Science.gov

Sample records for activity monitor tam

  1. An Automatic Tremor Activity Monitoring System (TAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, H.; Thompson, P. J.; Rogers, G.; Dragert, H.; Spence, G.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed an algorithm that quantitatively characterizes the level of seismic tremors from recorded seismic waveforms. For each hour of waveform at a given station, the process begins with the calculation of scintillation index and moving average with various time lengths. The scintillation index (essentially the `normalized variance of intensity of the signal') is adapted from the studies of pulses in radio waves and is an efficient tool to identify the energy bursts of tremor signals. Both scintillation index and moving average values are fed into a series of logic gates to determine if tremor activity exists. This algorithm is implemented in the Tremor Activity Monitoring System (TAMS) to provide automatic early alerts for episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events in the northern Cascadia margin. Currently, TAMS retrieves the digital waveforms recorded during the previous day from the Canadian National Seismographic Network (CNSN) archive server at 1 AM every morning. The detecting process is repeated for all stations and hours to determine the level of tremor activity of the previous day. If a sufficient number of stations within a radius of 100 km are determined to have tremor patterns and coherent tremor arrivals can be found at more than 3 stations, TAMS automatically sends out alert emails to a list of subscribers with a figure summarizing the hours and locations of coherent tremors. TAMS outputs are very consistent with the work done by visual inspection, especially for major ETS events. It is straightforward to configure TAMS into a near-real-time system that can send out hourly (or shorter) reports if necessary.

  2. Small molecule inhibitors block Gas6-inducible TAM activation and tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, Stanley G.; Kumar, Sushil; Bansal, Nitu; Singh, Kamalendra; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Comollo, Thomas; Peng, Youyi; Kotenko, Sergei V.; Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Bertino, Joseph R.; Welsh, William J.; Birge, Raymond B.

    2017-01-01

    TAM receptors (Tyro-3, Axl, and Mertk) are a family of three homologous type I receptor tyrosine kinases that are implicated in several human malignancies. Overexpression of TAMs and their major ligand Growth arrest-specific factor 6 (Gas6) is associated with more aggressive staging of cancers, poorer predicted patient survival, acquired drug resistance and metastasis. Here we describe small molecule inhibitors (RU-301 and RU-302) that target the extracellular domain of Axl at the interface of the Ig-1 ectodomain of Axl and the Lg-1 of Gas6. These inhibitors effectively block Gas6-inducible Axl receptor activation with low micromolar IC50s in cell-based reporter assays, inhibit Gas6-inducible motility in Axl-expressing cell lines, and suppress H1299 lung cancer tumor growth in a mouse xenograft NOD-SCIDγ model. Furthermore, using homology models and biochemical verifications, we show that RU301 and 302 also inhibit Gas6 inducible activation of Mertk and Tyro3 suggesting they can act as pan-TAM inhibitors that block the interface between the TAM Ig1 ectodomain and the Gas6 Lg domain. Together, these observations establish that small molecules that bind to the interface between TAM Ig1 domain and Gas6 Lg1 domain can inhibit TAM activation, and support the further development of small molecule Gas6-TAM interaction inhibitors as a novel class of cancer therapeutics. PMID:28272423

  3. Enveloped Viruses Disable Innate Immune Responses in Dendritic Cells by Direct Activation of TAM Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Suchita; Zagórska, Anna; Lew, Erin D.; Shrestha, Bimmi; Rothlin, Carla V.; Naughton, John; Diamond, Michael S.; Lemke, Greg; Young, John A.T.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Upon activation by the ligands Gas6 and Protein S, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases promote phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells and downregulate immune responses initiated by Toll-like receptors and type I interferons (IFNs). Many enveloped viruses display the phospholipid phosphatidylserine on their membranes, through which they bind Gas6 and Protein S and engage TAM receptors. We find that ligand-coated viruses activate TAM receptors on dendritic cells (DCs), dampen type I IFN signaling, and thereby evade host immunity and promote infection. Upon virus challenge, TAM-deficient DCs display type I IFN responses that are elevated in comparison to wild-type cells. As a consequence, TAM-deficient DCs are relatively resistant to infection by flaviviruses and pseudotyped retroviruses, but infection can be restored with neutralizing type I IFN antibodies. Correspondingly, a TAM kinase inhibitor antagonizes the infection of wild-type DCs. Thus, TAM receptors are engaged by viruses in order to attenuate type I IFN signaling and represent potential therapeutic targets. PMID:23954153

  4. TAM receptors affect adult brain neurogenesis by negative regulation of microglial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Rui; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Helen J; Lu, Qingjun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin; Ding, Jixiang; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-12-15

    TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-κB activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.

  5. Dynamic Simulation of 1D Cellular Automata in the Active aTAM.

    PubMed

    Jonoska, Nataša; Karpenko, Daria; Seki, Shinnosuke

    2015-07-01

    The Active aTAM is a tile based model for self-assembly where tiles are able to transfer signals and change identities according to the signals received. We extend Active aTAM to include deactivation signals and thereby allow detachment of tiles. We show that the model allows a dynamic simulation of cellular automata with assemblies that do not record the entire computational history but only the current updates of the states, and thus provide a way for (a) algorithmic dynamical structural changes in the assembly and (b) reusable space in self-assembly. The simulation is such that at a given location the sequence of tiles that attach and detach corresponds precisely to the sequence of states the synchronous cellular automaton generates at that location.

  6. Dynamic Simulation of 1D Cellular Automata in the Active aTAM

    PubMed Central

    Jonoska, Nataša; Karpenko, Daria; Seki, Shinnosuke

    2016-01-01

    The Active aTAM is a tile based model for self-assembly where tiles are able to transfer signals and change identities according to the signals received. We extend Active aTAM to include deactivation signals and thereby allow detachment of tiles. We show that the model allows a dynamic simulation of cellular automata with assemblies that do not record the entire computational history but only the current updates of the states, and thus provide a way for (a) algorithmic dynamical structural changes in the assembly and (b) reusable space in self-assembly. The simulation is such that at a given location the sequence of tiles that attach and detach corresponds precisely to the sequence of states the synchronous cellular automaton generates at that location. PMID:27789918

  7. Ligand Activation of TAM Family Receptors-Implications for Tumor Biology and Therapeutic Response

    PubMed Central

    Davra, Viralkumar; Kimani, Stanley G.; Calianese, David; Birge, Raymond B.

    2016-01-01

    The TAM family of receptors (i.e., Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk), and their ligands Growth arrest specific factor 6 (Gas6) and Protein S (Pros1) contribute to several oncogenic processes, such as cell survival, invasion, migration, chemo-resistance, and metastasis, whereby expression often correlates with poor clinical outcomes. In recent years, there has been great interest in the study of TAM receptors in cancer, stemming both from their roles as oncogenic signaling receptors, as well as their roles in tumor immunology. As a result, several classes of TAM inhibitors that include small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, decoy receptors, as well as novel strategies to target TAM ligands are being developed. This paper will review the biology of TAM receptors and their ligands with a focus on cancer, as well as evidence-based data for the continued pursuit of TAM/Gas6 inhibitors in clinical practice. PMID:27916840

  8. An extensive ground monitoring system for floodplain inundation: the WISDOM test area Tam Nong in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, N. N.; Thoss, H.; Güntner, A.; Apel, H.

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring of floodplain inundation is one of the key issues in respect to hydraulic model calibration, especially for 2-dimensional modeling of floodplains. While in recent years the use of remote sensing products for flood mapping have received a large boost by new techniques and platforms (LiDAR, SAR, optical system, both satellite and airborn) and proved to be a significant step forward in floodplain inundation model calibration, they are not the encompassing answer to the chronic lack of data of floodplain inundation. Due to the singular nature of floods and restrictions in sensor availability, overpass frequencies, unfavorable atmospheric conditions and difficulties in signal interpretation, remote sensing products usually provide only a short but spatially extensive view on the inundation process. In order to get a more encompassing picture of the inundation dynamics, time series of flood parameters have to be collected in the floodplains itself. In order to overcome the intrinsic problem of testing flood monitoring equipment in a short termed research project, an extensive ground-based flood monitoring system was established within the WISDOM (www.wisdom.caf.dlr.de)project in the Mekong Delta. Due to annual flood rhythm flood condition could be guaranteed within the projects duration. For the flood season 2008 the test site Tam Nong in the Plain of Reeds in the Delta was equipped with 21 water level pressure gauges, 7 turbidity sensors and 2 GPS buoys, all designed to run autonomously for a period of 6 month and sampling data in short termed intervals. The collected data show a detailed picture of the inundation and sediment dynamics in the whole area including tidal influence and dike overtopping. This unique data set will be used in combination with spatial explicit water masks derived by remote sensing for 2D hydraulic model calibration in the next step.

  9. Targeting the TAM Receptors in Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Huey, Madeline G.; Minson, Katherine A.; Earp, H. Shelton; DeRyckere, Deborah; Graham, Douglas K.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted inhibition of members of the TAM (TYRO-3, AXL, MERTK) family of receptor tyrosine kinases has recently been investigated as a novel strategy for treatment of hematologic malignancies. The physiologic functions of the TAM receptors in innate immune control, natural killer (NK) cell differentiation, efferocytosis, clearance of apoptotic debris, and hemostasis have previously been described and more recent data implicate TAM kinases as important regulators of erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. The TAM receptors are aberrantly or ectopically expressed in many hematologic malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia, B- and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and multiple myeloma. TAM receptors contribute to leukemic phenotypes through activation of pro-survival signaling pathways and interplay with other oncogenic proteins such as FLT3, LYN, and FGFR3. The TAM receptors also contribute to resistance to both cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and targeted agents, making them attractive therapeutic targets. A number of translational strategies for TAM inhibition are in development, including small molecule inhibitors, ligand traps, and monoclonal antibodies. Emerging areas of research include modulation of TAM receptors to enhance anti-tumor immunity, potential roles for TYRO-3 in leukemogenesis, and the function of the bone marrow microenvironment in mediating resistance to TAM inhibition. PMID:27834816

  10. Activation of TrkB with TAM-163 results in opposite effects on body weight in rodents and non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Mylène; Feng, Guo; Will, Sarah; Gareski, Tiffany; Kubasiak, David; Marquette, Kimberly; Vugmeyster, Yulia; Unger, Thaddeus J; Jones, Juli; Qadri, Ariful; Hahm, Seung; Sun, Ying; Rohde, Cynthia M; Zwijnenberg, Raphael; Paulsen, Janet; Gimeno, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Strong genetic data link the Tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) and its major endogenous ligand brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the regulation of energy homeostasis, with loss-of-function mutations in either gene causing severe obesity in both mice and humans. It has previously been reported that peripheral administration of the endogenous TrkB agonist ligand neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) profoundly decreases food intake and body weight in rodents, while paradoxically increasing these same parameters in monkeys. We generated a humanized TrkB agonist antibody, TAM-163, and characterized its therapeutic potential in several models of type 2 diabetes and obesity. In vitro, TAM-163 bound to human and rodent TrkB with high affinity, activated all aspects of the TrkB signaling cascade and induced TrkB internalization and degradation in a manner similar to BDNF. In vivo, peripheral administration of TAM-163 decreased food intake and/or body weight in mice, rats, hamsters, and dogs, but increased food intake and body weight in monkeys. The magnitude of weight change was similar in rodents and non-human primates, occurred at doses where there was no appreciable penetration into deep structures of the brain, and could not be explained by differences in exposures between species. Rather, peripherally administered TAM-163 localized to areas in the hypothalamus and the brain stem located outside the blood-brain barrier in a similar manner between rodents and non-human primates, suggesting differences in neuroanatomy across species. Our data demonstrate that a TrkB agonist antibody, administered peripherally, causes species-dependent effects on body weight similar to the endogenous TrkB ligand NT-4. The possible clinical utility of TrkB agonism in treating weight regulatory disorder, such as obesity or cachexia, will require evaluation in man.

  11. An object-based image analysis approach for aquaculture ponds precise mapping and monitoring: a case study of Tam Giang-Cau Hai Lagoon, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Virdis, Salvatore Gonario Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring and mapping shrimp farms, including their impact on land cover and land use, is critical to the sustainable management and planning of coastal zones. In this work, a methodology was proposed to set up a cost-effective and reproducible procedure that made use of satellite remote sensing, object-based classification approach, and open-source software for mapping aquaculture areas with high planimetric and thematic accuracy between 2005 and 2008. The analysis focused on two characteristic areas of interest of the Tam Giang-Cau Hai Lagoon (in central Vietnam), which have similar farming systems to other coastal aquaculture worldwide: the first was primarily characterised by locally referred "low tide" shrimp ponds, which are partially submerged areas; the second by earthed shrimp ponds, locally referred to as "high tide" ponds, which are non-submerged areas on the lagoon coast. The approach was based on the region-growing segmentation of high- and very high-resolution panchromatic images, SPOT5 and Worldview-1, and the unsupervised clustering classifier ISOSEG embedded on SPRING non-commercial software. The results, the accuracy of which was tested with a field-based aquaculture inventory, showed that in favourable situations (high tide shrimp ponds), the classification results provided high rates of accuracy (>95 %) through a fully automatic object-based classification. In unfavourable situations (low tide shrimp ponds), the performance degraded due to the low contrast between the water and the pond embankments. In these situations, the automatic results were improved by manual delineation of the embankments. Worldview-1 necessarily showed better thematic accuracy, and precise maps have been realised at a scale of up to 1:2,000. However, SPOT5 provided comparable results in terms of number of correctly classified ponds, but less accurate results in terms of the precision of mapped features. The procedure also demonstrated high degrees of reproducibility

  12. Full-scale results for TAM limestone injection

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, S.

    1996-12-31

    Information is outlined on the use of thermally active marble (TAM) sorbents in boilers. Data are presented on: the comparison of TAM to limestone; NOVACON process development history; CFB test history; CFB pilot scale test; full-scale CFB trial; August, 1996 CFB demonstration; Foster Wheeler Mount Carmel sorbent feed rate comparison and Ca:S comparison; unburned carbon is ash; and advantages and savings in CFB boilers.

  13. The regulatory role of Streptomyces coelicolor TamR in central metabolism.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Sivapragasam, Smitha; Grove, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Trans-aconitate methyltransferase regulator (TamR) is a member of the ligand-responsive multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family of transcription factors. In Streptomyces coelicolor, TamR regulates transcription of tamR (encoding TamR), tam (encoding trans-aconitate methyltransferase) and sacA (encoding aconitase); up-regulation of these genes promotes metabolic flux through the citric acid cycle. DNA binding by TamR is attenuated and transcriptional derepression is achieved on binding of ligands such as citrate and trans-aconitate to TamR. In the present study, we show that three additional genes are regulated by S. coelicolor TamR. Genes encoding malate synthase (aceB1; SCO6243), malate dehydrogenase (mdh; SCO4827) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (idh; SCO7000) are up-regulated in vivo when citrate and trans-aconitate accumulate, and TamR binds the corresponding gene promoters in vitro, a DNA binding that is attenuated by cognate ligands. Mutations to the TamR binding site attenuate DNA binding in vitro and result in constitutive promoter activity in vivo. The predicted TamR binding sites are highly conserved in the promoters of these genes in Streptomyces species that encode divergent tam-tamR gene pairs, suggesting evolutionary conservation. Like aconitase and trans-aconitate methyltransferase, malate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate synthase are closely related to the citric acid cycle, either catalysing individual reaction steps or, in the case of malate synthase, participating in the glyoxylate cycle to produce malate that enters the citric acid cycle to replenish the intermediate pool. Taken together, our data suggest that TamR plays an important and conserved role in promoting metabolic flux through the citric acid cycle.

  14. Cytoplasmic PELP1 and ERRgamma Protect Human Mammary Epithelial Cells from Tam-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Brian J.; Regan Anderson, Tarah M.; Welch, Siya Lem; Nicely, Julie; Seewaldt, Victoria L.; Ostrander, Julie H.

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen (Tam) is the only FDA-approved chemoprevention agent for pre-menopausal women at high risk for developing breast cancer. While Tam reduces a woman's risk of developing estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms associated with risk reduction are poorly understood. Prior studies have shown that cytoplasmic proline, glutamic acid and leucine rich protein 1 (PELP1) promotes Tam resistance in breast cancer cell lines. Herein, we tested for PELP1 localization in breast epithelial cells from women at high risk for developing breast cancer and found that PELP1 was localized to the cytoplasm in 36% of samples. In vitro, immortalized HMECs expressing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) mutant of PELP1 (PELP1-cyto) were resistant to Tam-induced death. Furthermore, PELP1-cyto signaling through estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) promoted cell survival in the presence of Tam. Overexpression of ERRγ in immortalized HMECs protected cells from Tam-induced death, while knockdown of ERRγ sensitized PELP1-cyto expressing HMECs to Tam. Moreover, Tam-induced HMEC cell death was independent of apoptosis and involved accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II. Expression of PELP1-cyto and ERRγ reduced Tam-induced LC3-II accumulation, and knockdown of ERRγ increased LC3-II levels in response to Tam. Additionally, PELP1-cyto expression led to the upregulation of MMP-3 and MAOB, known PELP1 and ERRγ target genes, respectively. Our data indicate that cytoplasmic PELP1 induces signaling pathways that converge on ERRγ to promote cell survival in the presence of Tam. These data suggest that PELP1 localization and/or ERRγ activation could be developed as tissue biomarkers for Tam responsiveness. PMID:25789479

  15. The Gas6/TAM System and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bellan, Mattia; Pirisi, Mario; Sainaghi, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Growth arrest specific 6 (Gas6) is a multimodular circulating protein, the biological actions of which are mediated by the interaction with three transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors: Tyro3, Axl, and MerTK, collectively named TAM. Over the last few decades, many progresses have been done in the understanding of the biological activities of this highly pleiotropic system, which plays a role in the regulation of immune response, inflammation, coagulation, cell growth, and clearance of apoptotic bodies. Recent findings have further related Gas6 and TAM receptors to neuroinflammation in general and, specifically, to multiple sclerosis (MS). In this paper, we review the biology of the Gas6/TAM system and the current evidence supporting its potential role in the pathogenesis of MS. PMID:27801848

  16. MCO Monitoring activity description

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-11-09

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description.

  17. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  18. TAM Receptor Signaling in Immune Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rothlin, Carla V.; Carrera-Silva, Eugenio A.; Bosurgi, Lidia; Ghosh, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    The TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)—TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK—together with their cognate agonists GAS6 and PROS1 play an essential role in the resolution of inflammation. Deficiencies in TAM signaling have been associated with chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Three processes regulated by TAM signaling may contribute, either independently or collectively, to immune homeostasis: the negative regulation of the innate immune response, the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and the restoration of vascular integrity. Recent studies have also revealed the function of TAMs in infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we review the important milestones in the discovery of these RTKs and their ligands and the studies that underscore the functional importance of this signaling pathway in physiological immune settings and disease. PMID:25594431

  19. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  20. TAM receptor deficiency affects adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Rui; Meng, Lingbin; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2014-01-01

    The Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (TAM) subfamily of receptor protein tyrosine kinases functions in cell growth, differentiation, survival, and most recently found, in the regulation of immune responses and phagocytosis. All three receptors and their ligands, Gas6 (growth arrest-specific gene 6) and protein S, are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). TAM receptors play pivotal roles in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Loss of these receptors causes a comprised neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult hippocampus. TAM receptors have a negative regulatory effect on microglia and peripheral antigen-presenting cells, and play a critical role in preventing overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines detrimental to the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of adult neuronal stem cells (NSCs). Besides, these receptors also play an intrinsic trophic function in supporting NSC survival, proliferation, and differentiation into immature neurons. All these events collectively ensure a sustained neurogenesis in adult hippocampus. PMID:25487541

  1. The Role of TAM Family Receptors in Immune Cell Function: Implications for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Paolino, Magdalena; Penninger, Josef M.

    2016-01-01

    The TAM receptor protein tyrosine kinases—Tyro3, Axl, and Mer—are essential regulators of immune homeostasis. Guided by their cognate ligands Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and Protein S (Pros1), these receptors ensure the resolution of inflammation by dampening the activation of innate cells as well as by restoring tissue function through promotion of tissue repair and clearance of apoptotic cells. Their central role as negative immune regulators is highlighted by the fact that deregulation of TAM signaling has been linked to the pathogenesis of autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Importantly, TAM receptors have also been associated with cancer development and progression. In a cancer setting, TAM receptors have a dual regulatory role, controlling the initiation and progression of tumor development and, at the same time, the associated anti-tumor responses of diverse immune cells. Thus, modulation of TAM receptors has emerged as a potential novel strategy for cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how TAM receptors control immunity, with a particular focus on the regulation of anti-tumor responses and its implications for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27775650

  2. 75 FR 70966 - Transit Asset Management (TAM) Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Federal Transit Administration Transit Asset Management (TAM) Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Transit... Federal Transit Administration (FTA) is soliciting proposals from public transportation providers, state... partnership--to demonstrate effective Transit Asset Management (TAM) systems and ``best practices'', which...

  3. The TAM receptor Mertk protects against neuroinvasive viral infection by maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jonathan J; Daniels, Brian P; Shrestha, Bimmi; Proenca-Modena, Jose L; Lew, Erin D; Lazear, Helen M; Gorman, Matthew J; Lemke, Greg; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The TAM receptors Tyro3, Axl and Mertk are receptor tyrosine kinases that dampen host innate immune responses following engagement with their ligands Gas6 and Protein S, which recognize phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells. In a form of apoptotic mimicry, many enveloped viruses display phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of their membranes, enabling TAM receptor activation and downregulation of antiviral responses. Accordingly, we hypothesized that a deficiency of TAM receptors would enhance antiviral responses and protect against viral infection. Unexpectedly, mice lacking Mertk and/or Axl, but not Tyro3, exhibited greater vulnerability to infection with neuroinvasive West Nile and La Crosse encephalitis viruses. This phenotype was associated with increased blood-brain barrier permeability, which enhanced virus entry into and infection of the brain. Activation of Mertk synergized with interferon-β to tighten cell junctions and prevent virus transit across brain microvascular endothelial cells. Because TAM receptors restrict pathogenesis of neuroinvasive viruses, these findings have implications for TAM antagonists that are currently in clinical development.

  4. State-of-the-art of small molecule inhibitors of the TAM family: the point of view of the chemist.

    PubMed

    Baladi, Tom; Abet, Valentina; Piguel, Sandrine

    2015-11-13

    The TAM family of tyrosine kinases receptors (Tyro3, Axl and Mer) is implicated in cancer development, autoimmune reactions and viral infection and is therefore emerging as an effective and attractive therapeutic target. To date, only a few small molecules have been intentionally designed to block the TAM kinases, while most of the inhibitors were developed for blocking different protein kinases and then identified through selectivity profile studies. This minireview will examine in terms of chemical structure the different compounds able to act on either one, two or three TAM kinases with details about structure-activity relationships, drug-metabolism and pharmacokinetics properties where they exist.

  5. Monitoring active volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, Robert I.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most spectacular, awesomely beautiful, and at times destructive displays of natural energy is an erupting volcano, belching fume and ash thousands of meters into the atmosphere and pouring out red-hot molten lava in fountains and streams. Countless eruptions in the geologic past have produced volcanic rocks that form much of the Earth's present surface. The gradual disintegration and weathering of these rocks have yielded some of the richest farmlands in the world, and these fertile soils play a significant role in sustaining our large and growing population. Were it not for volcanic activity, the Hawaiian Islands with their sugar cane and pineapple fields and magnificent landscapes and seascapes would not exist to support their residents and to charm their visitors. Yet, the actual eruptive processes are catastrophic and can claim life and property.

  6. Active Job Monitoring in Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in high energy physics (HEP) including multi-core jobs and multi-core pilots require data centres to gain a deep understanding of the system to monitor, design, and upgrade computing clusters. Networking is a critical component. Especially the increased usage of data federations, for example in diskless computing centres or as a fallback solution, relies on WAN connectivity and availability. The specific demands of different experiments and communities, but also the need for identification of misbehaving batch jobs, requires an active monitoring. Existing monitoring tools are not capable of measuring fine-grained information at batch job level. This complicates network-aware scheduling and optimisations. In addition, pilots add another layer of abstraction. They behave like batch systems themselves by managing and executing payloads of jobs internally. The number of real jobs being executed is unknown, as the original batch system has no access to internal information about the scheduling process inside the pilots. Therefore, the comparability of jobs and pilots for predicting run-time behaviour or network performance cannot be ensured. Hence, identifying the actual payload is important. At the GridKa Tier 1 centre a specific tool is in use that allows the monitoring of network traffic information at batch job level. This contribution presents the current monitoring approach and discusses recent efforts and importance to identify pilots and their substructures inside the batch system. It will also show how to determine monitoring data of specific jobs from identified pilots. Finally, the approach is evaluated.

  7. Physiology and transcriptomics of water-deficit stress responses in wheat cultivars TAM 111 and TAM 112

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard red winter wheat crops on the U.S. Southern Great Plains often experience moderate to severe drought stress, especially during the grain filling stage, resulting in significant yield losses. Among popular commercial varieties, TAM 111 and TAM 112 showed a superior adaptation to water-deficit c...

  8. Physiology and transcriptomics of water-deficit stress responses in wheat cultivars TAM 111 and TAM 112

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard red winter wheat crops on the U.S. Southern Great Plains often experience moderate to severe drought stress, especially during the grain filling stage, resulting in significant yield losses. Cultivars TAM 111 and TAM 112 are widely cultivated in the region, share parentage and showed superior b...

  9. The E3 ligase Cbl-b and TAM receptors regulate cancer metastasis via natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Magdalena; Choidas, Axel; Wallner, Stephanie; Pranjic, Blanka; Uribesalgo, Iris; Loeser, Stefanie; Jamieson, Amanda M; Langdon, Wallace Y; Ikeda, Fumiyo; Fededa, Juan Pablo; Cronin, Shane J; Nitsch, Roberto; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Eickhoff, Jan; Menninger, Sascha; Unger, Anke; Torka, Robert; Gruber, Thomas; Hinterleitner, Reinhard; Baier, Gottfried; Wolf, Dominik; Ullrich, Axel; Klebl, Bert M; Penninger, Josef M

    2014-03-27

    Tumour metastasis is the primary cause of mortality in cancer patients and remains the key challenge for cancer therapy. New therapeutic approaches to block inhibitory pathways of the immune system have renewed hopes for the utility of such therapies. Here we show that genetic deletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b (casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b) or targeted inactivation of its E3 ligase activity licenses natural killer (NK) cells to spontaneously reject metastatic tumours. The TAM tyrosine kinase receptors Tyro3, Axl and Mer (also known as Mertk) were identified as ubiquitylation substrates for Cbl-b. Treatment of wild-type NK cells with a newly developed small molecule TAM kinase inhibitor conferred therapeutic potential, efficiently enhancing anti-metastatic NK cell activity in vivo. Oral or intraperitoneal administration using this TAM inhibitor markedly reduced murine mammary cancer and melanoma metastases dependent on NK cells. We further report that the anticoagulant warfarin exerts anti-metastatic activity in mice via Cbl-b/TAM receptors in NK cells, providing a molecular explanation for a 50-year-old puzzle in cancer biology. This novel TAM/Cbl-b inhibitory pathway shows that it might be possible to develop a 'pill' that awakens the innate immune system to kill cancer metastases.

  10. Anatahan Activity and Monitoring, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, A.; White, R.; Koyanagi, S.; Trusdell, F.; Kauahikaua, J.; Marso, J.; Ewert, J.

    2005-12-01

    Anatahan volcano began erupting in 2003 and continued with a second eruptive phase in 2004. In January 2005 the volcano began a sequence of eruptions and unrest that continues as of September 2005. The activity has been characterized by punctuated episodes of very steamy strombolian activity and vigorous ash emission. Some of the ash emissions have reached 50,000-foot elevations, with VOG and ash occasionally reaching the Philippines and southernmost Japan, over 1000 miles away. Vigorous ash emission has been almost continuous since June 2005. A M4.8 long-period earthquake (LP) occurred in mid-August, one of the largest LPs recorded on the planet in the last quarter-century. Real-time monitoring consisting of a few telemetered short-period seismometers and acoustic sensors has been severely hampered by ashfall on the small island. Monitoring efforts have been focused on the aircraft/ash hazard, with the goal of providing the FAA and airline industry with rapid notice of seismic signatures that may indicate ash columns rising to the altitude of airline traffic, or nominally above 20,000-30,000 ft.

  11. 76 FR 47296 - Transit Asset Management (TAM) Pilot Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Federal Transit Administration Transit Asset Management (TAM) Pilot Program Funds AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Transit Asset Management Pilot Program Announcement of Project Selections. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces...

  12. The TAM family: phosphatidylserine sensing receptor tyrosine kinases gone awry in cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, Douglas K; DeRyckere, Deborah; Davies, Kurtis D; Earp, H Shelton

    2014-12-01

    The TYRO3, AXL (also known as UFO) and MERTK (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are aberrantly expressed in multiple haematological and epithelial malignancies. Rather than functioning as oncogenic drivers, their induction in tumour cells predominately promotes survival, chemoresistance and motility. The unique mode of maximal activation of this RTK family requires an extracellular lipid–protein complex. For example, the protein ligand, growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6), binds to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) that is externalized on apoptotic cell membranes, which activates MERTK on macrophages. This triggers engulfment of apoptotic material and subsequent anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In tumours, autocrine and paracrine ligands and apoptotic cells are abundant, which provide a survival signal to the tumour cell and favour an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive microenvironment. Thus, TAM kinase inhibition could stimulate antitumour immunity, reduce tumour cell survival, enhance chemosensitivity and diminish metastatic potential.

  13. Structural elucidation of the DFG-Asp in and DFG-Asp out states of TAM kinases and insight into the selectivity of their inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Messoussi, Abdellah; Peyronnet, Lucile; Feneyrolles, Clémence; Chevé, Gwénaël; Bougrin, Khalid; Yasri, Aziz

    2014-10-10

    Structural elucidation of the active (DFG-Asp in) and inactive (DFG-Asp out) states of the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases is required for future development of TAM inhibitors as drugs. Herein we report a computational study on each of the three TAM members Tyro-3, Axl and Mer. DFG-Asp in and DFG-Asp out homology models of each one were built based on the X-ray structure of c-Met kinase, an enzyme with a closely related sequence. Structural validation and in silico screening enabled identification of critical amino acids for ligand binding within the active site of each DFG-Asp in and DFG-Asp out model. The position and nature of amino acids that differ among Tyro-3, Axl and Mer, and the potential role of these residues in the design of selective TAM ligands, are discussed.

  14. TAM receptors regulate multiple features of microglial physiology

    PubMed Central

    Tufail, Yusuf; Leal-Bailey, Humberto; Lew, Erin D.; Burrola, Patrick G.; Callaway, Perri; Zagórska, Anna; Rothlin, Carla V.; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Lemke, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are damage sensors for the central nervous system (CNS), and the phagocytes responsible for the routine non-inflammatory clearance of dead brain cells1. Here we show that the TAM receptor tyrosine kinases Mer and Axl2 regulate these microglial functions. We find that mice deficient in microglial Mer and Axl exhibit a marked accumulation of apoptotic cells (ACs) specifically in neurogenic regions of the adult CNS, and that microglial phagocytosis of the ACs generated during adult neurogenesis3,4 is normally driven by both TAM receptor ligands – Gas6 and Protein S5. Live two-photon imaging demonstrates that the microglial response to brain damage is also TAM-regulated, as TAM-deficient microglia display reduced process motility and delayed convergence to sites of injury. Finally, we show that microglial expression of Axl is prominently up-regulated in the inflammatory environment that develops in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease6. Together, these results establish TAM receptors as both controllers of microglial physiology and potential targets for therapeutic intervention in CNS disease. PMID:27049947

  15. TamA interacts with LeuB, the homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Leu3p, to regulate gdhA expression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Polotnianka, R; Monahan, B J; Hynes, M J; Davis, M A

    2004-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that expression of the gdhA gene, encoding NADP-linked glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH), in Aspergillus nidulans is regulated by the major nitrogen regulatory protein AreA and its co-activator TamA. We show here that loss of TamA function has a more severe effect on the levels of gdhA expression than loss of AreA function. Using TamA as the bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we have identified a second protein that interacts with TamA. Sequencing analysis and functional studies have shown that this protein, designated LeuB, is a transcriptional activator with similar function to the homologous Leu3p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Inactivation of leuB revealed that this gene is involved in the regulation of gdhA, and an areA; leuB double mutant was shown to have similar NADP-GDH levels to a tamA single mutant. The requirement for TamA function to promote gdhA expression is likely to be due to its dual interaction with AreA and LeuB.

  16. Nanoparticle formulation enhanced protective immunity provoked by PYGPI8p-transamidase related protein (PyTAM) DNA vaccine in Plasmodium yoelii malaria model.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Mahamoud Sama; Shuaibu, Mohammed Nasir; Kodama, Yukinobu; Kurosaki, Tomoaki; Helegbe, Gideon Kofi; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Yui, Katsuyuki; Tien, Nguyen Huy; Karbwang, Juntra; Hirayama, Kenji

    2014-04-07

    We have previously reported the new formulation of polyethylimine (PEI) with gamma polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) nanoparticle (NP) to have provided Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface protein-1 (PyMSP-1) plasmid DNA vaccine with enhanced protective cellular and humoral immunity in the lethal mouse malaria model. PyGPI8p-transamidase-related protein (PyTAM) was selected as a possible candidate vaccine antigen by using DNA vaccination screening from 29 GPI anchor and signal sequence motif positive genes picked up using web-based bioinformatics tools; though the observed protection was not complete. Here, we observed augmented protective effect of PyTAM DNA vaccine by using PEI and γ-PGA complex as delivery system. NP-coated PyTAM plasmid DNA immunized mice showed a significant survival rate from lethal P. yoelii challenge infection compared with naked PyTAM plasmid or with NP-coated empty plasmid DNA group. Antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2b subclass antibody levels, proportion of CD4 and CD8T cells producing IFN-γ in the splenocytes and IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α levels in the sera and in the supernatants from ex vivo splenocytes culture were all enhanced by the NP-coated PyTAM DNA vaccine. These data indicates that NP augments PyTAM protective immune response, and this enhancement was associated with increased DC activation and concomitant IL-12 production.

  17. Statistical properties of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) micrometeorite collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suavet, Clément; Rochette, Pierre; Kars, Myriam; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Folco, Luigi; Harvey, Ralph P.

    Micrometeorites have been recovered from traps located at the summit of nunataks in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), Antarctica. They constitute the TAM micrometeorite collection. Micrometeorites accumulated by direct infall for hundreds of thousands of years. This long collection duration is confirmed by the wide range of weathering by dissolution of olivine in the stony micrometeorites from the TAM collection. A statistical study of the size distribution and frequency by type of this collection, and comparison with other Antarctic micrometeorite collections (the South Pole Water Well collection and the Walcott Névé collection), suggest that the TAM collection is essentially unbiased. Thanks to the very long exposure of the traps, large diameter (>1000 μm) micrometeorites are present in sufficiently large numbers to allow a statistically meaningful estimate of their size distribution in this size range for the first time. We found that the slope of the size distribution remains constant in the 100-1600 μm size range. Therefore, the size distribution of micrometeorites in this size range is controlled by a single process.

  18. Monitoring by Control Technique - Activated Carbon Adsorber

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about Activated Carbon Adsorber control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  19. DOE Project 353: TAMS Prototype and production coupling alignment units

    SciTech Connect

    Field, K.V.

    1996-02-01

    TAMS is an electronic measurement system used to determine the alignment of turbine-generator shafts at the coupling interface. The displacement transducer is a strain gage based sensor mounted in a portable probe. The measurement system was experiencing zero input drift and temperature induced drift. This project endeavored to determine the source of these problems and to revise a unit to be returned to a customer, Baltimore Gas and Electric (BGE), within a period of five weeks.

  20. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  1. Active personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straume, Tore; Borak, Tom; Braby, L. A.; Lusby, Terry; Semones, Edward J.; Vazquez, Marcelo E.

    As astronauts return to the Moon-and this time, work for extended periods-there will be a critical need for crew personnel radiation monitoring as they operate lunar rovers or otherwise perform a myriad of extravehicular activities (EVAs). Our focus is on development of a small personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA that responds to the complex radiation quality and changing dose rates on the Moon. Of particular concern are active monitoring capabilities that provide both early warning and radiation dosimetry information during solar particle events (SPEs). To accomplish this, we are developing small detectors integrated with modern high speed, low power microelectronics to measure dose-rate and dose-mean lineal energy in real time. The monitor is designed to perform over the range of dose rates and LETs expected from both GCR and SPE radiations during lunar EVA missions. The monitor design provides simultaneous measurement of dose-equivalent rates at two tissue-equivalent depths simulating skin and marrow. The compact personal monitor is estimated to be the size of a cell phone and would fit on an EVA spacesuit (e.g., in backpack) or in a toolbox. The four-year development effort (which began December 2007) will result in a prototype radiation monitor field tested and characterized for the major radiations expected on the surface of the Moon. We acknowledge support from NSBRI through grants to NASA Ames Research Center (T. Straume, PI) and Colorado State University (T. Borak, PI).

  2. Thermal Hazard Evaluation of Cumene Hydroperoxide-Metal Ion Mixture Using DSC, TAM III, and GC/MS.

    PubMed

    You, Mei-Li

    2016-04-28

    Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) is widely used in chemical processes, mainly as an initiator for the polymerization of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene. It is a typical organic peroxide and an explosive substance. It is susceptible to thermal decomposition and is readily affected by contamination; moreover, it has high thermal sensitivity. The reactor tank, transit storage vessel, and pipeline used for manufacturing and transporting this substance are made of metal. Metal containers used in chemical processes can be damaged through aging, wear, erosion, and corrosion; furthermore, the containers might release metal ions. In a metal pipeline, CHP may cause incompatibility reactions because of catalyzed exothermic reactions. This paper discusses and elucidates the potential thermal hazard of a mixture of CHP and an incompatible material's metal ions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal activity monitor III (TAM III) were employed to preliminarily explore and narrate the thermal hazard at the constant temperature environment. The substance was diluted and analyzed by using a gas chromatography spectrometer (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) to determine the effect of thermal cracking and metal ions of CHP. The thermokinetic parameter values obtained from the experiments are discussed; the results can be used for designing an inherently safer process. As a result, the paper finds that the most hazards are in the reaction of CHP with Fe(2+). When the metal release is exothermic in advance, the system temperature increases, even leading to uncontrollable levels, and the process may slip out of control.

  3. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  4. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  5. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  6. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  7. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  8. Reporters to monitor cellular MMP12 activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos-Correa, Amanda; Mall, Marcus A.; Schultz, Carsten

    2010-02-01

    Macrophage elastase, also called MMP12, belongs to a family of proteolytic enzymes whose best known physiological function is the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Under certain pathological conditions, including inflammation, chronic overexpression of MMP12 has been observed and its elevated proteolytic activity has been suggested to be the cause of pulmonary emphysema. However, it was until recently impossible to monitor the activity of MMP12 under disease conditions, mainly due to a lack of detection methods. Recent development of new reporters for monitoring MMP12 activity in living cells, such as LaRee1, provided novel insights into the pathobiology of MMP12 in pulmonary inflammation.1 In the future, these reporters might contribute to improved diagnosis and in finding better treatments for chronic inflammatory lung diseases and emphysema. Our approach for visualizing MMP12 activity is based on peptidic, membrane-targeted FRET (Foerster Resonance Energy Transfer) reporters. Here we describe a set of new reporters containing different fluorophore pairs as well as modifications in the membrane-targeting lipid moiety. We studied the influence of these modifications on reporter performance and the reporter mobility on live cell membranes by FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching). Finally, we generated several new fluorescently labeled MMP inhibitors based on the peptidic reporter structures as prototypes for future tools to inhibit and monitor MMP activity at the same time.

  9. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  10. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    1992-01-01

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases.

  11. [A monitor of the biomechanical cardiac activity].

    PubMed

    Masloboev, Iu P; Okhritskiĭ, A A; Prilutskiĭ, D A; Selishchev, S V

    2004-01-01

    A monitor of the biomechanical cardiac activity is described, which was elaborated on the basis of the accelerometer sensor and sigma-delta ADC for the purpose of registering the ballistocardiograms and seismocardiograms. The device ensures a non-stop signal recording for as long as 8 hours with the data being preserved in an inbuilt memory. Data are fed to the computer through the USB port. An algorithm is suggested for recordings processing by using the neuron-net technologies.

  12. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1991-01-22

    This invention relates to a regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor 5 concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC 10 exhaust gases.

  13. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1992-12-22

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases. 6 figs.

  14. Activity monitor accuracy in persons using canes.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Deborah Michael; Sprigle, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    The StepWatch activity monitor has not been validated on multiple indoor and outdoor surfaces in a population using ambulation aids. The aims of this technical report are to report on strategies to configure the StepWatch activity monitor on subjects using a cane and to report the accuracy of both leg-mounted and cane-mounted StepWatch devices on people ambulating over different surfaces while using a cane. Sixteen subjects aged 67 to 85 yr (mean 75.6) who regularly use a cane for ambulation participated. StepWatch calibration was performed by adjusting sensitivity and cadence. Following calibration optimization, accuracy was tested on both the leg-mounted and cane-mounted devices on different surfaces, including linoleum, sidewalk, grass, ramp, and stairs. The leg-mounted device had an accuracy of 93.4% across all surfaces, while the cane-mounted device had an aggregate accuracy of 84.7% across all surfaces. Accuracy of the StepWatch on the stairs was significantly less accurate (p < 0.001) when comparing surfaces using repeated measures analysis of variance. When monitoring community mobility, placement of a StepWatch on a person and his/her ambulation aid can accurately document both activity and device use.

  15. Understanding Student Teachers' Behavioural Intention to Use Technology: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Validation and Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kung-Teck; Osman, Rosma bt; Goh, Pauline Swee Choo; Rahmat, Mohd Khairezan

    2013-01-01

    This study sets out to validate and test the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in the context of Malaysian student teachers' integration of their technology in teaching and learning. To establish factorial validity, data collected from 302 respondents were tested against the TAM using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation…

  16. Technology acceptance among physicians: a new take on TAM.

    PubMed

    Yarbrough, Amy K; Smith, Todd B

    2007-12-01

    The proliferation of information technology has been a revolutionary force that has increased efficiency and effectiveness in many industries. However, health care organizations, particularly physician practices, are noticeably lagging in the adoption of such technologies. This article provides a systematic review of the literature on physician acceptance of information technology. An overview of the technology acceptance model (TAM) is discussed, and a modified version of this model is proposed. Finally, ideas for testing this new model in a physician setting are presented. By providing a better understanding of physician technology acceptance, this model will inform health care managers about barriers that make physicians hesitant to embrace new technologies designed to increase efficiency and improve quality in a health care setting.

  17. System and method for monitoring cellular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Fraser, Scott E. (Inventor); Lansford, Russell D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring cellular activity in a cellular specimen. According to one embodiment, a plurality of excitable markers are applied to the specimen. A multi-photon laser microscope is provided to excite a region of the specimen and cause fluorescence to be radiated from the region. The radiating fluorescence is processed by a spectral analyzer to separate the fluorescence into respective wavelength bands. The respective bands of fluorescence are then collected by an array of detectors, with each detector receiving a corresponding one of the wavelength bands.

  18. System and method for monitoring cellular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Fraser, Scott E. (Inventor); Lansford, Russell D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring cellular activity in a cellular specimen. According to one embodiment, a plurality of excitable markers are applied to the specimen. A multi-photon laser microscope is provided to excite a region of the specimen and cause fluorescence to be radiated from the region. The radiating fluorescence is processed by a spectral analyzer to separate the fluorescence into respective wavelength bands. The respective bands of fluorescence are then collected by an array of detectors, with each detector receiving a corresponding one of the wavelength bands.

  19. Anticancer effect of luteolin is mediated by downregulation of TAM receptor tyrosine kinases, but not interleukin-8, in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Ju; Lim, Taeho; Han, Min Su; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Nan, Hong-Yan; Lee, Chuhee

    2017-02-01

    TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Tyro3, Axl and MerTK, transduce diverse signals responsible for cell survival, growth, proliferation and anti-apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of luteolin, a flavonoid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, on the expression and activation of TAM RTKs and the association with its cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We observed the cytotoxic effect of luteolin in parental A549 and H460 cells as well as in cisplatin-resistant A549/CisR and H460/CisR cells. Exposure of these cells to luteolin also resulted in a dose‑dependent decrease in clonogenic ability. Next, luteolin was found to decrease the protein levels of all three TAM RTKs in the A549 and A549/CisR cells in a dose‑dependent manner. In a similar manner, in H460 and H460/CisR cells, the protein levels of Axl and Tyro3 were decreased following luteolin treatment. In addition, Axl promoter activity was decreased by luteolin, indicating that luteolin suppresses Axl expression at the transcriptional level. We next found that luteolin abrogated Axl phosphorylation in response to growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), its ligand, implying the inhibitory effect of luteolin on Gas6-induced Axl activation. Ectopic expression of Axl was observed to attenuate the antiproliferative effect of luteolin, while knockdown of the Axl protein level using a gold nanoparticle-assisted gene delivery system increased its cytotoxicity. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of luteolin on the expression of TAM RTKs, interleukin-8 (IL-8) production was not decreased by luteolin in H460 and H460/CisR cells, while IL-8 production/cell was increased. Collectively, our data suggest that TAM RTKs, but not IL-8, are promising therapeutic targets of luteolin to abrogate cell proliferation and to overcome chemoresistance in NSCLC cells.

  20. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-10-20

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans.

  1. Multiwavelength monitoring of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent multiwavelength monitoring of active galactic nuclei (AGN), particularly with the IUE satellite, has produced extraordinay advances in our understanding of the energy-generation mechanism(s) in the central engine and of the structure of the surrounding material. Examples discussed here include both ordinary AGN and blazars (the collective name for highly variable, radio-loud AGN like BL Lac objects and Optically Violently Variable quasars). In the last decade, efforts to obtain single-epoch multiwavelength spectra led to fundamentally new models for the structure of AGN, involving accretion disks for AGN and relativistic jets for blazars. Recent extensions of multiwavelength spectroscopy into the temporal domain have shown that while these general pictures may be correct, the details were probably wrong. Campaigns to monitor Seyfert 1 galaxies like NGC 4151, NGC 5548 and Fairall 9 at infrared, optical, ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths indicate that broad-emission line regions are stratified by ionization, density, and velocity; argue against a standard thin accretion disk model; and suggest that X-rays represent primary rather than reprocessed radiation. For blazars, years of radio monitoring indicated emission from an inhomogeneous synchrotron-emitting plasma, which could also produce at least some of the shorter-wavelength emission. The recent month-long campaign to observe the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 has revealed remarkably rapid variability that extends from the infrared through the X-ray with similar amplitude and little or no discernible lag. This lends strong support to relativistic jet models and rules out the proposed accretion disk model for the ultraviolet-X-ray continuum.

  2. Monitoring of Crew Activity with FAMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, L.; Cajochen, C.; Bromundt, V.

    2007-10-01

    The success of long duration space missions, such as manned missions to Mars, depends on high and sustained levels of vigilance and performance of astronauts and operators working in the technology rich environment of a spacecraft. Experiment 'Monitoring of Crew Activity with FAMOS' was set up to obtain operational experience with complimentary methods / technologies to assess the alertness / sleepiness status of selected AustroMars crewmembers on a daily basis. We applied a neurobehavioral test battery consisting of 1) Karolinska Sleepiness Scale KSS, 2) Karolinska Drowsiness Test KDT, 3) Psychomotor Vigilance Task PVT, combined with 4) left eye video recordings with an early prototype of the FAMOS Fatigue Monitoring System headset currently being developed by Sowoon Technologies (CH), and 5) Actiwatches that were worn continuously. A test battery required approximately 15 minutes and was repeated up to 4 times daily by 2 to 4 subjects. Here we present the data analysis of methods 1, 2, 3, and 5, while data analysis of method 4 is still in progress.

  3. OSD1 promotes meiotic progression via APC/C inhibition and forms a regulatory network with TDM and CYCA1;2/TAM.

    PubMed

    Cromer, Laurence; Heyman, Jefri; Touati, Sandra; Harashima, Hirofumi; Araou, Emilie; Girard, Chloe; Horlow, Christine; Wassmann, Katja; Schnittger, Arp; De Veylder, Lieven; Mercier, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    Cell cycle control is modified at meiosis compared to mitosis, because two divisions follow a single DNA replication event. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) promote progression through both meiosis and mitosis, and a central regulator of their activity is the APC/C (Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome) that is especially required for exit from mitosis. We have shown previously that OSD1 is involved in entry into both meiosis I and meiosis II in Arabidopsis thaliana; however, the molecular mechanism by which OSD1 controls these transitions has remained unclear. Here we show that OSD1 promotes meiotic progression through APC/C inhibition. Next, we explored the functional relationships between OSD1 and the genes known to control meiotic cell cycle transitions in Arabidopsis. Like osd1, cyca1;2/tam mutation leads to a premature exit from meiosis after the first division, while tdm mutants perform an aberrant third meiotic division after normal meiosis I and II. Remarkably, while tdm is epistatic to tam, osd1 is epistatic to tdm. We further show that the expression of a non-destructible CYCA1;2/TAM provokes, like tdm, the entry into a third meiotic division. Finally, we show that CYCA1;2/TAM forms an active complex with CDKA;1 that can phosphorylate OSD1 in vitro. We thus propose that a functional network composed of OSD1, CYCA1;2/TAM, and TDM controls three key steps of meiotic progression, in which OSD1 is a meiotic APC/C inhibitor.

  4. Active chaotic excitation for bolted joint monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasel, Timothy R.; Todd, Michael D.; Park, Gyuhae

    2006-03-01

    Recent research has shown that high frequency chaotic excitation and state space reconstruction may be used to identify incipient damage (loss of preload) in a bolted joint. In this study, a new experiment is undertaken with updated test equipment, including a piezostack actuator that allows for precise control of bolt preload. The excitation waveform is applied to a macro-fiber composite (MFC) patch that is bonded to the test structure and is sensed in an active manner using a second MFC patch. A novel prediction error algorithm, based on comparing filtered properties of the guided chaotic waves, is used to determine the damage state of a frame structure and is shown to be highly sensitive to small levels of bolt preload loss. The performance of the prediction error method is compared with standard structural health monitoring damage features that are based on time series analysis using auto-regressive (AR) models.

  5. Subcellular compartmentalization of Cd and Zn in two bivalves. II. Significance of trophically available metal (TAM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, W.G.; Luoma, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines how the subcellular partitioning of Cd and Zn in the bivalves Macoma balthica and Potamocorbula amurensis may affect the trophic transfer of metal to predators. Results show that the partitioning of metals to organelles, 'enzymes' and metallothioneins (MT) comprise a subcellular compartment containing trophically available metal (TAM; i.e. metal trophically available to predators), and that because this partitioning varies with species, animal size and metal, TAM is similarly influenced. Clams from San Francisco Bay, California, were exposed for 14 d to 3.5 ??g 1-1 Cd and 20.5 ??g 1-1 Zn, including 109Cd and 65Zn as radiotracers, and were used in feeding experiments with grass shrimp Palaemon macrodatylus, or used to investigate the subcellular partitioning of metal. Grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated P. amurensis absorbed ???60% of ingested Cd, which was in accordance with the partitioning of Cd to the bivalve's TAM compartment (i.e. Cd associated with organelles, 'enzymes' and MT); a similar relationship was found in previous studies with grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated oligochaetes. Thus, TAM may be used as a tool to predict the trophic transfer of at least Cd. Subcellular fractionation revealed that ???34% of both the Cd and Zn accumulated by M. balthica was associated with TAM, while partitioning to TAM in P. amurensis was metal-dependent (???60% for TAM-Cd%, ???73% for TAM-Zn%). The greater TAM-Cd% of P. amurensis than M. balthica is due to preferential binding of Cd to MT and 'enzymes', while enhanced TAM-Zn% of P. amurensis results from a greater binding of Zn to organelles. TAM for most species-metal combinations was size-dependent, decreasing with increased clam size. Based on field data, it is estimated that of the 2 bivalves, P. amurensis poses the greater threat of Cd exposure to predators because of higher tissue concentrations and greater partitioning as TAM; exposure of Zn to predators would be similar between these species.

  6. Design and Characterization of Mechanism-Based Inhibitors for the Tyrosine Aminomutase SgTAM

    SciTech Connect

    Montavon,T.; Christianson, C.; Festin, G.; Shen, B.; Bruner, S.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and evaluation of two classes of inhibitors for SgTAM, a 4-methylideneimidazole-5-one (MIO) containing tyrosine aminomutase, are described. A mechanism-based strategy was used to design analogs that mimic the substrate or product of the reaction and form covalent interactions with the enzyme through the MIO prosthetic group. The analogs were characterized by measuring inhibition constants and X-ray crystallographic structural analysis of the co-complexes bound to the aminomutase, SgTAM.

  7. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen P; Hall Brown, Tyish S; Collier, Scott R; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing.

  8. A System for Monitoring Posture and Physical Activity Using Accelerometers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Abstract- Accelerometers can be used to monitor physical activity in the home over prolonged periods. We describe a novel system for...processing schema in which these parameters are extracted is described. Keywords - physical activity , accelerometers, congestive heart failure, chronic...When monitoring the condition of patients with neurodegenerative or chronic diseases, a knowledge of their body movement and physical activity

  9. Modeling the acceptance of clinical information systems among hospital medical staff: an extended TAM model.

    PubMed

    Melas, Christos D; Zampetakis, Leonidas A; Dimopoulou, Anastasia; Moustakis, Vassilis

    2011-08-01

    Recent empirical research has utilized the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to advance the understanding of doctors' and nurses' technology acceptance in the workplace. However, the majority of the reported studies are either qualitative in nature or use small convenience samples of medical staff. Additionally, in very few studies moderators are either used or assessed despite their importance in TAM based research. The present study focuses on the application of TAM in order to explain the intention to use clinical information systems, in a random sample of 604 medical staff (534 physicians) working in 14 hospitals in Greece. We introduce physicians' specialty as a moderator in TAM and test medical staff's information and communication technology (ICT) knowledge and ICT feature demands, as external variables. The results show that TAM predicts a substantial proportion of the intention to use clinical information systems. Findings make a contribution to the literature by replicating, explaining and advancing the TAM, whereas theory is benefited by the addition of external variables and medical specialty as a moderator. Recommendations for further research are discussed.

  10. Deformation Monitoring of AN Active Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapchuk, A.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of low frequency earthquakes, slow slip events and other deformation phenomena, new for geophysics, change our understanding of how the energy accumulated in the Earth's crust do release. The new geophysical data make one revise the underlying mechanism of geomechanical processes taking place in fault zones. Conditions for generating different slip modes are still unclear. The most vital question is whether a certain slip mode is intrinsic for a fault or may be controlled by external factors. This work presents the results of two and a half year deformation monitoring of a discontinuity in the zone of the Main Sayanskiy Fault. Main Sayanskiy Fault is right-lateral strike-slip fault. Observations were performed in the tunnel of Talaya seismic station (TLY), Irkutsk region, Russia. Measurements were carried out 70 m away from the entrance of the tunnel, the thickness of overlying rock was about 30 m. Inductive sensors of displacement were mounted at the both sides of a discontinuity, which recorded three components of relative fault side displacement with the accuracy of 0.2 mcm. Temperature variation inside the tunnel didn't exceed 0.5oC during the all period of observations. Important information about deformation properties of an active fault was obtained. A pronounced seasonality of deformation characteristics of discontinuity is observed in the investigated segment of rock. A great number of slow slip events with durations from several hours to several weeks were registered. Besides that alterations of fault deformation characteristics before the megathrust earthquake M9.0 Tohoku Oki 11 March 2011 and reaction to the event itself were detected. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant no. 14-17-00719).

  11. The tryptophan aminotransferase Tam1 catalyses the single biosynthetic step for tryptophan-dependent pigment synthesis in Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Zuther, Katja; Mayser, Peter; Hettwer, Ursula; Wu, Wenying; Spiteller, Peter; Kindler, Bernhard L J; Karlovsky, Petr; Basse, Christoph W; Schirawski, Jan

    2008-04-01

    Tryptophan is a precursor for many biologically active secondary metabolites. We have investigated the origin of indole pigments first described in the pityriasis versicolor-associated fungus Malassezia furfur. Some of the identified indole pigments have properties potentially explaining characteristics of the disease. As M. furfur is not amenable to genetic manipulation, we used Ustilago maydis to investigate the pathway leading to pigment production from tryptophan. We show by high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis that the compounds produced by U. maydis include those putatively involved in the etiology of pityriasis versicolor. Using a reverse genetics approach, we demonstrate that the tryptophan aminotransferase Tam1 catalyses pigment biosynthesis by conversion of tryptophan into indolepyruvate. A forward genetics approach led to the identification of mutants incapable of producing the pigments. These mutants were affected in the sir1 gene, presumably encoding a sulphite reductase. In vitro experiments with purified Tam1 showed that 2-oxo 4-methylthio butanoate serves as a substrate linking tryptophan deamination to sulphur metabolism. We provide the first direct evidence that these indole pigments form spontaneously from indolepyruvate and tryptophan without any enzymatic activity. This suggests that compounds with a proposed function in M. furfur-associated disease consist of indolepyruvate-derived spontaneously generated metabolic by-products.

  12. Geophysical Mapping and Monitoring of Active Planets (GMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, P. J.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2017-02-01

    Recent findings require a strongly upward revision of volcano-tectonic activity rate estimates for Venus and Mars. We propose a program of Geophysical Mapping and Monitoring of Active Planets (GMAP) including seismology, gravimetry, InSAR, and GPS.

  13. Instructional physical activity monitor video in english and spanish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ActiGraph activity monitor is a widely used method for assessing physical activity. Compliance with study procedures in critical. A common procedure is for the research team to meet with participants and demonstrate how and when to attach and remove the monitor and convey how many wear-days are ...

  14. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Block, Valerie A. J.; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Allen, Diane D.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Methods Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. Results 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. Conclusions These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability. PMID:27124611

  16. Development of Test-Analysis Models (TAM) for correlation of dynamic test and analysis results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelucci, Filippo; Javeed, Mehzad; Mcgowan, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of structural analysis of aerospace applications is to obtain a verified finite element model (FEM). The verified FEM can be used for loads analysis, evaluate structural modifications, or design control systems. Verification of the FEM is generally obtained as the result of correlating test and FEM models. A test analysis model (TAM) is very useful in the correlation process. A TAM is essentially a FEM reduced to the size of the test model, which attempts to preserve the dynamic characteristics of the original FEM in the analysis range of interest. Numerous methods for generating TAMs have been developed in the literature. The major emphasis of this paper is a description of the procedures necessary for creation of the TAM and the correlation of the reduced models with the FEM or the test results. Herein, three methods are discussed, namely Guyan, Improved Reduced System (IRS), and Hybrid. Also included are the procedures for performing these analyses using MSC/NASTRAN. Finally, application of the TAM process is demonstrated with an experimental test configuration of a ten bay cantilevered truss structure.

