+ individuals on topographical maps. Individuals with the ɛ4 allele demonstrated different ERP peak latencies during identification of olfactory but not visual stimuli. High correct ApoE classification rates were obtained utilizing the olfactory ERP. Conclusions Olfactory ERPs demonstrate functional decline in individuals at risk for Alzheimer’s disease at much earlier ages than previously observed, suggesting the potential for pre-clinical detection of AD at very early stages. PMID:22849610

  10. Recombinant murine toxin from Yersinia pestis shows high toxicity and β-adrenergic blocking activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanxiao; Zhou, Yazhou; Feng, Na; Wang, Qiong; Tian, Guang; Wu, Xiaohong; Liu, Zizhong; Bi, Yujing; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2016-05-01

    Yersinia pestis murine toxin (Ymt) encoded on pMT1 is a 61-kDa protein, a member of the phospholipase D superfamily, which is found in all the domains of life. It is considered to be an intracellular protein required for the survival of Y. pestis in the midgut of the flea, but the exact role of Ymt in the pathogenesis of Y. pestis has not been clarified. Purified Ymt is highly toxic to mice and rats, but the exact mechanism of the animals' death is unclear. Here, we prepared a recombinant Ymt in Escherichia coli BL21 cells, and determined its toxicity and activity. We demonstrated that recombinant Ymt was as toxic to mice as the native protein when administered via the intraperitoneal or intravenous route, and inhibited the elevation of blood sugar caused by adrenaline. We also demonstrated that recombinant Ymt was highly toxic to mice when administered via the muscular or subcutaneous route. We also show that the multiple organ congestion or hemorrhage caused by Ymt poisoning may explain the death of the mice. PMID:26774329

  11. Voluntary and involuntary running in the rat show different patterns of theta rhythm, physical activity, and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Yi; Kuo, Terry B J; Yen, Jiin-Cherng; Tsai, Shih-Chih; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2014-05-01

    Involuntarily exercising rats undergo more physical and mental stress than voluntarily exercising rats; however, these findings still lack electrophysiological evidence. Many studies have reported that theta rhythm appears when there is mental stress and that it is affected by emotional status. Thus we hypothesized that the differences between voluntary and involuntary movement should also exist in the hippocampal theta rhythm. Using the wheel and treadmill exercise models as voluntary and involuntary exercise models, respectively, this study wirelessly recorded the hippocampal electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, and three-dimensional accelerations of young male rats. Treadmill and wheel exercise produced different theta patterns in the rats before and during running. Even though the waking baselines for the two exercise types were recorded in different environments, there did not exist any significant difference after distinguishing the rats' sleep/wake status. When the same movement-related parameters are considered, the treadmill running group showed more changes in their theta frequency (4-12 Hz), in their theta power between 9.5-12 Hz, and in their heart rate than the wheel running group. A positive correlation between the changes in high-frequency (9.5-12 Hz) theta power and heart rate was identified. Our results reveal various voluntary and involuntary changes in hippocampal theta rhythm as well as divergences in heart rate and high-frequency theta activity that may represent the effects of an additional emotional state or the sensory interaction during involuntary running by rats. PMID:24623507

  12. A preorganized metalloreceptor for alkaline earth ions showing calcium versus magnesium selectivity in water: biological activity of selected metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Amatori, Stefano; Ambrosi, Gianluca; Fanelli, Mirco; Formica, Mauro; Fusi, Vieri; Giorgi, Luca; Macedi, Eleonora; Micheloni, Mauro; Paoli, Paola; Rossi, Patrizia

    2014-08-25

    The N,N'-bis[(3-hydroxy-4-pyron-2-yl)methyl]-N,N'-dimethylethylendiamine (Malten = L) forms the highly stable [CuH(-2)L] species in water, in which the converging maltol oxygen atoms form an electron-rich area able to host hard metal ions. When considering the alkaline earth series (AE), the [Cu(H(-2)L)] species binds all metal ions, with the exception of Mg(2+), exhibiting the relevant property to discriminate Ca(2+) versus Mg(2+) at physiological pH 7.4; the binding of the AE metal is visible to the naked eye. The stability constant values of the trinuclear [AE{Cu(H(-2)L)}2](2+) species formed reach the maximum for Ca(2+) (log K=7.7). Ca(2+) also forms a tetranuclear [Ca{Cu(H(-2)L)}]2(4+) species at a high Ca(2+) concentration. Tri- and tetranuclear calcium complexes show blue- and pink-colored crystals, respectively. [Cu(H(-2)L)] is the most active species in inducing DNA alterations. The DNA damages are compatible with its hydrolytic cleavages.

  13. Tryptophan prenyltransferases showing higher catalytic activities for Friedel-Crafts alkylation of o- and m-tyrosines than tyrosine prenyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Fan, Aili; Xie, Xiulan; Li, Shu-Ming

    2015-07-21

    Tryptophan prenyltransferases FgaPT2, 5-DMATS, 6-DMATSSv and 7-DMATS catalyse regiospecific C-prenylations on the indole ring, while tyrosine prenyltransferases SirD and TyrPT catalyse the O-prenylation of the phenolic hydroxyl group. In this study, we report the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of L-o-tyrosine by these enzymes. Surprisingly, no conversion was detected with SirD and three tryptophan prenyltransferases showed significantly higher activity than another tyrosine prenyltransferase TyrPT. C5-prenylated L-o-tyrosine was identified as a unique product of these enzymes. Using L-m-tyrosine as the prenylation substrate, product formation was only observed with the tryptophan prenyltransferases FgaPT2 and 7-DMATS. C4- and C6-prenylated derivatives were identified in the reaction mixture of FgaPT2. These results provided additional evidence for the similarities and differences between these two subgroups within the DMATS superfamily in their catalytic behaviours.

  14. Tryptophan prenyltransferases showing higher catalytic activities for Friedel-Crafts alkylation of o- and m-tyrosines than tyrosine prenyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Fan, Aili; Xie, Xiulan; Li, Shu-Ming

    2015-07-21

    Tryptophan prenyltransferases FgaPT2, 5-DMATS, 6-DMATSSv and 7-DMATS catalyse regiospecific C-prenylations on the indole ring, while tyrosine prenyltransferases SirD and TyrPT catalyse the O-prenylation of the phenolic hydroxyl group. In this study, we report the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of L-o-tyrosine by these enzymes. Surprisingly, no conversion was detected with SirD and three tryptophan prenyltransferases showed significantly higher activity than another tyrosine prenyltransferase TyrPT. C5-prenylated L-o-tyrosine was identified as a unique product of these enzymes. Using L-m-tyrosine as the prenylation substrate, product formation was only observed with the tryptophan prenyltransferases FgaPT2 and 7-DMATS. C4- and C6-prenylated derivatives were identified in the reaction mixture of FgaPT2. These results provided additional evidence for the similarities and differences between these two subgroups within the DMATS superfamily in their catalytic behaviours. PMID:26077893

  15. Exploring the transferase activity of Ffase from Schwanniomyces occidentalis, a β-fructofuranosidase showing high fructosyl-acceptor promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Piedrabuena, David; Míguez, Noa; Poveda, Ana; Plou, Francisco J; Fernández-Lobato, María

    2016-10-01

    The β-fructofuranosidase from the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis (Ffase) produces the prebiotic sugars 6-kestose and 1-kestose by transfructosylation of sucrose, which makes it of biotechnological interest. In this study, the hydrolase and transferase activity of this enzyme was kinetically characterized and its potential to synthesize new fructosylated products explored. A total of 40 hydroxylated compounds were used as potential fructosyl-acceptor alternatives to sucrose. Only 17 of them, including some monosaccharides, disaccharides, and oligosaccharides as well as alditols and glycosides were fructosylated. The best alternative acceptors were the alditols. The major transfer product of the reaction including mannitol was purified and characterized as 1-O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-D-mannitol, whose maximum concentration reached 44 g/L, representing about 7.3 % of total compounds in the mixture and 89 % of all products generated by transfructosylation. The reactions including erythritol produced 35 g/L of an isomer mixture comprising 1- and 4-O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-D-erythritol. In addition, Ffase produced 24 g/L of the disaccharide blastose by direct fructosylation of glucose, which makes it the first enzyme characterized from yeast showing this ability. Thus, novel fructosylated compounds with potential applications in food and pharmaceutical industries can be obtained due to the Ffase fructosyl-acceptor promiscuity.

  16. Exploring the transferase activity of Ffase from Schwanniomyces occidentalis, a β-fructofuranosidase showing high fructosyl-acceptor promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Piedrabuena, David; Míguez, Noa; Poveda, Ana; Plou, Francisco J; Fernández-Lobato, María

    2016-10-01

    The β-fructofuranosidase from the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis (Ffase) produces the prebiotic sugars 6-kestose and 1-kestose by transfructosylation of sucrose, which makes it of biotechnological interest. In this study, the hydrolase and transferase activity of this enzyme was kinetically characterized and its potential to synthesize new fructosylated products explored. A total of 40 hydroxylated compounds were used as potential fructosyl-acceptor alternatives to sucrose. Only 17 of them, including some monosaccharides, disaccharides, and oligosaccharides as well as alditols and glycosides were fructosylated. The best alternative acceptors were the alditols. The major transfer product of the reaction including mannitol was purified and characterized as 1-O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-D-mannitol, whose maximum concentration reached 44 g/L, representing about 7.3 % of total compounds in the mixture and 89 % of all products generated by transfructosylation. The reactions including erythritol produced 35 g/L of an isomer mixture comprising 1- and 4-O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-D-erythritol. In addition, Ffase produced 24 g/L of the disaccharide blastose by direct fructosylation of glucose, which makes it the first enzyme characterized from yeast showing this ability. Thus, novel fructosylated compounds with potential applications in food and pharmaceutical industries can be obtained due to the Ffase fructosyl-acceptor promiscuity. PMID:27229725

  17. Some Attenuated Variants of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Show Enhanced Oncolytic Activity against Human Glioblastoma Cells relative to Normal Brain Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Wollmann, Guido; Rogulin, Vitaliy; Simon, Ian; Rose, John K.; van den Pol, Anthony N.

    2010-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been shown in laboratory studies to be effective against a variety of tumors, including malignant brain tumors. However, attenuation of VSV may be necessary to balance the potential toxicity toward normal cells, particularly when targeting brain tumors. Here we compared 10 recombinant VSV variants resulting from different attenuation strategies. Attenuations included gene shifting (VSV-p1-GFP/RFP), M protein mutation (VSV-M51), G protein cytoplasmic tail truncations (VSV-CT1/CT9), G protein deletions (VSV-dG-GFP/RFP), and combinations thereof (VSV-CT9-M51). Using in vitro viability and replication assays, the VSV variants were grouped into three categories, based on their antitumor activity and non-tumor-cell attenuation. In the first group, wild-type-based VSV-G/GFP, tumor-adapted VSV-rp30, and VSV-CT9 showed a strong antitumor profile but also retained some toxicity toward noncancer control cells. The second group, VSV-CT1, VSV-dG-GFP, and VSV-dG-RFP, had significantly diminished toxicity toward normal cells but showed little oncolytic action. The third group displayed a desired combination of diminished general toxicity and effective antitumor action; this group included VSV-M51, VSV-CT9-M51, VSV-p1-GFP, and VSV-p1-RFP. A member of the last group, VSV-p1-GFP, was then compared in vivo against wild-type-based VSV-G/GFP. Intranasal inoculation of young, postnatal day 16 mice with VSV-p1-GFP showed no adverse neurological effects, whereas VSV-G/GFP was associated with high lethality (80%). Using an intracranial tumor xenograft model, we further demonstrated that attenuated VSV-p1-GFP targets and kills human U87 glioblastoma cells after systemic application. We concluded that some, but not all, attenuated VSV mutants display a favorable oncolytic profile and merit further investigation. PMID:19906910

  18. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.

    PubMed

    de Waard, Pim W J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Baykus, Hakan; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Kok, Theo M C M

    2008-10-22

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for example, fruits and vegetables, can bind and activate this receptor. To study their potential effects in humans, we first investigated the effect of the prototypical AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression in ex vivo exposed freshly isolated human lymphocytes, and compared the resulting gene expression profile with those caused by the well-known NAhRA indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), originating from cruciferous vegetables, and by a hexane extract of NAhRA-containing grapefruit juice (GJE). Only ICZ induced a gene expression profile similar to TCDD in the lymphocytes, and both significantly up-regulated CYP1B1 and TIPARP (TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) mRNA. Next, we performed a human intervention study with NAhRA-containing cruciferous vegetables and grapefruit juice. The expression of the prototypical AhR-responsive genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and NQO1 in whole blood cells and in freshly isolated lymphocytes was not significantly affected. Also enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as judged by caffeine metabolites in urine, were unaffected, except for a small down-regulation of NAT2 activity by grapefruit juice. Examination of blood plasma with DR CALUX showed a 12% increased AhR agonist activity 3 and 24 h after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, but did not show a significant effect of grapefruit juice consumption. We conclude that intake of NAhRAs from food may result in minor AhR-related effects measurable in human blood and urine. PMID:18762178

  19. Connexin30-deficient mice show increased emotionality and decreased rearing activity in the open-field along with neurochemical changes.

    PubMed

    Dere, E; De Souza-Silva, M A; Frisch, C; Teubner, B; Söhl, G; Willecke, K; Huston, J P

    2003-08-01

    Gap-junction channels in the brain, formed by connexin (Cx) proteins with a distinct regional/cell-type distribution, allow intercellular electrical and metabolic communication. In astrocytes, mainly the connexins 43, 26 and 30 are expressed. In addition, connexin30 is expressed in ependymal and leptomeningeal cells, as well as in skin and cochlea. The functional implications of the astrocytic gap-junctional network are not well understood and evidence regarding their behavioural relevance is lacking. Thus, we have tested groups of Cx30-/-, Cx30+/-, and Cx30+/+ mice in the open-field, an object exploration task, in the graded anxiety test and on the rotarod. The Cx30-/- mice showed reduced exploratory activity in terms of rearings but not locomotion in the open-field and object exploration task. Furthermore, Cx30-/- mice exhibited anxiogenic behaviour as shown by higher open-field centre avoidance and corner preference. Graded anxiety test and rotarod performance was similar across groups. The Cx30-/- mice had elevated choline levels in the ventral striatum, possibly related to their aberrant behavioural phenotypes. The Cx30+/- mice had lower dopamine and metabolite levels in the amygdala and ventral striatum and lower hippocampal 5-hydroxyindole acid (5-HIAA) concentrations relative to Cx30+/+ mice. Furthermore, the Cx30+/- mice had lower acetylcholine concentrations in the ventral striatum and higher choline levels in the neostriatum, relative to Cx30+/+ mice. Our data suggest that the elimination of connexin30 can alter the reactivity to novel environments, pointing to the importance of gap-junctional signalling in behavioural processes.

  20. Plasma membrane of Beta vulgaris storage root shows high water channel activity regulated by cytoplasmic pH and a dual range of calcium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Alleva, Karina; Niemietz, Christa M; Sutka, Moira; Maurel, Christophe; Parisi, Mario; Tyerman, Stephen D; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles isolated by two-phase partitioning from the storage root of Beta vulgaris show atypically high water permeability that is equivalent only to those reported for active aquaporins in tonoplast or animal red cells (Pf=542 microm s(-1)). The values were determined from the shrinking kinetics measured by stopped-flow light scattering. This high Pf was only partially inhibited by mercury (HgCl2) but showed low activation energy (Ea) consistent with water permeation through water channels. To study short-term regulation of water transport that could be the result of channel gating, the effects of pH, divalent cations, and protection against dephosphorylation were tested. The high Pf observed at pH 8.3 was dramatically reduced by medium acidification. Moreover, intra-vesicular acidification (corresponding to the cytoplasmic face of the membrane) shut down the aquaporins. De-phosphorylation was discounted as a regulatory mechanism in this preparation. On the other hand, among divalent cations, only calcium showed a clear effect on aquaporin activity, with two distinct ranges of sensitivity to free Ca2+ concentration (pCa 8 and pCa 4). Since the normal cytoplasmic free Ca2+ sits between these ranges it allows for the possibility of changes in Ca2+ to finely up- or down-regulate water channel activity. The calcium effect is predominantly on the cytoplasmic face, and inhibition corresponds to an increase in the activation energy for water transport. In conclusion, these findings establish both cytoplasmic pH and Ca2+ as important regulatory factors involved in aquaporin gating.

  1. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  2. Active Learning Facilitated by Using a Game-Show Format or Who Doesn't Want to Be a Millionaire?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Yolanda; Banbury, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    University faculty are increasingly called on to be less of a sage on the stage and more a guide on the side. This discussion introduces the underlying philosophy and assumptions of active learning theory. With this shift in pedagogical philosophy, there has been an increasing call for tools that actively engage students in the learning process. A…

  3. Lung Adenocarcinomas and Lung Cancer Cell Lines Show Association of MMP-1 Expression With STAT3 Activation.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Alexander; Röser, Katrin; Klitzsch, Jana; Lieder, Franziska; Aberger, Fritz; Gruber, Wolfgang; Mueller, Kristina M; Pupyshev, Alexander; Moriggl, Richard; Friedrich, Karlheinz

    2015-04-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in the majority of lung cancer. This study aims at defining connections between STAT3 function and the malignant properties of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. To address possible mechanisms by which STAT3 influences invasiveness, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) was analyzed and correlated with the STAT3 activity status. Studies on both surgical biopsies and on lung cancer cell lines revealed a coincidence of STAT3 activation and strong expression of MMP-1. MMP-1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated activated STAT3 were found co-localized in cancer tissues, most pronounced in tumor fronts, and in particular in adenocarcinomas. STAT3 activity was constitutive, although to different degrees, in the lung cancer cell lines investigated. Three cell lines (BEN, KNS62, and A549) were identified in which STAT3 activitation was inducible by Interleukin-6 (IL-6). In A549 cells, STAT3 activity enhanced the level of MMP-1 mRNA and stimulated transcription from the MMP-1 promoter in IL-6-stimulated A549 cells. STAT3 specificity of this effect was confirmed by STAT3 knockdown through RNA interference. Our results link aberrant activity of STAT3 in lung cancer cells to malignant tumor progression through up-regulation of expression of invasiveness-associated MMPs.

  4. Physical Activity in the Life of a Woman with Severe Cerebral Palsy: Showing Competence and Being Socially Connected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J.; Andersen, Mark B.; Morris, Tony

    2009-01-01

    We used a life-history approach to investigate the meanings and experiences of physical activity in the life of a 25-year-old woman with severe cerebral palsy (Amy). Amy and her mother were interviewed about Amy's life and her involvement in physical activity. The conversation was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interpreted Amy's story…

  5. Emission measure distribution for diffuse regions in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2014-11-01

    Our knowledge of the diffuse emission that encompasses active regions is very limited. In this paper we investigate two off-limb active regions, namely, AR 10939 and AR 10961, to probe the underlying heating mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used spectral observations from Hinode/EIS and employed the emission measure (EM) technique to obtain the thermal structure of these diffuse regions. Our results show that the characteristic EM distributions of the diffuse emission regions peak at log T = 6.25 and the coolward slopes are in the range 1.4-3.3. This suggests that both low- as well as high-frequency nanoflare heating events are at work. Our results provide additional constraints on the properties of these diffuse emission regions and their contribution to the background/foreground when active region cores are observed on-disk.

  6. Measurement of optical activity of honey bee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Salgado-Verduzco, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Optical activity of some substances, such as chiral molecules, often exhibits circular birefringence. Circular birefringence causes rotation of the vibration plane of the plane polarized light as it passes through the substance. In this work we present optical characterization of honey as function of the optical activity when it is placed in a polariscope that consists of a light source and properly arranged polarizing elements.

  7. Measurement of myeloid cell immune suppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Dolcetti, Luigi; Peranzoni, Elisa; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2010-11-01

    This unit presents simple methods to assess the immunosuppressive properties of immunoregulatory cells of myeloid origin, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), both in vitro and in vivo. These methods are general and could be adapted to test the impact of different suppressive populations on T cell activation, proliferation, and cytotoxic activity; moreover they could be useful to assess the influence exerted on immune suppressive pathways by genetic modifications, chemical inhibitors, and drugs.

  8. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  9. Chemical modification of xylanase from Trichosporon cutaneum shows the presence of carboxyl groups and cysteine residues essential for enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Wen, L; Miao, Z W; Qing, W D

    1999-08-01

    The endo-beta-1,4-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from Trichosporon cutaneum was chemically modified using amino acid-specific reagents. The enzyme does not bear arginines essential for activity, since 1,2-cyclohexanedione and 2,3-butanedione, although they modify the enzyme (after chromatographic analysis), have no effect on its activity. Reaction of the enzyme with tetranitromethane and N-acetylimidazole did not result in a significant activity loss as a result of modification of tyrosine residues. The water-soluble carbodiimide 1-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl]-3-ethylcarbodiimide inactivated the xylanase rapidly and completely in a pseudo-first-order process, and kinetic analysis indicated that at least one molecule of carbodiimide binds to the enzyme for inactivation. A mixture of neutral xylooligomers provided significant protection of the enzyme against this carbodiimide inactivation. Reaction of the xylanase with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid did not result in a significant activity loss as a result of modification of lysine residues. Titration of the enzyme with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and treatment with iodoacetamide and p-chloromercuribenzoate indicated the presence of a free/active thiol group. Xylan completely protected the enzyme from inactivation by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, suggesting the presence of cysteine at the substrate-binding site. Inactivation of xylanase by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate could be restored by cysteine. PMID:10609644

  10. Saraca indica Bark Extract Shows In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibreast Cancer Activity and Does Not Exhibit Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K. R.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25861411

  11. Saraca indica bark extract shows in vitro antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and does not exhibit toxicological effects.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K R; Singh, R K

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy.

  12. Antioxidative activity of lactobacilli measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity.

    PubMed

    Saide, J A O; Gilliland, S E

    2005-04-01

    The reducing ability and antioxidative activity of some species of Lactobacillus were compared under in vitro conditions. Cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei were grown at 37 degrees C in de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) broth supplemented with 0.5% 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) to evaluate reducing activity. Reduced TTC was extracted from the cultures with acetone, and the intensity of the red color measured colorimetrically at 485 nm was an indication of reducing activity. The lactobacilli varied significantly in relative ability to reduce TTC when grown in MRS broth for 15 h. The relative amounts of growth as indicated by pH values at 18 h appeared to influence the amount of reduction. Antioxidative activity was evaluated by the ability of the whole cells or the cell-free extracts from cultures to protect a protein from being attacked by free radicals. These analyses were performed using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. All cultures tested exhibited some degree of antioxidative activity. Among the treatments, the cell-free extracts from cells grown in MRS broth exhibited significantly higher values than did whole cells. There was no apparent relationship between the reducing and antioxidative activities of the cultures evaluated. The results from this study show that these cultures can provide a source of dietary antioxidants. Furthermore, selection of cultures that produce antioxidants as starters could provide yet another health or nutritional benefit from cultured or culture-containing dairy products.

  13. High-resolution BOLD fMRI measurements of local orientation-dependent contextual modulation show a mismatch between predicted V1 output and local BOLD response

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Jennifer F.; Olman, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI response to suppressive neural activity has not been tested on a fine spatial scale. Using Gabor patches placed in the near periphery, we precisely localized individual regions of interest in primary visual cortex and measured the response at a range of contrasts in two different contexts: with parallel and with orthogonal flanking Gabor patches. Psychophysical measurements confirmed strong suppression of the target Gabor response when flanked by parallel Gabors. However, the BOLD response to the target with parallel flankers decreased as the target contrast increased, which contradicts psychophysical estimates of local neural activity. PMID:20382175

  14. Measuring Physical Activity in the Elderly: Some Implications for Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of physical activity patterns is discussed in terms of data obtained by attitude assessment, activity questionnaires, personal monitoring devices, and fitness assessment. Problems of each technique are described. Application of activity measures to the estimation of total dietary needs is discussed. (SK)

  15. 12 CFR 1806.201 - Measuring and reporting Qualified Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Measuring and reporting Qualified Activities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.201 Measuring and reporting Qualified... applicable BEA NOFA for current limitations on Qualified Activities. (e) Measuring the Value of...

  16. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  17. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  18. Thionin Thi2.1 from Arabidopsis thaliana expressed in endothelial cells shows antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Loeza-Angeles, Heber; Sagrero-Cisneros, Eduardo; Lara-Zárate, Leticia; Villagómez-Gómez, Erik; López-Meza, Joel E; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra

    2008-10-01

    Thionins are plant antimicrobial peptides with antibacterial and antifungal activities. Thionin Thi2.1 cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana was expressed in BVE-E6E7 bovine endothelial cell line and its activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and different mammal cell lines. Total protein (2.5 microg) from conditioned medium (CM) of clone EC-Thi2.1 inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. aureus (>90%) and C. albicans strains (>80%) in relation to the CM from control cells. Also, CM of EC-Thi2.1 inhibited the viability of several transformed and normal mammal cell lines (38-95%). These results suggest that thionin Thi2.1 is an antimicrobial peptide that could be use in the treatment of mammalian infectious diseases. PMID:18563581

  19. Identification of a new cyathane diterpene that induces mitochondrial and autophagy-dependent apoptosis and shows a potent in vivo anti-colorectal cancer activity.

    PubMed

    He, Luwei; Han, Junjie; Li, Baowei; Huang, Li; Ma, Ke; Chen, Quan; Liu, Xinzhong; Bao, Li; Liu, Hongwei

    2016-03-23

    Diterpenes has been reported to possess multiple bioactivities consisting of anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. This study reveals a new cyathane-type diterpene (cyathin Q) from the culture of the fungus Cyathus africanus by bioactivity-guided separation. The structure of cyathin Q was determined based on spectroscopic measurements (NMR and MS). The bioactivity evaluation shows that cyathin Q has a strong anticancer activity against HCT116 cells and Bax-deficient HCT116 in vitro and in vivo. This compound induced hallmarks of apoptotic events in HCT116 cells, including caspase activation, cytochrome c release, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and depolarization of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential. This process is accompanied with the increased mitochondrial ROS, down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein, and up-regulation of Bim protein. We also observed the cleavage of autophagy-related protein ATG5 in cyathin Q-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our study identified a new fungal diterpene that exhibited anticancer activity via induction of mitochondria and autophagy-dependent apoptosis in HCT116 cells.

  20. Biosynthesis of fatty acid derived aldehydes is induced upon mechanical wounding and its products show fungicidal activities in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Kenji; Minami, Akari; Hornung, Ellen; Shibata, Hidetoshi; Kishimoto, Kyutaro; Ahnert, Volker; Kindl, Helmut; Kajiwara, Tadahiko; Feussner, Ivo

    2006-04-01

    Fatty acid 9/13-hydroperoxide lyase (9/13-HPL) in cucumber is an enzyme that can cleave either 9- or 13-hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids to form C9- or C6-aldehydes, respectively, as products. In order to reveal the physiological function of 9/13-HPL, its expression profiles were analyzed, and it was found that 9/13-HPL expression was developmentally regulated and high in the hypocotyls, female flowers and mature fruits. However, its transcript as well as its activity was only induced by mechanical wounding in mature leaves. To analyze the biosynthesis of HPL-derived aldehydes in more detail we isolated and characterized the yet missing 9-lipoxygenase (LOX) that is mainly expressed in hypocotyls, cotyledons and flowers and that may provide HPL with fatty acid 9-hydroperoxides as substrates. As in the case with C6-aldehydes in most plant species, C9-aldehydes were also formed rapidly after disruption of the tissues. C9-aldehydes had fungicidal activities against fungal pathogens, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum. Because the concentration needed to cause toxic effect on the pathogens was almost equivalent to that found in disrupted tissues, the C9-aldehydes thus formed could be helpful to sterilize the wounds since they are less volatile in comparison to C6-aldehydes. PMID:16497344

  1. Antimicrobial Peptides Expressed in Medicinal Maggots of the Blow Fly Lucilia sericata Show Combinatorial Activity against Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pöppel, Anne-Kathrin; Vogel, Heiko; Wiesner, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The larvae of the common green bottle fly (Lucilia sericata) produce antibacterial secretions that have a therapeutic effect on chronic and nonhealing wounds. Recent developments in insect biotechnology have made it possible to use these larvae as a source of novel anti-infectives. Here, we report the application of next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to characterize the transcriptomes of the larval glands, crop, and gut, which contribute to the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and proteins secreted into wounds. Our data confirm that L. sericata larvae have adapted in order to colonize microbially contaminated habitats, such as carrion and necrotic wounds, and are protected against infection by a diverse spectrum of AMPs. L. sericata AMPs include not only lucifensin and lucimycin but also novel attacins, cecropins, diptericins, proline-rich peptides, and sarcotoxins. We identified 47 genes encoding putative AMPs and produced 23 as synthetic analogs, among which some displayed activities against a broad spectrum of microbial pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, and Enterococcus faecalis. Against Escherichia coli (Gram negative) and Micrococcus luteus (Gram positive), we found mostly additive effects but also synergistic activity when selected AMPs were tested in combination. The AMPs that are easy to synthesize are currently being produced in bulk to allow their evaluation as novel anti-infectives that can be formulated in hydrogels to produce therapeutic wound dressings and adhesive bandages. PMID:25666157

  2. Monounsaturated fatty acid ether oligomers formed during heating of virgin olive oil show agglutination activity against human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Patrikios, Ioannis S; Mavromoustakos, Thomas M

    2014-01-29

    The present work focuses on the characterization of molecules formed when virgin olive oil is heated at 130 °C for 24 h open in air, which are found to be strong agglutinins. The hemagglutinating activity of the newly formed molecule isolated from the heated virgin olive oil sample was estimated against human red blood cells (RBCs). Dimers and polymers (high molecular weight molecules) were identified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil mixture. (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were the methods used for structural characterization. Among others, oligomerization of at least two monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) by an ether linkage between the hydrocarbon chains is involved. Light microscopy was used to characterize and visualize the agglutination process. Agglutination without fusion or lysis was observed. It was concluded that the heating of virgin olive oil open in air, among other effects, produces oligomerization as well as polymerization of unsaturated FA, possibly of monohydroxy, monounsaturated FA that is associated with strong hemagglutinating activity against human RBCs. The nutritional value and the effects on human health of such oligomers are not discussed in the literature and remain to be investigated. PMID:24410166

  3. Antimicrobial peptides expressed in medicinal maggots of the blow fly Lucilia sericata show combinatorial activity against bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pöppel, Anne-Kathrin; Vogel, Heiko; Wiesner, Jochen; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The larvae of the common green bottle fly (Lucilia sericata) produce antibacterial secretions that have a therapeutic effect on chronic and nonhealing wounds. Recent developments in insect biotechnology have made it possible to use these larvae as a source of novel anti-infectives. Here, we report the application of next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to characterize the transcriptomes of the larval glands, crop, and gut, which contribute to the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and proteins secreted into wounds. Our data confirm that L. sericata larvae have adapted in order to colonize microbially contaminated habitats, such as carrion and necrotic wounds, and are protected against infection by a diverse spectrum of AMPs. L. sericata AMPs include not only lucifensin and lucimycin but also novel attacins, cecropins, diptericins, proline-rich peptides, and sarcotoxins. We identified 47 genes encoding putative AMPs and produced 23 as synthetic analogs, among which some displayed activities against a broad spectrum of microbial pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, and Enterococcus faecalis. Against Escherichia coli (Gram negative) and Micrococcus luteus (Gram positive), we found mostly additive effects but also synergistic activity when selected AMPs were tested in combination. The AMPs that are easy to synthesize are currently being produced in bulk to allow their evaluation as novel anti-infectives that can be formulated in hydrogels to produce therapeutic wound dressings and adhesive bandages.

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity Assays of Seeds from Balanites aegyptiaca: Compounds of the Extract Show Growth Inhibition and Activity against Plasmodial Aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Kusch, Peter; Deininger, Susanne; Specht, Sabine; Maniako, Rudeka; Haubrich, Stefanie; Pommerening, Tanja; Lin, Paul Kong Thoo; Hoerauf, Achim; Kaiser, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae) is a widely grown desert plant with multiuse potential. In the present paper, a crude extract from B. aegyptiaca seeds equivalent to a ratio of 1 : 2000 seeds to the extract was screened for antiplasmodial activity. The determined IC50 value for the chloroquine-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum NF54 strain was 68.26 μg/μL ± 3.5. Analysis of the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 6-phenyl-2(H)-1,2,4-triazin-5-one oxime, an inhibitor of the parasitic M18 Aspartyl Aminopeptidase as one of the compounds which is responsible for the in vitro antiplasmodial activity. The crude plant extract had a Ki of 2.35 μg/μL and showed a dose-dependent response. After depletion of the compound, a significantly lower inhibition was determined with a Ki of 4.8 μg/μL. Moreover, two phenolic compounds, that is, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol and 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol, with determined IC50 values of 50.29 μM ± 3 and 47.82 μM ± 2.5, respectively, were detected. These compounds may contribute to the in vitro antimalarial activity due to their antioxidative properties. In an in vivo experiment, treatment of BALB/c mice with the aqueous Balanite extract did not lead to eradication of the parasites, although a reduced parasitemia at day 12 p.i. was observed. PMID:21687598

  5. Bovine natural killer cells are present in Escherichia coli infected mammary gland tissue and show antimicrobial activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2016-10-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46(+)/CD3(-)) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with Escherichia (E.) coli. A small number of NK cells was detected in milk from quarters before and during an E. coli challenge. In vitro cultures of primary bovine mammary gland epithelial cells stimulated with UV irradiated E. coli induced significant migration of peripheral blood NK cells (pbNK) within 2h. Furthermore, pbNK cells significantly reduced counts of live E. coli in vitro within 2h of culture. The results show that bovine NK cells have the capacity to migrate to the site of infection and produce antibacterial mediators. These findings introduce NK cells as a leukocyte population in the mammary gland with potential functions in the innate immune response in bovine mastitis. PMID:27638120

  6. Antagonist activities of mecamylamine and nicotine show reciprocal dependence on beta subunit sequence in the second transmembrane domain

    PubMed Central

    Webster, J Christopher; Francis, Michael M; Porter, Julia K; Robinson, Gillian; Stokes, Clare; Horenstein, Ben; Papke, Roger L

    1999-01-01

    We show that a portion of the TM2 domain regulates the sensitivity of beta subunit-containing rat neuronal nicotinic AChR to the ganglionic blocker mecamylamine, such that the substitution of 4 amino acids of the muscle beta subunit sequence into the neuronal beta4 sequence decreases the potency of mecamylamine by a factor of 200 and eliminates any long-term effects of this drug on receptor function.The same exchange of sequence that decreases inhibition by mecamylamine produces a comparable potentiation of long-term inhibition by nicotine.Inhibition by mecamylamine is voltage-dependent, suggesting a direct interaction of mecamylamine with sequence elements within the membrane field. We have previously shown that sensitivity to TMP (tetramethylpiperidine) inhibitors is controlled by the same sequence elements that determine mecamylamine sensitivity. However, inhibition by bis-TMP compounds is independent of voltage.Our experiments did not show any influence of voltage on the inhibition of chimeric receptors by nicotine, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of nicotine are mediated by binding to a site outside the membrane's electric field.An analysis of point mutations indicates that the residues at the 6′ position within the beta subunit TM2 domain may be important for determining the effects of both mecamylamine and nicotine in a reciprocal manner. Single mutations at the 10′ position are not sufficient to produce effects, but 6′ 10′ double mutants show more effect than do the 6′ single mutants. PMID:10455283

  7. Neutron Yield Measurements via Aluminum Activation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-08

    Neutron activation of aluminum may occur by several neutron capture reactions. Four such reactions are described here: {sup 27}Al + n = {sup 28}Al, {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na, {sup 27}Al(n, 2n){sup 26}Al and {sup 27}Al(n,p){sup 27}Mg. The radioactive nuclei {sup 28}Al, {sup 24}Na, and {sup 27}Mg, which are produced via the {sup 27}Al + n = {sup 28}Al, {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na and {sup 27}Al(n,p){sup 27}Mg neutron reactions, beta decay to excited states of {sup 28}Si, {sup 24}Mg and {sup 27}Al respectively. These excited states then emit gamma rays as the nuclei de-excite to their respective ground states.