  17. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Navia, Marlon; Campelo, Jose C.; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael; Capella, Juan V.; Serrano, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART), serial peripheral interface (SPI), and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference), about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature. PMID:26393604

  18. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Navia, Marlon; Campelo, Jose C; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael; Capella, Juan V; Serrano, Juan J

    2015-09-18

    Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART), serial peripheral interface (SPI), and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference), about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature.

  19. Photocardiography: a novel method for monitoring cardiac activity in fish.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masayuki; Hirano, Ruriko; Shima, Takao

    2009-05-01

    A non-invasive technique to monitor cardiac activity in small fish, such as goldfish, zebrafish, and medaka, is needed. In the present study, we developed photocardiography (PCG), a non-invasive optical method, to record cardiac activity in small fish. The method monitors changes in near-infrared light transmission through the heart using a phototransistor located outside the body. With this technique, heartbeats in fish of various sizes (14-218 mm) were stably recorded. PCG was applied to monitor the heartbeat during fear-related classical heart rate conditioning in goldfish wherein an electrical shock was used as an unconditioned stimulus. The heartbeats were continuously monitored, even when the beat coincided with the electrical shock, showing that PCG is robust even in an electrically noisy environment. This technique is particularly useful when monitoring the heartbeats of fish of small size or in the presence of ambient electrical noise, conditions in which the use of conventional electrocardiography (ECG) is difficult.

  20. Construction monitoring activities in the ESF starter tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Pott, J.; Carlisle, S.

    1994-05-01

    In situ design verification activities am being conducted in the North Ramp Starter Tunnel of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility. These activities include: monitoring the peak particle velocities and evaluating the damage to the rock mass associated with construction blasting, assessing the rock mass quality surrounding the tunnel, monitoring the performance of the installed ground support, and monitoring the stability of the tunnel. In this paper, examples of the data that have been collected and preliminary conclusions from the data are presented.

  1. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    What is Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM)? The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) is an expandable habitat technology demonstration on ISS; increase human-rated inflatable structure Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to level 9. NASA managed ISS payload project in partnership with Bigelow Aerospace. Launched to ISS on Space X 8 (April 8th, 2016). Fully expanded on May 28th, 2016. Jeff Williams/Exp. 48 Commander first entered BEAM on June 5th, 2016.

  2. A tamB homolog is involved in maintenance of cell envelope integrity and stress resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiangliu; Li, Tao; Dai, Shang; Weng, Yulan; Li, Jiulong; Li, Qinghao; Xu, Hong; Hua, Yuejin; Tian, Bing

    2017-01-01

    The translocation and assembly module (TAM) in bacteria consists of TamA and TamB that form a complex to control the transport and secretion of outer membrane proteins. Herein, we demonstrated that the DR_1462-DR_1461-DR_1460 gene loci on chromosome 1 of Deinococcus radiodurans, which lacks tamA homologs, is a tamB homolog (DR_146T) with two tamB motifs and a DUF490 motif. Mutation of DR_146T resulted in cell envelope peeling and a decrease in resistance to shear stress and osmotic pressure, as well as an increase in oxidative stress resistance, consistent with the phenotype of a surface layer (S-layer) protein SlpA (DR_2577) mutant, demonstrating the involvement of DR_146T in maintenance of cell envelope integrity. The 123 kDa SlpA was absent and only its fragments were present in the cell envelope of DR_146T mutant, suggesting that DR_146T might be involved in maintenance of the S-layer. A mutant lacking the DUF490 motif displayed only a slight alteration in phenotype compared with the wild type, suggesting DUF490 is less important than tamB motif for the function of DR_146T. These findings enhance our understanding of the properties of the multilayered envelope in extremophilic D. radiodurans, as well as the diversity and functions of TAMs in bacteria. PMID:28383523

  3. Investigating Students' Acceptance and Self-Efficacy of E-Learning at Al-Aqsa University Based on TAM Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdi, Hasan Rebhi

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the influence of E-learning Self-Efficacy (ELSE) on the acceptance of e-learning by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). According to the TAM which used as the theoretical basis, both of the Perceived Usefulness (PU) and the Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU) influence directly the end user's Behavioral Intention…

  4. Extended TAM Model: Impacts of Convenience on Acceptance and Use of Moodle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hsiao-hui; Chang, Yu-ying

    2013-01-01

    The increasing online access to courses, programs, and information has shifted the control and responsibility of learning process from instructors to learners. Learners' perceptions of and attitudes toward e-learning constitute a critical factor to the success of such system. The purpose of this study is to take TAM (technology acceptance model)…

  5. Predicting Activity Energy Expenditure Using the Actical[R] Activity Monitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    This study developed algorithms for predicting activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children (n = 24) and adults (n = 24) from the Actical[R] activity monitor. Each participant performed 10 activities (supine resting, three sitting, three house cleaning, and three locomotion) while wearing monitors on the ankle, hip, and wrist; AEE was computed…

  6. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics.

  7. TAM 304 wheat – Adapted to the adequate rainfall or high-input irrigation production system in the Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TAM 304 wheat is a medium-early hard red winter wheat. It is a great dryland or semi-irrigated wheat. TAM 304 performs best under adequate rainfall, limited irrigation, or irrigation, but does not perform as well under extended drought. TAM 304 performs exceptionally well under foliar disease pressu...

  8. An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Shore, R F; van den Brink, N W; van Hattum, B; Bustnes, J O; Duke, G; Fritsch, C; García-Fernández, A J; Helander, B O; Jaspers, V; Krone, O; Martínez-López, E; Mateo, R; Movalli, P; Sonne, C

    2014-06-01

    Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment, PCB-induced altered reproductive impacts, and toxicity associated with lead in shot game. Authorisation of such releases and implementation of mitigation is now increasingly delivered through EU-wide directives but there is little established pan-European monitoring to quantify outcomes. We investigated the potential for EU-wide coordinated contaminant monitoring using raptors as sentinels. We did this using a questionnaire to ascertain the current scale of national activity across 44 European countries. According to this survey, there have been 52 different contaminant monitoring schemes with raptors over the last 50years. There were active schemes in 15 (predominantly western European) countries and 23 schemes have been running for >20years; most monitoring was conducted for >5years. Legacy persistent organic compounds (specifically organochlorine insecticides and PCBs), and metals/metalloids were monitored in most of the 15 countries. Fungicides, flame retardants and anticoagulant rodenticides were also relatively frequently monitored (each in at least 6 countries). Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), tawny owl (Strix aluco) and barn owl (Tyto alba) were most commonly monitored (each in 6-10 countries). Feathers and eggs were most widely analysed although many schemes also analysed body tissues. Our study reveals an existing capability across multiple European countries for contaminant monitoring using raptors. However, coordination between existing schemes and expansion of monitoring into Eastern Europe is needed. This would enable

  9. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Mid-FY 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1990 through March 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. Monitoring results continue to demonstrate the no LLW is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II began during this reporting period and 115 vaults had been loaded by the end of March 1991.

  10. EarthScope Content Module for IRIS Active Earth Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuillan, P. J.; Welti, R.; Johnson, J. A.; Shiffman, C. R.; Olds, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Active Earth Monitor (AEM) is an interactive computer-based display for university lobbies, museums, visitor centers, schools and libraries. AEM runs in a standard Internet web browser in full screen mode. The display consists of a customizable set of content pages about plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis. Low-cost and simple-to-implement, the Active Earth Monitor provides a way to engage audiences with earth science information without spending resources on a large exhibit. The EarthScope Active Earth Monitor content set highlights the connections between the landscape and the research and monitoring being conducted by EarthScope in partnership with regional monitoring networks. Modules consist of chapters that focus on What is EarthScope?, EarthScope Observatories, and EarthScope Research Results. Content topics are easily explored using a web page button type navigation interface via a touch screen or mouse. A formative evaluation of general public users informed the interface design. Chapters in the modules start with a general overview and proceed to detailed specifics. Each chapter utilizes at least one set of live or near real-time research data (often more than one). This exposes the general public to active ongoing research that is engaging, relevant to the individual user, and explained in easy to understand terms. All live content is updated each time a user accesses the individual page displaying the live data. Leading questions are presented allowing the user to examine the content before accessing the answer via pop-up box. Diagrams and charts of research data have explanatory keys that allow users to self explore all content. Content pages can be created and inserted in the Active Earth Monitor by utilizing the simple HTML/CSS coding.;

  11. Influence of Activity Monitor Location and Bout Duration on Free-Living Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.; Bennett, Gary G.; Bond, Kathleen S.; Webster, Michael D.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the location (ankle, hip, wrist) where an activity monitor (AM) is worn and of the minimum bout duration (BD) on physical activity (PA) variables during free-living monitoring. Study 1 participants wore AMs at three locations for 1 day while wearing the Intelligent Device for Energy…

  12. Constitutive Activation of the Calcium Sensor STIM1 Causes Tubular-Aggregate Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Johann; Chevessier, Frédéric; De Paula, André Maues; Koch, Catherine; Attarian, Shahram; Feger, Claire; Hantaï, Daniel; Laforêt, Pascal; Ghorab, Karima; Vallat, Jean-Michel; Fardeau, Michel; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Pouget, Jean; Romero, Norma B.; Koch, Marc; Ebel, Claudine; Levy, Nicolas; Krahn, Martin; Eymard, Bruno; Bartoli, Marc; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    Tubular aggregates are regular arrays of membrane tubules accumulating in muscle with age. They are found as secondary features in several muscle disorders, including alcohol- and drug-induced myopathies, exercise-induced cramps, and inherited myasthenia, but also exist as a pure genetic form characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness. We identified dominant STIM1 mutations as a genetic cause of tubular-aggregate myopathy (TAM). Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is the main Ca2+ sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, and all mutations were found in the highly conserved intraluminal Ca2+-binding EF hands. Ca2+ stores are refilled through a process called store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Upon Ca2+-store depletion, wild-type STIM1 oligomerizes and thereby triggers extracellular Ca2+ entry. In contrast, the missense mutations found in our four TAM-affected families induced constitutive STIM1 clustering, indicating that Ca2+ sensing was impaired. By monitoring the calcium response of TAM myoblasts to SOCE, we found a significantly higher basal Ca2+ level in TAM cells and a dysregulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Because recessive STIM1 loss-of-function mutations were associated with immunodeficiency, we conclude that the tissue-specific impact of STIM1 loss or constitutive activation is different and that a tight regulation of STIM1-dependent SOCE is fundamental for normal skeletal-muscle structure and function. PMID:23332920

  13. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section 884.2730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the clinic. The HUAM system comprises a tocotransducer, an at-home recorder, a modem, and a...

  14. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section 884.2730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the clinic. The HUAM system comprises a tocotransducer, an at-home recorder, a modem, and a...

  15. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    PubMed

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  16. The Tyrosine Aminomutase TAM1 Is Required for β-Tyrosine Biosynthesis in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jian; Aboshi, Takako; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Strickler, Susan R.; Spindel, Jennifer E.; Tung, Chih-Wei; Takata, Ryo; Matsumoto, Fuka; Maesaka, Yoshihiro; McCouch, Susan R.; Okumoto, Yutaka; Mori, Naoki; Jander, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Non-protein amino acids, often isomers of the standard 20 protein amino acids, have defense-related functions in many plant species. A targeted search for jasmonate-induced metabolites in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) identified (R)-β-tyrosine, an isomer of the common amino acid (S)-α-tyrosine in the seeds, leaves, roots, and root exudates of the Nipponbare cultivar. Assays with 119 diverse cultivars showed a distinct presence/absence polymorphism, with β-tyrosine being most prevalent in temperate japonica cultivars. Genetic mapping identified a candidate gene on chromosome 12, which was confirmed to encode a tyrosine aminomutase (TAM1) by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and in vitro enzyme assays. A point mutation in TAM1 eliminated β-tyrosine production in Nipponbare. Rice cultivars that do not produce β-tyrosine have a chromosome 12 deletion that encompasses TAM1. Although β-tyrosine accumulation was induced by the plant defense signaling molecule jasmonic acid, bioassays with hemipteran and lepidopteran herbivores showed no negative effects at physiologically relevant β-tyrosine concentrations. In contrast, root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and other tested dicot plants was inhibited by concentrations as low as 1 μM. As β-tyrosine is exuded into hydroponic medium at higher concentrations, it may contribute to the allelopathic potential of rice. PMID:25901084

  17. Application of TAM III to study sensitivity of soil organic matter degradation to temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikegard, Peter; Barros, Nieves; Piñeiro, Verónica

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, studies of soil biodegradation are based on CO2 dissipation rates. CO2 is a product of aerobic degradation of labile organic substrates like carbohydrates. That limits the biodegradation concept to just one of the soil organic matter fractions. This feature is responsible for some problems to settle the concept of soil organic matter (SOM) recalcitrance and for controversial results defining sensitivity of SOM to temperature. SOM consists of highly complex macromolecules constituted by fractions with different chemical nature and redox state affecting the chemical nature of biodegradation processes. Biodegradation of fractions more reduced than carbohydrates take place through metabolic pathways that dissipate less CO2 than carbohydrate respiration, that may not dissipate CO2, or that even may uptake CO2. These compounds can be considered more recalcitrant and with lower turnover times than labile SOM just because they are degraded at lower CO2 rates that may be just a consequence of the metabolic path. Nevertheless, decomposition of every kind of organic substrate always releases heat. For this reason, the measurement of the heat rate by calorimetry yields a more realistic measurement of the biodegradation of the SOM continuum. TAM III is one of the most recent calorimeters designed for directly measuring in real time the heat rate associated with any degradation process. It is designed as a multichannel system allowing the concomitant measurement of to up 24 samples at isothermal conditions or through a temperature scanning mode from 18 to 100ºC, allowing the continous measure of any sample at controlled non-isothermal conditions. The temperature scanning mode was tested in several soil samples collected at different depths to study their sensitivity to temperature changes from 18 to 35 ºC calculating the Q10 and the activation energy (EA) by the Arrhenius equation. It was attempted to associate the obtained EA values with the soil thermal

  18. Monitoring cell concentration and activity by multiple excitation fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Li, J K; Asali, E C; Humphrey, A E; Horvath, J J

    1991-01-01

    Four key cellular metabolic fluorophores--tryptophan, pyridoxine, NAD(P)H, and riboflavin--were monitored on-line by a multiple excitation fluorometric system (MEFS) and a modified SLM 8000C scanning spectrofluorometer in three model yeast fermentation systems--bakers' yeast growing on glucose, Candida utilis growing on ethanol, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RTY110/pRB58 growing on glucose. The measured fluorescence signals were compared with cell concentration, protein concentration, and cellular activity. The results indicate that the behavior and fluorescence intensity of various fluorophores differ in the various fermentation systems. Tryptophan fluorescence is the best signal for the monitoring of cell concentration in bakers' yeast and C. utilis fermentations. Pyridoxine fluoresce is the best signal for the monitoring of cell concentration in the S. cerevisiae RTY110/pRB58 fermentation. In bakers' yeast fermentations the pyridoxine fluorescence signal can be used to monitor cellular activity. The NAD(P)H fluorescence signal is a good indicator of cellular activity in the C. utilis fermentation. For this fermentation NAD(P)H fluorescence can be used to control ethanol feeding in a fed-batch process.

  19. Limited activity monitoring in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Shic, Frederick; Bradshaw, Jessica; Klin, Ami; Scassellati, Brian; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2011-03-22

    This study used eye-tracking to examine how 20-month-old toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n=28), typical development (TD) (n=34), and non-autistic developmental delays (DD) (n=16) monitored the activities occurring in a context of an adult-child play interaction. Toddlers with ASD, in comparison to control groups, showed less attention to the activities of others and focused more on background objects (e.g., toys). In addition, while all groups spent the same time overall looking at people, toddlers with ASD looked less at people's heads and more at their bodies. In ASD, these patterns were associated with cognitive deficits and greater autism severity. These results suggest that the monitoring of the social activities of others is disrupted early in the developmental progression of autism, limiting future avenues for observational learning.

  20. Monitoring and evaluating school nutrition and physical activity policies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jennifer P; McKenna, Mary L; Butler, Gregory P

    2010-01-01

    Given the increase in the number of Canadian jurisdictions with school nutrition and/or physical activity policies, there is a need to assess the effectiveness of such policies. The objectives of this paper are to 1) provide an overview of key issues in monitoring and evaluating school nutrition and physical activity policies in Canada and 2) identify areas for further research needed to strengthen the evidence base and inform the development of effective approaches to monitoring and evaluation. Evaluation indicators, data sources and existing tools for evaluating nutrition and physical activity are reviewed. This paper has underscored the importance of identifying common indicators and approaches, using a comprehensive approach based on the WHO framework and ensuring that research capacity and funding is in place to facilitate high-quality evaluation efforts in the future.

  1. The value to the anaesthetist of monitoring cerebral activity.

    PubMed

    Langford, R M; Thomsen, C E

    1994-03-01

    The administration rate of general anaesthetic drugs is at present guided by clinical experience, and indirect indicators such as haemodynamic parameters. In the presence of muscle relaxants most of the clinical signs of inadequate anaesthesia are lost and accidental awareness may occur. A number of monitoring modalities, primarily based on analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been proposed for measurement of the anaesthetic depth. Moreover intraoperative cerebral monitoring may also provide the anaesthetist with early warning of cerebral ischaemia, or information on specific neurological pathways. To facilitate this, it is essential to combine analysis of the spontaneous EEG with recording of evoked potentials, to assess both cortical and subcortical activity/events. None of the reviewed methods, however promising, can alone meet all of the requirements for intraoperative monitoring of cerebral function. We suggest that the future direction should be to integrate several modalities in a single device, to provide valuable new information, upon which to base clinical management decisions.

  2. On-line Monitoring and Active Control for Transformer Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jiabi; Zhao, Tong; Tian, Chun; Wang, Xia; He, Zhenhua; Duan, Lunfeng

    This paper introduces the system for on-line monitoring and active noise control towards the transformer noise based on LabVIEW and the hardware equipment including the hardware and software. For the hardware part, it is mainly focused on the composition and the role of hardware devices, as well as the mounting location in the active noise control experiment. And the software part introduces the software flow chats, the measurement and analysis module for the sound pressure level including A, B, C weighting methods, the 1/n octave spectrum and the power spectrum, active noise control module and noise data access module.

  3. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  4. Sentinel-1 Contribution to Monitoring Maritime Activity in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaria, Carlos; Greidanus, Harm; Fournier, Melanie; Eriksen, Torkild; Vespe, Michele; Alvarez, Marlene; Arguedas, Virginia Fernandez; Delaney, Conor; Argentieri, Pietro

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents results on the use of Sentinel-1 combined with satellite AIS to monitor maritime activity in the Arctic. Such activities are expected to increase, even if not uniformly across the Arctic, as the ice cover in the region retreats due to changes in climate. The objectives of monitoring efforts in the region can vary from country to country, but are generally related to increasing awareness on non- cooperative, small and cruise ships, fisheries, safety at sea, and Search and Rescue. A ship monitoring study has been conducted, involving more than 2,000 Sentinel-1 images acquired during one year in the central Arctic, where the ship densities are high. The main challenges to SAR-based monitoring in this area are described, solutions for some of them are proposed, and analyses of the results are shown. With the high detection thresholds needed to prevent false alarms from sea ice, 16% of the ships detected overall in the Sentinel-1 images have not been correlated to AIS- transmitting ships, and 48% of the AIS-transmitting ships are not correlated to ships detected in the images.

  5. Toward Active Monitoring of Piping Using Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joon-Soo; Kim, Young H.; Song, Sung-Jin; Kim, Jae-Hee; Eom, Heung-Seop; Im, Kwang-Hee

    2004-02-26

    Piping in nuclear power plants is exposed to severe environmental conditions so that it is very susceptible to failure caused by the growth of defects. Thus, it is necessary to have thorough inspection of piping in order to detect defects before failure. Unfortunately, however, inspection of piping in nuclear power plants is not easy in practice because of its long length as well as the radioactive environment. To take care of this difficulty, a research endeavor to develop techniques to monitor piping in nuclear power plants continuously and actively using ultrasonic guided wave is currently undertaken. This paper reports initial results of our endeavor including design of an ultrasonic array system for active monitoring of piping.

  6. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  7. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOEpatents

    Beverly, Claude R.; Ernstberger, Harold G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

  8. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOEpatents

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

    1985-07-03

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

  9. Active Geophysical Monitoring in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Effective reservoir management is a Holy Grail of the oil and gas industry. Quest for new technologies is never ending but most often they increase effectiveness and decrease the costs. None of the newcomers proved to be a silver bullet in such a key metric of the industry as average oil recovery factor. This factor is still around 30 %, meaning that 70 % of hydrocarbon reserves are left in the ground in places where we already have expensive infrastructure (platforms, wells) to extract them. Main reason for this inefficiency is our inability to address realistic reservoir complexity. Most of the time we fail to properly characterize our reservoirs before production. As a matter of fact, one of the most important parameters -- permeability -- can not be mapped from remote geophysical methods. Therefore we always start production blind even though reservoir state before production is the simplest one. Once first oil is produced, we greatly complicate the things and quickly become unable to estimate the state and condition of the reservoir (fluid, pressures, faults etc) or oilfield hardware (wells, platforms, pumps) to make a sound next decision in the chain of reservoir management. Our modeling capabilities are such that if we know true state of the things - we can make incredibly accurate predictions and make extremely efficient decisions. Thus the bottleneck is our inability to properly describe the state of the reservoirs in real time. Industry is starting to recognize active monitoring as an answer to this critical issue. We will highlight industry strides in active geophysical monitoring from well to reservoir scale. It is worth noting that when one says ``monitoring" production technologists think of measuring pressures at the wellhead or at the pump, reservoir engineers think of measuring extracted volumes and pressures, while geophysicist may think of change in elastic properties. We prefer to think of monitoring as to measuring those parameters of the

  10. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-11-05

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0-60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems.

  11. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0–60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems. PMID:26538293

  12. Human psychophysiological activity monitoring methods using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Uzieblo-Zyczkowska, B.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the concept of fiber optic sensor system for human psycho-physical activity detection. A fiber optic sensor that utilizes optical phase interferometry or intensity in modalmetric to monitor a patient's vital signs such as respiration cardiac activity, blood pressure and body's physical movements. The sensor, which is non-invasive, comprises an optical fiber interferometer that includes an optical fiber proximately situated to the patient so that time varying acusto-mechanical signals from the patient are coupled into the optical fiber. The system can be implemented in embodiments ranging form a low cost in-home to a high end product for in hospital use.

  13. In-vessel activation monitors in JET: Progress in modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bonheure, Georges; Lengar, I.; Syme, B.; Popovichev, S.; Arnold, Dirk; Laubenstein, Matthias

    2008-10-15

    Activation studies were performed in JET with new in-vessel activation monitors. Though primarily dedicated to R and D in the challenging issue of lost {alpha} diagnostics for ITER, which is being addressed at JET with several techniques, these monitors provide for both neutron and charged particle fluences. A set of samples with different orientation with respect to the magnetic field is transported inside the torus by means of a manipulator arm (in contrast with the conventional JET activation system with pneumatic transport system). In this case, radionuclides with longer half-life were selected and ultralow background gamma-ray measurements were needed. The irradiation was closer to the plasma and this potentially reduces the neutron scattering problem. This approach could also be of interest for ITER, where the calibration methods have yet to be developed. The MCNP neutron transport model for JET was modified to include the activation probe and so provide calculations to help assess the new data. The neutron induced activity on the samples are well reproduced by the calculations.

  14. Advanced Performance Modeling with Combined Passive and Active Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dovrolis, Constantine; Sim, Alex

    2015-04-15

    To improve the efficiency of resource utilization and scheduling of scientific data transfers on high-speed networks, the "Advanced Performance Modeling with combined passive and active monitoring" (APM) project investigates and models a general-purpose, reusable and expandable network performance estimation framework. The predictive estimation model and the framework will be helpful in optimizing the performance and utilization of networks as well as sharing resources with predictable performance for scientific collaborations, especially in data intensive applications. Our prediction model utilizes historical network performance information from various network activity logs as well as live streaming measurements from network peering devices. Historical network performance information is used without putting extra load on the resources by active measurement collection. Performance measurements collected by active probing is used judiciously for improving the accuracy of predictions.

  15. Design considerations in an active medical product safety monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Joshua J; Fireman, Bruce; Ryan, Patrick B; Maclure, Malcolm; Gerhard, Tobias; Toh, Sengwee; Rassen, Jeremy A; Nelson, Jennifer C; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Active medical product monitoring systems, such as the Sentinel System, will utilize electronic healthcare data captured during routine health care. Safety signals that arise from these data may be spurious because of chance or bias, particularly confounding bias, given the observational nature of the data. Applying appropriate monitoring designs can filter out many false-positive and false-negative associations from the outset. Designs can be classified by whether they produce estimates based on between-person or within-person comparisons. In deciding which approach is more suitable for a given monitoring scenario, stakeholders must consider the characteristics of the monitored product, characteristics of the health outcome of interest (HOI), and characteristics of the potential link between these. Specifically, three factors drive design decisions: (i) strength of within-person and between-person confounding; (ii) whether circumstances exist that may predispose to misclassification of exposure or misclassification of the timing of the HOI; and (iii) whether the exposure of interest is predominantly transient or sustained. Additional design considerations include whether to focus on new users, the availability of appropriate active comparators, the presence of an exposure time trend, and the measure of association of interest. When the key assumptions of self-controlled designs are fulfilled (i.e., lack of within-person, time-varying confounding; abrupt HOI onset; and transient exposure), within-person comparisons are preferred because they inherently avoid confounding by fixed factors. The cohort approach generally is preferred in other situations and particularly when timing of exposure or outcome is uncertain because cohort approaches are less vulnerable to biases resulting from misclassification.

  16. Exploring the Intrinsic Motivation of Hedonic Information Systems Acceptance: Integrating Hedonic Theory and Flow with TAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihuan

    Research on Information Systems (IS) acceptance is substantially focused on extrinsic motivation in workplaces, little is known about the underlying intrinsic motivations of Hedonic IS (HIS) acceptance. This paper proposes a hybrid HIS acceptance model which takes the unique characteristics of HIS and multiple identities of a HIS user into consideration by interacting Hedonic theory, Flow theory with Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The model was empirically tested by a field survey. The result indicates that emotional responses, imaginal responses, and flow experience are three main contributions of HIS acceptance.

  17. Monocyte and plasma expression of TAM ligand and receptor in renal failure: Links to unregulated immunity and chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Iris J; Hilliard, Brendan A; Ulas, Mehriban; Yu, Daohai; Vangala, Chandan; Rao, Swati; Lee, Jean; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Cohen, Philip L

    2015-06-01

    Chronic inflammation is increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Specific immune mechanisms and pathways that drive and maintain chronic inflammation in CKD are not well described. The TAM ligands (Gas6 and protein S) and receptors (Axl and Mer) have been recently recognized as playing a prominent role in immune regulation. The receptors exist in both soluble and cell-bound forms; the soluble receptors (sAxl and sMer) are believed to compete with the bound receptors and thus inhibit their function. In this study, we determined the expression of cell-bound and soluble TAM proteins in patients with CKD. CKD patients had significantly lower expression of Mer in monocytes, yet increased expression of soluble TAM receptors sAxl and sMer in plasma compared to controls. The metalloproteinase ADAM 17, responsible for cleavage of Mer to its soluble form, was increased in patient monocytes. Elevated levels of soluble TAM receptors were more evident in patients with progressive renal failure. These observations suggest that functional deficiency of TAM receptor-mediated regulation of inflammation may contribute to chronic inflammation in patients with CKD.

  18. Preparation and characterization of TAM-loaded HPMC/PAN composite fibers for improving drug-release profiles.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaxia; Yu, Dengguang; Zhang, Xiaofei; Branford-White, Christopher; Zhu, Limin

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports the preparation and characterization of composite hydroxypropyl methylcellulose/polyacrylonitrile (HPMC/PAN)-medicated fibers via a wet spinning technique. Tamoxifen (TAM) was selected as a model drug. Numerous analyses were conducted to characterize the mechanical, structure and morphology properties of the composite fibers. The drug content and in vitro dissolution behavior were also investigated. SEM images showed that the TAM-loaded HPMC/PAN composite fibers had a finger-like outer skin and a porous structure. FT-IR spectra demonstrated that there was a good compatibility between polymer and drug. Results from X-ray diffraction and DSC suggested that most of the incorporated TAM was evenly distributed in the fiber matrix in an amorphous state, except for a minority that aggregated on the surface of fibers. The drug content in the fibers was lower than that in the spinning solution and about 10% of TAM was lost during spinning process. In vitro dissolution results indicated that, compared to TAM-PAN fibers, HPMC/PAN composite systems had weaker initial burst release effects and more drug-loading. The combination of hydrophilic polymer HPMC with PAN could improve the performance of polymer matrix composite fibers in regulating the drug-release profiles.

  19. FRET-based optical assay for monitoring riboswitch activation.

    PubMed

    Harbaugh, Svetlana; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Davidson, Molly; Narayanan, Latha; Trott, Sandra; Chushak, Yaroslav G; Stone, Morley O

    2009-05-11

    Riboswitches are regulatory RNAs located in the 5'-untranslated region of mRNA sequences that recognize and bind to small molecules and regulate the expression of downstream genes. Creation of synthetic riboswitches to novel ligands depends on the ability to monitor riboswitch activation in the presence of analyte. In our work, we have coupled a synthetic riboswitch to an optical reporter assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two genetically encoded fluorescent proteins. The theophylline-sensitive riboswitch was placed upstream of the Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease coding sequence. Our FRET construct was composed of eGFP and a nonfluorescent yellow fluorescent protein mutant called REACh (for resonance energy-accepting chromoprotein) connected with a peptide linker containing a TEV protease cleavage site. Addition of theophylline to the E. coli cells activates the riboswitch and initiates the translation of mRNA. Synthesized protease cleaves the linker in the FRET-based fusion protein causing a change in the fluorescence signal. By this method, we observed an 11-fold increase in cellular extract fluorescence in the presence of theophylline. The advantage of using an eGFP-REACh pair is the elimination of acceptor fluorescence. This leads to an improved detection of FRET via better signal-to-noise ratio, allowing us to monitor riboswitch activation in a wide range of analyte concentrations from 0.01 to 2.5 mM.

  20. Monitoring Heparin Therapy with the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, R. K.; Michel, A.

    1971-01-01

    Difficulties associated with the whole blood clotting time (W.B.C.T.) as a method of monitoring heparin therapy have led to the investigation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (A.P.T.T.) as an alternative. The conclusion is reached that the latter procedure possesses several advantages. Using the method described and a citrate-preserved blood sample collected just prior to the administration of the next serial dose of heparin, the suggested therapeutic duration of the A.P.T.T. is 70 seconds or twice the mean control value. A practical range for this method is 60 to 70 seconds. PMID:5557913

  1. Monitoring rice farming activities in the Mekong Delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. F.; Chen, C. R.; Chiang, S. H.; Chang, L. Y.; Khin, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Half of the world's population depends on rice for survival. Rice agriculture thus plays an important role in the developing world's economy. Vietnam is one of the largest rice producers and suppliers on earth and more than 80% of the exported rice was produced from the Mekong Delta region, which is situated in the southwestern Vietnam and encompasses approximately 40,000 km2. Changes in climate conditions could likely trigger the increase of insect populations and rice diseases, causing the potential loss of rice yields. Monitoring rice-farming activities through crop phenology detection can provide policymakers with timely strategies to mitigate possible impacts on the potential yield as well as rice grain exports to ensure food security for the region. The main objective of this study is to develop a logistic-based algorithm to investigate rice sowing and harvesting activities from the multi-temporal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Landsat fusion data. We processed the data for two main cropping seasons (i.e., winter-spring and summer-autumn seasons) through a three-step procedure: (1) MODIS-Landsat data fusion, (2) construction of the time-series enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2) data, (3) rice crop phenology detection. The EVI2 data derived from the fusion results between MODIS and Landsat data were compared with that of Landsat data indicated close correlation between the two datasets (R2 = 0.93). The time-series EVI2 data were processed using the double logistic method to detect the progress of sowing and harvesting activities in the region. The comparisons between the estimated sowing and harvesting dates and the field survey data revealed the root mean squared error (RMSE) values of 8.4 and 5.5 days for the winter-spring crop and 9.4 and 12.8 days for the summer-autumn crop, respectively. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the double logistic-based algorithm for rice crop monitoring from temporal MODIS-Landsat fusion data

  2. Environmental Monitoring Networks Optimization Using Advanced Active Learning Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanevski, Mikhail; Volpi, Michele; Copa, Loris

    2010-05-01

    The problem of environmental monitoring networks optimization (MNO) belongs to one of the basic and fundamental tasks in spatio-temporal data collection, analysis, and modeling. There are several approaches to this problem, which can be considered as a design or redesign of monitoring network by applying some optimization criteria. The most developed and widespread methods are based on geostatistics (family of kriging models, conditional stochastic simulations). In geostatistics the variance is mainly used as an optimization criterion which has some advantages and drawbacks. In the present research we study an application of advanced techniques following from the statistical learning theory (SLT) - support vector machines (SVM) and the optimization of monitoring networks when dealing with a classification problem (data are discrete values/classes: hydrogeological units, soil types, pollution decision levels, etc.) is considered. SVM is a universal nonlinear modeling tool for classification problems in high dimensional spaces. The SVM solution is maximizing the decision boundary between classes and has a good generalization property for noisy data. The sparse solution of SVM is based on support vectors - data which contribute to the solution with nonzero weights. Fundamentally the MNO for classification problems can be considered as a task of selecting new measurement points which increase the quality of spatial classification and reduce the testing error (error on new independent measurements). In SLT this is a typical problem of active learning - a selection of the new unlabelled points which efficiently reduce the testing error. A classical approach (margin sampling) to active learning is to sample the points closest to the classification boundary. This solution is suboptimal when points (or generally the dataset) are redundant for the same class. In the present research we propose and study two new advanced methods of active learning adapted to the solution of

  3. Stress monitoring versus microseismic ruptures in an active deep mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonnellier, Alice; Bouffier, Christian; Bigarré, Pascal; Nyström, Anders; Österberg, Anders; Fjellström, Peter

    2015-04-01

    monitoring data coming from the mine in quasi-real time and facilitates information exchanges and decision making for experts and stakeholders. On the basis of these data acquisition and sharing, preliminary analysis has been started to highlight whether stress variations and seismic sources behaviour might be directly bound with mine working evolution and could improve the knowledge on the equilibrium states inside the mine. Knowing such parameters indeed will be a potential solution to understand better the response of deep mining activities to the exploitation solicitations and to develop, if possible, methods to prevent from major hazards such as rock bursts and other ground failure phenomena.

  4. A process activity monitor for AOS/VS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckosky, R. A.; Lindley, S. W.; Chapman, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    With the ever increasing concern for computer security, users of computer systems are becoming more sensitive to unauthorized access. One of the initial security concerns for the Shuttle Management Information System was the problem of users leaving their workstations unattended while still connected to the system. This common habit was a concern for two reasons: it ties up resources unnecessarily and it opens the way for unauthorized access to the system. The Data General MV/10000 does not come equipped with an automatic time-out option on interactive peripherals. The purpose of this memorandum is to describe a system which monitors process activity on the system and disconnects those users who show no activity for some time quantum.

  5. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.

    2000-03-08

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (NM) impedance technique are sighted and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency EIM impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acoustic-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens, (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  6. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.

    2000-02-29

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance technique are cited and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency E/M impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acousto-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  7. Differential actigraphy for monitoring asymmetry in upper limb motor activities.

    PubMed

    Rabuffetti, M; Meriggi, P; Pagliari, C; Bartolomeo, P; Ferrarin, M

    2016-09-21

    Most applications of accelerometry-based actigraphy require a single sensor, properly located onto the body, to estimate, for example, the level of activity or the energy expenditure. Some approaches adopt a multi-sensor setup to improve those analyses or to classify different types of activity. The specific case of two symmetrically placed actigraphs allowing, by some kind of differential analysis, for the assessment of asymmetric motor behaviors, has been considered in relatively few studies. This article presents a novel method for differential actigraphy, which requires the synchronized measurements of two triaxial accelerometers (programmable eZ430-Chronos, Texas Instruments, USA) placed symmetrically on both wrists. The method involved the definition of a robust epoch-related activity index and its implementation on-board the adopted programmable platform. Finally, the activity recordings from both sensors allowed us to define a novel asymmetry index AR24 h ranging from  -100% (only the left arm moves) to  +100% (only the right arm moves) with null value marking a perfect symmetrical behavior. The accuracy of the AR24 h index was 1.3%. Round-the-clock monitoring on 31 healthy participants (20-79 years old, 10 left handed) provided for the AR24 h reference data (range  -5% to 21%) and a fairly good correlation to the clinical handedness index (r  =  0.66, p  <  0.001). A subset of 20 participants repeated the monitoring one week apart evidencing an excellent test-retest reliability (r  =  0.70, p  <  0.001). Such figures support future applications of the methodology for the study of pathologies involving motor asymmetries, such as in patients with motor hemisyndromes and, in general, for those subjects for whom a quantification of the asymmetry in daily motor performances is required to complement laboratory tests.

  8. Active Volcano Monitoring using a Space-based Hyperspectral Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipar, J. J.; Dunn, R.; Cooley, T.

    2010-12-01

    Active volcanoes occur on every continent, often in close proximity to heavily populated areas. While ground-based studies are essential for scientific research and disaster mitigation, remote sensing from space can provide rapid and continuous monitoring of active and potentially active volcanoes [Ramsey and Flynn, 2004]. In this paper, we report on hyperspectral measurements of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Hyperspectral images obtained by the US Air Force TacSat-3/ARTEMIS sensor [Lockwood et al, 2006] are used to obtain estimates of the surface temperatures for the volcano. ARTEMIS measures surface-reflected light in the visible, near-infrared, and short-wave infrared bands (VNIR-SWIR). The SWIR bands are known to be sensitive to thermal radiation [Green, 1996]. For example, images from the NASA Hyperion hyperspectral sensor have shown the extent of wildfires and active volcanoes [Young, 2009]. We employ the methodology described by Dennison et al, (2006) to obtain an estimate of the temperature of the active region of Kilauea. Both day and night-time images were used in the analysis. To improve the estimate, we aggregated neighboring pixels. The active rim of the lava lake is clearly discernable in the temperature image, with a measured temperature exceeding 1100o C. The temperature decreases markedly on the exterior of the summit crater. While a long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensor would be ideal for volcano monitoring, we have shown that the thermal state of an active volcano can be monitored using the SWIR channels of a reflective hyperspectral imager. References: Dennison, Philip E., Kraivut Charoensiri, Dar A. Roberts, Seth H. Peterson, and Robert O. Green (2006). Wildfire temperature and land cover modeling using hyperspectral data, Remote Sens. Environ., vol. 100, pp. 212-222. Green, R. O. (1996). Estimation of biomass fire temperature and areal extent from calibrated AVIRIS spectra, in Summaries of the 6th Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, Pasadena, CA

  9. Evaluation of Brāhmī ghṛtam in children suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bhalerao, Supriya; Munshi, Renuka; Nesari, Tanuja; Shah, Heenal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. In view of the adverse effects associated with psycho-stimulants used for the treatment of this disorder, efficacy of Brāhmī ghṛtam was evaluated in this condition. Materials and Methods: After following due ethical considerations, children of either sex between the age group of 6 and 12 years diagnosed to be suffering from mixed variety of ADHD as per The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV criteria irrespective of other co-morbid psychiatric illnesses were recruited in the study. Initially a pilot study (n = 10) was carried out to confirm the efficacy of the identified dose of Brāhmī ghṛtam. Using this dose, further therapeutic confirmatory study (n = 27) was carried out, wherein Brāhmī ghṛtam was compared with methylphenidate. Effect on ADHD symptoms was assessed using the Dupaul ADHD rating scale and this was the main efficacy parameter. Results: In the pilot exploratory study, Brāhmī ghṛtam showed 66% decrease in total ADHD score. In the therapeutic confirmatory study, only 16% improvement was seen with Brāhmī ghṛtam, which was similar to methylphenidate, standard treatment for ADHD that was used as a comparator in the present study. No side-effects were reported in both studies. Conclusion: Our study thus has adequately demonstrated efficacy and safety of Brāhmī ghṛtam in ADHD. PMID:25284947

  10. Evaluation of activity monitors in manual wheelchair users with paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V.; Ding, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of SenseWear® (SW) and RT3 activity monitors (AMs) in estimating energy expenditure (EE) in manual wheelchair users (MWUs) with paraplegia for a variety of physical activities. Methods Twenty-four subjects completed four activities including resting, wheelchair propulsion, arm-ergometry exercise, and deskwork. The criterion EE was measured by a K4b2 portable metabolic cart. The EE estimated by the SW and RT3 were compared with the criterion EE by the absolute differences and absolute percentage errors. Intraclass correlations and the Bland and Altman plots were also used to assess the agreements between the two AMs and the metabolic cart. Correlations between the criterion EE and the estimated EE and sensors data from the AMs were evaluated. Results The EE estimation errors for the AMs varied from 24.4 to 125.8% for the SW and from 22.0 to 52.8% for the RT3. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between the criterion EE and the EE estimated by the two AMs for each activity and all activities as a whole were considered poor with all the ICCs smaller than 0.75. Except for deskwork, the EE from the SW was more correlated to the criterion EE than the EE from the RT3. Conclusion The results indicate that neither of the AMs is an appropriate tool for quantifying physical activity in MWUs with paraplegia. However, the accuracy of EE estimation could be potentially improved by building new regression models based on wheelchair-related activities. PMID:21528634

  11. Clinical value of monitoring eosinophil activity in asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Koller, D Y; Herouy, Y; Götz, M; Hagel, E; Urbanek, R; Eichler, I

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the use of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in monitoring disease activity in childhood asthma, serum ECP in 175 asthmatic children was assessed. Forty five patients with cystic fibrosis, 23 with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), and 87 healthy children were used as controls. Serum ECP concentrations (34.3 micrograms/l v 9.8 micrograms/l) were significantly higher in children with bronchial asthma than in healthy control subjects. In symptomatic patients with asthma serum ECP concentrations were increased compared with those from asymptomatic patients (40.2 micrograms/l v 14.4 micrograms/l), irrespective of treatment modalities (that is steroids, beta 2 agonists, or sodium cromoglycate). Moreover, atopy and infection appeared to be factors enhancing eosinophil activity in bronchial asthma as measured by serum ECP (58.4 micrograms/l v 36.8 micrograms/l and 68.8 micrograms/l v 42.2 micrograms/l, respectively). In a longitudinal trial, antiasthmatic treatment modalities (that is steroids) reduced serum ECP within four weeks (42.2 micrograms/l v 19.0 micrograms/l). In conclusion, the data indicate that (1) eosinophils also play a central part in childhood asthma; (2) serum concentrations of ECP in children with bronchial asthma are related to the disease severity and may thus be used for monitoring inflammation in childhood asthma; (3) eosinophil activity appears to be enhanced by atopy and infection; and (4) longitudinal measurements of serum ECP concentrations may be useful for optimising anti-inflammatory treatment in children with bronchial asthma. PMID:8554357

  12. IDEEA activity monitor: validity of activity recognition for lying, reclining, sitting and standing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuyu; Larson, Janet L

    2013-03-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates the independent negative effects of sedentary behavior on health, but there are few objective measures of sedentary behavior. Most instruments measure physical activity and are not validated as measures of sedentary behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the IDEEA system's measures of sedentary and low-intensity physical activities: lying, reclining, sitting and standing. Thirty subjects, 14 men and 16 women, aged 23 to 77 years, body mass index (BMI) between 18 to 34 kg/m(2), participated in the study. IDEEA measures were compared to direct observation for 27 activities: 10 lying in bed, 3 lying on a sofa, 1 reclining in a lawn chair, 10 sitting and 3 standing. Two measures are reported, the percentage of activities accurately identified and the percentage of monitored time that was accurately labeled by the IDEEA system for all subjects. A total of 91.6% of all observed activities were accurately identified and 92.4% of the total monitored time was accurately labeled. The IDEEA system did not accurately differentiate between lying and reclining so the two activities were combined for calculating accuracy. Using this approach the IDEEA system accurately identified 96% of sitting activities for a total of 97% of the monitored sitting time, 99% and 99% for standing, 87% and 88% for lying in bed, 87% and 88% for lying on the sofa, and 83% and 83% for reclining on a lawn chair. We conclude that the IDEEA system accurately recognizes sitting and standing positions, but it is less accurate in identifying lying and reclining positions. We recommend combining the lying and reclining activities to improve accuracy. The IDEEA system enables researchers to monitor lying, reclining, sitting and standing with a reasonable level of accuracy and has the potential to advance the science of sedentary behaviors and low-intensity physical activities.

  13. Single-Molecule Electronic Monitoring of DNA Polymerase Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marushchak, Denys O.; Pugliese, Kaitlin M.; Turvey, Mackenzie W.; Choi, Yongki; Gul, O. Tolga; Olsen, Tivoli J.; Rajapakse, Arith J.; Weiss, Gregory A.; Collins, Philip G.

    Single-molecule techniques can reveal new spatial and kinetic details of the conformational changes occurring during enzymatic catalysis. Here, we investigate the activity of DNA polymerases using an electronic single-molecule technique based on carbon nanotube transistors. Single molecules of the Klenow fragment (KF) of polymerase I were conjugated to the transistors and then monitored via fluctuations in electrical conductance. Continuous, long-term monitoring recorded single KF molecules incorporating up to 10,000 new bases into single-stranded DNA templates. The duration of individual incorporation events was invariant across all analog and native nucleotides, indicating that the precise structure of different base pairs has no impact on the timing of incorporation. Despite similar timings, however, the signal magnitudes generated by certain analogs reveal alternate conformational states that do not occur with native nucleotides. The differences induced by these analogs suggest that the electronic technique is sensing KF's O-helix as it tests the stability of nascent base pairs.

  14. Design, Synthesis, and Monitoring of Light-Activated Motorized Nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Pinn-Tsong

    Our group has developed a family of single molecules termed nanocars, which are aimed at performing controllable motion on surfaces. In this work, a series of light-activated motorized nanomachines incorporated with a MHz frequency light-activated unidirectional rotary motor were designed and synthesized. We hope the light-activated motor can serve as the powering unit for the nanomachines, and perform controllable translational motion on surfaces or in solution. A series of motorized nanovehicles intended for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging were designed and synthesized. A p-carborane-wheeled motorized nanocar was synthesized and monitored by STM. Single-molecule imaging was accomplished on a Cu(111) surface. However, further manipulations did lead to motor induced lateral motion. We attributed this result to the strong molecule-surface interactions between the p-carborane-wheeled nanocar and the Cu(111) surface and possible energy transfer between the rotary motor and the Cu(111) surface. To fine-tune the molecule-surface interactions, an adamantane-wheeled motorized nanocar and a three-wheel nanoroadster were designed and synthesized. In addition, the STM substrates will be varied and different combinations of molecule-surface interactions will be studied. As a complimentary imaging method to STM, single-molecule fluorescence microscopy (SMFM) also provides single-molecule level resolution. Unlike STM experiment requires ultra-high vacuum and conductive substrate, SMFM experiment is conducted at ambient conditions and uses non-conductive substrate. This imaging method allows us to study another category of molecule-surface interactions. We plan to design a fluorescent motorized nanocar that is suitable for SMFM studies. However, both the motor and fluorophore are photochemically active molecules. In proximity, some undesired energy transfer or interference could occur. A cyanine 5- (cy5-) tagged motorized nanocar incorporated with the MHz motor was

  15. Multi-level continuous active source seismic monitoring (ML-CASSM): Application to shallow hydrofracture monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Daley, T. M.; Butler-Veytia, B.; Peterson, J.; Gasperikova, E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    Induced subsurface processes occur over a wide variety of time scales ranging from seconds (e.g. fracture initiation) to days (e.g. unsteady multiphase flow) and weeks (e.g. induced mineral precipitation). Active source seismic monitoring has the potential to dynamically characterize such alterations and allow estimation of spatially localized rates. However, even optimal timelapse seismic surveys have limited temporal resolution due to both the time required to acquire a survey and the cost of continuous field deployment of instruments and personnel. Traditional timelapse surveys are also limited by experimental repeatability due to a variety of factors including geometry replication and near-surface conditions. Recent research has demonstrated the value of semi-permanently deployed seismic systems with fixed sources and receivers for use in monitoring a variety of processes including near-surface stress changes (Silver et.al. 2007), subsurface movement of supercritical CO2 (Daley et.al. 2007), and preseismic velocity changes in fault regions (Niu et. al. 2008). This strategy, referred to as continuous active source seismic monitoring (CASSM), allows both precise quantification of traveltime changes on the order of 1.1 x 10-7 s and temporal sampling on the order of minutes. However, as previously deployed, CASSM often sacrifices spatial resolution for temporal resolution with previous experiments including only a single source level. We present results from the first deployment of CASSM with a large number of source levels under automated control. Our system is capable of autonomously acquiring full tomographic datasets (10 sources, 72 receivers) in 3 minutes without human intervention, thus allowing active source seismic imaging (rather than monitoring) of processes with short durations. Because no sources or receivers are moved in the acquisition process, signal repeatability is excellent and subtle waveform changes can be interpreted with increased confidence

  16. Use of Small Fluorescent Molecules to Monitor Channel Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sharon; Stringer, Sarah; Naik, Rajesh; Stone, Morley

    2001-03-01

    The Mechanosensitive channel of Large conductance (MscL) allows bacteria to rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions such as osmolarity. The MscL channel opens in response to increases in membrane tension, which allows for the efflux of cytoplasmic constituents. Here we describe the cloning and expression of Salmonella typhimurium MscL (St-MscL). Using a fluorescence efflux assay, we demonstrate that efflux through the MscL channel during hypoosmotic shock can be monitored using endogenously produced fluorophores. In addition, we observe that thermal stimulation, i.e., heat shock, can also induce efflux through MscL. We present the first evidence of thermal activation of MscL efflux by heat shocking cells expressing the S. typhimurium protein variant. This finding has significant biosensor implications, especially for investigators exploring the use of channel proteins in biosensor applications. Thermal biosensors are relatively unexplored, but would have considerable commercial and military utility.

  17. Automatic Video System for Continues Monitoring of the Meteor Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koten, Pavel; Fliegel, Karel; Vítek, Stanislav; Páta, Petr

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we present current progress in development of new observational instruments for the double station video experiment. The Meteor Automatic Imager and Analyser (MAIA) system is based on digital monochrome camera JAI CM-040 and well proved image intensifier XX1332. Both the observations as well as the data processing will be fully automatic. We are expecting the recorded data of better quality and both spatial and time resolution in comparison with currently used analogue system. The main goal of the MAIA project is to monitor activity of the meteor showers and sporadic meteor each night for the period of at least 3 years. First version of the system was already assembled and has been intensively tested in the optical laboratory. Optical properties were measured and the result confirmed our expectations according to image quality and resolution. First night sky observation was already carried out.

  18. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  19. Detection of physical activities using a physical activity monitor system for wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Intille, Stephen S; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rory A; Ding, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Availability of physical activity monitors for wheelchair users can potentially assist these individuals to track regular physical activity (PA), which in turn could lead to a healthier and more active lifestyle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate algorithms for a physical activity monitoring system (PAMS) to detect wheelchair based activities. The PAMS consists of a gyroscope based wheel rotation monitor (G-WRM) and an accelerometer device (wocket) worn on the upper arm or on the wrist. A total of 45 persons with spinal cord injury took part in the study, which was performed in a structured university-based laboratory environment, a semi-structured environment at the National Veterans Wheelchair Games, and in the participants' home environments. Participants performed at least ten PAs, other than resting, taken from a list of PAs. The classification performance for the best classifiers on the testing dataset for PAMS-Arm (G-WRM and wocket on upper arm) and PAMS-Wrist (G-WRM and wocket on wrist) was 89.26% and 88.47%, respectively. The outcomes of this study indicate that multi-modal information from the PAMS can help detect various types of wheelchair-based activities in structured laboratory, semi-structured organizational, and unstructured home environments.

  20. INDIRECT MEASUREMENT OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY TO MONITOR NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The remediation of ground water contamination by natural attenuation, specifically biodegradation, requires continual monitoring. This research is aimed at improving methods for evaluating the long-term performance of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA), specifically changes in ...

  1. Systemic Autoimmunity in TAM Triple Knockout Mice Causes Inflammatory Brain Damage and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingjun; Lu, Huayi; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-01-01

    The Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (TAM) triply knockout (TKO) mice exhibit systemic autoimmune diseases, with characteristics of increased proinflammatory cytokine production, autoantibody deposition and autoreactive lymphocyte infiltration into a variety of tissues. Here we show that TKO mice produce high level of serum TNF-α and specific autoantibodies deposited onto brain blood vessels. The brain-blood barrier (BBB) in mutant brains exhibited increased permeability for Evans blue and fluorescent-dextran, suggesting a breakdown of the BBB in the mutant brains. Impaired BBB integrity facilitated autoreactive T cells infiltrating into all regions of the mutant brains. Brain autoimmune disorder caused accumulation of the ubiquitin-reactive aggregates in the mutant hippocampus, and early formation of autofluorescent lipofuscins in the neurons throughout the entire brains. Chronic neuroinflammation caused damage of the hippocampal mossy fibers and neuronal apoptotic death. This study shows that chronic systemic inflammation and autoimmune disorders in the TKO mice cause neuronal damage and death. PMID:23840307

  2. TAM receptors Tyro3 and Mer as novel targets in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Robin; Valls, Aida Freire; Yerbes, Rosario; von Richter, Sophie; Kahlert, Christoph; Loges, Sonja; Weitz, Jürgen; Schneider, Martin; de Almodovar, Carmen Ruiz; Ulrich, Alexis; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose CRC remains the third most common cancer worldwide with a high 5-year mortality rate in advanced cases. Combined with chemotherapy, targeted therapy is an additional treatment option. However as CRC still escapes targeted therapy the vigorous search for new targets is warranted to increase patients' overall survival. Results In this study we describe a new role for Gas6/protein S-TAM receptor interaction in CRC. Gas6, expressed by tumor-infiltrating M2-like macrophages, enhances malignant properties of tumor cells including proliferation, invasion and colony formation. Upon chemotherapy macrophages increase Gas6 synthesis, which significantly attenuates the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU chemotherapy on tumor cells. The anti-coagulant protein S has similar effects as Gas6. In CRC patient samples Tyro3 was overexpressed within the tumor. In-vitro inhibition of Tyro3 and Mer reduces tumor cell proliferation and sensitizes tumor cells to chemotherapy. Moreover high expression of Tyro3 and Mer in tumor tissue significantly shortens CRC patients' survival. Experimental design Various in vitro models were used to investigate the role of Gas6 and its TAM receptors in human CRC cells, by stimulation (rhGas6) and knockdown (siRNA) of Axl, Tyro3 and Mer. In terms of a translational research, we additionally performed an expression analysis in human CRC tissue and analyzed the medical record of these patients. Conclusions Tyro3 and Mer represent novel therapeutic targets in CRC and warrant further preclinical and clinical investigation in the future. PMID:27486820

  3. Validating the Satisfaction and Continuance Intention of E-Learning Systems: Combining TAM and IS Success Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tung-Cheng; Chen, Ching-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Many e-learning studies have evaluated learning attitudes and behaviors, based on TAM. However, a successful e-learning system (ELS) should take both system and information quality into account by applying ISM developed by Delone and McLean. In addition, the acceptance for information system depends on the perceived usefulness and ease of use…

  4. [Development of a wearable electrocardiogram monitor with recognition of physical activity scene].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zihong; Wu, Baoming; Yin, Jian; Gong, Yushun

    2012-10-01

    To overcome the problems of current electrocardiogram (ECG) tele-monitoring devices used for daily life, according to information fusion thought and by means of wearable technology, we developed a new type of wearable ECG monitor with the capability of physical activity recognition in this paper. The ECG monitor synchronously detected electrocardiogram signal and body acceleration signal, and recognized the scene information of physical activity, and finally determined the health status of the heart. With the advantages of accuracy for measurement, easy to use, comfort to wear, private feelings and long-term continuous in monitoring, this ECG monitor is quite fit for the heart-health monitoring in daily life.

  5. Using VHF Lightning Observations to Monitor Explosive Volcanic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, S. A.; Thomas, R. J.; McNutt, S. R.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Edens, H. E.

    2011-12-01

    Lightning is an integral part of explosive volcanic eruptions and volcanic lightning measurements are a useful tool for volcano monitoring. VHF measurements of volcanic lightning can be made remotely, at distances of up to 100 km. A strategically placed network of 6 or more VHF ground stations could locate lightning in eruption columns from several regional volcanoes, and a minimum of two stations could be used to monitor a single volcano. Such a network would be particularly useful for detection or confirmation of explosive activity in situations where volcanoes are remotely located, and thus lack visual observations, or are not well instrumented with seismic networks. Furthermore, clouds are fully transparent to VHF signals, making lightning detection possible even when weather obscures visual observations. Recent VHF observations of volcanic lightning at Augustine Volcano (Alaska, USA, 2006), Redoubt Volcano (Alaska, USA, 2009) and Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland, 2010) have shown that two basic types of VHF signals are observed during volcanic eruptions, one of which is unique to volcanic activity. The unique signal, referred to as a 'continual RF' signal, was caused by very high rates of small 'vent discharges' occurring directly above the vent in the eruption column and was unlike any observations of lightning in meteorological thunderstorms. Vent discharges were observed to begin immediately following an explosive eruption. The second type of signal is from conventional lightning discharges, such as upward directed 'near-vent lightning' and isolated 'plume lightning.' Near-vent lightning was observed to begin 1-2 minutes following the onset of an explosive eruption while plume lightning began 4 or more minutes after the onset. At Redoubt the plume lightning occurred at such high rates that it rivaled lightning rates of supercell thunderstorms on the Great Plains of the United States. While both types of lightning signals can be used as indicators that explosive

  6. Performance of a coincidence based blood activity monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.

    1989-12-01

    A new device has been constructed that measures the positron emitting radio-tracer concentration in arterial blood by extracting blood with a peristaltic pump, then measuring the activity concentration by detecting coincident pairs of 511 keV photons with a pair of heavy inorganic scintillators attached to photomultiplier tubes. The sensitivity of this device is experimentally determined to be 610 counts/second per {mu}Ci/ml, and has a paralyzing dead time of 1.2 {mu}s, so is capable of measuring blood activity concentration as high as 1 mCi/ml. Its performance is compared to two other blood monitoring methods: discrete blood samples counted with a well counter and device that uses a plastic scintillator to directly detect positrons. The positron detection efficiency of this device for {sup 18}F is greater than the plastic scintillation counter, and also eliminates the radioisotope dependent correction factors necessary to convert count rate to absolute concentration. Coincident photon detection also has the potential of reducing the background compared to direct positron detection, thereby increasing the minimum detectable isotope concentration. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Smart helmet: Monitoring brain, cardiac and respiratory activity.

    PubMed

    von Rosenberg, Wilhelm; Chanwimalueang, Theerasak; Goverdovsky, Valentin; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-01-01

    The timing of the assessment of the injuries following a road-traffic accident involving motorcyclists is absolutely crucial, particularly in the events with head trauma. Standard apparatus for monitoring cardiac activity is usually attached to the limbs or the torso, while the brain function is routinely measured with a separate unit connected to the head-mounted sensors. In stark contrast to these, we propose an integrated system which incorporates the two functionalities inside an ordinary motorcycle helmet. Multiple fabric electrodes were mounted inside the helmet at positions featuring good contact with the skin at different sections of the head. The experimental results demonstrate that the R-peaks (and therefore the heart rate) can be reliably extracted from potentials measured with electrodes on the mastoids and the lower jaw, while the electrodes on the forehead enable the observation of neural signals. We conclude that various vital sings and brain activity can be readily recorded from the inside of a helmet in a comfortable and inconspicuous way, requiring only a negligible setup effort.

  8. Active Learning Framework for Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Xin

    2016-05-16

    Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is a set of techniques that estimate the electricity usage of individual appliances from power measurements taken at a limited number of locations in a building. One of the key challenges in NILM is having too much data without class labels yet being unable to label the data manually for cost or time constraints. This paper presents an active learning framework that helps existing NILM techniques to overcome this challenge. Active learning is an advanced machine learning method that interactively queries a user for the class label information. Unlike most existing NILM systems that heuristically request user inputs, the proposed method only needs minimally sufficient information from a user to build a compact and yet highly representative load signature library. Initial results indicate the proposed method can reduce the user inputs by up to 90% while still achieving similar disaggregation performance compared to a heuristic method. Thus, the proposed method can substantially reduce the burden on the user, improve the performance of a NILM system with limited user inputs, and overcome the key market barriers to the wide adoption of NILM technologies.

  9. Targeted Proteomics Approaches To Monitor Microbial Activity In Basalt Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paszczynski, A. J.; Paidisetti, R.

    2007-12-01

    Microorganisms play a major role in biogeochemical cycles of the Earth. Information regarding microbial community composition can be very useful for environmental monitoring since the short generation times of microorganisms allows them to respond rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Microbial mediated attenuation of toxic chemicals offers great potential for the restoration of contaminated environments in an ecologically acceptable manner. Current knowledge regarding the structure and functional activities of microbial communities is limited, but more information is being acquired every day through many genomic- and proteomic- based methods. As of today, only a small fraction of the Earth's microorganisms has been cultured, and so most of the information regarding the biodegradation and therapeutic potentials of these uncultured microorganisms remains unknown. Sequence analysis of DNA and/or RNA has been used for identifying specific microorganisms, to study the community composition, and to monitor gene expression providing limited information about metabolic state of given microbial system. Proteomic studies can reveal information regarding the real-time metabolic state of the microbial communities thereby aiding in understanding their interaction with the environment. In research described here the involvement of microbial communities in the degradation of anthropogenic contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE) was studied using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. The co- metabolic degradation of TCE in the groundwater of the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Test Area North (TAN) site of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was monitored by the characterization of peptide sequences of enzymes such as methane monooxygenases (MMOs). MMOs, expressed by methanotrophic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of methane and non-specific co-metabolic oxidation of TCE. We developed a time- course cell lysis method to release proteins from complex microbial

  10. A bioluminescent caspase-1 activity assay rapidly monitors inflammasome activation in cells.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Martha; Moehring, Danielle; Muñoz-Planillo, Raúl; Núñez, Gabriel; Callaway, Justin; Ting, Jenny; Scurria, Mike; Ugo, Tim; Bernad, Laurent; Cali, James; Lazar, Dan

    2017-03-04

    Inflammasomes are protein complexes induced by diverse inflammatory stimuli that activate caspase-1, resulting in the processing and release of cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and pyroptosis, an immunogenic form of cell death. To provide a homogeneous method for detecting caspase-1 activity, we developed a bioluminescent, plate-based assay that combines a substrate, Z-WEHD-aminoluciferin, with a thermostable luciferase in an optimized lytic reagent added directly to cultured cells. Assay specificity for caspase-1 is conferred by inclusion of a proteasome inhibitor in the lytic reagent and by use of a caspase-1 inhibitor to confirm activity. This approach enables a specific and rapid determination of caspase-1 activation. Caspase-1 activity is stable in the reagent thereby providing assay convenience and flexibility. Using this assay system, caspase-1 activation has been determined in THP-1 cells following treatment with α-hemolysin, LPS, nigericin, gramicidin, MSU, R848, Pam3CSK4, and flagellin. Caspase-1 activation has also been demonstrated in treated J774A.1 mouse macrophages, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from mice, as well as in human primary monocytes. Caspase-1 activity was not detected in treated BMDMs derived from Casp1(-/-) mice, further confirming the specificity of the assay. Caspase-1 activity can be measured directly in cultured cells using the lytic reagent, or caspase-1 activity released into medium can be monitored by assay of transferred supernatant. The caspase-1 assay can be multiplexed with other assays to monitor additional parameters from the same cells, such as IL-1β release or cell death. The caspase-1 assay in combination with a sensitive real-time monitor of cell death allows one to accurately establish pyroptosis. This assay system provides a rapid, convenient, and flexible method to specifically and quantitatively monitor caspase-1 activation in cells in a plate-based format. This will allow a more efficient and effective

  11. Geophysical Monitoring of Microbial Activity within a Wetland Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, M.; Zhang, C.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.

    2007-05-01

    We performed Induced Polarization (IP) and Self Potential (SP) measurements to record the geoelectrical signatures of microbial activity within a wetland soil. The experiment was conducted in laboratory, utilizing an open flow column set up. Soil samples from Kearny Marsh (KM), a shallow water wetland, were collected and stored at 4o Celsius prior to the start of the experiment. Two columns were dry packed with a mix of KM soil and sterile Ottawa sand (50% by weight). One column was sterilized and used as a control while the other column retained the biologically active soil sample. Both columns were saturated with a minimal salts medium capable of supporting microbial life; after saturation, a steady flow rate of one pore volume per day was maintained throughout the experiment. Ambient temperature and pressure changes (at the inflow and outflow of each column) were continuously monitored throughout the experiment. Common geochemical parameters, such as Eh, pH, and fluid conductivity were measured at the inflow and outflow of each column at regular intervals. IP and SP responses were continuously recorded on both columns utilizing a series of electrodes along the column length; additionally for the SP measurements we used a reference electrode at the inflow tube. Strong SP anomalies were observed for all the locations along the active column. Black visible mineral precipitant also formed in the active column. The observed precipitation coincided with the times that SP anomalies developed at each electrode position. These responses are associated with microbial induced sulfide mineralization. We interpret the SP signal as the result of redox processes associated with this mineralization driven by gradients in ionic concentration and mobility within the column, similar to a galvanic cell mechanism. IP measurements show no correlation with these visual and SP responses. Destructive analysis of the samples followed the termination of the experiment. Scanning electron

  12. Physical Activity Measured by Physical Activity Monitoring System Correlates with Glucose Trends Reconstructed from Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zecchin, Chiara; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Dalla Man, Chiara; Manohar, Chinmay; Levine, James A.; Basu, Ananda; Kudva, Yogish C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), physical activity (PA) lowers the risk of cardiovascular complications but hinders the achievement of optimal glycemic control, transiently boosting insulin action and increasing hypoglycemia risk. Quantitative investigation of relationships between PA-related signals and glucose dynamics, tracked using, for example, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors, have been barely explored. Subjects and Methods In the clinic, 20 control and 19 T1DM subjects were studied for 4 consecutive days. They underwent low-intensity PA sessions daily. PA was tracked by the PA monitoring system (PAMS), a system comprising accelerometers and inclinometers. Variations on glucose dynamics were tracked estimating first- and second-order time derivatives of glucose concentration from CGM via Bayesian smoothing. Short-time effects of PA on glucose dynamics were quantified through the partial correlation function in the interval (0, 60 min) after starting PA. Results Correlation of PA with glucose time derivatives is evident. In T1DM, the negative correlation with the first-order glucose time derivative is maximal (absolute value) after 15 min of PA, whereas the positive correlation is maximal after 40–45 min. The negative correlation between the second-order time derivative and PA is maximal after 5 min, whereas the positive correlation is maximal after 35–40 min. Control subjects provided similar results but with positive and negative correlation peaks anticipated of 5 min. Conclusions Quantitative information on correlation between mild PA and short-term glucose dynamics was obtained. This represents a preliminary important step toward incorporation of PA information in more realistic physiological models of the glucose–insulin system usable in T1DM simulators, in development of closed-loop artificial pancreas control algorithms, and in CGM-based prediction algorithms for generation of hypoglycemic alerts. PMID

  13. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  16. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  17. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  18. Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, W. T.; Hammond, D. K.; Jeevarajan, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    . Respir. Dis. 138 (1988) 1213-1219). The size and cost of these instruments makes them unattractive for the monitoring of lunar dust activity. A more suitable technique is based on the change in fluorescence of a molecule upon reaction with a hydroxyl radical (or other radical species). Fluorescence instruments are much less costly and bulky than ESR spectrometers, and small fluorescence sensors for space missions have already been developed (F. Gao, et al., J. Biomed. Opt. 10 (2005) 054005). For the current fluorescence studies, the terephthalate molecule has been chosen for monitoring the production of hydroxyl radicals in solution. As shown in Scheme 1, the reaction between the non-fluorescent terephthalate molecule and a hydroxyl radical produces the highly-fluorescent 2-hydroxyterephthalate molecule.

  19. Jovian dust streams: A monitor of Io's volcanic plume activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruger, H.; Geissler, P.; Horanyi, M.; Graps, A.L.; Kempf, S.; Srama, R.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Moissl, R.; Johnson, T.V.; Grun, E.

    2003-01-01

    Streams of high speed dust particles originate from Jupiter's moon Io. After release from Io, the particles collect electric charges in the Io plasma torus, gain energy from the co-rotating electric field of Jupiter's magnetosphere, and leave the Jovian system into interplanetary space with escape speeds over 200 km s-1. The Galileo spacecraft has continuously monitored the dust streams during 34 revolutions about Jupiter between 1996 and 2002. The observed dust fluxes exhibit large orbit-to-orbit variability due to systematic and stochastic changes. After removal of the systematic variations, the total dust emission rate of Io has been calculated. It varies between 10-3 and 10 kg s-1, and is typically in the range of 0.1 to 1 kg s-1. We compare the dust emission rate with other markers of volcanic activity on Io like large-area surface changes caused by volcanic deposits and sightings of volcanic plumes. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Apollo Director Phillips Monitors Apollo 11 Pre-Launch Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    From the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) control room, Apollo Program Director Lieutenant General Samuel C. Phillips monitors pre-launch activities for Apollo 11. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the KSC in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  1. Laser activated nanothermolysis of leukemia cells monitored by photothermal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotko, Dmitri; Lukianova, Ekaterina; Shnip, Alexander; Zheltov, George; Potapnev, Michail; Savitsky, Valeriy; Klimovich, Olga; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    We are developing new diagnostic and therapeutic technologies for leukemia based on selective targeting of leukemia cells with gold nanoparticles and thermomechanical destruction of the tumor cells with laser-induced microbubbles. Clusters of spherical gold nanoparticles that have strong optical absorption of laser pulses at 532 nm served as nucleation sites of vapor microbubbles. The nanoparticles were targeted selectively to leukemia cells using leukemia-specific surface receptors and a set of two monoclonal antibodies. Application of a primary myeloid-specific antibody to tumor cells followed by targeting the cells with 30-nm nanoparticles conjugated with a secondary antibody (IgG) resulted in formation of nanoparticulate clusters due to aggregation of IgGs. Formation of clusters resulted in substantial decrease of the damage threshold for target cells. The results encourage development of Laser Activated Nanothermolysis as a Cell Elimination Therapy (LANCET) for leukemia. The proposed technology can be applied separately or in combination with chemotherapy for killing leukemia cells without damage to other blood cells. Potential applications include initial reduction of concentration of leukemia cells in blood prior to chemotherapy and treatment of residual tumor cells after the chemotherapy. Laser-induced bubbles in individual cells and cell damage were monitored by analyzing profile of photothermal response signals over the entire cell after irradiation with a single 10-ns long laser pulse. Photothermal microscopy was utilized for imaging formation of microbubbles around nanoparticulate clusters.

  2. Cooperative wireless network control based health and activity monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Prakash, R; Ganesh, A Balaji; Girish, Siva V

    2016-10-01

    A real-time cooperative communication based wireless network is presented for monitoring health and activity of an end-user in their environment. The cooperative communication offers better energy consumption and also an opportunity to aware the current location of a user non-intrusively. The link between mobile sensor node and relay node is dynamically established by using Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Link Quality Indicator (LQI) based on adaptive relay selection scheme. The study proposes a Linear Acceleration based Transmission Power Decision Control (LA-TPDC) algorithm to further enhance the energy efficiency of cooperative communication. Further, the occurrences of false alarms are carefully prevented by introducing three stages of sequential warning system. The real-time experiments are carried-out by using the nodes, namely mobile sensor node, relay nodes and a destination node which are indigenously developed by using a CC430 microcontroller integrated with an in-built transceiver at 868 MHz. The wireless node performance characteristics, such as energy consumption, Signal-Noise ratio (SNR), Bit Error Rate (BER), Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and transmission offset are evaluated for all the participated nodes. The experimental results observed that the proposed linear acceleration based transmission power decision control algorithm almost doubles the battery life time than energy efficient conventional cooperative communication.

  3. Step detection and activity recognition accuracy of seven physical activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Storm, Fabio A; Heller, Ben W; Mazzà, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts), Up (Jawbone), One (Fitbit), ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd.), Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc.), Tractivity (Kineteks Corp.) and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia). Sixteen healthy adults consented to take part in the study. The experimental protocol included walking along an indoor straight walkway, descending and ascending 24 steps, free outdoor walking and free indoor walking. These tasks were repeated at three self-selected walking speeds. Angular velocity signals collected at both shanks using two wireless inertial measurement units (OPAL, ADPM Inc) were used as a reference for the step count, computed using previously validated algorithms. Step detection accuracy was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error computed for each sensor. The Movemonitor and the ActivPAL were also tested within a nine-minute activity recognition protocol, during which the participants performed a set of complex tasks. Posture classifications were obtained from the two monitors and expressed as a percentage of the total task duration. The Movemonitor, One, ActivPAL, Nike+ Fuelband and Sensewear Armband Mini underestimated the number of steps in all the observed walking speeds, whereas the Tractivity significantly overestimated step count. The Movemonitor was the best performing sensor, with an error lower than 2% at all speeds and the smallest error obtained in the outdoor walking. The activity recognition protocol showed that the Movemonitor performed best in the walking recognition, but had difficulty in discriminating between standing and sitting. Results of this study can be used to inform choice of a monitor for specific applications.

  4. Step Detection and Activity Recognition Accuracy of Seven Physical Activity Monitors

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Fabio A.; Heller, Ben W.; Mazzà, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts), Up (Jawbone), One (Fitbit), ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd.), Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc.), Tractivity (Kineteks Corp.) and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia). Sixteen healthy adults consented to take part in the study. The experimental protocol included walking along an indoor straight walkway, descending and ascending 24 steps, free outdoor walking and free indoor walking. These tasks were repeated at three self-selected walking speeds. Angular velocity signals collected at both shanks using two wireless inertial measurement units (OPAL, ADPM Inc) were used as a reference for the step count, computed using previously validated algorithms. Step detection accuracy was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error computed for each sensor. The Movemonitor and the ActivPAL were also tested within a nine-minute activity recognition protocol, during which the participants performed a set of complex tasks. Posture classifications were obtained from the two monitors and expressed as a percentage of the total task duration. The Movemonitor, One, ActivPAL, Nike+ Fuelband and Sensewear Armband Mini underestimated the number of steps in all the observed walking speeds, whereas the Tractivity significantly overestimated step count. The Movemonitor was the best performing sensor, with an error lower than 2% at all speeds and the smallest error obtained in the outdoor walking. The activity recognition protocol showed that the Movemonitor performed best in the walking recognition, but had difficulty in discriminating between standing and sitting. Results of this study can be used to inform choice of a monitor for specific applications. PMID:25789630

  5. Cadence Feedback With ECE PEDO to Monitor Physical Activity Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Ardic, Fusun; Göcer, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the monitoring capabilities of the equipment for clever exercise pedometer (ECE PEDO) that provides audible feedback when the person exceeds the upper and lower limits of the target step numbers per minute and to compare step counts with Yamax SW-200 (YX200) as the criterion pedometer. A total of 30 adult volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were classified as normal weight (n = 10), overweight (n = 10), and obese (n = 10). After the submaximal exercise test on a treadmill, the moderate intensity for walking was determined by using YX200 pedometer and then the number of steps taken in a minute was measured. Lower and upper limits of steps per minute (cadence) were recorded in ECE PEDO providing audible feedback when the person's walking speed gets out of the limits. Volunteers walked for 30 minutes in the individual step count range by attaching the ECE PEDO and YX200 pedometer on both sides of the waist belt in the same session. Step counts of the volunteers were recorded. Wilcoxon, Spearman correlation, and Bland–Altman analyses were performed to show the relationship and agreement between the results of 2 devices. Subjects took an average of 3511 ± 426 and 3493 ± 399 steps during 30 minutes with ECE PEDO and criterion pedometer, respectively. About 3500 steps taken by ECE PEDO reflected that this pedometer has capability of identifying steps per minute to meet moderate intensity of physical activity. There was a strong correlation between step counts of both devices (P < 0.001, r = 0.96). Correlations across all three BMI categories and both sex remained consistently high ranging from 0.92 to 0.95. There was a high level of agreement between the ECE PEDO and YX200 pedometer in the Bland–Altman analysis. Although both devices showed a strong similarity in counting steps, the ECE PEDO provides monitoring of intensity such that a person can walk in a specified time with a

  6. Chronic Inflammation: Synergistic Interactions of Recruiting Macrophages (TAMs) and Eosinophils (Eos) with Host Mast Cells (MCs) and Tumorigenesis in CALTs. M-CSF, Suitable Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis!

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Mahin

    2014-01-01

    dysfunction in the direction of tumorigenesis. Activated MFs (TAMs or M2) and Eos that are recruited by tissues (e.g., conjunctiva or perhaps lung airways) whose principal resident immune cells are MCs and lymphocytes are suggested to play crucial synergistic roles in enhancing growth promoting capacities of host toward tumorigenesis. Under oxidative stress, M-CSF may produce signals that are cumulative/synergistic with host mediators (e.g., low levels of histamine), facilitating tumor-directed expression of decoy receptors and immune suppressive factors (e.g., dTNFR, IL-5, IL-10, TGF-β, PGE2). M-CSF, possessing superior sensitivity and specificity, compared with conventional markers (e.g., CA-125, CA-19-9) is potentially a suitable biomarker for cancer diagnosis and technology development. Systematic monitoring of interactions between resident and recruited cells should provide key information not only about early events in loss of immune surveillance, but it would help making informed decisions for balancing the inherent tumoricidal (Yin) and tumorigenic (Yang) properties of immune system and effective preventive and therapeutic approaches and accurate risk assessment toward improvement of public health. PMID:24473090

  7. Measurement of activity in older adults: reliability and validity of the Step Activity Monitor.

    PubMed

    Resnick, B; Nahm, E S; Orwig, D; Zimmerman, S S; Magaziner, J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Step Activity Monitor (SAM) when used with older adults. A total of 30 subjects with a mean age of 86 +/- 6.1 participated in the study. Sixty one-minute walks were measured with the SAM, and two observers visually counted steps. Four participants wore the SAM for 6 to 48 hours and maintained activity diaries. The intraclass correlation for the SAM recordings was R = .84. There was an overall step counting accuracy of 96%. The diaries supported the SAM data for those who wore the SAM for extended periods. The SAM is an easy to use, comfortable, valid, and reliable measure of activity in older adults and particularly may be useful to triangulate measurement of activity in these individuals.

  8. Quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronidation of trans-4-hydroxytamoxifen, an active metabolite of tamoxifen, by human liver microsomes and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A4.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Kenichiro; Ishikawa, Yuko; Kaku, Teppei; Nishiyama, Takahito; Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Muro, Kei; Hiratsuka, Akira

    2006-04-28

    Tamoxifen (TAM), a nonsteroidal antiestrogen, is the most widely used drug for chemotherapy of hormone-dependent breast cancer in women. Trans-4-hydroxy-TAM (trans-4-HO-TAM), one of the TAM metabolites in humans, has been considered to be an active metabolite of TAM because of its higher affinity toward estrogen receptors (ERs) than the parent drug and other side-chain metabolites. In the present study, we found a new potential metabolic pathway of trans-4-HO-TAM and its geometrical isomer, cis-4-HO-TAM, via N-linked glucuronic acid conjugation for excretion in humans. N+-Glucuronides of 4-HO-TAM isomers were isolated along with O-glucuronides from a reaction mixture consisting of trans- or cis-4-HO-TAM and human liver microsomes fortified with UDP-glucuronic acid and identified with their respective synthetic specimens by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Although N- and O-glucuronidating activities of human liver microsomes toward trans-4-HO-TAM were nearly comparable, O-glucuronidation was predominant for cis-4-HO-TAM conjugation. Only UGT1A4 catalyzed the N-linked glucuronidation of 4-HO-TAM among recombinant human UGT isoforms (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17) expressed in insect cells. In contrast, all UGT isoforms, except for UGT1A3 and UGT1A4, catalyzed O-glucuronidation of 4-HO-TAM. Although O-glucuronidation of 4-HO-TAM greatly decreased binding affinity for human ERs, 4-HO-TAM N+-glucuronide still had binding affinity similar to 4-HO-TAM itself, suggesting that N+-glucuronide might contribute to the biological activity of TAM in vivo.

  9. Behavior Change Techniques Implemented in Electronic Lifestyle Activity Monitors: A Systematic Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Mayrsohn, Brian G; Rowland, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic activity monitors (such as those manufactured by Fitbit, Jawbone, and Nike) improve on standard pedometers by providing automated feedback and interactive behavior change tools via mobile device or personal computer. These monitors are commercially popular and show promise for use in public health interventions. However, little is known about the content of their feedback applications and how individual monitors may differ from one another. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior change techniques implemented in commercially available electronic activity monitors. Methods Electronic activity monitors (N=13) were systematically identified and tested by 3 trained coders for at least 1 week each. All monitors measured lifestyle physical activity and provided feedback via an app (computer or mobile). Coding was based on a hierarchical list of 93 behavior change techniques. Further coding of potentially effective techniques and adherence to theory-based recommendations were based on findings from meta-analyses and meta-regressions in the research literature. Results All monitors provided tools for self-monitoring, feedback, and environmental change by definition. The next most prevalent techniques (13 out of 13 monitors) were goal-setting and emphasizing discrepancy between current and goal behavior. Review of behavioral goals, social support, social comparison, prompts/cues, rewards, and a focus on past success were found in more than half of the systems. The monitors included a range of 5-10 of 14 total techniques identified from the research literature as potentially effective. Most of the monitors included goal-setting, self-monitoring, and feedback content that closely matched recommendations from social cognitive theory. Conclusions Electronic activity monitors contain a wide range of behavior change techniques typically used in clinical behavioral interventions. Thus, the monitors may represent a medium by which

  10. State monitoring activities related to Pfiesteria-like organisms.

    PubMed

    Magnien, R E

    2001-10-01

    In response to potential threats to human health and fish populations, six states along the east coast of the United States initiated monitoring programs related to Pfiesteria-like organisms in 1998. These actions were taken in the wake of toxic outbreaks of Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder in Maryland during 1997 and previous outbreaks in North Carolina. The monitoring programs have two major purposes. The first, rapid response, is to ensure public safety by responding immediately to conditions that may indicate the presence of Pfiesteria or related organisms in a toxic state. The second, comprehensive assessment, is to provide a more complete understanding of where Pfiesteria-like organisms may become a threat, to understand what factors may stimulate their growth and toxicity, and to evaluate the impacts of these organisms upon fish and other aquatic life. In states where human health studies are being conducted, the data from both types of monitoring are used to provide information on environmental exposure. The three elements included in each monitoring program are identification of Pfiesteria-like organisms, water quality measurements, and assessments of fish health. Identification of Pfiesteria-like organisms is a particularly difficult element of the monitoring programs, as these small species cannot be definitively identified using light microscopy; newly applied molecular techniques, however, are starting to provide alternatives to traditional methods. State monitoring programs also offer many opportunities for collaborations with research initiatives targeting both environmental and human health issues related to Pfiesteria-like organisms.

  11. State monitoring activities related to Pfiesteria-like organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Magnien, R E

    2001-01-01

    In response to potential threats to human health and fish populations, six states along the east coast of the United States initiated monitoring programs related to Pfiesteria-like organisms in 1998. These actions were taken in the wake of toxic outbreaks of Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder in Maryland during 1997 and previous outbreaks in North Carolina. The monitoring programs have two major purposes. The first, rapid response, is to ensure public safety by responding immediately to conditions that may indicate the presence of Pfiesteria or related organisms in a toxic state. The second, comprehensive assessment, is to provide a more complete understanding of where Pfiesteria-like organisms may become a threat, to understand what factors may stimulate their growth and toxicity, and to evaluate the impacts of these organisms upon fish and other aquatic life. In states where human health studies are being conducted, the data from both types of monitoring are used to provide information on environmental exposure. The three elements included in each monitoring program are identification of Pfiesteria-like organisms, water quality measurements, and assessments of fish health. Identification of Pfiesteria-like organisms is a particularly difficult element of the monitoring programs, as these small species cannot be definitively identified using light microscopy; newly applied molecular techniques, however, are starting to provide alternatives to traditional methods. State monitoring programs also offer many opportunities for collaborations with research initiatives targeting both environmental and human health issues related to Pfiesteria-like organisms. PMID:11677180

  12. GRID based Thermal Images Processing for volcanic activity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiagli, S.; Coco, S.; Drago, L.; Laudani, A.,; Lodato, L.; Pollicino, G.; Torrisi, O.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2001, the Catania Section of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) has been running the video stations recording the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, Stromboli and the Fossa Crater of Vulcano island. The video signals of 11 video cameras (seven operating in the visible band and four in infrared) are sent in real time to INGV Control Centre where they are visualized on monitors and archived on a dedicated NAS storage. The video surveillance of the Sicilian volcanoes, situated near to densely populated areas, helps the volcanologists providing the Civil Protection authorities with updates in real time on the on-going volcanic activity. In particular, five video cameras are operating on Mt. Etna and they record the volcano from the south and east sides 24 hours a day. During emergencies, mobile video stations may also be used to better film the most important phases of the activity. Single shots are published on the Catania Section intranet and internet websites. On June 2006 a A 40 thermal camera was installed in Vulcano La Fossa Crater. The location was in the internal and opposite crater flank (S1), 400 m distant from the fumarole field. The first two-year of data on temperature distribution frequency were recorded with this new methodology of acquisition, and automatically elaborated by software at INGV Catania Section. In fact a dedicated software developed in IDL, denominated Volcano Thermo Analysis (VTA), was appositely developed in order to extract a set of important features, able to characterize with a good approssimation the volcanic activity. In particular the program first load and opportunely convert the thermal images, then according to the Region Of Interest (ROI) and the temperature ranges defined by the user provide to automatic spatial and statistic analysis. In addition the VTA is able to analysis all the temporal series of images available in order to achieve the time-event analysis and the dynamic of the volcanic

  13. Early Modern Humans and Morphological Variation in Southeast Asia: Fossil Evidence from Tam Pa Ling, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura; Westaway, Kira; Duringer, Philippe; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wu, Xiujie; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Barnes, Lani; Boyon, Marc; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Sénégas, Frank; Karpoff, Anne-Marie; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Coppens, Yves; Braga, José

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in Eastern Eurasia. However a rapid migration out of Africa into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka is supported by archaeological, paleogenetic and paleoanthropological data. Recent discoveries in Laos, a modern human cranium (TPL1) from Tam Pa Ling‘s cave, provided the first evidence for the presence of early modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia by 63-46 ka. In the current study, a complete human mandible representing a second individual, TPL 2, is described using discrete traits and geometric morphometrics with an emphasis on determining its population affinity. The TPL2 mandible has a chin and other discrete traits consistent with early modern humans, but it retains a robust lateral corpus and internal corporal morphology typical of archaic humans across the Old World. The mosaic morphology of TPL2 and the fully modern human morphology of TPL1 suggest that a large range of morphological variation was present in early modern human populations residing in the eastern Eurasia by MIS 3. PMID:25849125

  14. Purification and Bicelle Crystallization for Structure Determination of the E. coli Outer Membrane Protein TamA.

    PubMed

    Gruss, Fabian; Hiller, Sebastian; Maier, Timm

    2015-01-01

    TamA is an Omp85 protein involved in autotransporter assembly in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. It comprises a C-terminal 16-stranded transmembrane β-barrel as well as three periplasmic POTRA domains, and is a challenging target for structure determination. Here, we present a method for crystal structure determination of TamA, including recombinant expression in E. coli, detergent extraction, chromatographic purification, and bicelle crystallization in combination with seeding. As a result, crystals in space group P21212 are obtained, which diffract to 2.3 Å resolution. This protocol also serves as a template for structure determination of other outer membrane proteins, in particular of the Omp85 family.

  15. Monitoring seismic wave speed by an active seismic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, K.; Kawakata, H.; Doi, I.; Okubo, M.; Saiga, A.

    2012-12-01

    Decreases in elastic wave speed around cracked zones prior to faulting in rock fracture experiments have been reported (e.g., Yukutake, 1989; Yoshimitsu et al., 2009). These decreases in wave speed have been considered to be associated with crack and fault growth based on non-destructive observation using X-ray CT scan (Kawakata et al., 1999). Meanwhile, there were some reports on the decreases in seismic wave speed along paths that cross the hypocentral area in periods including some large earthquakes. Uchida et al. (2002) analyzed seismic waveform with explosive sources before and after the 1998 northern Iwate prefecture earthquake, and they showed that the decrease in seismic wave speed approximately 0.1-0.9 % by the earthquake occurrence. Justin et al. (2007) reported the reduction in seismic wave speed accompanied with the 2003 Tokachi oki earthquake around the rupture area by using the four repeating earthquakes that occurred before and after the 2003 Tokachi oki earthquake. However, seismograms of explosive sources or repeating earthquakes are hard to be frequently recorded, which makes the time intervals of estimated seismic wave speed be too long to distinguish preseismic changes from coseismic and post seismic changes. In order to monitor crustal structures and detecting the variation of rock properties in the crust, a kind of active seismic source systems ACROSS (Accurately Controlled Routinely Operated Signal System) has been developed(e.g., Kunitomo and Kumazawa, 2004). We used the controlled seismic source ACROSS, which installed at the Tono mine, Gifu prefecture, central Japan and has been routinely operated by Tono Geoscience center of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), automatically. Frequency modulated seismic waves are continuously radiated from approximately 10-20 Hz by eccentric rotation of the source. In order to investigate the stability of ACROSS signals, we used seismograms recorded at the 110m depth of Shobasama observing site, which is

  16. Embedded Ultrasonic Transducers for Active and Passive Concrete Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Niederleithinger, Ernst; Wolf, Julia; Mielentz, Frank; Wiggenhauser, Herbert; Pirskawetz, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Recently developed new transducers for ultrasonic transmission, which can be embedded right into concrete, are now used for non-destructive permanent monitoring of concrete. They can be installed during construction or thereafter. Large volumes of concrete can be monitored for changes of material properties by a limited number of transducers. The transducer design, the main properties as well as installation procedures are presented. It is shown that compressional waves with a central frequency of 62 kHz are mainly generated around the transducer’s axis. The transducer can be used as a transmitter or receiver. Application examples demonstrate that the transducers can be used to monitor concrete conditions parameters (stress, temperature, …) as well as damages in an early state or the detection of acoustic events (e.g., crack opening). Besides application in civil engineering our setups can also be used for model studies in geosciences. PMID:25923928

  17. TAM 112’ Wheat, resistant to greenbug and wheat curl mite and adapted to the dryland production system in the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TAM 112’ (PI 643143), a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an F4 derived line from the cross U1254-7-9-2-1/TXGH10440. U1254-7-9-2 is a USDA-ARS germplasm line from the Plant Science and Entomology Research unit, Manhattan, Kansas. It was developed from the cross TAM 200/TA2460. TA24...

  18. When a Step Is Not a Step! Specificity Analysis of Five Physical Activity Monitors

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is an essential aspect of a healthy lifestyle for both physical and mental health states. As step count is one of the most utilized measures for quantifying physical activity it is important that activity-monitoring devices be both sensitive and specific in recording actual steps taken and disregard non-stepping body movements. The objective of this study was to assess the specificity of five activity monitors during a variety of prescribed non-stepping activities. Methods Participants wore five activity monitors simultaneously for a variety of prescribed activities including deskwork, taking an elevator, taking a bus journey, automobile driving, washing and drying dishes; functional reaching task; indoor cycling; outdoor cycling; and indoor rowing. Each task was carried out for either a specific duration of time or over a specific distance. Activity monitors tested were the ActivPAL micro™, NL-2000™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2)™, Fitbit One™ and Jawbone UP™. Participants were video-recorded while carrying out the prescribed activities and the false positive step count registered on each activity monitor was obtained and compared to the video. Results All activity monitors registered a significant number of false positive steps per minute during one or more of the prescribed activities. The Withings™ activity performed best, registering a significant number of false positive steps per minute during the outdoor cycling activity only (P = 0.025). The Jawbone™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the functional reaching task and while washing and drying dishes, which involved arm and hand movement (P < 0.01 for both). The ActivPAL™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the cycling exercises (P < 0.001 for both). Conclusion As a number of false positive steps were registered on the activity monitors during the non-stepping activities, the

  19. CDDO-Me Redirects Activation of Breast Tumor Associated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Michael S.; Shipman, Emilie P.; Kim, Hyunjung; Liby, Karen T.; Pioli, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages can account for up to 50% of the tumor mass in breast cancer patients and high TAM density is associated with poor clinical prognosis. Because TAMs enhance tumor growth, development, and metastatic potential, redirection of TAM activation may have significant therapeutic benefit. Our studies in primary human macrophages and murine breast TAMs suggest that the synthetic oleanane triterpenoid CDDO-methyl ester (CDDO-Me) reprograms the activation profile of TAMs from tumor-promoting to tumor-inhibiting. We show that CDDO-Me treatment inhibits expression of IL-10 and VEGF in stimulated human M2 macrophages and TAMs but increases expression of TNF-α and IL-6. Surface expression of CD206 and CD163, which are characteristic of M2 activation, is significantly attenuated by CDDO-Me. In contrast, CDDO-Me up-regulates surface expression of HLA-DR and CD80, which are markers of M1 activation, and importantly potentiates macrophage activation of autologous T cells but inhibits endothelial cell vascularization. These results show for the first time that CDDO-Me redirects activation of M2 macrophages and TAMs from immune-suppressive to immune-stimulatory, and implicate a role for CDDO-Me as an immunotherapeutic in the treatment of breast and potentially other types of cancer. PMID:26918785

  20. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (P<0.001), five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002), daily steps (P=0.003), and MV-PA (P=0.022) compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001) and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014) in the COPD group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion Impairments in balance and reductions in physical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity. PMID:27445470

  1. Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  2. Tamoxifen Isomers and Metabolites Exhibit Distinct Affinity and Activity at Cannabinoid Receptors: Potential Scaffold for Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Benjamin M.; Franks, Lirit N.; Radominska-Pandya, Anna; Prather, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen (Tam) is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator (SERM) that is an essential drug to treat ER-positive breast cancer. Aside from known actions at ERs, recent studies have suggested that some SERMs like Tam also exhibit novel activity at cannabinoid subtype 1 and 2 receptors (CB1R and CB2Rs). Interestingly, cis- (E-Tam) and trans- (Z-Tam) isomers of Tam exhibit over a 100-fold difference in affinity for ERs. Therefore, the current study assessed individual isomers of Tam and subsequent cytochrome P450 metabolic products, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT) and 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl tamoxifen (End) for affinity and activity at CBRs. Results showed that Z-4OHT, but not Z-Tam or Z-End, exhibits higher affinity for both CB1 and CB2Rs relative to the E-isomer. Furthermore, Z- and E-isomers of Tam and 4OHT show slightly higher affinity for CB2Rs, while both End isomers are relatively CB1R-selective. When functional activity was assessed by G-protein activation and regulation of the downstream effector adenylyl cyclase, all isomers examined act as full CB1 and CB2R inverse agonists. Interestingly, Z-Tam appears to be more efficacious than the full inverse agonist AM630 at CB2Rs, while both Z-Tam and Z-End exhibit characteristics of insurmountable antagonism at CB1 and CB2Rs, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that the SERMs Tam, 4OHT and End elicit ER-independent actions via CBRs in an isomer-specific manner. As such, this novel structural scaffold might be used to develop therapeutically useful drugs for treatment of a variety of diseases mediated via CBRs. PMID:27936172

  3. Development of a trans-admittance mammography (TAM) using 60×60 electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingkang; Liu, Qin; In Oh, Tong; Woo, Eung Je; Seo, Jin Keun

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a trans-admittance mammography (TAM) system as a supplementary or alternative method of the X-ray mammography to diagnose the breast cancer. Mechanical structure of the system is similar to the X-ray mammography with the breast placed between two plates. The pair of plates is movable to accommodate breasts with different sizes and rotatable to provide multiple images with different projection angles. Without using ionizing radiation, it acquires a projection image of tissue admittivity values. One plate is a flat solid electrode where we apply a constant sinusoidal voltage with a variable frequency. The other is equipped with 60×60 array of current-sensing electrodes, of which potentials are kept at the signal reference level. The electrode array is connected to six switching modules and each module routes current signals from 600 electrodes to two ammeter modules. Each ammeter module includes six channels of ammeters and each one of them comprises an independent current-to-voltage converter, voltage amplifier, ADC and digital phase-sensitive demodulator. Each ammeter sequentially measures exit currents from 50 electrodes chosen by the corresponding switching module. An FPGA controls six ammeters to collect real- and imaginary-parts of trans-admittance data from 300 electrodes. A separate FPGA arbitrates data and command exchanges between a DSP-based main controller and ammeter modules. It also generates a sinusoidal voltage signal to be applied to the breast. All the 3600 complex current data from 12 ammeter modules are transferred to the main controller, which is interfaced to a PC through an isolated USB. The system is provided with a program to display real- and imaginary-parts of measured trans-admittance maps. The measured maps at multiple frequencies are incorporated into a frequency-difference anomaly detection algorithm. In this paper, we describe the design and construction of the system.

  4. Monitoring of acoustic emission activity using thin wafer piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Blaine; Zagrai, Andrei; Meisner, Daniel; Momeni, Sepand

    2014-03-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) is a well-known technique for monitoring onset and propagation of material damage. The technique has demonstrated utility in assessment of metallic and composite materials in applications ranging from civil structures to aerospace vehicles. While over the course of few decades AE hardware has changed dramatically with the sensors experiencing little changes. A traditional acoustic emission sensor solution utilizes a thickness resonance of the internal piezoelectric element which, coupled with internal amplification circuit, results in relatively large sensor footprint. Thin wafer piezoelectric sensors are small and unobtrusive, but they have seen limited AE applications due to low signal-to-noise ratio and other operation difficulties. In this contribution, issues and possible solutions pertaining to the utility of thin wafer piezoelectrics as AE sensors are discussed. Results of AE monitoring of fatigue damage using thin wafer piezoelectric and conventional AE sensors are presented.

  5. Energy monitoring based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Human behavior is the most important factor in order to manage energy usage. Nowadays, smart house technology offers a better quality of life by introducing automated appliance control and assistive services. However, human behaviors will contribute to the efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior atb the workplace. Then, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy in efficient ways based on human behaviours. This scenario will lead to the positive impact in order to achieve the energy saving in the building and support the green environment.

  6. A mobile system for active otpical pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunesson, A.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S.; Uneus, L.; Wendt, W.; Fredriksson, K.

    1986-01-01

    The remote monitoring of atmospheric pollutants can now be performed in several ways. Laser radar techniques have proven their ability to reveal the spatial distribution of different species or particles. Classical optical techniques can also be used, but yield the average concentration over a given path and hence no range resolution. One such technique is Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy, DOAS. Such schemes can be used to monitor paths that a preliminary lidar investigation has shown to be of interest. Having previously had access to a mobile lidar system, a new system has been completed. The construction builds on experience from using the other system and it is meant to be more of a mobile optical laboratory than just a lidar system. A complete system description is given along with some preliminary usage. Future uses are contemplated.

  7. Cable condition monitoring research activities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.; Zigler, G.L.; Bustard, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is currently conducting long-term aging research on representative samples of nuclear power plant cables. The objectives of the program are to determine the suitability of these cables for extended life (beyond 40 year design basis) and to assess various cable condition monitoring techniques for predicting remaining cable life. The cables are being aged for long times at relatively mild exposure conditions with various condition monitoring techniques to be employed during the aging process. Following the aging process, the cables will be exposed to a sequential accident profile consisting of high dose rate irradiation followed by a simulated design basis loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) steam exposure. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Active subjects of passive monitoring: responses to a passive monitoring system in low-income independent living

    PubMed Central

    BERRIDGE, CLARA

    2016-01-01

    Passive monitoring technology is beginning to be reimbursed by third-party payers in the United States of America. Given the low voluntary uptake of these technologies on the market, it is important to understand the concerns and perspectives of users, former users and non-users. In this paper, the range of ways older adults relate to passive monitoring in low-income independent-living residences is presented. This includes experiences of adoption, non-adoption, discontinuation and creative ‘misuse’. The analysis of interviews reveals three key insights. First, assumptions built into the technology about how older adults live present a problem for many users who experience unwanted disruptions and threats to their behavioural autonomy. Second, resident response is varied and challenges the dominant image of residents as passive subjects of a passive monitoring system. Third, the priorities of older adults (e.g. safety, autonomy, privacy, control, contact) are more diverse and multi-faceted than those of the housing organisation staff and family members (e.g. safety, efficiency) who drive the passive monitoring intervention. The tension between needs, desires and the daily lives of older adults and the technological solutions offered to them is made visible by their active responses, including resistance to them. This exposes the active and meaningful qualities of older adults’ decisions and practices. PMID:28239211

  9. Active subjects of passive monitoring: responses to a passive monitoring system in low-income independent living.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Clara

    2017-03-01

    Passive monitoring technology is beginning to be reimbursed by third-party payers in the United States of America. Given the low voluntary uptake of these technologies on the market, it is important to understand the concerns and perspectives of users, former users and non-users. In this paper, the range of ways older adults relate to passive monitoring in low-income independent-living residences is presented. This includes experiences of adoption, non-adoption, discontinuation and creative 'misuse'. The analysis of interviews reveals three key insights. First, assumptions built into the technology about how older adults live present a problem for many users who experience unwanted disruptions and threats to their behavioural autonomy. Second, resident response is varied and challenges the dominant image of residents as passive subjects of a passive monitoring system. Third, the priorities of older adults (e.g. safety, autonomy, privacy, control, contact) are more diverse and multi-faceted than those of the housing organisation staff and family members (e.g. safety, efficiency) who drive the passive monitoring intervention. The tension between needs, desires and the daily lives of older adults and the technological solutions offered to them is made visible by their active responses, including resistance to them. This exposes the active and meaningful qualities of older adults' decisions and practices.

  10. FRET-Based Optical Assay for Monitoring Riboswitch Activation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-09

    including small organic molecules, peptides, and aminoglycosides among others. 10 The advantage of such engineered riboswitches is that they offer a way...Laboratory, Dayton, OH. ‡ USAMRMC, Fort Detrick, MD. Biomacromolecules 2009, 10 , 1055–1060 1055 10.1021/bm801117f CCC: $40.75  2009 American Chemical...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION

  11. Activity Monitors Help Users Get Optimum Sun Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Goddard scientist Shahid Aslam was investigating alternative methods for measuring extreme ultraviolet radiation on the Solar Dynamics Observatory when he hit upon semiconductors that measured wavelengths pertinent to human health. As a result, he and a partner established College Park, Maryland-based Sensor Sensor LLC and developed UVA+B SunFriend, a wrist monitor that lets people know when they've received their optimal amounts of sunlight for the day.

  12. 30 CFR 280.29 - Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 280.29 Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my activity? 280.29 Section 280.29 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. Active monitoring as cognitive control of grinders design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flizikowski, Jozef B.; Mrozinski, Adam; Tomporowski, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    A general monitoring methodology applicable to plastics recyclates grinding processes development for energy engineering, has been presented in this work. The method includes two beings: mathematical aiding an invention and working of a novelty. The common set is composed of characteristics, structure, relationships of knowledge about states and transformations, effectiveness and progress of the devices and machinery engineering, e.g. breaking up in the energy-materials recycling process. This innovations theory is identified by the valuation, estimation, testing and creative archiving the elaborated character and structure of the invention and grinders construction development.

  14. Physical Activity Monitoring in Extremely Obese Adolescents from the Teen-LABS Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Renee M.; Inge, Thomas H.; Jenkins, Todd M; King, Wendy; Oruc, Vedran; Douglas, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The accuracy of physical activity (PA) monitors to discriminate between PA, sedentary behavior, and non-wear in extremely obese (EO) adolescents is unknown. Methods Twenty-five subjects (9 male/16 female; age=16.5±2.0 y; BMI=51±8 kg/m2) wore three activity monitors (StepWatch [SAM], Actical [AC], Actiheart [AH]) during a 400 meter walk test (400MWT), two standardized PA bouts of varying duration, and one sedentary bout. Results For the 400MWT, percent error between observed and monitor recorded steps was 5.5±7.1% and 82.1±38.6% for the SAM and AC steps, respectively (observed vs. SAM steps: −17.2±22.2 steps; observed vs. AC steps: −264.5±124.8 steps). All activity monitors were able to differentiate between PA and sedentary bouts but only SAM steps and AH heart rate were significantly different between sedentary behavior and non-wear (p<0.001). For all monitors, sedentary behavior was characterized by bouts of zero steps/counts punctuated by intermittent activity steps/counts; non-wear was represented almost exclusively by zero steps/counts. Conclusion Of all monitors tested, the SAM was most accurate in terms of counting steps and differentiating levels of PA, and thus, most appropriate for EO adolescents. The ability to accurately characterize PA intensity in EO adolescents critically depends on activity monitor selection. PMID:25205688

  15. Tumor-associated macrophages mediate immunosuppression in the renal cancer microenvironment by activating the 15-lipoxygenase-2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Daurkin, Irina; Eruslanov, Evgeniy; Stoffs, Taryn; Perrin, George Q; Algood, Chester; Gilbert, Scott M; Rosser, Charles J; Su, Li-Ming; Vieweg, Johannes; Kusmartsev, Sergei

    2011-10-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common human kidney cancer, is frequently infiltrated with tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) that can promote malignant progression. Here, we show that TAMs isolated from human RCC produce substantial amounts of the proinflammatory chemokine CCL2 and immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, in addition to enhanced eicosanoid production via an activated 15-lipoxygenase-2 (15-LOX2) pathway. TAMs isolated from RCC tumors had a high 15-LOX2 expression and secreted substantial amounts of 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, its major bioactive lipid product. Inhibition of lipoxygenase activity significantly reduced production of CCL2 and IL-10 by RCC TAMs. In addition, TAMs isolated from RCC were capable of inducing in T lymphocytes, the pivotal T regulatory cell transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), and the inhibitory cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) coreceptor. However, this TAM-mediated induction of FOXP3 and CTLA-4 in T cells was independent of lipoxygenase and could not be reversed by inhibiting lipoxygenase activity. Collectively, our results show that TAMs, often present in RCCs, display enhanced 15-LOX2 activity that contributes to RCC-related inflammation, immunosuppression, and malignant progression. Furthermore, we show that TAMs mediate the development of immune tolerance through both 15-LOX2-dependent and 15-LOX2-independent pathways. We propose that manipulating LOX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism in the tumor microenvironment could offer new strategies to block cancer-related inflammation and immune escape in patients with RCC.

  16. Monitoring Activity of Taking Medicine by Incorporating RFID and Video Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hasanuzzaman, Faiz M.; Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, YingLi; Liu, Qingshan; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new framework to monitor medication intake for elderly individuals by incorporating a video camera and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) sensors. The proposed framework can provide a key function for monitoring activities of daily living (ADLs) of elderly people at their own home. In an assistive environment, RFID tags are applied on medicine bottles located in a medicine cabinet so that each medicine bottle will have a unique ID. The description of the medicine data for each tag is manually input to a database. RFID readers will detect if any of these bottles are taken away from the medicine cabinet and identify the tag attached on the medicine bottle. A video camera is installed to continue monitoring the activity of taking medicine by integrating face detection and tracking, mouth detection, background subtraction, and activity detection. The preliminary results demonstrate that 100% detection accuracy for identifying medicine bottles and promising results for monitoring activity of taking medicine. PMID:23914344

  17. Active Ground Optical Remote Sensing for Improved Monitoring of Seedling Stress in Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active ground optical remote sensing (AGORS) devices mounted on overhead irrigation booms could help to improve seedling quality by autonomously monitoring seedling stress. In contrast to traditionally used passive optical sensors, AGORS devices operate independently of ambient light conditions and ...

  18. Nanosensor system for monitoring brain activity and drowsiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.; Harbaugh, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Detection of drowsiness in drivers to avoid on-road collisions and accidents is one of the most important applications that can be implemented to avert loss of life and property caused by accidents. A statistical report indicates that drowsy driving is equally harmful as driving under influence of alcohol. This report also indicates that drowsy driving is the third most influencing factor for accidents and 30% of the commercial vehicle accidents are caused because of drowsy driving. With a motivation to avoid accidents caused by drowsy driving, this paper proposes a technique of correlating EEG and EOG signals to detect drowsiness. Feature extracts of EEG and blink variability from EOG is correlated to detect the sleepiness/drowsiness of a driver. Moreover, to implement a more pragmatic approach towards continuous monitoring, a wireless real time monitoring approach has been incorporated using textile based nanosensors. Thereby, acquired bio potential signals are transmitted through GSM communication module to the receiver continuously. In addition to this, all the incorporated electronics are equipped in a flexible headband which can be worn by the driver. With this flexible headband approach, any intrusiveness that may be experienced by other cumbersome hardware is effectively mitigated. With the continuous transmission of data from the head band, the signals are processed on the receiver side to determine the condition of the driver. Early warning of driver's drowsiness will be displayed in the dashboard of the vehicle as well as alertness voice and sound alarm will be sent via the vehicle radio.

  19. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  4. Probes to monitor activity of the paracaspase MALT1.

    PubMed

    Hachmann, Janna; Edgington-Mitchell, Laura E; Poreba, Marcin; Sanman, Laura E; Drag, Marcin; Bogyo, Matthew; Salvesen, Guy S

    2015-01-22

    The human paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1) plays a central role in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling as both a protease and scaffolding protein. Knocking out MALT1 leads to impaired NF-κB signaling and failure to mount an effective immune response. However, it is unclear to which degree it is the scaffolding function versus the proteolytic activity of MALT1 that is essential. Previous work involving a MALT1 inhibitor with low selectivity suggests that the enzymatic function plays an important role in different cell lines. To help elucidate this proteolytic role of MALT1, we have designed activity-based probes that inhibit its proteolytic activity. The probes selectively label active enzyme and can be used to inhibit MALT1 and trace its activity profile, helping to create a better picture of the significance of the proteolytic function of MALT1.

  5. A portable multi-channel wireless NIRS device for muscle activity real-time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pengfei; Guo, Weichao; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a relative new technology in monitoring muscle oxygenation and hemo-dynamics. This paper presents a portable multi-channel wireless NIRS device for real-time monitoring of muscle activity. The NIRS sensor is designed miniaturized and modularized, to make multi-site monitoring convenient. Wireless communication is applied to data transmission avoiding of cumbersome wires and the whole system is highly integrated. Special care is taken to eliminate motion artifact when designing the NIRS sensor and attaching it to human skin. Besides, the system is designed with high sampling rate so as to monitor rapid oxygenation changes during muscle activities. Dark noise and long-term drift tests have been carried out, and the result indicates the device has a good performance of accuracy and stability. In vivo experiments including arterial occlusion and isometric voluntary forearm muscle contraction were performed, demonstrating the system has the ability to monitor muscle oxygenation parameters effectively even in exercise.

  6. Monitoring the Activation of the DNA Damage Response Pathway in a 3D Spheroid Model.

    PubMed

    Mondesert, Odile; Frongia, Céline; Clayton, Olivia; Boizeau, Marie-Laure; Lobjois, Valérie; Ducommun, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the DNA-Damage Response (DDR) activated pathway in multicellular tumor spheroid models is an important challenge as these 3D models have demonstrated their major relevance in pharmacological evaluation. Herein we present DDR-Act-FP, a fluorescent biosensor that allows detection of DDR activation through monitoring of the p21 promoter p53-dependent activation. We show that cells expressing the DDR-Act-FP biosensor efficiently report activation of the DDR pathway after DNA damage and its pharmacological manipulation using ATM kinase inhibitors. We also report the successful use of this assay to screen a small compound library in order to identify activators of the DDR response. Finally, using multicellular spheroids expressing the DDR-Act-FP we demonstrate that DDR activation and its pharmacological manipulation with inhibitory and activatory compounds can be efficiently monitored in live 3D spheroid model. This study paves the way for the development of innovative screening and preclinical evaluation assays.

  7. Seismic activity monitoring in the Izvorul Muntelui dam region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borleanu, Felix; Otilia Placinta, Anca; Popa, Mihaela; Adelin Moldovan, Iren; Popescu, Emilia

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes occurrences near the artificial water reservoirs are caused by stress variation due to the weight of water, weakness of fractures or faults and increasing of pore pressure in crustal rocks. In the present study we aim to investigate how Izvorul Muntelui dam, located in the Eastern Carpathians influences local seismicity. For this purpose we selected from the seismic bulletins computed within National Data Center of National Institute for Earth Physics, Romania, crustal events occurred between 984 and 2015 in a range of 0.3 deg around the artificial lake. Subsequently to improve the seismic monitoring of the region we applied a cross-correlation detector on the continuous recordings of Bicaz (BIZ) seismic stations. Besides the tectonic events we detected sources within this region that periodically generate artificial evens. We couldn't emphasize the existence of a direct correlation between the water level variations and natural seismicity of the investigated area.

  8. Fluorescence-Based Sensor for Monitoring Activation of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.

    2012-01-01

    This sensor unit is designed to determine the level of activation of lunar dust or simulant particles using a fluorescent technique. Activation of the surface of a lunar soil sample (for instance, through grinding) should produce a freshly fractured surface. When these reactive surfaces interact with oxygen and water, they produce hydroxyl radicals. These radicals will react with a terephthalate diluted in the aqueous medium to form 2-hydroxyterephthalate. The fluorescence produced by 2-hydroxyterephthalate provides qualitative proof of the activation of the sample. Using a calibration curve produced by synthesized 2-hydroxyterephthalate, the amount of hydroxyl radicals produced as a function of sample concentration can also be determined.

  9. Exacerbation of innate immune response in mouse primary cultured sertoli cells caused by nanoparticulate TiO2 involves the TAM/TLR3 signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nan; Hong, Fashui; Zhou, Yingjun; Wang, Yajing

    2017-01-01

    Sertoli cells provide appropriate mitogens, differentiation factors and sources of energy for developing germ cells throughout the lifetime of males, and protect these germ cells from harmful agents and from the host's own immune system. Therefore, reductions in the rate and quality of spermatogenesis caused by nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2 ) may be closely involved in the immunoregulation of Sertoli cells. However, the underlying mechanism of this response is still unclear. To address this issue, we used mouse primary cultured Sertoli cells to examine the toxic effects of nano-TiO2 via alterations in morphology, cell viability, and activation of the TAM/TLR3 signal pathway. The results demonstrated that nano-TiO2 could cross the cytomembrane into the cytoplasm or nucleus, decrease Sertoli cell viability, damage morphology (such as elongated fusiform, cellular and nuclear shrinkage) and induce the expression of various immune mediators and inflammatory cytokines, including TLR3(+0.31-fold to +0.81-fold), IL-lβ(+0.33-fold to +5.0-fold), NF-κB(+0.22-fold to +3.65-fold), IL-6(+0.47-fold to +3.53-fold), TNF-α(+0.14-fold to +2.44-fold), IFN-α(+0.17-fold to +2.27-fold), and IFN-β(+0.09-fold to +2.29-fold), and suppress the expression of Tyro3(-9.33% to -61.93%), Axl(-19.03% to -60.67%), Mer(-8.04% to -59.16%), and IκB(-34.35% to -86.59%) in primary cultured Sertoli cells. These results suggest that testicular innate immune responses to pathogens caused by nano-TiO2 may be involved in the regulatory mechanisms of TAM/TLR3 signaling in testicular Sertoli cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 198-208, 2017.

  10. Monitoring the activity of the Be star OT Geminorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano Ferro, A.; Sareyan, J. P.; Avila, J. J.; Gonzalez, F.; Dumont, M.; Geos

    1998-02-01

    Observations obtained in 1995-1996 of the Be star OT Geminorum are reported and show that in october 1995 the star reached a very active phase with large variations around a bright plateau, a phase of activity we have also distinguished in previous observations dating from 1960. The time scales involved are discussed and suggest that the violent variations of the activity propagate very quickly on the whole surface of the star or on a huge portion of it. No likely pulsation periods were found. The assumption that the detected activity is due to the effects of an hypothetical companion leads to conclude that such companion could not be detected by the present interferometric techniques. Partly based on observations obtained at the La Luz Observatory of the University of Guanajuato, Mexico.

  11. Monitoring Brain Activity with Protein Voltage and Calcium Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Storace, Douglas A.; Braubach, Oliver R.; Jin, Lei; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Sung, Uhna

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the roles of different cell types in the behaviors generated by neural circuits requires protein indicators that report neural activity with high spatio-temporal resolution. Genetically encoded fluorescent protein (FP) voltage sensors, which optically report the electrical activity in distinct cell populations, are, in principle, ideal candidates. Here we demonstrate that the FP voltage sensor ArcLight reports odor-evoked electrical activity in the in vivo mammalian olfactory bulb in single trials using both wide-field and 2-photon imaging. ArcLight resolved fast odorant-responses in individual glomeruli, and distributed odorant responses across a population of glomeruli. Comparisons between ArcLight and the protein calcium sensors GCaMP3 and GCaMP6f revealed that ArcLight had faster temporal kinetics that more clearly distinguished activity elicited by individual odorant inspirations. In contrast, the signals from both GCaMPs were a saturating integral of activity that returned relatively slowly to the baseline. ArcLight enables optical electrophysiology of mammalian neuronal population activity in vivo. PMID:25970202

  12. Functional significance of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase variants in the metabolism of active tamoxifen metabolites.

    PubMed

    Blevins-Primeau, Andrea S; Sun, Dongxiao; Chen, Gang; Sharma, Arun K; Gallagher, Carla J; Amin, Shantu; Lazarus, Philip

    2009-03-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator widely used in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. A major mode of metabolism of the major active metabolites of TAM, 4-OH-TAM and endoxifen, is by glucuronidation via the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) family of enzymes. To examine whether polymorphisms in the UGT enzymes responsible for the glucuronidation of active TAM metabolites play an important role in interindividual differences in TAM metabolism, cell lines overexpressing wild-type or variant UGTs were examined for their activities against TAM metabolites in vitro. For variants of active extrahepatic UGTs, the UGT1A8(173Ala/277Tyr) variant exhibited no detectable glucuronidation activity against the trans isomers of either 4-OH-TAM or endoxifen. Little or no difference in TAM glucuronidating activity was observed for the UGT1A8(173Gly/277Cys) or UGT1A10(139Lys) variants compared with their wild-type counterparts. For active hepatic UGTs, the UGT2B7(268Tyr) variant exhibited significant (P < 0.01) 2- and 5-fold decreases in activity against the trans isomers of 4-OH-TAM and endoxifen, respectively, compared with wild-type UGT2B7(268His). In studies of 111 human liver microsomal specimens, the rate of O-glucuronidation against trans-4-OH-TAM and trans-endoxifen was 28% (P < 0.001) and 27% (P = 0.002) lower, respectively, in individuals homozygous for the UGT2B7 Tyr(268)Tyr genotype compared with subjects with the UGT2B7 His(268)His genotype, with a significant (P < 0.01) trend of decreasing activity against both substrates with increasing numbers of the UGT2B7(268His) allele. These results suggest that functional polymorphisms in TAM-metabolizing UGTs, including UGT2B7 and potentially UGT1A8, may be important in interindividual variability in TAM metabolism and response to TAM therapy.