  8. Ecotoxicological assessment of solar cell leachates: Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) cells show higher activity than organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells.

    PubMed

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca; Wehrli, Bernhard; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Despite the increasing use of photovoltaics their potential environmental risks are poorly understood. Here, we compared ecotoxicological effects of two thin-film photovoltaics: established copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Leachates were produced by exposing photovoltaics to UV light, physical damage, and exposure to environmentally relevant model waters, representing mesotrophic lake water, acidic rain, and seawater. CIGS cell leachates contained 583 μg L(-1) molybdenum at lake water, whereas at acidic rain and seawater conditions, iron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, silver, and tin were present up to 7219 μg L(-1). From OPV, copper (14 μg L(-1)), zinc (87 μg L(-1)) and silver (78 μg L(-1)) leached. Zebrafish embryos were exposed until 120 h post-fertilization to these extracts. CIGS leachates produced under acidic rain, as well as CIGS and OPV leachates produced under seawater conditions resulted in a marked hatching delay and increase in heart edema. Depending on model water and solar cell, transcriptional alterations occurred in genes involved in oxidative stress (cat), hormonal activity (vtg1, ar), metallothionein (mt2), ER stress (bip, chop), and apoptosis (casp9). The effects were dependent on the concentrations of cationic metals in leachates. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid protected zebrafish embryos from morphological and molecular effects. Our study suggests that metals leaching from damaged CIGS cells, may pose a potential environmental risk. PMID:26615488

  9. A G-quadruplex-binding compound showing anti-tumour activity in an in vivo model for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ohnmacht, Stephan A; Marchetti, Chiara; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Besser, Rachael J; Haider, Shozeb M; Di Vita, Gloria; Lowe, Helen L; Mellinas-Gomez, Maria; Diocou, Seckou; Robson, Mathew; Šponer, Jiri; Islam, Barira; Barbara Pedley, R; Hartley, John A; Neidle, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We report here that a tetra-substituted naphthalene-diimide derivative (MM41) has significant in vivo anti-tumour activity against the MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer xenograft model. IV administration with a twice-weekly 15 mg/kg dose produces ca 80% tumour growth decrease in a group of tumour-bearing animals. Two animals survived tumour-free after 279 days. High levels of MM41 are rapidly transported into cell nuclei and were found to accumulate in the tumour. MM41 is a quadruplex-interactive compound which binds strongly to the quadruplexes encoded in the promoter sequences of the BCL-2 and k-RAS genes, both of which are dis-regulated in many human pancreatic cancers. Levels of BCL-2 were reduced by ca 40% in tumours from MM41-treated animals relative to controls, consistent with BCL-2 being a target for MM41. Molecular modelling suggests that MM41 binds to a BCL-2 quadruplex in a manner resembling that previously observed in co-crystal structures with human telomeric quadruplexes. This supports the concept that MM41 (and by implication other quadruplex-targeting small molecules) can bind to quadruplex-forming promoter regions in a number of genes and down-regulate their transcription. We suggest that quadruplexes within those master genes that are up-regulated drivers for particular cancers, may be selective targets for compounds such as MM41. PMID:26077929

  10. Ecotoxicological assessment of solar cell leachates: Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) cells show higher activity than organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells.

    PubMed

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca; Wehrli, Bernhard; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Despite the increasing use of photovoltaics their potential environmental risks are poorly understood. Here, we compared ecotoxicological effects of two thin-film photovoltaics: established copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Leachates were produced by exposing photovoltaics to UV light, physical damage, and exposure to environmentally relevant model waters, representing mesotrophic lake water, acidic rain, and seawater. CIGS cell leachates contained 583 μg L(-1) molybdenum at lake water, whereas at acidic rain and seawater conditions, iron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, silver, and tin were present up to 7219 μg L(-1). From OPV, copper (14 μg L(-1)), zinc (87 μg L(-1)) and silver (78 μg L(-1)) leached. Zebrafish embryos were exposed until 120 h post-fertilization to these extracts. CIGS leachates produced under acidic rain, as well as CIGS and OPV leachates produced under seawater conditions resulted in a marked hatching delay and increase in heart edema. Depending on model water and solar cell, transcriptional alterations occurred in genes involved in oxidative stress (cat), hormonal activity (vtg1, ar), metallothionein (mt2), ER stress (bip, chop), and apoptosis (casp9). The effects were dependent on the concentrations of cationic metals in leachates. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid protected zebrafish embryos from morphological and molecular effects. Our study suggests that metals leaching from damaged CIGS cells, may pose a potential environmental risk.

  11. Immobilized MAS1 lipase showed high esterification activity in the production of triacylglycerols with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiumei; Li, Daoming; Qu, Man; Durrani, Rabia; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-02-01

    Immobilization of lipase MAS1 from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007 and its application in catalyzing esterification of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with glycerol were investigated. The resin XAD1180 was selected as a suitable support for the immobilization of lipase MAS1, and its absorption ability was 75mg/g (lipase/resin ratio) with initial buffer pH value of 8.0. The thermal stability of immobilized MAS1 was improved significantly compared with that of the free lipase. Immobilized MAS1 had no regiospecificity in the hydrolysis of triolein. The highest esterification degree (99.31%) and TAG content (92.26%) by immobilized MAS1-catalyzed esterification were achieved under the optimized conditions, which were significantly better than those (82.16% and 47.26%, respectively) by Novozym 435. More than 92% n-3 PUFA was incorporated into TAG that had similar fatty acids composition to the substrate (n-3 PUFA). The immobilized MAS1 exhibited 50% of its initial activity after being used for five cycles. PMID:27596418

  12. A G-quadruplex-binding compound showing anti-tumour activity in an in vivo model for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohnmacht, Stephan A; Marchetti, Chiara; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Besser, Rachael J; Haider, Shozeb M; Di Vita, Gloria; Lowe, Helen L; Mellinas-Gomez, Maria; Diocou, Seckou; Robson, Mathew; Šponer, Jiri; Islam, Barira; Pedley, R Barbara; Hartley, John A; Neidle, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We report here that a tetra-substituted naphthalene-diimide derivative (MM41) has significant in vivo anti-tumour activity against the MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer xenograft model. IV administration with a twice-weekly 15 mg/kg dose produces ca 80% tumour growth decrease in a group of tumour-bearing animals. Two animals survived tumour-free after 279 days. High levels of MM41 are rapidly transported into cell nuclei and were found to accumulate in the tumour. MM41 is a quadruplex-interactive compound which binds strongly to the quadruplexes encoded in the promoter sequences of the BCL-2 and k-RAS genes, both of which are dis-regulated in many human pancreatic cancers. Levels of BCL-2 were reduced by ca 40% in tumours from MM41-treated animals relative to controls, consistent with BCL-2 being a target for MM41. Molecular modelling suggests that MM41 binds to a BCL-2 quadruplex in a manner resembling that previously observed in co-crystal structures with human telomeric quadruplexes. This supports the concept that MM41 (and by implication other quadruplex-targeting small molecules) can bind to quadruplex-forming promoter regions in a number of genes and down-regulate their transcription. We suggest that quadruplexes within those master genes that are up-regulated drivers for particular cancers, may be selective targets for compounds such as MM41. PMID:26077929

  13. The Aminosteroid Derivative RM-133 Shows In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Activity in Human Ovarian and Pancreatic Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kenmogne, Lucie Carolle; Ayan, Diana; Roy, Jenny; Maltais, René; Poirier, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian and pancreatic cancers are two of the most aggressive and lethal cancers, whose management faces only limited therapeutic options. Typically, these tumors spread insidiously accompanied first with atypical symptoms, and usually shift to a drug resistance phenotype with the current pharmaceutical armamentarium. Thus, the development of new drugs acting via a different mechanism of action represents a clear priority. Herein, we are reporting for the first time that the aminosteroid derivative RM-133, developed in our laboratory, displays promising activity on two models of aggressive cancers, namely ovarian (OVCAR-3) and pancreatic (PANC-1) cancers. The IC50 value of RM-133 was 0.8 μM and 0.3 μM for OVCAR-3 and PANC-1 cell lines in culture, respectively. Based on pharmacokinetic studies on RM-133 using 11 different vehicles, we selected two main vehicles: aqueous 0.4% methylcellulose:ethanol (92:8) and sunflower oil:ethanol (92:8) for in vivo studies. Using subcutaneous injection of RM-133 with the methylcellulose-based vehicle, growth of PANC-1 tumors xenografted to nude mice was inhibited by 63%. Quite interestingly, RM-133 injected subcutaneously with the methylcellulose-based or sunflower-based vehicles reduced OVCAR-3 xenograft growth by 122% and 100%, respectively. After the end of RM-133 treatment using the methylcellulose-based vehicle, OVCAR-3 tumor growth inhibition was maintained for ≥ 1 week. RM-133 was also well tolerated in the whole animal, no apparent sign of toxicity having been detected in the xenograft studies. PMID:26660672

  14. Quantifying ant activity using vibration measurements.

    PubMed

    Oberst, Sebastian; Baro, Enrique Nava; Lai, Joseph C S; Evans, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    Ant behaviour is of great interest due to their sociality. Ant behaviour is typically observed visually, however there are many circumstances where visual observation is not possible. It may be possible to assess ant behaviour using vibration signals produced by their physical movement. We demonstrate through a series of bioassays with different stimuli that the level of activity of meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus) can be quantified using vibrations, corresponding to observations with video. We found that ants exposed to physical shaking produced the highest average vibration amplitudes followed by ants with stones to drag, then ants with neighbours, illuminated ants and ants in darkness. In addition, we devised a novel method based on wavelet decomposition to separate the vibration signal owing to the initial ant behaviour from the substrate response, which will allow signals recorded from different substrates to be compared directly. Our results indicate the potential to use vibration signals to classify some ant behaviours in situations where visual observation could be difficult.

  15. Rats with congenital learned helplessness respond less to sucrose but show no deficits in activity or learning.

    PubMed

    Vollmayr, Barbara; Bachteler, Daniel; Vengeliene, Valentina; Gass, Peter; Spanagel, Rainer; Henn, Fritz

    2004-04-01

    Inbred rat strains for congenital learned helplessness (cLH) and for congenital resistance to learned helplessness (cNLH) were investigated as a model to study genetic predisposition to major depression. Congenitally helpless rats respond less to sucrose under a progressive ratio schedule. This is not confounded by locomotor hypoactivity: in contrast, cLH rats show a slight hyperactivity during the first 5 min of an open field test. cLH rats acquire operant responding to sucrose as readily as cNLH rats and exhibit normal memory acquisition and retrieval in the Morris water maze, thus ruling out general learning deficits as the cause of the decreased response to sucrose. Reduced total responses and reduced breaking points for sucrose in the cLH strain argue for anhedonia, which is an analogue to loss of pleasure essential for the diagnosis of major depressive episodes, and thus confirm the validity of congenitally learned helpless rats as a model of major depression.

  16. Combination of glycosphingosomes and liposomal doxorubicin shows increased activity against dimethyl-α-benzanthracene-induced fibrosarcoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Masood A; Aljarbou, Ahmed N; Aldebasi, Yousef H; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Khan, Arif

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the antitumor effect of glycosphingolipid-incorporated liposomes (glycosphingosomes) in combination with liposomal doxorubicin (Lip-Dox) in a mouse model of fibrosarcoma. Glycosphingosomes were prepared by incorporating glycosphingolipids isolated from Sphingomonas paucimobilis into the liposomes of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, cholesterol, and cardiolipin. Tumors were induced by administering dimethyl-α-benzanthracene, and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of Dox, including free Dox, Lip-Dox, or glycosphingosomes + Lip-Dox. Mice were observed for 90 days to monitor their survival and tumor size. Free Dox, but not Lip-Dox or a combination of glycosphingosomes and Lip-Dox, caused the substantial depletion of leukocytes and significantly increased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase in mice. Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of glycosphingosomes and Lip-Dox showed restricted tumor growth and increased survival when compared to those treated with free Dox or Lip-Dox. The results of the present study suggest that a combination of glycosphingosomes and Lip-Dox may prove to be very effective in the treatment of tumors. PMID:26504383

  17. Electromagnetic Measurements in an Active Oilfield Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, K. A.; Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Weiss, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    An important issue in oilfield development pertains to mapping and monitoring of the fracture distributions (either natural or man-made) controlling subsurface fluid flow. Although microseismic monitoring and analysis have been used for this purpose for several decades, there remain several ambiguities and uncertainties with this approach. We are investigating a novel electromagnetic (EM) technique for detecting and mapping hydraulic fractures in a petroleum reservoir by injecting an electrically conductive contrast agent into an open fracture. The fracture is subsequently illuminated by a strong EM field radiated by a large engineered antenna. Specifically, a grounded electric current source is applied directly to the steel casing of the borehole, either at/near the wellhead or at a deep downhole point. Transient multicomponent EM signals (both electric and magnetic) scattered by the conductivity contrast are then recorded by a surface receiver array. We are presently utilizing advanced 3D numerical modeling algorithms to accurately simulate fracture responses, both before and after insertion of the conductive contrast agent. Model results compare favorably with EM field data recently acquired in a Permian Basin oilfield. However, extraction of the very-low-amplitude fracture signatures from noisy data requires effective noise suppression strategies such as long stacking times, rejection of outliers, and careful treatment of natural magnetotelluric fields. Dealing with the ever-present "episodic EM noise" typical in an active oilfield environment (associated with drilling, pumping, machinery, traffic, etc.) constitutes an ongoing problem. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Exhibiting High Variability Showed Antimicrobial Activity and Quorum Sensing Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ralf Bruno Moura; Costa, Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a key role in the biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, genotypic diversity was analyzed via repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) of endophytic isolates of the phylum Actinobacteria that were previously collected from leaves of cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Considerable variability was observed, which has not been reported previously for this phylum of endophytic bacteria of the common bean. Furthermore, the ethanol extracts from cultures of various isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, especially Gram-positive pathogens. Extracts from cultures of Microbacterium testaceum BAC1065 and BAC1093, which were both isolated from the 'Talismã' cultivar, strongly inhibited most of the pathogenic bacteria tested. Bean endophytic bacteria were also demonstrated to have the potential to inhibit the quorum sensing of Gram-negative bacteria. This mechanism may regulate the production of virulence factors in pathogens. The ability to inhibit quorum sensing has also not been reported previously for endophytic microorganisms of P. vulgaris. Furthermore, M. testaceum with capacity to inhibit quorum sensing appears to be widespread in common bean. The genomic profiles of M. testaceum were also analyzed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and greater differentiation was observed using this method than rep-PCR; in general, no groups were formed based on the cultivar of origin. This study showed for the first time that endophytic bacteria from common bean plants exhibit high variability and may be useful for the development of strategies for the biological control of diseases in this important legume plant.

  19. Ferrocene/fullerene hybrids showing large second-order nonlinear optical activities: impact of the cage unit size.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Yong; Wang, Li; Ma, Na-Na; Zhu, Chang-Li; Qiu, Yong-Qing

    2015-06-01

    The electron donor-acceptor complexes, which undergo intramolecular charge transfer under external stimulus, are an emerging class of materials showing important application in nonlinear optics. Synthesizing ferrocene/fullerene complexes through face-to-face fusion would enjoy the merits of both ferrocene and fullerene due to their strong donor-acceptor interactions. Four ferrocene/fullerene hybrid complexes with the gradual extension of fullerene cage size, including CpFe(C60H5), CpFe(C66H5), CpFe(C70H5), and CpFe(C80H5) (Cp is cyclopentadienyl), have been investigated by density functional theory. These hybrid molecules give eclipsed and staggered isomers. The main reason that the eclipsed isomer is stable is that the eclipsed structure possesses large CpFefullerene bonding energy. The CpFefullerene interaction is smaller than that of CpFefullerene, which must come from two different interfaces. The presence of covalent bond character between CpFe and fullerene is supported by the localized orbital locator, deformation of electron density distribution and energy decomposition analysis. Significantly, the absorption bands and first hyperpolarizabilities of these hybrid complexes are strongly sensitive to the fullerene cage size, which is ascribed to a change in the charge transfer pattern, especially for CpFe(C80H5), which displays reverse π → π* charge transfer from bottom to top cage, leading to notable hyperpolarizability. Investigation of the structure-property relationship at the molecular level can benefit the design and preparation of such hybrid complexes in chemistry and materials science.

  20. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Exhibiting High Variability Showed Antimicrobial Activity and Quorum Sensing Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ralf Bruno Moura; Costa, Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a key role in the biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, genotypic diversity was analyzed via repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) of endophytic isolates of the phylum Actinobacteria that were previously collected from leaves of cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Considerable variability was observed, which has not been reported previously for this phylum of endophytic bacteria of the common bean. Furthermore, the ethanol extracts from cultures of various isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, especially Gram-positive pathogens. Extracts from cultures of Microbacterium testaceum BAC1065 and BAC1093, which were both isolated from the 'Talismã' cultivar, strongly inhibited most of the pathogenic bacteria tested. Bean endophytic bacteria were also demonstrated to have the potential to inhibit the quorum sensing of Gram-negative bacteria. This mechanism may regulate the production of virulence factors in pathogens. The ability to inhibit quorum sensing has also not been reported previously for endophytic microorganisms of P. vulgaris. Furthermore, M. testaceum with capacity to inhibit quorum sensing appears to be widespread in common bean. The genomic profiles of M. testaceum were also analyzed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and greater differentiation was observed using this method than rep-PCR; in general, no groups were formed based on the cultivar of origin. This study showed for the first time that endophytic bacteria from common bean plants exhibit high variability and may be useful for the development of strategies for the biological control of diseases in this important legume plant. PMID:26202846

  1. An Echinococcus multilocularis Antigen B3 Proteoform That Shows Specific Antibody Responses to Active-Stage Alveolar Echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chun-Seob; Cai, Huixia; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Han, Xiumin; Ma, Xiao; Bae, Young-An; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Kang, Insug; Wang, Hu; Kong, Yoon

    2015-10-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by the Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode, represents one of the most frequently fatal zoonoses. Early diagnosis significantly reduces morbidity and mortality associated with AE. Diagnosis of AE largely depends on a combination of imaging and serological tests due to its minimal clinical manifestations. Several antigens derived from the whole worm and protoscolex have been targeted for AE serodiagnosis, while the antigenic properties of E. multilocularis hydatid fluid (EmHF) are unclear. We observed two AE-specific 6- and 8-kDa antigen proteoforms through an immunoproteome array of the EmHF. We identified these proteins as representing an E. multilocularis antigen B3 (EmAgB3) isoform, and the proteins were shown to be encoded by the same gene. We cloned the gene and expressed the recombinant EmAgB3 protein (rEmAgB3) in Escherichia coli. rEmAgB3 exhibited sensitivity of 90.9% (80/88 cases) and specificity of 98.5% (597/606 samples) by immunoblotting. The positive and negative predictive values were 89.9% and 98.6%, respectively. The protein did not show antibody responses to 33 AE sera collected during posttreatment follow-up monitoring. Mouse sera experimentally infected with AE protoscoleces began to demonstrate specific antibody responses to native and recombinant EmAgB3 6 months after infection. At that stage, fully mature metacestode vesicles that harbored the brood capsule, primary cell, and protoscolex were observed within an AE mass(es). The response declined along with worm degeneration. Our results demonstrate that the immune responses to this EmAgB3 isoform were highly correlated with worm viability accompanied with AE progression. rEmAgB3 is a promising biomarker for serological assessment of AE patients. PMID:26269620

  2. A Measurement Activity to Encourage Exploration of Calculus Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuffey, William

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an activity that incorporates measurement in order to lead students to discover and explore fundamental concepts of calculus. Students are provided with an experientially real starting point involving measurement and are encouraged to engage in mathematical discussions in a low-stakes environment. I describe the activity as…

  3. Regulatory Implications of Non-Trivial Splicing: Isoform 3 of Rab1A Shows Enhanced Basal Activity and Is Not Controlled by Accessory Proteins.

    PubMed

    Schöppner, Patricia; Csaba, Gergely; Braun, Tatjana; Daake, Marina; Richter, Bettina; Lange, Oliver F; Zacharias, Martin; Zimmer, Ralf; Haslbeck, Martin

    2016-04-24

    Alternative splicing often affects structured and highly conserved regions of proteins, generating so called non-trivial splicing variants of unknown structure and cellular function. The human small G-protein Rab1A is involved in the regulation of the vesicle transfer from the ER to Golgi. A conserved non-trivial splice variant lacks nearly 40% of the sequence of the native Rab1A, including most of the regulatory interaction sites. We show that this variant of Rab1A represents a stable and folded protein, which is still able to bind nucleotides and co-localizes with membranes. Nevertheless, it should be mentioned that compared to other wild-typeRabGTPases, the measured nucleotide binding affinities are dramatically reduced in the variant studied. Furthermore, the Rab1A variant forms hetero-dimers with wild-type Rab1A and its presence in the cell enhances the efficiency of alkaline phosphatase secretion. However, this variant shows no specificity for GXP nucleotides, a constantly enhanced GTP hydrolysis activity and is no longer controlled by GEF or GAP proteins, indicating a new regulatory mechanism for the Rab1A cycle via alternative non-trivial splicing. PMID:26953259

  4. Measuring MAP kinase activity in immune complex assays.

    PubMed

    Cherkasova, Vera A

    2006-11-01

    I present an overview of published methods for measuring mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activity on endogenous associated substrates, exogenously added substrates as well as determination of activation loop phosphorylation as a read-out of kinase activity in vivo. Detailed procedures for these assays are given for two MAP kinases (MAPKs) Fus3 and Kss1 and compared with other published protocols, including the protocols for Hog1 and Mpk1 MAPKs. Measuring kinase activity in immune complex assays can serve as an approach for identification of potential substrates of protein kinases as well as for detecting other kinase-associated proteins. PMID:16890454

  5. Active Learning: The Importance of Developing a Comprehensive Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…

  6. Resin {sup 90}Y microsphere activity measurements for liver brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dezarn, William A.; Kennedy, Andrew S.

    2007-06-15

    The measurement of the radioactivity administered to the patient is one of the major components of {sup 90}Y microsphere liver brachytherapy. The activity of {sup 90}Y microspheres in a glass delivery vial was measured in a dose calibrator. The calibration value to use for {sup 90}Y in the dose calibrator was verified using an activity calibration standard provided by the microsphere manufacturer. This method allowed for the determination of a consistent, reproducible local activity standard. Additional measurements were made to determine some of the factors that could affect activity measurement. The axial response of the dose calibrator was determined by the ratio of activity measurements at the bottom and center of the dose calibrator. The axial response was 0.964 for a glass shipping vial, 1.001 for a glass V-vial, and 0.988 for a polycarbonate V-vial. Comparisons between activity measurements in the dose calibrator and those using a radiation survey meter were found to agree within 10%. It was determined that the dose calibrator method was superior to the survey meter method because the former allowed better defined measurement geometry and traceability of the activity standard back to the manufacturer. Part of the preparation of resin {sup 90}Y microspheres for patient delivery is to draw out a predetermined activity from a shipping vial and place it into a V-vial for delivery to the patient. If the drawn activity was placed in a glass V-vial, the activity measured in the dose calibrator with a glass V-vial was 4% higher than the drawn activity from the shipping vial standard. If the drawn activity was placed in a polycarbonate V-vial, the activity measured in the dose calibrator with a polycarbonate V-vial activity was 20% higher than the drawn activity from the shipping vial standard. Careful characterization of the local activity measurement standard is recommended instead of simply accepting the calibration value of the dose calibrator manufacturer.

  7. The measurement of physical activity in young children.

    PubMed

    Noland, M; Danner, F; DeWalt, K; McFadden, M; Kotchen, J M

    1990-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the validity of various measures of physical activity in young children. In Study 1, 21 preschool children were utilized to explore how well measures of children's activity obtained from parents, teachers, and the children predicted observed behavior at school and in the home. Study 2 (n = 51 preschool children) focused on the predictive validity of the Caltrac motion sensor. In both studies, detailed minute-by-minute ratings of children's activity in Study 1 were generally ineffective in predicting observed physical activity. Children's activity preferences, however, were significantly related to the proportion of high intensity physical activity performed. In Study 2, there was a significant relationship (r = .86, p less than .0001) between Caltrac readings and observed physical activity. This correlation was similar for boys and girls, normal and overweight children, and younger and older children. These findings suggest that the Caltrac monitor may provide a valid index of individual differences in physical activity in young children.

  8. Charged fusion product loss measurements using nuclear activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonheure, G.; Hult, M.; Gonzalez de Orduna, R.; Wieslander, E.; Arnold, D.; Dombrowski, H.; Laubenstein, M.; Murari, A.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-15

    In ITER, {alpha} particle loss measurements will be required in order to understand the alpha particle physics. Techniques capable of operating in a fusion reactor environment need further development. Recent experimental studies on JET demonstrated the potential of nuclear activation to measure the flux of escaping MeV ions. New results from MeV ion induced activation of metallic, ceramic, and crystal samples placed near the plasma edge are reported. Activation products were measured as function of orientation with respect to the magnetic field as well as function of the distance to the plasma. Sample activity was measured using ultralow-level gamma-ray spectrometry. Distribution of 14.68 MeV fusion proton induced activation products is strongly anisotropic in agreement with simulations and falls off sharply with increasing distance to the plasma. Prospects for using the technique in ITER are discussed.

  9. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  10. Quantitative measurements of active Ionian volcanoes in Galileo NIMS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saballett, Sebastian; Rathbun, Julie A.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Spencer, John R.

    2016-10-01

    Io is the most volcanically active body in our solar system. The spatial distribution of volcanoes a planetary body's surface gives clues into its basic inner workings (i.e., plate tectonics on earth). Tidal heating is the major contributor to active surface geology in the outer solar system, and yet its mechanism is not completely understood. Io's volcanoes are the clearest signature of tidal heating and measurements of the total heat output and how it varies in space and time are useful constraints on tidal heating. Hamilton et al. (2013) showed through a nearest neighbor analysis that Io's hotspots are globally random, but regionally uniform near the equator. Lopes-Gautier et al. (1999) compared the locations of hotspots detected by NIMS to the spatial variation of heat flow predicted by two end-member tidal heating models. They found that the distribution of hotspots is more consistent with tidal heating occurring in asthenosphere rather than the mantle. Hamilton et al. (2013) demonstrate that clustering of hotspots also supports a dominant role for asthenosphere heating. These studies were unable to account for the relative brightness of the hotspots. Furthermore, studies of the temporal variability of Ionian volcanoes have yielded substantial insight into their nature. The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) gave us a large dataset from which to observe active volcanic activity. NIMS made well over 100 observations of Io over an approximately 10-year time frame. With wavelengths spanning from 0.7 to 5.2 microns, it is ideally suited to measure blackbody radiation from surfaces with temperatures over 300 K. Here, we report on our effort to determine the activity level of each hotspot observed in the NIMS data. We decide to use 3.5 micron brightness as a proxy for activity level because it will be easy to compare to, and incorporate, ground-based observations. We fit a 1-temperature blackbody to spectra in each grating position and averaged the

  11. Study of the physical properties of a mesogenic mixture showing induced smectic A(d) phase by refractive index, density and x-ray diffraction measurements.

    PubMed

    Roy, P D; Prasad, A; Das, M K

    2009-02-18

    The binary mixture of 4-n-pentyl phenyl 4-n'-hexyloxy benzoate (ME6O.5) and p-cyanophenyl trans-4-pentyl cyclohexane carboxylate (CPPCC) shows the presence of an induced smectic A(d) phase in a certain concentration range 0.03measurements are reported here. In general, the change in birefringence is continuous at the smectic A(d) to nematic phase transition for mixtures with x>0.33, whereas there is a discontinuity in these values for mixtures with x<0.33, consistent with the density and transition entropy measurements done on this system. The orientational order parameter, measured from x-ray diffraction studies, are somewhat smaller than those obtained from refractive index measurement in the induced smectic phase for all the mixtures. In the smectic phase, the OOP values initially increases with molar concentration up to x = 0.24 and then decreases showing a broad minima around x = 0.4. The variation of layer thickness in the induced smectic phase with composition has been explained by assuming the formation of homo- and heterodimers. We conclude that the possible packing of molecules in the induced smectic A(d) phase stabilizes the layers but increases the orientational free volume, consistent with the lower orientational order parameter.

  12. Ice nucleus activity measurements of solid rocket motor exhaust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The ice Nucleus activity of exhaust particles generated from combustion of Space Shuttle propellant in small rocket motors has been measured. The activity at -20 C was substantially lower than that of aerosols generated by unpressurized combustion of propellant samples in previous studies. The activity decays rapidly with time and is decreased further in the presence of moist air. These tests corroborate the low effectivity ice nucleus measurement results obtained in the exhaust ground cloud of the Space Shuttle. Such low ice nucleus activity implies that Space Shuttle induced inadvertent weather modification via an ice phase process is extremely unlikely.

  13. Genome-Wide Identification of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene Family across Fungal Lineage Shows Presence of Novel and Diverse Activation Loop Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Mohanta, Nibedita; Parida, Pratap; Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Ponpandian, Lakshmi Narayanan; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is characterized by the presence of the T-E-Y, T-D-Y, and T-G-Y motifs in its activation loop region and plays a significant role in regulating diverse cellular responses in eukaryotic organisms. Availability of large-scale genome data in the fungal kingdom encouraged us to identify and analyse the fungal MAPK gene family consisting of 173 fungal species. The analysis of the MAPK gene family resulted in the discovery of several novel activation loop motifs (T-T-Y, T-I-Y, T-N-Y, T-H-Y, T-S-Y, K-G-Y, T-Q-Y, S-E-Y and S-D-Y) in fungal MAPKs. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that fungal MAPKs are non-polymorphic, had evolved from their common ancestors around 1500 million years ago, and are distantly related to plant MAPKs. We are the first to report the presence of nine novel activation loop motifs in fungal MAPKs. The specificity of the activation loop motif plays a significant role in controlling different growth and stress related pathways in fungi. Hence, the presences of these nine novel activation loop motifs in fungi are of special interest. PMID:26918378

  14. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements

    PubMed Central

    Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574316

  15. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  16. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574316

  17. Two New FRET Imaging Measures: Linearly Proportional to and Highly Contrasting the Fraction of Active Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Yamao, Masataka; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Yukinawa, Naoto; Ishii, Shin; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Naoki, Honda

    2016-01-01

    We developed two new FRET imaging measures for intramolecular FRET biosensors, called linearly proportional (LP) and highly contrasting (HC) measures, which can be easily calculated by the fluorescence intensities of donor and acceptor as a ratio between their weighted sums. As an alternative to the conventional ratiometric measure, which non-linearly depends on the fraction of active molecule, we first developed the LP measure, which is linearly proportional to the fraction of active molecules. The LP measure inherently unmixes bleed-through signals and is robust against fluorescence noise. By extending the LP measure, we furthermore designed the HC measure, which provides highly contrasting images of the molecular activity, more than the ratiometric measure. In addition to their advantages, these measures are insensitive to the biosensor expression level, which is a fundamental property of the ratiometric measure. Using artificial data and FRET imaging data, we showed that the LP measure effectively represents the fraction of active molecules and that the HC measure improves visual interpretability by providing high contrast images of molecular activity. Therefore, the LP and HC measures allow us to gain more quantitative and qualitative insights from FRET imaging than the ratiometric measure. PMID:27780260

  18. Determination of the orientational order parameter of a binary mixture showing an induced smectic A(d) phase from magnetic susceptibility measurements.

    PubMed

    Roy, Prithwi Dev; Das, Banani; Das, Malay Kumar

    2009-08-19

    The diamagnetic susceptibility anisotropy (Δχ) measurement of a binary mixture comprising of a strongly polar mesogen (CPPCC) and a weakly polar mesogen (ME6O.5) showing an induced smectic A(d) phase is reported here. Assuming an axially symmetric molecule, the temperature dependence of the orientational order parameter ⟨P(2)⟩ has been investigated from the anisotropy of the susceptibility at different temperatures throughout the entire composition range. The results are compared with x-ray and optical birefringence measurements along with the mean-field theory of the smectic A phase. The maximum in the stability of the smectic A(d) phase (at x(CPPCC) = 0.33) corresponds to the minimum in the order parameter values. The order of the smectic to nematic phase transition has also been discussed.

  19. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  20. Earthworm Biomass Measurement: A Science Activity for Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Jonathan; Levine, Elissa; Carey, Pauline B.; Niepold III, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity on biomass measurement which, in this case, is the weight of a group of living things in a given area. The earthworm activity gives students a greater understanding of ecology, practical math applications, and the scientific method. (ASK)

  1. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  2. Measurement of action spectra of light-activated processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Justin; Zvyagin, Andrei V.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Upcroft, Jacqui; Upcroft, Peter; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina H.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a new experimental technique suitable for measurement of light-activated processes, such as fluorophore transport. The usefulness of this technique is derived from its capacity to decouple the imaging and activation processes, allowing fluorescent imaging of fluorophore transport at a convenient activation wavelength. We demonstrate the efficiency of this new technique in determination of the action spectrum of the light mediated transport of rhodamine 123 into the parasitic protozoan Giardia duodenalis.

  3. Improving Hiroshima Air-Over-Ground Thermal/Epithermal Activation Calculations Using a MUSH Model to Show the Importance of Local Shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, J.V.

    2002-02-14

    Achieving agreement between measured and calculated neutron activation data resulting from Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb detonations has been a major problem since the early 1980's. This has been particularly true for the materials that are activated by thermal and epithermal neutrons. Since thermal and epithermal neutrons are not transported very far from the weapon, the local shielding environment around the measurement location can be very important. A set of calculations incorporating an average density local-environment material (mush) has been made to demonstrate that the local environment plays an important role in the calculation-measurement agreement process. The optimum solution would be to include the local environment in all thermal neutron response calculations.