  13. Computerized cognitive training restores neural activity within the reality monitoring network in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Luks, Tracy L; Fisher, Melissa; Simpson, Gregory V; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2012-02-23

    Schizophrenia patients suffer from severe cognitive deficits, such as impaired reality monitoring. Reality monitoring is the ability to distinguish the source of internal experiences from outside reality. During reality monitoring tasks, schizophrenia patients make errors identifying "I made it up" items, and even during accurate performance, they show abnormally low activation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region that supports self-referential cognition. We administered 80 hr of computerized training of cognitive processes to schizophrenia patients and found improvement in reality monitoring that correlated with increased mPFC activity. In contrast, patients in a computer games control condition did not show any behavioral or neural improvements. Notably, recovery in mPFC activity after training was associated with improved social functioning 6 months later. These findings demonstrate that a serious behavioral deficit in schizophrenia, and its underlying neural dysfunction, can be improved by well-designed computerized cognitive training, resulting in better quality of life.

  14. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    PubMed

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold.

  15. Subsidence monitoring network: an Italian example aimed at a sustainable hydrocarbon E&P activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacome, M. C.; Miandro, R.; Vettorel, M.; Roncari, G.

    2015-11-01

    According to the Italian law in order to start-up any new hydrocarbon exploitation activity, an Environmental Impact Assessment study has to be presented, including a monitoring plan, addressed to foresee, measure and analyze in real time any possible impact of the project on the coastal areas and on those ones in the close inland located. The occurrence of subsidence, that could partly be related to hydrocarbon production, both on-shore and off-shore, can generate great concern in those areas where its occurrence may have impacts on the local environment. ENI, following the international scientific community recommendations on the matter, since the beginning of 90's years, implemented a cutting-edge monitoring network, with the aim to prevent, mitigate and control geodynamics phenomena generated in the activity areas, with a particular attention to conservation and protection of environmental and territorial equilibrium, taking care of what is known as "sustainable development". The current ENI implemented monitoring surveys can be divided as: - Shallow monitoring: spirit levelling surveys, continuous GPS surveys in permanent stations, SAR surveys, assestimeter subsurface compaction monitoring, ground water level monitoring, LiDAR surveys, bathymetrical surveys. - Deep monitoring: reservoir deep compaction trough radioactive markers, reservoir static (bottom hole) pressure monitoring. All the information, gathered through the monitoring network, allow: 1. to verify if the produced subsidence is evolving accordingly with the simulated forecast. 2. to provide data to revise and adjust the prediction compaction models 3. to put in place the remedial actions if the impact exceeds the threshold magnitude originally agreed among the involved parties. ENI monitoring plan to measure and monitor the subsidence process, during field production and also after the field closure, is therefore intended to support a sustainable field development and an acceptable exploitation

  16. Smolt Monitoring Activities at Little Goose Dam; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, Ann

    1997-07-01

    The juvenile fish facility at Little Goose Dam is operated seasonally to collect and bypass downstream migrating smolts and keep them from passing through the turbine blades. Fish are diverted from turbines by traveling screens as they sound in the forebay to pass the dam. A small percentage of the passing fish are sampled on a daily basis to provide information on fish condition, species composition, migration timing, and size distribution. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife personnel perform daily fish sampling and data collection. Physical operation of the facility is the responsibility of the US Army Corps of Engineers. Data is reported to the Fish Passage Center daily by means of electronic data transfer. Funding for this project was provided through the Smolt Monitoring Program administered by the Fish Passage Center. Overall, the number of fish collected and sampled in 1996 was a reduction from the previous years of operation. The 1996 migration season was characterized by higher than average flows and greater spill frequency at the dam. It was the first year that coho salmon were obtained in the sample. The predominant species collected was steelhead with hatchery fish outnumbering wild fish by a ratio of 8:1. An increased emphasis was placed on gas bubble trauma examination and a routine, consistent effort was implemented using a protocol established by the Fish Passage Center. The objective of the gas bubble trauma (GBT) examinations was to document the relative incidence of symptoms throughout the migration season.

  17. A review of market monitoring activities at U.S. independent system operators

    SciTech Connect

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Goldman, Charles; Bartholomew, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Policymakers have increasingly recognized the structural impediments to effective competition in electricity markets, which has resulted in a renewed emphasis on the need for careful market design and market monitoring in wholesale and retail electricity markets. In this study, we review the market monitoring activities of four Independent System Operators in the United States, focusing on such topics as the organization of an independent market monitoring unit (MMU), the role and value of external market monitors, performance metrics and indices to aid in market analysis, issues associated with access to confidential market data, and market mitigation and investigation authority. There is consensus across the four ISOs that market monitoring must be organizationally independent from market participants and that ISOs should have authority to apply some degree of corrective actions on the market, though scope and implementation differ across the ISOs. Likewise, current practices regarding access to confidential market data by state energy regulators varies somewhat by ISO. Drawing on our interviews and research, we present five examples that illustrate the impact and potential contribution of ISO market monitoring activities to enhance functioning of wholesale electricity markets. We also discuss several key policy and implementation issues that Western state policymakers and regulators should consider as market monitoring activities evolve in the West.

  18. Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Activation and Monitoring of Memory Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giammattei, Jeannette; Arndt, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the lateralization of memory errors suggests that the right hemisphere's tendency to produce more memory errors than the left hemisphere reflects hemispheric differences in semantic activation. However, all prior research that has examined the lateralization of memory errors has used self-paced recognition judgments. Because…

  19. Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

  20. Monitoring activity in neural circuits with genetically encoded indicators

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Gerard J.; Liang, Ruqiang; Tian, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in genetically encoded indicators of neural activity (GINAs) have greatly advanced the field of systems neuroscience. As they are encoded by DNA, GINAs can be targeted to genetically defined cellular populations. Combined with fluorescence microscopy, most notably multi-photon imaging, GINAs allow chronic simultaneous optical recordings from large populations of neurons or glial cells in awake, behaving mammals, particularly rodents. This large-scale recording of neural activity at multiple temporal and spatial scales has greatly advanced our understanding of the dynamics of neural circuitry underlying behavior—a critical first step toward understanding the complexities of brain function, such as sensorimotor integration and learning. Here, we summarize the recent development and applications of the major classes of GINAs. In particular, we take an in-depth look at the design of available GINA families with a particular focus on genetically encoded calcium indicators (GCaMPs), sensors probing synaptic activity, and genetically encoded voltage indicators. Using the family of the GCaMP as an example, we review established sensor optimization pipelines. We also discuss practical considerations for end users of GINAs about experimental methods including approaches for gene delivery, imaging system requirements, and data analysis techniques. With the growing toolbox of GINAs and with new microscopy techniques pushing beyond their current limits, the age of light can finally achieve the goal of broad and dense sampling of neuronal activity across time and brain structures to obtain a dynamic picture of brain function. PMID:25538558

  1. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  2. Ebola active monitoring system for travelers returning from West Africa—Georgia, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Parham, Mary; Edison, Laura; Soetebier, Karl; Feldpausch, Amanda; Kunkes, Audrey; Smith, Wendy; Guffey, Taylor; Fetherolf, Romana; Sanlis, Kathryn; Gabel, Julie; Cowell, Alex; Drenzek, Cherie

    2015-04-10

    The Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa has so far produced approximately 25,000 cases, more than 40 times the number in any previously documented Ebola outbreak. Because of the risk for imported disease from infected travelers, in October 2014 CDC recommended that all travelers to the United States from Ebola-affected countries receive enhanced entry screening and postarrival active monitoring for Ebola signs or symptoms until 21 days after their departure from an Ebola-affected country. The state of Georgia began its active monitoring program on October 25, 2014. The Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) modified its existing, web-based electronic notifiable disease reporting system to create an Ebola Active Monitoring System (EAMS). DPH staff members developed EAMS from conceptualization to implementation in 6 days. In accordance with CDC recommendations, "low (but not zero) risk" travelers are required to report their daily health status to DPH, and the EAMS dashboard enables DPH epidemiologists to track symptoms and compliance with active monitoring. Through March 31, 2015, DPH monitored 1,070 travelers, and 699 (65%) used their EAMS traveler login instead of telephone or e-mail to report their health status. Medical evaluations were performed on 30 travelers, of whom three were tested for Ebola. EAMS has enabled two epidemiologists to monitor approximately 100 travelers daily, and to rapidly respond to travelers reporting signs and symptoms of potential Ebola virus infection. Similar electronic tracking systems might be useful for other jurisdictions.

  3. New sensitizers and rapid monitoring of their photodynamic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torshina, Nadezgda L.; Posypanova, Anna M.; Volkova, Anna I.

    1996-04-01

    At present, there are lots and lots of chemical compounds that are, to a certain extent, photodynamically active. Therefore, the task of carrying out the expressive screening of such compounds has been raised sharply enough. The primary screening in vitro of compounds, with the help of biological liquids, is notable for quickness and cheapness at the same time, it is possible to determine the comparative characteristics of compounds by their photodynamical activity. Decomposition of albumins of a mixture of photosensitizer and biological liquid when irradiating with light is the basis of this method. Efficiency of decomposition of components of biological liquids is determined using biochemical reactions (e.g., those for determining the total albumins or blood hemoglobin). Subsequently, with a sufficient efficiency of a photosensitizer, it will be possible to carry out a study in vivo, with the purpose of establishing accumulation of preparations in tumor.

  4. Monitoring Monitoring Evolving Activity at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico, 2000-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-DelPozzo, A.; Aceves, F.; Bonifaz, R.; Humberto, S.

    2001-12-01

    After 6 years of small eruptions, activity at Mexico's 5,452m high Popocatepetl Volcano in central Mexico, peaked in the December 2000-January 2001 eruptions. Precursors included an important increase in seismicity as well as in magmatic components of spring water and small scale deformation which resulted in growth of a new crater dome from January 16 on. Evacuation of the towns nearest the volcano over Christmas was decided because of the possibility of pyroclastic flows. During the previous years, crater dome growth, contraction and explosive clearing has dominated the activity. The January 22 eruption produced an eruption column approximately 17km high with associated pyroclastic flows. Ejecta was composed of both basic and evolved scoria and pumice and dome lithics. A large proportion of the juvenile material was intermediate between these 2 endmenbers (59-63percent SiO2 and 3.5 to 5.5 MgO) consistent with a small basic pulse entering a more evolved larger batch of magma. The January eruption left a large pit which has been partially infilled by another crater dome this August 2001.

  5. Phosphate-Modified Nucleotides for Monitoring Enzyme Activity.

    PubMed

    Ermert, Susanne; Marx, Andreas; Hacker, Stephan M

    2017-04-01

    Nucleotides modified at the terminal phosphate position have been proven to be interesting entities to study the activity of a variety of different protein classes. In this chapter, we present various types of modifications that were attached as reporter molecules to the phosphate chain of nucleotides and briefly describe the chemical reactions that are frequently used to synthesize them. Furthermore, we discuss a variety of applications of these molecules. Kinase activity, for instance, was studied by transfer of a phosphate modified with a reporter group to the target proteins. This allows not only studying the activity of kinases, but also identifying their target proteins. Moreover, kinases can also be directly labeled with a reporter at a conserved lysine using acyl-phosphate probes. Another important application for phosphate-modified nucleotides is the study of RNA and DNA polymerases. In this context, single-molecule sequencing is made possible using detection in zero-mode waveguides, nanopores or by a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based mechanism between the polymerase and a fluorophore-labeled nucleotide. Additionally, fluorogenic nucleotides that utilize an intramolecular interaction between a fluorophore and the nucleobase or an intramolecular FRET effect have been successfully developed to study a variety of different enzymes. Finally, also some novel techniques applying electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based detection of nucleotide cleavage or the detection of the cleavage of fluorophosphates are discussed. Taken together, nucleotides modified at the terminal phosphate position have been applied to study the activity of a large diversity of proteins and are valuable tools to enhance the knowledge of biological systems.

  6. A transgenic zebrafish model for monitoring glucocorticoid receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Randall G.; Poshusta, Tanya L.; Skuster, Kimberly J.; Berg, MaKayla R.; Gardner, Samantha L.; Clark, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulation resulting from glucocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid response element interactions is a hallmark feature of stress response signaling. Imbalanced glucocorticoid production and glucocorticoid receptor activity have been linked to socio-economically crippling neuropsychiatric disorders, and accordingly there is a need to develop in vivo models to help understand disease progression and management. Therefore, we developed the transgenic SR4G zebrafish reporter line with six glucocorticoid response elements used to promote expression of a short half-life green fluorescent protein following glucocorticoid receptor activation. Herein, we document the ability of this reporter line to respond to both chronic and acute exogenous glucocorticoid treatment. The green fluorescent protein expression in response to transgene activation was high in a variety of tissues including the brain, and provided single cell resolution in the effected regions. The specificity of these responses is demonstrated using the partial agonist mifepristone and mutation of the glucocorticoid receptor. Importantly, the reporter line also modeled the temporal dynamics of endogenous stress response signaling, including the increased production of the glucocorticoid cortisol following hyperosmotic stress and the fluctuations of basal cortisol concentrations with the circadian rhythm. Taken together, these results characterize our newly developed reporter line for elucidating environmental or genetic modifiers of stress response signaling, which may provide insights to the neuronal mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder. PMID:24679220

  7. Influence of three resistance sources in winter wheat derived from TAM 107 on yield response to Russian wheat aphid.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Terri L; Peairs, Frank B; Koch, Michael; Walker, Cynthia B; Quick, James S

    2005-04-01

    A study to determine yield response to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), was conducted during the 1997-1998 and 1998-1999 growing seasons at three eastern Colorado locations, Akron, Fort Collins, and Lamar, with three wheat lines containing either Russian wheat aphid-resistant Dn4 gene, Dn6 gene, or resistance derived from PI 222668, and TAM 107 as the susceptible control. Russian wheat aphids per tiller were greater on TAM 107 than the resistant wheat lines at the 10x infestation level at Fort Collins and Akron in 1999. Yield, seed weight, and number of seeds per spike for each wheat line were somewhat affected by Russian wheat aphid per tiller mainly at Fort Collins. The infested resistant wheat lines harbored fewer Russian wheat aphids and yielded more than the infested susceptible wheat lines. Wheat lines containing the Dn4, Dn6, and PI 222668 genes contain different levels of antibiosis or antixenosis and tolerance. Although differences existed among sites and resistance, there is a benefit to planting resistant wheat when there is a potential for Russian wheat aphid infestations.

  8. 30 CFR 580.29 - Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity? 580.29 Section 580.29 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... environmental effects of my activity? We will evaluate the potential of proposed prospecting or...

  9. 30 CFR 580.29 - Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity? 580.29 Section 580.29 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... environmental effects of my activity? We will evaluate the potential of proposed prospecting or...

  10. 30 CFR 580.29 - Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity? 580.29 Section 580.29 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... environmental effects of my activity? We will evaluate the potential of proposed prospecting or...

  11. Magneto-impedance sensor for quasi-noncontact monitoring of breathing, pulse rate and activity status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corodeanu, S.; Chiriac, H.; Radulescu, L.; Lupu, N.

    2014-05-01

    Results on the development and testing of a novel magnetic sensor based on the detection of the magneto-impedance variation due to changes in the permeability of an amorphous wire are reported. The proposed application is the quasi-noncontact monitoring of the breathing frequency and heart rate for diagnosing sleep disorders. Patient discomfort is significantly decreased by transversally placing the sensitive element onto the surface of a flexible mattress in order to detect its deformation associated with cardiorespiratory activity and body movements. The developed sensor has a great application potential in monitoring the vital signs during sleep, with special advantages for children sleep monitoring.

  12. Monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids by using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Stevanato, L.; Cester, D.; Filippi, D.; Lunardon, M.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Viesti, G.; Badocco, D.; Pastore, P.; Romanini, F.

    2015-07-01

    In this work the possibility of monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids using EJ-444 was investigated. Specific tests were carried out to determine the change of the detector properties in water tests. Possible protecting coating is also proposed and tested. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in liquids is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  13. Monitoring Criminal Activity through Invisible Fluorescent "Peptide Coding" Taggants.

    PubMed

    Gooch, James; Goh, Hilary; Daniel, Barbara; Abbate, Vincenzo; Frascione, Nunzianda

    2016-04-19

    Complementing the demand for effective crime reduction measures are the increasing availability of commercial forensic "taggants", which may be used to physically mark an object in order to make it uniquely identifiable. This study explores the use of a novel "peptide coding" reagents to establish evidence of contact transfer during criminal activity. The reagent, containing a fluorophore dispersed within an oil-based medium, also includes a unique synthetic peptide sequence that acts as a traceable "code" to identify the origin of the taggant. The reagent is detectable through its fluorescent properties, which then allows the peptide to be recovered by swabbing and extracted for electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis via a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure. The performance of the reagent in variable conditions that mimic the limits of a real world use are investigated.

  14. Active System for Electromagnetic Perturbation Monitoring in Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoi, Adrian Marian; Helerea, Elena

    Nowadays electromagnetic environment is rapidly expanding in frequency domain and wireless services extend in terms of covered area. European electromagnetic compatibility regulations refer to limit values regarding emissions, as well as procedures for determining susceptibility of the vehicle. Approval procedure for a series of cars is based on determining emissions/immunity level for a few vehicles picked randomly from the entire series, supposing that entire vehicle series is compliant. During immunity assessment, the vehicle is not subjected to real perturbation sources, but exposed to electric/magnetic fields generated by laboratory equipment. Since current approach takes into account only partially real situation regarding perturbation sources, this paper proposes an active system for determining electromagnetic parameters of vehicle's environment, that implements a logical diagram for measurement, satisfying the imposed requirements. This new and original solution is useful for EMC assessment of hybrid and electrical vehicles.

  15. Individual differences in epistemic motivation and brain conflict monitoring activity.

    PubMed

    Kossowska, Małgorzata; Czarnek, Gabriela; Wronka, Eligiusz; Wyczesany, Miroslaw; Bukowski, Marcin

    2014-06-06

    It is well documented that motivation toward closure (NFC), defined as a desire for a quick and unambiguous answer to a question and an aversion to uncertainty, is linked to more structured, rigid, and persistent cognitive styles. However, the neurocognitive correlates of NFC have never been tested. Thus, using event-related potentials, we examined the hypothesis that NFC is associated with the neurocognitive process for detecting discrepancies between response tendencies and higher level intentions. We found that greater NFC is associated with lower conflict-related anterior cingulate activity, suggesting lower sensitivity to cues for altering a habitual response pattern and lower sensitivity to committing errors. This study provides evidence that high NFC acts as a bulwark against anxiety-producing uncertainty and minimizes the experience of error.

  16. A comparison of red blood cell transfusion utilization between anti-activated factor X and activated partial thromboplastin monitoring in patients receiving unfractionated heparin.

    PubMed

    Belk, K W; Laposata, M; Craver, C

    2016-11-01

    Essentials Anti-activated factor X (Anti-Xa) monitoring is more precise than activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT). 20 804 hospitalized cardiovascular patients monitored with Anti-Xa or aPTT were analyzed. Adjusted transfusion rates were significantly lower for patients monitored with Anti-Xa. Adoption of Anti-Xa protocols could reduce transfusions among cardiovascular patients in the US.

  17. Use of a consumer market activity monitoring and feedback device improves exercise capacity and activity levels in COPD.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Kaljo, Indira; Donnelly, Seamas

    2014-01-01

    COPD is associated with a gradual decline in physical activity, which itself contributes to a worsening of the underlying condition. Strategies that improve physical activity levels are critical to halt this cycle. Wearable sensor based activity monitoring and persuasive feedback might offer a potential solution. However it is not clear just how much intervention might be needed in this regard - i.e. whether programmes need to be tailored specifically for the target clinical population or whether more simple activity monitoring and feedback solutions, such as that offered in consumer market devices, might be sufficient. This research was carried out to investigate the impact of 4 weeks of using an off the shelf consumer market activity monitoring and feedback application on measures of physical activity, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in a population of 10 Stage I and II COPD patients. Results demonstrate a significant and positive effect on exercise capacity (measured using a 6-minute walk test) and activity levels (measured in terms of average number of steps per hour) yet no impact on health related quality of life (St Georges Respiratory Disease Questionnaire).

  18. Assessing Human Activity in Elderly People Using Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá, José M.; Ureña, Jesús; Hernández, Álvaro; Gualda, David

    2017-01-01

    The ageing of the population, and their increasing wish of living independently, are motivating the development of welfare and healthcare models. Existing approaches based on the direct heath-monitoring using body sensor networks (BSN) are precise and accurate. Nonetheless, their intrusiveness causes non-acceptance. New approaches seek the indirect monitoring through monitoring activities of daily living (ADLs), which proves to be a suitable solution. ADL monitoring systems use many heterogeneous sensors, are less intrusive, and are less expensive than BSN, however, the deployment and maintenance of wireless sensor networks (WSN) prevent them from a widespread acceptance. In this work, a novel technique to monitor the human activity, based on non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM), is presented. The proposal uses only smart meter data, which leads to minimum intrusiveness and a potential massive deployment at minimal cost. This could be the key to develop sustainable healthcare models for smart homes, capable of complying with the elderly people’ demands. This study also uses the Dempster-Shafer theory to provide a daily score of normality with regard to the regular behavior. This approach has been evaluated using real datasets and, additionally, a benchmarking against a Gaussian mixture model approach is presented. PMID:28208672

  19. Wireless structural health monitoring for critical members of civil infrastructures using piezoelectric active sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seunghee; Yun, Chung-Bang; Inman, Daniel J.; Park, Gyuhae

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents several challenging issues on wireless structural health monitoring techniques for critical members of civil infrastructures using piezoelectric active sensors. The basic concept of the techniques is to monitor remotely the structural integrity by observing the impedance variations at the piezoelectric active sensors distributed to critical members of a host structure. An active sensing node incorporating on-board microprocessor and radio frequency telemetry is introduced in a sense of tailoring wireless sensing technology to the impedance method. A data compression algorithm using principal component analysis is embedded into the on-board chip of the active sensing node. The data compression algorithm would promote efficiency in terms of both power management and noise elimination of the active sensor node. Finally, a piezoelectric sensor self-diagnosis issue is touched introducing a new impedance model equation that incorporates the effects of sensor and bonding defects.

  20. Crosswell CASSM(Continuous Active-Source Seismic Monitoring): Recent Developments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, T. M.; Niu, F.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Solbau, R.; Silver, P. G.

    2009-12-01

    Continuous active-source monitoring using borehole sources and sensors in a crosswell configuration has proven to be a useful tool for monitoring subsurface processes (Silver, et al, 2007; Daley, et al, 2007; Niu, et al, 2008). This recent work has focused on two applications: monitoring stress changes related to seismicity and monitoring changes in fluid distribution related to geologic storage of CO2. Field tests have demonstrated precision in travel time measurement of up to 1.1 x 10-7 s, and in velocity perturbation measurement of up to 1.1 x 10-5 (Niu, et al 2008). In this talk I will summarize our preceding work and discuss current developments. Current efforts address both hardware and design challenges to improving the methodology. Hardware issues include deployment of multiple piezoelectric sources in shallow and deep boreholes, source and sensor deployment on tubing inside casing, and deployment with other monitoring instrumentation. Design issues are focused on use of multiple sources and/or sensors to obtain optimal spatial resolution for monitoring processes in the interwell region. This design issue can be investigated with optimal experiment design theory. New field experiments for monitoring seismicity (at SAFOD) and CO2 injection (at a US Dept of Energy pilot) are in the design/deployment stage. Current status of these projects will be discussed. References: Silver, P.G., Daley, T.M., Niu, F., Majer, E.L., 2007, Active source monitoring of crosswell seismic travel time for stress induced changes, Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, v97, n1B, p281-293. Daley, T.M., R.D. Solbau, J.B. Ajo-Franklin, S.M. Benson, 2007, Continuous active-source monitoring of CO2 injection in a brine aquifer, Geophysics, v72, n5, pA57-A61, DOI:10.1190/1.2754716. Niu, F., Silver, P.G., Daley, T.M., Cheng, X., Majer, E.L., 2008, Preseismic velocity changes observed from active source monitoring at the Parkfield SAFOD drill site, Nature, 454, 204-208, DOI:10

  1. Glucuronidation of active tamoxifen metabolites by the human UDP glucuronosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongxiao; Sharma, Arun K; Dellinger, Ryan W; Blevins-Primeau, Andrea S; Balliet, Renee M; Chen, Gang; Boyiri, Telih; Amin, Shantu; Lazarus, Philip

    2007-11-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM) is an antiestrogen that has been widely used in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer in women. One of the major mechanisms of metabolism and elimination of TAM and its major active metabolites 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OH-TAM) and 4-OH-N-desmethyl-TAM (endoxifen; 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl-tamoxifen) is via glucuronidation. Although limited studies have been performed characterizing the glucuronidation of 4-OH-TAM, no studies have been performed on endoxifen. In the present study, characterization of the glucuronidating activities of human UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) against isomers of 4-OH-TAM and endoxifen was performed. Using homogenates of individual UGT-overexpressing cell lines, UGTs 2B7 approximately 1A8 > UGT1A10 exhibited the highest overall O-glucuronidating activity against trans-4-OH-TAM as determined by Vmax/K(M), with the hepatic enzyme UGT2B7 exhibiting the highest binding affinity and lowest K(M) (3.7 microM). As determined by Vmax/K(M), UGT1A10 exhibited the highest overall O-glucuronidating activity against cis-4-OH-TAM, 10-fold higher than the next-most active UGTs 1A1 and 2B7, but with UGT1A7 exhibiting the lowest K(M). Although both N- and O-glucuronidation occurred for 4-OH-TAM in human liver microsomes, only O-glucuronidating activity was observed for endoxifen; no endoxifen-N-glucuronidation was observed for any UGT tested. UGTs 1A10 approximately 1A8 > UGT2B7 exhibited the highest overall glucuronidating activities as determined by Vmax/K(M) for trans-endoxifen, with the extrahepatic enzyme UGT1A10 exhibiting the highest binding affinity and lowest K(M) (39.9 microM). Similar to that observed for cis-4-OH-TAM, UGT1A10 also exhibited the highest activity for cis-endoxifen. These data suggest that several UGTs, including UGTs 1A10, 2B7, and 1A8 play an important role in the metabolism of 4-OH-TAM and endoxifen.

  2. Chemical sensor platform for non-invasive monitoring of activity and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Solovei, Dmitry; Žák, Jaromír; Majzlíková, Petra; Sedláček, Jiří; Hubálek, Jaromír

    2015-01-14

    A non-invasive solution for monitoring of the activity and dehydration of organisms is proposed in the work. For this purpose, a wireless standalone chemical sensor platform using two separate measurement techniques has been developed. The first approach for activity monitoring is based on humidity measurement. Our solution uses new humidity sensor based on a nanostructured TiO2 surface for sweat rate monitoring. The second technique is based on monitoring of potassium concentration in urine. High level of potassium concentration denotes clear occurrence of dehydration. Furthermore, a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) was developed for this sensor platform to manage data transfer among devices and the internet. The WBAN coordinator controls the sensor devices and collects and stores the measured data. The collected data is particular to individuals and can be shared with physicians, emergency systems or athletes' coaches. Long-time monitoring of activity and potassium concentration in urine can help maintain the appropriate water intake of elderly people or athletes and to send warning signals in the case of near dehydration. The created sensor system was calibrated and tested in laboratory and real conditions as well. The measurement results are discussed.

  3. Pattern of active and inactive sequences of diabetes self-monitoring in mobile phone and paper diary users.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Nikhil S; Jing Wang

    2015-01-01

    In a pilot randomized controlled trial involving overweight or obese participants with type 2 diabetes, we find that smartphone users have sharply higher adherence to self-monitoring of diet, physical activity, blood glucose, and body weight, as compared to paper diary users. By characterizing the pattern of adherence with the probability of continuation of active and inactive sequences of self-monitoring, we find that smartphone users have longer active sequences of self-monitoring of all four behaviors that were being monitored. Smartphone users are also quicker to resume self-monitoring of diet and physical activity after a lapse in self-monitoring, whereas paper diary users have shorter inactive sequences for monitoring blood glucose and body weight. The findings are informative for data collection methodology in this burgeoning area of research.

  4. Geochemical monitoring of thermal waters in Slovenia: relationships to seismic activity.

    PubMed

    Zmazek, B; Italiano, F; Zivcić, M; Vaupotic, J; Kobal, I; Martinelli, G

    2002-12-01

    Thermally anomalous fluids released in seismic areas in Slovenia were the subjects of geochemical monitoring. Thermal waters were surveyed from the seismically active area of Posocje (Bled and Zatolmin; NW Slovenia) and from Rogaska Slatina in eastern Slovenia. Continuous monitoring of geochemical parameters (radon concentration, electrical conductivity, and water temperature) was performed with discrete gas sampling for their (3)He/(4)He ratio. The observed values were correlated with meteorological parameters (rainfall, barometric pressure and air temperature) and with seismic activity. Only a few earthquakes occurred in the vicinity of the measuring sites during the monitoring period. Nevertheless, changes in radon concentration, water temperature, electrical conductivity and helium isotopic ratio were detected at the three thermal springs in the periods preceding the earthquakes. A close correlation was also observed of both water temperature and electrical conductivity with the Earth tide, making the observations in the selected sites a promising tool for addressing the widely debated question of earthquake prediction.

  5. Inventory of non-federally funded marine pollution research, development, and monitoring activities: West Coast region

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, G.M.; Opresko, D.M.; Weaver, R.S.

    1987-12-01

    Knowledge of current marine pollution research and monitoring programs is an important factor in planning and guiding future national efforts to control such pollution. To supplement these reports on Federal activities, NMPPO published a series of reports in 1980 on non-federally funded marine pollution research and monitoring activities in various regions. The following document presents an update of one of these reports. It presents an inventory of the non-federally funded research and monitoring projects for the West Coast region of the United States. It is one in a series of four updates that will collectively provide an updated inventory of non-federally funded projects for all the coastal regions of the United States.

  6. Influence of social connectedness, communication and monitoring on adolescent sexual activity in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Biddlecom, Ann; Tanle, Augustine

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines connectedness to, communication with and monitoring of unmarried adolescents in Ghana by parents, other adults, friends and key social institutions and the roles these groups play with respect to adolescent sexual activity. The paper draws on 2004 nationally-representative survey data and qualitative evidence from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with adolescents in 2003. Adolescents show high levels of connectedness to family, adults, friends, school and religious groups. High levels of adult monitoring are also observed, but communication with family about sex-related matters was not as high as with non-family members. The qualitative data highlight gender differences in communication. Multivariate analysis of survey data shows a strong negative relationship between parental monitoring and recent sexual activity for males and females, and limited effects of communication. Creating a supportive environment and showing interest in the welfare of adolescents appear to promote positive sexual and reproductive health outcomes.

  7. Validity of activity monitors in health and chronic disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of physical activity in healthy populations and in those with chronic diseases is challenging. The aim of this systematic review was to identify whether available activity monitors (AM) have been appropriately validated for use in assessing physical activity in these groups. Following a systematic literature search we found 134 papers meeting the inclusion criteria; 40 conducted in a field setting (validation against doubly labelled water), 86 in a laboratory setting (validation against a metabolic cart, metabolic chamber) and 8 in a field and laboratory setting. Correlation coefficients between AM outcomes and energy expenditure (EE) by the criterion method (doubly labelled water and metabolic cart/chamber) and percentage mean differences between EE estimation from the monitor and EE measurement by the criterion method were extracted. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool the results across studies where possible. Types of devices were compared using meta-regression analyses. Most validation studies had been performed in healthy adults (n = 118), with few carried out in patients with chronic diseases (n = 16). For total EE, correlation coefficients were statistically significantly lower in uniaxial compared to multisensor devices. For active EE, correlations were slightly but not significantly lower in uniaxial compared to triaxial and multisensor devices. Uniaxial devices tended to underestimate TEE (−12.07 (95%CI; -18.28 to −5.85) %) compared to triaxial (−6.85 (95%CI; -18.20 to 4.49) %, p = 0.37) and were statistically significantly less accurate than multisensor devices (−3.64 (95%CI; -8.97 to 1.70) %, p<0.001). TEE was underestimated during slow walking speeds in 69% of the lab validation studies compared to 37%, 30% and 37% of the studies during intermediate, fast walking speed and running, respectively. The high level of heterogeneity in the validation studies is only partly explained by the type of activity

  8. Activity Learning as a Foundation for Security Monitoring in Smart Homes.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Jessamyn; Thomas, Brian L; Cook, Diane J; Wang, Xiaobo

    2017-03-31

    Smart environment technology has matured to the point where it is regularly used in everyday homes as well as research labs. With this maturation of the technology, we can consider using smart homes as a practical mechanism for improving home security. In this paper, we introduce an activity-aware approach to security monitoring and threat detection in smart homes. We describe our approach using the CASAS smart home framework and activity learning algorithms. By monitoring for activity-based anomalies we can detect possible threats and take appropriate action. We evaluate our proposed method using data collected in CASAS smart homes and demonstrate the partnership between activity-aware smart homes and biometric devices in the context of the CASAS on-campus smart apartment testbed.

  9. A Qualitative Case Study to Investigate the Technology Acceptance Experience Outlined in the TAM Using the Kubler-Ross Stages of Grieving and Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotelo, Benjamin Eladio

    2015-01-01

    The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been an important model for the understanding of end user acceptance regarding technology and a framework used in thousands of researched scenarios since publication in 1986. Similarly, the Kubler-Ross model of death and dying has also been used as a model for the study of acceptance within the medical…

  10. Assessing the Intention to Use Technology among Pre-Service Teachers in Singapore and Malaysia: A Multigroup Invariance Analysis of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Lee, Chwee Beng; Chai, Ching Sing; Wong, Su Luan

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the pre-service teachers' self-reported future intentions to use technology in Singapore and Malaysia. A survey was employed to validate items from past research. Using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a research framework, 495 pre-service teachers from Singapore and Malaysia responded to an 11-item questionnaires…

  11. The Activation and Monitoring of Memories Produced by Words and Pseudohomophones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortese, Michael J.; Khanna, Maya M.; White, Katherine K.; Veljkovic, Ilija; Drumm, Geoffery

    2008-01-01

    Using the DRM paradigm, our experiments examined the activation and monitoring of memories in semantic and phonological networks. Participants viewed lists of words and/or pseudohomophones (e.g., "dreem"). In Experiment 1, participants verbally recalled lists of semantic associates or attempted to write them as they appeared during study. False…

  12. 14 CFR 405.1 - Monitoring of licensed, permitted, and other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monitoring of licensed, permitted, and other activities. 405.1 Section 405.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL... manufacturing, production, testing, and training facilities, or assembly sites used by any contractor,...

  13. Monitoring Phospholipase A2 Activity with Gd-encapsulated Phospholipid Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhiliang; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To date, numerous analytical methods have been developed to monitor phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. However, many of these methods require the use of unnatural PLA2 substrates that may alter enzyme kinetics, and probes that cannot be extended to applications in more complex environments. It would be desirable to develop a versatile assay that monitors PLA2 activity based on interactions with natural phospholipids in complex biological samples. Here, we developed an activatable T1 magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agent to monitor PLA2 activity. Specifically, the clinically approved gadolinium (Gd)-based MR contrast agent, gadoteridol, was encapsulated within nanometer-sized phospholipid liposomes. The encapsulated Gd exhibited a low T1-weighted signal, due to low membrane permeability. However, when the phospholipids within the liposomal membrane were hydrolyzed by PLA2, encapsulated Gd was released into bulk solution, resulting in a measureable change in the T1-relaxation time. These activatable MR contrast agents can potentially be used as nanosensors for monitoring of PLA2 activity in biological samples with minimal sample preparation. PMID:25376186

  14. IDEA Fiscal Monitoring and Support Activities 2011-2012 Quick Reference Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Resource Center Program, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This Quick Reference Document is being distributed by the Regional Resource Center Program ARRA/Fiscal Priority Team to provide RRCP state liaisons and other (Technical Assistance) TA providers with a summary of critical fiscal monitoring and support activities they may be involved in during calendar years 2011 and 2012. Like other documents in…

  15. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

  16. Employing Magnetic Levitation to Monitor Reaction Kinetics and Measure Activation Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benz, Lauren; Cesafsky, Karen E.; Le, Tran; Park, Aileen; Malicky, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a simple and inexpensive undergraduate-level kinetics experiment that uses magnetic levitation to monitor the progress and determine the activation energy of a condensation reaction on a polymeric solid support. The method employs a cuvette filled with a paramagnetic solution positioned between two strong magnets. The…

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ETD SURVEILLANCE CHECKLIST FOR MONITORING EPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENT OF AN ETD SURVEILLANCE CHECKLIST FOR MONITORING EPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES, Thomas J. Hughes, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), ORD, U.S. EPA, Experimental Toxicology Division (ETD), MD 66, RTP, NC 27711

    Research studies condu...

  18. Physical Activity Monitoring: Gadgets and Uses. Article #6 in a 6-Part Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    An early 15th century drawing by Leonardo da Vinci depicted a device that used gears and a pendulum that moved in synchronization with the wearer as he or she walked. This is believed to be the early origins of today's physical activity monitoring devices. Today's devices have vastly expanded on da Vinci's ancient concept with a myriad of options…

  19. 14 CFR 405.1 - Monitoring of licensed, permitted, and other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Monitoring of licensed, permitted, and other activities. 405.1 Section 405.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS AND ENFORCEMENT §...

  20. 14 CFR 405.1 - Monitoring of licensed, permitted, and other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Monitoring of licensed, permitted, and other activities. 405.1 Section 405.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS AND ENFORCEMENT §...

  1. 14 CFR 405.1 - Monitoring of licensed, permitted, and other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Monitoring of licensed, permitted, and other activities. 405.1 Section 405.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS AND ENFORCEMENT §...

  2. 14 CFR 405.1 - Monitoring of licensed, permitted, and other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Monitoring of licensed, permitted, and other activities. 405.1 Section 405.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS AND ENFORCEMENT §...

  3. OLAM: A wearable, non-contact sensor for continuous heart-rate and activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Albright, Ryan K; Goska, Benjamin J; Hagen, Tory M; Chi, Mike Y; Cauwenberghs, G; Chiang, Patrick Y

    2011-01-01

    A wearable, multi-modal sensor is presented that can non-invasively monitor a patient's activity level and heart function concurrently for more than a week. The 4 in(2) sensor incorporates both a non-contact heartrate sensor and a 5-axis inertial measurement unit (IMU), allowing simultaneous heart, respiration, and movement monitoring without requiring physical contact with the skin [1]. Hence, this Oregon State University Life and Activity Monitor (OLAM) provides the unique opportunity to combine motion data with heart-rate information, enabling assessment of actual physical activity beyond conventional movement sensors. OLAM also provides a unique platform for non-contact sensing, enabling the filtering of movement artifacts generated by the non-contact capacitive interface, using the IMU data as a movement noise channel. Intended to be used in clinical trials for weeks at a time with no physician intervention, the OLAM allows continuous non-invasive monitoring of patients, providing the opportunity for long-term observation into a patient's physical activity and subtle longitudinal changes.

  4. Exercise Therapy for Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Superior Efficacy of Activity Monitors over Pedometers

    PubMed Central

    Umezono, Tomoya; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of activity monitor (which displays exercise intensity and number of steps) versus that of pedometer in exercise therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were divided into the activity monitor group (n = 92) and pedometer group (n = 95). The primary goal was improvement in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The exercise target was set at 8,000 steps/day and 20 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise (≥3.5 metabolic equivalents). The activity monitor is equipped with a triple-axis accelerometer sensor capable of measuring medium-intensity walking duration, number of steps, walking distance, calorie consumption, and total calorie consumption. The pedometer counts the number of steps. Blood samples for laboratory tests were obtained during the visits. The first examination was conducted at the start of the study and repeated at 2 and 6 months. A significant difference in the decrease in HbA1c level was observed between the two groups at 2 months. The results suggest that the use of activity level monitor that displays information on exercise intensity, in addition to the number of steps, is useful in exercise therapy as it enhances the concept of exercise therapy and promotes lowering of HbA1c in diabetic patients. PMID:27761471

  5. Determining Daily Physical Activity Levels of Youth with Developmental Disabilities: Days of Monitoring Required?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Yeun; Yun, Joonkoo

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way…

  6. Small Schools Mathematics Curriculum, 9-12: Scope Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, JoAnne, Ed.; And Others

    The grade 9-12 mathematics curriculum learning objectives, activities, monitoring procedures and resources for small schools were developed during 1978-79 through the cooperative efforts of 10 Snohomish and Island County school districts, Educational Service District 189 and the Washington State Office of Public Instruction. The objectives were…

  7. 30 CFR 280.29 - Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my activity? 280.29 Section 280.29 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS,...

  8. Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension-Monitoring Activities. Technical Report No. 269.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Brown, Ann L.

    Three studies were conducted to test the effectiveness of reciprocal teaching as a means of instructing seventh grade poor readers about activities they could use to increase comprehension and to ascertain that their comprehension was proceeding smoothly (comprehension monitoring). Reciprocal teaching involves having teacher and students take…

  9. Quality assurance project plan for ground water monitoring activities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPP) applies specifically to the field activities and laboratory analysis performed for all RCRA groundwater projects conducted by Hanford Technical Services. This QAPP is generic in approach and shall be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual groundwater monitoring plans.

  10. High-throughput metabarcoding of eukaryotic diversity for environmental monitoring of offshore oil-drilling activities.

    PubMed

    Lanzén, Anders; Lekang, Katrine; Jonassen, Inge; Thompson, Eric M; Troedsson, Christofer

    2016-09-01

    As global exploitation of available resources increases, operations extend towards sensitive and previously protected ecosystems. It is important to monitor such areas in order to detect, understand and remediate environmental responses to stressors. The natural heterogeneity and complexity of communities means that accurate monitoring requires high resolution, both temporally and spatially, as well as more complete assessments of taxa. Increased resolution and taxonomic coverage is economically challenging using current microscopy-based monitoring practices. Alternatively, DNA sequencing-based methods have been suggested for cost-efficient monitoring, offering additional insights into ecosystem function and disturbance. Here, we applied DNA metabarcoding of eukaryotic communities in marine sediments, in areas of offshore drilling on the Norwegian continental shelf. Forty-five samples, collected from seven drilling sites in the Troll/Oseberg region, were assessed, using the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene as a taxonomic marker. In agreement with results based on classical morphology-based monitoring, we were able to identify changes in sediment communities surrounding oil platforms. In addition to overall changes in community structure, we identified several potential indicator taxa, responding to pollutants associated with drilling fluids. These included the metazoan orders Macrodasyida, Macrostomida and Ceriantharia, as well as several ciliates and other protist taxa, typically not targeted by environmental monitoring programmes. Analysis of a co-occurrence network to study the distribution of taxa across samples provided a framework for better understanding the impact of anthropogenic activities on the benthic food web, generating novel, testable hypotheses of trophic interactions structuring benthic communities.

  11. Adolescent Substance Use with Friends: Moderating and Mediating Effects of Parental Monitoring and Peer Activity Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Kiesner, Jeff; Poulin, François; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of using substances with friends on future individual use was examined in the context of parental monitoring rules and the ecology of peer activities. A one-year longitudinal study design included a combined sample of North Italian and French Canadian adolescents (N = 285, 53% girls, M = 14.25 years). Data analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling and multiple regression analyses. As expected, the covariation between parental monitoring and adolescent substance use was mediated by “co-use” with friends. Moreover, the relation between substance use with friends and individual substance use was moderated by parental monitoring rules and the peer activity context. Specifically, the relation between substance co-use with friends and individual substance use was stronger when the level of parental monitoring rules was low and when friends spent their time together primarily in unstructured contexts such as on the street or in park settings. These findings underline the importance of adults’ use of rules to monitor adolescents prone to substance use, and the role of context in facilitating or reducing peer influence. PMID:21165170

  12. Application of an optimized flow cytometry-based quantification of Platelet Activation (PACT): Monitoring platelet activation in platelet concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Roest, Mark; Henskens, Yvonne M. C.; de Laat, Bas; Huskens, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that flow cytometry is a reliable test to quantify platelet function in stored platelet concentrates (PC). It is thought that flow cytometry is laborious and hence expensive. We have optimized the flow cytometry-based quantification of agonist induced platelet activation (PACT) to a labor, time and more cost-efficient test. Currently the quality of PCs is only monitored by visual inspection, because available assays are unreliable or too laborious for use in a clinical transfusion laboratory. Therefore, the PACT was applied to monitor PC activation during storage. Study design and methods The optimized PACT was used to monitor 5 PCs during 10 days of storage. In brief, optimized PACT uses a ready-to-use reaction mix, which is stable at -20°C. When needed, a test strip is thawed and platelet activation is initiated by mixing PC with PACT. PACT was based on the following agonists: adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen-related peptide (CRP) and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP-6). Platelet activation was measured as P-selectin expression. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) was performed as a reference. Results Both PACT and LTA showed platelet function decline during 10-day storage after stimulation with ADP and collagen/CRP; furthermore, PACT showed decreasing TRAP-induced activation. Major differences between the two tests are that PACT is able to measure the status of platelets in the absence of agonists, and it can differentiate between the number of activated platelets and the amount of activation, whereas LTA only measures aggregation in response to an agonist. Also, PACT is more time-efficient compared to LTA and allows high-throughput analysis. Conclusion PACT is an optimized platelet function test that can be used to monitor the activation of PCs. PACT has the same accuracy as LTA with regard to monitoring PCs, but it is superior to both LTA and conventional flow cytometry based tests with regard to labor

  13. Devices for Self-Monitoring Sedentary Time or Physical Activity: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Loveday, Adam; Pearson, Natalie; Edwardson, Charlotte; Yates, Thomas; Biddle, Stuart JH; Esliger, Dale W

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well documented that meeting the guideline levels (150 minutes per week) of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) is protective against chronic disease. Conversely, emerging evidence indicates the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting. Therefore, there is a need to change both behaviors. Self-monitoring of behavior is one of the most robust behavior-change techniques available. The growing number of technologies in the consumer electronics sector provides a unique opportunity for individuals to self-monitor their behavior. Objective The aim of this study is to review the characteristics and measurement properties of currently available self-monitoring devices for sedentary time and/or PA. Methods To identify technologies, four scientific databases were systematically searched using key terms related to behavior, measurement, and population. Articles published through October 2015 were identified. To identify technologies from the consumer electronic sector, systematic searches of three Internet search engines were also performed through to October 1, 2015. Results The initial database searches identified 46 devices and the Internet search engines identified 100 devices yielding a total of 146 technologies. Of these, 64 were further removed because they were currently unavailable for purchase or there was no evidence that they were designed for, had been used in, or could readily be modified for self-monitoring purposes. The remaining 82 technologies were included in this review (73 devices self-monitored PA, 9 devices self-monitored sedentary time). Of the 82 devices included, this review identified no published articles in which these devices were used for the purpose of self-monitoring PA and/or sedentary behavior; however, a number of technologies were found via Internet searches that matched the criteria for self-monitoring and provided immediate feedback on PA (ActiGraph Link, Microsoft Band, and Garmin Vivofit) and sedentary time

  14. Cost-effective and monitoring-active technique for TDM-passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Chang-Chia; Lin, Hong-Mao; Tarn, Chen-Wen; Lin, Huang-Liang

    2014-08-01

    A reliable, detection-active and cost-effective method which employs the hello and heartbeat signals for branched node distinguishing to monitor fiber fault in any branch of distribution fibers of a time division multiplexing passive optical network (TDM-PON) is proposed. With this method, the material cost of building an optical network monitor system for a TDM-PON with 168 ONUs and the time of identifying a multiple branch faults is significantly reduced in a TDM-PON system of any scale. A fault location in a 1 × 32 TDM-PON system using this method to identify the fault branch is demonstrated.

  15. Scour monitoring system of subsea pipeline using distributed Brillouin optical sensors based on active thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xue-Feng; Li, Le; Ba, Qin; Ou, Jin-Ping

    2012-10-01

    A scour monitoring system of subsea pipeline is proposed using distributed Brillouin optical sensors based on active thermometry. The system consists in a thermal cable running parallel to the pipeline, which acquires frequency shift of optical sensors during heating and cooling, directly indicating temperature change. The free spans can be detected through the different behaviors of heat transfer between in-water and in-sediment scenarios. Three features were extracted from temperature time histories including magnitude, spatial continuity and temporal stability. Several experimental tests were conducted using the proposed system. The results substantiate the monitoring technique.

  16. Modulatory effects of L-carnitine on tamoxifen toxicity and oncolytic activity: in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, A B; Mansour, H H; Shouman, S A; Eissa, A A; Abu El Nour, S M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of L-carnitine (L-CAR) in tamoxifen (TAM)-induced toxicity and antitumor activity. Adult female rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group I was served as control, groups II and III were treated with TAM (10 mg/kg, periorally) and L-CAR (300 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), respectively, while group IV was treated with both compounds. The treatment continued daily for 28 days. Administration of TAM resulted in significant increase in serum lipid profiles, liver enzymes, and bilirubin level. TAM produced a significant increase in lipid peroxides (LPO) level and nonsignificant change in nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) level accompanied with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of hepatic and uterus tissues and significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content of uterus tissue. Administration of L-CAR for 1 h prior to TAM treatment decreased serum lipids and liver enzymes significantly and significantly increased SOD activity in liver and uterus tissues compared with TAM-treated group. Furthermore, it restored LPO and GSH levels and increased NO(x) level in uterus tissue. DNA fragmentation and the apoptotic marker, caspase-3, were not detected in the liver of all treated groups. Histopathologically, alterations in the liver and uterus structures after TAM treatment, which was attenuated after L-CAR administration. The antitumor effect and survival of the combined treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing mice was less than each one alone. L-CAR interestingly increased survival rate of EAC-bearing mice more than TAM-treated group. In conclusion, L-CAR has beneficial effects regarding TAM toxicity; however, it interferes with its antitumor effect.

  17. Monitoring activities of daily living based on wearable wireless body sensor network.

    PubMed

    Kańtoch, E; Augustyniak, P; Markiewicz, M; Prusak, D

    2014-01-01

    With recent advances in microprocessor chip technology, wireless communication, and biomedical engineering it is possible to develop miniaturized ubiquitous health monitoring devices that are capable of recording physiological and movement signals during daily life activities. The aim of the research is to implement and test the prototype of health monitoring system. The system consists of the body central unit with Bluetooth module and wearable sensors: the custom-designed ECG sensor, the temperature sensor, the skin humidity sensor and accelerometers placed on the human body or integrated with clothes and a network gateway to forward data to a remote medical server. The system includes custom-designed transmission protocol and remote web-based graphical user interface for remote real time data analysis. Experimental results for a group of humans who performed various activities (eg. working, running, etc.) showed maximum 5% absolute error compared to certified medical devices. The results are promising and indicate that developed wireless wearable monitoring system faces challenges of multi-sensor human health monitoring during performing daily activities and opens new opportunities in developing novel healthcare services.

  18. THORON-SCOUT - first diffusion based active Radon and Thoron monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, W.; Streil, T.; Oeser, V.; Horak, G.; Duzynski, M.

    2016-10-01

    THORON-SCOUT is a stand-alone diffusion based active Radon and Thoron monitor for long term indoor measurements to evaluate the human health risk due to activity concentration in the breathing air. Alpha-particle spectroscopy of Po isotopes, being the progeny of the decay of the radioactive noble gas Radon, is applied to separately monitor activity contributions of 222Rn and 220Rn (Thoron) as well. In this work we show that the portion of Thoron (Tn) may locally be remarkable and even dominating and cannot be neglected as often has been assumed up to now. Along with tobacco consumption, Rn radioactivity turned out to be a dangerous cause of lung cancer, especially in older badly vented buildings situated in regions of radioactive geological formations. THORON-SCOUT allows a precise examination of the indoor atmosphere with respect to Rn and Inactivity concentration and, therefore, a realistic evaluation of corresponding health risk.

  19. Monitoring the Stellar Activity of Transit-Hosting Stars II: supporting HST exoplanet atmosphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Paul Anthony; Evans, Tom; Sing, David K.; Aigrain, Suzanne

    2012-02-01

    We propose to use the CTIO 1.3m telescope with ANDICAM to monitor 5 bright stars that host transiting exoplanets in an effort to characterise their activity. These observations will provide critical ground-based support for our large HST program that has been granted 124 orbits to perform a survey of UV-optical atmospheric transmission spectra for 8 hot Jupiters using the STIS instrument (Cycle 19, Prog 12473, PI D Sing). They are required because active stellar regions inevitably contaminate measured planetary light curves by causing the apparent planet-to-star radius to vary in a wavelength dependent manner. Regular ground-based photometric monitoring performed using the CTIO 1.3m telescope will allow us to determine the spot activity at the time of the HST observations, so that the stellar baseline flux can be accurately normalised for every transit observed, enabling transmission spectra from multiple visits to be combined.

  20. Using modalmetric fiber optic sensors to monitor the activity of the heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Życzkowski, M.; Uzięblo-Zyczkowska, B.; Dziuda, L.; Różanowski, K.

    2011-03-01

    The paper presents the concept of the modalmetric fiber optic sensor system for human psychophysical activity detection. A fiber optic sensor that utilizes intensity of propagated light to monitor a patient's vital signs such as respiration cardiac activity, blood pressure and body's physical movements. The sensor, which is non-invasive, comprises an multimode fiber proximately situated to the patient so that time varying acusto-mechanical signals from the patient are coupled by the singlemode optical fiber to detector. The system can be implemented in embodiments ranging form a low cost in-home to a high end product for in hospital use. We present the laboratory test of comparing their results with the known methods like EKG. addition, the article describes the work on integrated system to human psychophysiology activity monitoring. That system including a EMFIT, microwave, fiber optic and capacitive sensors.

  1. Acoustic (loudspeaker) facial EMG monitoring: II. Use of evoked EMG activity during acoustic neuroma resection.

    PubMed

    Prass, R L; Kinney, S E; Hardy, R W; Hahn, J F; Lüders, H

    1987-12-01

    Facial electromyographic (EMG) activity was continuously monitored via loudspeaker during eleven translabyrinthine and nine suboccipital consecutive unselected acoustic neuroma resections. Ipsilateral facial EMG activity was synchronously recorded on the audio channels of operative videotapes, which were retrospectively reviewed in order to allow detailed evaluation of the potential benefit of various acoustic EMG patterns in the performance of specific aspects of acoustic neuroma resection. The use of evoked facial EMG activity was classified and described. Direct local mechanical (surgical) stimulation and direct electrical stimulation were of benefit in the localization and/or delineation of the facial nerve contour. Burst and train acoustic patterns of EMG activity appeared to indicate surgical trauma to the facial nerve that would not have been appreciated otherwise. Early results of postoperative facial function of monitored patients are presented, and the possible value of burst and train acoustic EMG activity patterns in the intraoperative assessment of facial nerve function is discussed. Acoustic facial EMG monitoring appears to provide a potentially powerful surgical tool for delineation of the facial nerve contour, the ongoing use of which may lead to continued improvement in facial nerve function preservation through modification of dissection strategy.

  2. Passive acoustic monitoring of biological activity on coral reefs and in nearby waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Marc O.; Mooney, T. Aran; Brainard, Russell E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2005-09-01

    Monitoring the changing state of coral reef habitats is a challenging task that is exacerbated when the reefs in question are in remote locations. Physical sensors provide a wide range of measurements of local environmental variables, but do not give an indication of biological activity. The preliminary findings of an effort to use the ambient sound field as a means of characterizing and monitoring biological activity on coral reefs and surrounding waters are reported. Moored recording systems were developed to sample the sound field of reefs on Oahu, Hawaii for 1-min periods, at 30-min intervals, for 10 days at a time. Snapping shrimp produce the dominant acoustic energy on the reefs examined and exhibit clear diel acoustic trends. Peaks in activity consistently occur during crepuscular periods. At frequencies below 2 kHz, many fish sounds occur, which also exhibit distinct temporal variability. Cetacean sounds are also common, indicating the occurrence of an apex predator in the area. Many sounds can be detected automatically, making the examination of the sound field an efficient means of tracking acoustically active species. The results indicate that acoustic monitoring may be an effective means of tracking biological activity at locations where traditional surveys are impractical.

  3. The application of inertial and magnetic sensors to the monitoring of calf muscle pump activity.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Karol J; Bourke, Alan K; O'Keeffe, Derek T; Olaighin, Gearóid

    2009-01-01

    On long distance journeys passengers at high risk from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are recommended to exercise on a regular basis to contract the calf muscle pump and encourage venous return. If a passenger fails to complete an exercise program that induces active contraction of the calf muscle pump they will remain at increased risk of DVT. This paper presents a novel inertial and magnetic sensor-based technique for monitoring calf muscle pump activity. The technique could be implemented into a system for monitoring the level of calf muscle pump activity in persons with limited mobility. Such a system could be used to provide a reminder to the user that there is a need to exercise should they have forgotten to exercise, failed to exercise sufficiently or exercised incorrectly. The proposed technique was evaluated by comparison with calf muscle pump activity measured using an electromyography (EMG) sensor. Results show that the technique can be used to monitor calf muscle pump activity over a wide range of leg exercises.

  4. Physical activity monitoring in obese people in the real life environment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major problem especially in western countries and several studies underline the importance of physical activity to enhance diet. Currently there is increasing interest in instruments for monitoring daily physical activity. The purpose of this pilot study was to appraise the qualitative and quantitative differences in physical activities and gait analysis parameters in control and obese subjects by means of an innovative tool for the monitoring of physical activity. Methods Twenty-six obese patients, 16 women and 10 men, aged 22 to 69 years with Body Mass Index (BMI) between 30 and 51.4 kg/m2, were compared with 15 control subjects, 4 men and 11 women, aged 24 to 69 with BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m2 during daily physical activities. The IDEEA device (Minisun, Fresno, CA), based on a wearable system of biaxial accelerometers and able to continuously record the physical activities and energy expenditure of a subject in time was used. Time spent in different physical activities such as standing, sitting, walking, lying, reclining, stepping, energy expenditure and gait parameters (velocity, stance duration, etc) were measured during a 24-hours period. Results A trend toward a reduced number of steps was present, associated to reduced speed, reduced cadence and reduced rate of single and double limb support (SLS/DLS). Moreover, obese people spent significant less time stepping, less time lying and more time in a sitting or reclined position during the night. The energy expenditure during a 24-hours period was higher in the obese compared to controls. Conclusions The study provided objective parameters to differentiate the daily motor activity of obese subjects with respect to controls, even a larger population is required to confirm these findings. The device used can be of support in programming educational activities for life style modification in obese people as well as for monitoring the results of various kinds of intervention in these

  5. Recent Advances in Free-Living Physical Activity Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Andre, David; Wolf, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    It has become clear recently that the epidemic of type 2 diabetes sweeping the globe is associated with decreased levels of physical activity and an increase in obesity. Incorporating appropriate and sufficient physical activity into one's life is an essential component of achieving and maintaining a healthy weight and overall health, especially for those with type II diabetes mellitus. Regular physical activity can have a positive impact by lowering blood glucose, helping the body to be more efficient at using insulin. There are other substantial benefits for patients with diabetes, including prevention of cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Several complications of utilizing a self-care treatment methodology involving exercise include (1) patients may not know how much activity that they engage in and (2) health-care providers do not have objective measurements of how much activity their patients perform. However, several technological advances have brought a variety of activity monitoring devices to the market that can address these concerns. Ranging from simple pedometers to multisensor devices, the different technologies offer varying levels of accuracy, comfort, and reliability. The key notion is that by providing feedback to the patient, motivation can be increased and targets can be set and aimed toward. Although these devices are not specific to the treatment of diabetes, the importance of physical activity in treating the disease makes an understanding of these devices important. This article reviews these physical activity monitors and describes the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:19885145

  6. In situ Raman and X-ray spectroscopies to monitor microbial activities under high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Oger, Phil M; Daniel, Isabelle; Picard, Aude

    2010-02-01

    Until recently, monitoring of cells and cellular activities at high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) was mainly limited to ex situ observations. Samples were analyzed prior to and following the depressurization step to evaluate the effect of the pressure treatment. Such ex situ measurements have several drawbacks: (i) it does not allow for kinetic measurements and (ii) the depressurization step often leads to artifactual measurements. Here, we describe recent advances in diamond anvil cell (DAC) technology to adapt it to the monitoring of microbial processes in situ. The modified DAC is asymmetrical, with a single anvil and a diamond window to improve imaging quality and signal collection. Using this novel DAC combined to Raman and X-ray spectroscopy, we monitored the metabolism of glucose by baker's yeast and the reduction of selenite by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in situ under HHP. In situ spectroscopy is also a promising tool to study piezophilic microorganisms.

  7. An Evidence-Based Adoption of Technology Model for Remote Monitoring of Elders’ Daily Activities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    What benefit will new technologies offer if they are inadequately or not used? This work presents a meta-synthesis of adoption of technology related findings from four innovative monitoring intervention research studies with older adults and their informal and/or formal caregivers. Each study employed mixed methods analyses that lead to an understanding of the key variables that influenced adoption of telephone and Internet based wireless remote monitoring technologies by elders and their caregivers. The studies were all conducted in “real world” homes ranging from solo residences to multi-story independent living residential buildings. Insights gained came from issues not found in controlled laboratory environments but in the complex interplay of family-elder-staff dynamics around balancing safety and independence. Findings resulted in an adoption of technology model for remote monitoring of elders’ daily activities derived from evidence based research to advance both practical and theoretical development in the field of gerontechnology. PMID:21423843

  8. Multisensor fusion for atrial and ventricular activity detection in coronary care monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Alfredo I.; Carrault, Guy; Mora, Fernando; Thoraval, Laurent; Passariello, Gianfranco; Schleich, Jean-Marc

    1999-01-01

    Information management for critical care monitoring is still a very difficult task. Medical staff is often overwhelmed by the amount of data provided by the increased number of specific monitoring devices and instrumentation, and the lack of an effective automated system. Specifically, a basic task such as arrhythmia detection still produce an important amount of undesirable alarms, due in part to the mechanistic approach of current monitoring systems. In this work, multi-sensor and multi-source data fusion schemes to improve atrial and ventricular activity detection in critical care environments are presented. Applications of these schemes are quantitatively evaluated and compared with current methods, showing the potential advantages of data fusion techniques for event detection in noise corrupted signals. PMID:10513122

  9. What Constrains the Accuracy of Metacomprehension Judgments? Testing the Transfer-Appropriate-Monitoring and Accessibility Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlosky, J.; Rawson, K.A.; Middleton, E.L.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated two hypotheses-transfer appropriate monitoring (TAM) and the accessibility hypothesis-that explain why the accuracy of metacomprehension judgments is commonly low. In 2 experiments, participants read six expository texts, made global judgments about how well they would perform on a test over each text, and made term-specific judgments…

  10. Assessment and Design of Water Quality Monitoring Networks with respect to Shale Gas Activities in Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand, S.; Abad, J. D.; Brantley, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past few years, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling techniques have been extensively used to extract shale gas from the Marcellus Shale. Likewise, several environmental violations that have been repeatedly reported in drilling sites have created greater awareness on potentially adverse environmental impacts of shale gas. Long-term monitoring in the Marcellus Shale is the key to maintain and improve the quality of water supplies in future. Currently, the absence of an efficient water quality monitoring network prevents the detection and source identification of contaminants associated with shale gas activities. Evaluation and re-design of monitoring networks from time to time is a major step towards efficient water resources planning and management. In this study, we assessed the performance of the current water quality monitoring network with respect to the shale gas development in Pennsylvania. For better evaluation, the Oil and Gas Compliance Report by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection between January 2005 and May 2013 was compiled. Using statistical and GIS methods each violation item was examined against the number and location of sensors in the current monitoring network. The results helped identify the adequacy of the number of sensors to detect the potential contamination. Moreover, to improve the performance and to lower the long-term monitoring costs, we re-designed the network using optimization methods. This optimal system maximizes the understanding of the aquifer condition and investigates the shale gas industry impacts on shallow aquifers, and it is applicable to other watersheds with shale oil and gas drilling activities.

  11. AVHRR-based drought-observing system for monitoring the environment and socioeconomic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, F.

    From all natural disaster, drought is the least understandable and the most damaging environmental phenomenon. Although in pre-satellite era, climate data were used for drought monitoring, drought specifics created problems in early drought detection start/end, monitoring its expansion/contraction, intensity and area coverage and the most important, timely estimation of the impacts on the environment and socioeconomic activities. The latest prevented to take prompt measures in mitigating negative consequences of drought for the society. Advances in remote sensing of the past ten years, contributed to the development of comprehensive drought monitoring system and numerous applications, which helped to make decisions for monitoring the environment and predicting sustainable socioeconomic activities. This paper discusses satellite-based land-surface observing system, which provides wells of information used for monitoring such unusual natural disaster as drought. This system was developed from the observations of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) flown on NOAA operational polar-orbiting satellites. The AVHRR data were packed into the Global Vegetation Index (GVI) product, which have served the global community since 1981. The GVI provided reflectances and indices (4 km spacial resolution) every seven days for each 16 km map cell between 75EN and 55ES covering all land ecosystems. The data includes raw and calibrated radiances in the visible, near infrared and infrared spectral bands, processed (with eliminated high frequency noise) radiances, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), 20-year climatology, vegetation condition indices and also products, such as vegetation health, drought, vegetation fraction, fire risk etc. In the past ten years, users around the world used this information addressing different issues of drought impacts on socioeconomic activities and responded positively to real time drought information place regularly on the

  12. Automated swimming activity monitor for examining temporal patterns of toxicant effects on individual Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Michaelsen, Thomas Yssing; Jensen, Anne; Marcussen, Laurits Faarup; Nielsen, Majken Elley; Roslev, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Aquatic pollutants are often biologically active at low concentrations and impact on biota in combination with other abiotic stressors. Traditional toxicity tests may not detect these effects, and there is a need for sensitive high-throughput methods for detecting sublethal effects. We have evaluated an automated infra-red (IR) light-based monitor for recording the swimming activity of Daphnia magna to establish temporal patterns of toxicant effects on an individual level. Activity was recorded for 48 h and the sensitivity of the monitor was evaluated by exposing D. magna to the reference chemicals K2 Cr2 O7 at 15, 20 and 25 °C and 2,4-dichlorophenol at 20 °C. Significant effects (P < 0.001) of toxicant concentrations, exposure time and incubation temperatures were observed. At 15 °C, the swimming activity remained unchanged for 48 h at sublethal concentrations of K2 Cr2 O7 whereas activity at 20 and 25 °C was more biphasic with decreases in activity occurring after 12-18 h. A similar biphasic pattern was observed after 2,4-dichlorophenol exposure at 20 °C. EC50 values for 2,4-dichlorophenol and K2 Cr2 O7 determined from automated recording of swimming activity showed increasing toxicity with time corresponding to decreases in EC50 of 0.03-0.07 mg l(-1) h(-1) . EC50 values determined after 48 h were comparable or lower than EC50 values based on visual inspection according to ISO 6341. The results demonstrated that the swimming activity monitor is capable of detecting sublethal behavioural effects that are toxicant and temperature dependent. The method allows EC values to be established at different time points and can serve as a high-throughput screening tool in toxicity testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Recent Developments in Active and Passive Distributed Temperature Sensing for Soil Moisture Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Dong, J.; Hoes, O.; Van De Giesen, N.; Sayde, C.; Ochsner, T. E.; Selker, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we will review recent developments in both active and passive Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) for soil moisture monitoring. DTS involves using fiber-optic cables to measure temperature at sub-meter resolution along cables up to several kilometers in length. Soil thermal properties depend on soil moisture. Hence, temperature variations either in response to externally-applied heating (active) or the response to net radiation (passive) can be monitored and used to infer soil moisture. DTS occupies a unique measurement niche, potentially providing soil moisture information at sub-meter resolution over extents on the order of km at sub-daily time steps. It complements observations from point sensors to other innovative measurement techniques like cosmic ray neutron detection methods and GPS reflectometry. DTS is being developed as a tool for the validation of soil moisture observations from remote sensing and for hydrological field investigations. Here, we will discuss both technological and theoretical advances in active and passive DTS for soil moisture monitoring. We will present data from new installations in the Netherlands and the USA to illustrate recent developments. In particular, we will focus on the value of combining temperature observations from DTS with physical models using data assimilation. In addition to yielding improved soil moisture and temperature profile estimates, recent research has shown the potential to also derive information on the soil thermal and hydraulic properties. We will conclude by outlining the current challenges, with particular emphasis on combining active and passive DTS.

  14. Using Fiberless, Wearable fNIRS to Monitor Brain Activity in Real-world Cognitive Tasks.

    PubMed

    Pinti, Paola; Aichelburg, Clarisse; Lind, Frida; Power, Sarah; Swingler, Elizabeth; Merla, Arcangelo; Hamilton, Antonia; Gilbert, Sam; Burgess, Paul; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2015-12-02

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a neuroimaging technique that uses near-infrared light to monitor brain activity. Based on neurovascular coupling, fNIRS is able to measure the haemoglobin concentration changes secondary to neuronal activity. Compared to other neuroimaging techniques, fNIRS represents a good compromise in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. Moreover, it is portable, lightweight, less sensitive to motion artifacts and does not impose significant physical restraints. It is therefore appropriate to monitor a wide range of cognitive tasks (e.g., auditory, gait analysis, social interaction) and different age populations (e.g., new-borns, adults, elderly people). The recent development of fiberless fNIRS devices has opened the way to new applications in neuroscience research. This represents a unique opportunity to study functional activity during real-world tests, which can be more sensitive and accurate in assessing cognitive function and dysfunction than lab-based tests. This study explored the use of fiberless fNIRS to monitor brain activity during a real-world prospective memory task. This protocol is performed outside the lab and brain haemoglobin concentration changes are continuously measured over the prefrontal cortex while the subject walks around in order to accomplish several different tasks.

  15. Memory monitoring performance and PFC activity are associated with 5-HTTLPR genotype in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Jennifer; Beevers, Christopher G.; McGeary, John E.; Schnyer, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Older adults show extensive variability in cognitive performance, including episodic memory. A portion of this variability could potentially be explained by genetic factors. Recent literature shows that the neurotransmitter serotonin plays an important role in memory processes, as enhancements of brain serotonin have led to memory improvement. Here, we have begun to explore genetic contributions to the performance and underlying brain activity associated with source memory monitoring. Using a source recognition memory task during fMRI scanning, this study offers evidence that older adults who carry a short allele (S-car) of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the SLC6A4 gene show specific deficits in source memory monitoring relative to older adults who are homozygous for the long allele (LL). These deficits are accompanied by less neural activity in regions of prefrontal cortex that have been shown to support accurate memory monitoring. Moreover, while the older adult LL group’s behavioral performance does not differ from younger adults, their brain activation reveals evidence of compensatory activation that likely supports their higher performance level. These results provide preliminary evidence that the long-allele homozygous profile is cognitively beneficial to older adults, particularly for memory functioning. PMID:22705442

  16. Using Fiberless, Wearable fNIRS to Monitor Brain Activity in Real-world Cognitive Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Pinti, Paola; Aichelburg, Clarisse; Lind, Frida; Power, Sarah; Swingler, Elizabeth; Merla, Arcangelo; Hamilton, Antonia; Gilbert, Sam; Burgess, Paul; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a neuroimaging technique that uses near-infrared light to monitor brain activity. Based on neurovascular coupling, fNIRS is able to measure the haemoglobin concentration changes secondary to neuronal activity. Compared to other neuroimaging techniques, fNIRS represents a good compromise in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. Moreover, it is portable, lightweight, less sensitive to motion artifacts and does not impose significant physical restraints. It is therefore appropriate to monitor a wide range of cognitive tasks (e.g., auditory, gait analysis, social interaction) and different age populations (e.g., new-borns, adults, elderly people). The recent development of fiberless fNIRS devices has opened the way to new applications in neuroscience research. This represents a unique opportunity to study functional activity during real-world tests, which can be more sensitive and accurate in assessing cognitive function and dysfunction than lab-based tests. This study explored the use of fiberless fNIRS to monitor brain activity during a real-world prospective memory task. This protocol is performed outside the lab and brain haemoglobin concentration changes are continuously measured over the prefrontal cortex while the subject walks around in order to accomplish several different tasks. PMID:26651025

  17. Behavioral and Locomotor Measurements Using an Open Field Activity Monitoring System for Skeletal Muscle Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, Kathleen S.; Quinn, James L.; Phadke, Aditi; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-01-01

    The open field activity monitoring system comprehensively assesses locomotor and behavioral activity levels of mice. It is a useful tool for assessing locomotive impairment in animal models of neuromuscular disease and efficacy of therapeutic drugs that may improve locomotion and/or muscle function. The open field activity measurement provides a different measure than muscle strength, which is commonly assessed by grip strength measurements. It can also show how drugs may affect other body systems as well when used with additional outcome measures. In addition, measures such as total distance traveled mirror the 6 min walk test, a clinical trial outcome measure. However, open field activity monitoring is also associated with significant challenges: Open field activity measurements vary according to animal strain, age, sex, and circadian rhythm. In addition, room temperature, humidity, lighting, noise, and even odor can affect assessment outcomes. Overall, this manuscript provides a well-tested and standardized open field activity SOP for preclinical trials in animal models of neuromuscular diseases. We provide a discussion of important considerations, typical results, data analysis, and detail the strengths and weaknesses of open field testing. In addition, we provide recommendations for optimal study design when using open field activity in a preclinical trial. PMID:25286313

  18. Physical Activities Monitoring Using Wearable Acceleration Sensors Attached to the Body.

    PubMed

    Arif, Muhammad; Kattan, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring physical activities by using wireless sensors is helpful for identifying postural orientation and movements in the real-life environment. A simple and robust method based on time domain features to identify the physical activities is proposed in this paper; it uses sensors placed on the subjects' wrist, chest and ankle. A feature set based on time domain characteristics of the acceleration signal recorded by acceleration sensors is proposed for the classification of twelve physical activities. Nine subjects performed twelve different types of physical activities, including sitting, standing, walking, running, cycling, Nordic walking, ascending stairs, descending stairs, vacuum cleaning, ironing clothes and jumping rope, and lying down (resting state). Their ages were 27.2 ± 3.3 years and their body mass index (BMI) is 25.11 ± 2.6 Kg/m2. Classification results demonstrated a high validity showing precision (a positive predictive value) and recall (sensitivity) of more than 95% for all physical activities. The overall classification accuracy for a combined feature set of three sensors is 98%. The proposed framework can be used to monitor the physical activities of a subject that can be very useful for the health professional to assess the physical activity of healthy individuals as well as patients.

  19. Development of a real time activity monitoring Android application utilizing SmartStep.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Nagaraj; Melanson, Edward; Sazonov, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Footwear based activity monitoring systems are becoming popular in academic research as well as consumer industry segments. In our previous work, we had presented developmental aspects of an insole based activity and gait monitoring system-SmartStep, which is a socially acceptable, fully wireless and versatile insole. The present work describes the development of an Android application that captures the SmartStep data wirelessly over Bluetooth Low energy (BLE), computes features on the received data, runs activity classification algorithms and provides real time feedback. The development of activity classification methods was based on the the data from a human study involving 4 participants. Participants were asked to perform activities of sitting, standing, walking, and cycling while they wore SmartStep insole system. Multinomial Logistic Discrimination (MLD) was utilized in the development of machine learning model for activity prediction. The resulting classification model was implemented in an Android Smartphone. The Android application was benchmarked for power consumption and CPU loading. Leave one out cross validation resulted in average accuracy of 96.9% during model training phase. The Android application for real time activity classification was tested on a human subject wearing SmartStep resulting in testing accuracy of 95.4%.

  20. Physical Activities Monitoring Using Wearable Acceleration Sensors Attached to the Body

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring physical activities by using wireless sensors is helpful for identifying postural orientation and movements in the real-life environment. A simple and robust method based on time domain features to identify the physical activities is proposed in this paper; it uses sensors placed on the subjects’ wrist, chest and ankle. A feature set based on time domain characteristics of the acceleration signal recorded by acceleration sensors is proposed for the classification of twelve physical activities. Nine subjects performed twelve different types of physical activities, including sitting, standing, walking, running, cycling, Nordic walking, ascending stairs, descending stairs, vacuum cleaning, ironing clothes and jumping rope, and lying down (resting state). Their ages were 27.2 ± 3.3 years and their body mass index (BMI) is 25.11 ± 2.6 Kg/m2. Classification results demonstrated a high validity showing precision (a positive predictive value) and recall (sensitivity) of more than 95% for all physical activities. The overall classification accuracy for a combined feature set of three sensors is 98%. The proposed framework can be used to monitor the physical activities of a subject that can be very useful for the health professional to assess the physical activity of healthy individuals as well as patients. PMID:26203909

  1. A Miniature-Implantable RF-Wireless Active Glaucoma Intraocular Pressure Monitor.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eric Y; Chlebowski, Arthur L; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2010-12-01

    Glaucoma is a detrimental disease that causes blindness in millions of people worldwide. There are numerous treatments to slow the condition but none are totally effective and all have significant side effects. Currently, a continuous monitoring device is not available, but its development may open up new avenues for treatment. This work focuses on the design and fabrication of an active glaucoma intraocular pressure (IOP) monitor that is fully wireless and implantable. Major benefits of an active IOP monitoring device include the potential to operate independently from an external device for extended periods of time and the possibility of developing a closed-loop monitoring and treatment system. The fully wireless operation is based off using gigahertz-frequency electromagnetic wave propagation, which allows for an orientation independent transfer of power and data over reasonable distances. Our system is comprised of a micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensor, a capacitive power storage array, an application-specific integrated circuit designed on the Texas Instruments (TI) 130 nm process, and a monopole antenna all assembled into a biocompatible liquid-crystal polymer-based tadpole-shaped package.

  2. An automatic continuous monitoring station for groundwater geochemistry at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chun-Wei; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Fu, Ching-Chou; Hilton, David R.; Liu, Tsung-Kwei; Walia, Vivek; Lai, Tzu-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed that gas compositions of fluid samples collected from southwestern Taiwan where many hot springs and mud volcanoes are distributed along tectonic sutures show significant variation prior to and after some disaster seismic events. Such variations, including radon activity, CH4/CO2, CO2/3He and 3He/4He ratios of gas compositions, are considered to be precursors of earthquakes in this area. To validate the relationship between fluid compositions and local earthquakes, a continuous monitoring station has been established at Yun-Shui, which is an artesian well located at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan. It is equipped with a radon detector and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) for in-situ measurement of the dissolved gas composition. Data is telemetered to Taipei so we are able to monitor variations of gas composition in real time. Furthermore, we also installed a syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH) at this station. From the SPARTAH samples, we can obtain detailed time series records of H-O isotopic compositions, DIC concentration and δ13C isotopic ratios, and anion concentration of the water samples at this station. After continuous monitoring for about one year, some anomalies occurred prior to some local earthquakes. It demonstrates that this automated system is feasible for long-term continuous seismo-geochemical research in this area. Keywords: monitoring; geochemistry; isotope; dissolved gases; pre-seismic signal.

  3. Engineering the development of systems for multisensory monitoring and activity interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascueña, José Manuel; Castillo, José Carlos; Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Multisensory monitoring and activity interpretation systems are being increasingly used as a suitable means to detect situations and make decisions in an intelligent manner. However, there is a lack of formalised processes that guide the stakeholders in their development. Most of the current proposals focus on the implementation and evaluation of low-level algorithms. In order to overcome this lack, a process called INT3-SDP that guides stakeholders in the development of systems capable of carrying out multisensory monitoring and INTerpretation of behaviours and situations for an INTelligent INTervention in complex and dynamic environments is described in this paper. In this work, it is described how INT3-SDP provides the analysts with the guidelines and models necessary for the description of the environment to be monitored and the sensors to be installed, as well as in the implementation of the software components that perform the monitoring and activity interpretation tasks. Moreover, a case study is also presented in order to illustrate how INT3-SDP is put into practice.

  4. Novel dimeric leuco-TAM dyes, 1,4-bis{(1E,3Z)-1,3-bis(1,3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidene)propan-2-yl}benzene derivatives: Structure and spectroscopic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, Sam-Rok; Ma, So-Young; Kim, Do-Kyung; Lim, Hyun-Woo; Roh, Se-Jung

    2012-04-01

    Novel dimeric leuco-triarylmethane (LTAM) dyes, 1,4-bis{(1E,3Z)-1,3-bis(1,3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidene)propan-2-yl}benzene derivatives, as precursors of dimeric TAM+ and TAM++ dyes, were synthesized and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR experiments including DEPT, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY. Judging from the 1H NMR analysis, the dimeric LTAM molecules were suggested to have a dual-propeller shaped structure. For the prepared dimeric leuco-TAM dyes, the ZE/EZ isomers were formed as the sole products from the reaction of 2-3 M excess Fischer base and terephthalaldehyde in absolute ethanol. The ZE/EZ isomers were equilibrated with other diastereomers (EE/EE and ZZ/ZZ) in organic solvents. UV-Vis spectroscopy of dimeric TAM++ dyes in organic solvents show an absorption band at >700 nm in the near-infrared (NIR) region. Formation of the dimeric TAM++ molecules was further confirmed by comparison of CV diagrams for monomeric TAM+ and dimeric TAM++ molecules.

  5. Active and passive electrical and seismic time-lapse monitoring of earthen embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittgers, Justin Bradley

    In this dissertation, I present research involving the application of active and passive geophysical data collection, data assimilation, and inverse modeling for the purpose of earthen embankment infrastructure assessment. Throughout the dissertation, I identify several data characteristics, and several challenges intrinsic to characterization and imaging of earthen embankments and anomalous seepage phenomena, from both a static and time-lapse geophysical monitoring perspective. I begin with the presentation of a field study conducted on a seeping earthen dam, involving static and independent inversions of active tomography data sets, and self-potential modeling of fluid flow within a confined aquifer. Additionally, I present results of active and passive time-lapse geophysical monitoring conducted during two meso-scale laboratory experiments involving the failure and self-healing of embankment filter materials via induced vertical cracking. Identified data signatures and trends, as well as 4D inversion results, are discussed as an underlying motivation for conducting subsequent research. Next, I present a new 4D acoustic emissions source localization algorithm that is applied to passive seismic monitoring data collected during a full-scale embankment failure test. Acoustic emissions localization results are then used to help spatially constrain 4D inversion of collocated self-potential monitoring data. I then turn to time-lapse joint inversion of active tomographic data sets applied to the characterization and monitoring of earthen embankments. Here, I develop a new technique for applying spatiotemporally varying structural joint inversion constraints. The new technique, referred to as Automatic Joint Constraints (AJC), is first demonstrated on a synthetic 2D joint model space, and is then applied to real geophysical monitoring data sets collected during a full-scale earthen embankment piping-failure test. Finally, I discuss some non-technical issues related to

  6. Small-molecule FRET probes for protein kinase activity monitoring in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vaasa, Angela; Lust, Marje; Terrin, Anna; Uri, Asko; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2010-07-09

    In this study, the applicability of fluorescently labeled adenosine analogue-oligoarginine conjugates (ARC-Photo probes) for monitoring of protein kinase A (PKA) activity in living cells was demonstrated. ARC-Photo probes possessing subnanomolar affinity towards the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKAc) and competitive with the regulatory subunit (PKAr), penetrate cell plasma membrane and associate with PKAc fused with yellow fluorescent protein (PKAc-YFP). Detection of inter-molecular Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency between the fluorophores of the fusion protein and ARC-Photo probe can be used for both the evaluation of non-labeled inhibitors of PKAc and for monitoring of cAMP signaling via detection of changes in the activity of PKA as a cAMP downstream effector.

  7. Effects of passive computer use time and non-computer work time on the performance of electronic activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Chen, Yen-Ting; Yeh, Jao-Yu; Liang, Huey-Wen

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of passive and non-computer work time on the estimation of computer use times by electronic activity monitoring. A total of 20 subjects with computers were monitored for 3 h. Average relative error for total computer use time estimation was about 4%, given that non-computer work time was 20% of the 3-h monitored period. No significant impact of passive computer use time was found in this study. Non-computer work time of 40% or less is suggested as criteria for the application of electronic activity monitoring to ensure reliability in the physical work loading assessment. Statement of Relevance: This research studied the criteria of non-computer work time for the appropriate use of electronic activity monitoring to ensure reliability in the assessment of physical work loading. It is suggested that it should be set to 40% or less of the 3-h monitoring period.

  8. An Overview of Recent Geostationary Fire Monitoring Activities and Applications in the Western Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, D. J.; Conard, S. G.; Ivanova, G. A.; Sukhinin, A. I.; Hao, W. M.; Koutzenogii, K. P.; Prins, E. M.; Schmidt, C. C.; Feltz, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    Over the past twenty years the international scientific research and environmental monitoring communities have recognized the vital role environmental satellites can play in detecting and monitoring active fires both regionally and around the globe for hazards applications and to better understand the extent and impact of biomass burning on the global environment. Both groups have stressed the importance of utilizing operational satellites to produce routine fire products and to ensure long-term stable records of fire activity for applications such as land-use/land cover change analyses and global climate change research. The current NOAA GOES system provides the unique opportunity to detect fires throughout the Western Hemisphere every half-hour from a series of nearly identical satellites for a period of 15+ years. This presentation will provide an overview of the GOES biomass burning monitoring program at UW-Madison Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) with an emphasis on recent applications of the new GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA). For the past 8 years, CIMSS has utilized the GOES-8 imager to monitor biomass burning trends in South America. Since September 2000, CIMSS has been producing half-hourly fire products in real-time for most of the Western Hemisphere. The WF_ABBA half-hourly fire product is providing new insights into diurnal, spatial, seasonal and interannual fire dynamics in North, Central, and South America. In North America these products are utilized to detect and monitor wildfires in northerly and remote locations. In South America the diurnal GOES fire product is being used as an indicator of land-use and land-cover change and carbon dynamics along the borders between Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia. The Navy is assimilating the Wildfire ABBA fire product into the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) to analyze and predict aerosol loading and transport as part of the NASA

  9. Effect of wrist-worn activity monitor feedback on physical activity behavior: A randomized controlled trial in Finnish young men

    PubMed Central

    Jauho, Anna-Maiju; Pyky, Riitta; Ahola, Riikka; Kangas, Maarit; Virtanen, Paula; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the use of an activity monitor providing feedback has an effect on physical activity (PA) in young men. A population-based sample of 276 conscription-aged (mean = 17.9, SD = 0.7 years) men participated in a 3-month randomized controlled trial in Oulu in 2012. Participants were randomized to an intervention group (INT, N = 137) and a control group (CON, N = 139). INT received a wrist-worn monitor (Polar Active) showing daily activity, and CON received identical monitors without feedback. Main outcome was the change from baseline in objectively measured weekly time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary activity (SED), as assessed by generalized estimation equations (GEE). Other lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire at baseline and at 3 months. Weekly physical activity data (≥ 4 days with ≥ 8 h each) were obtained from 72 (53%) and 90 (65%) men in the INT and CON, respectively. Based on GEE, time spent in MVPA increased (p = 0.012) and SED decreased (p = 0.032) in the INT compared with the CON. During the first 7 weeks, the INT spent on average 1 h less sedentary than the CON (t-test, p < 0.05). During the first week, the INT showed 12 minutes more MVPA compared to the CON (t-test, p = 0.034). Based on questionnaire data, the proportion of the most sedentary men decreased in the INT (Wilcoxon test, 28% vs. 10%, p = 0.029), with no change in the CON (20% vs. 19%, p = 0.546). To conclude, a wrist-worn activity monitor providing feedback had a short-term positive effect on PA and SED in young men. Trial registration This is a pilot study for a larger randomized controlled trial registered to the clinical trials register NCT01376986. PMID:26844128

  10. Increasing trend of wearables and multimodal interface for human activity monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Preeti; Mathew, Lini; Syal, Poonam

    2017-04-15

    Activity recognition technology is one of the most important technologies for life-logging and for the care of elderly persons. Elderly people prefer to live in their own houses, within their own locality. If, they are capable to do so, several benefits can follow in terms of society and economy. However, living alone may have high risks. Wearable sensors have been developed to overcome these risks and these sensors are supposed to be ready for medical uses. It can help in monitoring the wellness of elderly persons living alone by unobtrusively monitoring their daily activities. The study aims to review the increasing trends of wearable devices and need of multimodal recognition for continuous or discontinuous monitoring of human activity, biological signals such as Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrooculogram (EOG), Electromyogram (EMG), Electrocardiogram (ECG) and parameters along with other symptoms. This can provide necessary assistance in times of ominous need, which is crucial for the advancement of disease-diagnosis and treatment. Shared control architecture with multimodal interface can be used for application in more complex environment where more number of commands is to be used to control with better results in terms of controlling.

  11. A label-free bioluminescent sensor for real-time monitoring polynucleotide kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiao; Xu, Qinfeng; Lu, Xiaoquan; Zhang, Chun-yang

    2014-08-19

    Polynucleotide kinase (PNK) plays a crucial role in maintaining the genomic stability of cells and is becoming a potential target in the radio-therapeutic treatment of cancers. The fluorescent method is usually used to measure the PNK activity, but it is impossible to obtain the real-time monitoring without the employment of the labeled DNA probes. Here, we report a label-free bioluminescent sensor for PNK activity assay through real-time monitoring of the phosphorylation-dependent DNA ligation reaction. In this bioluminescent sensor, two hairpin DNA probes with 5'-protruding terminal are designed as the phosphate acceptor, and the widely used phosphate donor of ATP is substituted by dCTP. In the absence of PNK, the ligation reaction cannot be triggered due to the lack of 5'-phosphoryl groups in the probes, and the background signal is negligible. With the addition of PNK, the phosphorylation-ligation reaction of the probes is initiated with the release of AMP, and the subsequent conversion of AMP to ATP leads to the generation of distinct bioluminescence signal. The PNK activity assay can be performed in real time by continuously monitoring the bioluminescence signal. This bioluminescent sensor is much simpler, label-free, cost-effective, and free from the autofluorescence interference of biological matrix, and can be further used for quantitative, kinetic, and inhibition assay.

  12. Monitoring Biosensor Activity in Living Cells with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hum, Julia M.; Siegel, Amanda P.; Pavalko, Fredrick M.; Day, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Live-cell microscopy is now routinely used to monitor the activities of the genetically encoded biosensor proteins that are designed to directly measure specific cell signaling events inside cells, tissues, or organisms. Most fluorescent biosensor proteins rely on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to report conformational changes in the protein that occur in response to signaling events, and this is commonly measured with intensity-based ratiometric imaging methods. An alternative method for monitoring the activities of the FRET-based biosensor proteins is fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). FLIM measurements are made in the time domain, and are not affected by factors that commonly limit intensity measurements. In this review, we describe the use of the digital frequency domain (FD) FLIM method for the analysis of FRET signals. We illustrate the methods necessary for the calibration of the FD FLIM system, and demonstrate the analysis of data obtained from cells expressing “FRET standard” fusion proteins. We then use the FLIM-FRET approach to monitor the changes in activities of two different biosensor proteins in specific regions of single living cells. Importantly, the factors required for the accurate determination and reproducibility of lifetime measurements are described in detail. PMID:23203070

  13. Sensor Monitoring of Physical Activity to Improve Glucose Management in Diabetic Patients: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Sandrine; Schumacher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic individuals need to tightly control their blood glucose concentration. Several methods have been developed for this purpose, such as the finger-prick or continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMs). However, these methods present the disadvantage of being invasive. Moreover, CGMs have limited accuracy, notably to detect hypoglycemia. It is also known that physical exercise, and even daily activity, disrupt glucose dynamics and can generate problems with blood glucose regulation during and after exercise. In order to deal with these challenges, devices for monitoring patients’ physical activity are currently under development. This review focuses on non-invasive sensors using physiological parameters related to physical exercise that were used to improve glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients. These devices are promising for diabetes management. Indeed they permit to estimate glucose concentration either based solely on physical activity parameters or in conjunction with CGM or non-invasive CGM (NI-CGM) systems. In these last cases, the vital signals are used to modulate glucose estimations provided by the CGM and NI-CGM devices. Finally, this review indicates possible limitations of these new biosensors and outlines directions for future technologic developments. PMID:27120602

  14. A daily living activity remote monitoring system for solitary elderly people.

    PubMed

    Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Matsuoka, Shingo; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Caldwell, W Morton

    2011-01-01

    A daily living activity remote monitoring system has been developed for supporting solitary elderly people. The monitoring system consists of a tri-axis accelerometer, six low-power active filters, a low-power 8-bit microcontroller (MC), a 1GB SD memory card (SDMC) and a 2.4 GHz low transmitting power mobile phone (PHS). The tri-axis accelerometer attached to the subject's chest can simultaneously measure dynamic and static acceleration forces produced by heart sound, respiration, posture and behavior. The heart rate, respiration rate, activity, posture and behavior are detected from the dynamic and static acceleration forces. These data are stored in the SD. The MC sends the data to the server computer every hour. The server computer stores the data and makes a graphic chart from the data. When the caregiver calls from his/her mobile phone to the server computer, the server computer sends the graphical chart via the PHS. The caregiver's mobile phone displays the chart to the monitor graphically.

  15. A bioluminescence reporter mouse that monitors expression of constitutively active β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Kommagani, Ramakrishna; Peavey, Mary C.; Hai, Lan; Lonard, David M.; Lydon, John P.

    2017-01-01

    This short technical report describes the generation and characterization of a bioluminescence reporter mouse that is engineered to detect and longitudinally monitor the expression of doxycycline-induced constitutively active β-catenin. The new responder transgenic mouse contains the TetO-ΔN89β-CatTMILA transgene, which consists of the tet-operator followed by a bicistronic sequence encoding a stabilized form of active β-catenin (ΔN89β-catenin), an internal ribosome entry site, and the firefly luciferase gene. To confirm that the transgene operates as designed, TetO-ΔN89β-CatTMILA transgenic mouse lines were crossed with an effector mouse that harbors the mouse mammary tumor virus-reverse tetracycline transactivator (MMTV-rtTA) transgene (termed MTB hereon), which primarily targets rtTA expression to the mammary epithelium. Following doxycycline administration, the resultant MTB/CatTMILA bigenic reporter exhibited precocious lobuloalveologenesis, ductal hyperplasia, and mammary adenocarcinomas, which were visualized and monitored by in vivo bioluminescence detection. Therefore, we predict that the TetO-ΔN89β-CatTMILA transgenic responder mouse—when crossed with the appropriate effector transgenic—will have wide-applicability to non-invasively monitor the influence of constitutively active β-catenin expression on cell-fate specification, proliferation, differentiation, and neoplastic transformation in a broad spectrum of target tissues. PMID:28253313

  16. A language activity monitor for supporting AAC evidence-based clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Hill, K J; Romich, B A

    2001-01-01

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) evidence-based practice requires the collection and analysis of performance data. This article presents the development, evaluation, and application of automated performance monitoring tools for use in clinical practice. Language activity monitoring (LAM) is the systematic data collection of the actual language activity of an individual who relies on AAC. Work completed to date includes the development and evaluation of the language activity monitor function, which now is commercially available in three forms: (1) a standard feature built into modern high performance AAC systems, (2) an external add-on package for use with older AAC devices based on synthetic speech, and (3) software that allows the personal computer to serve as an LAM in the clinical environment. The LAM records the time and content of language events (the generation of one or more letters or words). A logging protocol suitable for clinical application has been in use since late 1998. The logged data is uploaded periodically to a computer for editing, analysis, and the generation of a summary measure report. The applications of this work in the areas of clinical service delivery are presented.

  17. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Enhad A.; Western, Max J.; Nightingale, Thomas E.; Peacock, Oliver J.; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  18. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Western, Max J; Nightingale, Thomas E; Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  19. Smart interactive electronic system for monitoring the electromagnetic activities of biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Sorin G.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2001-08-01

    A novel electronic device capable of sensing and monitoring the myoelectric, polarization wave and electromagnetic activities of the biological systems and in particular the human body is presented. It is known that all the physical and chemical processes within biological systems are associated with polarization, depolarization waves from the brain, neural signals and myoelectric processes that manifest themselves in ionic and dipole motion. The technology developed in our laboratory is based on certain charge motion sensitive electronics. The electronic system developed is capable of sensing the electromagnetic activities of biological systems. The information obtained is then processed by specialized software in order to interpret it from physical and chemical point of view.

  20. Adolescents' leisure activities, parental monitoring and cigarette smoking - a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescent participation in leisure activities is developmentally beneficial, but certain activities may increase health compromising behaviours, such as tobacco smoking. A limited range of leisure activities has been studied, with little research on out-of-school settings where parental supervision is a potential protective factor. Tobacco smoking is an important, potentially modifiable health determinant, so understanding associations between adolescent leisure activities, parental monitoring, demographic factors and daily smoking may inform preventive strategies. These associations are reported for a New Zealand adolescent sample. Methods Randomly selected schools (n = 145) participated in the 2006 Youth In-depth Survey, a national, biennial study of Year 10 students (predominantly 14-15 years). School classes were randomly selected and students completed a self-report questionnaire in class time. Adjustment for clustering at the school level was included in all analyses. Since parental monitoring and demographic variables potentially confound relations between adolescent leisure activities and smoking, variables were screened before multivariable modelling. Given prior indications of demographic differences, gender and ethnic specific regression models were built. Results and Discussion Overall, 8.5% of the 3,161 students were daily smokers, including more females (10.5%) than males (6.5%). In gender and ethnic specific multivariate analysis of associations with daily smoking (adjusted for age, school socioeconomic decile rating, leisure activities and ethnicity or gender, respectively), parental monitoring exhibited a consistently protective, dose response effect, although less strongly among Māori. Attending a place of worship and going to the movies were protective for non-Māori, as was watching sports, whereas playing team sport was protective for all, except males. Attending a skate park was a risk factor for females and Māori which

  1. Inventory of non-federally funded marine pollution research, development and monitoring activities: Northeast and Mid-Atlantic Region

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, G.M.; Opresko, D.M.; Weaver, S.S.; Margulies, D.; Zacherle, A.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report includes descriptions of projects which were partially funded by the Federal Government, although the Federal contributions are not considered in the funding analyses. This report only considers marine pollution research, development, and monitoring activities. ''Research'' projects include studies, investigations, and surveys to study the sources, behavior, and effects of pollutants and polluting activities as well as studies concerning natural oceanic processes if these studies are conducted to improve understanding concerning pollutants and polluting activities. ''Development'' projects include efforts to provide analytical methods, instrumentation, and equipment necessary for research and monitoring of marine pollution. ''Monitoring'' projects include time-series observations of marine environmental conditions to determine the existing levels, trends in time and space, and natural variations in parameters measured. Some projects fall into the category of ''compliance'' monitoring. ''Compliance'' monitoring is generally undertaken for a permitted or licensed resource development activity to assure that an unacceptable level of environmental change has not occurred.

  2. Erythrocyte C3d and C4d for Monitoring Disease Activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Amy H.; Navratil, Jeannine S.; Ruffing, Margie J.; Liu, Chau-Ching; Hawkins, Douglas; McKinnon, Kathleen M.; Danchenko, Natalya; Ahearn, Joseph M.; Manzi, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Objective Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is typically monitored by measuring serum C3 and C4. However, these proteins have limited utility as lupus biomarkers, because they are substrates rather than products of complement activation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of measuring the erythrocyte-bound complement activation products, erythrocyte-bound C3d (E-C3d) and E-C4d, compared with that of serum C3 and C4 for monitoring disease activity in patients with SLE. Methods The levels of E-C3d and E-C4d were measured by flow cytometry in 157 patients with SLE, 290 patients with other diseases, and 256 healthy individuals. The patients with SLE were followed up longitudinally. Disease activity was measured at each visit, using the validated Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) and the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus: National Assessment (SELENA) version of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Results At baseline, patients with SLE had higher median levels of E-C3d and E-C4d (P < 0.0001) in addition to higher within-patient and between-patient variability in both E-C3d and E-C4d when compared with the 2 non-SLE groups. In a longitudinal analysis of patients with SLE, E-C3d, E-C4d, serum C3, and anti–double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies were each significantly associated with the SLAM and SELENA–SLEDAI. In a multivariable analysis, E-C4d remained significantly associated with these SLE activity measures after adjusting for serum C3, C4, and anti-dsDNA antibodies; however, E-C3d was associated with the SLAM but not with the SELENA–SLEDAI. Conclusion Determining the levels of the erythrocyte-bound complement activation products, especially E-C4d, is an informative measure of SLE disease activity as compared with assessing serum C4 levels and should be considered for monitoring disease activity in patients with SLE. PMID:20187154

  3. An MFC-based online monitoring and alert system for activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gui-Hua; Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-10-27

    In this study, based on a simple, compact and submersible microbial fuel cell (MFC), a novel online monitoring and alert system with self-diagnosis function was established for the activated sludge (AS) process. Such a submersible MFC utilized organic substrates and oxygen in the AS reactor as the electron donor and acceptor respectively, and could provide an evaluation on the status of the AS reactor and thus give a reliable early warning of potential risks. In order to evaluate the reliability and sensitivity of this online monitoring and alert system, a series of tests were conducted to examine the response of this system to various shocks imposed on the AS reactor. The results indicate that this online monitoring and alert system was highly sensitive to the performance variations of the AS reactor. The stability, sensitivity and repeatability of this online system provide feasibility of being incorporated into current control systems of wastewater treatment plants to real-time monitor, diagnose, alert and control the AS process.

  4. Scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry: numerical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Li, Weijie; Song, Gangbing; Zhu, Zuo; Du, Jun

    2013-01-24

    A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and in-sediment scenarios during heating and cooling processes. Two sets of experiments, including exposing different lengths of the upper surface of the pipeline to water and creating free spans of various lengths, were carried out in laboratory. In both cases, the scour condition was immediately detected by the proposed monitoring system, which confirmed the system is robust and very sensitive. Numerical study of the method was also investigated by using the finite element method (FEM) with ANSYS, resulting in reasonable agreement with the test data. This brand new system provides a promising, low cost, highly precise and flexible approach for scour monitoring of subsea pipelines.

  5. False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information

    PubMed Central

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  6. Design and Clinical Feasibility of Personal Wearable Monitor for Measurement of Activity and Environmental Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ribón Fletcher, Richard; Oreskovic, Nicolas M.; Robinson, Alyssa I.

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to specific environmental factors (e.g. air quality, lighting, and sound) is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases (e.g. asthma) and mental health disorders (e.g. anxiety). However, conventional fixed environmental monitoring stations are sparsely located and, despite environmental models, cannot adequately assess individual exposure levels. New forms of low-cost portable monitors have begun to emerge that enable the collection of higher spatial density “crowd sourced” data; however, the first generation of these low-cost environmental monitors have generally not been suitable for clinical environmental health studies due to practical challenges such as calibration, reproducibility, form factor, and battery life. In this paper, we present a wearable environmental monitor that overcomes these challenges and can be used in clinical studies The new device, called “Eco-Mini,” can be used without a smart phone and is capable of locally sampling and recording a variety of environmental parameters (Ozone, Sulfur Dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds, humidity, temperature, ambient light color balance, and sound level) as well as individual activity (3-axis accelerometer) and location (GPS). In this paper, we also report findings and discuss lessons learned from a feasibility study conducted for one week with pediatric patients as part of an ongoing asthma research study. PMID:25570098

  7. Scour Monitoring System for Subsea Pipeline Based on Active Thermometry: Numerical and Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Li, Weijie; Song, Gangbing; Zhu, Zuo; Du, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and in-sediment scenarios during heating and cooling processes. Two sets of experiments, including exposing different lengths of the upper surface of the pipeline to water and creating free spans of various lengths, were carried out in laboratory. In both cases, the scour condition was immediately detected by the proposed monitoring system, which confirmed the system is robust and very sensitive. Numerical study of the method was also investigated by using the finite element method (FEM) with ANSYS, resulting in reasonable agreement with the test data. This brand new system provides a promising, low cost, highly precise and flexible approach for scour monitoring of subsea pipelines. PMID:23348035

  8. Multi-Source Autonomous Response for Targeting and Monitoring of Volcanic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Ashley G.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Tran, Daniel Q.

    2014-01-01

    The study of volcanoes is important for both purely scientific and human survival reasons. From a scientific standpoint, volcanic gas and ash emissions contribute significantly to the terrestrial atmosphere. Ash depositions and lava flows can also greatly affect local environments. From a human survival standpoint, many people live within the reach of active volcanoes, and therefore can be endangered by both atmospheric (ash, debris) toxicity and lava flow. There are many potential information sources that can be used to determine how to best monitor volcanic activity worldwide. These are of varying temporal frequency, spatial regard, method of access, and reliability. The problem is how to incorporate all of these inputs in a general framework to assign/task/reconfigure assets to monitor events in a timely fashion. In situ sensing can provide a valuable range of complementary information such as seismographic, discharge, acoustic, and other data. However, many volcanoes are not instrumented with in situ sensors, and those that have sensor networks are restricted to a relatively small numbers of point sensors. Consequently, ideal volcanic study synergistically combines space and in situ measurements. This work demonstrates an effort to integrate spaceborne sensing from MODIS (Terra and Aqua), ALI (EO-1), Worldview-2, and in situ sensing in an automated scheme to improve global volcano monitoring. Specifically, it is a "sensor web" concept in which a number of volcano monitoring systems are linked together to monitor volcanic activity more accurately, and this activity measurement automatically tasks space assets to acquire further satellite imagery of ongoing volcanic activity. A general framework was developed for evidence combination that accounts for multiple information sources in a scientist-directed fashion to weigh inputs and allocate observations based on the confidence of an events occurrence, rarity of the event at that location, and other scientists

  9. International Collaboration on Building Local Technical Capacities for Monitoring Volcanic Activity at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar-Wolf, R. P.; Chigna, G.; Morales, H.; Waite, G. P.; Oommen, T.; Lechner, H. N.

    2015-12-01

    Pacaya volcano is a frequently active and potentially dangerous volcano situated in the Guatemalan volcanic arc. It is also a National Park and a major touristic attraction, constituting an important economic resource for local municipality and the nearby communities. Recent eruptions have caused fatalities and extensive damage to nearby communities, highlighting the need for risk management and loss reduction from the volcanic activity. Volcanic monitoring at Pacaya is done by the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), instrumentally through one short period seismic station, and visually by the Parque Nacional Volcan de Pacaya y Laguna de Calderas (PNVPLC) personnel. We carry out a project to increase the local technical capacities for monitoring volcanic activity at Pacaya. Funding for the project comes from the Society of Exploration Geophysicists through the Geoscientists Without Borders program. Three seismic and continuous GPS stations will be installed at locations within 5 km from the main vent at Pacaya, and one webcam will aid in the visual monitoring tasks. Local educational and outreach components of the project include technical workshops on data monitoring use, and short thesis projects with the San Carlos University in Guatemala. A small permanent exhibit at the PNVPLC museum or visitor center, focusing on the volcano's history, hazards and resources, will also be established as part of the project. The strategy to involve a diverse group of local collaborators in Guatemala aims to increase the chances for long term sustainability of the project, and relies not only on transferring technology but also the "know-how" to make that technology useful. Although not a primary research project, it builds on a relationship of years of joint research projects at Pacaya between the participants, and could be a model of how to increase the broader impacts of such long term collaboration partnerships.

  10. Validation of a microwave radar system for the monitoring of locomotor activity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, Vittorio; Scannapieco, Eugenio; Renzi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Background The general or spontaneous motor activity of animals is a useful parameter in chronobiology. Modified motion detectors can be used to monitor locomotor activity rhythms. We modified a commercial microwave-based detection device and validated the device by recording circadian and ultradian rhythms. Methods Movements were detected by microwave radar based on the Doppler effect. The equipment was designed to detect and record simultaneously 12 animals in separate cages. Radars were positioned at the bottom of aluminium bulkheads. Animal cages were positioned above the bulkheads. The radars were connected to a computer through a digital I/O board. Results The apparatus was evaluated by several tests. The first test showed the ability of the apparatus to detect the exact frequency of the standard moving object. The second test demonstrated the stability over time of the sensitivity of the radars. The third was performed by simultaneous observations of video-recording of a mouse and radar signals. We found that the radars are particularly sensitive to activities that involve a displacement of the whole body, as compared to movement of only a part of the body. In the fourth test, we recorded the locomotor activity of Balb/c mice. The results were in agreement with published studies. Conclusion Radar detectors can provide automatic monitoring of an animal's locomotor activity in its home cage without perturbing the pattern of its normal behaviour or initiating the spurt of exploration occasioned by transfer to a novel environment. Recording inside breeding cages enables long-term studies with uninterrupted monitoring. The use of electromagnetic waves allows contactless detection and freedom from interference of external stimuli. PMID:16674816

  11. Smartphone-Based Patients' Activity Recognition by Using a Self-Learning Scheme for Medical Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junqi; Zhou, Xi; Sun, Yunchuan; Ping, Gong; Zhao, Guoxing; Li, Zhuorong

    2016-06-01

    Smartphone based activity recognition has recently received remarkable attention in various applications of mobile health such as safety monitoring, fitness tracking, and disease prediction. To achieve more accurate and simplified medical monitoring, this paper proposes a self-learning scheme for patients' activity recognition, in which a patient only needs to carry an ordinary smartphone that contains common motion sensors. After the real-time data collection though this smartphone, we preprocess the data using coordinate system transformation to eliminate phone orientation influence. A set of robust and effective features are then extracted from the preprocessed data. Because a patient may inevitably perform various unpredictable activities that have no apriori knowledge in the training dataset, we propose a self-learning activity recognition scheme. The scheme determines whether there are apriori training samples and labeled categories in training pools that well match with unpredictable activity data. If not, it automatically assembles these unpredictable samples into different clusters and gives them new category labels. These clustered samples combined with the acquired new category labels are then merged into the training dataset to reinforce recognition ability of the self-learning model. In experiments, we evaluate our scheme using the data collected from two postoperative patient volunteers, including six labeled daily activities as the initial apriori categories in the training pool. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed self-learning scheme for activity recognition works very well for most cases. When there exist several types of unseen activities without any apriori information, the accuracy reaches above 80 % after the self-learning process converges.

  12. Monitoring and descriptive analysis of radon in relation to seismic activity of Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jilani, Zeeshan; Mehmood, Tahir; Alam, Aftab; Awais, Muhammad; Iqbal, Talat

    2017-03-16

    Earthquakes are one of the major causes of natural disasters and its forecasting is challenging task. Some precursory phenomenon exists in theory in relation to earthquakes occurrence. The emission of radioactive gas named 'radon' before the earthquakes is a potential earthquake precursory candidate. The study aims to monitor and to analyze the radon in relation to seismic activity in Northern Pakistan. For this purpose RTM-2200 has been used to monitor the changes in radon concentration from August 01, 2014 to January 31, 2015 in Northern Pakistan. Significant temporal variations has been observed in radon concentration. The bivariate analysis of radon with other variables manifests its positive relationship with air pressure and relative humidity and negative relationship with temperature. 2σ upper control limit on monthly basis are computed for detection of anomalous trends in the data. Overall increasing trend is detected in radon concentration. Five earthquakes from August 01, 2014 to January 31, 2015 have been selected from earthquake catalogue, depending upon their magnitude and distance from monitoring station and out of which radon concentration can be associated with only two earthquakes correlated with tectonic effect of radon concentration. Both of events have same magnitude 5.5 and occurred on September 13 and October 14, 2014 respectively. Very large variations have been observed in radon for the last two months of the study period, which may be occurred due to some other geological and environmental changes, but are not related to the earthquake activity.

  13. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-01-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species’ phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological “status”, or the ability to track presence–absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  14. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A. F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-05-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species' phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological "status", or the ability to track presence-absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  15. Children with High Functioning Autism show increased prefrontal and temporal cortex activity during error monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Melissa C.; Spinelli, Simona; Joel, Suresh; Pekar, James J.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence exists for deficits in error monitoring in autism. These deficits may be particularly important because they may contribute to excessive perseveration and repetitive behavior in autism. We examined the neural correlates of error monitoring using fMRI in 8–12-year-old children with high-functioning autism (HFA, n=11) and typically developing children (TD, n=15) during performance of a Go/No-Go task by comparing the neural correlates of commission errors versus correct response inhibition trials. Compared to TD children, children with HFA showed increased BOLD fMRI signal in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC) and the left superior temporal gyrus (STempG) during commission error (versus correct inhibition) trials. A follow-up region-of-interest analysis also showed increased BOLD signal in the right insula in HFA compared to TD controls. Our findings of increased amPFC and STempG activity in HFA, together with the increased activity in the insula, suggest a greater attention towards the internally-driven emotional state associated with making an error in children with HFA. Since error monitoring occurs across different cognitive tasks throughout daily life, an increased emotional reaction to errors may have important consequences for early learning processes. PMID:21151713

  16. Context-dependent olfactory learning monitored by activities of salivary neurons in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chihiro Sato; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Context-dependent discrimination learning, a sophisticated form of nonelemental associative learning, has been found in many animals, including insects. The major purpose of this research is to establish a method for monitoring this form of nonelemental learning in rigidly restrained insects for investigation of underlying neural mechanisms. We report context-dependent olfactory learning (occasion-setting problem solving) of salivation, which can be monitored as activity changes of salivary neurons in immobilized cockroaches, Periplaneta americana. A group of cockroaches was trained to associate peppermint odor (conditioned stimulus, CS) with sucrose solution reward (unconditioned stimulus, US) while vanilla odor was presented alone without pairing with the US under a flickering light condition (1.0 Hz) and also trained to associate vanilla odor with sucrose reward while peppermint odor was presented alone under a steady light condition. After training, the responses of salivary neurons to the rewarded peppermint odor were significantly greater than those to the unrewarded vanilla odor under steady illumination and those to the rewarded vanilla odor was significantly greater than those to the unrewarded peppermint odor in the presence of flickering light. Similar context-dependent responses were observed in another group of cockroaches trained with the opposite stimulus arrangement. This study demonstrates context-dependent olfactory learning of salivation for the first time in any vertebrate and invertebrate species, which can be monitored by activity changes of salivary neurons in restrained cockroaches.

  17. Analyzing free-living physical activity of older adults in different environments using body-worn activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Grant, P Margaret; Granat, Malcolm H; Thow, Morag K; Maclaren, William M

    2010-04-01

    This study measured objectively the postural physical activity of 4 groups of older adults (> or =65 yr). The participants (N = 70) comprised 3 patient groups--2 from rehabilitation wards (city n = 20, 81.8 +/- 6.7 yr; rural n = 10, 79.4 +/- 4.7 yr) and the third from a city day hospital (n = 20, 74.7 +/- 7.9 yr)--and a healthy group to provide context (n = 20, 73.7 +/- 5.5 yr). The participants wore an activity monitor (activPAL) for a week. A restricted maximum-likelihood-estimation analysis of hourly upright time (standing and walking) revealed significant differences between day, hour, and location and the interaction between location and hour (p < .001). Differences in the manner in which groups accumulated upright and sedentary time (sitting and lying) were found, with the ward-based groups sedentary for prolonged periods and upright for short episodes. This information may be used by clinicians to design appropriate rehabilitation interventions and monitor patient progress.

  18. Field and Laboratory GPR Monitoring of Biological Activity in Saturated Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoflias, Georgios; Schillig, Peter; McGlashan, Michael; Roberts, Jennifer; Devlin, J. F.

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies of the geophysical signatures of biological processes in earth environments have resulted in the emergent field of "biogeophysics". The ability to monitor remotely and to quantify active biological processes in the subsurface can have transformative implications to a wide range of investigations, including the bioremediation of contaminated sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to detect the products of microbial activity in the subsurface, such as changes in bulk electrical conductivity, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the formation of biogenic gas. We present a field study and a laboratory experiment that offer insights to the response of GPR signals to microbial activity. In the field, time-lapse borehole radar tomography was used to monitor biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume over a period of two years. A dense grid of fourteen borehole pairs monitoring the bioactive region showed radar wave velocity changes of +/-4% and signal attenuation changes of +/-25%. These GPR observations correlated spatially and temporally to independent measurements of groundwater velocity and geochemical variations that occurred in response to microbial activity. The greatest relative changes in radar wave velocity of propagation and attenuation were observed in the region of enhanced bacterial stimulation where biomass growth was the greatest. Radar wave velocity and attenuation decreased during periods of enhanced biostimulation. Three competing mechanisms are postulated to cause the changes observed in the radar data: 1) biogenic gas production, 2) mineral dissolution, and 3) biomass growth. However, due to the inherent complexity and uncertainties associated with field experimentation, the relative effect of each mechanism on the GPR signal could not be confirmed. To overcome the limitations of field observations in assessing the response of GPR signals to biomass formation, a 90-day laboratory

  19. Antifactor Xa levels versus activated partial thromboplastin time for monitoring unfractionated heparin.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Jeremy W; Vondracek, Thomas G

    2012-06-01

    Intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH) remains an important therapeutic agent, particularly in the inpatient setting, for anticoagulation. Historically, the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) has been the primary laboratory test used to monitor and adjust UFH. The aPTT test has evolved since the 1950s, and the historical goal range of 1.5-2.5 times the control aPTT, which first gained favor in the 1970s, has fallen out of favor due to a high degree of variability in aPTT readings from one laboratory to another, and even from one reagent to another. As a result, it is now recommended that the aPTT goal range be based on a corresponding heparin concentration of 0.2-0.4 unit/ml by protamine titration or 0.3-0.7 unit/ml by antifactor Xa assay. Given that several biologic factors can influence the aPTT independent of the effects of UFH, many institutions have transitioned to monitoring heparin with antifactor Xa levels, rather than the aPTT. Clinical data from the last 10-20 years have begun to show that a conversion from aPTT to antifactor Xa monitoring may offer a smoother dose-response curve, such that levels remain more stable, requiring fewer blood samples and dosage adjustments. Given the minimal increased acquisition cost of the antifactor Xa reagents, it can be argued that the antifactor Xa is a cost-effective method for monitoring UFH. In this review, we discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of the aPTT, antifactor Xa, and protamine titration tests, and provide a clinical framework to guide practitioners who are seeking to optimize UFH monitoring within their own institutions.