  4. Analysis of initial in-plant active neutron multiplicity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.; Harker, W.C.

    1993-08-01

    This paper analyzes initial in-plant measurements made by active neutron multiplicity counting, a new technique currently under development for the assay of bulk uranium containing kilograms of {sup 235}U. The measurements were made at Savannah River and Y-12 using active well coincidence counters and prototype multiplicity electronics and software from Los Alamos. For one of the sets of highly enriched uranium samples measured to data, we improved the assay accuracy by an order-of-magnitude by adding the multiplicity analysis to the conventional coincidence analysis. This paper summarizes our results and describes areas where further work is needed.

  5. Rats with minimal hepatic encephalopathy show reduced cGMP-dependent protein kinase activity in hypothalamus correlating with circadian rhythms alterations.

    PubMed

    Felipo, Vicente; Piedrafita, Blanca; Barios, Juan A; Agustí, Ana; Ahabrach, Hanan; Romero-Vives, María; Barrio, Luis C; Rey, Beatriz; Gaztelu, Jose M; Llansola, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Patients with liver cirrhosis show disturbances in sleep and in its circadian rhythms which are an early sign of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The mechanisms of these disturbances are poorly understood. Rats with porta-caval shunt (PCS), a model of MHE, show sleep disturbances reproducing those of cirrhotic patients. The aims of this work were to characterize the alterations in circadian rhythms in PCS rats and analyze the underlying mechanisms. To reach these aims, we analyzed in control and PCS rats: (a) daily rhythms of spontaneous and rewarding activity and of temperature, (b) timing of the onset of activity following turning-off the light, (c) synchronization to light after a phase advance and (d) the molecular mechanisms contributing to these alterations in circadian rhythms. PCS rats show altered circadian rhythms of spontaneous and rewarding activities (wheel running). PCS rats show more rest bouts during the active phase, more errors in the onset of motor activity and need less time to re-synchronize after a phase advance than control rats. Circadian rhythm of body temperature is also slightly altered in PCS rats. The internal period length (tau) of circadian rhythm of motor activity is longer in PCS rats. We analyzed some mechanisms by which hypothalamus modulate circadian rhythms. PCS rats show increased content of cGMP in hypothalamus while the activity of cGMP-dependent protein kinase was reduced by 41% compared to control rats. Altered cGMP-PKG pathway in hypothalamus would contribute to altered circadian rhythms and synchronization to light.

  6. A Comparison between Lightning Activity and Passive Microwave Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kevin, Driscoll T.; Hugh, Christian J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    A recent examination of data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) suggests that storm with the highest frequency of lightning also possess the most pronounced microwave scattering signatures at 37 and 85 GHz. This study demonstrates a clear dependence between lightning and the passive microwave measurements, and accentuates how direct the relationship really is between cloud ice and lightning activity. In addition, the relationship between the quantity of ice content and the frequency of lightning (not just the presence of lightning) , is consistent throughout the seasons in a variety of regimes. Scatter plots will be presented which show the storm-averaged brightness temperatures as a function of the lightning density of the storms (L/Area) . In the 85 GHz and 37 GHz scatter plots, the brightness temperature is presented in the form Tb = k1 x log10(L/Area) + k2, where the slope of the regression, k1, is 58 for the 85 GHz relationship and 30.7 for the 37 GHz relationship. The regression for both these fits showed a correlation of 0.76 (r2 = 0.58), which is quite promising considering the simple procedure used to make the comparisons, which have not yet even been corrected for the view angle differences between the instruments, or the polarization corrections in the microwave imager.

  7. MCG measurement in the environment of active magnetic shield.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Kato, K; Kobayashi, K; Igarashi, A; Sato, T; Haga, A; Kasai, N

    2004-01-01

    MCG (Magnetocardiography) measurement by a SQUID gradiometer was attempted with only active magnetic shielding (active shielding). A three-axis-canceling-coil active shielding system, where three 16-10-16 turns-coil sets were put in the orthogonal directions, produces a homogeneous magnetic field in a considerable volume surrounding the center. Fluxgate sensors were used as the reference sensors of the system. The system can reduce environmental magnetic noise at low frequencies of less than a few Hz, at 50 Hz and at 150 Hz. Reducing such disturbances stabilizes biomagnetic measurement conditions for SQUIDs in the absence of magnetically shielded rooms (MSR). After filtering and averaging the measured MCG data by a first-order SQUID gradiometer with only the active shielding during the daytime, the QRS complex and T wave was clearly presented. PMID:16012640

  8. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  9. Solar irradiance measurements - Minimum through maximum solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. B., III; Gibson, M. A.; Shivakumar, N.; Wilson, R.; Kyle, H. L.; Mecherikunnel, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the NOAA-9 spacecraft solar monitors were used to measure the total solar irradiance during the period October 1984 to December 1989. Decreasing trends in the irradiance measurements were observed as sunspot activity decreased to minimum levels in 1986; after 1986, increasing trends were observed as sunspot activity increased. The magnitude of the irradiance variability was found to be approximately 0.1 percent between sunspot minimum and maximum (late 1989). When compared with the 1984 to 1989 indices of solar magnetic activity, the irradiance trends appear to be in phase with the 11-year sunspot cycle. Both irradiance series yielded 1,365/sq Wm as the mean value of the solar irradiance, normalized to the mean earth/sun distance. The monitors are electrical substitution, active-cavity radiometers with estimated measurement precisions and accuracies of less than 0.02 and 0.2 percent, respectively.

  10. Comparison of Estimated and Measured Muscle Activity During Inclined Walking.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Nathalie; Schwameder, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    While inclined walking is a frequent daily activity, muscle forces during this activity have rarely been examined. Musculoskeletal models are commonly used to estimate internal forces in healthy populations, but these require a priori validation. The aim of this study was to compare estimated muscle activity using a musculoskeletal model with measured EMG data during inclined walking. Ten healthy male participants walked at different inclinations of 0°, ± 6°, ± 12°, and ± 18° on a ramp equipped with 2 force plates. Kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity of the musculus (m.) biceps femoris, m. rectus femoris, m. vastus lateralis, m. tibialis anterior, and m. gastrocnemius lateralis were recorded. Agreement between estimated and measured muscle activity was determined via correlation coefficients, mean absolute errors, and trend analysis. Correlation coefficients between estimated and measured muscle activity for approximately 69% of the conditions were above 0.7. Mean absolute errors were rather high with only approximately 38% being ≤ 30%. Trend analysis revealed similar estimated and measured muscle activities for all muscles and tasks (uphill and downhill walking), except m. tibialis anterior during uphill walking. This model can be used for further analysis in similar groups of participants.

  11. A New Quantum Sensor for Measuring Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.; Thomas, T.; Heinicke, D.; Peterson, R.; Morgan, P.; McDermitt, D. K.; Burba, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    A quantum sensor measures photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, in μmol of photons m-2 s-1) in the 400 nm to 700 nm waveband. Plants utilize this radiation to drive photosynthesis, though individual plant responses to incident radiation may vary within this range. The new quantum sensor (model LI-190R, LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE), with an optical filter and silicon photodiode detector housed in a cosine-corrected head, is designed to provide a better response to incident radiation across the 400-700 nm range. The new design is expected to significantly improve spectral response due to uniformity across the PAR waveband, but particularly in the wavebands from 520 nm to 600 nm and 665 nm to 680 nm, and sharp cutoffs in the regions below and above the PAR waveband. Special care was taken to make sure that PAR sensor would not substantially respond to incident radiation above the 700 nm threshold because this can lead to errors when performing measurements in environments with a large proportion of near-infrared radiation, such as canopy understory. The physical housing of the sensor is designed to be weather-resistant, to effectively shed precipitation, provide protection at high temperature and high humidity conditions, and has a cosine-corrected response to 82° zenith angle. The latter is particularly important when measuring incident radiation at low elevation angles, diffuse light, or low light conditions. This presentation describes the principles of the new design, and shows the performance results from field experiments and laboratory tests.

  12. "Glass fairies" and "bone children": adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa show positive reactions towards extremely emaciated body pictures measured by the startle reflex paradigm.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Valeska A; Schneider, Nora; Grünewald, Barbara; Kienast, Thorsten; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Korte, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the emotional processing of extremely emaciated body cues in adolescents and young adults with (n  =  36) and without (n =  36) anorexia nervosa (AN), introducing a new picture type, which was taken from websites that promote extreme thinness and is targeted specifically at adolescents interested in extreme thinness. A startle reflex paradigm was used for implicit reactions, while a self-assessment instrument was used for subjective responses. We found a significant group difference with a startle inhibition (appetitive response) among the patients and a startle potentiation (aversive response) among the controls, whereas no such difference for subjective measures was found. The results are in contrast to previous studies, which proposed a general failure to activate the appetitive motivational system in AN, but in keeping with findings from other addictions, where the same response pattern has been found. Implications for prevention and therapy are discussed.

  13. A Model for Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Activated Gene Expression Shows Potency and Efficacy Changes and Predicts Squelching Due to Competition for Transcription Co-Activators

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ted W.; Budinsky, Robert A.; Rowlands, J. Craig

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic model of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription was developed based on activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) and subsequent binding the activated AHR to xenobiotic response elements (XREs) on DNA. The model was based on effects observed in cells lines commonly used as in vitro experimental systems. Following ligand binding, the AHR moves into the cell nucleus and forms a heterodimer with the aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT). In the model, a requirement for binding to DNA is that a generic coregulatory protein is subsequently bound to the AHR-ARNT dimer. Varying the amount of coregulator available within the nucleus altered both the potency and efficacy of TCDD for inducing for transcription of CYP1A1 mRNA, a commonly used marker for activation of the AHR. Lowering the amount of available cofactor slightly increased the EC50 for the transcriptional response without changing the efficacy or maximal response. Further reduction in the amount of cofactor reduced the efficacy and produced non-monotonic dose-response curves (NMDRCs) at higher ligand concentrations. The shapes of these NMDRCs were reminiscent of the phenomenon of squelching. Resource limitations for transcriptional machinery are becoming apparent in eukaryotic cells. Within single cells, nuclear receptor-mediated gene expression appears to be a stochastic process; however, intercellular communication and other aspects of tissue coordination may represent a compensatory process to maintain an organism’s ability to respond on a phenotypic level to various stimuli within an inconstant environment. PMID:26039703

  14. Fusion peptide P15-CSP shows antibiofilm activity and pro-osteogenic activity when deposited as a coating on hydrophilic but not hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Contreras-Garcia, Angel; LoVetri, Karen; Yakandawala, Nandadeva; Wertheimer, Michael R; De Crescenzo, Gregory; Hoemann, Caroline D

    2015-12-01

    In the context of porous bone void filler for oral bone reconstruction, peptides that suppress microbial growth and promote osteoblast function could be used to enhance the performance of a porous bone void filler. We tested the hypothesis that P15-CSP, a novel fusion peptide containing collagen-mimetic osteogenic peptide P15, and competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), a cationic antimicrobial peptide, has emerging properties not shared by P15 or CSP alone. Peptide-coated surfaces were tested for antimicrobial activity toward Streptoccocus mutans, and their ability to promote human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attachment, spreading, metabolism, and osteogenesis. In the osteogenesis assay, peptides were coated on tissue culture plastic and on thin films generated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to have hydrophilic or hydrophobic character (water contact angles 63°, 42°, and 92°, respectively). S. mutans planktonic growth was specifically inhibited by CSP, whereas biofilm formation was inhibited by P15-CSP. MSC adhesion and actin stress fiber formation was strongly enhanced by CSP, P15-CSP, and fibronectin coatings and modestly enhanced by P15 versus uncoated surfaces. Metabolic assays revealed that CSP was slightly cytotoxic to MSCs. MSCs developed alkaline phosphatase activity on all surfaces, with or without peptide coatings, and consistently deposited the most biomineralized matrix on hydrophilic surfaces coated with P15-CSP. Hydrophobic thin films completely suppressed MSC biomineralization, consistent with previous findings of suppressed osteogenesis on hydrophobic bioplastics. Collective data in this study provide new evidence that P15-CSP has unique dual capacity to suppress biofilm formation, and to enhance osteogenic activity as a coating on hydrophilic surfaces. PMID:26097095

  15. Fusion peptide P15-CSP shows antibiofilm activity and pro-osteogenic activity when deposited as a coating on hydrophilic but not hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Contreras-Garcia, Angel; LoVetri, Karen; Yakandawala, Nandadeva; Wertheimer, Michael R; De Crescenzo, Gregory; Hoemann, Caroline D

    2015-12-01

    In the context of porous bone void filler for oral bone reconstruction, peptides that suppress microbial growth and promote osteoblast function could be used to enhance the performance of a porous bone void filler. We tested the hypothesis that P15-CSP, a novel fusion peptide containing collagen-mimetic osteogenic peptide P15, and competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), a cationic antimicrobial peptide, has emerging properties not shared by P15 or CSP alone. Peptide-coated surfaces were tested for antimicrobial activity toward Streptoccocus mutans, and their ability to promote human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attachment, spreading, metabolism, and osteogenesis. In the osteogenesis assay, peptides were coated on tissue culture plastic and on thin films generated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to have hydrophilic or hydrophobic character (water contact angles 63°, 42°, and 92°, respectively). S. mutans planktonic growth was specifically inhibited by CSP, whereas biofilm formation was inhibited by P15-CSP. MSC adhesion and actin stress fiber formation was strongly enhanced by CSP, P15-CSP, and fibronectin coatings and modestly enhanced by P15 versus uncoated surfaces. Metabolic assays revealed that CSP was slightly cytotoxic to MSCs. MSCs developed alkaline phosphatase activity on all surfaces, with or without peptide coatings, and consistently deposited the most biomineralized matrix on hydrophilic surfaces coated with P15-CSP. Hydrophobic thin films completely suppressed MSC biomineralization, consistent with previous findings of suppressed osteogenesis on hydrophobic bioplastics. Collective data in this study provide new evidence that P15-CSP has unique dual capacity to suppress biofilm formation, and to enhance osteogenic activity as a coating on hydrophilic surfaces.

  16. Microelectrode measurements of the activity distribution in nitrifying bacterial aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, D. de; Heuval, J.C. van den; Ottengraf, S.P.P. )

    1993-02-01

    Environmental problems caused by strongly increased ammonium emission by intensive agricultural and industrial activities, wastewater and waste gas purification plants are being redesigned. Since the growth rates and biomass yields of nitrifying organisms are low, their application in continuous-flow processes requires efficient retention of biomass, and development of bacterial aggregates with good settling properties is needed. In this study microelectrodes were used to study the activity distribution of bacterial aggregates in a biological fluidized-bed nitrification reactor with an external aerator. Measurements of ammonium, oxygen, nitrate, and pH were made. Results included the following: biomass yield was close to expected; the active nitrifying zone was limited to the outer 100 to 120 [mu]m of the aggregates; distribution of activity was determined by the penetration depth of oxygen during aggregate development; measurements of activity required the use of ammonium or nitrate microelectrodes, not oxygen microelectrodes alone. 32 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active

  18. Inactivated ORF virus shows antifibrotic activity and inhibits human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Daniela; Urban, Andreas; Knorr, Andreas; Hirth-Dietrich, Claudia; Siegling, Angela; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Mercer, Andrew A; Limmer, Andreas; Schumak, Beatrix; Knolle, Percy; Ruebsamen-Schaeff, Helga; Weber, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Inactivated orf virus (iORFV), strain D1701, is a potent immune modulator in various animal species. We recently demonstrated that iORFV induces strong antiviral activity in animal models of acute and chronic viral infections. In addition, we found D1701-mediated antifibrotic effects in different rat models of liver fibrosis. In the present study, we compare iORFV derived from two different strains of ORFV, D1701 and NZ2, respectively, with respect to their antifibrotic potential as well as their potential to induce an antiviral response controlling infections with the hepatotropic pathogens hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Both strains of ORFV showed anti-viral activity against HCV in vitro and against HBV in a transgenic mouse model without signs of necro-inflammation in vivo. Our experiments suggest that the absence of liver damage is potentially mediated by iORFV-induced downregulation of antigen cross-presentation in liver sinus endothelial cells. Furthermore, both strains showed significant anti-fibrotic activity in rat models of liver fibrosis. iORFV strain NZ2 appeared more potent compared to strain D1701 with respect to both its antiviral and antifibrotic activity on the basis of dosages estimated by titration of active virus. These results show a potential therapeutic approach against two important human liver pathogens HBV and HCV that independently addresses concomitant liver fibrosis. Further studies are required to characterize the details of the mechanisms involved in this novel therapeutic principle.

  19. Hyperthermostable Thermotoga maritima xylanase XYN10B shows high activity at high temperatures in the presence of biomass-dissolving hydrophilic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianyi; Anbarasan, Sasikala; Wang, Yawei; Telli, Kübra; Aslan, Aşkın Sevinç; Su, Zhengding; Zhou, Yin; Zhang, Li; Iivonen, Piia; Havukainen, Sami; Mentunen, Tero; Hummel, Michael; Sixta, Herbert; Binay, Baris; Turunen, Ossi; Xiong, Hairong

    2016-07-01

    The gene of Thermotoga maritima GH10 xylanase (TmXYN10B) was synthesised to study the extreme limits of this hyperthermostable enzyme at high temperatures in the presence of biomass-dissolving hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs). TmXYN10B expressed from Pichia pastoris showed maximal activity at 100 °C and retained 92 % of maximal activity at 105 °C in a 30-min assay. Although the temperature optimum of activity was lowered by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc), TmXYN10B retained partial activity in 15-35 % hydrophilic ILs, even at 75-90 °C. TmXYN10B retained over 80 % of its activity at 90 °C in 15 % [EMIM]OAc and 15-25 % 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([EMIM]DMP) during 22-h reactions. [EMIM]OAc may rigidify the enzyme and lower V max. However, only minor changes in kinetic parameter K m showed that competitive inhibition by [EMIM]OAc of TmXYN10B is minimal. In conclusion, when extended enzymatic reactions under extreme conditions are required, TmXYN10B shows extraordinary potential. PMID:27240671

  20. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Brown, Barbara B.; Werner, Carol M.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a spatially disaggregate level (such as street blocks) or at a spatially aggregate level (such as census block groups). A key issue is determining the spatial units for walkability measures so that they reflect potential walking behavior. This paper develops methods for assessing walkability within individual activity spaces: the geographic region accessible to an individual during a given walking trip. We first estimate street network-based activity spaces using the shortest path between known trip starting/ending points and a travel time budget that reflects potential alternative paths. Based on objective walkability measures of the street blocks, we use three summary measures for walkability within activity spaces: i) the average walkability score across block segments (representing the general level of walkability in the activity space); ii) the standard deviation (representing the walkability variation), and; iii) the network autocorrelation (representing the spatial coherence of the walkability pattern). We assess the method using data from an empirical study of built environment walkability and walking behavior in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. We visualize and map these activity space summary measures to compare walkability among individuals’ trips within their neighborhoods. We also compare summary measures for activity spaces versus census block groups, with the result that they agree less than half of the time. PMID:27213027

  1. Automated MRI Cerebellar Size Measurements Using Active Appearance Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Price, Mathew; Cardenas, Valerie A.; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Although the human cerebellum has been increasingly identified as an important hub that shows potential for helping in the diagnosis of a large spectrum of disorders, such as alcoholism, autism, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, the high costs associated with manual segmentation, and low availability of reliable automated cerebellar segmentation tools, has resulted in a limited focus on cerebellar measurement in human neuroimaging studies. We present here the CATK (Cerebellar Analysis Toolkit), which is based on the Bayesian framework implemented in FMRIB’s FIRST. This approach involves training Active Appearance Models (AAM) using hand-delineated examples. CATK can currently delineate the cerebellar hemispheres and three vermal groups (lobules I–V, VI–VII, and VIII–X). Linear registration with the low-resolution MNI152 template is used to provide initial alignment, and Point Distribution Models (PDM) are parameterized using stellar sampling. The Bayesian approach models the relationship between shape and texture through computation of conditionals in the training set. Our method varies from the FIRST framework in that initial fitting is driven by 1D intensity profile matching, and the conditional likelihood function is subsequently used to refine fitting. The method was developed using T1-weighted images from 63 subjects that were imaged and manually labeled: 43 subjects were scanned once and were used for training models, and 20 subjects were imaged twice (with manual labeling applied to both runs) and used to assess reliability and validity. Intraclass correlation analysis shows that CATK is highly reliable (average test-retest ICCs of 0.96), and offers excellent agreement with the gold standard (average validity ICC of 0.87 against manual labels). Comparisons against an alternative atlas-based approach, SUIT (Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial Template), that registers images with a high-resolution template of the cerebellum, show that our AAM

  2. Cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders show dysfunctional brain activation and connectivity in the emotional regulation networks during negative emotion maintenance and reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Asensio, Samuel; Martínez-González, José Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Cocaine dependence often co-occurs with Cluster B personality disorders. Since both disorders are characterized by emotion regulation deficits, we predicted that cocaine comorbid patients would exhibit dysfunctional patterns of brain activation and connectivity during reappraisal of negative emotions. We recruited 18 cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders, 17 cocaine users without comorbidities and 21 controls to be scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance on a reappraisal task in which they had to maintain or suppress the emotions induced by negative affective stimuli. We followed region of interest (ROI) and whole-brain approaches to investigate brain activations and connectivity associated with negative emotion experience and reappraisal. Results showed that cocaine users with comorbid personality disorders had reduced activation of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex during negative emotion maintenance and increased activation of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala during reappraisal. Amygdala activation correlated with impulsivity and antisocial beliefs in the comorbid group. Connectivity analyses showed that in the cocaine comorbid group the subgenual cingulate was less efficiently connected with the amygdala and the fusiform gyri and more efficiently connected with the anterior insula during maintenance, whereas during reappraisal the left orbitofrontal cortex was more efficiently connected with the amygdala and the right orbitofrontal cortex was less efficiently connected with the dorsal striatum. We conclude that cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders have distinctive patterns of brain activation and connectivity during maintenance and reappraisal of negative emotions, which correlate with impulsivity and dysfunctional beliefs.

  3. Measuring Disability: Application of the Rasch Model to Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, T. Joseph; DeChello, Laurie M.; Garcia, Ramon; Fifield, Judith; Rothfield, Naomi; Reisine, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Performed a comparative analysis of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) items administered to 4,430 older adults and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living administered to 605 people with rheumatoid arthritis scoring both with Likert and Rasch measurement models. Findings show the superiority of the Rasch approach over the Likert method. (SLD)

  4. Neutralization of feline infectious peritonitis virus: preparation of monoclonal antibody that shows cell tropism in neutralizing activity after viral absorption into the cells.

    PubMed

    Kida, K; Hohdatsu, T; Kashimoto-Tokunaga, J; Koyama, H

    2000-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection of feline macro-phages is enhanced by mouse anti-FIPV monoclonal antibody (MAb). This anti-body-dependent enhancement (ADE) of FIPV infection is dependent on mouse MAb subclass, and MAb of IgG2a subclass has a strong ADE activity. Furthermore, MAb showing strong neutralizing activity in Felis catus whole fetus (fcwf-4) cells and Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells shows strong enhancing activity in feline macrophages, indicating that the neutralizing epitope and the enhancing epitope are closely related. In this study, we prepared MAb FK50-4 that showed a strong neutralizing activity in feline macrophages, despite the fact that the MAb belonged to the IgG2a subclass. However, MAb FK50-4 did not exhibit neutralizing activity in CrFK cells or fcwf-4 cells, thus showing a very unusual property. MAb FK50-4 recognized FIPV small integral membrane glycoprotein (M protein). Even when feline macrophages were pretreated with MAb FK50-4 prior to FIPV inoculation, this antibody prevented FIPV infection. This reaction disappeared after treatment of FK50-4 with protein A. The neutralizing activity of FK50-4 was also effective on feline macrophages after the cells were inoculated with FIPV. These findings indicated that the FIPV replication mechanism differs between feline macrophages and CrFK/fcwf-4 cells and that a neutralizing epitope that can prevent FIPV infection of feline macrophages after viral absorption is present on M protein.

  5. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  6. Analysis of conservative tracer measurement results using the Frechet distribution at planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel and showing the effect of clogging processes.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical process, developed in Maple environment, has been successful in decreasing the error of measurement results and in the precise calculation of the moments of corrected tracer functions. It was proved that with this process, the measured tracer results of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C) can be fitted more accurately than with the conventionally used distribution functions (Gaussian, Lognormal, Fick (Inverse Gaussian) and Gamma). This statement is true only for the planted HSFCW-Cs. The analysis of unplanted HSFCW-Cs needs more research. The result of the analysis shows that the conventional solutions (completely stirred series tank reactor (CSTR) model and convection-dispersion transport (CDT) model) cannot describe these types of transport processes with sufficient accuracy. These outcomes can help in developing better process descriptions of very difficult transport processes in HSFCW-Cs. Furthermore, a new mathematical process can be developed for the calculation of real hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dispersion coefficient values. The presented method can be generalized to other kinds of hydraulic environments.

  7. The 5'-flanking region of the RP58 coding sequence shows prominent promoter activity in multipolar cells in the subventricular zone during corticogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka-Maruyama, C; Hirai, S; Miwa, A; Takahashi, A; Okado, H

    2012-01-10

    Pyramidal neurons of the neocortex are produced from progenitor cells located in the neocortical ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) during embryogenesis. RP58 is a transcriptional repressor that is strongly expressed in the developing brain and plays an essential role in corticogenesis. The expression of RP58 is strictly regulated in a time-dependent and spatially restricted manner. It is maximally expressed in E15-16 embryonic cerebral cortex, localized specifically to the cortical plate and SVZ of the neocortex, hippocampus, and parts of amygdala during brain development, and found in glutamatergic but not GABAergic neurons. Identification of the promoter activity underlying specific expression patterns provides important clues to their mechanisms of action. Here, we show that the RP58 gene promoter is activated prominently in multipolar migrating cells, the first in vivo analysis of RP58 promoter activity in the brain. The 5.3 kb 5'-flanking genomic DNA of the RP58 coding region demonstrates promoter activity in neurons both in vitro and in vivo. This promoter is highly responsive to the transcription factor neurogenin2 (Ngn2), which is a direct upstream activator of RP58 expression. Using in utero electroporation, we demonstrate that RP58 gene promoter activity is first detected in a subpopulation of pin-like VZ cells, then prominently activated in migrating multipolar cells in the multipolar cell accumulation zone (MAZ) located just above the VZ. In dissociated primary cultured cortical neurons, RP58 promoter activity mimics in vivo expression patterns from a molecular standpoint that RP58 is expressed in a fraction of Sox2-positive progenitor cells, Ngn2-positive neuronal committed cells, and Tuj1-positive young neurons, but not in Dlx2-positive GABAergic neurons. Finally, we show that Cre recombinase expression under the control of the RP58 gene promoter is a feasible tool for conditional gene switching in post-mitotic multipolar migrating

  8. Rapakinin, Arg-Ile-Tyr, derived from rapeseed napin, shows anti-opioid activity via the prostaglandin IP receptor followed by the cholecystokinin CCK(2) receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuko; Ohinata, Kousaku; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2011-02-01

    Rapakinin, Arg-Ile-Tyr, is a vasorelaxing, anti-hypertensive and anorexigenic peptide derived from rapeseed napin. In this study, we found that rapakinin intracerebroventricularly administered to mice inhibited the analgesic effect of morphine, evaluated by the tail-pinch test. The anti-opioid activity of rapakinin was blocked by LY225910, an antagonist of the cholecystokinin (CCK) CCK(2) receptor, but not by lorglumide, an antagonist of the CCK(1) receptor. The anti-opioid activity of rapakinin was also blocked by CAY10441, an antagonist of the prostaglandin (PG) IP receptor. These results suggest that the anti-opioid activity of rapakinin is mediated by the CCK(2) and IP receptors. The anti-opioid activity induced by ciprostene, an IP receptor agonist, was blocked by LY225910, while that of CCK-8 was not blocked by CAY10441. Thus, it is demonstrated that the CCK-CCK(2) system was activated downstream of the PGI(2)-IP receptor system. Taken together, rapakinin shows anti-opioid activity via the activation of the PGI(2)-IP receptor system followed by the CCK-CCK(2) receptor system.

  9. NOTE: Total body-calcium measurements: comparison of two delayed-gamma neutron activation facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, R.; Ellis, K. J.; Yasumura, S.; Shypailo, R. J.; Pierson, R. N., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    This study compares two independently calibrated delayed-gamma neutron activation (DGNA) facilities, one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, New York, and the other at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), Houston, Texas that measure total body calcium (TBCa). A set of BNL phantoms was sent to CNRC for neutron activation analysis, and a set of CNRC phantoms was measured at BNL. Both facilities showed high precision (<2%), and the results were in good agreement, within 5%.

  10. First fusion proton measurements in TEXTOR plasmas using activation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bonheure, G.; Wassenhove, G. Van; Mlynar, J.; Hult, M.; Gonzalez de Orduna, R.; Lutter, G.; Vermaercke, P.; Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Esser, G.; Biel, W.

    2012-10-15

    MeV particle loss measurements from fusion plasmas, in particular alpha particles, remain difficult in large fusion devices and further R and D is needed for ITER. This paper describes the first attempt to measure 3 MeV escaping fusion protons emitted from TEXTOR tokamak plasmas using activation technique. This technique was successfully demonstrated, initially, in 2006 on the JET tokamak. An ion camera equipped with a collimator and several types of activation detectors was installed inside the TEXTOR vacuum vessel to perform these measurements. After irradiation, the detectors were analyzed using ultra low level gamma-ray spectrometry at the HADES underground laboratory. 3 MeV escaping fusion protons were detected in larger number -{approx}6 times more - compared to earlier measurements using this technique on JET. Another major progress was the reduction of the cooling time by a factor of 50, which made possible to detect radionuclides with half-life of less than 90 min.

  11. Photospheric Magnetic Diffusion by Measuring Moments of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engell, Alexander; Longcope, D.

    2013-07-01

    Photospheric magnetic surface diffusion is an important constraint for the solar dynamo. The HMI Active Region Patches (HARPs) program automatically identify all magnetic regions above a certain flux. In our study we measure the moments of ARs that are no longer actively emerging and can thereby give us good statistical constraints on photospheric diffusion. We also present the diffusion properties as a function of latitude, flux density, and single polarity (leading or following) within each HARP.

  12. Measuring Activity Limitation Outcomes in Youth with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Mary D.; Mulcahey, MJ; Calhoun, Christina; Ni, Pengsheng; Vogel, Lawrence C.; Haley, Stephen M.; Jette, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional Objectives The Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury Activity Measure (PEDI-SCI AM), which includes calibrated item banks (child and parent versions) for General Mobility, Daily Routines, Wheeled Mobility and Ambulation, can be administered using computerized adaptive tests (CATs) or short forms (SFs). The study objectives are: 1.) examine the psychometric properties of the PEDISCI AM item banks and 10-item CATs); 2.) develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of PEDI-SCI AM SFs. Setting U.S. Shriners Hospitals for Children (California, Illinois and Pennsylvania). Methods Calibration data from a convenience sample of 381 children and adolescents with SCI and 322 parents or caregivers were used to examine PEDI-SCI AM item banks, 10-item CATs and SF scores. We calculated group reliability, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), and interclass coefficients (ICCs) to assess agreement between 10-item CATs, SFs and item banks. The percent of the sample with highest (ceiling) and lowest (floor) scores was also determined. An expert panel selected items for 14 SFs. Results PEDI-SCI item banks, 10-item CATs and SFs demonstrate acceptable group reliability (0.73-0.96) and internal consistency (0.77-0.98). ICC values show strong agreement with item banks for 10-item CATs (0.72-0.99) and SFs. Floor effects are minimal (<15%). Ceiling effects are minimal for children with tetraplegia, but high in children with paraplegia for General Mobility (13.41-26.05%) and Daily Activities (12.99-32.71%). Conclusions The PEDI-SCI AM exhibited strong psychometric properties for children with tetraplegia. Replenishment of the General Mobility and Daily Routines item banks is needed to reduce ceiling effects noted for youth with paraplegia. PMID:26572606

  13. Measurements of the effects of smoke on active circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformally coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 Mohm) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the contacts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems.

  14. Measurements of the Effects of Smoke on Active Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1999-02-09

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformably coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 M{Omega}) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the cent acts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray-capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems.

  15. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  16. Measurement error of self-reported physical activity levels in New York City: assessment and correction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010-2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors.

  17. Measurement Error of Self-Reported Physical Activity Levels in New York City: Assessment and Correction

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010–2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors. PMID:25855646

  18. Measuring emotion in advertising research: prefrontal brain activity.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Richard B; Nield, Geoffrey E

    2012-01-01

    With the current interest in the role of emotion in advertising and advertising research, there has been an increasing interest in the use of various brain activity measures to access nonverbal emotional responses. One such approach relies on measuring the difference between left and right hemisphere prefrontal cortical activity to assess like and dislike. This approach is based on electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging work, suggesting that the approach/withdrawal (frequently but not always associated with like/dislike) dimension of emotion is indicated by the balance of activity between the left and right prefrontal cortex. Much of this work was initiated by Richard Davidson in the early 1990s. An early study by Davidson et al. measured brain electrical activity to assess patterns of activation during the experience of happiness and disgust. The authors reported that disgust was found to be associated with increased right-sided activation in the frontal and anterior temporal regions compared with happiness. In contrast, happiness was found to be accompanied by left-sided activation in the anterior temporal region compared with disgust. Early reports suggested that frontal laterality indexes motivational valence with positive emotions (happy, like) associated with left greater than the right frontal activity and vice versa. Although these findings appear to be consistent with personality traits (e.g., optimism pessimism), state changes in frontal laterality appears to index approach withdraw rather than emotional valence. Interestingly, the behavioral and motivational correlates of prefrontal asymmetric activity are not restricted to humans or even primates but have been observed in numerous species such as birds and fish (see [4]). Henceforth, we use the term motivational valence (MV) rather than the more cumbersome term approach withdraw. PMID:22678836

  19. A Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    2005-01-01

    There are multiple approaches to measuring physical activity. Among these are direct observation, electronic monitoring, direct and indirect calorimetry, and self-report instruments. Self-report instruments are the most practical and cost effective option for use with a large group. In a study by Motl, Dishman, Dowda, and Pate (2004), two groups…

  20. Exploring Patient Activation in the Clinic: Measurement from Three Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Christy J. W.; Ledford, Christopher C.; Childress, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To further conceptualize and operationalize patient activation (PA), using measures from patient, physician, and researcher perspectives. Data Source/Study Setting. Multimethod observation in 2010 within a family medicine clinic. Study Design. Part of an intervention with 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, this observational study…

  1. 12 CFR 1806.201 - Measuring and reporting Qualified Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable BEA NOFA for current limitations on Qualified Activities. (e) Measuring the Value of Qualified... NOFA, the Fund will assess the value of: (1) Equity Investments, Equity-Like Loans, loans, grants and... the Baseline Period or the Assessment Period, as applicable, the Fund will assess the value of...

  2. Measurement for Work. Teaching Guide and Sample Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Margo; Bolton, Chris

    This document is intended to help Australian technical and further education instructors in New South Wales (TAFE NSW) identify teaching principles and learning activities that they can use to help adult learners master the mathematics processes, knowledge, and skills needed to perform basic measurement tasks in today's workplace. The materials…

  3. Nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid from citrus, shows anti-angiogenic activity in a zebrafish in vivo model and HUVEC in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kai Heng; Alex, Deepa; Lam, In Kei; Tsui, Stephen Kwok Wing; Yang, Zi Feng; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen

    2011-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs are a rich source of compounds with reported anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects. Growing evidence shows the codependence of chronic inflammation and angiogenesis, and the potential benefits of targeting angiogenesis in the treatment of chronic inflammation and targeting inflammation in the treatment of diseases with impaired angiogenesis. We hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory activity of the natural compounds may owe at least some of its efficacy to their anti-angiogenic activity and hence we investigated the anti-angiogenic activity of these compounds in vivo in zebrafish embryos and in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid from citrus fruits, showed anti-angiogenic activity in both assays. Nobiletin inhibited the formation of intersegmental vessels (ISVs) in live transgenic zebrafish embryos expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the vasculature. Cell cycle analysis of dissociated zebrafish embryo cells showed that nobiletin induced G0/G1 phase accumulation in a dose-dependent manner in GFP-positive endothelial cells. Nobiletin also dose-dependently induced VEGF-A mRNA expression. In HUVECs, nobiletin inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and, to a greater extent, tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. As in the in vivo study, nobiletin induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in HUVECs. However, this arrest was not accompanied by an increase in apoptosis, indicating a cytostatic effect of nobiletin. This study, for the first time, identifies nobiletin as having potent anti-angiogenic activity and suggests that nobiletin has a great potential for future research and development as a cytostatic anti-proliferative agent.

  4. Cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders show dysfunctional brain activation and connectivity in the emotional regulation networks during negative emotion maintenance and reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Asensio, Samuel; Martínez-González, José Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Cocaine dependence often co-occurs with Cluster B personality disorders. Since both disorders are characterized by emotion regulation deficits, we predicted that cocaine comorbid patients would exhibit dysfunctional patterns of brain activation and connectivity during reappraisal of negative emotions. We recruited 18 cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders, 17 cocaine users without comorbidities and 21 controls to be scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance on a reappraisal task in which they had to maintain or suppress the emotions induced by negative affective stimuli. We followed region of interest (ROI) and whole-brain approaches to investigate brain activations and connectivity associated with negative emotion experience and reappraisal. Results showed that cocaine users with comorbid personality disorders had reduced activation of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex during negative emotion maintenance and increased activation of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala during reappraisal. Amygdala activation correlated with impulsivity and antisocial beliefs in the comorbid group. Connectivity analyses showed that in the cocaine comorbid group the subgenual cingulate was less efficiently connected with the amygdala and the fusiform gyri and more efficiently connected with the anterior insula during maintenance, whereas during reappraisal the left orbitofrontal cortex was more efficiently connected with the amygdala and the right orbitofrontal cortex was less efficiently connected with the dorsal striatum. We conclude that cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders have distinctive patterns of brain activation and connectivity during maintenance and reappraisal of negative emotions, which correlate with impulsivity and dysfunctional beliefs. PMID:23712090

  5. A neutron activation technique for manganese measurements in humans.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, C; Byun, S H; Chettle, D R; Inskip, M J; Prestwich, W V

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for humans, animals, and plants and is required for growth, development, and maintenance of health. Studies show that Mn metabolism is similar to that of iron, therefore, increased Mn levels in humans could interfere with the absorption of dietary iron leading to anemia. Also, excess exposure to Mn dust, leads to nervous system disorders similar to Parkinson's disease. Higher exposure to Mn is essentially related to industrial pollution. Thus, there is a benefit in developing a clean non-invasive technique for monitoring such increased levels of Mn in order to understand the risk of disease and development of appropriate treatments. To this end, the feasibility of Mn measurements with their minimum detection limits (MDL) has been reported earlier from the McMaster group. This work presents improvement to Mn assessment using an upgraded system and optimized times of irradiation and counting for induced gamma activity of Mn. The technique utilizes the high proton current Tandetron accelerator producing neutrons via the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction at McMaster University and an array of nine NaI (Tl) detectors in a 4 π geometry for delayed counting of gamma rays. The neutron irradiation of a set of phantoms was performed with protocols having different proton energy, current and time of irradiation. The improved MDLs estimated using the upgraded set up and constrained timings are reported as 0.67 μgMn/gCa for 2.3 MeV protons and 0.71 μgMn/gCa for 2.0 MeV protons. These are a factor of about 2.3 times better than previous measurements done at McMaster University using the in vivo set-up. Also, because of lower dose-equivalent and a relatively close MDL, the combination of: 2.0 MeV; 300 μA; 3 min protocol is recommended as compared to 2.3 MeV; 400 μA; 45 s protocol for further measurements of Mn in vivo. PMID:25169978

  6. Candida tropicalis from veterinary and human sources shows similar in vitro hemolytic activity, antifungal biofilm susceptibility and pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales de; Evangelista, Antônio José de Jesus; Serpa, Rosana; Silva, Aline Lobão da; Aguiar, Felipe Rodrigues Magalhães de; Pereira, Vandbergue Santos; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro Aquino; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro hemolytic activity and biofilm antifungal susceptibility of veterinary and human Candida tropicalis strains, as well as their pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans. Twenty veterinary isolates and 20 human clinical isolates of C. tropicalis were used. The strains were evaluated for their hemolytic activity and biofilm production. Biofilm susceptibility to itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin was assessed using broth microdilution assay. The in vivo evaluation of strain pathogenicity was investigated using the nematode C. elegans. Hemolytic factor was observed in 95% of the strains and 97.5% of the isolates showed ability to form biofilm. Caspofungin and amphotericin B showed better results than azole antifungals against mature biofilms. Paradoxical effect on mature biofilm metabolic activity was observed at elevated concentrations of caspofungin (8-64μg/mL). Azole antifungals were not able to inhibit mature C. tropicalis biofilms, even at the higher tested concentrations. High mortality rates of C. elegans were observed when the worms were exposed to with C. tropicalis strains, reaching up to 96%, 96h after exposure of the worms to C. tropicalis strains. These results reinforce the high pathogenicity of C. tropicalis from veterinary and human sources and show the effectiveness of caspofungin and amphotericin B against mature biofilms of this species. PMID:27527785

  7. Measurement of microbial biomass and activity in landfill soils.

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J. E.; Miller, R. M.; Spokas, K.; Environmental Research

    1995-01-01

    Two complementary techniques, which have been widely used to provide a general measure of microbial biomass or microbial activity in natural soils, were evaluated for their applicability to soils from the Mallard North and Mallard Lake Landfills, DuPage County, Illinois, U.S.A. Included were: (1) a potassium sulphate extraction technique with quantification of organic carbon for measurement of microbial biomass; and (2) an arginine ammonification technique for microbial activity. Four profiles consisting of replaced soils were sampled for this study; units included topsoil (mixed mollisol A and B horizons), compacted clay cover (local calcareous Wisconsinan age glacial till), and mixed soil/refuse samples. Internally consistent results across the four profiles and good correlations with other independent indicators of microbial activity (moisture, organic matter content, nitrogen, and phosphorus) suggest that, even though these techniques were developed mainly for natural mineral soils, they are also applicable to disturbed landfill soils.

  8. Triton burnup measurements in KSTAR using a neutron activation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Jungmin; Cheon, MunSeong; Kim, Jun Young; Rhee, T.; Kim, Junghee; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of the time-integrated triton burnup for deuterium plasma in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) have been performed following the simultaneous detection of the d-d and d-t neutrons. The d-d neutrons were measured using a 3He proportional counter, fission chamber, and activated indium sample, whereas the d-t neutrons were detected using activated silicon and copper samples. The triton burnup ratio from KSTAR discharges is found to be in the range 0.01%-0.50% depending on the plasma conditions. The measured burnup ratio is compared with the prompt loss fraction of tritons calculated with the Lorentz orbit code and the classical slowing-down time. The burnup ratio is found to increase as plasma current and classical slowing-down time increase.

  9. Behavioral and locomotor measurements using an open field activity monitoring system for skeletal muscle diseases.

    PubMed

    Tatem, Kathleen S; Quinn, James L; Phadke, Aditi; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-09-29

    The open field activity monitoring system comprehensively assesses locomotor and behavioral activity levels of mice. It is a useful tool for assessing locomotive impairment in animal models of neuromuscular disease and efficacy of therapeutic drugs that may improve locomotion and/or muscle function. The open field activity measurement provides a different measure than muscle strength, which is commonly assessed by grip strength measurements. It can also show how drugs may affect other body systems as well when used with additional outcome measures. In addition, measures such as total distance traveled mirror the 6 min walk test, a clinical trial outcome measure. However, open field activity monitoring is also associated with significant challenges: Open field activity measurements vary according to animal strain, age, sex, and circadian rhythm. In addition, room temperature, humidity, lighting, noise, and even odor can affect assessment outcomes. Overall, this manuscript provides a well-tested and standardized open field activity SOP for preclinical trials in animal models of neuromuscular diseases. We provide a discussion of important considerations, typical results, data analysis, and detail the strengths and weaknesses of open field testing. In addition, we provide recommendations for optimal study design when using open field activity in a preclinical trial.

  10. Behavioral and locomotor measurements using an open field activity monitoring system for skeletal muscle diseases.

    PubMed

    Tatem, Kathleen S; Quinn, James L; Phadke, Aditi; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-01-01

    The open field activity monitoring system comprehensively assesses locomotor and behavioral activity levels of mice. It is a useful tool for assessing locomotive impairment in animal models of neuromuscular disease and efficacy of therapeutic drugs that may improve locomotion and/or muscle function. The open field activity measurement provides a different measure than muscle strength, which is commonly assessed by grip strength measurements. It can also show how drugs may affect other body systems as well when used with additional outcome measures. In addition, measures such as total distance traveled mirror the 6 min walk test, a clinical trial outcome measure. However, open field activity monitoring is also associated with significant challenges: Open field activity measurements vary according to animal strain, age, sex, and circadian rhythm. In addition, room temperature, humidity, lighting, noise, and even odor can affect assessment outcomes. Overall, this manuscript provides a well-tested and standardized open field activity SOP for preclinical trials in animal models of neuromuscular diseases. We provide a discussion of important considerations, typical results, data analysis, and detail the strengths and weaknesses of open field testing. In addition, we provide recommendations for optimal study design when using open field activity in a preclinical trial. PMID:25286313

  11. A direct measurement of strontium-89 activity in bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Ben-Josef, E; Maughan, R L; Vasan, S; Porter, A T

    1995-06-01

    The total absorbed dose after systemic administration of 89Sr has been determined by measuring directly its activity in bone metastases. Autoradiography was performed on sections of bones obtained from patients treated with 89Sr to study the pattern of deposition. Discs of 5 and 8 mm diameter were cut from metastatic sites and normal bone. The beta-ray activity was determined with a scintillation counter, which was calibrated using similar bovine cancellous bone discs, onto which a known activity of 89Sr was transferred by pipette. From the activity measured, the initial activity (at the time of 89Sr administration) was calculated. The absorbed dose was estimated using the methodology described in NCRP Report No. 58. The estimated initial activity of 89Sr in the bone metastases varied from 2.3 to 240 MBq kg-1, with a mean value of 31 +/- 27 MBq kg-1. The total absorbed dose ranged from 1.3 to 64 Gy, with a mean of 18 +/- 16 Gy. The average total dose to normal bone sites was 1.1 +/- 0.4 Gy. The metastases to normal bone dose ratio in individual samples varied from 8 +/- 4 to 40 +/- 25. These estimates are in agreement with those obtained previously by indirect methods. PMID:7675358

  12. Membrane Docking of the Synaptotagmin 7 C2A Domain: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Measurements Show Contributions from Two Membrane Binding Loops

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, J. Ryan; Chon, Nara Lee; Boo, Arthur; Maynard, Favinn A.; Lin, Hai; Knight, Jefferson D.

    2015-01-01

    The synaptotagmin (Syt) family of proteins plays an important role in vesicle docking and fusion during Ca2+-induced exocytosis in a wide variety of cell types. Its role as a Ca2+ sensor derives primarily from its two C2 domains, C2A and C2B, which insert into anionic lipid membranes upon binding Ca2+. Syt isoforms 1 and 7 differ significantly in their Ca2+ sensitivity; the C2A domain from Syt7 binds Ca2+ and membranes much more tightly than the C2A domain from Syt1, due at least in part to greater contributions from the hydrophobic effect. While the structure and membrane activity of Syt1 have been extensively studied, the structural origins of differences between Syt7 and Syt1 are unknown. The present study used site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine depth parameters for the Syt7 C2A domain, for comparison to analogous previous measurements with Syt1 C2A. In a novel approach, the membrane docking geometry of both Syt1 and Syt7 C2A was modeled by mapping depth parameters onto multiple molecular dynamics simulated structures of the Ca2+-bound protein. The models reveal membrane penetration of Ca2+ binding loops (CBLs) 1 and 3, and membrane binding is more sensitive to mutations in CBL3. On average, Syt7 C2A inserts more deeply in the membrane than Syt1 C2A, although depths vary among the different structural models. This observation provides a partial structural explanation for the hydrophobically driven membrane docking of Syt7 C2A. PMID:26322740

  13. Identification of novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins with nuclear export activity: cell cycle-regulated transcription factor ace2p shows cell cycle-independent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T H; Neville, M; Rain, J C; McCarthy, T; Legrain, P; Rosbash, M

    2000-11-01

    Nuclear export of proteins containing leucine-rich nuclear export signals (NESs) is mediated by the NES receptor CRM1/Crm1p. We have carried out a yeast two-hybrid screen with Crm1p as a bait. The Crm1p-interacting clones were subscreened for nuclear export activity in a visual assay utilizing the Crm1p-inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB). This approach identified three Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins not previously known to have nuclear export activity. These proteins are the 5' RNA triphosphatase Ctl1p, the cell cycle-regulated transcription factor Ace2p, and a protein encoded by the previously uncharacterized open reading frame YDR499W. Mutagenesis analysis show that YDR499Wp contains an NES that conforms to the consensus sequence for leucine-rich NESs. Mutagenesis of Ctl1p and Ace2p were unable to identify specific NES residues. However, a 29-amino-acid region of Ace2p, rich in hydrophobic residues, contains nuclear export activity. Ace2p accumulates in the nucleus at the end of mitosis and activates early-G(1)-specific genes. We now provide evidence that Ace2p is nuclear not only in late M-early G(1) but also during other stages of the cell cycle. This feature of Ace2p localization explains its ability to activate genes such as CUP1, which are not expressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner.

  14. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  15. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  16. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  17. Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Jou, Yu-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Zhang, Yongjun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18 μg/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41 μg/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21 μg/mL against EV71 and 9.08 μg/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39 μM) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24 μM). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection. PMID:24078828

  18. B-Ring-Aryl Substituted Luotonin A Analogues with a New Binding Mode to the Topoisomerase 1-DNA Complex Show Enhanced Cytotoxic Activity

    PubMed Central

    González-Ruiz, Víctor; Pascua, Irene; Fernández-Marcelo, Tamara; Ribelles, Pascual; Bianchini, Giulia; Sridharan, Vellaisamy; Iniesta, Pilar; Ramos, M. Teresa; Olives, Ana I.; Martín, M. Antonia; Menéndez, J. Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Topoisomerase 1 inhibition is an important strategy in targeted cancer chemotherapy. The drugs currently in use acting on this enzyme belong to the family of the camptothecins, and suffer severe limitations because of their low stability, which is associated with the hydrolysis of the δ-lactone moiety in their E ring. Luotonin A is a natural camptothecin analogue that lacks this functional group and therefore shows a much-improved stability, but at the cost of a lower activity. Therefore, the development of luotonin A analogues with an increased potency is important for progress in this area. In the present paper, a small library of luotonin A analogues modified at their A and B rings was generated by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-catalyzed Friedländer reactions. All analogues showed an activity similar or higher than the natural luotonin A in terms of topoisomerase 1 inhibition and some compounds had an activity comparable to that of camptothecin. Furthermore, most compounds showed a better activity than luotonin A in cell cytotoxicity assays. In order to rationalize these results, the first docking studies of luotonin-topoisomerase 1-DNA ternary complexes were undertaken. Most compounds bound in a manner similar to luotonin A and to standard topoisomerase poisons such as topotecan but, interestingly, the two most promising analogues, bearing a 3,5-dimethylphenyl substituent at ring B, docked in a different orientation. This binding mode allows the hydrophobic moiety to be shielded from the aqueous environment by being buried between the deoxyribose belonging to the G(+1) guanine and Arg364 in the scissile strand and the surface of the protein and a hydrogen bond between the D-ring carbonyl and the basic amino acid. The discovery of this new binding mode and its associated higher inhibitory potency is a significant advance in the design of new topoisomerase 1 inhibitors. PMID:24830682

  19. Thermodynamic Activity Measurements with Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan H.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2001-01-01

    Coupling the Knudsen effusion method with mass spectrometry has proven to be one of the most useful experimental techniques for studying the equilibrium between condensed phases and complex vapors. The Knudsen effusion method involves placing a condensed sample in a Knudsen cell, a small "enclosure", that is uniformly heated and held until equilibrium is attained between the condensed and vapor phases. The vapor is continuously sampled by effusion through a small orifice in the cell. A molecular beam is formed from the effusing vapor and directed into a mass spectrometer for identification and pressure measurement of the species in the vapor phase. Knudsen cell mass spectrometry (KCMS) has been used for nearly fifty years now and continues to be a leading technique for obtaining thermodynamic data. Indeed, much of the well-established vapor specie data in the JANAF tables has been obtained from this technique. This is due to the extreme versatility of the technique. All classes of materials can be studied and all constituents of the vapor phase can be measured over a wide range of pressures (approximately 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -11) bar) and temperatures (500-2800 K). The ability to selectively measure different vapor species makes KCMS a very powerful tool for the measurement of component activities in metallic and ceramic solutions. Today several groups are applying KCMS to measure thermodynamic functions in multicomponent metallic and ceramic systems. Thermodynamic functions, especially component activities, are extremely important in the development of CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) type thermodynamic descriptions. These descriptions, in turn, are useful for modeling materials processing and predicting reactions such as oxide formation and fiber/matrix interactions. The leading experimental methods for measuring activities are the Galvanic cell or electro-motive force (EMF) technique and the KCMS technique. Each has specific advantages, depending on

  20. Measurements of the PLT and PDX device activation

    SciTech Connect

    Stavely, J.; Barnes, C.W.; Chrien, R.E.; Strachan, J.D.

    1981-09-01

    Measurements of the activation levels around the PLT and PDX tokamaks have been made using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometer and a Geiger counter. The activation results from radiation induced in the plasma by 14 MeV neutrons from the d(t,n)..cap alpha.. fusion reaction, 14.7 MeV protons from the d(/sup 3/He,p)..cap alpha.. fusion reaction, 10 ..-->.. 20 MeV hard x-rays from runaway electron induced bremmstrahlung, and 2.5 MeV neutrons from the d(d,n)/sup 3/He fusion reaction. The magnitude of the activation is compared to that predicted for PDX on the basis of one-dimensional activation codes.

  1. Measuring In Vitro ATPase Activity for Enzymatic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Rule, Chelsea S; Patrick, Marcella; Sandkvist, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes, or ATPases, play a critical role in a diverse array of cellular functions. These dynamic proteins can generate energy for mechanical work, such as protein trafficking and degradation, solute transport, and cellular movements. The protocol described here is a basic assay for measuring the in vitro activity of purified ATPases for functional characterization. Proteins hydrolyze ATP in a reaction that results in inorganic phosphate release, and the amount of phosphate liberated is then quantitated using a colorimetric assay. This highly adaptable protocol can be adjusted to measure ATPase activity in kinetic or endpoint assays. A representative protocol is provided here based on the activity and requirements of EpsE, the AAA+ ATPase involved in Type II Secretion in the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The amount of purified protein needed to measure activity, length of the assay and the timing and number of sampling intervals, buffer and salt composition, temperature, co-factors, stimulants (if any), etc. may vary from those described here, and thus some optimization may be necessary. This protocol provides a basic framework for characterizing ATPases and can be performed quickly and easily adjusted as necessary. PMID:27584824

  2. Novel antiviral characteristics of nanosized copper(I) iodide particles showing inactivation activity against 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Yoshie; Sato, Tetsuya; Hayata, Taishi; Nagao, Tomokazu; Nakayama, Mikio; Nakayama, Tsuruo; Sugamata, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Kazuo

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the antiviral activity of nanosized copper(I) iodide (CuI) particles having an average size of 160 nm. CuI particles showed aqueous stability and generated hydroxyl radicals, which were probably derived from monovalent copper (Cu(+)). We confirmed that CuI particles showed antiviral activity against an influenza A virus of swine origin (pandemic [H1N1] 2009) by plaque titration assay. The virus titer decreased in a dose-dependent manner upon incubation with CuI particles, with the 50% effective concentration being approximately 17 μg/ml after exposure for 60 min. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the inactivation of the virus due to the degradation of viral proteins such as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase by CuI. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy revealed that CuI generates hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solution, and radical production was found to be blocked by the radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Taken together, these findings indicate that CuI particles exert antiviral activity by generating hydroxyl radicals. Thus, CuI may be a useful material for protecting against viral attacks and may be suitable for applications such as filters, face masks, protective clothing, and kitchen cloths.

  3. Mice repeatedly exposed to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus show perseverative behaviors, impaired sensorimotor gating, and immune activation in rostral diencephalon

    PubMed Central

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Onori, Martina Proietti; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bartolini, Erika; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Imperi, Monica; Orefici, Graziella; Creti, Roberta; Margarit, Immaculada; Magliozzi, Roberta; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Repeated exposure to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) may constitute a vulnerability factor in the onset and course of pediatric motor disturbances. GAS infections/colonization can stimulate the production of antibodies, which may cross the blood brain barrier, target selected brain areas (e.g. basal ganglia), and exacerbate motor alterations. Here, we exposed developing SJL male mice to four injections with a GAS homogenate and evaluated the following domains: motor coordination; general locomotion; repetitive behaviors; perseverative responses; and sensorimotor gating (pre-pulse inhibition, PPI). To demonstrate that behavioral changes were associated with immune-mediated brain alterations, we analyzed, in selected brain areas, the presence of infiltrates and microglial activation (immunohistochemistry), monoamines (HPLC), and brain metabolites (in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy). GAS-exposed mice showed increased repetitive and perseverative behaviors, impaired PPI, and reduced concentrations of serotonin in prefrontal cortex, a brain area linked to the behavioral domains investigated, wherein they also showed remarkable elevations in lactate. Active inflammatory processes were substantiated by the observation of infiltrates and microglial activation in the white matter of the anterior diencephalon. These data support the hypothesis that repeated GAS exposure may elicit inflammatory responses in brain areas involved in motor control and perseverative behavior, and result in phenotypic abnormalities. PMID:26304458

  4. Mice repeatedly exposed to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus show perseverative behaviors, impaired sensorimotor gating, and immune activation in rostral diencephalon.

    PubMed

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Onori, Martina Proietti; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bartolini, Erika; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Imperi, Monica; Orefici, Graziella; Creti, Roberta; Margarit, Immaculada; Magliozzi, Roberta; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-08-25

    Repeated exposure to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) may constitute a vulnerability factor in the onset and course of pediatric motor disturbances. GAS infections/colonization can stimulate the production of antibodies, which may cross the blood brain barrier, target selected brain areas (e.g. basal ganglia), and exacerbate motor alterations. Here, we exposed developing SJL male mice to four injections with a GAS homogenate and evaluated the following domains: motor coordination; general locomotion; repetitive behaviors; perseverative responses; and sensorimotor gating (pre-pulse inhibition, PPI). To demonstrate that behavioral changes were associated with immune-mediated brain alterations, we analyzed, in selected brain areas, the presence of infiltrates and microglial activation (immunohistochemistry), monoamines (HPLC), and brain metabolites (in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy). GAS-exposed mice showed increased repetitive and perseverative behaviors, impaired PPI, and reduced concentrations of serotonin in prefrontal cortex, a brain area linked to the behavioral domains investigated, wherein they also showed remarkable elevations in lactate. Active inflammatory processes were substantiated by the observation of infiltrates and microglial activation in the white matter of the anterior diencephalon. These data support the hypothesis that repeated GAS exposure may elicit inflammatory responses in brain areas involved in motor control and perseverative behavior, and result in phenotypic abnormalities.

  5. A dual mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibitor shows antitumor activity in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells and sensitizes them to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Xi, Qingsong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Jing; Peng, Ping; Xia, Shu; Yu, Shiying

    2013-10-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is critical for the growth and proliferation of various malignant tumors, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Therefore, targeting of mTOR protein is a promising strategy for therapy in this disease. In the present study, we examined the antitumor effects of a specific mTOR kinase inhibitor, PP242, which blocks both mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) pathways, in two ESCC cell lines: Eca-109 and TE-1. We showed that PP242, but not rapamycin, attenuated the activities of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling in ESCC. PP242 inhibited 4E-binding protein-1 phosphorylation and abrogated mTORC1-dependent PI3K/Akt feedback activation. Significantly, PP242 effectively suppressed ESCC cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and arrested the cell cycle. Furthermore, PP242 promoted cisplatin-induced apoptosis and enhanced the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in ESCC cells, which was likely to be associated with inhibition of Akt activity. Our results show that simultaneous targeting of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 pathways leads to effective antitumor actions in ESCC, and strongly suggest that dual mTORC1/2 inhibitors should be developed as potential agents for the treatment of ESCC.

  6. Novel Antiviral Characteristics of Nanosized Copper(I) Iodide Particles Showing Inactivation Activity against 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tetsuya; Hayata, Taishi; Nagao, Tomokazu; Nakayama, Mikio; Nakayama, Tsuruo; Sugamata, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the antiviral activity of nanosized copper(I) iodide (CuI) particles having an average size of 160 nm. CuI particles showed aqueous stability and generated hydroxyl radicals, which were probably derived from monovalent copper (Cu+). We confirmed that CuI particles showed antiviral activity against an influenza A virus of swine origin (pandemic [H1N1] 2009) by plaque titration assay. The virus titer decreased in a dose-dependent manner upon incubation with CuI particles, with the 50% effective concentration being approximately 17 μg/ml after exposure for 60 min. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the inactivation of the virus due to the degradation of viral proteins such as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase by CuI. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy revealed that CuI generates hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solution, and radical production was found to be blocked by the radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Taken together, these findings indicate that CuI particles exert antiviral activity by generating hydroxyl radicals. Thus, CuI may be a useful material for protecting against viral attacks and may be suitable for applications such as filters, face masks, protective clothing, and kitchen cloths. PMID:22156433

  7. PP2A inhibition determines poor outcome and doxorubicin resistance in early breast cancer and its activation shows promising therapeutic effects

    PubMed Central

    Zazo, Sandra; Arpí, Oriol; Menéndez, Silvia; Manso, Rebeca; Lluch, Ana; Eroles, Pilar; Rovira, Ana; Albanell, Joan; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Madoz-Gúrpide, Juan; Rojo, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a key tumor suppressor which has emerged as a novel molecular target in some human cancers. Here, we show that PP2A inhibition is a common event in breast cancer and identified PP2A phosphorylation and deregulation SET and CIP2A as molecular contributing mechanisms to inactivate PP2A. Interestingly, restoration of PP2A activity after FTY720 treatment reduced cell growth, induced apoptosis and decreased AKT and ERK activation. Moreover, FTY720 led to PP2A activation then enhancing doxorubicin-induced antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. PP2A inhibition (CPscore: PP2A phosphorylation and/or CIP2A overexpression) was detected in 27% of cases (62/230), and associated with grade (p = 0.017), relapse (p < 0.001), negative estrogen (p < 0.001) and progesterone receptor expression (p < 0.001), HER2-positive tumors (p = 0.049), Ki-67 expression (p < 0.001), and higher AKT (p < 0.001) and ERK (p < 0.001) phosphorylation. Moreover, PP2A inhibition determined shorter overall (p = 0.006) and event-free survival (p = 0.003), and multivariate analysis confirmed its independent prognostic impact. Altogether, our results indicate that PP2A is frequently inactivated in breast cancer and determines worse outcome, and its restoration using PP2A activators represents an alternative therapeutic strategy in this disease. PMID:25726524

  8. 5-epi-Torrubiellutin C shows antiproliferative activity on DU145 prostate cancer cells through inactivation of the AKT/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashita; Mahipal, Bodugam; Chandrasekhar, Srivari; Ummanni, Ramesh

    2014-04-01

    Cell-based assays for evaluation of the anticancer potential of a focused small molecule library have identified a few potential hit molecules. Among the hits identified, Torrubiellutins (3a) showed good anticancer potential across the cells used in screening assays. Torrubiellutins are isolated from fungal insects Torrubiella luteorostrata and diverse pharmacological effects for these have been reported. However, it is not known as to how Torrubiellutins act through signaling pathways inhibiting the growth of eukaryotic cells. The current study aimed to determine the anticancer potential of Torrubiellutins by defining the molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity using DU145 cells. The results showed that the inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by 3a was associated with inhibition of anchorage-independent growth, cell migration, and, to a small extent, apoptosis-mediated cell death by caspase activation. The growth-inhibitory effects of 3a are supported by inactivation of prosurvival pathways. Immunoblot analysis showed that the treatment of DU145 cells with 3a resulted in specific downregulation of AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream effector proteins p70S6K, GSK3β, and STAT3. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the changes observed in the AKT/mTOR signaling axis are new targets of 3a that are involved in its inhibitory activity on the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, suggesting its potential for further investigation as a promising anticancer agent. PMID:24445589

  9. Comparison of the activity measurements in nuclear medicine services in the Brazilian northeast region.

    PubMed

    de Farias Fragoso, Maria da Conceição; de Albuquerque, Antônio Morais; de Oliveira, Mércia L; de Lima, Fabiana Farias; Barreto, Flávio Chiappetta Paes; de Andrade Lima, Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    The Northeastern Regional Centre for Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE), National Nuclear Energy Commission, has organized for the first time in nuclear medicine services (NMSs) in the Brazilian northeast region a comparison of activity measurements for (99m)Tc, (131)I, (67)Ga, (201)Tl and (57)Co. This tool is widely utilized to evaluate not only the accuracy of radionuclide calibrators, but also the competence of NMSs to measure the activity of the radiopharmaceuticals and the performance of the personnel involved in these measurements. The comparison results showed that 90% of the results received from participants are within the ±10% limit established by the Brazilian Norm.

  10. Environmental Measurements Laboratory fiscal year 1998: Accomplishments and technical activities

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) is government-owned, government-operated, and programmatically under the DOE Office of Environmental Management. The Laboratory is administered by the Chicago Operations Office. EML provides program management, technical assistance and data quality assurance for measurements of radiation and radioactivity relating to environmental restoration, global nuclear nonproliferation, and other priority issues for the Department of Energy, as well as for other government, national, and international organizations. This report presents the technical activities and accomplishments of EML for Fiscal Year 1998.

  11. Device for measuring oxygen activity in liquid sodium

    DOEpatents

    Roy, P.; Young, R.S.

    1973-12-01

    A composite ceramic electrolyte in a configuration (such as a closed end tube or a plate) suitable to separate liquid sodium from a reference electrode with a high impedance voltmeter connected to measure EMF between the sodium and the reference electrode as a measure of oxygen activity in the sodium is described. The composite electrolyte consists of zirconiacalcia with a bonded layer of thoria-yttria. The device is used with a gaseous reference electrode on the zirconia-calcia side and liquid sodium on the thoria-yttria side of the electrolyte. (Official Gazette)

  12. Beta-catenin-activated hepatocellular adenoma showing hyperintensity on hepatobiliary-phase gadoxetic-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and overexpression of OATP8.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Norihide; Matsui, Osamu; Kitao, Azusa; Kozaka, Kazuto; Gabata, Toshifumi; Sasaki, Motoko; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Murata, Kiyoshi; Tani, Toru

    2012-11-01

    We report a male case of beta-catenin-activated hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) focusing on findings of gadoxetic-acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) and discussing the molecular background and possible clinical significance. The patient was a 31-year-old man in whom computed tomography (CT) showed a large nodule of 14 cm in diameter in the right liver lobe. On dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, heterogeneous and slight to moderate enhancement was observed during the early phase, with washout in the late phase. Focal fat deposits and a scar-like portion in the lesion were also seen. Most of the lesion was slightly hyperintense compared with the background liver on the hepatobiliary phase of EOB-MRI. After operation, this patient was confirmed pathologically as having beta-catenin-activated HCA with a portion suggestive of malignant transformation. In addition, intense organic anion transporter polypeptide 8 expression was observed throughout the tumor by immunohistochemical staining.

  13. Acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins from the flowers of Bellis perennis show anti-proliferative activities against human digestive tract carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Motai, Chiaki; Nishida, Eriko; Kitagawa, Niichiro; Yoshihara, Kazuya; Hayakawa, Takao; Muraoka, Osamu; Li, Xuezheng; Nakamura, Seikou; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi; Morikawa, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    Seven oleanane-type triterpene saponin bisdesmosides, perennisaponins N-T (1-7), were newly isolated from a methanol extract of daisy, the flowers of Bellis perennis L. (Asteraceae). The structures were determined based on chemical and physicochemical data and confirmed using previously isolated related compounds as references. The isolates, including 13 previously reported perennisaponins A-M (8-20), exhibited anti-proliferative activities against human digestive tract carcinoma HSC-2, HSC-4, and MKN-45 cells. Among them, perennisaponin O (2, IC50 = 11.2, 14.3, and 6.9 μM, respectively) showed relatively strong activities. The mechanism of action of 2 against HSC-2 was found to involve apoptotic cell death. PMID:27178360

  14. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  15. A novel, selective inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptors that shows a potent broad spectrum of antitumor activity in several tumor xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Genshi; Li, Wei-Ying; Chen, Daohong; Henry, James R; Li, Hong-Yu; Chen, Zhaogen; Zia-Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Bloem, Laura; Zhai, Yan; Huss, Karen; Peng, Sheng-Bin; McCann, Denis J

    2011-11-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) are tyrosine kinases that are present in many types of endothelial and tumor cells and play an important role in tumor cell growth, survival, and migration as well as in maintaining tumor angiogenesis. Overexpression of FGFRs or aberrant regulation of their activities has been implicated in many forms of human malignancies. Therefore, targeting FGFRs represents an attractive strategy for development of cancer treatment options by simultaneously inhibiting tumor cell growth, survival, and migration as well as tumor angiogenesis. Here, we describe a potent, selective, small-molecule FGFR inhibitor, (R)-(E)-2-(4-(2-(5-(1-(3,5-Dichloropyridin-4-yl)ethoxy)-1H-indazol-3yl)vinyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethanol, designated as LY2874455. This molecule is active against all 4 FGFRs, with a similar potency in biochemical assays. It exhibits a potent activity against FGF/FGFR-mediated signaling in several cancer cell lines and shows an excellent broad spectrum of antitumor activity in several tumor xenograft models representing the major FGF/FGFR relevant tumor histologies including lung, gastric, and bladder cancers and multiple myeloma, and with a well-defined pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship. LY2874455 also exhibits a 6- to 9-fold in vitro and in vivo selectivity on inhibition of FGF- over VEGF-mediated target signaling in mice. Furthermore, LY2874455 did not show VEGF receptor 2-mediated toxicities such as hypertension at efficacious doses. Currently, this molecule is being evaluated for its potential use in the clinic.