  20. Use of cholinesterase activity in monitoring organophosphate pesticide exposure of cattle produced in tropical areas.

    PubMed

    Pardío, V T; Ibarra, N; Rodríguez, M A; Waliszewski, K N

    2001-12-01

    The use of cholinesterase activity as a biochemical method for monitoring organophosphate pesticide exposure in cattle is described herein. Determination of cholinesterase activity of whole blood, erythrocyte, and plasma was carried out according to the Ellman modified kinetic method. The mean baseline acetylcholinesterase activities of 9.549 +/- 3.619 IU/mL in whole blood, 9.444 +/- 3.006 IU/mL in erythrocytes, and 0.149 +/- 0.063 IU/mL in plasma were estimated for steers from the control group. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the general responses between the control and experimental groups (in vivo, monitoring and case studies) treated with Coumaphos and Fenthion were statistically different, and the general responses of these experimental groups were statistically different over time as well. Among the fractions that were analyzed, the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity could be adequate for the diagnosis of exposure or acute poisoning in cattle as it showed a good within-run and between-run precision with CVs <10% better than those in plasma.

  1. A Combined sEMG and Accelerometer System for Monitoring Functional Activity in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Serge H.; Cheng, M. Samuel; Chang, Shey-Sheen; Moore, John; De Luca, Gianluca; Nawab, S. Hamid; De Luca, Carlo J.

    2010-01-01

    Remote monitoring of physical activity using body-worn sensors provides an alternative to assessment of functional independence by subjective, paper-based questionnaires. This study investigated the classification accuracy of a combined surface electromyographic (sEMG) and accelerometer (ACC) sensor system for monitoring activities of daily living in patients with stroke. sEMG and ACC data (eight channels each) were recorded from 10 hemiparetic patients while they carried out a sequence of 11 activities of daily living (identification tasks), and 10 activities used to evaluate misclassification errors (nonidentification tasks). The sEMG and ACC sensor data were analyzed using a multilayered neural network and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to identify the minimal sensor configuration needed to accurately classify the identification tasks, with a minimal number of misclassifications from the nonidentification tasks. The results demonstrated that the highest sensitivity and specificity for the identification tasks was achieved using a subset of four ACC sensors and adjacent sEMG sensors located on both upper arms, one forearm, and one thigh, respectively. This configuration resulted in a mean sensitivity of 95.0%, and a mean specificity of 99.7% for the identification tasks, and a mean misclassification error of <10% for the nonidentification tasks. The findings support the feasibility of a hybrid sEMG and ACC wearable sensor system for automatic recognition of motor tasks used to assess functional independence in patients with stroke. PMID:20051332

  2. Preliminary study on activity monitoring using an android smart-watch.

    PubMed

    Ahanathapillai, Vijayalakshmi; Amor, James D; Goodwin, Zoe; James, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    The global trend for increasing life expectancy is resulting in aging populations in a number of countries. This brings to bear a pressure to provide effective care for the older population with increasing constraints on available resources. Providing care for and maintaining the independence of an older person in their own home is one way that this problem can be addressed. The EU Funded Unobtrusive Smart Environments for Independent Living (USEFIL) project is an assistive technology tool being developed to enhance independent living. As part of USEFIL, a wrist wearable unit (WWU) is being developed to monitor the physical activity (PA) of the user and integrate with the USEFIL system. The WWU is a novel application of an existing technology to the assisted living problem domain. It combines existing technologies and new algorithms to extract PA parameters for activity monitoring. The parameters that are extracted include: activity level, step count and worn state. The WWU, the algorithms that have been developed and a preliminary validation are presented. The results show that activity level can be successfully extracted, that worn state can be correctly identified and that step counts in walking data can be estimated within 3% error, using the controlled dataset.

  3. Robot-assisted motor activation monitored by time-domain optical brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkellner, O.; Wabnitz, H.; Schmid, S.; Steingräber, R.; Schmidt, H.; Krüger, J.; Macdonald, R.

    2011-07-01

    Robot-assisted motor rehabilitation proved to be an effective supplement to conventional hand-to-hand therapy in stroke patients. In order to analyze and understand motor learning and performance during rehabilitation it is desirable to develop a monitor to provide objective measures of the corresponding brain activity at the rehabilitation progress. We used a portable time-domain near-infrared reflectometer to monitor the hemodynamic brain response to distal upper extremity activities. Four healthy volunteers performed two different robot-assisted wrist/forearm movements, flexion-extension and pronation-supination in comparison with an unassisted squeeze ball exercise. A special headgear with four optical measurement positions to include parts of the pre- and postcentral gyrus provided a good overlap with the expected activation areas. Data analysis based on variance of time-of-flight distributions of photons through tissue was chosen to provide a suitable representation of intracerebral signals. In all subjects several of the four detection channels showed a response. In some cases indications were found of differences in localization of the activated areas for the various tasks.

  4. Autonomous thermal camera system for monitoring the active lava lake at Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, N.; Oppenheimer, C.; Kyle, P.

    2014-02-01

    In December 2012, the Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory installed a thermal infrared camera system to monitor the volcano's active lava lake. The new system is designed to be autonomous, and capable of capturing images of the lava lake continuously throughout the year. This represents a significant improvement over previous systems which required the frequent attention of observatory researchers and could therefore only be operated during a few weeks of the annual field campaigns. The extreme environmental conditions at the summit of Erebus pose significant challenges for continuous monitoring equipment, and a custom-made system was the only viable solution. Here we describe the hardware and software of the new system in detail and report on a publicly available online repository where data will be archived. Aspects of the technical solutions we had to find in order to overcome the challenges of automating this equipment may be relevant in other environmental science domains where remote instrument operation is involved.

  5. Autonomous thermal camera system for monitoring the active lava lake at Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, N.; Oppenheimer, C.; Kyle, P.

    2013-10-01

    In December 2012, the Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory installed a thermal infrared camera system to monitor the volcano's active lava lake. The new system is designed to be autonomous, and capable of capturing images of the lava lake continuously throughout the year. This represents a significant improvement over previous systems which required the frequent attention of observatory researchers and could therefore only be operated during a few weeks of the annual field campaigns. The extreme environmental conditions at the summit of Erebus pose significant challenges for continuous monitoring equipment, and a custom made system was the only viable solution. Here we describe the hardware and software of the new system in detail and report on a publicly-available online repository where data will be archived. Aspects of the technical solutions we had to find in order to overcome the challenges of automating this equipment may be relevant in other environmental science domains where remote instrument operation is involved.

  6. Mass spectrometric monitoring of interfacial photoelectron transfer and imaging of active crystalline facets of semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hongying; Zhang, Juan; Tang, Xuemei; Zhang, Wenyang; Jiang, Ruowei; Li, Rui; Chen, Disong; Wang, Peng; Yuan, Zhiwei

    2017-02-01

    Monitoring of interfacial electron transfer (ET) in situ is important to understand the ET mechanism and designing efficient photocatalysts. We describe herein a mass spectrometric approach to investigate the ultrafast transfer of photoelectrons that are generated by ultraviolet irradiation on surfaces of semiconductor nanoparticles or crystalline facets. The mass spectrometric approach can not only untargetedly detect various intermediates but also monitor their reactivity through associative or dissociative photoelectron capture dissociation, as well as electron detachment dissociation of adsorbed molecules. Proton-coupled electron transfer and proton-uncoupled electron transfer with radical initiated polymerization or hydroxyl radical abstraction have been unambiguously demonstrated with the mass spectrometric approach. Active crystalline facets of titanium dioxide for photocatalytic degradation of juglone and organochlorine dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane are visualized with mass spectrometry imaging based on ion scanning and spectral reconstruction. This work provides a new technique for studying photo-electric properties of various materials.

  7. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross monitors Payload Specialist Walter's Anthrorack activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter breathes into Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) device for Pulmonary Perfusion and Ventilation During Rest and Exercise experiment while working inside the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Seated on the bicycle ergometer, Walter utilizes the respiratory monitoring system, part of a broad battery of experiments designed to investigate human physiology under microgravity conditions. In the background, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross monitors Walter's activity. Walter represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day SL-D2 mission. Visible on the aft end cone are a fire extinguisher and the Crew Telesupport Experiment (CTE) Macintosh portable computer mounted on an adjustable work platform.

  8. Methods of InSAR atmosphere correction for volcano activity monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gong, W.; Meyer, F.; Webley, P.W.; Lu, Zhiming

    2011-01-01

    When a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) signal propagates through the atmosphere on its path to and from the sensor, it is inevitably affected by atmospheric effects. In particular, the applicability and accuracy of Interferometric SAR (InSAR) techniques for volcano monitoring is limited by atmospheric path delays. Therefore, atmospheric correction of interferograms is required to improve the performance of InSAR for detecting volcanic activity, especially in order to advance its ability to detect subtle pre-eruptive changes in deformation dynamics. In this paper, we focus on InSAR tropospheric mitigation methods and their performance in volcano deformation monitoring. Our study areas include Okmok volcano and Unimak Island located in the eastern Aleutians, AK. We explore two methods to mitigate atmospheric artifacts, namely the numerical weather model simulation and the atmospheric filtering using Persistent Scatterer processing. We investigate the capability of the proposed methods, and investigate their limitations and advantages when applied to determine volcanic processes. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  9. Mass spectrometric monitoring of interfacial photoelectron transfer and imaging of active crystalline facets of semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hongying; Zhang, Juan; Tang, Xuemei; Zhang, Wenyang; Jiang, Ruowei; Li, Rui; Chen, Disong; Wang, Peng; Yuan, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of interfacial electron transfer (ET) in situ is important to understand the ET mechanism and designing efficient photocatalysts. We describe herein a mass spectrometric approach to investigate the ultrafast transfer of photoelectrons that are generated by ultraviolet irradiation on surfaces of semiconductor nanoparticles or crystalline facets. The mass spectrometric approach can not only untargetedly detect various intermediates but also monitor their reactivity through associative or dissociative photoelectron capture dissociation, as well as electron detachment dissociation of adsorbed molecules. Proton-coupled electron transfer and proton-uncoupled electron transfer with radical initiated polymerization or hydroxyl radical abstraction have been unambiguously demonstrated with the mass spectrometric approach. Active crystalline facets of titanium dioxide for photocatalytic degradation of juglone and organochlorine dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane are visualized with mass spectrometry imaging based on ion scanning and spectral reconstruction. This work provides a new technique for studying photo-electric properties of various materials. PMID:28224986

  10. Development of Active Control within Working Memory: Active Retrieval versus Monitoring in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blain-Brière, Bénédicte; Bouchard, Caroline; Bigras, Nathalie; Cadoret, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare children's performance on two mnemonic functions that engage the lateral prefrontal cortex. Brain imaging studies in adults have shown that the mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex is specifically involved in active controlled retrieval, and the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is specifically involved in monitoring…

  11. Assessment of physical activity using wearable monitors: Measures of physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activitymay be defined broadly as "all bodily actions produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increase energy expenditure above basal level." Physical activity is a complex construct that can be classified into major categories qualitatively, quantitatively, or contextually. The...

  12. Home-based system for physical activity monitoring in patients with multiple sclerosis (Pilot study)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Limitations in physical activity are considered as a key problem in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Contemporary methods to assess the level of physical activity in PwMS are regular clinical observation. However, these methods either rely on high recall and accurate reporting from the patients (e.g. self-report questionnaires), or they are conducted during a particular clinical assessment with predefined activities. Therefore, the main aim of this pilot study was to develop an objective method to gather information about the real type and intensity of daily activities performed by PwMS in every-day living situations using an accelerometer. Furthermore, the accelerometer-derived measures are investigated regarding their potential for discriminating between different MS groups. Methods Eleven PwMS that were able to walk independently (EDSS ≤ 5) were divided into two groups: mild disability (EDSS 1–2.5; n = 6) and moderate disability (EDSS 3 –5; n = 5). Participants made use of an activity monitor device attached to their waist during their normal daily activities over 4 measurements. Activity parameters were assessed and compared for the time of each participant’s first measurement and follow-up measurement. Furthermore, differences between both subgroups, and the correlation of activity parameters with the clinical neurological variable (EDSS) were investigated. Results Participants showed significant decline in step count (p = 0.008), maximum walking speed (p = 0.02) and physical activity intensity (p = 0.03) throughout the study period. Compared to the mild subgroup, moderate affected participant accumulated less number of steps (G1: 9214.33 ± 2439.11, G2: 5018.13 ± 2416.96; p < 0.005) and were slower (G1: 1.48 ± 0.19, G2: 1.12 ± 0.44; p = 0.03). Additionally, the EDSS correlated negatively with mean walking speed (r = - 0.71, p = 0.01) and steps count (r = - 0.54, p

  13. Combining GPS with heart rate monitoring to measure physical activity in children: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J Scott; Badland, Hannah M; Schofield, Grant

    2009-09-01

    The recent development of global positioning system (GPS) receivers with integrated heart rate (HR) monitoring has provided a new method for estimating the energy expenditure associated with children's movement. The purpose of this feasibility study was to trial a combination of GPS surveillance and HR monitoring in 39 primary-aged children from New Zealand. Spatial location and HR data were recorded during a school lunch break using an integrated GPS/HR receiver (1Hz). Children averaged a total distance of 1.10+/-0.56km at speeds ranging from 0 to 18.6kmh(-1). Activity patterns were characterised by short bursts of moderate to high speeds followed by longer periods of slow speeds. In addition, boys averaged higher speeds than girls (1.77+/-0.62kmh(-1) and 1.36+/-0.50kmh(-1), respectively; p=0.003). The percentage of time spent at 0kmh(-1) (stationary) ranged from 0.1% to 21.3% with a mean of 6.4+/-4.6%. These data suggest that while children were relatively active during the lunch period, they spent a substantial portion of time engaged in slow or stationary physical activities. Furthermore, associations between HR, average speed, and stationary time demonstrated that children who moved at faster speeds expended more energy than those who moved at slower speeds. We conclude that the combined approach of GPS and HR monitoring is a promising new method for investigating children's play-related energy expenditure. There is also scope to integrate GPS data with geographic information systems to examine where children play and accumulate physical activity.

  14. VEPP Exercise: Volcanic Activity and Monitoring of Pu`u `O`o, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    A 10-week project will be tested during the Fall semester 2010, for a Volcanic Hazards elective course, for undergraduate Geology students of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez. This exercise was developed during the Volcanoes Exploration Project: Pu`u `O`o (VEPP) Workshop, held on the Big Island of Hawaii in July 2010. For the exercise the students will form groups (of 2-4 students), and each group will be assigned a monitoring technique or method, among the following: seismic (RSAM data), deformation (GPS and tilt data), observations (webcam and lava flow maps), gas and thermal monitoring. The project is designed for Geology undergraduates who have a background in introductory geology, types of volcanoes and eruptions, magmatic processes, characteristics of lava flows, and other related topics. It is divided in seven tasks, starting with an introduction and demonstration of the VEPP website and the VALVE3 software, which is used to access monitoring data from the current eruption of Pu`u `O`o, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. The students will also familiarize themselves with the history of Kilauea volcano and its current eruption. At least weekly the groups will acquire data (mostly near-real-time) from the different monitoring techniques, in the form of time series, maps, videos, and images, in order to identify trends in the data. The groups will meet biweekly in the computer laboratory to work together in the analysis and interpretation of the data, with the support of the instructor. They will give reports on the progress of the exercise, and will get feedback from the instructor and from the other expert groups. All groups of experts will relate their findings to the recent and current activity of Kilauea volcano, and the importance of their specific type of monitoring. The activity will culminate with a written report and an oral presentation. The last task of the project consists of a wrap-up volcano monitoring exercise, in which the students will

  15. Patterns of physical activity determined by heart rate monitoring among diabetic children

    PubMed Central

    Massin, M; Lebrethon, M; Rocour, D; Gerard, P; Bourguignon, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children with type 1 diabetes should be encouraged to participate in physical activity because exercise can benefit insulin sensitivity and improve known risk factors for atherosclerosis. Methods: Physical activity patterns of 127 children and adolescents with stable type 1 diabetes were investigated by 24 hour continuous heart rate monitoring. The percentage of heart rate reserve was used to measure the amounts of physical activity at different intensities. The results were compared with normative data. Results: Diabetic preschoolchildren accumulated 192.7 (78.1), 39.1 (24.3), and 21.3 (9.4) minutes/day (mean (SD)) of light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, respectively. At the same activity levels, diabetic schoolchildren accumulated 168.9 (76.7), 37.9 (15.9), and 19.0 (14.8) minutes/day, and diabetic teenagers accumulated 166.3 (67.5), 45.6 (26.9), and 25.2 (15.3) minutes/day. Diabetic schoolchildren were significantly more active than healthy peers when considering moderate activity; diabetic teenagers were significantly more active when considering moderate and vigorous activity. There was a negative correlation between the most recent glycated haemoglobin and the time spent in light activities in schoolchildren, and a negative correlation between mean glycated haemoglobin for one year and time spent in light and moderate activities in schoolchildren. Conclusion: The majority of our diabetic patients meet the classical paediatric guidelines for physical activity and compare favourably with their healthy peers. PMID:15941770

  16. Capturing PLMS and their variability in children with sickle cell disease: Does ankle activity monitoring measure up to polysomnography?

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Paul R.; Marcus, Carole L.; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Traylor, Joel T.; Mason, Thornton B. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test agreement and define differences in periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) measured by polysomnography and an ankle activity monitor, and to describe PLMS variability across nights, feasibility of home monitoring, and correlates of PLMS in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Methods Twenty children with SCD and restless legs syndrome (RLS) symptoms or polysomnography-documented PLMS underwent concurrent attended polysomnography and ankle activity monitoring over 1–2 nights and home activity monitoring for 3 nights. Serum iron and ferritin were measured pre- and post-polysomnography. Results Adequate sensitivity (1.00), specificity (0.69), and mean bias (5.0±7.4 PLMS/h) for identifying elevated PLMS by activity monitor were obtained when scoring the period from sleep onset to offset rather than time in bed per manufacturer recommendation, and using a cut-point of 10 PLMS/h. Compared to activity monitor, only polysomnographic PLMS demonstrated periodicity, at inter-movement intervals (IMI) 20–35 s; the activity monitor overscored PLMS at the beginning and end of sleep and at shorter IMI (5–15 s; p≤0.003), suggesting misclassification of nonperiodic leg movements as PLMS by activity monitor. PLMS varied across 4 nights by 16.1±13.4 PLMS/h. Post-polysomnography ferritin was associated (positively) with PLMS (p=0.034); RLS symptoms were not. Conclusions Ankle activity monitoring is a valid screening measure for PLMS in children with SCD and can readily be performed at home. Interpretation should incorporate a threshold for elevated PLMS of 10/h and scoring from sleep onset to offset which could be identified with concurrent wrist actigraphy, to better account for true PLMS. PMID:22841030

  17. 78 FR 57668 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned for Monitoring Activities for the Saltstone Disposal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... responsibilities for monitoring DOE's waste disposal activities at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at the... Evaluation Report (TER) for the SDF in December 2005, as part of the NRC consultation with DOE in its waste... Revision 0 of the SDF Monitoring Plan based on the 2005 NRC TER and the DOE final waste determination....

  18. Activation and implementation of a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J.F. III

    1989-01-01

    The Nevada Operations Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE/NV) has been assigned the primary responsibility for responding to a major radiological emergency. The initial response to any radiological emergency, however, will probably be conducted under the DOE regional radiological assistance plan (RAP). If the dimensions of the crisis demand federal assistance, the following sequence of events may be anticipated: (1) DOE regional RAP response, (2) activation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assistance Center (FRMAC) requested, (3) aerial measuring systems and DOE/NV advance party respond, (4) FRMAC activated, (5) FRMAC responds to state(s) and cognizant federal agency (CFA), and (6) management of FRMAC transferred to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The paper discusses activation channels, authorization, notification, deployment, and interfaces.

  19. Objective evaluation of stress with the blind by the monitoring of autonomic nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Massot, Bertrand; Baltenneck, Nicolas; Gehin, Claudine; Dittmar, Andre; McAdams, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Accessibility for the blind in an urban space must be studied under real conditions in their daily environment. A new approach for evaluating the impact of environmental conditions on blind pedestrians is the objective measure of stress by the monitoring of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Original techniques of data analysis and spatial representation are proposed for the detection of the ANS activity through the assessment of the electrodermal activity. Skin resistance was recorded with an EmoSense system on 10 blind subjects who followed a charted course independently. The course was 1065 meters long and consisted of various environmental conditions in an urban space. The spatial frequency of the non-specific skin resistance responses was used to provide a more relevant representation of geographic hotspots. Results of statistical analysis based on this new parameter are discussed to conclude on phenomena causing mental stress with the blind moving in an urban space.

  20. Monitoring seasonal bat activity on a coastal barrier island in Maryland, USA.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joshua B; Gates, J Edward; Zegre, Nicolas P

    2011-02-01

    Research on effects of wind turbines on bats has increased dramatically in recent years because of significant numbers of bats killed by rotating wind turbine blades. Whereas most research has focused on the Midwest and inland portions of eastern North America, bat activity and migration on the Atlantic Coast has largely been unexamined. We used three long-term acoustic monitoring stations to determine seasonal bat activity patterns on the Assateague Island National Seashore, a barrier island off the coast of Maryland, from 2005 to 2006. We recorded five species, including eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Seasonal bat activity (number of bat passes recorded) followed a cosine function and gradually increased beginning in April, peaked in August, and declined gradually until cessation in December. Based on autoregressive models, inter-night bat activity was autocorrelated for lags of seven nights or fewer but varied among acoustic monitoring stations. Higher nightly temperatures and lower wind speeds positively affected bat activity. When autoregressive model predictions were fitted to the observed nightly bat pass totals, model residuals>2 standard deviations from the mean existed only during migration periods, indicating that periodic increases in bat activity could not be accounted for by seasonal trends and weather variables alone. Rather, the additional bat passes were attributable to migrating bats. We conclude that bats, specifically eastern red, hoary, and silver-haired bats, use this barrier island during migration and that this phenomenon may have implications for the development of near and offshore wind energy.

  1. Associations of Monitor-Assessed Activity with Performance-Based Physical Function

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Natasha; Daly, Robin M.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Gardiner, Paul A.; Eakin, Elizabeth G.; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W.; Healy, Genevieve N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations of monitor-derived measures of sedentary time and physical activity with performance-based physical function in healthy Australian adults. Data from 602 participants (mean age 58.1±10.0 years; 58% female) from the 2011/12 wave of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab3) study were analyzed. The thigh-worn activPAL3™ monitor (7-days continuous wear) was used to derive time during waking hours spent: sitting/reclining; standing; and, stepping (overall, and separately as light [<3 METs] and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA; ≥3 METs]), and number of sit-stand transitions. Associations of these (in hours/day, or 15 transitions/day) with physical function measures (8ft Timed Up and Go [TUG-8; log-transformed seconds] and Knee Extensor Strength [KES; kg]) were tested via linear regression, adjusting for confounders. Interactions by sex and age-category (<45; 45–54; 55–64; ≥65 years) were tested. In all participants, KES was significantly (p<0.05) associated with stepping and MVPA stepping only; none of the activity measures were associated with TUG-8. However, subgroup analysis revealed that in older adults (≥65 years), TUG-8 was associated with stepping and MVPA stepping (both p<0.05). All associations with sitting time, standing, sit-stand transition and sex interactions were not statistically significant. In summary, sitting time was not significantly associated with impaired muscle strength or gait/mobility in Australian adults aged 36–80 years, but light- to moderate activity (stepping) was positively associated with muscle strength, and gait/mobility in older adults aged ≥65 years. The direction of causation is not known and remains important to investigate considering the high prevalence of both poor function and limited activity in older age. PMID:27073888

  2. High-resolution seismic monitoring of geomorphic activity in a catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtin, A.; Hovius, N.; Turowski, J.; McArdell, B.; Vergne, J.

    2012-04-01

    Continuous survey of the surface activity in a river catchment is essential for the understanding of the landscape dynamics. In steep mountain catchments, a detailed spatial and temporal monitoring of geomorphic processes is generally impossible. The classic techniques (imagery and in situ channel approaches) are not adapted to the extreme conditions that occur during strong rainstorms. There is a real need to develop a method and to define the procedures that will allow the study of surface processes without any environmental dependency. Nowadays, more and more studies explore the use of the seismic instruments to survey the catchment activity. Seismometers can be deployed in sheltered area, which allow us to record in continuous the ground vibrations induced by surface processes, like the sediment transport and mass movements. To continue the exploration of this potential, we deployed a dense array of 10 seismometers in the Illgraben, a 10-km2 catchment in the Swiss Alps, during the summer 2011. This catchment is highly prone to hillslope and debris flow activity, so almost every summer convective storms trigger geomorphic events. The network was designed to monitor the spatial and temporal features of every type of surface activity. Thus during rainstorms, the stations located along the main stream well record the channel activity like the passage of sediment flows, while the instruments installed around the catchment reveal the occurrences of many rockfalls. These latter events show a spectral seismic signature at high frequencies (> 1 Hz), whereas the channel activity is dominant between 10 and 30 Hz. For the largest debris flow of the summer, we are able to identify the location of its initiation from the hillslope. Then, we can map the secondary events, which were triggered by the propagation of the debris flow. With these preliminary results, we demonstrate that the use of a dense seismic array is relevant to map in real time the landscape dynamics at the

  3. Detection of the Temporal Variations of Structure Sensitive Bodies by the Active Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, N.; Kumazawa, M.

    2004-12-01

    Observable phenomena that cause temporal variations of stress field related to generations of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions could be mainly the reflected wave from scattering sources. The heterogeneity in the lithosphere originated from both stress state and heterogeneous distribution of fluid-bearing rocks can be the scattering sources. Temporal variations of the scattering sources due to the structure sensitivity of rocks are essential characteristics of seismogenic regions as well as the active volcanic regions. The active geophysical monitoring would be the essential tool to detect and clarify such an evolving process that governed by the structure sensitivity of rocks in the crust and upper mantle. Among many structure sensitive phenomena, probable changes in the reflected seismic or electromagnetic signals are expected in the temporal variations of impedance and anisotropic dispersion of the transmitted signals in the subduction zone where the scattering sources are evolving associated with the movement of the fluid mainly composed of supercritical water in the crust and upper mantle conditions. Recently discovered slow slip events and deep non-volcanic tremors in the subduction zone could be one of the most challenging targets to clarify their characteristics by using the active monitoring techniques.

  4. Processing sleep data created with the Drosophila Activity Monitoring (DAM) System.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffenberger, Cory; Lear, Bridget C; Keegan, Kevin P; Allada, Ravi

    2010-11-01

    Adult behavioral assays have been used with great success in Drosophila melanogaster to identify circadian rhythm genes. In particular, the locomotor activity assay can identify altered behavior patterns over the course of several days in small populations, or even individual flies. Sleep is a highly conserved behavior that is required for optimal performance and, in many cases, life of an organism. Drosophila demonstrate a behavioral state that shows traits consistent with sleep: periods of relative behavioral immobility that coincide with an increased arousal threshold after ~5 min of inactivity, regulated by circadian and homeostatic mechanisms. However, because flies do not produce brain waves recordable by electroencephalography, sleep researchers use behavior-based paradigms to infer when a fly is asleep, as opposed to awake but immobile. Data on Drosophila activity can be collected using an automated monitoring system to provide insight into sleep duration, consolidation, and latency, as well as sleep deprivation and rebound. This protocol details the use of Counting Macro, an Excel-based program, to process data created with the Drosophila Activity Monitoring (DAM) System from TriKinetics for sleep analyses. Specifically, it details the steps necessary to convert the raw data created by the DAM System into sleep duration and consolidation data, broken down into the light (L), dark (D), light:dark cycling (LD), and constant darkness (DD) phases of a behavior experiment.

  5. The promise of mHealth: daily activity monitoring and outcome assessments by wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Dobkin, Bruce H; Dorsch, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Mobile health tools that enable clinicians and researchers to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of everyday activities of patients and trial participants have long been needed to improve daily care, design more clinically meaningful randomized trials of interventions, and establish cost-effective, evidence-based practices. Inexpensive, unobtrusive wireless sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure-sensitive textiles, combined with Internet-based communications and machine-learning algorithms trained to recognize upper- and lower-extremity movements, have begun to fulfill this need. Continuous data from ankle triaxial accelerometers, for example, can be transmitted from the home and community via WiFi or a smartphone to a remote data analysis server. Reports can include the walking speed and duration of every bout of ambulation, spatiotemporal symmetries between the legs, and the type, duration, and energy used during exercise. For daily care, this readily accessible flow of real-world information allows clinicians to monitor the amount and quality of exercise for risk factor management and compliance in the practice of skills. Feedback may motivate better self-management as well as serve home-based rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring patients with chronic diseases and after hospitalization or the start of new medications for a decline in daily activity may help detect medical complications before rehospitalization becomes necessary. For clinical trials, repeated laboratory-quality assessments of key activities in the community, rather than by clinic testing, self-report, and ordinal scales, may reduce the cost and burden of travel, improve recruitment and retention, and capture more reliable, valid, and responsive ratio-scaled outcome measures that are not mere surrogates for changes in daily impairment, disability, and functioning.

  6. The Promise of mHealth: Daily Activity Monitoring and Outcome Assessments by Wearable Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Bruce H.; Dorsch, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Mobile health tools that enable clinicians and researchers to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of everyday activities of patients and trial participants have long been needed to improve daily care, design more clinically meaningful randomized trials of interventions, and establish cost-effective, evidence-based practices. Inexpensive, unobtrusive wireless sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure-sensitive textiles, combined with Internet-based communications and machine-learning algorithms trained to recognize upper- and lower-extremity movements, have begun to fulfill this need. Continuous data from ankle triaxial accelerometers, for example, can be transmitted from the home and community via WiFi or a smartphone to a remote data analysis server. Reports can include the walking speed and duration of every bout of ambulation, spatiotemporal symmetries between the legs, and the type, duration, and energy used during exercise. For daily care, this readily accessible flow of real-world information allows clinicians to monitor the amount and quality of exercise for risk factor management and compliance in the practice of skills. Feedback may motivate better self-management as well as serve home-based rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring patients with chronic diseases and after hospitalization or the start of new medications for a decline in daily activity may help detect medical complications before rehospitalization becomes necessary. For clinical trials, repeated laboratory-quality assessments of key activities in the community, rather than by clinic testing, self-report, and ordinal scales, may reduce the cost and burden of travel, improve recruitment and retention, and capture more reliable, valid, and responsive ratio-scaled outcome measures that are not mere surrogates for changes in daily impairment, disability, and functioning. PMID:21989632

  7. Notebook computer use with different monitor tilt angle: effects on posture, muscle activity and discomfort of neck pain users.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Ko; Chou, Wei-Ying; Chen, Bi-Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the posture, muscle activities, and self reported discomforts of neck pain notebook computer users on three monitor tilt conditions: 100°, 115°, and 130°. Six subjects were recruited in this study to completed typing tasks. Results showed subjects have a trend to show the forward head posture in the condition that monitor was set at 100°, and the significant less neck and shoulder discomfort were noted in the condition that monitor was set at 130°. These result suggested neck pain notebook user to set their monitor tilt angle at 130°.

  8. Continuous monitoring of a large active earth flow using an integrated GPS - automatic total station approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, A.

    2009-04-01

    Landslide monitoring has evolved as a crucial tool in civil protection to mitigate and prevent disasters. The research presents an approach to continuous monitoring of a large-scale active earth flow using a system that integrates surface measurements obtained by a GPS and an automatic total station. With the data obtained from the system the landslide can be monitored in near-real-time and surface displacements can be directly utilized to provide early warning of slope movements and to study the behavior of the landslide, e.g. to predict timing and mechanisms of future failure. The Valoria landslide located in the northern Apennines of Italy was reactivated in 2001, 2005 and 2007 damaging roads and endangering houses. A monitoring system was installed in 2007-2008 in the frame of a civil protection plan aimed at risk mitigation. The system consists of an automatic total station measuring about 40 prisms located in the landslide to a maximum distance of 1.800 km; one double-frequency GPS receiver connects in streaming by wireless communication with 4 single-frequency GPS in side the flow. Until December 2007 the monitoring network was operated with periodic static surveying followed by the data post-processing. From September 2007 until March 2008 the landslide deformation was evaluated by periodic surveys with the total station and the GPS system. This first measure showed that the displacements were influenced by the rainfall events and by the snow melting. The total displacements measured vary from centimeter scale in the crown zone, where retrogressive movements were in progress, to over 50 m in the flow track zone. Starting in March 2008 data acquisition by the total station system and GPS were automated in order to allow continuous and near-real-time data processing. The displacement data collected in one and a half year of continuous operation show different acceleration and deceleration phases as a result of the pore water pressure distribution inside the

  9. An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Lund, G. F.; Williams, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, was designed with the feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 x 30 x 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 microns of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired. RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver.

  10. How incense and joss paper burning during the worship activities influences ambient mercury concentrations in indoor and outdoor environments of an Asian temple?

    PubMed

    Shen, Huazhen; Tsai, Cheng-Mou; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Jen, Yi-Hsiu; Ie, Iau-Ren

    2017-01-01

    This study firstly investigated the species, concentration variation, and emission factors of mercury emitted from the burning of incenses and joss papers in an Asian temple. Both indoor and outdoor speciated mercury (GEM, GOM, and PHg) were sampled by manual samplers, while ambient GEM at an indoor site was in-situ monitored by a continuous GEM monitor. Field measurement results showed that the total atmospheric mercury (TAM) concentrations in indoor and outdoor environments were in the range of 8.03-35.72 and 6.03-31.35 ng/m(3), respectively. The indoor and outdoor ratios (I/O) of TAM in the daytime and at nighttime were in the range of 0.64-0.90 and 1.50-2.04, respectively. The concentrations of GEM, GOM, and PHg during the holiday periods were approximately 1-4 times higher than those during the non-holiday periods. GEM was the dominant mercury species in the indoor and outdoor environments and accounted for 63-81% of TAM, while the oxidized mercury accounted for 19-37% of TAM. Burning incenses and joss papers in a combustion chamber showed that the concentration of GEM from joss paper burning ranged from 4.07 to 11.62 μg/m(3), or about 13.97 times higher than that of incense burning, while the concentration of PHg from incense burning ranged from 95.91 to 135.07 ng/m(3), or about 3.29 times higher than that of joss paper burning. The emission factors of incense burning were 10.39 ng/g of GEM and 1.40 ng/g of PHg, while those of joss paper burning were 12.65 ng/g of GEM and 1.27 ng/g of PHg, respectively. This study revealed that speciated mercury emitted from worship activities had significant influence on the indoor and outdoor mercury concentrations in an Asian temple. Higher intensity of worship activities during holidays resulted in a higher concentration of speciated mercury in indoor and outdoor air, which might cause health threats to worshipers, staffs, and surrounding inhabitants through long-term exposure.

  11. Passive acoustic monitoring of human physiology during activity indicates health and performance of soldiers and firefighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Michael V.

    2003-04-01

    The Army Research Laboratory has developed a unique gel-coupled acoustic physiological monitoring sensor that has acoustic impedance properties similar to the skin. This facilitates the transmission of body sounds into the sensor pad, yet significantly repels ambient airborne noises due to an impedance mismatch. The sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth produce excellent signatures for detection and spectral analysis of diverse physiological events. Acoustic signal processing detects heartbeats, breaths, wheezes, coughs, blood pressure, activity, motion, and voice for communication and automatic speech recognition. The health and performance of soldiers, firefighters, and other first responders in strenuous and hazardous environments can be continuously and remotely monitored with body-worn acoustic sensors. Comfortable acoustic sensors can be in a helmet or in a strap around the neck, chest, and wrist. Noise-canceling sensor arrays help remove out-of-phase motion noise and enhance covariant physiology by using two acoustic sensors on the front sides of the neck and two additional acoustic sensors on each wrist. Pulse wave transit time between neck and wrist acoustic sensors will indicate systolic blood pressure. Larger torso-sized arrays can be used to acoustically inspect the lungs and heart, or built into beds for sleep monitoring. Acoustics is an excellent input for sensor fusion.

  12. Using larval fish community structure to guide long-term monitoring of fish spawning activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; Ross, Jason E.; DeBruyne, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    Larval fishes provide a direct indication of spawning activity and may therefore be useful for long-term monitoring efforts in relation to spawning habitat restoration. However, larval fish sampling can be time intensive and costly. We sought to understand the spatial and temporal structure of larval fish communities in the St. Clair–Detroit River system, Michigan–Ontario, to determine whether targeted larval fish sampling can be made more efficient for long-term monitoring. We found that larval fish communities were highly nested, with lower river segments and late-spring samples containing the highest genus richness of larval fish. We created four sampling scenarios for each river system: (1) using all available data, (2) limiting temporal sampling to late spring, (3) limiting spatial sampling to lower river segments only, and (4) limiting both spatial and temporal sampling. By limiting the spatial extent of sampling to lower river sites and/or limiting the temporal extent to the late-spring period, we found that effort could be reduced by more than 50% while maintaining over 75% of the observed and estimated total genus richness. Similarly, limiting the sampling effort to lower river sites and/or the late-spring period maintained between 65% and 93% of the observed richness of lithophilic-spawning genera and invasive genera. In general, community composition remained consistent among sampling scenarios. Targeted sampling offers a lower-cost alternative to exhaustive spatial and temporal sampling and may be more readily incorporated into long-term monitoring.

  13. Evaluation of a commercial radiochromatography module as an arterial blood activity monitor.

    PubMed

    Laymon, C M; Sashin, D; Carney, J P; Ruszkiewicz, J; Altenburger, D; Becker, C R; Lopresti, B J; Mason, N S; Mountz, J M; Price, J C; Schavey, R; Mathis, C A

    2008-01-21

    Input functions required for positron emission tomography (PET) tracer kinetic modeling are often obtained from arterial blood. In some situations, using short-lived radiotracers, e.g. [(15)O]water, rapid sample handling is required. A method used at several facilities is to pump blood through a detector system at a constant rate. We investigate the suitability of a commercial radiochromatography module (IN/US Posi-RAM) for this new use. The Posi-RAM consists of two 2.5 cm (length) x 2.5 cm (diameter) cylindrical bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors that can operate in coincidence mode. Arterial blood is transported through the system via a length of tubing with flow rate controlled by a peristalsis pump. A custom-counting loop and support frame were designed for the Posi-RAM for PET studies. System sensitivity was determined to be 1.1 x 10(4) cps/(MBq ml(-1)). Dead time as a function of count-rate was found to be less than 1% for concentrations below 3.5 MBq ml(-1), a range encompassing all human-study values. In a human study, the performance of the device was found to be similar to that of the facility's current blood monitor (Siemens Fluid Monitor). We conclude that the Posi-RAM has the necessary sensitivity and count-rate capabilities to be used as a real-time blood activity monitor.

  14. Evaluation of a commercial radiochromatography module as an arterial blood activity monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laymon, C. M.; Sashin, D.; Carney, J. P.; Ruszkiewicz, J.; Altenburger, D.; Becker, C. R.; Lopresti, B. J.; Mason, N. S.; Mountz, J. M.; Price, J. C.; Schavey, R.; Mathis, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Input functions required for positron emission tomography (PET) tracer kinetic modeling are often obtained from arterial blood. In some situations, using short-lived radiotracers, e.g. [15O]water, rapid sample handling is required. A method used at several facilities is to pump blood through a detector system at a constant rate. We investigate the suitability of a commercial radiochromatography module (IN/US Posi-RAM) for this new use. The Posi-RAM consists of two 2.5 cm (length) × 2.5 cm (diameter) cylindrical bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors that can operate in coincidence mode. Arterial blood is transported through the system via a length of tubing with flow rate controlled by a peristalsis pump. A custom-counting loop and support frame were designed for the Posi-RAM for PET studies. System sensitivity was determined to be 1.1 × 104 cps/(MBq ml-1). Dead time as a function of count-rate was found to be less than 1% for concentrations below 3.5 MBq ml-1, a range encompassing all human-study values. In a human study, the performance of the device was found to be similar to that of the facility's current blood monitor (Siemens Fluid Monitor). We conclude that the Posi-RAM has the necessary sensitivity and count-rate capabilities to be used as a real-time blood activity monitor.

  15. Simultaneous monitoring of electrical capacitance and water uptake activity of plant root system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cseresnyés, Imre; Takács, Tünde; Füzy, Anna; Rajkai, Kálmán

    2014-10-01

    Pot experiments were designed to test the applicability of root electrical capacitance measurement for in situ monitoring of root water uptake activity by growing cucumber and bean cultivars in a growth chamber. Half of the plants were inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, while the other half served as non-infected controls. Root electrical capacitance and daily transpiration were monitored during the whole plant ontogeny. Phenology-dependent changes of daily transpiration (related to root water uptake) and root electrical capacitance proved to be similar as they showed upward trends from seedling emergence to the beginning of flowering stage, and thereafter decreased continuously during fruit setting. A few days after arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-colonization, daily transpiration and root electrical capacitance of infected plants became significantly higher than those of non-infected counterparts, and the relative increment of the measured parameters was greater for the more highly mycorrhizal-dependent bean cultivar compared to that of cucumber. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization caused 29 and 69% relative increment in shoot dry mass for cucumbers and beans, respectively. Mycorrhization resulted in 37% increase in root dry mass for beans, but no significant difference was observed for cucumbers. Results indicate the potential of root electrical capacitance measurements for monitoring the changes and differences of root water uptake rate.

  16. Development and Validation of a Parental Monitoring Instrument: Measuring How Parents Monitor Adolescents' Activities and Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Scott A.; Branstetter, Steven; Cottrell, Lesley; Harris, Carole V.; Rishel, Carrie; Stanton, Bonita F.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the development and validation of the Parental Monitoring Instrument (PMI). The PMI was administered to a sample of 518 parent-adolescent (aged 12 to 17 years) dyads. Initial findings provide evidence of instrument reliability and validity. The exploratory factor analysis results suggested a seven-factor…

  17. Cardio-respiratory and daily activity monitor based on FMCW Doppler radar embedded in a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro Silva; Postolache, Gabriela; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive monitoring of the cardio-respiratory and daily activity for wheelchair users became nowadays an important challenge, considering population aging phenomena and the increasing of the elderly with chronic diseases that affect their motion capabilities. This work reports the utilization of FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar sensors embedded in a manual wheelchair to measure the cardiac and respiratory activities and the physical activity of the wheelchair user. Another radar sensor is included in the system in order to quantify the motor activity through the wheelchair traveled distance, when the user performs the manual operation of the wheelchair. A conditioning circuit including active filters and a microcontroller based primary processing module was designed and implemented to deliver the information through Bluetooth communication protocol to an Android OS tablet computer. The main capabilities of the software developed using Android SDK and Java were the signal processing of Doppler radar measurement channel signals, graphical user interface, data storage and Wi-Fi data synchronization with remote physiological and physical activity database.

  18. The clinical utility of basophil activation testing in diagnosis and monitoring of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, H J; Santos, A F; Mayorga, C; Nopp, A; Eberlein, B; Ferrer, M; Rouzaire, P; Ebo, D G; Sabato, V; Sanz, M L; Pecaric-Petkovic, T; Patil, S U; Hausmann, O V; Shreffler, W G; Korosec, P; Knol, E F

    2015-11-01

    The basophil activation test (BAT) has become a pervasive test for allergic response through the development of flow cytometry, discovery of activation markers such as CD63 and unique markers identifying basophil granulocytes. Basophil activation test measures basophil response to allergen cross-linking IgE on between 150 and 2000 basophil granulocytes in <0.1 ml fresh blood. Dichotomous activation is assessed as the fraction of reacting basophils. In addition to clinical history, skin prick test, and specific IgE determination, BAT can be a part of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with food-, insect venom-, and drug allergy and chronic urticaria. It may be helpful in determining the clinically relevant allergen. Basophil sensitivity may be used to monitor patients on allergen immunotherapy, anti-IgE treatment or in the natural resolution of allergy. Basophil activation test may use fewer resources and be more reproducible than challenge testing. As it is less stressful for the patient and avoids severe allergic reactions, BAT ought to precede challenge testing. An important next step is to standardize BAT and make it available in diagnostic laboratories. The nature of basophil activation as an ex vivo challenge makes it a multifaceted and promising tool for the allergist. In this EAACI task force position paper, we provide an overview of the practical and technical details as well as the clinical utility of BAT in diagnosis and management of allergic diseases.

  19. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor.

    PubMed

    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-06-30

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy subjects (HCS, n=39) in the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM) which quantifies motor activity and goal-directed behavior in an environment containing novel stimuli. Archival hBPM data from 17 schizophrenia patients were used in sensitivity and specificity analyses. Manic BD patients exhibited higher motor activity than HCS and higher novel object interactions. hBPM activity measures were not correlated with observer-rated symptoms, and hBPM activity was more sensitive in accurately classifying hospitalized BD subjects than observer ratings. Although the findings can only be generalized to inpatient populations, they suggest that increased energy, particularly specific and goal-directed exploration, is a distinguishing feature of BD mania and is best quantified by objective measures of motor activity. A better understanding is needed of the biological underpinnings of this cardinal feature.

  20. Detection of emetic activity in the cat by monitoring venous pressure and audio signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagahara, A.; Fox, Robert A.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Elfar, S.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the use of audio signals as a simple, noninvasive measure of emetic activity, the relationship between the somatic events and sounds associated with retching and vomiting was studied. Thoracic venous pressure obtained from an implanted external jugular catheter was shown to provide a precise measure of the somatic events associated with retching and vomiting. Changes in thoracic venous pressure monitored through an indwelling external jugular catheter with audio signals, obtained from a microphone located above the animal in a test chamber, were compared. In addition, two independent observers visually monitored emetic episodes. Retching and vomiting were induced by injection of xylazine (0.66mg/kg s.c.), or by motion. A unique audio signal at a frequency of approximately 250 Hz is produced at the time of the negative thoracic venous pressure change associated with retching. Sounds with higher frequencies (around 2500 Hz) occur in conjunction with the positive pressure changes associated with vomiting. These specific signals could be discriminated reliably by individuals reviewing the audio recordings of the sessions. Retching and those emetic episodes associated with positive venous pressure changes were detected accurately by audio monitoring, with 90 percent of retches and 100 percent of emetic episodes correctly identified. Retching was detected more accurately (p is less than .05) by audio monitoring than by direct visual observation. However, with visual observation a few incidents in which stomach contents were expelled in the absence of positive pressure changes or detectable sounds were identified. These data suggest that in emetic situations, the expulsion of stomach contents may be accomplished by more than one neuromuscular system and that audio signals can be used to detect emetic episodes associated with thoracic venous pressure changes.

  1. Monitoring of disease biomarkers activity and immunophenotyping as important factors in SLE clinical management.

    PubMed

    Subasic, Djemo; Karamehic, Jasenko; Delic-Sarac, Marina; Kasumovic, Mersija; Mekic, Mevludin; Eminovic, Izet; Hasanagic, Nermina

    2012-01-01

    The highly specific biomarkers for monitoring of SLE disease activity are not yet defined up to date, due to existing of different clinical SLE phenotypes caused by individual genetic variation. Basically, numerous clinical complications follow SLE patients such as nephritis, atherosclerosis and cardial, CNS, gastrointestinal and ophthalmological complications, as well. Their monitoring in clinical SLE management can be evaluated by analysing of specific biochemical parameters and require permanent clinical observation. The presence of ANAs and anti-ds-DNAs are usual diagnostic SLE autoimmunity parameters, while SLE disease activity biomarkers are C3 and C4 level, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-Sm/RNPs and, recently level of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes. However, the number of TCR molecules on the T-cells surface at SLE patients is lower then in normal condition, and otherwise for these receptors CD molecules make specific connection. On the other hand, the T lymphocytes can be also, therapeutical targets at SLE patients, because of their clear direct involving in SLE pathogenesis. The SLE phenotypes are characterized by double CD negativity ( CD3 +/-, CD4-) caused by abnormal level of IL-2 and IL-17. T-lymphocytes have usually alpha-beta and gamma-delta TCR receptors, but for SLE patients is characteristic lower number gama-delta TCR molecules, detected in the peripheral blood specimens. Taking into account all of the facts, we investigated the level of specific usual SLE activity biomarkers (anti-ds-DNAs, C3, C4, anticardiolipin antibodies (beta-2-IgG, beta-2-IgM, ACA-G, ACA-M, CD4 and CD8 level) in serum specimens of SLE patients who underwent to the corresponding chemotherapy in combination with other biochemical and clinical parameters. Once again proved to be, that SLE biomarker monitoring, could be useful aproach for SLE activity disease and prediction organ damage, as well. In our investigation we used the following methods: immunofluorescence microscopy (IFA

  2. Monitoring eruption activity using temporal stress changes at Mount Ontake volcano

    PubMed Central

    Terakawa, Toshiko; Kato, Aitaro; Yamanaka, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yuta; Horikawa, Shinichiro; Matsuhiro, Kenjiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic activity is often accompanied by many small earthquakes. Earthquake focal mechanisms represent the fault orientation and slip direction, which are influenced by the stress field. Focal mechanisms of volcano-tectonic earthquakes provide information on the state of volcanoes via stresses. Here we demonstrate that quantitative evaluation of temporal stress changes beneath Mt. Ontake, Japan, using the misfit angles of focal mechanism solutions to the regional stress field, is effective for eruption monitoring. The moving average of misfit angles indicates that during the precursory period the local stress field beneath Mt. Ontake was deviated from the regional stress field, presumably by stress perturbations caused by the inflation of magmatic/hydrothermal fluids, which was removed immediately after the expulsion of volcanic ejecta. The deviation of the local stress field can be an indicator of increases in volcanic activity. The proposed method may contribute to the mitigation of volcanic hazards. PMID:26892716

  3. Monitoring eruption activity using temporal stress changes at Mount Ontake volcano.

    PubMed

    Terakawa, Toshiko; Kato, Aitaro; Yamanaka, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yuta; Horikawa, Shinichiro; Matsuhiro, Kenjiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2016-02-19

    Volcanic activity is often accompanied by many small earthquakes. Earthquake focal mechanisms represent the fault orientation and slip direction, which are influenced by the stress field. Focal mechanisms of volcano-tectonic earthquakes provide information on the state of volcanoes via stresses. Here we demonstrate that quantitative evaluation of temporal stress changes beneath Mt. Ontake, Japan, using the misfit angles of focal mechanism solutions to the regional stress field, is effective for eruption monitoring. The moving average of misfit angles indicates that during the precursory period the local stress field beneath Mt. Ontake was deviated from the regional stress field, presumably by stress perturbations caused by the inflation of magmatic/hydrothermal fluids, which was removed immediately after the expulsion of volcanic ejecta. The deviation of the local stress field can be an indicator of increases in volcanic activity. The proposed method may contribute to the mitigation of volcanic hazards.

  4. Validation of a computed radiography device to monitor the HIV-1 RNase H activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, F.; Fanti, V.; Marzeddu, R.; Randaccio, P.; Tramontano, E.; Zinzula, L.

    2009-08-01

    A commercially available computed radiography (CR) system for dental radiography was used to produce images from radiolabeled polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) assays. Typically, similar investigations require specific and expensive autoradiography devices. The CR unit was characterized in terms of sensitivity and fading by means of a 90Sr source that well simulates the experimental conditions, and then used for quantitative analyses of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase-independent ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity monitored by PAGE analysis. The results showed that the present methodology allows quantifying effectively the RNase H catalyses and that the obtained data are in good agreement with previous reference works. Finally, in order to further validate the present method in terms of relationship between enzyme activity, the rate of products formation and signal intensity, a PAGE analyses of the HIV-1 RNase H inhibition by the known diketo acid derivative RDS1643 was carried out.

  5. Monitoring of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensing for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R; Park, Chan - Yik; Jun, Seung - Moon

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a report of an initial investigation into tracking and monitoring the integrity of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensors. The target application of this study is a fitting lug assembly of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), where a composite wing is mounted to a UAV fuselage. The SHM methods deployed in this study are impedance-based SHM techniques, time-series analysis, and high-frequency response functions measured by piezoelectric active-sensors. Different types of simulated damage are introduced into the structure, and the capability of each technique is examined and compared. Additional considerations encountered in this initial investigation are made to guide further thorough research required for the successful field deployment of this technology.

  6. Measuring brain activity cycling (BAC) in long term EEG monitoring of preterm babies.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Nathan J; Palmu, Kirsi; Wikström, Sverre; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2014-07-01

    Measuring fluctuation of vigilance states in early preterm infants undergoing long term intensive care holds promise for monitoring their neurological well-being. There is currently, however, neither objective nor quantitative methods available for this purpose in a research or clinical environment. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was, therefore, to develop quantitative measures of the fluctuation in vigilance states or brain activity cycling (BAC) in early preterm infants. The proposed measures of BAC were summary statistics computed on a frequency domain representation of the proportional duration of spontaneous activity transients (SAT%) calculated from electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings. Eighteen combinations of three statistics and six frequency domain representations were compared to a visual interpretation of cycling in the SAT% signal. Three high performing measures (band energy/periodogram: R = 0.809, relative band energy/nonstationary frequency marginal: R = 0.711, g-statistic/nonstationary frequency marginal: R = 0.638) were then compared to a grading of sleep wake cycling based on the visual interpretation of the amplitude-integrated EEG trend. These measures of BAC are conceptually straightforward, correlate well with the visual scores of BAC and sleep wake cycling, are robust enough to cope with the technically compromised monitoring data available in intensive care units, and are recommended for further validation in prospective studies.

  7. Liquid crystal based sensors monitoring lipase activity: a new rapid and sensitive method for cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zakir; Zafiu, Christian; Küpcü, Seta; Pivetta, Lucineia; Hollfelder, Nadine; Masutani, Akira; Kilickiran, Pinar; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin

    2014-06-15

    In this work we present liquid crystal (LC) based sensor devices to monitor cell viability. The sensing layer is composed by the LC and a planar monolayer of phospholipids. In the presence of minute traces of phospholipases, which hydrolyze enzymatically phospholipids, the LC-lipid interface is disintegrated. This event causes a change in orientation of the LC, which was followed in a polarized microscope. The lipase activity can be used to measure the cell viability, since members of this enzyme family are released by cells, as they undergo necrosis. The described sensor was used to monitor the presence of the lipases released from three different cell lines, which were either exposed to highly cytotoxic model compounds (sodium azide and paracetamol) or subjected to freeze-thaw cycles to induce cell death by a non-chemical based inducer for apoptosis, such as temperature. Finally, the comparison of lipase activity detected by a state-of-the-art fluorescence assay to the LC based system resulted in the superiority of the LC system concerning incubation time and sensitivity.

  8. A glasses-type wearable device for monitoring the patterns of food intake and facial activity

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jungman; Chung, Jungmin; Oh, Wonjun; Yoo, Yongkyu; Lee, Won Gu; Bang, Hyunwoo

    2017-01-01

    Here we present a new method for automatic and objective monitoring of ingestive behaviors in comparison with other facial activities through load cells embedded in a pair of glasses, named GlasSense. Typically, activated by subtle contraction and relaxation of a temporalis muscle, there is a cyclic movement of the temporomandibular joint during mastication. However, such muscular signals are, in general, too weak to sense without amplification or an electromyographic analysis. To detect these oscillatory facial signals without any use of obtrusive device, we incorporated a load cell into each hinge which was used as a lever mechanism on both sides of the glasses. Thus, the signal measured at the load cells can detect the force amplified mechanically by the hinge. We demonstrated a proof-of-concept validation of the amplification by differentiating the force signals between the hinge and the temple. A pattern recognition was applied to extract statistical features and classify featured behavioral patterns, such as natural head movement, chewing, talking, and wink. The overall results showed that the average F1 score of the classification was about 94.0% and the accuracy above 89%. We believe this approach will be helpful for designing a non-intrusive and un-obtrusive eyewear-based ingestive behavior monitoring system. PMID:28134303

  9. Sensor-enabled RFID system for monitoring arm activity in daily life.

    PubMed

    Barman, Joydip; Uswatte, Gitendra; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Ghaffari, Touraj; Sokal, Brad

    2011-01-01

    After stroke, capacity to carry out tasks in the treatment setting with the more-affected arm is a poor index of actual use of that extremity in daily life. However, objective methods currently available for monitoring real-world upper-extremity use only provide information on amount of activity. These methods, which rely on movement sensors worn by patients, do not provide information about type of activity (e.g., functional vs. nonfunctional movement). The benchmark testing reported here evaluated an approach that involves placing sensors on patients and objects. An accelerometer and the transmitter component of a prototype radio frequency proximity sensor were attached to household objects. The receiver component was placed on the experimenter's right arm. This device triggered an on-board radio frequency identification tag to signal proximity when that arm was within 23 cm of the objects. The system detected > 99% of 6 cm or greater movements of objects. When handling of objects by the right or left arm was determined randomly, 100% of right arm trials were detected. No signals were recorded when objects were at rest or moved by the left arm. Testing of this approach, which monitors manipulation of objects (i.e., functional movement), is now warranted in stroke patients.

  10. High spatial resolution monitoring of the activity of BA supergiant winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesneau, Olivier; Dessart, Luc; Kaufer, Andreas; Mourard, Denis; Stahl, Otmar; Prinja, Raman K.; Owocki, Stan P.

    2011-07-01

    There are currently two optical interferometry recombiners that can provide spectral resolutions better than 10000, AMBER/VLTI operating in the H-K bands, and VEGA/CHARA, recently commissioned, operating in the visible. These instruments are well suited to study the wind activity of the brightest AB supergiants in our vicinity, in lines such as Hα or Brγ. We present here the first observations of this kind, performed on Rigel (B8Ia) and Deneb (A2Ia). Rigel was monitored by AMBER in two campaigns, in 2006-2007 and 2009-2010, and observed in 2009 by VEGA; whereas Deneb was monitored in 2008-2009 by VEGA. The extension of the Hα and Brγ line forming regions were accurately measured and compared with CMFGEN models of both stars. Moreover, clear signs of activity were observed in the differential visibility and phases. These pioneer observations are still limited, but show the path for a better understanding of the spatial structure and temporal evolution of localized ejections using optical interferometry.