  16. A coupled observation - modeling approach for studying activation kinetics from measurements of CCN activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikainen, T.; Moore, R. H.; Lathem, T. L.; Nenes, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to study droplet activation kinetics from measurements of CCN activity by the Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber (CFSTGC) and a comprehensive model of the instrument and droplet growth. The model is evaluated against a series of experiments with ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Observed and model predicted droplet sizes are in excellent agreement for a water vapor uptake coefficient ~0.2, which is consistent with theoretical expectations. The model calculations can be considerably accelerated without significant loss of accuracy by assuming simplified instrument geometry and constant parabolic flow velocity profiles. With these assumptions, the model can be applied to large experimental data sets (to infer kinetic growth parameters) while fully accounting for water vapor depletion effects and changes in instrument operation parameters such as the column temperature, flow rates, sheath and sample flow relative humidities, and pressure. When the effects of instrument operation parameters, water vapor depletion and equilibrium dry particle properties on droplet size are accounted for, the remaining variations in droplet size are most likely due to non-equilibrium processes such as those caused by organic surface films, slow solute dissociation and glassy or highly viscous particle states. As an example of model application, data collected during a research flight in the ARCTAS 2008 campaign are analyzed. The model shows that water vapor depletion effects can explain changes in the observed average droplet size.

  17. The Arabidopsis homologs of CCR4-associated factor 1 show mRNA deadenylation activity and play a role in plant defence responses.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenxing; Li, Changbao; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Hongling; Li, Shuyu; Sun, Jiaqiang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Li, Chuanyou

    2009-03-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover in eukaryotic cells begins with shortening of the poly (A) tail at the 3' end, a process called deadenylation. In yeast, the deadenylation reaction is predominantly mediated by CCR4 and CCR4-associated factor 1 (CAF1), two components of the well-characterised protein complex named CCR4-NOT. We report here that AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b, putative Arabidopsis homologs of the yeast CAF1 gene, partially complement the growth defect of the yeast caf1 mutant in the presence of caffeine or at high temperatures. The expression of AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b is induced by multiple stress-related hormones and stimuli. Both AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b show deadenylation activity in vitro and point mutations in the predicted active sites disrupt this activity. T-DNA insertion mutants disrupting the expression of AtCAF1a and/or AtCAF1b are defective in deadenylation of stress-related mRNAs, indicating that the two AtCAF1 proteins are involved in regulated mRNA deadenylation in vivo. Interestingly, the single and double mutants of AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b show reduced expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR1 and PR2 and are more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) infection, whereas transgenic plants over-expressing AtCAF1a show elevated expression of PR1 and PR2 and increased resistance to the same pathogen. Our results suggest roles of the AtCAF1 proteins in regulated mRNA deadenylation and defence responses to pathogen infections.

  18. The environmental chemical tributyltin chloride (TBT) shows both estrogenic and adipogenic activities in mice which might depend on the exposure dose

    SciTech Connect

    Penza, M.; Jeremic, M.; Marrazzo, E.; Maggi, A.; Ciana, P.; Rando, G.; Grigolato, P.G.; Di Lorenzo, D.

    2011-08-15

    Exposure during early development to chemicals with hormonal action may be associated with weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. It is known that organotins affect adipose mass when exposure occurs during fetal development, although no knowledge of effects are available for exposures after birth. Here we show that the environmental organotin tributyltin chloride (TBT) exerts adipogenic action when peripubertal and sexually mature mice are exposed to the chemical. The duration and extent of these effects depend on the sex and on the dose of the compound, and the effects are relevant at doses close to the estimated human intake (0.5 {mu}g/kg). At higher doses (50-500 {mu}g/kg), TBT also activated estrogen receptors (ERs) in adipose cells in vitro and in vivo, based on results from acute and longitudinal studies in ERE/luciferase reporter mice. In 3T3-L1 cells (which have no ERs), transiently transfected with the ERE-dependent reporter plus or minus ER{alpha} or ER{beta}, TBT (in a dose range of 1-100 nM) directly targets each ER subtype in a receptor-specific manner through a direct mechanism mediated by ER{alpha} in undifferentiated preadipocytic cells and by ER{beta} in differentiating adipocytes. The ER antagonist ICI-182,780 inhibits this effect. In summary, the results of this work suggest that TBT is adipogenic at all ages and in both sexes and that it might be an ER activator in fat cells. These findings might help to resolve the apparent paradox of an adipogenic chemical being also an estrogen receptor activator by showing that the two apparently opposite actions are separated by the different doses to which the organism is exposed. - Research Highlights: > The environmental organotin tributyltin chloride shows dose-dependent estrogenic and adipogenic activities in mice. > The duration and extent of these effects depend on the sex and the dose of the compound. > The estrogenic and adipogenic effects of TBT occur at doses closed to

  19. Development and calibration of a portable radon sampling system for groundwater 222Rn activity concentration measurements.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Fabio de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Igor José Chaves; Ribeiro, Fernando Brenha

    2009-10-01

    The assembling of a system for field sampling and activity concentration measurement of radon dissolved in groundwater is described. Special attention is given in presenting the calibration procedure to obtain the radon activity concentration in groundwater from the raw counting rate registered in a portable scintillation detector and in establishing the precision of the activity concentration measurements. A field procedure was established and the system tested during one year of monthly observations of (222)Rn activity concentration in groundwater drawn from two wells drilled on metamorphic rocks exposed at Eastern São Paulo State, Brazil. The observed mean (222)Rn activity concentrations are 374Bq/dm(3) in one well and about 1275Bq/dm(3) in the other one. In both wells the (222)Rn activity concentrations showed a seasonal variation similar to variations previously reported in the literature for the same region.

  20. Correlation between pedometer and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire on physical activity measurement in office workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the correlation of physical activity levels assessed by pedometer and those by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a population of office workers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 office workers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to each office worker by hand. Physical activity level was objectively assessed by a pedometer for 7 consecutive days and subjectively assessed by the GPAQ. Based on the pedometer and GPAQ outcomes, participants were classified into 3 groups: inactive, moderately active, and highly active. Results No correlation in the physical activity level assessed by the pedometer and GPAQ was found (rs = .08, P = 0.15). When considering the pedometer as the criterion for comparison, 65.3% of participants had underestimated their physical activity level using the GPAQ, whereas 9.3% of participants overestimated their physical activity level. Conclusions Physical activity level in office workers assessed by a subjective measure was greatly different from assessed by an objective tool. Consequently, research on physical activity level, especially in those with sedentary lifestyle, should consider using an objective measure to ensure that it closely reflects a person’s physical activity level. PMID:24886593

  1. Cellular Telephones Measure Activity and Lifespace in Community-Dwelling Adults: Proof of Principle

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Ana Katrin; Witbrodt, Bradley C.; Hoarty, Carrie A.; Carlson, Richard H.; Goulding, Evan H.; Potter, Jane F.; Bonasera, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe a system that uses off-the-shelf sensor and telecommunication technologies to continuously measure individual lifespace and activity levels in a novel way. DESIGN Proof of concept involving three field trials of 30, 30, and 21 days. SETTING Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan and surrounding rural region. PARTICIPANTS Three participants (48-year-old man, 33-year-old woman, and 27-year-old male), none with any functional limitations. MEASUREMENTS Cellular telephones were used to detect in-home position and in-community location and to measure physical activity. Within the home, cellular telephones and Bluetooth transmitters (beacons) were used to locate participants at room-level resolution. Outside the home, the same cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) technology were used to locate participants at a community-level resolution. Physical activity was simultaneously measured using the cellular telephone accelerometer. RESULTS This approach had face validity to measure activity and lifespace. More importantly, this system could measure the spatial and temporal organization of these metrics. For example, an individual’s lifespace was automatically calculated across multiple time intervals. Behavioral time budgets showing how people allocate time to specific regions within the home were also automatically generated. CONCLUSION Mobile monitoring shows much promise as an easily deployed system to quantify activity and lifespace, important indicators of function, in community-dwelling adults. PMID:21288235

  2. Germ Line Variants of Human N-Methylpurine DNA Glycosylase Show Impaired DNA Repair Activity and Facilitate 1,N6-Ethenoadenine-induced Mutations*

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Sanjay; Chetram, Mahandranauth A.; Woodrick, Jordan; Mitra, Partha S.; Manthena, Praveen V.; Khatkar, Pooja; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan; Dixon, Monica; Karmahapatra, Soumendra K.; Nuthalapati, Nikhil K.; Gupta, Suhani; Narasimhan, Ganga; Mazumder, Raja; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Üren, Aykut; Roy, Rabindra

    2015-01-01

    Human N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (hMPG) initiates base excision repair of a number of structurally diverse purine bases including 1,N6-ethenoadenine, hypoxanthine, and alkylation adducts in DNA. Genetic studies discovered at least eight validated non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) of the hMPG gene in human populations that result in specific single amino acid substitutions. In this study, we tested the functional consequences of these nsSNPs of hMPG. Our results showed that two specific arginine residues, Arg-141 and Arg-120, are important for the activity of hMPG as the germ line variants R120C and R141Q had reduced enzymatic activity in vitro as well as in mammalian cells. Expression of these two variants in mammalian cells lacking endogenous MPG also showed an increase in mutations and sensitivity to an alkylating agent compared with the WT hMPG. Real time binding experiments by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy suggested that these variants have substantial reduction in the equilibrium dissociation constant of binding (KD) of hMPG toward 1,N6-ethenoadenine-containing oligonucleotide (ϵA-DNA). Pre-steady-state kinetic studies showed that the substitutions at arginine residues affected the turnover of the enzyme significantly under multiple turnover condition. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy further showed that both variants had significantly decreased nonspecific (undamaged) DNA binding. Molecular modeling suggested that R141Q substitution may have resulted in a direct loss of the salt bridge between ϵA-DNA and hMPG, whereas R120C substitution redistributed, at a distance, the interactions among residues in the catalytic pocket. Together our results suggest that individuals carrying R120C and R141Q MPG variants may be at risk for genomic instability and associated diseases as a consequence. PMID:25538240

  3. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. M.; Counsell, G.; Johnson, D.; Vasu, P.; Zvonkov, A.

    2010-10-15

    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale ({approx}1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  4. Active transmission isolation/rotor loads measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenigsberg, I. J.; Defelice, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Modifications were incorporated into a helicopter active transmission isolation system to provide the capability of utilizing the system as a rotor force measuring device. These included; (1) isolator redesign to improve operation and minimize friction, (2) installation of pressure transducers in each isolator, and (3) load cells in series with each torque restraint link. Full scale vibration tests performed during this study on a CH-53A helicopter airframe verified that these modifications do not degrade the systems wide band isolation characteristics. Bench tests performed on each isolator unit indicated that steady and transient loads can be measured to within 1 percent of applied load. Individual isolator vibratory load measurement accuracy was determined to be 4 percent. Load measurement accuracy was found to be independent of variations in all basic isolator operating characteristics. Full scale system load calibration tests on the CH-53A airframe established the feasibility of simultaneously providing wide band vibration isolation and accurate measurement of rotor loads. Principal rotor loads (lift, propulsive force, and torque) were measured to within 2 percent of applied load.

  5. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D M; Counsell, G; Johnson, D; Vasu, P; Zvonkov, A

    2010-10-01

    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale (∼1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  6. Methods of measuring Protein Disulfide Isomerase activity: a critical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Monica; Laurindo, Francisco; Fernandes, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is an essential redox chaperone from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is responsible for correct disulfide bond formation in nascent proteins. PDI is also found in other cellular locations in the cell, particularly the cell surface. Overall, PDI contributes to ER and global cell redox homeostasis and signaling. The knowledge about PDI structure and function progressed substantially based on in vitro studies using recombinant PDI and chimeric proteins. In these experimental scenarios, PDI reductase and chaperone activities are readily approachable. In contrast, assays to measure PDI isomerase activity, the hallmark of PDI family, are more complex. Assessment of PDI roles in cells and tissues mainly relies on gain- or loss-of-function studies. However, there is limited information regarding correlation of experimental readouts with the distinct types of PDI activities. In this mini-review, we evaluate the main methods described for measuring the different kinds of PDI activity: thiol reductase, thiol oxidase, thiol isomerase and chaperone. We emphasize the need to use appropriate controls and the role of critical interferents (e.g., detergent, presence of reducing agents). We also discuss the translation of results from in vitro studies with purified recombinant PDI to cellular and tissue samples, with critical comments on the interpretation of results.

  7. Calculating Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Concentrations from Beta Activity Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Szrom, Fran; Falo, Gerald A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Alberth, David P.

    2009-03-01

    Beta activity measurements were used as surrogate measurements of uranium mass in aerosol samples collected during the field testing phase of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. These aerosol samples generated by the perforation of armored combat vehicles were used to characterize the depleted uranium (DU) source term for the subsequent human health risk assessment (HHRA) of Capstone aerosols. Establishing a calibration curve between beta activity measurements and uranium mass measurements is straightforward if the uranium isotopes are in equilibrium with their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny. For DU samples collected during the Capstone study, it was determined that the equilibrium between the uranium isotopes and their immediate short lived, beta-emitting progeny had been disrupted when penetrators had perforated target vehicles. Adjustments were made to account for the disrupted equilibrium and for wall losses in the aerosol samplers. Correction factors for the disrupted equilibrium ranged from 0.16 to 1, and the wall loss correction factors ranged from 1 to 1.92.

  8. Measurement of active drag during crawl arm stroke swimming.

    PubMed

    Hollander, A P; De Groot, G; van Ingen Schenau, G J; Toussaint, H M; De Best, H; Peeters, W; Meulemans, A; Schreurs, A W

    1986-01-01

    In order to measure active drag during front crawl swimming a system has been designed, built and tested. A tube (23 m long) with grips is fixed under the water surface and the swimmer crawls on this. At one end of the tube, a force transducer is attached to the wall of the swimming pool. It measures the momentary effective propulsive forces of the hands. During the measurements the subjects' legs are fixed together and supported by a buoy. After filtering and digitizing the electrical force signal, the mean propulsive force over one lane at constant speeds (ranging from about 1 to 2 m s-1) was calculated. The regression equation of the force on the speed turned out to be almost quadratic. At a mean speed of 1.55 m s-1 the mean force was 66.3 N. The accuracy of this force measured on one subject at different days was 4.1 N. The observed force, which is equal to the mean drag force, fits remarkably well with passive drag force values as well as with values calculated for propulsive forces during actual swimming reported in the literature. The use of the system does not interfere to any large extent with normal front crawl swimming; this conclusion is based on results of observations of film by skilled swim coaches. It was concluded that the system provides a good method of studying active drag and its relation to anthropometric variables and swimming technique.

  9. Experimental entanglement activation from discord in a programmable quantum measurement.

    PubMed

    Adesso, Gerardo; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Nagali, Eleonora; Piani, Marco; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2014-04-11

    In quantum mechanics, observing is not a passive act. Consider a system of two quantum particles A and B: if a measurement apparatus M is used to make an observation on B, the overall state of the system AB will typically be altered. When this happens, no matter which local measurement is performed, the two objects A and B are revealed to possess peculiar correlations known as quantum discord. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that the very act of local observation gives rise to an activation protocol which converts discord into distillable entanglement, a stronger and more useful form of quantum correlations, between the apparatus M and the composite system AB. We adopt a flexible two-photon setup to realize a three-qubit system (A, B, M) with programmable degrees of initial correlations, measurement interaction, and characterization processes. Our experiment demonstrates the fundamental mechanism underpinning the ubiquitous act of observing the quantum world and establishes the potential of discord in entanglement generation.

  10. Image analysis to measure activity index of animals.

    PubMed

    Bloemen, H; Aerts, J M; Berckmans, D; Goedseels, V

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the study was to present a method to quantify the behavioural response of animals to their micro-environment by using a camera system and a digitiser board. An algorithm was developed for analysing images and calculating activity, occupied zone and boundary of the animals. The developed method was tested on 3 different applications and animals. In the first application, the behavioural responses of broiler chickens to their thermal environment was measured. In the second application behavioural responses of pigs to their thermal environment were measured. In the third application, the response of water fleas to a chromium pollution was measured using the developed technique. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that the developed image analysis technique can be employed to quantify the behavioural responses of the tested animals to their micro-environment, in an easy and accurate way.

  11. Measuring Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Activity in Children

    PubMed Central

    van Eijsden, Manon; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Geus, Eco J.

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls mainly automatic bodily functions that are engaged in homeostasis, like heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration and renal function. The ANS has two main branches: the sympathetic nervous system, preparing the human body for action in times of danger and stress, and the parasympathetic nervous system, which regulates the resting state of the body. ANS activity can be measured invasively, for instance by radiotracer techniques or microelectrode recording from superficial nerves, or it can be measured non-invasively by using changes in an organ's response as a proxy for changes in ANS activity, for instance of the sweat glands or the heart. Invasive measurements have the highest validity but are very poorly feasible in large scale samples where non-invasive measures are the preferred approach. Autonomic effects on the heart can be reliably quantified by the recording of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in combination with the impedance cardiogram (ICG), which reflects the changes in thorax impedance in response to respiration and the ejection of blood from the ventricle into the aorta. From the respiration and ECG signals, respiratory sinus arrhythmia can be extracted as a measure of cardiac parasympathetic control. From the ECG and the left ventricular ejection signals, the preejection period can be extracted as a measure of cardiac sympathetic control. ECG and ICG recording is mostly done in laboratory settings. However, having the subjects report to a laboratory greatly reduces ecological validity, is not always doable in large scale epidemiological studies, and can be intimidating for young children. An ambulatory device for ECG and ICG simultaneously resolves these three problems. Here, we present a study design for a minimally invasive and rapid assessment of cardiac autonomic control in children, using a validated ambulatory device 1-5, the VU University Ambulatory Monitoring System (VU

  12. Modified high-density lipoproteins by artificial sweetener, aspartame, and saccharin, showed loss of anti-atherosclerotic activity and toxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function. PMID:25142179

  13. Modified high-density lipoproteins by artificial sweetener, aspartame, and saccharin, showed loss of anti-atherosclerotic activity and toxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function.

  14. Catechins and procyanidins of Ginkgo biloba show potent activities towards the inhibition of β-amyloid peptide aggregation and destabilization of preformed fibrils.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haiyan; Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee-Fong; Liu, Yong; Liu, Liang; Han, Quan-Bin; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-04-22

    Catechins and procyanidins, together with flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones, are three important categories of components in the standard extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb761). In this research, catechins and proanthocyanidins were found to exist in both the extract of Ginkgo leaves and Ginkgo products. By comparing with reference compounds, six of them were identified as (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-gallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin and procyanidins B1 and B3. The activities of these polyphenols in the inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation and the destabilization of preformed fibrils were evaluated using biochemical assays, which showed that all six of the polyphenols, as well as a fraction of the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb) containing catechins and procyanidins, exerted potent inhibitory activities towards Aβ42 aggregation and could also destabilize the performed fibrils. Catechins and procyanidins can therefore be regarded as the potent active constituents of EGb761 in terms of their inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation and destabilization of the fibrils. Although quantitative mass spectroscopic analysis revealed that the catechins and procyanidins are only present in low concentrations in EGb761, these components should be studied in greater detail because of their potent inhibitory effects towards Aβ42 aggregation and their ability to destabilize preformed fibrils, especially during the quality control of Ginkgo leaves and the manufacture of Ginkgo products.

  15. Activity of the Novel Peptide Arminin against Multiresistant Human Pathogens Shows the Considerable Potential of Phylogenetically Ancient Organisms as Drug Sources▿

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, René; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Jungnickel, Stephanie; Hemmrich, Georg; Spudy, Björn; Podschun, Rainer; Bosch, Thomas C. G.

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria highlights the need for new antibacterial agents. Arminin 1a is a novel antimicrobial peptide discovered during investigations of the epithelial defense of the ancient metazoan Hydra. Following proteolytic processing, the 31-amino-acid-long positively charged C-terminal part of arminin 1a exhibits potent and broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, including multiresistant human pathogenic strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains (minimal bactericidal concentration, 0.4 μM to 0.8 μM). Ultrastructural observations indicate that bacteria are killed by disruption of the bacterial cell wall. Remarkably, the antibacterial activity of arminin 1a is not affected under the physiological salt conditions of human blood. In addition, arminin 1a is a selective antibacterial agent that does not affect human erythrocyte membranes. Arminin 1a shows no sequence homology to any known antimicrobial peptide. Because of its high level of activity against multiresistant bacterial strains pathogenic for humans, the peptide arminin 1a is a promising template for a new class of antibiotics. Our data suggest that ancient metazoan organisms such as Hydra hold promise for the detection of novel antimicrobial molecules and the treatment of infections caused by multiresistant bacteria. PMID:19770277

  16. A Novel Eg5 Inhibitor (LY2523355) Causes Mitotic Arrest and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells and Shows Potent Antitumor Activity in Xenograft Tumor Models.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiang S; Fan, Li; Van Horn, Robert D; Nakai, Ryuichiro; Ohta, Yoshihisa; Akinaga, Shiro; Murakata, Chikara; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Yin, Tinggui; Credille, Kelly M; Donoho, Gregory P; Merzoug, Farhana F; Li, Heng; Aggarwal, Amit; Blanchard, Kerry; Westin, Eric H

    2015-11-01

    Intervention of cancer cell mitosis by antitubulin drugs is among the most effective cancer chemotherapies. However, antitubulin drugs have dose-limiting side effects due to important functions of microtubules in resting normal cells and are often rendered ineffective by rapid emergence of resistance. Antimitotic agents with different mechanisms of action and improved safety profiles are needed as new treatment options. Mitosis-specific kinesin Eg5 represents an attractive anticancer target for discovering such new antimitotic agents, because Eg5 is essential only in mitotic progression and has no roles in resting, nondividing cells. Here, we show that a novel selective Eg5 inhibitor, LY2523355, has broad target-mediated anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. LY2523355 arrests cancer cells at mitosis and causes rapid cell death that requires sustained spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation with a required threshold concentration. In vivo efficacy of LY2523355 is highly dose/schedule-dependent, achieving complete remission in a number of xenograft tumor models, including patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models. We further establish that histone-H3 phosphorylation of tumor and proliferating skin cells is a promising pharmacodynamic biomarker for in vivo anticancer activity of LY2523355. PMID:26304237

  17. Shoulder Electromyography Measurements During Activities of Daily Living and Routine Rehabilitation Exercises.

    PubMed

    Gurney, A Burke; Mermier, Christine; LaPlante, Michael; Majumdar, Aditi; O'Neill, Kathleen; Shewman, Todd; Gurney, James G

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background The activity of the rotator cuff muscles has not previously been measured with indwelling electromyography (EMG) comparing ambulation and other movements. Knowledge of the relative contribution of these muscles during various tasks may help to guide rehabilitation progression. Objective To measure activity of the rotator cuff muscles and other shoulder muscles during normal ambulation, shirt and sling donning and doffing, and rehabilitation tasks commonly performed after rotator cuff surgery. Methods In 28 volunteers (15 men, 13 women; mean age, 32.2 years), indwelling EMG activity was measured in the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles during various tasks; and surface EMG activity was measured in the middle deltoid, biceps, and upper trapezius muscles. Results Using median EMG activity, in general, donning and doffing a shirt or sling recruited the rotator cuff muscles more than the other 7 tasks tested. Self-ranging motion using pulleys, especially in the scapular plane, was also consistently associated with greater recruitment of the shoulder muscles. Pendulum exercises, passive range of motion by a physical therapist, and self-ranging motion with a dowel recruited the shoulder muscles to a lesser extent. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that rehabilitation tasks such as pendulum exercises, passive range of motion by a physical therapist, and self-ranging motion with a dowel show low EMG activity, whereas pulleys in the sagittal plane and scapular plane show greater activity. Scapular plane activity was consistently higher than sagittal plane activity. Of all the tasks assessed, ambulation without a sling and donning and doffing a sling and a shirt consistently showed the highest activity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):375-383. Epub 6 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6090. PMID:27049599

  18. Radon-222 activity flux measurement using activated charcoal canisters: revisiting the methodology.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Sami H; Akber, Riaz A

    2014-03-01

    The measurement of radon ((222)Rn) activity flux using activated charcoal canisters was examined to investigate the distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the relationship between (222)Rn activity flux and exposure time. The activity flux of (222)Rn from five sources of varying strengths was measured for exposure times of one, two, three, five, seven, 10, and 14 days. The distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed was obtained by dividing the bed into six layers and counting each layer separately after the exposure. (222)Rn activity decreased in the layers that were away from the exposed surface. Nevertheless, the results demonstrated that only a small correction might be required in the actual application of charcoal canisters for activity flux measurement, where calibration standards were often prepared by the uniform mixing of radium ((226)Ra) in the matrix. This was because the diffusion of (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the detection efficiency as a function of the charcoal depth tended to counterbalance each other. The influence of exposure time on the measured (222)Rn activity flux was observed in two situations of the canister exposure layout: (a) canister sealed to an open bed of the material and (b) canister sealed over a jar containing the material. The measured (222)Rn activity flux decreased as the exposure time increased. The change in the former situation was significant with an exponential decrease as the exposure time increased. In the latter case, lesser reduction was noticed in the observed activity flux with respect to exposure time. This reduction might have been related to certain factors, such as absorption site saturation or the back diffusion of (222)Rn gas occurring at the canister-soil interface.

  19. Intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes show distinct patterns of apoptosis whereas both populations are active in Fas based cytotoxicity in coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    Di, S; Ciccocioppo, R; D'Alo, S; Parroni, R; Millimaggi, D; Cifone, M; Corazza, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Lamina propria (LPLs) and intraepithelial (IELs) lymphocytes are markedly increased in coeliac mucosa, and are thought to play a crucial role in the generation of villous atrophy in coeliac disease (CD). However, the mechanisms by which they mediate the killing of enterocytes in this condition are still poorly characterised.
AIM—We investigated Fas mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis of both LPLs and IELs, isolated from 10 untreated coeliac patients, 10 coeliac patients on a gluten free diet, and 10 biopsied controls.
METHODS—Fas and Fas ligand expression were assessed by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Lymphocyte cytotoxicity against Fas expressing Jurkat cells was determined by the Jam test. The effect of the antagonist ZB4 anti-Fas antibody on apoptotic activity exerted by coeliac lymphocytes against enterocytes was analysed. Lymphocyte apoptosis was assessed by oligonucleosome ELISA.
RESULTS—LPLs and IELs showed increased apoptotic activity and higher levels of Fas ligand expression in untreated CD compared with treated CD patients and controls. Enterocyte apoptosis observed after coculturing coeliac lymphocytes and enterocytes in the presence of ZB4 antibody was reduced. In active CD, LPLs manifested increased apoptosis whereas IELs showed decreased apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS—Our results support the involvement of the Fas/Fas ligand system in CD associated enterocyte apoptosis. Increased LPL apoptosis is likely to downregulate mucosal inflammation whereas decreased IEL apoptosis could be responsible for autoimmune and malignant complications of CD.


Keywords: apoptosis; coeliac disease; cytotoxicity assay; Fas/Fas ligand system; intraepithelial lymphocytes; lamina propria lymphocytes PMID:11511560

  20. Alpha-momorcharin, a RIP produced by bitter melon, enhances defense response in tobacco plants against diverse plant viruses and shows antifungal activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Ping; Meng, Yan-Fa; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Cheng, Jian; Lin, Hong-Hui; Xi, De-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) is type-1 ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) with molecular weight of 29 kDa and has lots of biological activity. Our recent study indicated that the α-MMC purified from seeds of Momordica charantia exhibited distinct antiviral and antifungal activity. Tobacco plants pre-treated with 0.5 mg/mL α-MMC 3 days before inoculation with various viruses showed less-severe symptom and less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation compared to that inoculated with viruses only. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the replication levels of viruses were lower in the plants treated with the α-MMC than control plants at 15 days post inoculation. Moreover, the coat protein expression of viruses was almost completely inhibited in plants which were treated with the α-MMC compared with control plants. Furthermore, the SA-responsive defense-related genes including non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1), PR1, PR2 were up-regulated and activities of some antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) were increased after the α-MMC treatment. In addition, the α-MMC (500 μg/mL) revealed remarkable antifungal effect against phytopathogenic fungi, in the growth inhibition range 50.35-67.21 %, along with their MIC values ranging from 100 to 500 μg/mL. The α-MMC had also a strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested plant pathogens along with concentration as well as time-dependent kinetic inhibition of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The α-MMC showed a remarkable antiviral and antifungal effect and hence could possibly be exploited in crop protection for controlling certain important plant diseases.

  1. Hedgehog signaling pathway is active in GBM with GLI1 mRNA expression showing a single continuous distribution rather than discrete high/low clusters.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vikas; Das, Tapojyoti; Gulati, Puneet; Biswas, Nidhan K; Rote, Sarang; Chatterjee, Uttara; Ghosh, Samarendra N; Deb, Sumit; Saha, Suniti K; Chowdhury, Anup K; Ghosh, Subhashish; Rudin, Charles M; Mukherjee, Ankur; Basu, Analabha; Dhara, Surajit

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a valid therapeutic target in a wide range of malignancies. We focus here on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a lethal malignancy of the central nervous system (CNS). By analyzing RNA-sequencing based transcriptomics data on 149 clinical cases of TCGA-GBM database we show here a strong correlation (r = 0.7) between GLI1 and PTCH1 mRNA expression--as a hallmark of the canonical Hh-pathway activity in this malignancy. GLI1 mRNA expression varied in 3 orders of magnitude among the GBM patients of the same cohort showing a single continuous distribution-unlike the discrete high/low-GLI1 mRNA expressing clusters of medulloblastoma (MB). When compared with MB as a reference, the median GLI1 mRNA expression in GBM appeared 14.8 fold lower than that of the "high-Hh" cluster of MB but 5.6 fold higher than that of the "low-Hh" cluster of MB. Next, we demonstrated statistically significant up- and down-regulation of GLI1 mRNA expressions in GBM patient-derived low-passage neurospheres in vitro by sonic hedgehog ligand-enriched conditioned media (shh-CM) and by Hh-inhibitor drug vismodegib respectively. We also showed clinically achievable dose (50 μM) of vismodegib alone to be sufficient to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in these low-passage GBM neurospheres in vitro. Vismodegib showed an effect on the neurospheres, both by down-regulating GLI1 mRNA expression and by inducing apoptosis/cell cycle arrest, irrespective of their relative endogenous levels of GLI1 mRNA expression. We conclude from our study that this single continuous distribution pattern of GLI1 mRNA expression technically puts almost all GBM patients in a single group rather than discrete high- or low-clusters in terms of Hh-pathway activity. That is suggestive of therapies with Hh-pathway inhibitor drugs in this malignancy without a need for further stratification of patients on the basis of relative levels of Hh-pathway activity among them. PMID:25775002

  2. Association Between Fecal Incontinence and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Rao, Satish S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brisk physical activity may facilitate fecal incontinence due to physical activity-induced colonic motility. However, there currently are no studies that have examined the relationship between fecal incontinence and free-living physical activity behavior. Aim: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between fecal incontinence and objectively measured physical activity among adults. Materials and Methods: A national sample of adults in the United States (n = 2565, 20-85 years) completed the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for a week to objectively measure physical activity behavior. Results: After adjustments, fecal incontinence was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (β = 0.85, P = 0.04), suggesting that lower perceived severity of fecal incontinence was associated with greater engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Fecal incontinence was not significantly associated with light-intensity physical activity (P = 0.27). Conclusion: Our results suggest that adults in the United States with greater perceived severity of fecal incontinence engage in less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; however, those with greater severity of fecal incontinence do not appear to have different levels of light-intensity physical activity behavior. Given the emerging research showing beneficial effects of light-intensity physical activity, health care professionals should encourage light-intensity physical activity to their patients with fecal incontinence. PMID:25535606

  3. Concurrent measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plants.

    PubMed

    Bellik, Yuva; Iguer-Ouada, Mokrane

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, a multitude of analytical methods for measuring antioxidant activity of plant extracts has been developed. However, when using methods to determine hemoglobin released from human erythrocytes treated with ginger extracts, we found hemoglobin concentrations were significantly higher than in untreated control samples. This suggests in the presence of antioxidants that measuring hemoglobin alone is not sufficient to determine hemolysis. We show concurrent measurement of erythrocyte concentration and hemoglobin is essential in such assays, and describe a new protocol based on simultaneous measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin.

  4. Unobtrusive measurement of indoor energy expenditure using an infrared sensor-based activity monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bosun; Han, Jonghee; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an unobtrusive energy expenditure (EE) measurement system using an infrared (IR) sensor-based activity monitoring system to measure indoor activities and to estimate individual quantitative EE. IR-sensor activation counts were measured with a Bluetooth-based monitoring system and the standard EE was calculated using an established regression equation. Ten male subjects participated in the experiment and three different EE measurement systems (gas analyzer, accelerometer, IR sensor) were used simultaneously in order to determine the regression equation and evaluate the performance. As a standard measurement, oxygen consumption was simultaneously measured by a portable metabolic system (Metamax 3X, Cortex, Germany). A single room experiment was performed to develop a regression model of the standard EE measurement from the proposed IR sensor-based measurement system. In addition, correlation and regression analyses were done to compare the performance of the IR system with that of the Actigraph system. We determined that our proposed IR-based EE measurement system shows a similar correlation to the Actigraph system with the standard measurement system. PMID:19035796

  5. Dual Fatty Acid Synthase and HER2 Signaling Blockade Shows Marked Antitumor Activity against Breast Cancer Models Resistant to Anti-HER2 Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Blancafort, Adriana; Giró-Perafita, Ariadna; Oliveras, Glòria; Palomeras, Sònia; Turrado, Carlos; Campuzano, Òscar; Carrión-Salip, Dolors; Massaguer, Anna; Brugada, Ramon; Palafox, Marta; Gómez-Miragaya, Jorge; González-Suárez, Eva; Puig, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Blocking the enzyme Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) leads to apoptosis of HER2-positive breast carcinoma cells. The hypothesis is that blocking FASN, in combination with anti-HER2 signaling agents, would be an effective antitumor strategy in preclinical HER2+ breast cancer models of trastuzumab and lapatinib resistance. We developed and molecularly characterized in vitro HER2+ models of resistance to trastuzumab (SKTR), lapatinib (SKLR) and both (SKLTR). The cellular interactions of combining anti-FASN polyphenolic compounds (EGCG and the synthetic G28UCM) with anti-HER2 signaling drugs (trastuzumab plus pertuzumab and temsirolimus) were analyzed. Tumor growth inhibition after treatment with EGCG, pertuzumab, temsirolimus or the combination was evaluated in two in vivo orthoxenopatients: one derived from a HER2+ patient and another from a patient who relapsed on trastuzumab and lapatinib-based therapy. SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR showed hyperactivation of EGFR and p-ERK1/2 and PI3KCA mutations. Dual-resistant cells (SKLTR) also showed hyperactivation of HER4 and recovered levels of p-AKT compared with mono-resistant cells. mTOR, p-mTOR and FASN expression remained stable in SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR. In vitro, anti-FASN compounds plus pertuzumab showed synergistic interactions in lapatinib- and dual- resistant cells and improved the results of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab co-treatment. FASN inhibitors combined with temsirolimus displayed the strongest synergistic interactions in resistant cells. In vivo, both orthoxenopatients showed strong response to the antitumor activity of the combination of EGCG with pertuzumab or temsirolimus, without signs of toxicity. We showed that the simultaneous blockade of FASN and HER2 pathways is effective in cells and in breast cancer models refractory to anti-HER2 therapies. PMID:26107737

  6. Dual fatty acid synthase and HER2 signaling blockade shows marked antitumor activity against breast cancer models resistant to anti-HER2 drugs.