  11. A Wearable Patch to Enable Long-Term Monitoring of Environmental, Activity and Hemodynamics Variables

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Mozziyar; Inan, Omer T.; Heller, J. Alex; Hersek, Sinan; Klein, Liviu; Roy, Shuvo

    2015-01-01

    We present a low power multi-modal patch designed for measuring activity, altitude (based on high-resolution barometric pressure), a single-lead electrocardiogram, and a tri-axial seismocardiogram (SCG). Enabled by a novel embedded systems design methodology, this patch offers a powerful means of monitoring the physiology for both patients with chronic cardiovascular diseases, and the general population interested in personal health and fitness measures. Specifically, to the best of our knowledge, this patch represents the first demonstration of combined activity, environmental context, and hemodynamics monitoring, all on the same hardware, capable of operating for longer than 48 hours at a time with continuous recording. The three-channels of SCG and one-lead ECG are all sampled at 500 Hz with high signal-to-noise ratio, the pressure sensor is sampled at 10 Hz, and all signals are stored to a microSD card with an average current consumption of less than 2 mA from a 3.7 V coin cell (LIR2450) battery. In addition to electronic characterization, proof-of-concept exercise recovery studies were performed with this patch, suggesting the ability to discriminate between hemodynamic and electrophysiology response to light, moderate, and heavy exercise. PMID:25974943

  12. A Wearable Patch to Enable Long-Term Monitoring of Environmental, Activity and Hemodynamics Variables.

    PubMed

    Etemadi, Mozziyar; Inan, Omer T; Heller, J Alex; Hersek, Sinan; Klein, Liviu; Roy, Shuvo

    2016-04-01

    We present a low power multi-modal patch designed for measuring activity, altitude (based on high-resolution barometric pressure), a single-lead electrocardiogram, and a tri-axial seismocardiogram (SCG). Enabled by a novel embedded systems design methodology, this patch offers a powerful means of monitoring the physiology for both patients with chronic cardiovascular diseases, and the general population interested in personal health and fitness measures. Specifically, to the best of our knowledge, this patch represents the first demonstration of combined activity, environmental context, and hemodynamics monitoring, all on the same hardware, capable of operating for longer than 48 hours at a time with continuous recording. The three-channels of SCG and one-lead ECG are all sampled at 500 Hz with high signal-to-noise ratio, the pressure sensor is sampled at 10 Hz, and all signals are stored to a microSD card with an average current consumption of less than 2 mA from a 3.7 V coin cell (LIR2450) battery. In addition to electronic characterization, proof-of-concept exercise recovery studies were performed with this patch, suggesting the ability to discriminate between hemodynamic and electrophysiology response to light, moderate, and heavy exercise.

  13. Activity monitoring reflects cardiovascular and metabolic variations in COPD patients across GOLD stages II to IV.

    PubMed

    Kortianou, E A; Louvaris, Z; Vasilopoulou, M; Nasis, I; Kaltsakas, G; Koulouris, N G; Vogiatzis, I

    2013-12-01

    We investigated whether activity monitoring reliably reflects variations in oxygen transport and utilization during walking in COPD patients. Forty-two patients (14 in each GOLD stage II, III and IV) performed an incremental treadmill protocol to the limit of tolerance. Breath-by-breath gas exchange, central hemodynamic variables and activity monitoring were simultaneously recorded. Physiological variables and accelerometer outputs rose linearly with walking speeds. Strong correlations (r[interquartile range, IQR]) were found between treadmill walking intensity (WI: range 0.8-2.0 ms(-2)) and oxygen consumption (0.95 [IQR 0.87-0.97]), (range 7.6-15.5 ml kg(-1)min(-1)); minute ventilation (0.95 [IQR 0.86-0.98]), (range 20-37 l min(-1)); cardiac output (0.89 [IQR 0.73-0.94]), (range 6.8-11.5 l min(-1)) and arteriovenous oxygen concentration difference (0.84 [IQR 0.76-0.90]), (range 7.7-12.1 ml O2100 ml(-1)). Correlations between WI and gas exchange or central hemodynamic parameters were not different across GOLD stages. In conclusion, central hemodynamic, respiratory and muscle metabolic variations during incremental treadmill exercise are tightly associated to changes in walking intensity as recorded by accelerometry across GOLD stages II to IV. Interestingly, the magnitude of these associations is not different across GOLD stages.

  14. A glasses-type wearable device for monitoring the patterns of food intake and facial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jungman; Chung, Jungmin; Oh, Wonjun; Yoo, Yongkyu; Lee, Won Gu; Bang, Hyunwoo

    2017-01-01

    Here we present a new method for automatic and objective monitoring of ingestive behaviors in comparison with other facial activities through load cells embedded in a pair of glasses, named GlasSense. Typically, activated by subtle contraction and relaxation of a temporalis muscle, there is a cyclic movement of the temporomandibular joint during mastication. However, such muscular signals are, in general, too weak to sense without amplification or an electromyographic analysis. To detect these oscillatory facial signals without any use of obtrusive device, we incorporated a load cell into each hinge which was used as a lever mechanism on both sides of the glasses. Thus, the signal measured at the load cells can detect the force amplified mechanically by the hinge. We demonstrated a proof-of-concept validation of the amplification by differentiating the force signals between the hinge and the temple. A pattern recognition was applied to extract statistical features and classify featured behavioral patterns, such as natural head movement, chewing, talking, and wink. The overall results showed that the average F1 score of the classification was about 94.0% and the accuracy above 89%. We believe this approach will be helpful for designing a non-intrusive and un-obtrusive eyewear-based ingestive behavior monitoring system.

  15. Monitoring eruption activity from temporal stress changes at Mt. Ontake volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terakawa, T.; Kato, A.; Yamanaka, Y.; Maeda, Y.; Horikawa, S.; Matsuhiro, K.; Okuda, T.

    2015-12-01

    On 27 September 2014, Mt. Ontake in Japan produced a phreatic (steam type) eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index value of 2 after being dormant for seven years. The local stress field around volcanoes is the superposition of the regional stress field and stress perturbations related to volcanic activity. Temporal stress changes over periods of weeks to months are generally attributed to volcanic processes. Here we show that monitoring temporal changes in the local stress field beneath Mt. Ontake, using focal mechanism solutions of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, is an effective tool for assessing the state of volcanic activity. We estimated focal mechanism solutions of 157 VT earthquakes beneath Mt. Ontake from August 2014 to March 2015, assuming that the source was double-couple. Pre-eruption seismicity was dominated by normal faulting with east-west tension, whereas most post-eruption events were reverse faulting with east-west compression. The misfit angle between observed slip vectors and those derived theoretically from the regional (i.e., background) stress pattern is used to evaluate the deviation of the local stress field, or the stress perturbation related to volcanic activity. The moving average of misfit angles tended to exceed 90° before the eruption, and showed a marked decrease immediately after the eruption. This indicates that during the precursory period the local stress field beneath Mt. Ontake was rotated by stress perturbations caused by the inflation of magmatic/hydrothermal fluids. Post-eruption events of reverse faulting acted to shrink the volcanic edifice after expulsion of volcanic ejecta, controlled by the regional stress field. The misfit angle is a good indicator of the state of volcanic activity. The monitoring method by using this indicator is applicable to other volcanoes and may contribute to the mitigation of volcanic hazards.

  16. Active and Passive Optical Imaging Modality for Unobtrusive Cardiorespiratory Monitoring and Facial Expression Assessment.

    PubMed

    Blazek, Vladimir; Blanik, Nikolai; Blazek, Claudia R; Paul, Michael; Pereira, Carina; Koeny, Marcus; Venema, Boudewijn; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Because of their obvious advantages, active and passive optoelectronic sensor concepts are being investigated by biomedical research groups worldwide, particularly their camera-based variants. Such methods work noninvasively and contactless, and they provide spatially resolved parameter detection. We present 2 techniques: the active photoplethysmography imaging (PPGI) method for detecting dermal blood perfusion dynamics and the passive infrared thermography imaging (IRTI) method for detecting skin temperature distribution. PPGI is an enhancement of classical pulse oximetry. Approved algorithms from pulse oximetry for the detection of heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure-dependent pulse wave velocity, pulse waveform-related stress/pain indicators, respiration rate, respiratory variability, and vasomotional activity can easily be adapted to PPGI. Although the IRTI method primarily records temperature distribution of the observed object, information on respiration rate and respiratory variability can also be derived by analyzing temperature change over time, for example, in the nasal region, or through respiratory movement. Combined with current research areas and novel biomedical engineering applications (eg, telemedicine, tele-emergency, and telemedical diagnostics), PPGI and IRTI may offer new data for diagnostic purposes, including assessment of peripheral arterial and venous oxygen saturation (as well as their differences). Moreover, facial expressions and stress and/or pain-related variables can be derived, for example, during anesthesia, in the recovery room/intensive care unit and during daily activities. The main advantages of both monitoring methods are unobtrusive data acquisition and the possibility to assess vital variables for different body regions. These methods supplement each other to enable long-term monitoring of physiological effects and of effects with special local characteristics. They also offer diagnostic advantages for

  17. Observing Campaign to Monitor Magnetically-Active Dwarfs for Long-Term Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2009-10-01

    Dr. Styliani (Stella) Kafka of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institute of Washington, requests AAVSO observers to perform long-term photometric monitoring on a number of magnetically active dwarf stars, with an observing frequency of one observation every three days taken with one or more filters. When multiple filters are available, the preferred observations are (in order of precedence): Rc, V, Ic, and B. Please observe such that you obtain a signal to noise of at least 50 (100 or higher is preferred). These objects are all nearby dwarfs known or suspected to have magnetic activity, primarily of the UV Ceti (flare star) or BY Draconis subtypes. Long-term photometric monitoring of these objects will be used in conjunction with other multiwavelength observations from ground-based facilities including the Magellan 6.5-meter and DuPont 2.5-meter telescopes in Chile to understand the long-term magnetic activity cycles of these stars. Such a study can reveal information about the physical natures of these stars, but also about their near space environments and habitability for life. These objects are red, and the variability amplitudes are low, often well below 0.1 magnitudes. The long-term variability due to stellar activity cycles may be much lower. Photometric accuracy rather than the number of observations are key to the success of this project. Unaccounted-for atmospheric effects such as extinction will likely overwhelm any long-term signal from these stars. Observers are strongly urged to fully calibrate their systems and to carefully reduce and transform their photometry to standard photometric passbands, including corrections for airmass/atmospheric extinction. Parameters for 40 objects are given. Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database.

  18. Assessing Daily Physical Activity in Older Adults: Unraveling the Complexity of Monitors, Measures, and Methods.

    PubMed

    Schrack, Jennifer A; Cooper, Rachel; Koster, Annemarie; Shiroma, Eric J; Murabito, Joanne M; Rejeski, W Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B

    2016-08-01

    At the 67th Gerontological Society of America Annual Meeting, a preconference workshop was convened to discuss the challenges of accurately assessing physical activity in older populations. The advent of wearable technology (eg, accelerometers) to monitor physical activity has created unprecedented opportunities to observe, quantify, and define physical activity in the real-world setting. These devices enable researchers to better understand the associations of physical activity with aging, and subsequent health outcomes. However, a consensus on proper methodological use of these devices in older populations has not been established. To date, much of the validation research regarding device type, placement, and data interpretation has been performed in younger, healthier populations, and translation of these methods to older populations remains problematic. A better understanding of these devices, their measurement properties, and the data generated is imperative to furthering our understanding of daily physical activity, its effects on the aging process, and vice versa. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highlights of the preconference workshop, including properties of the different types of accelerometers, the methodological challenges of employing accelerometers in older study populations, a brief summary of ongoing aging-related research projects that utilize different types of accelerometers, and recommendations for future research directions.

  19. Seasonal photosynthetic activity in evergreen conifer leaves monitored with spectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. Y.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal evergreen conifers must maintain photosynthetic systems in environments where temperatures vary greatly across seasons from high temperatures in the summer to freezing levels in the winter. This involves seasonal downregulation and photoprotection during periods of extreme temperatures. To better understand this downregulation, seasonal dynamics of photosynthesis of lodgepole (Pinus contorta D.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa D.) were monitored in Edmonton, Canada over two years. Spectral reflectance at the leaf and stand scales was measured weekly and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), often used as a proxy for chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment levels and photosynthetic light-use efficiency (LUE), was used to track the seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic activity. Additional physiological measurements included leaf pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange. All the metrics indicate large seasonal changes in photosynthetic activity, with a sharp transition from winter downregulation to active photosynthesis in the spring and a more gradual fall transition into winter. The PRI was a good indicator of several other variables including seasonally changing photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic LUE, and pigment pool sizes. Over the two-year cycle, PRI was primarily driven by changes in constitutive (chlorophyll:carotenoid) pigment levels correlated with seasonal photosynthetic activity, with a much smaller variation caused by diurnal changes in xanthophyll cycle activity (conversion between violaxanthin & zeaxanthin). Leaf and canopy scale PRI measurements exhibited parallel responses during the winter-spring transition. Together, our findings indicate that evergreen conifers photosynthetic system possesses a remarkable degree of resilience in response to large temperature changes across seasons, and that optical remote sensing can be used to observe the seasonal effects on photosynthesis and

  20. Physical activity intensity can be accurately monitored by smartphone global positioning system 'app'.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Brett Ashley; Bruce, Lyndell; Benson, Amanda Clare

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring physical activity is important to better individualise health and fitness benefits. This study assessed the concurrent validity of a smartphone global positioning system (GPS) 'app' and a sport-specific GPS device with a similar sampling rate, to measure physical activity components of speed and distance, compared to a higher sampling sport-specific GPS device. Thirty-eight (21 female, 17 male) participants, mean age of 24.68, s = 6.46 years, completed two 2.400 km trials around an all-weather athletics track wearing GPSports Pro™ (PRO), GPSports WiSpi™ (WISPI) and an iPhone™ with a Motion X GPS™ 'app' (MOTIONX). Statistical agreement, assessed using t-tests and Bland-Altman plots, indicated an (mean; 95% LOA) underestimation of 2% for average speed (0.126 km·h(-1); -0.389 to 0.642; p < .001), 1.7% for maximal speed (0.442 km·h(-1); -2.676 to 3.561; p = .018) and 1.9% for distance (0.045 km; -0.140 to 0.232; p < .001) by MOTIONX compared to that measured by PRO. In contrast, compared to PRO, WISPI overestimated average speed (0.232 km·h(-1); -0.376 to 0.088; p < .001) and distance (0.083 km; -0.129 to -0.038; p < .001) by 3.5% whilst underestimating maximal speed by 2.5% (0.474 km·h(-1); -1.152 to 2.099; p < .001). Despite the statistically significant difference, the MOTIONX measures intensity of physical activity, with a similar error as WISPI, to an acceptable level for population-based monitoring in unimpeded open-air environments. This presents a low-cost, minimal burden opportunity to remotely monitor physical activity participation to improve the prescription of exercise as medicine.

  1. Integrated Interpretation of Geophysical, Geotechnical, and Environmental Monitoring Data to Define Precursors for Landslide Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, S.; Chambers, J.; Merritt, A.; Wilkinson, P.; Meldrum, P.; Gunn, D.; Maurer, H.; Dixon, N.

    2014-12-01

    To develop a better understanding of the failure mechanisms leading to first time failure or reactivation of landslides, the British Geological Survey is operating an observatory on an active, shallow landslide in North Yorkshire, UK, which is a typical example of slope failure in Lias Group mudrocks. This group and the Whitby Mudstone Formation in particular, show one of the highest landslide densities in the UK. The observatory comprises geophysical (i.e., ERT and self-potential monitoring, P- and S-wave tomography), geotechnical (i.e. acoustic emission and inclinometer), and hydrological and environmental monitoring (i.e. weather station, water level, soil moisture, soil temperature), in addition to movement monitoring using real-time kinematic GPS. In this study we focus on the reactivation of the landslide at the end of 2012, after an exceptionally wet summer. We present an integrated interpretation of the different data streams. Results show that the two lobes (east and west), which form the main focus of the observatory, behave differently. While water levels, and hence pore pressures, in the eastern lobe are characterised by a continuous increase towards activation resulting in significant movement (i.e. metres), water levels in the western lobe are showing frequent drainage events and thus lower pore pressures and a lower level of movement (i.e. tens of centimetres). This is in agreement with data from the geoelectrical monitoring array. During the summer season, resistivities generally increase due to decreasing moisture levels. However, during the summer of 2012 this seasonal pattern was interrupted, with the reactivated lobe displaying strongly decreasing resistivities (i.e. increasing moisture levels). The self-potential and soil moisture data show clear indications of moisture accumulation prior to the reactivation, followed by continuous discharge towards the base of the slope. Using the different data streams, we present 3D volumetric images of

  2. Validation of MODIS and SEVIRI Active Fire Monitoring products over Western Romania. Case study: Arad County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oanea, Lavinia; Alina Ristea, Mihaela

    2014-05-01

    At the national level, the issue of wildfire monitoring represents a long debated topic. However, in the present situation, fire management requires various improvements in terms of detection, monitoring and post-fire analysis. The objectives of this study are to validate the data provided by MODIS (Terra and Aqua) Active Fire Monitoring and SEVIRI (MSG) FIR (Active Fire Monitoring) satellite products, with wildfires field data from The Romanian General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations (IGSU) (1), to chart the efficiency of satellite products in locating fires and study their strengths and weaknesses using a SWOT analysis (2). This is the initial step of a larger project that aims to implement an online Geographic Information System for fire management that will ease wildfire data manipulation and facilitate the decision making process. In order to do so, the current study objectives must be achieved. Our general strategy is to determine the consistency of direct (field measurements) and indirect (satellite data) observations. Depending on the amount of field information, the fire characteristics (location, frequency, extension area, moment of occurrence, type of fire, and others) will be studied through a statistical analysis. The products show some peculiar restrictiveness like spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we will process and interpret satellite products to identify wildfires according to the data from IGSU using specialized software. The case study for the application of these procedures is a set of fire events from Arad county - Romania, that occurred between 2007 and 2013. In order to do so, it is important to compare results from different sensors with field information through various methods and to use only consistent results. The results will play an important role in achieving the above mentioned informational system, which will integrate field information, satellite data and values of parameters that influence the evolution of

  3. Geophysical Monitoring of Active Infiltration Experiments for Recharge Estimation: Gains and Pains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, U.; Lamparter, A.; Houben, G.; Koeniger, P.; Stoeckl, L.; Guenther, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water supply on the island of Langeoog, North Sea, solely depends on groundwater from a freshwater lens. The correct estimation of the recharge rate is critical for a sustainable use of the resource. Extensive hydrogeological and geophysical studies have revealed differences in groundwater recharge by a factor of two and more between the top of the dunes and the dune valleys. The most convincing proof of these differences in recharge is based on isotope analysis (age dating) but boreholes are scarce and a direct proof of recharge is desired. For this purpose active infiltration experiments are performed and geophysically monitored. Former applications of this method in sand and loess soil gave evidence for the applicability of the geophysical observation when combined with tensiometers installed in situ at depth. These results showed firstly that in sandy soil the water reaches the groundwater table quicker than anticipated due to the water repellent characteristic of the dry sand, inhibiting the lateral spreading of the water. The studies also revealed that in loess preferential flow is initiated by ponding and that sprinkling caused very slow movement of water within the unsaturated zone and the water remained near the surface. On the island of Langeoog field experiments underlined the importance of water repellency on the dune surface, indicating that the rain water runs off superficially into the dune valleys where higher recharge is found. The active infiltration zone of the experiment covers an area of some 7m² and includes steeper parts of the dune. The infiltration will vary depending on rainfall intensity and duration, original water content and vegetation cover. What results can we reliably expect from the active experiment and what additional measurements are required to back up the findings? Results are ambiguous with regard to the quantitative assessment but the processes can be visualized by geophysical monitoring in situ.

  4. Backscattering characteristics Analyses of winter wheat covered area and Drought Monitoring Based on active microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C., Sr.; Li, L.

    2015-12-01

    The advantage of active microwave remote sensing on the sensitivity of polarization characteristic, backscatter intensity and phase characteristics to soil moisture demonstrates its potential to map and monitor relative soil moisture changes and drought information with high spatial resolution. However, the existence of soil surface condition and vegetation effects confounds the retrieval of soil moisture from active microwave, and therefore limits its applications on soil moisture retrieval and drought monitoring. To research how to reduce the effect of soil roughness and wheat cover with multi- incident angles and multi polarization active microwave remote sensing data, MIMICS and AIEM models were used to simulate the backscattering coefficient of winter wheat covered field. The interaction between winter wheat at main growth stages and microwave was analyzed. The effects of surface roughness and physical parameters of wheat on the backscattering characteristics and the variation of different incident angles and different polarization conditions are simulated and analyzed emphatically. Then scattering coefficient information of winter wheat covered area at different wheat growth stage was measured with a C band ground-based scattering meter. At the same time, biomass, leaf area index and soil rough degree, soil water content and other related parameters are collected. After comparing and analyzing the measured data and the simulated data at different incident angles and different polarization modes, we propose an approach of using multi polarization and multi angle data to eliminate the soil roughness and wheat vegetation effects and performing the inversion of soil moisture. Using the Radarsat2 satellite SAR data and ground-based scatter data gotten at the same period in 2012, soil moisture information of greater area is obtained, and then the drought information is obtained, which is consistent with the measured results.

  5. Monitoring the sensitivity of active gully erosion to individual runoff events and seasonal soil moisture changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. P.; Delong, S.; Whipple, K. X.

    2010-12-01

    One method for quantitatively predicting landscape sensitivity to changes in climate is to measure rates of landscape change (i.e., local erosion and deposition) over timescales of weather, and then to use these data to develop models that scale specific surface processes up to climate timescales. In order to implement this approach, we have quantified relations between hydrology and soil headwall erosion at two gully headwalls in a discontinuous arroyo network formed on predominantly Pleistocene alluvial fan surfaces near Oracle, Arizona. The field site is a semiarid rangeland, with low relief overall but deep and active arroyo incision. Since June 2008 we have intensively monitored rainfall, soil moisture, hillslope overland flow and channel discharge at 1-2 minute intervals, using more than 50 sensors. In addition, we have measured soil erosion and headwall retreat in these arroyos, using multiple complementary techniques including ground-based LiDAR, RTK GPS surveys, and time-lapse field photography. These photographs have been taken in stereo, and we are currently using photogrammetric techniques to measure erosion at hourly timescales over this two-year monitoring interval. We find that landscape sensitivity to weather is complex and arguably counterintuitive: erosion occurs due not only to intense runoff events during the summer monsoon season, but also due to mass wasting and headwall collapse from soil wetting and drying, which is more active during the wetter and cooler winter months. Plunge pool erosion at the headcut base maintains headwalls at approximately vertical, and the efficiency of plunge pool erosion is greatly enhanced by the soil surface wet-dry weathering. Therefore, our preliminary data suggest that the intensity of individual runoff events need not be the dominant control on arroyo incision rates. It remains to be seen if these observations and interpretations are applicable to other environments with active gully erosion, but which have

  6. Quantum dot-NBD-liposome luminescent probes for monitoring phospholipase A2 activity.

    PubMed

    Kethineedi, Venkata R; Crivat, Georgeta; Tarr, Matthew A; Rosenzweig, Zeev

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we describe the fabrication and characterization of new liposome encapsulated quantum dot-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based probes for monitoring the enzymatic activity of phospholipase A2. To fabricate the probes, luminescent CdSe/ZnS quantum dots capped with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) ligands were incorporated into the lipid bilayer of unilamellar liposomes with an average diameter of approximately 100 nm. Incorporating TOPO capped quantum dots in liposomes enabled their use in aqueous solution while maintaining their hydrophobicity and excellent photophysical properties. The phospholipid bilayer was labeled with the fluorophore NBD C6-HPC (2-(6-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)hexanoyl-1-hexa decanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine). The luminescent quantum dots acted as FRET donors and the NBD dye molecules acted as FRET acceptors. The probe response was based on FRET interactions between the quantum dots and the NBD dye molecules. The NBD dye molecules were cleaved and released to the solution in the presence of the enzyme phospholipase A2. This led to an increase of the luminescence of the quantum dots and to a corresponding decrease in the fluorescence of the NBD molecules, because of a decrease in FRET efficiency between the quantum dots and the NBD dye molecules. Because the quantum dots were not attached covalently to the phospholipids, they did not hinder the enzyme activity as a result of steric effects. The probes were able to detect amounts of phospholipase A2 as low as 0.0075 U mL(-1) and to monitor enzyme activity in real time. The probes were also used to screen phospholipase A2 inhibitors. For example, we found that the inhibition efficiency of MJ33 (1-hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethyl)-sn-glycero-2-phosphomethanol) was higher than that of OBAA (3-(4-octadecyl)benzoylacrylic acid).

  7. Monitoring of posture allocations and activities by a shoe-based wearable sensor.

    PubMed

    Sazonov, Edward S; Fulk, George; Hill, James; Schutz, Yves; Browning, Raymond

    2011-04-01

    Monitoring of posture allocations and activities enables accurate estimation of energy expenditure and may aid in obesity prevention and treatment. At present, accurate devices rely on multiple sensors distributed on the body and thus may be too obtrusive for everyday use. This paper presents a novel wearable sensor, which is capable of very accurate recognition of common postures and activities. The patterns of heel acceleration and plantar pressure uniquely characterize postures and typical activities while requiring minimal preprocessing and no feature extraction. The shoe sensor was tested in nine adults performing sitting and standing postures and while walking, running, stair ascent/descent and cycling. Support vector machines (SVMs) were used for classification. A fourfold validation of a six-class subject-independent group model showed 95.2% average accuracy of posture/activity classification on full sensor set and over 98% on optimized sensor set. Using a combination of acceleration/pressure also enabled a pronounced reduction of the sampling frequency (25 to 1 Hz) without significant loss of accuracy (98% versus 93%). Subjects had shoe sizes (US) M9.5-11 and W7-9 and body mass index from 18.1 to 39.4 kg/m2 and thus suggesting that the device can be used by individuals with varying anthropometric characteristics.

  8. Autonomous Sensorweb Operations for Integrated Space, In-Situ Monitoring of Volcanic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Doubleday, Joshua; Kedar, Sharon; Davies, Ashley G.; Lahusen, Richard; Song, Wenzhan; Shirazi, Behrooz; Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    We have deployed and demonstrated operations of an integrated space in-situ sensorweb for monitoring volcanic activity. This sensorweb includes a network of ground sensors deployed to the Mount Saint Helens volcano as well as the Earth Observing One spacecraft. The ground operations and space operations are interlinked in that ground-based intelligent event detections can cause the space segment to acquire additional data via observation requests and space-based data acquisitions (thermal imagery) can trigger reconfigurations of the ground network to allocate increased bandwidth to areas of the network best situated to observe the activity. The space-based operations are enabled by an automated mission planning and tasking capability which utilizes several Opengeospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensorweb Enablement (SWE) standards which enable acquiring data, alerts, and tasking using web services. The ground-based segment also supports similar protocols to enable seamless tasking and data delivery. The space-based segment also supports onboard development of data products (thermal summary images indicating areas of activity, quicklook context images, and thermal activity alerts). These onboard developed products have reduced data volume (compared to the complete images) which enables them to be transmitted to the ground more rapidly in engineering channels.

  9. The validity of the ActiPed for physical activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Brown, D K; Grimwade, D; Martinez-Bussion, D; Taylor, M J D; Gladwell, V F

    2013-05-01

    The ActiPed (FitLinxx) is a uniaxial accelerometer, which objectively measures physical activity, uploads the data wirelessly to a website, allowing participants and researchers to view activity levels remotely. The aim was to validate ActiPed's step count, distance travelled and activity time against direct observation. Further, to compare against pedometer (YAMAX), accelerometer (ActiGraph) and manufacturer's guidelines. 22 participants, aged 28±7 years, undertook 4 protocols, including walking on different surfaces and incremental running protocol (from 2 mph to 8 mph). Bland-Altman plots allowed comparison of direct observation against ActiPed estimates. For step count, the ActiPed showed a low % bias in all protocols: walking on a treadmill (-1.30%), incremental treadmill protocol (-1.98%), walking over grass (-1.67%), and walking over concrete (-0.93%). When differentiating between walking and running step count the ActiPed showed a % bias of 4.10% and -6.30%, respectively. The ActiPed showed >95% accuracy for distance and duration estimations overall, although underestimated distance (p<0.01) for walking over grass and concrete. Overall, the ActiPed showed acceptable levels of accuracy comparable to previous validated pedometers and accelerometers. The accuracy combined with the simple and informative remote gathering of data, suggests that the ActiPed could be a useful tool in objective physical activity monitoring.

  10. Real-time monitoring of invertase activity immobilized in nanoporous aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Dhathathreyan, A

    2011-05-26

    In this work, we demonstrate the activity of enzyme invertase immobilized in the pores of nanoporous anodized 3 μm thick aluminum oxide (AA). The porous anodic alumina has uniform nanosized pores with an interpore distance of p = 100 nm, with pore diameters on the order of 60-65 nm. The pores trap the enzyme and continuous monitoring of the activity is carried out in a flow cell where the substrate is made to flow and the product is detected. The activity of the immobilized enzyme has been determined for the different concentrations of sucrose and for pH ranging from 3 to 6.5. Maximum activity was found for pH 4.5. Adsorption of the enzyme followed by its interaction with the substrate have been analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and surface plasmon spectroscopy (SPR) and the results obtained show excellent correlation. SPR results show a biphasic kinetics for the adsorption of the enzyme as well as its interaction with the substrate with rates of adsorption for the enzyme at k = 2.9 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and 1.17 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). The rate of interaction of the substrate with the invertase is initially rapid with k = 4.49 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) followed by a slower rate 1.43 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1).

  11. Shell-crosslinked hyaluronic acid nanogels for live monitoring of hyaluronidase activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihyun; Chong, Youhoon; Mok, Hyejung

    2014-06-01

    A hyaluronidase (HAdase) has been noticed as a potential drug target as well as prognostic marker because of its close associations with tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Accordingly, precise monitoring of HAdase activity in vivo seems to be crucial not only for the evaluation of HAdase activity but also for non-invasive molecular imaging. In our study, we propose a new organic, near-infrared fluorescence imaging probe, indocyanine green (ICG)-based stimuli-responsive fluorescence probe for selective imaging of HAdases with appreciable signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios in serum and in vivo. Shell-crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) nanogels (sc-nanogels) are generated via a reducible covalent linkage which incorporate ICG derivatives. The ICG-embeded HA nanogels via shell-crosslinking have preferable properties for ideal selective imaging and detection of HAdase activity in vivo. The sc-nanogels exhibit prominent chemical stability against external light, greatly control background signals in serum, and small size compared to use of self-assembled ICG-based carriers. Collapsed ICG in the hydrogel core is selectively disentangled by HAdase treatment for selective near-infrared imaging without unwanted background signal. The newly designed sc-nanogels may have great potential to serve as probes for improved selective imaging of HAdase-associated diseases in clinics as well as HAdase-activity screening in vivo.

  12. Review of magnetic field monitoring near active faults and volcanic calderas in California: 1974-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, R.J.; Johnston, M.J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Differential magnetic fields have been monitored along the San Andreas fault and the Long Valley caldera since 1974. At each monitoring location, proton precession magnetometers sample total magnetic field intensity at a resolution of 0.1 nT or 0.25 nT. Every 10 min, data samples are transmitted via satellite telemetry to Menlo Park, CA for processing and analysis. The number of active magnetometer sites has varied during the past 21 years from 6 to 25, with 12 sites currently operational. We use this network to identify magnetic field changes generated by earthquake and volcanic processes. During the two decades of monitoring, five moderate earthquakes (M5.9 to M7.3) have occurred within 20 km of magnetometer sites located along the San Andreas fault and only one preseismic signal of 1.5 nT has been observed. During moderate earthquakes, coseismic magnetic signals, with amplitudes from 0.7 nT to 1.3 nT, have been identified for 3 of the 5 events. These observations are generally consistent with those calculated from simple seismomagnetic models of these earthquakes and near-fault coseismic magnetic field disturbances rarely exceed one nanotesla. These data are consistent with the concept of low shear stress and relatively uniform displacement of the San Andreas fault system as expected due to high pore fluid pressure on the fault. A systematic decrease of 0.8-1 nT/year in magnetic field has occurred in the Long Valley caldera since 1989. These magnetic field data are similar in form to observed geodetically measured displacements from inflation of the resurgent dome. A simple volcanomagnetic model involving pressure increase of 50 MPa/a at a depth of 7 km under the resurgent dome can replicate these magnetic field observations. This model is derived from the intrusion model that best fits the surface deformation data. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Electrodic voltages in the presence of dissolved sulfide: Implications for monitoring natural microbial activity

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, L.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Yee, N.; O'Brien, M.; Zhang, C.; Williams, K. H.

    2008-10-01

    There is growing interest in the development of new monitoring strategies for obtaining spatially extensive data diagnostic of microbial processes occurring in the earth. Open-circuit potentials arising from variable redox conditions in the fluid local-to-electrode surfaces (electrodic potentials) were recorded for a pair of silver-silver chloride electrodes in a column experiment, whereby a natural wetland soil containing a known community of sulfate reducers was continuously fed with a sulfate-rich nutrient medium. Measurements were made between five electrodes equally spaced along the column and a reference electrode placed on the column inflow. The presence of a sulfate reducing microbial population, coupled with observations of decreasing sulfate levels, formation of black precipitate (likely iron sulfide),elevated solid phase sulfide, and a characteristic sulfurous smell, suggest microbial-driven sulfate reduction (sulfide generation) in our column. Based on the known sensitivity of a silver electrode to dissolved sulfide concentration, we interpret the electrodic potentials approaching 700 mV recorded in this experiment as an indicator of the bisulfide (HS-) concentration gradients in the column. The measurement of the spatial and temporal variation in these electrodic potentials provides a simple and rapid method for monitoring patterns of relative HS- concentration that are indicative of the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Our measurements have implications both for the autonomous monitoring of anaerobic microbial processes in the subsurface and the performance of self-potential electrodes, where it is critical to isolate, and perhaps quantify, electrochemical interfaces contributing to observed potentials.

  14. Novel, dually radiolabeled peptides for simultaneous monitoring of enzymatic activity and protein targets

    SciTech Connect

    Efrem Mebrahtu, Suzanne Lapi

    2012-12-13

    This application investigated a novel imaging approach to develop methods to incorporate multiple radionuclides into a single peptide at chemoselective sites for simultaneous monitoring of cell-bound protein targets as well as specific enzymatic activity, both of which are associated with enhanced tumor growth and metastasis. This imaging construct was synthesized in such a manner so that the PET radionuclide will remain associated with the tumor cells and the SPECT radionuclide was cleaved from the imaging agent. Measurement of the PET agent only will yield information about the tumor marker density while measurement of the amount of co-localization and mismatch of the two radionuclides will yield information about the enzymatic activity. This coincident measuring technique using both PET and SPECT agents allows us to draw correlations involving the interactions of enzymes (cathepsin, serine-protease urokinase (uPA) and matrix metalloproteases) and other cellular proteins which play a role in cancer growth and metastasis. This technique will allow for studies in xenograft or genetic models of cancer in the same animal at the same time, thus eliminating problems that may occur when trying to invoke comparisons across animals or timepoints. By using radionuclide imaging as opposed to other imaging modalities, this technique has the potential to be translatable and can exploit the high specific activity probes which can be generated with radiotracers. The proof of principle test of this system investigated simultaneous monitoring of matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity in the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as density of integrins on the cell surface, both of which can serve as tumor markers. The outcomes/deliverables of this project were as follows: 1. Peptides were synthesized dually labeled at chemospecific sites with PET and SPECT agents. 2. Stability (intrinsic and to radiolysis) and specific activity of these labeled compounds were determined. 3. The

  15. Monitoring microbial growth and activity using spectral induced polarization and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Keating, Kristina; Revil, Andre

    2015-04-01

    Microbes and microbial activities in the Earth's subsurface play a significant role in shaping subsurface environments and are involved in environmental applications such as remediation of contaminants in groundwater and oil fields biodegradation. Stimulated microbial growth in such applications could cause wide variety of changes of physical/chemical properties in the subsurface. It is critical to monitor and determine the fate and transportation of microorganisms in the subsurface during such applications. Recent geophysical studies demonstrate the potential of two innovative techniques, spectral induced polarization (SIP) and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), for monitoring microbial growth and activities in porous media. The SIP measures complex dielectric properties of porous media at low frequencies of exciting electric field, and NMR studies the porous structure of geologic media and characterizes fluids subsurface. In this laboratory study, we examined both SIP and NMR responses from bacterial growth suspension as well as suspension mixed with silica sands. We focus on the direct contribution of microbes to the SIP and NMR signals in the absence of biofilm formation or biomineralization. We used Zymomonas mobilis and Shewanella oneidensis (MR-1) for SIP and NMR measurements, respectively. The SIP measurements were collected over the frequency range of 0.1 - 1 kHz on Z. mobilis growth suspension and suspension saturated sands at different cell densities. SIP data show two distinct peaks in imaginary conductivity spectra, and both imaginary and real conductivities increased as microbial density increased. NMR data were collected using both CPMG pulse sequence and D-T2 mapping to determine the T2-distribution and diffusion properties on S. oneidensis suspension, pellets (live and dead), and suspension mixed with silica sands. NMR data show a decrease in the T2-distribution in S. oneidensis suspension saturated sands as microbial density increase. A

  16. Active Monitoring of Travelers Arriving from Ebola-Affected Countries - New York City, October 2014-April 2015.

    PubMed

    Millman, Alexander J; Chamany, Shadi; Guthartz, Seth; Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Porter, Michael; Schroeder, Andrew; Vora, Neil M; Varma, Jay K; Starr, David

    2016-01-29

    The Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa has claimed approximately 11,300 lives (1), and the magnitude and course of the epidemic prompted many nonaffected countries to prepare for Ebola cases imported from affected countries. In October 2014, CDC and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) implemented enhanced entry risk assessment and management at five U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York City (NYC), O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey, Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in Atlanta, and Dulles International Airport in Virginia (2). Enhanced entry risk assessment began at JFK on October 11, 2014, and at the remaining airports on October 16 (3). On October 21, DHS exercised its authority to direct all travelers flying into the United States from an Ebola-affected country to arrive at one of the five participating airports. At the time, the Ebola-affected countries included Guinea, Liberia, Mali, and Sierra Leone. On October 27, CDC issued updated guidance for monitoring persons with potential Ebola virus exposure (4), including recommending daily monitoring of such persons to ascertain the presence of fever or symptoms for a period of 21 days (the maximum incubation period of Ebola virus) after the last potential exposure; this was termed "active monitoring." CDC also recommended "direct active monitoring" of persons with a higher risk for Ebola virus exposure, including health care workers who had provided direct patient care in Ebola-affected countries. Direct active monitoring required direct observation of the person being monitored by the local health authority at least once daily (5). This report describes the operational structure of the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's (DOHMH) active monitoring program during its first 6 months (October 2014-April 2015) of operation. Data collected on persons who required direct active monitoring

  17. Real-time fluorescence assays to monitor duplex unwinding and ATPase activities of helicases.

    PubMed

    Özeş, Ali R; Feoktistova, Kateryna; Avanzino, Brian C; Baldwin, Enoch P; Fraser, Christopher S

    2014-07-01

    Many physiological functions of helicases are dependent on their ability to unwind nucleic acid duplexes in an ATP-dependent fashion. Determining the kinetic frameworks of these processes is crucial to understanding how these proteins function. We recently developed a fluorescence assay to monitor RNA duplex unwinding by DEAD-box helicases in real time. In this assay, two fluorescently modified short reporter oligonucleotides are annealed to an unmodified RNA loading strand of any length so that the fluorescent moieties of the two reporters find themselves in close proximity to each other and fluorescence is quenched. One reporter is modified with cyanine 3 (Cy3), whereas the other is modified with a spectrally paired black-hole quencher (BHQ). As the helicase unwinds the loading strand, the enzyme displaces the Cy3-modified reporter, which will bind to a capture or competitor DNA strand, permanently separating it from the BHQ-modified reporter. Complete separation of the Cy3-modified reporter strand is thus detected as an increase in total fluorescence. This assay is compatible with reagentless biosensors to monitor ATPase activity so that the coupling between ATP hydrolysis and duplex unwinding can be determined. With the protocol described, obtaining data and analyzing results of unwinding and ATPase assays takes ∼4 h.

  18. An array of microactuated microelectrodes for monitoring single-neuronal activity in rodents.

    PubMed

    Muthuswamy, Jit; Okandan, Murat; Gilletti, Aaron; Baker, Michael S; Jain, Tilak

    2005-08-01

    Arrays of microelectrodes used for monitoring single- and multi-neuronal action potentials often fail to record from the same population of neurons over a period of time for several technical and biological reasons. We report here a novel Neural Probe chip with a 3-channel microactuated microelectrode array that will enable precise repositioning of the individual microelectrodes within the brain tissue after implantation. Thermal microactuators and associated microelectrodes in the Neural Probe chip are microfabricated using the Sandia's Ultraplanar Multi-level MEMS Technology (SUMMiTV) process, a 5-layer polysilicon micromachining technology of the Sandia National labs, Albuquerque, NM. The Neural Probe chip enables precise bi-directional positioning of the microelectrodes in the brain with a step resolution in the order of 8.8 microm. The thermal microactuators allow for a linear translation of the microelectrodes of up to 5 mm in either direction making it suitable for positioning microelectrodes in deep structures of a rodent brain. The overall translation in either direction was reduced to approximately 2 mm after insulation of the microelectrodes with epoxy for monitoring multi-unit activity. Single unit recordings were obtained from the somatosensory cortex of adult rats over a period of three days demonstrating the feasibility of this technology. Further optimization of the microelectrode insulation and chip packaging will be necessary before this technology can be validated in chronic experiments.

  19. Rapid monitoring of RNA degradation activity in vivo for mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Tani, Hidenori; Sato, Hiroaki; Torimura, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    We have developed a rapid fluorescence assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for the monitoring of RNA degradation activity in mammalian cells. In this technique, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) fluorescent probes are used. The dsRNA fluorescent probes consist of a 5' fluorophore-labeled strand hybridized to a 3' quencher-labeled strand, and the fluorescent dye is quenched by a quencher dye. When the dsRNA is degraded by nascent RNases in cells, the fluorescence emission of the fluorophore is induced following the degradation of the double strands. The degradation rates of the dsRNA are decelerated in response to chemical or environmental toxicity; therefore, in the case of cellular toxicity, the dsRNA is not degraded and remains intact, thus quenching the fluorescence. Unlike in conventional cell-counting assays, this new assay eliminates time-consuming steps, and can be used to simply evaluate the cellular toxicity via a single reaction. Our results demonstrate that this assay can rapidly quantify the RNA degradation rates in vivo within 4 h for three model chemicals. We propose that this assay will be useful for monitoring cellular toxicity in high-throughput applications.

  20. An Array of Microactuated Microelectrodes for Monitoring Single-Neuronal Activity in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Okandan, Murat; Gilletti, Aaron; Baker, Michael S.; Jain, Tilak

    2006-01-01

    Arrays of microelectrodes used for monitoring single-and multi-neuronal action potentials often fail to record from the same population of neurons over a period of time for several technical and biological reasons. We report here a novel Neural Probe chip with a 3-channel microactuated microelectrode array that will enable precise repositioning of the individual microelectrodes within the brain tissue after implantation. Thermal microactuators and associated microelectrodes in the Neural Probe chip are microfabricated using the Sandia’s Ultraplanar Multi-level MEMS Technology (SUMMiTV) process, a 5-layer polysilicon microma-chining technology of the Sandia National labs, Albuquerque, NM. The Neural Probe chip enables precise bi-directional positioning of the microelectrodes in the brain with a step resolution in the order of 8.8μm. The thermal microactuators allow for a linear translation of the microelectrodes of up to 5 mm in either direction making it suitable for positioning microelectrodes in deep structures of a rodent brain. The overall translation in either direction was reduced to approximately 2 mm after insulation of the microelectrodes with epoxy for monitoring multi-unit activity. Single unit recordings were obtained from the somatosensory cortex of adult rats over a period of three days demonstrating the feasibility of this technology. Further optimization of the microelectrode insulation and chip packaging will be necessary before this technology can be validated in chronic experiments. PMID:16119243

  1. Prioritization methodology for the monitoring of active pharmaceutical ingredients in hospital effluents.

    PubMed

    Daouk, Silwan; Chèvre, Nathalie; Vernaz, Nathalie; Bonnabry, Pascal; Dayer, Pierre; Daali, Youssef; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2015-09-01

    The important number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) available on the market along with their potential adverse effects in the aquatic ecosystems, lead to the development of prioritization methods, which allow choosing priority molecules to monitor based on a set of selected criteria. Due to the large volumes of API used in hospitals, an increasing attention has been recently paid to their effluents as a source of environmental pollution. Based on the consumption data of a Swiss university hospital, about hundred of API has been prioritized following an OPBT approach (Occurrence, Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity). In addition, an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) allowed prioritizing API based on predicted concentrations and environmental toxicity data found in the literature for 71 compounds. Both prioritization approaches were compared. OPBT prioritization results highlight the high concern of some non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antiviral drugs, whereas antibiotics are revealed by ERA as potentially problematic to the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, according to the predicted risk quotient, only the hospital fraction of ciprofloxacin represents a risk to the aquatic organisms. Some compounds were highlighted as high-priority with both methods: ibuprofen, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ritonavir, gabapentin, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, raltegravir, propofol, etc. Analyzing consumption data and building prioritization lists helped choosing about 15 API to be monitored in hospital wastewaters. The API ranking approach adopted in this study can be easily transposed to any other hospitals, which have the will to look at the contamination of their effluents.

  2. Object tracking via background subtraction for monitoring illegal activity in crossroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Deepak; Jeong, Sunghwan; Park, Sang Hyun; Lee, Joonwhoan

    2016-07-01

    In the field of intelligent transportation system a great number of vision-based techniques have been proposed to prevent pedestrians from being hit by vehicles. This paper presents a system that can perform pedestrian and vehicle detection and monitoring of illegal activity in zebra crossings. In zebra crossing, according to the traffic light status, to fully avoid a collision, a driver or pedestrian should be warned earlier if they possess any illegal moves. In this research, at first, we detect the traffic light status of pedestrian and monitor the crossroad for vehicle pedestrian moves. The background subtraction based object detection and tracking is performed to detect pedestrian and vehicles in crossroads. Shadow removal, blob segmentation, trajectory analysis etc. are used to improve the object detection and classification performance. We demonstrate the experiment in several video sequences which are recorded in different time and environment such as day time and night time, sunny and raining environment. Our experimental results show that such simple and efficient technique can be used successfully as a traffic surveillance system to prevent accidents in zebra crossings.

  3. In vivo monitoring of toxic metals: assessment of neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    To date, cadmium, lead, aluminum, and mercury have been measured in vivo in humans. The possibilities of monitoring other toxic metals have also been demonstrated, but no human studies have been performed. Neutron activation analysis appears to be most suitable for Cd and Al measurements, while x-ray fluorescence is ideally suited for measurement of lead in superficial bone. Filtered neutron beams and polarized x-ray sources are being developed which will improve in vivo detection limits. Even so, several of the current facilities are already suitable for use in epidemiological studies of selected populations with suspected long-term low-level ''environmental'' exposures. Evaluation and diagnosis of patients presenting with general clinical symptoms attributable to possible toxic metal exposure may be assisted by in vivo examination. Continued in vivo monitoring of industrial workers, especially follow-up measurements, will provide the first direct assessment of changes in body burden and a direct measure of the biological life-times of these metals in humans. 50 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Passive and active thermography for in situ damage monitoring in woven composites during mechanical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, J.-M.; Balageas, D.; Lamboul, B.; Bai, G.; Passilly, F.; Mavel, A.; Grail, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to highlight the contribution of both passive and active infrared thermography for in situ damage detection and monitoring in a 2D woven composite, during a mechanical testing constituted of multiple sequences of loadings and intermediate pauses. During the monotonic tensile loadings, damages such as matrix cracking and fiber-matrix debondings are monitored by passive thermography. Their thermal signatures are analyzed and the released heat, which is assumed to be a relevant index of their severity, is evaluated and correlated to the associated acoustic energies, simultaneously recorded. Finally, the contribution of the TSR (Thermographic Signal Reconstruction) advanced processing technique to provide a qualitative overview of the detected damages is underlined. As for the constant stress plateau levels, a nondestructive damage inspection of the tested specimen is carried out by pulsed thermography. The difficulties, due to the woven structure of the composite, in detecting any damage are put into relief. Once more, it is shown that the TSR technique can be useful.

  5. Systematics and molecular phylogeny of two African stem borer genera, Sciomesa Tams & Bowden and Carelis Bowden (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Moyal, P; Le Ru, B; Conlong, D; Cugala, D; Defabachew, B; Matama-Kauma, T; Pallangyo, B; Van den Berg, J

    2010-12-01

    Currently, the systematics of the African noctuid stem borers of the subtribe Sesamiina, which include major pests of cereals, is confused. In addition, their ecology is poorly known, as are the factors influencing their evolution. In this paper, we address these shortcomings for two genera of the Sesamiina, Sciomesa Tams & Bowden and Carelis Bowden. Mixed Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, which included their host plants and two mitochondrial genes, showed the genus Sciomesa to be polyphyletic. Two new genera were created, Pirateolea and Feraxinia. The genus Carelis proved to be paraphyletic and was subdivided into two sub-genera. The genera Sciomesa, Carelis and Pirateolea (named the 'Sciomesa genus group') share morphological traits, and the phylogenetic analysis showed that they had a common ancestor living on Cyperaceae and that they were distant from the genus Feraxinia belonging to another clade which had an ancestor living on Poaceae. Seven new species were described: Sciomesa gnosia sp. n., Sciomesia bua sp. n., Pirateolea nola gen. n, sp. n., Feraxinia serena gen. n., sp. n., Carelis australis sp. n., Carelis transversa sp. n. and Carelis agnae sp. n. Ten species were sunk as synonyms: Sciomesa mesoscia (Hampson) syn. n., Sciomesa mirifica Laporte syn. n., Sciomesa constantini Laporte syn. n. and Sciomesa etchecopari Laporte syn. n. are synonyms of Sciomesa mesophaea (Aurivillius); Acrapex sparsipucta Laporte syn. n. is a synonym of Sciomesa excelsa (Laporte) comb. n.; Acrapex congitae Laporte syn. n., Sesamia minuta Laporte syn. n. and Sesamia minuscula Laporte syn. n. are synonyms of Sciomesa boulardi (Laporte) comb. n.; Acrapex bryae Laporte syn. n. and Acrapex fayei Laporte syn. n. are synonyms of Feraxinia jemjemensis (Laporte) comb. n. Eleven new combinations were created: Sciomesa excelsa (Laporte) comb. n., Sciomesa boulardi (Laporte) comb. n., Sciomesa punctipennis (Krüger) comb. n., Pirateolea piscator (Fletcher) comb. n., Pirateolea argocyma

  6. 78 FR 13712 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned Monitoring Activities for F-Area Tank Farm at the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... COMMISSION U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned Monitoring Activities for F-Area Tank Farm at the... Savannah River Site F-Area Tank Farm Facility in Accordance with the National Defense Authorization Act for... DOE's waste disposal activities at the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site, in accordance...

  7. Laser measurement of respiration activity in preterm infants: Monitoring of peculiar events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalise, L.; Marchionni, P.; Ercoli, I.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2012-09-01

    The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is a part of a pediatric hospital dedicated to the care of ill or pre-term patients . NICU's patients are underweight and most of the time they need cardiac and respiratory support therapies; they are placed in incubators or in cribs maintaining target environmental and body temperatures and protecting patients from bacteria and virus. Patients are continuously monitored for long period of time (days or weeks) due to their possible several health conditions. the most common vital signs monitored are: respiration rate, heart rate, body temperature, blood saturation, etc. Most of the devices used for transducing such quantities in electronic signals - like spirometer or electrocardiogram (ECG) - are in direct contact with the patient and results, also in consideration of the specific patient, largely invasive. In this paper, we propose a novel measurement system for non-contact and non-invasive assessment of the respiration activity, with particular reference to the detection of peculiar respiration events of extreme interest in intensive care units, such as: irregular inspiration/expiration acts, hiccups and apneas. The sensing device proposed is the Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDVi) which is an non contact, optical measurement system for the assessment of a surface velocity and displacement. In the past it has been demonstrated to be suitable to measure heart rate (HR) and respiration rate (RR) in adult and in preterm infant trough chest-wall displacements. The measurement system is composed by a LDVi system and a data acquisition board installed on a PC, with no direct contact with the patient. Tests have been conducted on 20 NICU patients, for a total of 7219 data sampled. Results show very high correlation (R=0.99) with the reference instrument used for the patient monitoring (mechanical ventilator), with an uncertainty < ±7 ms (k=2). Moreover, during the tests, some peculiar respiration events, have been recorded on 6 of

  8. A method for the integration of satellite vegetation activities observations and magnetic susceptibility measurements for monitoring heavy metals in soil.

    PubMed

    D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Macchiato, Maria; Ragosta, Maria; Simoniello, Tiziana

    2012-11-30

    We present a procedure for monitoring heavy metals in soil based on the integration of satellite and ground-based techniques, tested in an area affected by high anthropogenic pressure. High resolution multispectral satellite data were elaborated to obtain information on vegetation status. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of soils were collected as proxy variable for monitoring heavy metal presence. Chemical analyses of heavy metals were used for supporting and validating the integrated monitoring procedure. Magnetic and chemical measurements were organized in a GIS environment to be overlapped to satellite-based elaborations and to analyze the pattern distribution. Results show the presence of correlation between anomalies in vegetation activity and soil characteristics. The relationship between the distribution of normalized difference vegetation index anomalies and magnetic susceptibility values provides hints for adopting the integrated procedure as preliminary screening to minimize monitoring efforts and costs by supporting the planning activities of field campaigns.

  9. Energy expenditure prediction via a footwear-based physical activity monitor: Accuracy and comparison to other devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannecker, Kathryn

    2011-12-01

    Accurately estimating free-living energy expenditure (EE) is important for monitoring or altering energy balance and quantifying levels of physical activity. The use of accelerometers to monitor physical activity and estimate physical activity EE is common in both research and consumer settings. Recent advances in physical activity monitors include the ability to identify specific activities (e.g. stand vs. walk) which has resulted in improved EE estimation accuracy. Recently, a multi-sensor footwear-based physical activity monitor that is capable of achieving 98% activity identification accuracy has been developed. However, no study has compared the EE estimation accuracy for this monitor and compared this accuracy to other similar devices. Purpose . To determine the accuracy of physical activity EE estimation of a footwear-based physical activity monitor that uses an embedded accelerometer and insole pressure sensors and to compare this accuracy against a variety of research and consumer physical activity monitors. Methods. Nineteen adults (10 male, 9 female), mass: 75.14 (17.1) kg, BMI: 25.07(4.6) kg/m2 (mean (SD)), completed a four hour stay in a room calorimeter. Participants wore a footwear-based physical activity monitor, as well as three physical activity monitoring devices used in research: hip-mounted Actical and Actigraph accelerometers and a multi-accelerometer IDEEA device with sensors secured to the limb and chest. In addition, participants wore two consumer devices: Philips DirectLife and Fitbit. Each individual performed a series of randomly assigned and ordered postures/activities including lying, sitting (quietly and using a computer), standing, walking, stepping, cycling, sweeping, as well as a period of self-selected activities. We developed branched (i.e. activity specific) linear regression models to estimate EE from the footwear-based device, and we used the manufacturer's software to estimate EE for all other devices. Results. The shoe

  10. The roar of Yasur: Handheld audio recorder monitoring of Vanuatu volcanic vent activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Howell, Robert; Radebaugh, Jani; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.

    2016-08-01

    We describe how near-field audio recording using a pocket digital sound recorder can usefully document volcanic activity, demonstrating the approach at Yasur, Vanuatu in May 2014. Prominent emissions peak at 263 Hz, interpreted as an organ-pipe mode. High-pass filtering was found to usefully discriminate volcano vent noise from wind noise, and autocorrelation of the high pass acoustic power reveals a prominent peak in exhalation intervals of 2.5, 4 and 8 s, with a number of larger explosive events at 200 s intervals. We suggest that this compact and inexpensive audio instrumentation can usefully supplement other field monitoring such as seismic or infrasound. A simple estimate of acoustic power interpreted with a dipole jet noise model yielded vent velocities too low to be compatible with pyroclast emission, suggesting difficulties with this approach at audio frequencies (perhaps due to acoustic absorption by volcanic gases).

  11. Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time Monitoring of Unfractionated Heparin Therapy: Issues and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Marlar, Richard A; Clement, Bernadette; Gausman, Jana

    2016-06-06

    When administering unfractionated heparin (UFH), therapeutic levels of anticoagulation must be achieved rapidly and maintained consistently in the therapeutic range. The basic assays for monitoring UFH therapy are the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and/or the chromogenic antifactor Xa or antithrombin assays. For many laboratories, the APTT is the preferred standard of practice; however, the APTT is a surrogate marker that only estimates the heparin concentration. Many factors, including patient variation, reagents of the APTT, UFH composition, and concentration can influence the APTT result. This article reviews various methods to determine the heparin therapeutic range and presents recommendations for the laboratory to establish an APTT heparin therapeutic range for all sizes of hospitals.

  12. Emitted short wavelength infrared radiation for detection and monitoring of volcanic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothery, D. A.; Francis, P. W.; Wood, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Thematic Mapper images from LANDSAT were used to monitor volcanoes. Achievements include: (1) the discovery of a magmatic precursor to the 16 Sept. 1986 eruption of Lascar, northern Chile, on images from Mar. and July 1985 and of continuing fumarolic activity after the eruption; (2) the detection of unreported major changes in the distribution of lava lakes on Erta'Ale, Ethiopia; and (3) the mapping of a halo of still-hot spatter surrounding a vent on Mount Erebus, Antarctica, on an image acquired 5 min after a minor eruption otherwise known only from seismic records. A spaceborne short wavelength infrared sensor for observing hot phenomena of volcanoes is proposed. A polar orbit is suggested.

  13. Determining daily physical activity levels of youth with developmental disabilities: days of monitoring required?

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Yeun; Yun, Joonkoo

    2009-07-01

    This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way ANOVAs were employed to estimate sources of variability across W, WK, and W and WK combined (WWK) for each device. Primary sources of variability were the person and the person by day interaction for both devices. Using a pedometer, four, six, and eight days of measurements were required to determine typical PA levels of the participants during W, WK, and WWK, respectively, Using one accelerometer, four days of measurements were estimated across all days.

  14. Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors in Lamb Wave-Based Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingyu; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2012-07-01

    Recent advancements in sensors and information technologies have resulted in new methods for structural health monitoring (SHM) of the performance and deterioration of structures. The enabling element is the piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS). This paper presents an introduction to PWAS transducers and their applications in Lamb wave-based SHM. We begin by reviewing the fundamentals of piezoelectric intelligent materials. Then, the mechanism of using PWAS transducers as Lamb wave transmitters and receivers is presented. PWAS interact with the host structure through the shear-lag model. Lamb wave mode tuning can be achieved by judicious combination of PWAS dimensions, frequency value, and Lamb mode characteristics. Finally, use of PWAS Lamb wave SHM for damage detection on plate-like aluminum structures is addressed. Examples of using PWAS phased array scanning, quantitative crack detection with array imaging, and quantitative corrosion detection are given.

  15. Hybrid data capture for monitoring patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in urban Botswana.

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Hermann; Wester, C. William; Ndwapi, Ndwapi; Vanderwarker, Chris; Gaolathe, Tendani; Tirelo, Geoffrey; Avalos, Ava; Moffat, Howard; Marlink, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    Individual patient care and programme evaluation are pivotal for the success of antiretroviral treatment programmes in resource-limited countries. While computer-aided documentation and data storage are indispensable for any large programme, several important issues need to be addressed including which data are to be collected, who collects it and how it is entered into an electronic database. We describe a patient-monitoring approach, which uses patient encounter forms (in hybrid paper + electronic format) based on optical character recognition, piloted at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana's first public highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) outpatient clinic. Our novel data capture approach collects "key" data for tracking patient and programme outcomes. It saves physician time and does not detract from clinical care. PMID:16501730

  16. Active Ground Optical Remote Sensing for Improved Monitoring of Seedling Stress in Nurseries

    PubMed Central

    Eitel, Jan U. H.; Keefe, Robert F.; Long, Dan S.; Davis, Anthony S.; Vierling, Lee A.