    PubMed

    Blancafort, Adriana; Giró-Perafita, Ariadna; Oliveras, Glòria; Palomeras, Sònia; Turrado, Carlos; Campuzano, Òscar; Carrión-Salip, Dolors; Massaguer, Anna; Brugada, Ramon; Palafox, Marta; Gómez-Miragaya, Jorge; González-Suárez, Eva; Puig, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Blocking the enzyme Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) leads to apoptosis of HER2-positive breast carcinoma cells. The hypothesis is that blocking FASN, in combination with anti-HER2 signaling agents, would be an effective antitumor strategy in preclinical HER2+ breast cancer models of trastuzumab and lapatinib resistance. We developed and molecularly characterized in vitro HER2+ models of resistance to trastuzumab (SKTR), lapatinib (SKLR) and both (SKLTR). The cellular interactions of combining anti-FASN polyphenolic compounds (EGCG and the synthetic G28UCM) with anti-HER2 signaling drugs (trastuzumab plus pertuzumab and temsirolimus) were analyzed. Tumor growth inhibition after treatment with EGCG, pertuzumab, temsirolimus or the combination was evaluated in two in vivo orthoxenopatients: one derived from a HER2+ patient and another from a patient who relapsed on trastuzumab and lapatinib-based therapy. SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR showed hyperactivation of EGFR and p-ERK1/2 and PI3KCA mutations. Dual-resistant cells (SKLTR) also showed hyperactivation of HER4 and recovered levels of p-AKT compared with mono-resistant cells. mTOR, p-mTOR and FASN expression remained stable in SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR. In vitro, anti-FASN compounds plus pertuzumab showed synergistic interactions in lapatinib- and dual- resistant cells and improved the results of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab co-treatment. FASN inhibitors combined with temsirolimus displayed the strongest synergistic interactions in resistant cells. In vivo, both orthoxenopatients showed strong response to the antitumor activity of the combination of EGCG with pertuzumab or temsirolimus, without signs of toxicity. We showed that the simultaneous blockade of FASN and HER2 pathways is effective in cells and in breast cancer models refractory to anti-HER2 therapies.

  7. Measurements of Microbial Community Activities in Individual Soil Macroaggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Fansler, Sarah J.; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeff L.; Konopka, Allan

    2012-05-01

    The functional potential of single soil aggregates may provide insights into the localized distribution of microbial activities better than traditional assays conducted on bulk quantities of soil. Thus, we scaled down enzyme assays for {beta}-glucosidase, N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine aminopeptidase to measure of the enzyme potential of individual aggregates (250-1000 {mu}m diameter). Across all enzymes, the smallest aggregates had the greatest activity and the range of enzyme activities observed in all aggregates supports the hypothesis that functional potential in soil may be distributed in a patchy fashion. Paired analyses of ATP as a surrogate for active microbial biomass and {beta}-glucosidase on the same aggregates suggest the presence of both extracellular {beta}-glucosidase functioning in aggregates with no detectable ATP and also of relatively active microbial communities (high ATP) that have low {beta}-glucosidase potentials. Studying function at a scale more consistent with microbial habitat presents greater opportunity to link microbial community structure to microbial community function.

  8. Sustainable Passive and Active Remedial Measures of Creeping Bedrock Slopes: Two Case Studies from Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Michael; Weidner, Stefan

    Two case studies involving the large-scale and deep-seated creeping of slopes in southern Austria are discussed. In both instances passive and active remedial measures were applied to help mitigate the landslide hazard. At the first site, geodetic and extensometer measurements indicated movements averaging up to > 50 cm/year with a maximum of 352 cm occurring in one year. Previous active measures consisting of rigid structures were destroyed and replaced by flexible protective engineering works. The second case study involves an intensive geodetic monitoring program. Here, averaged yearly velocities are found up to > 30 cm/year. Active remedial measures consisted of stream diversion and protective engineering works. Both cases show the importance of a comprehensive passive remediation program.

  9. Information Technology Measurement and Testing Activities at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Michael D.; Carnahan, Lisa J.; Carpenter, Robert J.; Flater, David W.; Fowler, James E.; Frechette, Simon P.; Gray, Martha M.; Johnson, L. Arnold; McCabe, R. Michael; Montgomery, Douglas; Radack, Shirley M.; Rosenthal, Robert; Shakarji, Craig M.

    2001-01-01

    Our high technology society continues to rely more and more upon sophisticated measurements, technical standards, and associated testing activities. This was true for the industrial society of the 20th century and remains true for the information society of the 21st century. Over the last half of the 20th century, information technology (IT) has been a powerful agent of change in almost every sector of the economy. The complexity and rapidly changing nature of IT have presented unique technical challenges to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and to the scientific measurement community in developing a sound measurement and testing infrastructure for IT. This measurement and testing infrastructure for the important non-physical and non-chemical properties associated with complex IT systems is still in an early stage of development. This paper explains key terms and concepts of IT metrology, briefly reviews the history of the National Bureau of Standards/National Institute of Standards and Technology (NBS/NIST) in the field of IT, and reviews NIST’s current capabilities and work in measurement and testing for IT. It concludes with a look at what is likely to occur in the field of IT over the next ten years and what metrology roles NIST is likely to play. PMID:27500026

  10. Measurement bias in activation-recovery intervals from unipolar electrograms

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Ben; Taggart, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The activation-recovery interval (ARI) calculated from unipolar electrograms is regularly used as a convenient surrogate measure of local cardiac action potential durations (APD). This method enables important research bridging between computational studies and in vitro and in vivo human studies. The Wyatt method is well established as a theoretically sound method for calculating ARIs; however, some studies have observed that it is prone to a bias error in measurement when applied to positive T waves. This article demonstrates that recent theoretical and computational studies supporting the use of the Wyatt method are likely to have underestimated the extent of this bias in many practical experimental recording scenarios. This work addresses these situations and explains the measurement bias by adapting existing theoretical expressions of the electrogram to represent practical experimental recording configurations. A new analytic expression for the electrogram's local component is derived, which identifies the source of measurement bias for positive T waves. A computer implementation of the new analytic model confirms our hypothesis that the bias is systematically dependent on the electrode configuration. These results provide an aid to electrogram interpretation in general, and this work's outcomes are used to make recommendations on how to minimize measurement error. PMID:25398981

  11. Comparison between muscle activation measured by electromyography and muscle thickness measured using ultrasonography for effective muscle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Choi, Jong-Duk; Kim, Suhn-Yeop; Oh, Duck-Won; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, Ji-Whan

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the intrarater reliability and validity of muscle thickness measured using ultrasonography (US) and muscle activity via electromyography (EMG) during manual muscle testing (MMT) of the external oblique (EO) and lumbar multifidus (MF) muscles. The study subjects were 30 healthy individuals who underwent MMT at different grades. EMG was used to measure the muscle activity in terms of ratio to maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and root mean square (RMS) metrics. US was used to measure the raw muscle thickness, the ratio of muscle thickness at MVC, and the ratio of muscle thickness at rest. One examiner performed measurements on each subject in 3 trials. The intrarater reliabilities of the % MVC RMS and raw RMS metrics for EMG and the % MVC thickness metrics for US were excellent (ICC=0.81-0.98). There was a significant difference between all the grades measured using the % MVC thickness metric (p<0.01). Further, this % MVC thickness metric of US showed a significantly higher correlation with the EMG measurement methods than with the others (r=0.51-0.61). Our findings suggest that the % MVC thickness determined by US was the most sensitive of all methods for assessing the MMT grade.

  12. Validity of physical activity measures in individuals after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Gustavo J.; Wert, David M.; Brower, Kelly S.; Piva, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the concurrent criterion-related validity of two activity monitors in comparison to the criterion method of indirect calorimetry in older adults after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). DESIGN Validation study. SETTING Subjects completed 9 increasingly demanding daily activities in a research laboratory; each activity was performed for 7 minutes, for a total of 80-minutes while the activity monitors and criterion method were used concurrently. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-one subjects, 67% female, mean age 68±7 years old, and BMI 29±4. INTERVENTIONS not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Energy expenditure (EE) in kcal/min measured by accelerometer-based and multisensor-based monitors, and the criterion method. Validity was assessed by paired t-test, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman plots comparing the measurements from the activity monitors to the criterion method. RESULTS Measurements from the accelerometer-based monitor were significantly lower than those of the criterion method across all walking and non-walking activities. The underestimations ranged from 40% to 100%. The accelerometer-based monitor demonstrated small to moderate agreement compared to the criterion method (ICCs from 0 to 0.38). Measurements from the multisensor-based monitor were significantly lower than the criterion method during several non-walking activities; yet, the differences were minor (2% to 19%). Measurements from the multisensor-based monitor during walking activities were not different compared to the criterion method. The multisensor-based monitor demonstrated moderate to excellent agreement with the criterion method (ICCs from 0.48 to 0.81). CONCLUSION The multisensor-based monitor showed better criterion-related validity than the accelerometer-based monitor, and should be considered as a tool to measure physical activity in individuals after TKA. PMID:25450127

  13. Measured flow and tracer-dye data showing the anthropogenic effects on the hydrodynamics of south Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, spring 1996 and 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oltmann, Richard N.

    1998-01-01

    Tidal flows were measured using acoustic Doppler current profilers and ultrasonic velocity meters during spring 1996 and 1997 in south Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, when (1) a temporary barrier was installed at the head of Old River to prevent the entrance of migrating San Joaquin River salmon smolts, (2) the rate of water export from the south Delta was reduced for an extended period of time, and (3) a 30-day pulse flow was created on the San Joaquin River to move salmon smolts north away from the export facilities during spring 1997. Tracer-dye measurements also were made under these three conditions.

  14. Plant chlorophyll fluorescence: active and passive measurements at canopy and leaf scales with different nitrogen treatments

    PubMed Central

    Cendrero-Mateo, M. Pilar; Moran, M. Susan; Papuga, Shirley A.; Thorp, K.R.; Alonso, L.; Moreno, J.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Rascher, U.; Wang, G.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies assessing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) have examined leaf responses to environmental stress conditions using active techniques. Alternatively, passive techniques are able to measure ChlF at both leaf and canopy scales. However, the measurement principles of both techniques are different, and only a few datasets concerning the relationships between them are reported in the literature. In this study, we investigated the potential for interchanging ChlF measurements using active techniques with passive measurements at different temporal and spatial scales. The ultimate objective was to determine the limits within which active and passive techniques are comparable. The results presented in this study showed that active and passive measurements were highly correlated over the growing season across nitrogen treatments at both canopy and leaf-average scale. At the single-leaf scale, the seasonal relation between techniques was weaker, but still significant. The variability within single-leaf measurements was largely related to leaf heterogeneity associated with variations in CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, and less so to variations in leaf chlorophyll content, leaf size or measurement inputs (e.g. light reflected and emitted by the leaf and illumination conditions and leaf spectrum). This uncertainty was exacerbated when single-leaf analysis was limited to a particular day rather than the entire season. We concluded that daily measurements of active and passive ChlF at the single-leaf scale are not comparable. However, canopy and leaf-average active measurements can be used to better understand the daily and seasonal behaviour of passive ChlF measurements. In turn, this can be used to better estimate plant photosynthetic capacity and therefore to provide improved information for crop management. PMID:26482242

  15. Plant chlorophyll fluorescence: active and passive measurements at canopy and leaf scales with different nitrogen treatments.

    PubMed

    Cendrero-Mateo, M Pilar; Moran, M Susan; Papuga, Shirley A; Thorp, K R; Alonso, L; Moreno, J; Ponce-Campos, G; Rascher, U; Wang, G

    2016-01-01

    Most studies assessing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) have examined leaf responses to environmental stress conditions using active techniques. Alternatively, passive techniques are able to measure ChlF at both leaf and canopy scales. However, the measurement principles of both techniques are different, and only a few datasets concerning the relationships between them are reported in the literature. In this study, we investigated the potential for interchanging ChlF measurements using active techniques with passive measurements at different temporal and spatial scales. The ultimate objective was to determine the limits within which active and passive techniques are comparable. The results presented in this study showed that active and passive measurements were highly correlated over the growing season across nitrogen treatments at both canopy and leaf-average scale. At the single-leaf scale, the seasonal relation between techniques was weaker, but still significant. The variability within single-leaf measurements was largely related to leaf heterogeneity associated with variations in CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, and less so to variations in leaf chlorophyll content, leaf size or measurement inputs (e.g. light reflected and emitted by the leaf and illumination conditions and leaf spectrum). This uncertainty was exacerbated when single-leaf analysis was limited to a particular day rather than the entire season. We concluded that daily measurements of active and passive ChlF at the single-leaf scale are not comparable. However, canopy and leaf-average active measurements can be used to better understand the daily and seasonal behaviour of passive ChlF measurements. In turn, this can be used to better estimate plant photosynthetic capacity and therefore to provide improved information for crop management.

  16. Passive, integrated measurement of indoor radon using activated carbon.

    PubMed

    George, A C

    1984-04-01

    Activated carbon canisters were tested to determine their adsorption and retention characteristics for radon. Our tests conducted indoors under typical conditions of temperature and relative humidity indicate that simple, inexpensive and maintenance-free passive devices containing 150-200 g of activated carbon can measure radon conveniently and adequately. The amount of radon absorbed in the collector is determined by counting the gamma rays from the decay products of radon. The lower limit of detection for radon is 0.2 pCi/l. for an exposure of 72 hr. Greater sensitivity can be obtained with larger counting systems and devices containing carbon with more surface area. Tests in a residential building and in a test chamber indicate that the measured radon in the canister is proportional to the mean concentration of radon during the period of exposure when correction for relative humidity is made. For practical situations encountered indoors, the device yields results accurate to within +/- 20%. Results from field measurements indicate that the use of the device is feasible.

  17. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  18. Discoveries from Revisiting Apollo Direct Active Measurements of Lunar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Brian

    2010-05-01

    New missions to the moon being developed by China, Japan, India, USA, Russia and Europe and possibilities of human missions about 2020 face the reality that 6 Apollo expeditions did not totally manage or mitigate effects of easily-mobilised and very "sticky" lunar dust on humans and hardware. Laboratory and theoretical modelling cannot reliably simulate the complex lunar environments that affect dynamical movements of lunar dust. The only direct active measurements of lunar dust during Apollo were made by matchbox-sized minimalist Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) deployed to transmit some 30 million digital measurements from Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15. These were misplaced or relatively ignored until 2009, when a self-funded suite of discoveries (O'Brien Geophys. Research Letters FIX 6 May 2099) revealed unexpected properties of lunar dust, such as the adhesive force being stronger as illumination increased. We give the first reports of contrasting effects, contamination or cleansing, from rocket exhausts of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 Lunar Modules leaving the moon. We further strengthen the importance of collateral dust inadvertently splashed on Apollo hardware by human activities. Dust management designs and mission plans require optimum use of such in situ measurements, extended by laboratory simulations and theoretical modelling.

  19. Calibrating a novel multi-sensor physical activity measurement system

    PubMed Central

    John, D; Liu, S; Sasaki, J E; Howe, C A; Staudenmayer, J; Gao, R X; Freedson, P S

    2011-01-01

    Advancing the field of physical activity (PA) monitoring requires the development of innovative multi-sensor measurement systems that are feasible in the free-living environment. The use of novel analytical techniques to combine and process these multiple sensor signals is equally important. This paper, describes a novel multi-sensor ‘Integrated PA Measurement System’ (IMS), the lab-based methodology used to calibrate the IMS, techniques used to predict multiple variables from the sensor signals, and proposes design changes to improve the feasibility of deploying the IMS in the free-living environment. The IMS consists of hip and wrist acceleration sensors, two piezoelectric respiration sensors on the torso, and an ultraviolet radiation sensor to obtain contextual information (indoors vs. outdoors) of PA. During lab-based calibration of the IMS, data were collected on participants performing a PA routine consisting of seven different ambulatory and free-living activities while wearing a portable metabolic unit (criterion measure) and the IMS. Data analyses on the first 50 adult participants are presented. These analyses were used to determine if the IMS can be used to predict the variables of interest. Finally, physical modifications for the IMS that could enhance feasibility of free-living use are proposed and refinement of the prediction techniques is discussed. PMID:21813941

  20. Measurable benefits on brain activity from the practice of educational leisure

    PubMed Central

    Requena, Carmen; López, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Even if behavioral studies relate leisure practices to the preservation of memory in old persons, there is unsubstantial evidence of the import of leisure on brain activity. Aim: This study was to compare the brain activity of elderly retired people who engage in different types of leisure activities. Methods: Quasi-experimental study over a sample of 60 elderly, retired subjects distributed into three groups according to the leisure activities they practised: educational leisure (G1), memory games (G2), and card games (G3). Applied measures include the conceptual distinction between free time and leisure, the test of the organization of free time measuring 24 clock divisions, and EEG register during 12 word list memorizing. Results: The results show that the type of leisure activity is associated with significant quantitative differences regarding the use of free time. G1 devotes more time to leisure activities than G2 (p = 0.007) and G3 (p = 0.034). G1 rests more actively than the other two groups (p = 0.001). The electrical localization of brain activity indicated a reverse tendency of activation according to the bands and groups. Discussion: Engaging in educational leisure activities is a useful practice to protect healthy brain compensation strategies. Future longitudinal research may verify the causal relation between practicing educational leisure activities and functional brain aging. PMID:24653699

  1. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  2. Healthy co-twins of patients with affective disorders show reduced risk-related activation of the insula during a monetary gambling task

    PubMed Central

    Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders are at increased risk for affective disorders and express discrete structural and functional abnormalities in the brain reward system. However, value-based decision making is not well understood in these at-risk individuals. Methods We investigated healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorders (high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively) using functional MRI during a gambling task. We assessed group differences in activity related to gambling risk over the entire brain. Results We included 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic twins in our analysis. Neural activity in the anterior insula and ventral striatum increased linearly with the amount of gambling risk in the entire cohort. Individual neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the neural response in the ventral striatum to increasing gambling risk and negatively correlated with individual risk-taking behaviour. Compared with low-risk twins, the high-risk twins showed a bilateral reduction of risk-related activity in the middle insula extending into the temporal cortex with increasing gambling risk. Post hoc analyses revealed that this effect was strongest in dizygotic twins. Limitations The relatively old average age of the mono- and dizygotic twin cohort (49.2 yr) may indicate an increased resilience to affective disorders. The size of the monozygotic high-risk group was relatively small (n = 13). Conclusion The reduced processing of risk magnitude in the middle insula may indicate a deficient integration of exteroceptive information related to risk-related cues with interoceptive states in individuals at familial risk for affective disorders. Impaired risk processing might contribute to increased vulnerability to affective disorders. PMID:26395812

  3. Structural analysis of the alcohol acyltransferase protein family from Cucumis melo shows that enzyme activity depends on an essential solvent channel.

    PubMed

    Galaz, Sebastián; Morales-Quintana, Luis; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Herrera, Raúl

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol acyltransferases (AAT) play a key role in ester biosynthesis. In Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis, AATs are encoded by a gene family of four members (CmAAT1-4). CmAAT1, CmAAT3 and CmAAT4 are capable of synthesizing esters, with CmAAT1 the most active. CmAAT2 is inactive and has an Ala268 residue instead of a threonine which is present in all other active AATs, although the role of this residue is still unclear. The present work aims to understand the molecular mechanism involved in ester biosynthesis in melon fruit and to clarify the importance of the Ala268 residue. First, structural models for each protein were built by comparative modelling methodology. Afterwards, conformational interaction between the protein and several ligands, alcohols and acyl-CoAs was explored by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Structural analysis showed that CmAATs share a similar structure. Also, well-defined solvent channels were described in the CmAATs except for CmAAT2 which does not have a proper channel and instead has a small pocket around Ala268. Residues of the catalytic HxxxD motif interact with substrates within the solvent channel, with Ser363 also important. Strong binding interaction energies were described for the best substrate couple of each CmAAT (hexyl-, benzyl- and cinnamyl-acetate for CmAAT1, 3 and 4 respectively). CmAAT1 and CmAAT2 protein surfaces share similar electrostatic potentials; nevertheless the entrance channels for the substrates differ in location and electrostatic character, suggesting that Ala268 might be responsible for that. This could partly explain the major differences in activity reported for these two enzymes.

  4. Inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids that produce dsRNA against infectious salmon anemia virus hemagglutinin show antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells

    PubMed Central

    García, Katherine; Ramírez-Araya, Sebastián; Díaz, Álvaro; Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastián; Espejo, Romilio T.; Higuera, Gastón; Romero, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) has caused great losses to the Chilean salmon industry, and the success of prevention and treatment strategies is uncertain. The use of RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising approach because during the replication cycle, the ISAV genome must be transcribed to mRNA in the cytoplasm. We explored the capacity of E. coli transformed with plasmids that produce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to induce antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells. We transformed the non-pathogenic Escherichia coli HT115 (DE3) with plasmids that expressed highly conserved regions of the ISAV genes encoding the nucleoprotein (NP), fusion (F), hemagglutinin (HE), and matrix (M) proteins as dsRNA, which is the precursor of the RNAi mechanism. The inactivated transformed bacteria carrying dsRNA were tested for their capacity to silence the target ISAV genes, and the dsRNA that were able to inhibit gene expression were subsequently tested for their ability to attenuate the cytopathic effect (CPE) and reduce the viral load. Of the four target genes tested, inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids producing dsRNA targeting HE showed antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells. PMID:25932022

  5. Inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids that produce dsRNA against infectious salmon anemia virus hemagglutinin show antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells.

    PubMed

    García, Katherine; Ramírez-Araya, Sebastián; Díaz, Álvaro; Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastián; Espejo, Romilio T; Higuera, Gastón; Romero, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) has caused great losses to the Chilean salmon industry, and the success of prevention and treatment strategies is uncertain. The use of RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising approach because during the replication cycle, the ISAV genome must be transcribed to mRNA in the cytoplasm. We explored the capacity of E. coli transformed with plasmids that produce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to induce antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells. We transformed the non-pathogenic Escherichia coli HT115 (DE3) with plasmids that expressed highly conserved regions of the ISAV genes encoding the nucleoprotein (NP), fusion (F), hemagglutinin (HE), and matrix (M) proteins as dsRNA, which is the precursor of the RNAi mechanism. The inactivated transformed bacteria carrying dsRNA were tested for their capacity to silence the target ISAV genes, and the dsRNA that were able to inhibit gene expression were subsequently tested for their ability to attenuate the cytopathic effect (CPE) and reduce the viral load. Of the four target genes tested, inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids producing dsRNA targeting HE showed antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells.

  6. Characterization of the Trypanosoma cruzi ortholog of the SBDS protein reveals an intrinsically disordered extended C-terminal region showing RNA-interacting activity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Juliana Ferreira; Castilho, Beatriz A; Sforça, Mauricio L; Krieger, Marco Aurélio; Zeri, Ana Carolina; Guimarães, Beatriz G; Zanchin, Nilson I T

    2009-04-01

    The human SBDS gene and its yeast ortholog SDO1 encode essential proteins that are involved in ribosome biosynthesis. SDO1 has been implicated in recycling of the ribosomal biogenesis factor Tif6p from pre-66S particles as well as in translation activation of 60S ribosomes. The SBDS protein is highly conserved, containing approximately 250 amino acid residues in animals, fungi and Archaea, while SBDS orthologs of plants and a group of protists contain an extended C-terminal region. In this work, we describe the characterization of the Trypanosoma cruzi SBDS ortholog (TcSBDS). TcSBDS co-fractionates with polysomes in sucrose density gradients, which is consistent with a role in ribosome biosynthesis. We show that TcSBDS contains a C-terminal extension of 200 amino acids that displays the features of intrinsically disordered proteins as determined by proteolytic, circular dichroism and NMR analyses. Interestingly, the C-terminal extension is responsible for TcSBDS-RNA interaction activity in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. This finding suggests that Trypanosomatidae and possibly also other organisms containing SBDS with extended C-terminal regions have evolved an additional function for SBDS in ribosome biogenesis.

  7. Reduced Expression of the Retinoblastoma Protein Shows That the Related Signaling Pathway Is Essential for Mediating the Antineoplastic Activity of Erufosine

    PubMed Central

    Zaharieva, Maya M.; Kirilov, Milen; Chai, Minquang; Berger, Stefan M.; Konstantinov, Spiro; Berger, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    Erufosine is a new antineoplastic agent of the group of alkylphosphocholines, which interferes with signal transduction and induces apoptosis in various leukemic and tumor cell lines. The present study was designed to examine for the first time the mechanism of resistance to erufosine in malignant cells with permanently reduced expression of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Bearing in mind the high number of malignancies with reduced level of this tumor-suppressor, this investigation was deemed important for using erufosine, alone or in combination, in patients with compromised RB1 gene expression. For this purpose, clones of the leukemic T-cell line SKW-3 were used, which had been engineered to constantly express differently low Rb levels. The alkylphosphocholine induced apoptosis, stimulated the expression of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 and inhibited the synthesis of cyclin D3, thereby causing a G2 phase cell cycle arrest and death of cells with wild type Rb expression. In contrast, Rb-deficiency impeded the changes induced by eru-fosine in the expression of these proteins and abrogated the induction of G2 arrest, which was correlated with reduced antiproliferative and anticlonogenic activities of the compound. In conclusion, analysis of our results showed for the first time that the Rb signaling pathway is essential for mediating the antineoplastic activity of erufosine and its efficacy in patients with malignant diseases may be predicted by determining the Rb status. PMID:24987858

  8. Improved installation prototype for measurement of low argon-37 activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    On-site Inspection (OSI) is a key element of verification of State Parties' compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). An on-site inspection is launched to establish whether or not a nuclear explosion has been carried out. One of the most significant evidence of n underground nuclear explosion (UNE) is detection above background concentrations of argon-37 in near surface air. Argon-37 is formed in large amounts at interaction of neutrons of UNE with the potassium which is a part of the majority of rocks. Its estimated contents for the 100th days after explosion with a energy of 1000 t of TNT near a surface can vary from 1 to 1000 mBq/m3. The background concentrations of argon-37 in subsoil air vary 1 do100 mBq/m3. Traditionally, for argon-37 activity measurement the gas-proportional counters are used. But at Khlopin Radium institute the developments of the new type of highly sensitive and low-background installation capable to provide the required range of measurements of the argon-37 concentration are conducted. The liquid scintillation method of the registration of the low-energetic argon-37 electrons is the basic installation principle and as scintillator, the itself condensed air argon sample is used. Registration of scintillations of liquid argon is made by means of system from 3 PMT which cathodes are cooled near to the temperature of liquid nitrogen together with the measuring chamber in which placed the quartz glass ampule, containing the measured sample of the liquefied argon. For converse the short wavelength photons (λ = 127 nm) of liquid argon scintillations to more long-wave, corresponding to the range of PMT sensitivity, the polymer film with tetra-phenyl-butadiene (TPB) is provided. Even the insignificant impurities of nitrogen, oxygen and others gaseous in the liquid argon samples can to cause the quenching of scintillation, especially their slow components. To account this effect and it influence on change of registration

  9. Recent volcanic activity on Venus - Evidence from radiothermal emissivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C. A.; Wood, J. A.

    1993-03-01

    Radiothermal emissivity measurements are analyzed in order to study large volcanic constructs on Venus and to correlate details of the reflectivity/emissivity patterns with geological landforms and stratigraphy visible in corresponding SAR images. There appears to be a correlation between locations on Venus where high emissivity at high altitudes and low emissivity at low altitudes are observed. These phenomena are attributed here to relatively recent volcanic activity: the former to summit eruptions that have not had time to weather to the low-emissivity state, the latter to continuing emission of volcanic gases from neighboring small plains volcanoes. The pattern of reflectivity and emissivity on Maat Mons is examined in the light of these findings. It is concluded that Maat Mons has undergone the most recent episode of volcanic activity of all the volcanoes studied here.

  10. Recent volcanic activity on Venus - Evidence from radiothermal emissivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Cordula A.; Wood, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Radiothermal emissivity measurements are analyzed in order to study large volcanic constructs on Venus and to correlate details of the reflectivity/emissivity patterns with geological landforms and stratigraphy visible in corresponding SAR images. There appears to be a correlation between locations on Venus where high emissivity at high altitudes and low emissivity at low altitudes are observed. These phenomena are attributed here to relatively recent volcanic activity: the former to summit eruptions that have not had time to weather to the low-emissivity state, the latter to continuing emission of volcanic gases from neighboring small plains volcanoes. The pattern of reflectivity and emissivity on Maat Mons is examined in the light of these findings. It is concluded that Maat Mons has undergone the most recent episode of volcanic activity of all the volcanoes studied here.

  11. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-07-16

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.

  12. [An electrochemical method for measuring metabolic activity and counting cells].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, B a; Khlupova, M e; Shleev, S V; Kaprel'iants, A S; Iaropolov, A I

    2006-01-01

    An express electrochemical method for determining the metabolic activity of live cells based on the possibility of an electron exchange between an electrode and elements of the biological electron transfer chain in the presence of a mediator is proposed. This method is useful for studying any live cells (animal, plant, and microbial), including anaerobic, dormant, and spore cells. The sample preparation and measurement itself does not take more than 30 min. The detection limit in a volume of 15 ml amounts to 10-5 cells/ml. The applicability of the assessment method of the metabolic activity level during the transition of the bacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis into an uncultivable dormant state was demonstrated. This method is of special value for medicine and environmental control, detecting latent forms of pathogens. An optimal combination of the methods for the express analysis of latent pathogens is proposed. PMID:17066962

  13. Effect of fluorocarbons on acetylcholinesterase activity and some counter measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W.; Parker, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    An isolated vagal sympathetic heart system has been successfully used for the study of the effect of fluorocarbons (FCs) on cardiac performance and in situ enzyme activity. Dichlorodifluoromethane sensitizes this preparation to sympathetic stimulation and to exogenous epinephrine challenge. Partial and complete A-V block and even cardiac arrest have been induced by epinephrine challenge in the FC sensitized heart. Potassium chloride alone restores the rhythmicity but not the normal contractility of the heart in such a situation. Addition of glucose will, however, completely restore the normal function of the heart which is sensitized by dichlorodifluoromethane. The ED 50 values of acetylcholinesterase activity which are used as a measure of relative effectiveness of fluorocarbons are compared with the maximum permissible concentration. Kinetic studies indicate that all the fluorocarbons tested so far are noncompetitive.

  14. Active calibration target for bistatic radar cross-section measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pienaar, M.; Odendaal, J. W.; Joubert, J.; Cilliers, J. E.; Smit, J. C.

    2016-05-01

    Either passive calibration targets are expensive and complex to manufacture or their bistatic radar cross section (RCS) levels are significantly lower than the monostatic RCS levels of targets such as spheres, dihedral, and trihedral corner reflectors. In this paper the performance of an active calibration target with relative high bistatic RCS values is illustrated as a reference target for bistatic RCS measurements. The reference target is simple to manufacture, operates over a wide frequency range, and can be configured to calibrate all four polarizations (VV, HH, HV, and VH). Bistatic RCS measurements of canonical targets, performed in a controlled environment, are calibrated with the reference target and the results are compared to simulated results using FEKO.

  15. Active doublet method for measuring small changes in physical properties

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Peter M.; Fehler, Michael C.; Johnson, Paul A.; Phillips, W. Scott

    1994-01-01

    Small changes in material properties of a work piece are detected by measuring small changes in elastic wave velocity and attenuation within a work piece. Active, repeatable source generate coda wave responses from a work piece, where the coda wave responses are temporally displaced. By analyzing progressive relative phase and amplitude changes between the coda wave responses as a function of elapsed time, accurate determinations of velocity and attenuation changes are made. Thus, a small change in velocity occurring within a sample region during the time periods between excitation origin times (herein called "doublets") will produce a relative delay that changes with elapsed time over some portion of the scattered waves. This trend of changing delay is easier to detect than an isolated delay based on a single arrival and provides a direct measure of elastic wave velocity changes arising from changed material properties of the work piece.

  16. A method for measuring total thiaminase activity in fish tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, J.L.; Tillitt, D.E.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Brown, S.B.; Fitzsimons, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    An accurate, quantitative, and rapid method for the measurement of thiaminase activity in fish samples is required to provide sufficient information to characterize the role of dietary thiaminase in the onset of thiamine deficiency in Great Lakes salmonines. A radiometric method that uses 14C-thiamine was optimized for substrate and co-substrate (nicotinic acid) concentrations, incubation time, and sample dilution. Total thiaminase activity was successfully determined in extracts of selected Great Lakes fishes and invertebrates. Samples included whole-body and selected tissues of forage fishes. Positive control material prepared from frozen alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in Lake Michigan enhanced the development and application of the method. The method allowed improved discrimination of thiaminolytic activity among forage fish species and their tissues. The temperature dependence of the thiaminase activity observed in crude extracts of Lake Michigan alewives followed a Q10 = 2 relationship for the 1-37??C temperature range, which is consistent with the bacterial-derived thiaminase I protein. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  17. Precise method for the measurement of catalase activity in honey.

    PubMed

    Huidobro, José F; Sánchez, M Pilar; Muniategui, Soledad; Sancho, M Teresa

    2005-01-01

    An improved method is reported for the determination of catalase activity in honey. We tested different dialysis membranes, dialysis fluid compositions and amounts, dialysis temperatures, sample amounts, and dialysis times. The best results were obtained by dialysis of 7.50 g sample in a cellulose dialysis sack, using two 3 L portions of 0.015 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) as the dialysis fluid at 4 degrees C for 22 h. As in previous methods, catalase activity was determined on the basis of the rate of disappearance of the substrate, H202, with the H202 determined spectrophotometrically at 400 nm in an assay system containing o-dianisidine and peroxidase. Trials indicated that the best solvent for the o-dianisidine was 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.1; the best starting H202 concentration was 3 mM; the best HCl concentration for stopping the reaction was 6 N; and the best sample volume for catalase measurement was 7.0 mL. Precision values (relative standard deviations for analyses of 10 subsamples of each of 3 samples) were high, ranging from 0.48% for samples with high catalase activity to 1.98% for samples with low catalase activity.

  18. Measuring initiator caspase activation by bimolecular fluorescence complementation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Melissa J; Bouchier-Hayes, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Initiator caspases, including caspase-2, -8, and -9, are activated by the proximity-driven dimerization that occurs after their recruitment to activation platforms. Here we describe the use of caspase bimolecular fluorescence complementation (caspase BiFC) to measure this induced proximity. BiFC assays rely on the use of a split fluorescent protein to identify protein-protein interactions in cells. When fused to interacting proteins, the fragments of the split fluorescent protein (which do not fluoresce on their own) can associate and fluoresce. In this protocol, we use the fluorescent protein Venus, a brighter and more photostable variant of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), to detect the induced proximity of caspase-2. Plasmids encoding two fusion products (caspase-2 fused to either the amino- or carboxy-terminal halves of Venus) are transfected into cells. The cells are then treated with an activating (death) stimulus. The induced proximity (and subsequent activation) of caspase-2 in the cells is visualized as Venus fluorescence. The proportion of Venus-positive cells at a single time point can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. Alternatively, the increase in fluorescence intensity over time can be evaluated by time-lapse confocal microscopy. The caspase BiFC strategy described here should also work for other initiator caspases, such as caspase-8 or -9, as long as the correct controls are used. PMID:25561623

  19. Emission Measure Distribution and Heating of Two Active Region Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode, we have studied the coronal plasma in the core of two active regions. Concentrating on the area between opposite polarity moss, we found emission measure distributions having an approximate power-law form EM/T(exp 2.4) from log T = 5.55 up to a peak at log T = 6.57. The observations are explained extremely well by a simple nanoflare model. However, in the absence of additional constraints, the observations could possibly also be explained by steady heating.

  20. Detection limit for activation measurements in ultralow background sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trache, Livius; Chesneanu, D.; Margineanu, R.; Pantelica, A.; Ghita, D. G.; Burducea, I.; Straticiuc, M.; Tang, X. D.

    2014-09-01

    We used 12C +13C fusion at the beam energies E = 6, 7 and 8 MeV to determine the sensitivity and the limits of activation method measurements in ultralow background sites. A 13C beam of 0.5 μA from the 3 MV Tandem accelerator of the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH impinged on thick graphite targets. After about 24 hrs of irradiation targets were measured in two different laboratories: one with a heavy shielded Ge detector in the institute (at the surface) and one located underground in the microBequerel laboratory, in the salt mine of Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The 1369- and 2754 keV peaks from 24Na deactivation were clearly observed in the γ-ray spectra obtained for acquisitions lasting a few hours, or a few days. Determination of the detection limit in evaluating the cross sections for the target irradiated at Ec . m = 3 MeV indicates the fact that it is possible to measure gamma spectrum in underground laboratory down to Ec . m = 2 . 6 MeV. Cleaning the spectra with beta-gamma coincidences and increasing beam intensity 20 times will take as further down. The measurements are motivated by the study of the 12 C +12 C reaction at astrophysical energies.

  1. Reliability and validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Zbogar, Dominik; Eng, Janice J; Miller, William C; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Verrier, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the test–retest reliability and convergent validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Design: Observational study. Setting: Two inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation centres. Subjects: Participants (n = 106) were recruited from consecutive admissions to rehabilitation. Methods: Physical activity during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation stay was recorded on two days via (1) wrist accelerometer, (2) hip accelerometer if ambulatory, and (3) self-report (Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury questionnaire). Spearman’s correlations and Bland–Altman plots were utilized for test–retest reliability. Correlations between physical activity measures and clinical measures (functional independence, hand function, and ambulation) were performed. Results: Correlations for physical activity measures between Day 1 and Day 2 were moderate to high (ρ = 0.53–0.89). Bland–Altman plots showed minimal bias and more within-subject differences in more active individuals and wide limits of agreement. None of these three physical activity measures correlated with one another. A moderate correlation was found between wrist accelerometry counts and grip strength (ρ = 0.58) and between step counts and measures of ambulation (ρ = 0.62). Functional independence was related to wrist accelerometry (ρ = 0.70) and step counts (ρ = 0.56), but not with self-report. Conclusion: The test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the instrumented measures suggest that wrist and hip accelerometers are appropriate tools for use in research studies of daily physical activity in the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting but are too variable for individual use.

  2. Reliability and validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Zbogar, Dominik; Eng, Janice J; Miller, William C; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Verrier, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the test–retest reliability and convergent validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Design: Observational study. Setting: Two inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation centres. Subjects: Participants (n = 106) were recruited from consecutive admissions to rehabilitation. Methods: Physical activity during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation stay was recorded on two days via (1) wrist accelerometer, (2) hip accelerometer if ambulatory, and (3) self-report (Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury questionnaire). Spearman’s correlations and Bland–Altman plots were utilized for test–retest reliability. Correlations between physical activity measures and clinical measures (functional independence, hand function, and ambulation) were performed. Results: Correlations for physical activity measures between Day 1 and Day 2 were moderate to high (ρ = 0.53–0.89). Bland–Altman plots showed minimal bias and more within-subject differences in more active individuals and wide limits of agreement. None of these three physical activity measures correlated with one another. A moderate correlation was found between wrist accelerometry counts and grip strength (ρ = 0.58) and between step counts and measures of ambulation (ρ = 0.62). Functional independence was related to wrist accelerometry (ρ = 0.70) and step counts (ρ = 0.56), but not with self-report. Conclusion: The test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the instrumented measures suggest that wrist and hip accelerometers are appropriate tools for use in research studies of daily physical activity in the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting but are too variable for individual use. PMID:27635252

  3. The solar activity measurements experiments (SAMEX) for improved scientific understanding of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Activity Measurements Experiments (SAMEX) mission is described. It is designed to provide a look at the interactions of magnetic fields and plasmas that create flares and other explosive events on the sun in an effort to understand solar activity and the nature of the solar magnetic field. The need for this mission, the instruments to be used, and the expected benefits of SAMEX are discussed.

  4. Use of a novel cell adhesion method and digital measurement to show stimulus-dependent variation in somatic and oral ciliary beat frequency in Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Bell, Wade E; Hallworth, Richard; Wyatt, Todd A; Sisson, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    When Paramecium encounters positive stimuli, the membrane hyperpolarizes and ciliary beat frequency increases. We adapted an established immobilization protocol using a biological adhesive and a novel digital analysis system to quantify beat frequency in immobilized Paramecium. Cells showed low mortality and demonstrated beat frequencies consistent with previous studies. Chemoattractant molecules, reduction in external potassium, and posterior stimulation all increased somatic beat frequency. In all cases, the oral groove cilia maintained a higher beat frequency than mid-body cilia, but only oral cilia from cells stimulated with chemoattactants showed an increase from basal levels.

  5. A coupled observation - modeling approach for studying activation kinetics from measurements of CCN activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikainen, T.; Moore, R. H.; Lathem, T. L.; Nenes, A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents an approach to study droplet activation kinetics from measurements of CCN activity by the Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber (CFSTGC) and a comprehensive model of the instrument and droplet growth. The model, which can be downloaded from http://nenes.eas.gatech.edu/Experiments/CFSTGC.html , is evaluated against a series of experiments with ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Observed and modeled droplet sizes are in excellent agreement for a water vapor uptake coefficient ~0.2, which is consistent with theoretical expectations. The model calculations can be considerably accelerated without significant loss of accuracy by assuming simplified instrument geometry and constant parabolic flow velocity profiles. With these assumptions, the model can be applied to large experimental data sets to infer kinetic growth parameters while fully accounting for water vapor depletion effects and changes in instrument operation parameters such as the column temperature, flow rates, sheath and sample flow relative humidities, and pressure. When the effects of instrument operation parameters, water vapor depletion and equilibrium dry particle properties on droplet size are accounted for, the remaining variations in droplet size are most likely due to non-equilibrium processes such as those caused by organic surface films, slow solute dissociation and glassy or highly viscous particle states. As an example of model application, data collected during a research flight in the ARCTAS 2008 campaign are analyzed. The model shows that water vapor depletion effects can explain changes in the observed average droplet size.

  6. New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity: crystallographic and biochemical study of STM3605 protein from Salmonella Typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Michalska, Karolina; Brown, Roslyn N.; Li, Hui; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Niemann, George; Heffron, Fred; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Phage viruses that infect prokaryotes integrate their genome into the host chromosome; thus, microbial genomes typically contain genetic remnants of both recent and ancient phage infections. Often phage genes occur in clusters of atypical G+C content that reflect integration of the foreign DNA. However, some phage genes occur in isolation without other phage gene neighbors, probably resulting from horizontal gene transfer. In these cases, the phage gene product is unlikely to function as a component of a mature phage particle, and instead may have been co-opted by the host for its own benefit. The product of one such gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, STM3605, encodes a protein with modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close homologs in other bacteria share this characteristic. The structure of the STM3605 protein was characterized by X-ray crystallography, and functional assays showed that it is a stable, folded protein whose structure closely resembles lysozyme. However, this protein is unlikely to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. Instead, STM3605 is presumed to have evolved an alternative function because it shows some lytic activity and partitions to micelles.

  7. Next-generation sequencing with a myeloid gene panel in core-binding factor AML showed KIT activation loop and TET2 mutations predictive of outcome

    PubMed Central

    Cher, C Y; Leung, G M K; Au, C H; Chan, T L; Ma, E S K; Sim, J P Y; Gill, H; Lie, A K W; Liang, R; Wong, K F; Siu, L L P; Tsui, C S P; So, C C; Wong, H W W; Yip, S F; Lee, H K K; Liu, H S Y; Lau, J S M; Luk, T H; Lau, C K; Lin, S Y; Kwong, Y L; Leung, A Y H

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcome and mutations of 96 core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients 18–60 years old were examined. Complete remission (CR) after induction was 94.6%. There was no significant difference in CR, leukemia-free-survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) between t(8;21) (N=67) and inv(16) patients (N=29). Univariate analysis showed hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at CR1 as the only clinical parameter associated with superior LFS. Next-generation sequencing based on a myeloid gene panel was performed in 72 patients. Mutations in genes involved in cell signaling were associated with inferior LFS and OS, whereas those in genes involved in DNA methylation were associated with inferior LFS. KIT activation loop (AL) mutations occurred in 25 patients, and were associated with inferior LFS (P=0.003) and OS (P=0.001). TET2 mutations occurred in 8 patients, and were associated with significantly shorter LFS (P=0.015) but not OS. Patients negative for KIT-AL and TET2 mutations (N=41) had significantly better LFS (P<0.001) and OS (P=0.012) than those positive for both or either mutation. Multivariate analysis showed that KIT-AL and TET2 mutations were associated with inferior LFS, whereas age ⩾40 years and marrow blast ⩾70% were associated with inferior OS. These observations provide new insights that may guide better treatment for this AML subtype. PMID:27391574

  8. Direct measurement of catalase activity in living cells and tissue biopsies.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Christine N; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2016-01-29

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies - can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1 μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings.

  9. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P; Reis, Jared P; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-10-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth. PMID:26384937

  10. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; McIver, Kerry; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P.; Reis, Jared P.; Carroll, Dianna D.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth. PMID:26384937

  11. Comparison of Mercury Measurement Methods Using Two Active Filter Measurement Methods and a Tekran Speciation Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, A.; Gustin, M. S.; Huang, J.; Heidecorn, K.

    2014-12-01

    Three active mercury (Hg) measurement methods were operated side by side at an urban site (University of Nevada, Reno College of Agriculture Greenhouse facility, elev. 1370 m) in Reno, and at a high elevation site (Peavine Peak, elev. 2515 m) adjacent to Reno from December 2013 to October 2014. A model 602 BetaPlus Teledyne Advanced Pollution Instrumentation (TAPI, San Diego, CA USA) particulate measurement system was used to collect particulate matter on a 47 mm diameter cation exchange membrane (CEM, PN# MSTGS3R Mustang S, Pall Corp. Port Washington, NY) at a rate of 16.7 lpm for 24 hours to four days. Particulate concentrations were calculated using beta attenuation across the filters (non-destructive to filter material); the CEM filters were then analyzed for total Hg on a Tekran Total Hg Analysis system (model 2600, Tekran Instruments Corp. Knoxville, TN, USA). Concurrently, samples were collected on an active Hg membrane system. The active Hg membrane system consisted of 3 CEM filters sampling at a rate of 1 lpm for one to two weeks. CEM filters were then analyzed on the Tekran 2600. A Tekran speciation unit (model 1130, 1135, 2537) was also in operation and ambient air samples were analyzed for gaseous elemental Hg (GEM), gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM), and particulate bound Hg (PBM). Both the 602 BetaPlus system and the active Hg membrane system should collect RM on the CEM filters. The active Hg membrane system most likely captures mainly GOM based on previous tests with the Teflon inlet setup that indicated there was high static electricity effective in removing particulate matter. Flow rate and length of measurement (24 hours vs. four days) affected the Hg concentrations on the 602 BetaPlus system. Based on these measurements we hypothesize that, due to the high flow rate, and therefore short retention time, the 602 BetaPlus only captured PBM. It is also possible that there was loss of Hg to inlet walls due to the longer inlet on the 602 BetaPlus system

  12. 3D measurement with active triangulation for spectacle lens optimization and individualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrmann, Julia; Tiemann, Markus; Seitz, Peter C.

    2015-05-01

    We present for the first time an active triangulation technique for video centration. This technique requires less manual selection than current methods and thus enables faster measurements while providing the same resolution. The suitability to measure physiological parameters is demonstrated in a measurement series. The active triangulation technique uses a laser line for illumination which is positioned such that it intersects with the pupils of the subject to be measured. For the illumination of human eyes, the wavelength and output power were carefully investigated to ensure photobiological safety at all times and reduce irritation of the subject being measured. A camera with a known orientation to the laser line images the subject. Physiological features on the subject and the frame are then selected in the acquired image yielding directly a 3D position if lying on the illuminated laser line. Distances to points off the laser line can be estimated from a scaling at the same depth. Focus is on two parameters: interpupillary distance (PD) and corneal face form angle (FFA). In our study we examined the repeatability of the measurements. We found an excellent repeatability with small deviations to the reference value. Furthermore a physiological study was carried out with the setup showing the applicability of this method for video centration measurements. A comparison to a reference measurement system shows only small differences.

  13. Measurement of factor v activity in human plasma using a microplate coagulation assay.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Derek; Levit, Irina; Samis, John A

    2012-09-09

    above the pre-existing pathology (15). The assay was used to show that in 9 patients with DIC, the FV 1-stage, 2-stage, and total activities were decreased, on average, by 54%, 44%, and 42%, respectively, compared with normal pooled human reference plasma (NHP). The FV microplate assay is easily adaptable to measure the activity of any coagulation factor. This assay will increase our understanding of FV biochemistry through a more accurate and complete measurement of its activity in research and clinical settings. This information will positively impact healthcare environments through earlier diagnosis and development of more effective treatments for coagulation disorders, such as DIC.

  14. Free radicals and SOD activity of jaw cyst. Direct measurement and spin trapping studies by ESR.

    PubMed

    Kimura, H; Simodate, H; Suzuki, M

    1990-01-01

    Free radicals produced in the fluid of jaw cysts were directly measured at room temperature using ESR. With these samples, SOD activity of the cyst fluid was measured by the ESR spin trapping method with DMPO as a trapping agent. Freeze-dried samples of cyst fluid showed a broad ESR signal at g = 2.005. Relative signal intensity of samples from jaw cysts with inflammation was higher than jaw cysts without inflammation. SOD activity of cyst fluid with high viscosity showed higher values than that of cyst fluid with low viscosity. We suggest that free radicals produced in jaw cyst damage tissues while higher SOD activity of cyst fluid play a role in a self-defense mechanism against free radicals.

  15. Interpretation of Spectrometric Measurements of Active Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, D.; Wade, G.

    2014-09-01

    Over 5000 visible near-infrared (VNIR) spectrometric measurements of active geostationary satellites have been collected with the National Research Council (NRC) 1.8m Plaskett telescope located at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria, Canada. The objective of this ongoing experiment is to study how reflectance spectroscopy can be used to reliably identify specific material types on the surface of artificial Earth-orbiting objects. Active geostationary satellites were selected as the main subjects for this experiment since their orientation is stable and can be estimated to a high-level of confidence throughout a night of observation. Furthermore, for most geostationary satellites, there is a wide variety of sources that can provide some level of information as to their external surface composition. Notwithstanding the high number of measurements that have been collected to date, it was assumed that the experimenters would have a much greater success rate in material identification given the choice experimental subjects. To date, only the presence of aluminum has been confidently identified in some of the reflectance spectra that have been collected. Two additional material types, namely photovoltaic cells and polyimide film, the first layer of multi-layer insulation (MLI), have also been possibly identified. However uncertainties in the reduced spectral measurements prevent any definitive conclusion with respect to these materials at this time. The surprising lack of results with respect to material identification have forced the experimenters to use other data interpretation methods to characterize the spectral scattering characteristics of the studied satellites. The results from this study have already led to improvements in the ways that reflectance spectra from spacecraft are collected and analysed. Equally important, the data interpretation techniques elaborated over the course of this experiment will also serve to increase the body of

  16. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Dyck, Delfien Van; Hinckson, Erica; Schipperijn, Jasper; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Owen, Neville; Davey, Rachel C; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Mitáš, Josef; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Schofield, Grant; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived environmental attributes with objectively-measured PA outcomes; between-site differences in such associations; and, the extent to which perceived environmental attributes explain between-site differences in PA. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 16 cities located in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA. Participants were 6,968 adults residing in administrative units stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. Predictors were 10 perceived neighborhood environmental attributes. Outcome measures were accelerometry-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and meeting the PA guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention (420 min/week of MVPA). Results Most perceived neighborhood attributes were positively associated with the PA outcomes in the pooled, site-adjusted, single-predictor models. Associations were generalizable across geographical locations. Aesthetics and land use mix – access were significant predictors of both PA outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. Environmental attributes accounted for within-site variability in MVPA corresponding to a 3 min/d or 21 min/week standard deviation. Large between-site differences in PA outcomes were observed: 15.9% to 16.8% of these differences were explained by perceived environmental attributes. All neighborhood attributes were associated with between-site differences in the total effects of the perceived environment on PA outcomes. Conclusions Residents’ perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines

  17. Active and passive microwave measurements of soil moisture in FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Gogineni, S. P.; Ampe, J.

    1992-01-01

    During the intensive field campaigns of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) in May-October of 1987, several nearly simultaneous measurements were made with low-altitude flights of the L-band radiometer and C- and X-band scatterometers over two transects in the Konza Prairie Natural Research Area, some 8 km south of Manhattan, Kansas. These measurements showed that although the scatterometers were sensitive to soil moisture variations in most regions under the flight path, the L-band radiometer lost most of its sensitivity in regions unburned for many years. The correlation coefficient derived from the regression between the radar backscattering coefficient and the soil moisture was found to improve with the increase in antenna incidence angle. This is attributed to a steeper falloff of the backscattering coefficient as a function of local incidence at angles near nadir than at angles greater than 30 deg.

  18. Physical Activity Measurement Device Agreement: Pedometer Steps/Minute and Physical Activity Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Mungen, Jonathan D.; Oh, Yoonsin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine agreement between the Walk4Life DUO pedometer (W4L; Walk4Life, Plainfield, Illinois, USA) and two criterion instruments in the measurement of physical activity. Participants (N = 189, M = 16.74 years, SD = 0.99) in high school physical education concurrently wore the DUO (i.e., comparison instrument) and…

  19. Using a Single-Item Physical Activity Measure to Describe and Validate Parents' Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.; Cuddihy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of health-related physical activity (PA), often interpreted as either 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) or at least 30 min of at least moderate-intensity PA on 5 or more days per week (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing [AGDHA], 2005;…

  20. Biological aerosol detection with combined passive-active infrared measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifarraguerri, Agustin I.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Ben-David, Avishai

    2004-12-01

    A data collection experiment was performed in November of 2003 to measure aerosol signatures using multiple sensors, all operating in the long-wave infrared. The purpose of this data collection experiment was to determine whether combining passive hyperspectral and LIDAR measurements can substantially improve biological aerosol detection performance. Controlled releases of dry aerosols, including road dust, egg albumin and two strains of Bacillus Subtilis var. Niger (BG) spores were performed using the ECBC/ARTEMIS open-path aerosol test chamber located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD. The chamber provides a ~ 20' path without optical windows. Ground truth devices included 3 aerodynamic particle sizers, an optical particle size spectrometer, 6 nephelometers and a high-volume particle sampler. Two sensors were used to make measurements during the test: the AIRIS long-wave infrared imaging spectrometer and the FAL CO2 LIDAR. The AIRIS and FAL data sets were analyzed for detection performance relative to the ground truth. In this paper we present experimental results from the individual sensors as well as results from passive-active sensor fusion. The sensor performance is presented in the form of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  1. Immobilised activated sludge based biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand measurement.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Björnsson, L; Mattiasson, B

    2000-02-01

    A biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor, based on an immobilised mixed culture of microorganisms in combination with a dissolved oxygen electrode, has been developed for the purpose of on-line monitoring of the biological treatment process for waste and wastewater. The sensor was designed for easy replacement of the biomembrane, thereby making it suitable for short-term use. The drawbacks of activated sludge based sensor, such as short sensor lifetime, were thereby circumvented. The sensor BOD measurements were carried out in the kinetic mode using a flow injection system, resulting in 25 s for one measurement followed by 4-8 min recovery time. Based on the results of normalised sensor responses, the OECD synthetic wastewater was considered to be a more suitable calibration solution in comparison with the GGA solution. Good agreement was achieved between the results of the sensor BOD measurement and those obtained from BOD5 analysis of a wastewater sample from a food-processing factory. Reproducibility of responses using one sensor was below +/- 5.6%, standard deviation. Reproducibility of responses using different sensors was within acceptable bias limits, viz. +/- 15% standard deviation.

  2. Cell-based flow cytometry assay to measure cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Noto, Alessandra; Ngauv, Pearline; Trautmann, Lydie

    2013-12-17

    Cytolytic activity of CD8+ T cells is rarely evaluated. We describe here a new cell-based assay to measure the capacity of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells to kill CD4+ T cells loaded with their cognate peptide. Target CD4+ T cells are divided into two populations, labeled with two different concentrations of CFSE. One population is pulsed with the peptide of interest (CFSE-low) while the other remains un-pulsed (CFSE-high). Pulsed and un-pulsed CD4+ T cells are mixed at an equal ratio and incubated with an increasing number of purified CD8+ T cells. The specific killing of autologous target CD4+ T cells is analyzed by flow cytometry after coculture with CD8+ T cells containing the antigen-specific effector CD8+ T cells detected by peptide/MHCI tetramer staining. The specific lysis of target CD4+ T cells measured at different effector versus target ratios, allows for the calculation of lytic units, LU₃₀/10(6) cells. This simple and straightforward assay allows for the accurate measurement of the intrinsic capacity of CD8+ T cells to kill target CD4+ T cells.

  3. PARduino: A Simple Device Measuring and Logging Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, H. R.; Findley, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) is one of the primary controls of forest carbon and water relations. In complex terrain, PAR has high spatial-variability. Given the high cost of commercial datalogging equipment, spatially-distributed measurements of PAR have been typically modeled using geographic coordinates and terrain indices. Here, we present a design for a low cost, field-deployable device for measuring and logging PAR built around an Arduino microcontroller (we named it PARduino). PARduino provides for widely distributed sensor arrays and tests the feasibility of using hobbyist-grade electronics for collecting scientific data. PARduino components include a LiCor quantum sensor, EME Systems signal converter/amplifier, and Sparkfun's Arduino Pro Mini microcontroller. Additional components include a real time clock, a microSD flash memory card, and a custom printed circuit board (PCB). We selected the components with an eye towards ease of assembly. Everything can be connected to the PCB using through-hole soldering techniques. Since the device will be deployed in remote research plots that lack easy access to line power, battery life was also a consideration in the design. Extended deployment is possible because PARduino's software keeps it in a low-power sleep mode until ready to make a measurement. PARduino will be open-source hardware for use and improvement by others.

  4. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  5. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action.

    PubMed

    Currie, Richard A; Peffer, Richard C; Goetz, Amber K; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Goodman, Jay I

    2014-07-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA.

  6. Conceptualizing and Comparing Neighborhood and Activity Space Measures for Food Environment Research

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Thomas W.; Pitts, Stephanie B. Jilcott; McGuirt, Jared T.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Greater accessibility to geospatial technologies has led to a surge of spatialized public health research, much of which has focused on food environments. The purpose of this study was to analyze differing spatial measures of exposure to supermarkets and farmers’ markets among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina. Exposure measures were derived using participant-defined neighborhoods, investigator-defined road network neighborhoods, and activity spaces incorporating participants’ time space behaviors. Results showed that mean area for participant-defined neighborhoods (0.04 sq. miles) was much smaller than 2.0 mile road network neighborhoods (3.11 sq. miles) and activity spaces (26.36 sq. miles), and that activity spaces provided the greatest market exposure. The traditional residential neighborhood concept may not be particularly relevant for all places. Time-space approaches capturing activity space may be more relevant, particularly if integrated with mixed methods strategies. PMID:25306420

  7. Conceptualizing and comparing neighborhood and activity space measures for food environment research.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Thomas W; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; McGuirt, Jared T; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-11-01

    Greater accessibility to geospatial technologies has led to a surge of spatialized public health research, much of which has focused on food environments. The purpose of this study was to analyze differing spatial measures of exposure to supermarkets and farmers׳ markets among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina. Exposure measures were derived using participant-defined neighborhoods, investigator-defined road network neighborhoods, and activity spaces incorporating participants׳ time space behaviors. Results showed that mean area for participant-defined neighborhoods (0.04 sq. miles) was much smaller than 2.0 mile road network neighborhoods (3.11 sq. miles) and activity spaces (26.36 sq. miles), and that activity spaces provided the greatest market exposure. The traditional residential neighborhood concept may not be particularly relevant for all places. Time-space approaches capturing activity space may be more relevant, particularly if integrated with mixed methods strategies.

  8. Measurement of Activity of Indium in Liquid Bi-In-Sn Alloys by EMF Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. R.; Mohan, S.; Behera, C. K.

    2016-08-01

    The electrochemical technique based on a molten salt electrolyte galvanic cell has been used to measure the activity of indium in liquid Bi-In-Sn alloys in the temperature range of 723 K to 855 K along three ternary sections. The activity of tin in Bi-Sn binary alloys has also been measured by the same technique in the above temperature range. The activity of indium in Bi-In-Sn alloys shows negative deviation from Raoult's law for most of the compositions and slight positive deviations for a few indium-rich compositions. The ternary excess molar free energies have been calculated by Darken's treatment. Isoactivity curves at 813 K in the ternary Bi-In-Sn alloys were derived by combining the activity data of In-Sn and Bi-In alloys. The values of excess molar free energy obtained in this study are compared with those calculated from the Muggianu model at 813 K.

  9. Measurement of nitrous oxide reductase activity in aquatic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.; Paulsen, S.

    1986-01-01

    Denitrification in aquatic sediments was measured by an N2O reductase assay. Sediments consumed small added quantities of N2O over short periods (a few hours). In experiments with sediment slurries, N2O reductase activity was inhibited by O2, C2H2, heat treatment, and by high levels of nitrate (1 mM) or sulfide (10 mM). However, ambient levels of nitrate (<100 μM) did not influence activity, and moderate levels (about 150 μM) induced only a short lag before reductase activity began. Moderate levels of sulfide (<1 mM) had no effect on N2O reductase activity. Nitrous oxide reductase displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in sediments from freshwater (Km = 2.17 μM), estuarine (Km = 14.5 μM), and alkaline-saline (Km = 501 μM) environments. An in situ assay was devised in which a solution of N2O was injected into sealed glass cores containing intact sediment. Two estimates of net rates of denitrification in San Francisco Bay under approximated in situ conditions were 0.009 and 0.041 mmol of N2O per m2 per h. Addition of chlorate to inhibit denitrification in these intact-core experiments (to estimate gross rates of N2O consumption) resulted in approximately a 14% upward revision of estimates of net rates. These results were comparable to an in situ estimate of 0.022 mmol of N2O per m2 per h made with the acetylene block assay.

  10. Intercomparison of 131I and 99mTc activity measurements in Brazilian nuclear medicine services.

    PubMed

    Iwahara, A; De Oliveira, A E; Tauhata, L; da Silva, C J; Lopes, R T

    2001-03-01

    This work outlines the quality assurance program for the activity measurements of the most used radionuclides at Brazilian Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). The program aims to guarantee that the patient is given the correct prescribed amount of activity in diagnostic or therapeutic applications. This accurate administration depends upon proper use and calibration of the activity meters by the NMS. Underestimation of administered activity in diagnostic practices could delay correct diagnosis disturbing the value of the investigation. On the other hand, the overestimation would be worse, mainly in therapeutic applications, because an unnecessarily high absorbed dose would be delivered to the patient. The preliminary results of intercomparison for 131I and 99mTc showed that many activity meters used at NMS's present problems giving results up to 41% greater than the reference values determined at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI) which is recognized as the Brazilian authorized metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation. These results have demonstrated that the NMS should improve the accuracy of the activity measurements of the radionuclides administered to the patients and establish the traceability to the national standards of measurements. These standards are based on a pressurized well-type ionization chamber installed at LNMRI and calibrated with reference sources standardized by absolute methods. The protocol of the intercomparison and recommendations made in order to minimize errors in measuring procedures are described and results are discussed.

  11. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Nováková, Slavomíra; Flores-Ramírez, Gabriela; Glasa, Miroslav; Danchenko, Maksym; Fiala, Roderik; Skultety, Ludovit

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance toward infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant) were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins) developed 6–7 days post-inoculation (dpi) in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis. PMID:25972878

  12. The prolyl isomerase domain of PpiD from Escherichia coli shows a parvulin fold but is devoid of catalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Weininger, Ulrich; Jakob, Roman P; Kovermann, Michael; Balbach, Jochen; Schmid, Franz X

    2010-01-01

    PpiD is a periplasmic folding helper protein of Escherichia coli. It consists of an N-terminal helix that anchors PpiD in the inner membrane near the SecYEG translocon, followed by three periplasmic domains. The second domain (residues 264–357) shows homology to parvulin-like prolyl isomerases. This domain is a well folded, stable protein and follows a simple two-state folding mechanism. In its solution structure, as determined by NMR spectroscopy, it resembles most closely the first parvulin domain of the SurA protein, which resides in the periplasm of E. coli as well. A previously reported prolyl isomerase activity of PpiD could not be reproduced when using improved protease-free peptide assays or assays with refolding proteins as substrates. The parvulin domain of PpiD interacts, however, with a proline-containing tetrapeptide, and the binding site, as identified by NMR resonance shift analysis, colocalized with the catalytic sites of other parvulins. In its structure, the parvulin domain of PpiD resembles most closely the inactive first parvulin domain of SurA, which is part of the chaperone unit of this protein and presumably involved in substrate recognition. PMID:19866485

  13. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Slavomíra; Flores-Ramírez, Gabriela; Glasa, Miroslav; Danchenko, Maksym; Fiala, Roderik; Skultety, Ludovit

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance toward infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant) were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins) developed 6-7 days post-inoculation (dpi) in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis. PMID:25972878

  14. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Slavomíra; Flores-Ramírez, Gabriela; Glasa, Miroslav; Danchenko, Maksym; Fiala, Roderik; Skultety, Ludovit

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance toward infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant) were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins) developed 6-7 days post-inoculation (dpi) in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis.

  15. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young’s moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses. PMID:25675956

  16. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P R

    2015-05-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young's moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses. PMID:25675956

  17. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P R

    2015-05-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young's moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses.

  18. THE MEANINGFUL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION ASSESSMENT: A MEASURE OF ENGAGEMENT IN PERSONALLY VALUED ACTIVITIES*

    PubMed Central

    EAKMAN, AARON M.; CARLSON, MIKE E.; CLARK, FLORENCE A.

    2011-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and objective indicators of activity engagement. PMID:20649161

  19. Brown Norway rats, a putative schizophrenia model, show increased electroencephalographic activity at rest and decreased event-related potential amplitude, power, and coherence in the auditory sensory gating paradigm.

    PubMed

    Tomimatsu, Yoshiro; Hibino, Ryosuke; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    In recent schizophrenia clinical research, electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activities induced by a sensory stimulus or behavioral tasks have gained considerable interest as functional and pathophysiological biomarkers. The Brown Norway (BN) rat is a putative schizophrenia model that shows naturally low sensorimotor gating and deficits in cognitive performance, although other phenotypes have not been studied. The present study aimed to investigate the neurophysiological features of BN rats, particularly EEG/event-related potential (ERP). EEG activity was recorded at rest and during the auditory sensory gating paradigm under an awake, freely moving condition. Frequency and ERP analysis were performed along with time-frequency analysis of evoked power and intertrial coherence. Compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats, a well-documented control line, BN rats showed increased EEG power at rest, particularly in the theta and gamma ranges. In ERP analysis, BN rats showed reduced N40-P20 amplitude but normal sensory gating. The rats also showed reduced evoked power and intertrial coherence against auditory stimuli. These results suggest that BN rats show features of EEG/ERP measures clinically relevant to schizophrenia and may provide additional opportunities for translational research.

  20. Relation between measures of speech-in-noise performance and measures of efferent activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Brad; Harkrider, Ashley; Burchfield, Samuel; Nabelek, Anna

    2003-04-01

    Individual differences in auditory perceptual abilities in noise are well documented but the factors causing such variability are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if individual differences in responses measured from the auditory efferent system were correlated to individual variations in speech-in-noise performance. The relation between behavioral performance on three speech-in-noise tasks and two objective measures of the efferent auditory system were examined in thirty normal-hearing, young adults. Two of the speech-in-noise tasks measured an acceptable noise level, the maximum level of speech-babble noise that a subject is willing to accept while listening to a story. For these, the acceptable noise level was evaluated using both an ipsilateral (story and noise in same ear) and a contralateral (story and noise in opposite ears) paradigm. The third speech-in-noise task evaluated speech recognition using monosyllabic words presented in competing speech babble. Auditory efferent activity was assessed by examining the resulting suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions following the introduction of a contralateral, broad-band stimulus and the activity of the ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic reflex arc was evaluated using tones and broad-band noise. Results will be discussed relative to current theories of speech in noise performance and auditory inhibitory processes.

  1. Late Pleistocene Rapid Climate Change Events Measured in Stalagmites From a Semi-Arid Cave in Iran Show Pan-Eurasian Climate Signal Matching NGRIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehterian, S.; Pourmand, A.; Sharifi, A.; Murphy, L.; Lahijani, H. A. K.; Naderi, M.; Swart, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Although new records of Pleistocene climate variability have begun to emerge from speleothems in Western and Eastern Asia, much remains unknown about climate variability on centennial to millennial timescales during the last glacial and interglacial periods across the interior of West Asia. The regional climate of West Asia is governed by interactions between the Northern Hemisphere Westerly Jet, the Siberian Anticyclone and the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon, making this region highly sensitive to abrupt climate variability. Here we present the first high-resolution oxygen isotope record of two stalagmites from a cave in the semi-arid region of NW Iran. The records from Qaleh Kord Cave (QKC, 35°47'50"N, 48°51'25"E) span between 73 kya to 127 kya and cover marine isotope stages MIS4 and MIS5. The absolute chronology of both stalagmites was established using a novel high-precision U-Th geochronometry technique with multi-collection ICP-MS. The δ18O composition of QKC stalagmites closely agree with changes in δ18O composition of the NGRIP ice core from Greenland, indicating a close atmospheric teleconnection between the climate of the North Atlantic and the interior of West Asia during this period. Because the chronology of NGRIP beyond 60 kya is calculated via numerical flow models and not directly measured, data from our stalagmites provide absolute age tie points to improve the accuracy of the deepest portion of the ice record. Furthermore, agreement between our records and those from the Soreq (Israel) and Sanbao (China) caves in West and East Asia point to a pan-Eurasian climate signal. In order to investigate the mechanisms that drive changes in climate in Western Asia on millennial timescales and examine the role of orbital characteristics and changes in insolation on atmospheric circulation and precipitation during MIS5, we present results from fully-coupled general circulation simulation CESM1 at three time slices of 80, 95, and 115 kya.

  2. Vertebral shape: automatic measurement with dynamically sequenced active appearance models.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M G; Cootes, T F; Adams, J E

    2005-01-01

    The shape and appearance of vertebrae on lateral dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were statistically modelled. The spine was modelled by a sequence of overlapping triplets of vertebrae, using Active Appearance Models (AAMs). To automate vertebral morphometry, the sequence of trained models was matched to previously unseen scans. The dataset includes a significant number of pathologies. A new dynamic ordering algorithm was assessed for the model fitting sequence, using the best quality of fit achieved by multiple sub-model candidates. The accuracy of the search was improved by dynamically imposing the best quality candidate first. The results confirm the feasibility of substantially automating vertebral morphometry measurements even with fractures or noisy images.

  3. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (P<0.001), five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002), daily steps (P=0.003), and MV-PA (P=0.022) compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001) and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014) in the COPD group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion Impairments in balance and reductions in physical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity. PMID:27445470

  4. Sesquiterpene lactone containing extracts from two cultivars of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) show distinctive chemical profiles and in vitro activity against Ostertagia ostertagi

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Boas, Ulrik; Williams, Andrew R.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Simonsen, Henrik T.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated direct anthelmintic effects of sesquiterpene lactones (SL)-containing extracts from forage chicory against free-living and parasitic stages of Ostertagia ostertagi. Freeze-dried leaves from chicory cultivars ‘Spadona’ and ‘Puna II’ were extracted using methanol/water. Total SL were further fractionated by solid-phase extraction and resulting extracts were characterised by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). O. ostertagi eggs from faeces of mono-infected calves were hatched and L1 were used in a larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), while cultured L3 were used in a larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA). Adult worms were immediately recovered after slaughter and used for motility inhibition assays (AMIA). Electron microscopy (EM) was performed on adult O. ostertagi exposed to 1000 μg extract mL−1 of both chicory cultivars. In all assays, decreasing concentrations of SL-containing extracts in PBS (1% DMSO) were tested in replicates with 1% DMSO in PBS as negative controls. HPLC demonstrated similar concentrations of most SL in both extracts. However, Spadona-extract contained significantly higher concentrations of 11, 13-dihydro-8-deoxylactucin (P = 0.01), while Puna II-extract had increased levels of 11, 13-dihydrolactucin (P < 0.0001). In the LFIA, both extracts reduced larval feeding at increasing concentrations, but Spadona-extract showed higher potency confirmed by significantly lower EC50 (P < 0.0001). In the LEIA, neither of the two extracts interfered with the exsheathment of L3 (P > 0.05). In the AMIA, both SL-containing extracts induced a dose-dependent effect but Spadona-extract showed greater activity and exerted faster worm paralysis than Puna II-extract with significantly lower EC50 (P < 0.0001). No cuticular damage was observed by EM in worms exposed to any of the extracts. We have demonstrated that SL-containing extracts from forage chicory can inhibit feeding of free-living larvae and

  5. Sesquiterpene lactone containing extracts from two cultivars of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) show distinctive chemical profiles and in vitro activity against Ostertagia ostertagi.

    PubMed

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Boas, Ulrik; Williams, Andrew R; Thamsborg, Stig M; Simonsen, Henrik T; Enemark, Heidi L

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated direct anthelmintic effects of sesquiterpene lactones (SL)-containing extracts from forage chicory against free-living and parasitic stages of Ostertagia ostertagi. Freeze-dried leaves from chicory cultivars 'Spadona' and 'Puna II' were extracted using methanol/water. Total SL were further fractionated by solid-phase extraction and resulting extracts were characterised by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). O. ostertagi eggs from faeces of mono-infected calves were hatched and L1 were used in a larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), while cultured L3 were used in a larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA). Adult worms were immediately recovered after slaughter and used for motility inhibition assays (AMIA). Electron microscopy (EM) was performed on adult O. ostertagi exposed to 1000 μg extract mL(-1) of both chicory cultivars. In all assays, decreasing concentrations of SL-containing extracts in PBS (1% DMSO) were tested in replicates with 1% DMSO in PBS as negative controls. HPLC demonstrated similar concentrations of most SL in both extracts. However, Spadona-extract contained significantly higher concentrations of 11, 13-dihydro-8-deoxylactucin (P = 0.01), while Puna II-extract had increased levels of 11, 13-dihydrolactucin (P < 0.0001). In the LFIA, both extracts reduced larval feeding at increasing concentrations, but Spadona-extract showed higher potency confirmed by significantly lower EC50 (P < 0.0001). In the LEIA, neither of the two extracts interfered with the exsheathment of L3 (P > 0.05). In the AMIA, both SL-containing extracts induced a dose-dependent effect but Spadona-extract showed greater activity and exerted faster worm paralysis than Puna II-extract with significantly lower EC50 (P < 0.0001). No cuticular damage was observed by EM in worms exposed to any of the extracts. We have demonstrated that SL-containing extracts from forage chicory can inhibit feeding of free-living larvae and exert

  6. Measuring Chitinase and Protease Activity in Cultures of Fungal Entomopathogens.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Peter; Glare, Travis R; Rostás, Michael; Haines, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi produce a variety of destructive enzymes and metabolites to overcome the unique defense mechanisms of insects. In a first step, fungal chitinases and proteinases need to break down the insect's cuticle. Both enzyme classes support the infection process by weakening the chitin barrier and by producing nutritional cleavage products for the fungus. In a second step, the pathogen can now mechanically penetrate the weakened cuticle and reach the insect's hemolymph where it starts proliferating. The critical enzymes chitinase and proteinase are also excreted into the supernatants of fungal cultures and can be used as indicators of virulence. Chromogenic assays adapted for 96-well microtiter plates that measure these enzymes provide a sensitive, fast, and easy screening method for evaluating the potential biocontrol activity of fungal isolates and may be considered as an alternative to laborious and time-consuming bioassays. Furthermore, monitoring fungal enzyme production in dependence of time, nutrient sources, or other factors can facilitate in establishing optimal growth and harvesting conditions for selected isolates with the aim of achieving maximum biocontrol activity. PMID:27565500

  7. Measuring the built environment for physical activity: state of the science.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Ross C; Hoehner, Christine M; Day, Kristen; Forsyth, Ann; Sallis, James F

    2009-04-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical-or built-environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential. Three categories of built environment data are being used: (1) perceived measures obtained by telephone interview or self-administered questionnaires; (2) observational measures obtained using systematic observational methods (audits); and (3) archival data sets that are often layered and analyzed with GIS. This review provides a critical assessment of these three types of built-environment measures relevant to the study of physical activity. Among perceived measures, 19 questionnaires were reviewed, ranging in length from 7 to 68 questions. Twenty audit tools were reviewed that cover community environments (i.e., neighborhoods, cities), parks, and trails. For GIS-derived measures, more than 50 studies were reviewed. A large degree of variability was found in the operationalization of common GIS measures, which include population density, land-use mix, access to recreational facilities, and street pattern. This first comprehensive examination of built-environment measures demonstrates considerable progress over the past decade, showing diverse environmental variables available that use multiple modes of assessment. Most can be considered first-generation measures, so further development is needed. In particular, further research is needed to improve the technical quality of measures, understand the relevance to various population groups, and understand the utility of measures for science and public health.

  8. Effects of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric power variations on quantitative measures of brain activity: Replication of the Azerbaijani studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Bryce P.; Hunter, Mathew D.; Persinger, Michael A.

    2010-04-01

    This study replicates and extends the observations by Babayev and Allahveriyeva that changes in right hemispheric electroencephalographic activity are correlated with increases in geomagnetic activity. During the geomagnetically quiet interface between solar cycle 23 and 24 quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) measurements were completed for normal young adults in three separate experiments involving about 120 samples over 1.5 years. The most consistent, moderate strength correlations occurred for the changes in power within the gamma and theta ranges over the right frontal lobe. Real-time measures of atmospheric power obtained from polar orbiting satellites showed similar effects. The preferential involvement of the right frontal lobe and the regions subject to its inhibition with environmental energetic changes are consistent with the behavioural correlations historically associated with these conditions. They include increased incidence of emotional lability, erroneous reconstruction of experiences, social confrontations, and unusual perceptions.

  9. Active region emission measure distributions and implications for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect

    Cargill, P. J.

    2014-03-20

    The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of active regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ∼ T{sup a} below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (T{sub N} ) and the distribution of nanoflare energies. If T{sub N} is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the distribution of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly distributed, or a power law. Power law distributions where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, T{sub N} must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.

  10. A molecular beacon assay for measuring base excision repair activities.

    PubMed

    Maksimenko, Andrei; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Sanz, Guenhaël; Laval, Jacques; Elder, Rhoderick H; Saparbaev, Murat K

    2004-06-18

    The base excision repair (BER) pathway plays a key role in protecting the genome from endogenous DNA damage. Current methods to measure BER activities are indirect and cumbersome. Here, we introduce a direct method to assay DNA excision repair that is suitable for automation and industrial use, based on the fluorescence quenching mechanism of molecular beacons. We designed a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide labelled with a 5'-fluorescein (F) and a 3'-Dabcyl (D) in which the fluorophore, F, is held in close proximity to the quencher, D, by the stem-loop structure design of the oligonucleotide. Following removal of the modified base or incision of the oligonucleotide, the fluorophore is separated from the quencher and fluorescence can be detected as a function of time. Several modified beacons have been used to validate the assay on both cell-free extracts and purified proteins. We have further developed the method to analyze BER in cultured cells. As described, the molecular beacon-based assay can be applied to all DNA modifications processed by DNA excision/incision repair pathways. Possible applications of the assay are discussed, including high-throughput real-time DNA repair measurements both in vitro and in living cells.

  11. Measuring the Ability to Tolerate Activity-Related Discomfort: Initial Validation of the Physical Activity Acceptance Questionnaire (PAAQ)

    PubMed Central

    Butryn, Meghan L.; Arigo, Danielle R.; Raggio, Greer A.; Kaufman, Alison I.; Kerrigan, Stephanie G.; Forman, Evan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is essential for health, but many adults find PA adherence challenging. Acceptance of discomfort related to PA may influence an individual's ability to begin and sustain a program of exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Physical Activity Acceptance Questionnaire (PAAQ). Method The PAAQ was administered to three distinct samples (N = 418). Each sample completed additional self-report measures; one sample also wore accelerometers for seven days (at baseline and six months later). Results The PAAQ demonstrated high internal validity for its total score (α = 0.89) and two subscales (Cognitive Acceptance α = 0.86, Behavioral Commitment α = 0.85). The PAAQ also showed convergent validity with measures of mindfulness, self-reported physical activity levels, and accelerometer-verified levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA; ps < 0.05). The Cognitive Acceptance subscale showed predictive validity for objectively-verified PA levels among individuals attempting to increase PA over six months (p = 0.05). Test-retest reliability for a subset of participants (n = 46) demonstrated high consistency over one week (p < 0.0001). Conclusions The PAAQ demonstrates sound psychometric properties, and shows promise for improving the current understanding of PA facilitators and barriers among adults. PMID:25106049

  12. Attributes and templates from active measurements with {sup 252}Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Mattingly, J.K.

    2000-02-01

    Active neutron interrogation is useful for the detection of shielded HEU and could also be used for Pu. In an active technique, fissile material is stimulated by an external neutron source to produce fission with the emanation of neutrons and gamma rays. The time distribution of particles leaving the fissile material is measured with respect to the source emission in a variety of ways. A variety of accelerator and radioactive sources can be used. Active interrogation of nuclear weapons/components can be used in two ways: template matching or attribute estimation. Template matching compares radiation signatures with known reference signatures and for treaty applications has the problem of authentication of the reference signatures along with storage and retrieval of templates. Attribute estimation determines, for example, the fissile mass from various features of the radiation signatures and does not require storage of radiation signatures but does require calibration, which can be repeated as necessary. A nuclear materials identification system (NMIS) has been in use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for verification of weapons components being received and in storage by template matching and has been used with calibrations for attribute (fissile mass) estimation for HEU metal. NMIS employs a {sup 252}Cf source of low intensity (< 2 x 10{sup 6} n/sec) such that the dose at 1 m is approximately twice that on a commercial airline at altitude. The use of such a source presents no significant safety concerns either for personnel or nuclear explosive safety, and has been approved for use at the Pantex Plant on fully assembled weapons systems.

  13. Brain mechanical property measurement using MRE with intrinsic activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John B.; Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-11-01

    , termed intrinsic activation, produces sufficient motion to allow mechanical properties to be recovered. The poroelastic model is more consistent with the measured data from brain at low frequencies than the linear elastic model. Intrinsic activation allows MRE to be performed without a device shaking the head so the patient notices no differences between it and the other sequences in an MR examination.

  14. Absolute calibration method for laser megajoule neutron yield measurement by activation diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landoas, Olivier; Yu Glebov, Vladimir; Rossé, Bertrand; Briat, Michelle; Disdier, Laurent; Sangster, Thomas C.; Duffy, Tim; Marmouget, Jean Gabriel; Varignon, Cyril; Ledoux, Xavier; Caillaud, Tony; Thfoin, Isabelle; Bourgade, Jean-Luc

    2011-07-01

    The laser megajoule (LMJ) and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) plan to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition using inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The neutron yield is one of the most important parameters to characterize ICF experiment performance. For decades, the activation diagnostic was chosen as a reference at ICF facilities and is now planned to be the first nuclear diagnostic on LMJ, measuring both 2.45 MeV and 14.1 MeV neutron yields. Challenges for the activation diagnostic development are absolute calibration, accuracy, range requirement, and harsh environment. At this time, copper and zirconium material are identified for 14.1 MeV neutron yield measurement and indium material for 2.45 MeV neutrons. A series of calibrations were performed at Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) on a Van de Graff facility to determine activation diagnostics efficiencies and to compare them with results from calculations. The CEA copper activation diagnostic was tested on the OMEGA facility during DT implosion. Experiments showed that CEA and Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) diagnostics agree to better than 1% on the neutron yield measurement, with an independent calibration for each system. Also, experimental sensitivities are in good agreement with simulations and allow us to scale activation diagnostics for the LMJ measurement range.

  15. A new quantitative method to measure activity of ice structuring proteins using differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Hassa-Roudsari, Majid; Goff, H Douglas

    2012-01-01

    There are very few quantitative assays to measure the activity of antifreeze proteins (AFPs, or Ice Structuring Proteins, ISPs) and these can be prone to various inaccuracies and inconsistencies. Some methods rely only on unassisted visual assessment. When microscopy is used to measure ice crystal size, it is critical that standardized procedures be adopted, especially when image analysis software is used to quantify sizes. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) has been used to measure the thermal hysteresis activity (TH) of AFPs. In this study, DSC was used isothermally to measure enthalpic changes associated with structural rearrangements as a function of time. Differences in slopes of isothermal heat flow vs. time between winter wheat ISP or AFP type I containing samples, and those without ISP or AFP type I were demonstrated. ISP or AFP type I containing samples had significantly higher slopes compared to those without ISP or AFP type I. Samples with higher concentration of ISP or AFP type I showed higher slope values during the first hour and took up to 3 hr to attain equilibrium. Differences were attributed to activity of the proteins at the ice interface. Proteinaceous activity of ISPs or AFP type I was confirmed by loss of activity after treatment with protease.

  16. Size distribution and emission rate measurement of fine and ultrafine particle from indoor human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Géhin, Evelyne; Ramalho, Olivier; Kirchner, Séverine

    Human indoor activities generate airborne particles which contribute to the increase of aerosol concentration levels in the home. The particle size distribution emission rate was measured for 18 different activities (burning candle or incense, cooking, spray use, computer printing and household cleaning). The particle emission rate was calculated from concentration measurements with a DMS500 (CAMBUSTION) in an experimental chamber (2.36 ± 0.05 m 3). The results showed that ultrafine particles are emitted during these activities and the lowest number distribution mode was 6 nm for one of the burning candles. All the cooking activities had similar emissions with a mode between 20 and 40 nm. The measured size distributions were represented in a database by the sum of 1, 2 or 3 lognormal distributions. The measured total emission rate ranged between 0.06 × 10 10 and 13.10 × 10 10 s -1 and the highest emission rate was measured for the self cleaning oven program (pyrolysis).

  17. Optical and SPION-Enhanced MR Imaging Shows that trans-Stilbene Inhibitors of NF-κB Concomitantly Lower Alzheimer’s Disease Plaque Formation and Microglial Activation in AβPP/PS-1 Transgenic Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Nathan O.; Chamberlin, Ryan; Vigil, Jenette R.; Deck, Lorraine M.; Heidrich, John E.; Brown, David C.; Brady, Christina I.; Vander Jagt, Thomas A.; Garwood, Michael; Bisoffi, Marco; Severns, Virginia; Vander Jagt, David L.; Sillerud, Laurel O.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with a microglia-dependent neuroinflammatory response against plaques containing the fibrous protein amyloid-β (Aβ). Activation of microglia, which closely associate with Aβ plaques, engenders the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the internalization of Aβ fibrils. Since the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB is one of the major regulators of Aβ-induced inflammation, we treated transgenic amyloid-β protein protein/presenilin-1 (AβPP/PS1) mice for one year with a low dose (0.01% by weight in the diet) of either of two trans-stilbene NF-κB inhibitors, resveratrol or a synthetic analog LD55. The 3D distribution of Aβ plaques was measured ex vivo in intact brains at 60 μm resolution by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using blood-brain barrier-permeable, anti-AβPP-conjugated superparamagentic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). The MRI measurements were confirmed by optical microscopy of thioflavin-stained brain tissue sections and indicated that supplementation with either of the two trans-stilbenes lowered Aβ plaque density in the cortex, caudoputamen, and hippocampus by 1.4 to 2-fold. The optical measurements also included the hippocampus and indicated that resveratrol and LD55 reduced average Aβ plaque density by 2.3-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively. Ex vivo measurements of the regional distribution of microglial activation by Iba-1 immunofluorescence of brain tissue sections showed that resveratrol and LD55 reduced average microglial activation by 4.2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively. Since LD55 lacked hydroxyl groups but both resveratrol and LD55 concomitantly reduced both Aβ plaque burden and neuroinflammation to a similar extent, it appears that the antioxidant potential of resveratrol is not an important factor in plaque reduction. PMID:24413613

  18. Stress Sensitive Healthy Females Show Less Left Amygdala Activation in Response to Withdrawal-Related Visual Stimuli under Passive Viewing Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeken, Chris; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; De Raedt, Rudi; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Mey, Johan; Bossuyt, Axel; Luypaert, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The amygdalae are key players in the processing of a variety of emotional stimuli. Especially aversive visual stimuli have been reported to attract attention and activate the amygdalae. However, as it has been argued that passively viewing withdrawal-related images could attenuate instead of activate amygdalae neuronal responses, its role under…

  19. Nonwoven fabric active electrodes for biopotential measurement during normal daily activity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae-Ho; Merritt, Carey R; Grant, Edward; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Nagle, H Troy

    2008-01-01

    Body movement is responsible for most of the interference during physiological data acquisition during normal daily activities. In this paper, we introduce nonwoven fabric active electrodes that provide the comfort required for clothing while robustly recording physiological data in the presence of body movement. The nonwoven fabric active electrodes were designed and fabricated using both hand- and screen-printing thick-film techniques. Nonstretchable nonwoven (Evolon 100) was chosen as the flexible fabric substrate and a silver filled polymer ink (Creative Materials CMI 112-15) was used to form a transducer layer and conductive lines on the nonwoven fabrics. These nonwoven fabric active electrodes can be easily integrated into clothing for wearable health monitoring applications. Test results indicate that nonwoven textile-based sensors show considerable promise for physiological data acquisition in wearable healthcare monitoring applications.

  20. Photo-oxidation of automobile emissions: Measurements of the transformation products and their mutagenic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kleindienst, T.E.; Smith, D.F.; Hudgens, E.E.; Snow, R.F.; Perry, E.

    1992-01-01

    Dilute mixtures of automobile emissions were irradiated in a smog chamber and tested for mutagenic activity by using a variant of the Salmonella test. The exhaust was taken from single vehicle, a 1977 Ford Mustang, equipped with a catalytic converter. Irradiated and nonirradiate gas-phase emissions were used in exposures of the bacteria, Salmonella typhimurium. The mutagenic activities of extracts from the particulate phase were also measured with the standard plate incorporation assay. (In all experiments only direct-acting mutagenic compounds were measured). The gas-phase data showed increased activity for the irradiated emissions when compared to the nonirradiated mixture, which exhibited negligible activity with respect to the control values. The particulate phase for both the irradiated and nonirradiated mixtures showed negligible activity when results were compared to control values for both strains. However, the experimental conditions limited the amount of extractable mass which could be collected in the particulate phase. Under the experimental conditions of this study, the mutagenic density of the gas-phase component of the irradiated mixture contributed approximately two orders of magnitude more to the total TA100 activity than did the particulate phase. For TA98, the gas-phase component contributed approximately one order of magnitude more. The significance and limitations of the results are discussed.

  1. Magnetic field measurements in and above a limb active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Judge

    2013-07-01

    We analyze spectropolarimetric data of a limb active region (NOAA 11302) obtained on September 22nd 2011 using the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). Stokes profiles including lines of Si I 1028.7 nm and He I 1083 nm were obtained in three scans over a 45"x75" area. Simultaneous narrow band Ca II K and G-band intensity data were acquired with a cadence of 5s at the DST. The He I data show not only typical active region polarization signatures, but also signatures in plumes -- cool post flare loops -- which extend many Mm into the corona across the visible limb. The plumes have remarkably uniform brightness, and the plume plasma is significantly Doppler shifted as it drains from the corona. Using carefully constructed observing and calibration sequences and applying Principal Component Analysis to remove instrumental artifacts, we achieved a polarization sensitivity approaching 0.02%. With this sensitivity we attempt to diagnose the vector magnetic fields and plasma properties of chromospheric and cool coronal material in and above NOAA 11302. Inversions using various radiative transfer models in the HAZEL code are remarkably consistent with the idea that plume spectra are formed in a simple, slab-like geometry, but that the ``disk'' spectra are formed under more traditional models (Milne-Eddington). The inverted magnetic data of He I lines are compared with photospheric inversions of DST Si I and Fe I data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.

  2. A 'Propagating' Active Across-Arc Normal Fault Shows Rupture Process of the Basement: the Case of the Southwestern Ryukyu Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Shinjo, R.; Nakamura, M.; Kubo, A.; Doi, A.; Tamanaha, S.

    2011-12-01

    Ryukyu Arc is located on the southwestern extension of Japanese Island-arc towards the east of Taiwan Island along the margin of the Asian continent off China. The island-arc forms an arcuate trench-arc-backarc system. A NW-ward subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP)at a rate of 6-8 cm/y relative to the Eurasian Plate (EP) causes frequent earthquakes. The PSP is subducting almost normally in the north-central area and more obliquely around the southwestern area. Behind the arc-trench system, the Okinawa Trough (OT) was formed by back-arc rifting, where active hydrothermal vent systems have been discovered. Several across-arc submarine faults are located in the central and southern Ryukyu Arc. The East Ishigaki Fault (EIF) is one of the across-arc normal faults located in the southwestern Ryukyu Arc, ranging by 44km and extending from SE to NW. This fault was surveyed by SEABAT8160 multibeam echo sounder and by ROV Hyper-Dolphin in 2005 and 2008. The result shows that the main fault consists of five fault segments. A branched segment from the main fault was also observed. The southernmost segment is most mature (oldest but still active) and the northernmost one is most nascent. This suggests the north-westward propagation of the fault rupture corresponding to the rifting of the southwestern OT and the southward retreat of the arc-trench system. Considering that the fault is segmented and in some part branched, propagation might take place episodically rather than continuously from SE to NW. The ROV survey also revealed the rupture process of the limestone basement along this fault from the nascent stage to the mature stage. Most of the rock samples collected from the basement outcrop were limestone blocks (or calcareous sedimentary rocks). Limestone basement was observed to the west on the hanging wall far away from the main fault scarp. Then fine-grained sand with ripple marks was observed towards the main scarp. Limestone basement was observed on the main

  3. Measurement of anticomplementary activity in therapeutic intravenous immunoglobulin preparations.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, I; Tran, E; Farrugia, A

    1997-03-01

    Anticomplementary activity (ACA) of aggregates in intravenous immunoglobulin preparations (IVIG) was investigated using the modified Kabat and Meyer classical complement consumption method recommended by the European Pharmacopoeia and a C1q-coated microtitre enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The physical characteristics of aggregates were found to affect complement binding. Aggregates formed by heating IVIG preparations at acid pH bound complement poorly, while aggregates formed by heating IVIG at neutral pH showed high ACA. This suggests that analysis of complement binding capacity provides a level of aggregate characterization of aggregates which is additional to quantitation by High-performance liquid chromatography ((HPLC). The correlation (r = 0.98) between the two tests was good when aggregates formed at neutral pH were compared, but decreased (r = 0.57) when aggregates formed at acid pH were included. A comparison of the results showed that there were no significant differences in the classification of aggregates with acceptable/unacceptable (i.e. pass/fail outcome) values of ACA. Between assay variation (CV = 7.6%) was lower in the ELISA test compared with the complement consumption assay (where percentage binding varied from 78.9% to 100%). Both assays are justified for the evaluation of ACA in therapeutic IVIG. The ELISA had the advantage in being more precise, less dependent on reagent source and requiring less technical expertise.

  4. Measurement of antioxidant activity with trifluoperazine dihydrochloride radical cation.

    PubMed

    Asghar, M N; Khan, I U

    2008-06-01

    A novel, rapid and cost-effective trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFPH) decolorization assay is described for the screening of antioxidant activity. A chromogenic reaction between TFPH and potassium persulfate at low pH produces an orange-red radical cation with maximum absorption at 502 nm in its first-order derivative spectrum. TFPH was dissolved in distilled water to give a 100 mM solution. The TFPH radical cation solution was made by reacting 0.5 mL of the solution with K2S2O8 (final concentration: 0.1 mM) and diluting to 100 mL with 4 M H2SO4 solution. A linear inhibition of color production was observed with linearly increasing amounts of antioxidants, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.999 to 0.983. The antioxidant capacity of standard solutions of an antioxidant was evaluated by comparing with the inhibition curve using Trolox as the standard. Comparison of antioxidant capacity determined with this newly developed TFPH assay and with the well-known 2,2'-azinobis-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] (ABTS)-persulfate decolorization assay indicated the efficacy and sensitivity of the procedure. The proposed assay is less expensive (costs about US$4 per 100 assays) and requires only 20 min for preparation of radical cation solution in comparison with ABTS assay, in which almost 12-16 h are required for preparation of a stable ABTS radical cation solution. The present assay has the advantage over ABTS assay that it can be used to measure the antioxidant activity of the samples, which are naturally found at a pH as low as 1, because the radical cation itself has been stabilized at low pH.

  5. Ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia and Alstonia scholaris show antimicrobial activity towards clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant and carbapenemase-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bonvicini, Francesca; Mandrone, Manuela; Antognoni, Fabiana; Poli, Ferruccio; Gentilomi, Giovanna Angela

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of three plants from Ayurveda tradition (Tinospora cordifolia, Alstonia scholaris, Crataeva nurvala) against reference microbial strains and clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. IC50 values were obtained by micro-dilution methods meeting the requirements of the NCCLS standard. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also investigated on a mammalian cell line. Extracts displayed a variable degree of antimicrobial activity and did not interfere with mammalian cell proliferation. T. cordifolia and A. scholaris exhibited a higher inhibitory activity against clinical isolates of MRSA and carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae compared with reference strains, while C. nurvala exhibited a different behaviour. An antifungal activity towards Candida albicans was observed for A. scholaris extract. Results indicate that constituents from T. cordifolia and A. scholaris may be a potential source of new therapeutic strategies for infectious diseases. PMID:24749692

  6. Functional genomics analysis of big data identifies novel peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor gamma target single nucleotide polymorphisms showing association with cardiometabolic outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus represent overlapping diseases where a large portion of the variation attributable to genetics remains unexplained. An important player in their pathogenesis is peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) that is involve...

  7. Positive Control Mutations in the MyoD Basic Region Fail to Show Cooperative DNA Binding and Transcriptional Activation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengal, Eyal; Flores, Osvaldo; Rangarajan, Pundi N.; Chen, Amy; Weintraub, Harold; Verma, Inder M.

    1994-06-01

    An in vitro transcription system from HeLa cells has been established in which MyoD and E47 proteins activate transcription both as homodimers and heterodimers. However, heterodimers activate transcription more efficiently than homodimers, and function synergistically from multiple binding sites. Positive control mutants in the basic region of MyoD that have previously been shown to be defective in initiating the myogenic program, can bind DNA but have lost their ability to function as transcriptional activators in vitro. Additionally, positive control mutants, unlike wild-type MyoD, fail to bind cooperatively to DNA. We propose that binding of MyoD complexes to high affinity MyoD binding sites induces conformational changes that facilitate cooperative binding to multiple sites and promote transcriptional activation.

  8. Satellite measurements of recent volcanic activity at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Kervyn, Matthieu; Realmuto, Vince; Abrams, Michael; Hook, Simon J.

    2008-06-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) is the only active volcano in the world that produces natrocarbonatite lava. These carbonate-rich lavas are unique in that they have relatively low temperatures (495-590 °C) and very low viscosity. OL has been erupting intermittently since 1983, mostly with small lava flows, pools and spatter cones (hornitos) confined to the summit crater. Explosive, ash-producing eruptions are rare, however, on September 4, 2007 the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured the first satellite image of an ash plume erupting from OL, which may be indicative of a new phase of more silica-rich products and explosive activity that has not occurred since 1966-1967. In the months prior to the eruption, thermal infrared (TIR) satellite monitoring detected an increasing number of thermal anomalies around OL. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor analyzed with the MODLEN algorithm detected more than 30 hot spots in the last week of August and first week of September 2007, some of which were from bush fires ignited by lava flows or spatter around the volcano. Higher-resolution ASTER data confirmed the location of these burn scars associated with lava flows. ASTER also detected the appearance of an anomalous hot spot at the summit of OL in mid-June with temperatures ~ 440 °C, the presence of several new lava flows in the crater in July and August, and on September 4 measured higher temperatures (~ 550 °C) possibly suggesting a more silicate-rich eruption. ASTER spectral emissivity data were interpreted to indicate a mixture of carbonate and silicate ash in the eruption plume from September 4. Based on the analysis of both ASTER and MODIS data combined with occasional field observations, there appear to have been 2 distinct eruptive events so far in 2007: a typical natrocarbonatite eruption confined to the summit crater in June-July, and a more intense eruption in August-September consisting of

  9. A simplified method for detecting macroamylasemia by measuring serum amylase activity at different reaction temperatures.

    PubMed

    Koda, T; Kuratsune, H; Kurahori, T

    1983-06-01

    Amylase activity in serum and urine, and isoamylase, were measured in 300 patients with abdominal pain to detect cases of macroamylasemia. Of these patients, 9 had hyperamylasemia and 2 were diagnosed as cases of macroamylasemia on the basis of their amylase/creatinine clearance ratio, the gel filtration pattern of their amylase on a dextran column, and results of immunological analysis. Amylase activity in macroamylasemia is reported to show an anomalous response to increase in reaction-temperature. In this report, measurements of the temperature-activity relationships of serum amylase confirmed that the ratio of serum amylase activity at 50 degrees C to that at 25 degrees C (AMY-50 degrees C/AMY-25 degrees C ratio) in patients with macroamylasemia was higher than that in normal subjects or patients with pancreatitis. Moreover, when macromolecular amylase in the sera of patients with macroamylasemia was separated from amylase of normal molecular weight by dextran gel chromatography, it showed a significantly higher AMY-50 degrees C/AMY-25 degrees C ratio than the latter. Measurement of this AMY-50 degrees C/AMY-25 degrees C ratio seems to be a convenient and useful method for differential diagnosis of hyperamylasemia.

  10. A Systematic Review of the Clinimetric Properties of Habitual Physical Activity Measures in Young Children with a Motor Disability

    PubMed Central

    Oftedal, Stina; Bell, Kristie L.; Mitchell, Louise E.; Davies, Peter S. W.; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To identify and systematically review the clinimetric properties of habitual physical activity (HPA) measures in young children with a motor disability. Method. Five databases were searched for measures of HPA including: children aged <6.0 years with a neuromuscular disorder, physical activity defined as “bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles causing caloric expenditure”, reported HPA as duration, frequency, intensity, mode or energy expenditure, and evaluated clinimetric properties. The quality of papers was assessed using the COSMIN-checklist. A targeted search of identified measures found additional studies of typically developing young children (TDC). Results. Seven papers assessing four activity monitors met inclusion criteria. Four studies were of good methodological quality. The Minimod had good ability to measure continuous walking but the demonstrated poor ability to measure steps during free-living activities. The Intelligent Device for E