    2010-01-01

    Active ground optical remote sensing (AGORS) devices mounted on overhead irrigation booms could help to improve seedling quality by autonomously monitoring seedling stress. In contrast to traditionally used passive optical sensors, AGORS devices operate independently of ambient light conditions and do not require spectral reference readings. Besides measuring red (590–670 nm) and near-infrared (>760 nm) reflectance AGORS devices have recently become available that also measure red-edge (730 nm) reflectance. We tested the hypothesis that the additional availability of red-edge reflectance information would improve AGORS of plant stress induced chlorophyll breakdown in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Our results showed that the availability of red-edge reflectance information improved AGORS estimates of stress induced variation in chlorophyll concentration (r2 > 0.73, RMSE < 1.69) when compared to those without (r2 = 0.57, RMSE = 2.11). PMID:22319275

  17. Treatment selection for urolithiasis: percutaneous nephrolithomy, ureteroscopy, shock wave lithotripsy, and active monitoring.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mahesh; Sun, Yinghao; Buchholz, Noor; Fuller, Andrew; Matsuda, Tadashi; Matlaga, Brian; Miller, Nicole; Bolton, Damien; Alomar, Mohammad; Ganpule, Arvind

    2017-03-16

    Urolithiasis is a significant worldwide source of morbidity, constituting a common urological disease that affects between 10 and 15% of the world population. Recent technological and surgical advances have replaced the need for open surgery with less invasive procedures. The factors which determine the indications for percutaneous nephrolithotomy include stone factors (stone size, stone composition, and stone location), patient factors (habitus and renal anomalies), and failure of other treatment modalities (ESWL and flexible ureteroscopy). The accepted indications for PCNL are stones larger than 20 mm(2), staghorn and partial staghorn calculi, and stones in patients with chronic kidney disease. The contraindications for PCNL include pregnancy, bleeding disorders, and uncontrolled urinary tract infections. Flexible ureteroscopy can be one of the options for lower pole stones between 1.5 and 2 cm in size. This option should be exercised in cases of difficult lower polar anatomy and ESWL-resistant stones. Flexible ureteroscopy can also be an option for stones located in the diverticular neck or a diverticulum. ESWL is the treatment to be discussed as a option in all patient with renal stones (excluding lower polar stones) between size 10 and 20 mm. In addition, in lower polar stones of size between 10 and 20 mm if the anatomy is favourable, ESWL is the option. In proximal ureteral stones, ESWL should be considered as a option with flexible ureteroscopy Active monitoring has a limited role and can be employed in post-intervention (PCNL or ESWL) residual stones, in addition, asymptomatic patients with no evidence of infection and fragments less than 4 mm can be monitored actively.

  18. Monitoring Solution Structures of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β/δ upon Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Rico; Tänzler, Dirk; Ihling, Christian H.; Sinz, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been intensively studied as drug targets to treat type 2 diabetes, lipid disorders, and metabolic syndrome. This study is part of our ongoing efforts to map conformational changes in PPARs in solution by a combination of chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry (MS). To our best knowledge, we performed the first studies addressing solution structures of full-length PPAR-β/δ. We monitored the conformations of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) as well as full-length PPAR-β/δ upon binding of two agonists. (Photo-) cross-linking relied on (i) a variety of externally introduced amine- and carboxyl-reactive linkers and (ii) the incorporation of the photo-reactive amino acid p-benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa) into PPAR-β/δ by genetic engineering. The distances derived from cross-linking experiments allowed us to monitor conformational changes in PPAR-β/δ upon ligand binding. The cross-linking/MS approach proved highly advantageous to study nuclear receptors, such as PPARs, and revealed the interplay between DBD (DNA-binding domain) and LDB in PPAR-β/δ. Our results indicate the stabilization of a specific conformation through ligand binding in PPAR-β/δ LBD as well as full-length PPAR-β/δ. Moreover, our results suggest a close distance between the N- and C-terminal regions of full-length PPAR-β/δ in the presence of GW1516. Chemical cross-linking/MS allowed us gaining detailed insights into conformational changes that are induced in PPARs when activating ligands are present. Thus, cross-linking/MS should be added to the arsenal of structural methods available for studying nuclear receptors. PMID:26992147

  19. Making sense: Dopamine activates conscious self‐monitoring through medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Joensson, Morten; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Andersen, Lau M.; Gross, Joachim; Mouridsen, Kim; Sandberg, Kristian; Østergaard, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Abstract When experiences become meaningful to the self, they are linked to synchronous activity in a paralimbic network of self‐awareness and dopaminergic activity. This network includes medial prefrontal and medial parietal/posterior cingulate cortices, where transcranial magnetic stimulation may transiently impair self‐awareness. Conversely, we hypothesize that dopaminergic stimulation may improve self‐awareness and metacognition (i.e., the ability of the brain to consciously monitor its own cognitive processes). Here, we demonstrate improved noetic (conscious) metacognition by oral administration of 100 mg dopamine in minimal self‐awareness. In a separate experiment with extended self‐awareness dopamine improved the retrieval accuracy of memories of self‐judgment (autonoetic, i.e., explicitly self‐conscious) metacognition. Concomitantly, magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed increased amplitudes of oscillations (power) preferentially in the medial prefrontal cortex. Given that electromagnetic activity in this region is instrumental in self‐awareness, this explains the specific effect of dopamine on explicit self‐awareness and autonoetic metacognition. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1866–1877, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.. PMID:25627861

  20. Real-time spectroscopic monitoring of photocatalytic activity promoted by graphene in a microfluidic reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifan; Lin, Beichen; Ge, Likai; Guo, Hongchen; Chen, Xinyi; Lu, Miao

    2016-06-01

    Photocatalytic microreactors have been utilized as rapid, versatile platforms for the characterization of photocatalysts. In this work, a photocatalytic microreactor integrated with absorption spectroscopy was proposed for the real-time monitoring of photocatalytic activity using different catalysts. The validity of this method was investigated by the rapid screening on the photocatalytic performance of a titanium oxide (TiO2)-decorated graphene oxide (GO) sheet for the degradation of methylene blue under monochromatic visible irradiation. The sampling interval time could be minimized to 10 s for achieving real-time detection. The best photocatalytic activity was observed for an optimized TiO2/GO weight mixing ratio of 7:11, with a reaction rate constant up to 0.067 min‑1. The addition of GO into TiO2 enhances photocatalytic activity and adsorption of MB molecules. The synthetic reaction rate constant was up to approximately 0.11 min‑1, which was also the highest among the catalysts. The microreactor exhibited good sensitivity and reproducibility without weakening the performance of the photocatalysts. Consequently, the photocatalytic microreactor is promising as a simple, portable, and rapid screening tool for new photocatalysts.

  1. Real-time monitoring of matrix metalloproteinase-9 collagenolytic activity with a surface plasmon resonance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Atsushi; Kabeya, Mitsutaka; Sugawara, Masao

    2011-12-01

    We describe a simple method for real-time monitoring of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) collagenolytic activity for native triple helical collagen IV with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. The proteolytic activity of MMP-9 is measured as a decrease in the SPR signal resulting from the cleavage of collagen IV immobilized on the sensor surface. The kinetic parameters of full-length MMP-9 and its catalytic domain-catalytic constant (k(cat)), association rate constant (k(a)), and dissociation rate constant (k(d))-were estimated by the SPR method. The presence of sodium chloride and a nonionic detergent Brij-35 in a reaction solution led to the lower collagenolytic activity of MMP-9, whereas they suppressed the nonspecific interaction between MMP-9 and a cysteamine-modified chip. The comparison of kinetic parameters between MMP-9 and its catalytic domain revealed that the association constant of MMP-9 is much larger than that of the catalytic domain, suggesting that the interplay among hemopexin-like domain, fibronectin type II repeats motif, and linker region (O-glycosylated domain) plays an important role in recognizing collagen IV.

  2. Continuous Monitoring of Electrical Activity of Pancreatic β-Cells Using Semiconductor-Based Biosensing Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Toshiya; Sugimoto, Haruyo

    2011-02-01

    The electrical activity of rat pancreatic β-cells caused by introduction of glucose was directly and noninvasively detected using a cell-based field-effect transistor (FET). Rat pancreatic β-cells were adhered to the gate sensing surface of the cell-based FET. The principle of cell-based FETs is based on the detection of charge density changes such as pH variation at the interface between the cell membrane and the gate surface. The gate surface potential of pancreatic β-cell-based FET increased continuously after introduction of glucose at a high concentration of 10 mg/ml. This result indicates that the electrical activity of β-cells was successfully monitored on the basis of pH changes, i.e., increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions, at the cell/gate interface using the pancreatic β-cell-based FET. We assume that the pH variation based on hydrogen ion accumulation at the cell/gate interface was induced by activation of respiration accompanied by insulin secretion process following glucose addition. The platform based on the field-effect devices is suitable for application in a real-time, noninvasive, and label-free detection system for cell functional analyses.

  3. Outburst activity in comets. I. Continuous monitoring of comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; García-Melendo, E.; Davidsson, B. J. R.; Sánchez, A.; Rodríguez, D.; Lacruz, J.; de Los Reyes, J. A.; Pastor, S.

    2008-07-01

    Aims: We carried out a continuous monitoring of comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 by using medium aperture telescopes with the aim of studying the activity and outburst mechanisms of this comet on the basis of photometric variations. Methods: We used a standardized method to obtain the coma photometry in the R filter of the Johnson-Kron-Cousins system. Some abrupt changes observed in the brightness of SW1 suggest important variations in surface activity with time. Results: During our 2002-2007 observational campaign we detected 28 outbursts (of 1 mag or larger) in 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. A typical outburst is characterized by a rapid increase towards maximum (in a few hours) and a slower decrease toward the quiescent level (in 3-4 days). Given the effective observing time, the average outburst rate is 7.3 events per year. Despite well-sampled data, no signs of a clear periodicity in the outburst occurrence has been found, thus confirming the unpredictability of the activity of this comet.

  4. Real-time spectroscopic monitoring of photocatalytic activity promoted by graphene in a microfluidic reactor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yifan; Lin, Beichen; Ge, Likai; Guo, Hongchen; Chen, Xinyi; Lu, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic microreactors have been utilized as rapid, versatile platforms for the characterization of photocatalysts. In this work, a photocatalytic microreactor integrated with absorption spectroscopy was proposed for the real-time monitoring of photocatalytic activity using different catalysts. The validity of this method was investigated by the rapid screening on the photocatalytic performance of a titanium oxide (TiO2)-decorated graphene oxide (GO) sheet for the degradation of methylene blue under monochromatic visible irradiation. The sampling interval time could be minimized to 10 s for achieving real-time detection. The best photocatalytic activity was observed for an optimized TiO2/GO weight mixing ratio of 7:11, with a reaction rate constant up to 0.067 min−1. The addition of GO into TiO2 enhances photocatalytic activity and adsorption of MB molecules. The synthetic reaction rate constant was up to approximately 0.11 min−1, which was also the highest among the catalysts. The microreactor exhibited good sensitivity and reproducibility without weakening the performance of the photocatalysts. Consequently, the photocatalytic microreactor is promising as a simple, portable, and rapid screening tool for new photocatalysts. PMID:27346555

  5. Making sense: Dopamine activates conscious self-monitoring through medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Joensson, Morten; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Andersen, Lau M; Gross, Joachim; Mouridsen, Kim; Sandberg, Kristian; Østergaard, Leif; Lou, Hans C

    2015-05-01

    When experiences become meaningful to the self, they are linked to synchronous activity in a paralimbic network of self-awareness and dopaminergic activity. This network includes medial prefrontal and medial parietal/posterior cingulate cortices, where transcranial magnetic stimulation may transiently impair self-awareness. Conversely, we hypothesize that dopaminergic stimulation may improve self-awareness and metacognition (i.e., the ability of the brain to consciously monitor its own cognitive processes). Here, we demonstrate improved noetic (conscious) metacognition by oral administration of 100 mg dopamine in minimal self-awareness. In a separate experiment with extended self-awareness dopamine improved the retrieval accuracy of memories of self-judgment (autonoetic, i.e., explicitly self-conscious) metacognition. Concomitantly, magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed increased amplitudes of oscillations (power) preferentially in the medial prefrontal cortex. Given that electromagnetic activity in this region is instrumental in self-awareness, this explains the specific effect of dopamine on explicit self-awareness and autonoetic metacognition.

  6. Final Report Real Time Monitoring of Rates of Subsurface Microbial Activity Associated with Natural Attenuation and Electron Donor Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, Derek R.

    2016-03-22

    The project was successful in developing new sensing technologies for monitoring rates of microbial activity in soils and sediments and also developed a novel proof-of-concept for monitoring the presence of bioavailable concentrations of a diversity of metabolites and toxic components in sedimentary environments. These studies led not only to publications in the peer-reviewed literature, but also two patent applications and a start-up company.

  7. [Post-marketing clinical safety assessment of Shenmai injection based on active monitoring and passive monitoring in large data background].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-xin; Xie, Yan-ming; Ai, Qing-hua; Song, Nian-bin

    2015-12-01

    This paper adopted a series of related analysis methods to comprehensively analyze post-marketing clinical safety data of Shenmai injection from 4,220 cases of SRS and 32,358 cases of multicenter, prospective, registered hospital centralized monitoring in large data background, calculated ADR incidence rate was 0.93 per 1,000, main symptoms of ADR includes chest pain, chills, skin itching, palpitations, fever, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, flushing, numbness, allergic reaction, cyanosis, rash, low back pain, and "breath", "anaphylactoid reaction" and "flush" were the safety warning signals of Shenmai injection. Primary disease for chronic pulmonary heart disease, thyroid disease, and combined with cerebral vascular disease, prior to the injection and continuous use of alprostadil, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, combined with quinolones, penicillins were suspicious influence factors of ADR of Shenmai injection, these promot the clinical safety.

  8. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host-pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp.

  9. Tamoxifen mediated estrogen receptor activation protects against early impairment of hippocampal neuron excitability in an oxygen/glucose deprivation brain slice ischemia model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaqiu; Xie, Minjie; Schools, Gary P; Feustel, Paul F; Wang, Wei; Lei, Ting; Kimelberg, Harold K; Zhou, Min

    2009-01-09

    Pretreatment of ovarectomized rats with estrogen shows long-term protection via activation of the estrogen receptor (ER). However, it remains unknown whether activation of the ER can provide protection against early neuronal damage when given acutely. We simulated ischemic conditions by applying oxygen and glucose deprived (OGD) solution to acute male rat hippocampal slices and examined the neuronal electrophysiological changes. Pyramidal neurons and interneurons showed a time-dependent membrane potential depolarization and reduction in evoked action potential frequency and amplitude over a 10 to 15 min OGD exposure. These changes were largely suppressed by 10 microM TAM. The TAM effect was neuron-specific as the OGD-induced astrocytic membrane potential depolarization was not altered. The TAM effect was mediated through ER activation because it could be simulated by 17beta-estradiol and was completely inhibited by the ER inhibitor ICI 182, 780, and is therefore an example of TAM's selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) action. We further show that TAM's effects on OGD-induced impairment of neuronal excitability was largely due to activation of neuroprotective BK channels, as the TAM effect was markedly attenuated by the BK channel inhibitor paxilline at 10 microM. TAM also significantly reduced the frequency and amplitude of AMPA receptor mediated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in pyramidal neurons which is an early consequence of OGD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that both 17beta-estradiol and TAM attenuate neuronal excitability impairment early on in a simulated ischemia model via ER activation mediated potentiation of BK K(+) channels and reduction in enhanced neuronal AMPA/NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity.

  10. AB320. SPR-47 Monitoring nerve activity during bladder filling in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ekta; Lemay, Michel A.; Braverman, Alan S.; Obeid, Iyad; Barbe, Mary F.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Surgical rerouting of neuronal pathways may allow functional reinnervation of the bladder. We aim to develop techniques to monitor afferent (sensory) nerve activity during bladder filling in normal intact bladders for eventual application to monitoring sensory reinnervation of the bladder following nerve transfer. Methods Electroneurogram recordings were performed in anesthetized rats under isoflurane (1–2% induction dose, inhalation) of: (I) sciatic nerves during stimulation of the hindpaw with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments of varying forces (10–300 g); and (II) bladder nerves during bladder filling with infusion rate of 0.5 mL/min, in acute experiments. Bipolar cuff electrodes were wrapped around the sciatic nerve (n=7) and ureter (and associated bladder nerves) proximal to the bladder wall (n=7), to record sciatic and bladder nerve discharges, respectively. The sciatic nerve was transected between the spinal cord and the electrode, to eliminate efferent nerve signals and record afferent fibers discharge only with hindpaw stimulation. Whereas, recordings were made of the discharges of both afferent and efferent fibers from bladder nerves during bladder filling. All recordings were performed using a low noise amplifier (SR560, filtered 300 Hz–10 kHz, gain ×10k), sampled at 20 kHz using PowerLab software (AD Instruments) and displayed using LabChart software. Bladder pressure was also recorded during filling. Results Sciatic nerve recordings consistently showed increased afferent fibers discharge with increased size of monofilament used to stimulate the hindpaw, with the highest discharge observed with the 300 g monofilament and lowest with 10 g. In contrast, recording from bladder nerves showed that combined afferent and efferent discharges increased substantially in response to bladder filling in 2 of 7 rats, and increased moderately in 2 other rats. However, there was no response in the remaining rats, perhaps due to nerve damage during cuff

  11. Jacalin-Activated Macrophages Exhibit an Antitumor Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Danella Polli, Cláudia; Pereira Ruas, Luciana; Chain Veronez, Luciana; Herrero Geraldino, Thais; Rossetto de Morais, Fabiana; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Pereira-da-Silva, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have an ambiguous and complex role in the carcinogenic process, since these cells can be polarized into different phenotypes (proinflammatory, antitumor cells or anti-inflammatory, protumor cells) by the tumor microenvironment. Given that the interactions between tumor cells and TAMs involve several players, a better understanding of the function and regulation of TAMs is crucial to interfere with their differentiation in attempts to skew TAM polarization into cells with a proinflammatory antitumor phenotype. In this study, we investigated the modulation of macrophage tumoricidal activities by the lectin jacalin. Jacalin bound to macrophage surface and induced the expression and/or release of mainly proinflammatory cytokines via NF-κB signaling, as well as increased iNOS mRNA expression, suggesting that the lectin polarizes macrophages toward the antitumor phenotype. Therefore, tumoricidal activities of jacalin-stimulated macrophages were evaluated. High rates of tumor cell (human colon, HT-29, and breast, MCF-7, cells) apoptosis were observed upon incubation with supernatants from jacalin-stimulated macrophages. Taken together, these results indicate that jacalin, by exerting a proinflammatory activity, can direct macrophages to an antitumor phenotype. Deep knowledge of the regulation of TAM functions is essential for the development of innovative anticancer strategies. PMID:27119077

  12. Inhibition of the MAP kinase activity suppresses estrogen-induced breast tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kaladhar B; Glaros, Selina

    2007-04-01

    Elevated expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (Erk/MAPK) has been noted in a significant percentage of primary human breast cancers. To directly assess the importance of Erk/MAPK activation in estrogen (E2)-induced tumor progression, we blocked E2-signaling with MEK-inhibitor CI-1040 and/or tamoxifen (Tam). Our data show that both MEK-inhibitor CI-1040 and Tam blocked E2-induced MAPK phosphorylation and cell proliferation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. However, in vivo studies show that anti-tumor efficacy of combining the CI-1040 and Tam was similar to single agent(s). Furthermore, sequential treatment with Tam followed by CI-1040 or CI-1040 followed by Tam did not significantly reduce E2-induced tumor growth. This suggests that the combination of CI-1040 and Tam may not be synergistic in inhibiting E2-induced tumor growth. However, these findings also indicate that MAPK plays a critical role in E2-induced tumor growth, and that this could be a potential therapeutic target to combat hormonally regulated growth in ER-positive tumors.

  13. Monitoring polio supplementary immunization activities using an automated short text messaging system in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, A; Khoja, S; Zaidi, AK; Ali, SA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem Polio remains endemic in many areas of Pakistan, including large urban centres such as Karachi. Approach During each of seven supplementary immunization activities against polio in Karachi, mobile phone numbers of the caregivers of a random sample of eligible children were obtained. A computer-based system was developed to send two questions – as short message service (SMS) texts – automatically to each number after the immunization activity: “Did the vaccinator visit your house?” and “Did the enrolled child in your household receive oral polio vaccine?” Persistent non-responders were phoned directly by an investigator. Local setting A cluster sampling technique was used to select representative samples of the caregivers of young children in Karachi in general and of such caregivers in three of the six “high-risk” districts of the city where polio cases were detected in 2011. Relevant changes In most of the supplementary immunization activities investigated, vaccine coverages estimated using the SMS system were very similar to those estimated by interviewing by phone those caregivers who never responded to the SMS messages. In the high-risk districts investigated, coverages estimated using the SMS system were also similar to those recorded – using lot quality assurance sampling – by the World Health Organization. Lessons learnt For the monitoring of coverage in supplementary immunization activities, automated SMS-based systems appear to be an attractive and relatively inexpensive option. Further research is needed to determine if coverage data collected by SMS-based systems provide estimates that are sufficiently accurate. Such systems may be useful in other large-scale immunization campaigns. PMID:24700982

  14. Miniature Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter dosimeter for active personal radiation monitoring of astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson Huber, Aubrey

    The accurate measurement of spaceflight crew radiation exposure is of utmost importance. If onboard instrumentation shows that the pre-determined limit for radiation exposure has been met or exceeded during a mission, that mission can be greatly affected by the implementation of precautionary measures, or, in more extreme cases, the crew's health being negatively affected. Large active regional monitors determine real-time radiation risks of the crew during spaceflight, while small passive personal badges detect individual astronaut total exposure levels upon their return to Earth. At present, there are no personal active radiation dosimeters that can assess the continuous radiation risk to individual astronauts during spaceflight. Personal active radiation devices would be ideal for current operations in low-Earth orbit (LEO), as well as upcoming extravehicular activities on the Moon, Mars, or other planetary bodies. This project focused on the miniaturization of the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPCs) presently being utilized on the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Shuttle, enabling them to become personal crew dosimeters. The miniaturized TEPC prototype design has dimensions of 7.6 x 10.1 x 2.54 cm (3 x 4 x 1 in). It is composed of a 3 x 4 array of 1.27 cm (0.5 in) spherical detectors for measurements equivalent to a 4.39 cm (1.73 in) spherical detector, with an additional standalone sphere of diameter 1.27 cm (0.5 in) for taking measurements in high-flux environments. The detector simulates a tissue-equivalent diameter of 2 microns, is sensitive to lineal energies of 0.3 -- 1000 keV/micron, and can measure charged particles and neutrons ranging from 0.01 -- 100 mGy/hr.

  15. A proposal of a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index map for selecting an optimal PK/PD index from conventional indices (AUC/MIC, Cmax/MIC, and TAM) for antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Kenta; Kusama, Makiko; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis is important in antibiotic chemotherapy. Basically, the in vivo efficacy of antibiotics that exert concentration-dependent effects can be predicted using conventional PK/PD indices such as the ratio of the area under the curve to the minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) and/or the ratio of the maximum plasma concentration to MIC (Cmax/MIC), whereas that of antibiotics with time-dependent effects can be determined using the period of time for which the drug concentration exceeds the MIC (time above MIC [TAM]). However, an optimal PK/PD index remains to be established for some antibiotics. Thus, a PK/PD model which describes the PK profile and effect of an antibiotic was developed, and the results obtained from this model were interpreted to form a PK/PD index map to assess the optimal PK/PD index for the antibiotic. The findings from the map were generally consistent with clinical outcomes even for the antibiotics which proved to be exceptions to the conventional classification. For example, AUC/MIC was an optimal index for azithromycin despite its time-dependent bactericidal activity, and Cmax/MIC was a poor index for arbekacin despite its concentration-dependent profile. Thus, the map would be useful for selecting the appropriate PK/PD index for an antibiotic.

  16. GlobVolcano: Earth Observation Services for global monitoring of active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampellini, L.; Ratti, R.; Borgström, S.; Seifert, F. M.; Solaro, G.

    2009-04-01

    The GlobVolcano project is part of the Data User Element (DUE) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The objective of the project is to demonstrate EO-based (Earth Observation) services able to support the Volcanological Observatories and other mandate users (Civil Protection, scientific communities of volcanoes) in their monitoring activities. The information service is assessed in close cooperation with the user organizations for different types of active volcano, from various geographical areas in various climatic zones. Users are directly and actively involved in the validation of the Earth Observation products, by comparing them with ground data available at each site. The following EO-based information services have been defined, harmonising the user requirements provided by a worldwide selection of user organizations. - Deformation Mapping - Surface Thermal Anomalies - Volcanic Gas Emission (SO2) - Volcanic Ash Tracking During the first phase of the project (completed in June 2008) a pre-operational information system has been designed, implemented and validated, involving a limited number of test areas and respective user organizations (i.e. Piton de la Fournaise in La Reunion Island, Karthala in Comore Islands, Stromboli, Volcano and Etna in Italy, Soufrière Hills in Montserrat Island, Colima in Mexico, Merapi in Indonesia). The second phase of the project (currently on-going) concerns the service provision on pre-operational basis. Fifteen volcanic sites located in four continents are regularly monitored and as many user organizations are involved and cooperating with the project team. Based on user requirements, the GlobVolcano Information System has been developed following system engineering rules and criteria, besides most recent interoperability standards for geospatial data. The GlobVolcano Information System includes two main elements: 1. The GlobVolcano Data Processing System, which consists of seven of EO data processing subsystems

  17. Fluorescently labeled substrates for monitoring α1,3-fucosyltransferase IX activity.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Nathalie; Seelhorst, Katrin; Kahl, Stefanie; Tscherch, Kathrin; Stacke, Christina; Rohn, Sascha; Thiem, Joachim; Hahn, Ulrich; Meier, Chris

    2013-12-16

    Fucosylation is often the final process in glycan biosynthesis. The resulting glycans are involved in a variety of biological processes, such as cell adhesion, inflammation, or tumor metastasis. Fucosyltransferases catalyze the transfer of fucose residues from the activated donor molecule GDP-β-L-fucose to various acceptor molecules. However, detailed information about the reaction processes is still lacking for most fucosyltransferases. In this work we have monitored α1,3-fucosyltransferase activity. For both donor and acceptor substrates, the introduction of a fluorescent ATTO dye was the last step in the synthesis. The subsequent conversion of these substrates into fluorescently labeled products by α1,3-fucosyltransferases was examined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry as well as dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, which revealed that both fluorescently labeled donor GDP-β-L-fucose-ATTO 550 and acceptor N-acetyllactosamine-ATTO 647N were accepted by recombinant human fucosyltransferase IX and Helicobacter pylori α1,3-fucosyltransferase, respectively. Analysis by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy allowed a quick and versatile estimation of the progress of the enzymatic reaction and therefore this method can be used as an alternative method for investigating fucosyltransferase reactions.

  18. Accuracy of energy expenditure estimation by activity monitors differs with ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, A-S; Suppere, C; Strychar, I; Belisle, V; Demers, S-P; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this project is to explore the accuracy of 2 activity monitors (SenseWear Armband & Actical) to estimate energy expenditure during rest and light to moderate intensity exercises in 2 ethnic groups. 18 Caucasian and 20 Black adults (age: 26.8±5.2 years; body mass index: 23.9±3.0 kg/m(2)) wore the 2 devices simultaneously during 3 standardised activities: 30-min rest, 45-min of treadmill at 40% of their V˙O2peak and 45-min of stationary cycling at 50% of their V˙O2peak. Energy estimated with the 2 devices was compared to indirect calorimetry measurements. Both devices overestimated energy expenditure during rest (SenseWear: 36% in Black vs. 16% in Caucasian; Actical: 26% vs. 11%, p<0.01 between groups) and treadmill (SenseWear: 50% vs. 25%; Actical: 67% vs. 32%, p<0.01 between groups). Both devices significantly underestimated energy expenditure during stationary cycling (SenseWear: 24% vs. 26%; Actical: 58% vs. 70%, p=NS between groups). Equations used to estimate energy expenditure from accelerometer data is less precise among Black adults than Caucasian adults. Ethnic-specific formulas are probably required.

  19. Electrode-based approach for monitoring in situ microbial activity during subsurface bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kenneth H.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Franks, Ashley; Englert, Andreas L.; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2010-01-01

    Current production by microorganisms colonizing subsurface electrodes and its relationship to substrate availability and microbial activity was evaluated in an aquifer undergoing bioremediation. Borehole graphite anodes were installed downgradient from a region of acetate injection designed to stimulate bioreduction of U(VI); cathodes consisted of graphite electrodes embedded at the ground surface. Significant increases in current density (≤50 mA/m2) tracked delivery of acetate to the electrodes, dropping rapidly when acetate inputs were discontinued. An upgradient control produced low, steady currents (≤0.2 mA/m2). Elevated current was strongly correlated with uranium removal but minimal correlation existed with elevated Fe(II). Confocal laser scanning microscopy of electrodes revealed firmly attached biofilms, and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the electrode surfaces were dominated (67-80%) by Geobacter species. These results suggest that oxidation of acetate coupled to electron transfer to electrodes by Geobacter species was the primary source of current. This is the first demonstration that electrodes can produce readily detectable currents despite long-range (6 m) separation of anode and cathode and that current levels are likely related to rates of subsurface metabolism. It is expected that current production may serve as an effective proxy for monitoring in situ microbial activity in a variety of subsurface anoxic environments.

  20. An Electrode-based approach for monitoring in situ microbial activity during subsurface bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.H.; Nevin, K.P.; Franks, A.; Englert, A.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2009-11-15

    Current production by microorganisms colonizing subsurface electrodes and its relationship to substrate availability and microbial activity was evaluated in an aquifer undergoing bioremediation. Borehole graphite anodes were installed downgradient from a region of acetate injection designed to stimulate bioreduction of U(VI); cathodes consisted of graphite electrodes embedded at the ground surface. Significant increases in current density ({<=}50 mA/m{sup 2}) tracked delivery of acetate to the electrodes, dropping rapidly when acetate inputs were discontinued. An upgradient control electrode not exposed to acetate produced low, steady currents ({<=}0.2 mA/m{sup 2}). Elevated current was strongly correlated with uranium removal but minimal correlation existed with elevated Fe(II). Confocal laser scanning microscopy of electrodes revealed firmly attached biofilms, and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the electrode surfaces were dominated (67-80%) by Geobacter species. This is the first demonstration that electrodes can produce readily detectable currents despite long-range (6 m) separation of anode and cathode, and these results suggest that oxidation of acetate coupled to electron transfer to electrodes by Geobacter species was the primary source of current. Thus it is expected that current production may serve as an effective proxy for monitoring in situ microbial activity in a variety of subsurface anoxic environments.

  1. Proteolytic activity monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer through quantum-dot-peptide conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medintz, Igor L.; Clapp, Aaron R.; Brunel, Florence M.; Tiefenbrunn, Theresa; Tetsuo Uyeda, H.; Chang, Eddie L.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Dawson, Philip E.; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2006-07-01

    Proteases are enzymes that catalyse the breaking of specific peptide bonds in proteins and polypeptides. They are heavily involved in many normal biological processes as well as in diseases, including cancer, stroke and infection. In fact, proteolytic activity is sometimes used as a marker for some cancer types. Here we present luminescent quantum dot (QD) bioconjugates designed to detect proteolytic activity by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. To achieve this, we developed a modular peptide structure which allowed us to attach dye-labelled substrates for the proteases caspase-1, thrombin, collagenase and chymotrypsin to the QD surface. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency within these nanoassemblies is easily controlled, and proteolytic assays were carried out under both excess enzyme and excess substrate conditions. These assays provide quantitative data including enzymatic velocity, Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters, and mechanisms of enzymatic inhibition. We also screened a number of inhibitory compounds against the QD-thrombin conjugate. This technology is not limited to sensing proteases, but may be amenable to monitoring other enzymatic modifications.

  2. Gravity monitoring of Tatun Volcanic Group activities and inference for underground fluid circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouyen, Maxime; Chao, Benjamin Fong; Hwang, Cheinway; Hsieh, Wen-Chi

    2016-12-01

    The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), located on the northern coast of Taiwan adjacent to the city of Taipei, experiences active hydrothermalism but has no historical record of volcanic eruption. Yet recent studies suggest that TVG is dormant-active rather than extinct. To monitor mass transfers and to gain further understanding of this volcanic area, gravity variations have been recorded continuously since 2012 using a superconducting gravimeter, and once every few months since 2005 using absolute gravimeters. We analyze the continuous gravity time series and propose a model that best explains the gravity variations due to local groundwater redistribution. By correcting these variations, we identify gravity changes as large as 35 μGal that occurred concomitantly to fluid pressure-induced earthquakes and changes in the gas composition at Dayoukeng, one of TVG's fumaroles, over 2005-2007. We examine several fluid movements that can match the gravity observations, yet too few additional constraints exist to favor any of them. In particular, no significant ground displacements are observed when these gravity variations occurred. On the other hand, the model of gravity changes due to local groundwater redistribution can be routinely computed and removed from the ongoing time gravity measurements in order to quickly identify any unusual mass transfer occurring beneath TVG.

  3. Development of a Reporter System for In Vivo Monitoring of γ-Secretase Activity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young Gi; Roh, Seyun; Paik, Donggi; Jeong, Sangyun

    2017-01-01

    The γ-secretase complex represents an evolutionarily conserved family of transmembrane aspartyl proteases that cleave numerous type-I membrane proteins, including the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the receptor Notch. All known rare mutations in APP and the γ-secretase catalytic component, presenilin, which lead to increased amyloid βpeptide production, are responsible for early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease. β-amyloid protein precursor-like (APPL) is the Drosophila ortholog of human APP. Here, we created Notch- and APPL-based Drosophila reporter systems for in vivo monitoring of γ-secretase activity. Ectopic expression of the Notch- and APPL-based chimeric reporters in wings results in vein truncation phenotypes. Reporter-mediated vein truncation phenotypes are enhanced by the Notch gain-of-function allele and suppressed by RNAi-mediated knockdown of presenilin. Furthermore, we find that apoptosis partly contributes to the vein truncation phenotypes of the APPL-based reporter, but not to the vein truncation phenotypes of the Notch-based reporter. Taken together, these results suggest that both in vivo reporter systems provide a powerful genetic tool to identify genes that modulate γ-secretase activity and/or APPL metabolism. PMID:28152299

  4. Reusable electrical activity of the heart monitoring patch for mobile/ubiquitous healthcare.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Whan; Lee, Kang-Hwi; Lee, Young-Jae; Hong, Lee-Yon; Kim, Dong-Jun; Kim, Kyeong-Seop; Lee, Bongsoo; Lee, Myoungho

    2009-02-01

    In order to monitor electrical activity of the heart during daily life, we present an electrode of a medical instrument system which is able to measure the body surface potential difference by minimizing the electrode distance. The designed electrode is composed of concentric circles. It was made from the basis of the Laplacian equation, and implemented on PCB coated with gold. So that it does not cause the uncomfortable feeling of contact and possible skin troubles which are typical shortcoming of the conventional ECG measurement. The suggested method utilized three concentric circles on FR-4 substrate, so new amplifier design regarding measuring of small biological signal, is considered which has the characteristics of asymmetric input impedance since the area of concentric circular ring electrodes is not identical. Thereby, electrical activity of the heart was obtained successfully. However, its signal quality is a little bit degraded and the motion artifact still remains as a major problem as is in conventional electrocardiography measurement. Certainly stable measurement setup was needed to reduce the motion artifact originated from variation in static electricity between skin and electrode interfaces.

  5. A Step Towards Seascape Scale Conservation: Using Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) to Map Fishing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Matthew J.; Godley, Brendan J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Conservation of marine ecosystems will require a holistic understanding of fisheries with concurrent spatial patterns of biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from the UK Government Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) deployed on UK-registered large fishing vessels we investigate patterns of fisheries activity on annual and seasonal scales. Analysis of VMS data shows that regions of the UK European continental shelf (i.e. Western Channel and Celtic Sea, Northern North Sea and the Goban Spur) receive consistently greater fisheries pressure than the rest of the UK continental shelf fishing zone. Conclusions/Significance VMS provides a unique and independent method from which to derive patterns of spatially and temporally explicit fisheries activity. Such information may feed into ecosystem management plans seeking to achieve sustainable fisheries while minimising putative risk to non-target species (e.g. cetaceans, seabirds and elasmobranchs) and habitats of conservation concern. With multilateral collaboration VMS technologies may offer an important solution to quantifying and managing ecosystem disturbance, particularly on the high-seas. PMID:17971874

  6. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Alice E; Lindgren, Elise A; Hermsmeier, Maiko C; Rogowski, Peter A; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment.

  7. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Alice E.; Lindgren, Elise A.; Hermsmeier, Maiko C.; Rogowski, Peter A.; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment. PMID:26308928

  8. Cognitive control activity is modulated by the magnitude of interference and pre-activation of monitoring mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Cespón, Jesús; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Díaz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Simon task is used to study interference from irrelevant spatial information. Interference is manifested by longer reaction times when the required response –based on non-spatial features- is spatially incompatible with stimulus position. Interference is greater when incompatible trials are preceded by compatible trials (compatible-incompatible sequence) than when they are preceded by incompatible trials (incompatible-incompatible sequence). However, the relationships between spatial attention, interference and cognitive control have not been investigated. In the present study, we distinguished three experimental conditions according to sequential effects: same mappings (SM, compatible-compatible/incompatible-incompatible sequences: low interference), opposite mappings (OM, compatible-incompatible/incompatible-compatible sequences: high interference) and unrelated mappings (UM, central-compatible/central-incompatible sequences: intermediate interference). The negativity central contralateral (N2cc, a correlate of prevention of spatial response tendencies) was larger in OM than in SM, indicating greater cognitive control for greater interference. Furthermore, N2cc was larger in UM than in SM/OM, indicating lower neural efficiency for suppressing spatial tendencies of the response after central trials. Attentional processes (negativity posterior contralateral) were also delayed in UM relative to SM/OM, suggesting attentional facilitation by similar sets of attentional shifts in successive trials. Overall, the present findings showed that cognitive control is modulated by the magnitude of interference and pre-activation of monitoring mechanisms. PMID:27995983

  9. Older Adults’ Experiences Using a Commercially Available Monitor to Self-Track Their Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity contributes to older adults’ autonomy, mobility, and quality of life as they age, yet fewer than 1 in 5 engage in activities as recommended. Many older adults track their exercise using pencil and paper, or their memory. Commercially available physical activity monitors (PAM) have the potential to facilitate these tracking practices and, in turn, physical activity. An assessment of older adults’ long-term experiences with PAM is needed to understand this potential. Objective To assess short and long-term experiences of adults >70 years old using a PAM (Fitbit One) in terms of acceptance, ease-of-use, and usefulness: domains in the technology acceptance model. Methods This prospective study included 95 community-dwelling older adults, all of whom received a PAM as part of randomized controlled trial piloting a fall-reducing physical activity promotion intervention. Ten-item surveys were administered 10 weeks and 8 months after the study started. Survey ratings are described and analyzed over time, and compared by sex, education, and age. Results Participants were mostly women (71/95, 75%), 70 to 96 years old, and had some college education (68/95, 72%). Most participants (86/95, 91%) agreed or strongly agreed that the PAM was easy to use, useful, and acceptable both 10 weeks and 8 months after enrolling in the study. Ratings dropped between these time points in all survey domains: ease-of-use (median difference 0.66 points, P=.001); usefulness (median difference 0.16 points, P=.193); and acceptance (median difference 0.17 points, P=.032). Differences in ratings by sex or educational attainment were not statistically significant at either time point. Most participants 80+ years of age (28/37, 76%) agreed or strongly agreed with survey items at long-term follow-up, however their ratings were significantly lower than participants in younger age groups at both time points. Conclusions Study results indicate it is feasible for older

  10. Development and Integration of Hardware and Software for Active-Sensors in Structural Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Overly, Timothy G.S.

    2007-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) promises to deliver great benefits to many industries. Primarily among them is a potential for large cost savings in maintenance of complex structures such as aircraft and civil infrastructure. However, several large obstacles remain before widespread use on structures can be accomplished. The development of three components would address many of these obstacles: a robust sensor validation procedure, a low-cost active-sensing hardware and an integrated software package for transition to field deployment. The research performed in this thesis directly addresses these three needs and facilitates the adoption of SHM on a larger scale, particularly in the realm of SHM based on piezoelectric (PZT) materials. The first obstacle addressed in this thesis is the validation of the SHM sensor network. PZT materials are used for sensor/actuators because of their unique properties, but their functionality also needs to be validated for meaningful measurements to be recorded. To allow for a robust sensor validation algorithm, the effect of temperature change on sensor diagnostics and the effect of sensor failure on SHM measurements were classified. This classification allowed for the development of a sensor diagnostic algorithm that is temperature invariant and can indicate the amount and type of sensor failure. Secondly, the absence of a suitable commercially-available active-sensing measurement node is addressed in this thesis. A node is a small compact measurement device used in a complete system. Many measurement nodes exist for conventional passive sensing, which does not actively excite the structure, but there are no measurement nodes available that both meet the active-sensing requirements and are useable outside the laboratory. This thesis develops hardware that is low-power, active-sensing and field-deployable. This node uses the impedance method for SHM measurements, and can run the sensor diagnostic algorithm also developed here

  11. Antioxidant enzyme activities in biofilms as biomarker of Zn pollution in a natural system: an active bio-monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Berta; Corcoll, Natàlia; Tlili, Ahmed; Morin, Soizic; Guasch, Helena

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the use of antioxidant enzyme activities (AEA) and biofilm metal accumulation capacity in natural communities as effect-based indicator of metal exposure in fluvial systems. To achieve these objectives, an active biomonitoring using fluvial biofilm communities was performed during 5 weeks. Biofilm was colonized over artificial substrata in a non-polluted site. After 5 weeks, biofilms were translocated to four different sites with different metal pollution in the same stream. The evolution of environmental parameters as well as biofilm responses was analysed over time. Physicochemical parameters were different between sampling times as well as between the most polluted site and the less polluted ones, mainly due to Zn pollution. In contrast, AEA and metal accumulation in biofilms allowed us to discriminate the high and moderate metal pollution sites from the rest. Zn, the metal with the highest contribution to potential toxicity, presented a fast and high accumulation capacity in biofilms. According to the multivariate analysis, AEA showed different responses. While catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) variability was mainly attributed to environmental stress (pH, temperature and phosphate concentration), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) changes were related to metal pollution. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) responses were related to both stress factors. AEA and metal accumulation are proposed as sensitive effect-based field methods, to evaluate biofilm responses after acute metal exposure (e.g. an accidental spill) due to their capacity to respond after few hours, but also in routinely monitoring due to their persistent changes after few weeks of exposure. These tools could improve the Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) as expert group request.

  12. A new method for monitoring the extracellular proteolytic activity of wine yeasts during alcoholic fermentation of grape must.

    PubMed

    Chasseriaud, Laura; Miot-Sertier, Cécile; Coulon, Joana; Iturmendi, Nerea; Moine, Virginie; Albertin, Warren; Bely, Marina

    2015-12-01

    The existing methods for testing proteolytic activity are time consuming, quite difficult to perform, and do not allow real-time monitoring. Proteases have attracted considerable interest in winemaking and some yeast species naturally present in grape must, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima, are capable of expressing this activity. In this study, a new test is proposed for measuring proteolytic activity directly in fermenting grape must, using azocasein, a chromogenic substrate. Several yeast strains were tested and differences in proteolytic activity were observed. Moreover, analysis of grape must proteins in wines revealed that protease secreted by Metschnikowia strains may be active against wine proteins.

  13. Monitoring Precursor 16S rRNAs of Acinetobacter spp. in Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oerther, Daniel B.; Pernthaler, Jakob; Schramm, Andreas; Amann, Rudolf; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2000-01-01

    Recently, Cangelosi and Brabant used oligonucleotide probes targeting the precursor 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli to demonstrate that the levels of precursor rRNA were more sensitive to changes in growth phase than the levels of total rRNA (G. A. Cangelosi and W. H. Brabant, J. Bacteriol. 179:4457–4463, 1997). In order to measure changes in the levels of precursor rRNA in activated sludge systems, we designed oligonucleotide probes targeting the 3′ region of the precursor 16S rRNA of Acinetobacter spp. We used these probes to monitor changes in the level of precursor 16S rRNA during batch growth of Acinetobacter spp. in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, filtered wastewater, and in lab- and full-scale wastewater treatment systems. Consistent with the previous reports for E. coli, results obtained with membrane hybridizations and fluorescence in situ hybridizations with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus grown in LB medium showed a more substantial and faster increase in precursor 16S rRNA levels compared to the increase in total 16S rRNA levels during exponential growth. Diluting an overnight culture of A. calcoaceticus grown in LB medium with filtered wastewater resulted in a pattern of precursor 16S rRNA levels that appeared to follow diauxic growth. In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridizations with oligonucleotide probes targeting total 16S rRNA and precursor 16S rRNA showed that individual cells of A. calcoaceticus expressed highly variable levels of precursor 16S rRNA when adapting from LB medium to filtered sewage. Precursor 16S rRNA levels of Acinetobacter spp. transiently increased when activated sludge was mixed with influent wastewater in lab- and full-scale wastewater treatment systems. These results suggest that Acinetobacter spp. experience a change in growth activity within wastewater treatment systems. PMID:10788395

  14. In situ fabricated smart material active sensors for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor; Lin, Bin

    2004-02-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is currently using piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) permanently attached to the structure with adhesives. This is often a burdensome and time-consuming task, especially for large structures such as aircraft, bridges, etc. In addition, there are critical applications where the rigid piezoceramic wafers cannot conform to curved surfaces. Another important issue is the long term durability of the bonded interface between the PWAS and the structure, which is often the durability weak link. An in-situ fabricated smart sensor may offer better durability. This paper considers the possibility of fabricating the PWAS directly to the substrate structure in order to alleviate these problems. The paper starts with a review of the state of the art in active composite fabrication. Then, two concepts are considered: the piezomagnetic composite sensor and the piezoelectric composite PWAS. The piezomagnetic composite was fabricated using Terfenol-D magnetostrictive powder in a fiber reinforced composite beam. The strain-induced magnetic field was detected with a Lakeshore gaussmeter. The piezoelectric composite sensor was prepared by mixing lead zirconate titanate (PZT) particles in an epoxy resin. The mixture was applied onto the structural surface using a mask. After curing, the piezo composite was sanded down to the desired thickness and poled under a high electric field. The resulting in-situ composite PWAS was utilized as a sensor for dynamic vibration and impact. Characterization of the in-situ composite PWAS on aluminum structure have been recorded and compared with ceramic PWAS before and after poling. To evaluate the performance of the in-situ composite PWAS, both vibration and impact tests were conducted. Both experiments indicated that in-situ fabrication of active materials composites poses itself as a good candidate for reliable low-cost option for SHM smart sensor fabrication.

  15. Developing analytical approaches to explore the connection between endocrine-active pharmaceuticals in water to effects in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones-Lepp, Tammy L.; Taniguchi-Fu, Randi L.; Morgan, Jade; Nance Jr., Trevor; Ward, Matthew; Alvarez, David A.; Mills, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    The emphasis of this research project was to develop and optimize a solid-phase extraction method and highperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionizationmass spectrometry method, such that a linkage between the detection of endocrine-active pharmaceuticals (EAPs) in the aquatic environment and subsequent effects on fish populations could eventually be studied. Four EAPs were studied: tamoxifen (TAM), exemestane (EXE), letrozole (LET), anastrozole (ANA); and three TAM metabolites: 4- hydroxytamoxifen, e/z endoxifen, and n-desmethyl tamoxifen. In aqueous matrices, the use of isotopically labeled standards for the EAPs allowed for the generation of good recoveries, greater than 80 %, and low relative standard deviations (% RSDs) (3 to 27 %). TAM metabolites had lower recoveries in the spiked water matrices: 35 to 93 % in waste/source water compared to 58 to 110 % in DI water. The precision in DI water was acceptable ranging from 8 to 38 % RSD. However, the precision in real environmental wastewaters could be poor, ranging from 15 to 120 % RSD, dependent upon unique matrix effects. In plasma, the overall recoveries of the EAPs were acceptable: 88 to 110 %, with %RSDs of 6 to 18 % (Table 3). The spiked recoveries of the TAM metabolites from plasma were good, ranging from 77 to 120 %, with %RSDs ranging from 27 to 32 %. Two of the TAM metabolites, 4- hydroxytamoxifen and n-desmethyl tamoxifen, were confirmed in most of the environmental aqueous samples. The discovery of TAM metabolites demonstrates that the source of the TAM metabolites, TAM, is constant, introducing a pseudo-persistence of this chemical into the environment.

  16. Comparison of active and passive sampling strategies for the monitoring of pesticide contamination in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assoumani, Azziz; Margoum, Christelle; Guillemain, Céline; Coquery, Marina

    2014-05-01

    constants (Rs). Each constant links the mass of the a target contaminant accumulated in the sampler to its concentration in water. At the end of the field application, the Rs are used to calculate the TWA concentration of each target contaminant with the final mass of the contaminants accumulated in the sampler. Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) is a solvent free sample preparation technique dedicated to the analysis of moderately hydrophobic to hydrophobic compounds in liquid and gas samples. It is composed of a magnet enclosed in a glass tube coated with a thick film of polydimethysiloxane (PDMS). We recently developed the in situ application of SBSE as a passive sampling technique (herein named "Passive SBSE") for the monitoring of agricultural pesticides. The aim of this study is to perform the calibration of the passive SBSE in the laboratory, and to apply and compare this technique to active sampling strategies for the monitoring of 16 relatively hydrophobic to hydrophobic pesticides in streams, during 2 1-month sampling campaigns. Time-weighted averaged concentrations of the target pesticides obtained from passive SBSE were compared to the target pesticide concentrations of grab samples, and time-related and flow-dependent samples of the streams. Results showed passive SBSE as an efficient alternative to conventional active sampling strategies.

  17. 1H and 13C NMR assignments for new heterocyclic TAM leuco dyes, (2Z,2'E)-2,2'-(2-phenyl propane-1,3-diylidene) bis(1,3,3-trimethylindoline) derivatives. Part II.

    PubMed

    Keum, Sam-Rok; Roh, Se-Jung; Lee, Min-Hyung; Sauriol, Francoise; Buncel, Erwin

    2008-09-01

    The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of the novel heterocyclic Leuco-TAM dyes, (2Z, 2'E)-2,2'-(2-phenyl propane-1,3-diylidene) bis(1,3,3-trimethylindoline) derivatives 1-4 as precursors of triarylmethane (TAM)(+) (Malachite Green FB-analog) dyes were completely assigned by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, including DEPT, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY. Especially, the diastereotopic gem-dimethyl protons at the C3 and C3' positions of the FB rings were definitively assigned. The (Z,E) isomers adopt the energetically favored three-bladed propeller conformation in solution.

  18. How accurate are the wrist-based heart rate monitors during walking and running activities? Are they accurate enough?

    PubMed Central

    An, Hyun-Sung; Dinkel, Danae M; Noble, John M; Lee, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart rate (HR) monitors are valuable devices for fitness-orientated individuals. There has been a vast influx of optical sensing blood flow monitors claiming to provide accurate HR during physical activities. These monitors are worn on the arm and wrist to detect HR with photoplethysmography (PPG) techniques. Little is known about the validity of these wearable activity trackers. Aim Validate the Scosche Rhythm (SR), Mio Alpha (MA), Fitbit Charge HR (FH), Basis Peak (BP), Microsoft Band (MB), and TomTom Runner Cardio (TT) wireless HR monitors. Methods 50 volunteers (males: n=32, age 19–43 years; females: n=18, age 19–38 years) participated. All monitors were worn simultaneously in a randomised configuration. The Polar RS400 HR chest strap was the criterion measure. A treadmill protocol of one 30 min bout of continuous walking and running at 3.2, 4.8, 6.4, 8.0, and 9.6 km/h (5 min at each protocol speed) with HR manually recorded every minute was completed. Results For group comparisons, the mean absolute percentage error values were: 3.3%, 3.6%, 4.0%, 4.6%, 4.8% and 6.2% for TT, BP, RH, MA, MB and FH, respectively. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) was observed: r=0.959 (TT), r=0.956 (MB), r=0.954 (BP), r=0.933 (FH), r=0.930 (RH) and r=0.929 (MA). Results from 95% equivalency testing showed monitors were found to be equivalent to those of the criterion HR (±10% equivalence zone: 98.15–119.96). Conclusions The results demonstrate that the wearable activity trackers provide an accurate measurement of HR during walking and running activities. PMID:27900173

  19. On the Multi-Station Schumann Resonance Monitoring of Worldwide Lightning Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtak, V. C.; Williams, E. R.

    2008-12-01

    Three reasons make the electromagnetic radiation in the Schumann resonance (SR) frequency range (5 to 50 Hz) an informative indicator of lightning activity on a global scale: 1) the predominant role of the activity in generating SR fields; 2) an extremely low, below 1 dB per Mm, propagational attenuation; and a beneficial consequence: 3) the occurrence of resonance phenomena in both electric and magnetic spectra as a result of interference between the direct and around-the-globe waves, with an accurate depiction in a theoretical model. The unique dependence of the resonance patterns on the mutual positions of source and observer has been widely exploited for locating individual parent lightning discharges from their SR signatures (transient signals). A similar, but more complicated, relationship between source properties and observed resonance characteristics is present in the case of the 'background' SR signal representing an integration of electromagnetic contributions from thousands of globally distributed lightning flashes. The reasonable agreement between observations and theoretical simulations achieved in typical forward calculations (Mushtak and Williams, 2007) suggests the possibility for an automated procedure for monitoring the global spatial-temporal dynamics of lightning activity from background SR observations. The proposed iterative procedure is based on the estimation of model parameters via a sensitivity matrix, the elements of which are theoretically computed derivatives of resonance characteristics with respect to the model parameters (Nelson, 1967). In a preliminary study, a simple 15-parameter model analogous to that exploited by Mushtak and Williams (2007) - three major "chimneys" each of which is characterized by its intensity (in absolute units of C2 km2/s), the geographical position of its center as well as its latitudinal and longitudinal dimensions - has been used to estimate the various elements of the sensitivity matrix, for choosing an

  20. Fiber Bragg grating strain sensors to monitor and study active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrentino, Fiodor; Beverini, Nicolò; Carbone, Daniele; Carelli, Giorgio; Francesconi, Francesco; Gambino, Salvo; Giacomelli, Umberto; Grassi, Renzo; Maccioni, Enrico; Morganti, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Stress and strain changes are among the best indicators of impending volcanic activity. In volcano geodesy, borehole volumetric strain-meters are mostly utilized. However, they are not easy to install and involve high implementation costs. Advancements in opto-electronics have allowed the development of low-cost sensors, reliable, rugged and compact, thus particularly suitable for field application. In the framework of the EC FP7 MED-SUV project, we have developed strain sensors based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology. In comparison with previous implementation of the FBG technology to study rock deformations, we have designed a system that is expected to offer a significantly higher resolution and accuracy in static measurements and a smooth dynamic response up to 100 Hz, implying the possibility to observe seismic waves. The system performances are tailored to suit the requirements of volcano monitoring, with special attention to power consumption and to the trade-off between performance and cost. Preliminary field campaigns were carried out on Mt. Etna (Italy) using a prototypal single-axis FBG strain sensor, to check the system performances in out-of-the-lab conditions and in the harsh volcanic environment (lack of mains electricity for power, strong diurnal temperature changes, strong wind, erosive ash, snow and ice during the winter time). We also designed and built a FBG strain sensor featuring a multi-axial configuration which was tested and calibrated in the laboratory. This instrument is suitable for borehole installation and will be tested on Etna soon.

  1. Sensor-enabled RFID system for monitoring arm activity: reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Barman, Joydip; Uswatte, Gitendra; Ghaffari, Touraj; Sokal, Brad; Byrom, Ezekiel; Trinh, Eva; Brewer, Michael; Varghese, Christopher; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2012-11-01

    After stroke, capacity to complete tasks in the treatment setting with the more-affected arm is an unreliable index of actual use of that extremity in daily life. Available objective methods for monitoring real-world arm use rely on placing movement sensors on patients. These methods provide information on amount but not type of arm activity, e.g., functional versus nonfunctional movement. This paper presents an approach that places sensors on patients and household objects, overcoming this limitation. An accelerometer and the transmitter component of a radio-frequency proximity sensor are attached to objects; the receiver component is attached to the arm of interest. The receiver triggers an on-board radio-frequency identification tag to signal proximity when that arm is within 23 cm of an instrumented object. In benchmark testing, this system detected perfectly which arm was used to move the target object on 200 trials. In a laboratory study with 35 undergraduates, increasing the amount of time target objects were moved with the arm of interest resulted in a corresponding increase in system output . Moreover, measurement error was low ( ≤ 2.5%). The results support this system's reliability and validity in individuals with unimpaired movement; testing is now warranted in stroke patients.

  2. Monitoring of Surface Wetness from active microwave satellite data in permafrost regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, A.; Boike, J.; Sabel, D.; Wagner, W.

    2008-12-01

    Soil moisture content impacts land surface energy dynamics, regional runoff dynamics and vegetation productivity. Coarse to medium resolution data from active microwave instruments onboard satellites which are currently in space are able to provide such valuable information for operational use. Scatterometer (ERS, Metop ASCAT) can be applied on regional to global scale. ScanSAR systems are suitable for regional to continental monitoring and for the investigation of scaling issues. The original approach which was developed for scatterometer data (Wagner et al. 1999) has been transferred to ScanSAR data within the framework of the ESA Tiger innovator project SHARE (www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/radar/share). Data from the ENVISAT ASAR instrument operating in Global Mode (1km resolution) have not only been used over the southern African subcontinent, but also over entire Australia and within other regional studies. Current research focuses on the validation and investigation of scaling issues of satellite derived surface wetness in permafrost environment. A comparison to soil moisture measurements has been carried out over the Lena- Delta, Russia. Measurements are from a site on Samoylov Island, which is characterized by polygonal tundra. Best aggreement of the 1km resolution satellit data was found for polygon centres, with a Pearson correlation of 0.72. Timeseries analyses from this and other sites in Siberia will be presented.

  3. Infrasound Monitoring of the Volcanic Activities of Japanese Volcanoes in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. I.; Che, I. Y.; Shin, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Since 1999 when our first infrasound array station(CHNAR) has been installed at Cheolwon, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources(KIGAM) is continuously observing infrasound signals with an infrasound array network, named KIN(Korean Infrasound Network). This network is comprised of eight seismo-acoustic array stations(BRDAR, YPDAR, KMPAR, CHNAR, YAGAR, KSGAR, ULDAR, TJIAR). The aperture size of the smallest array is 300m and the largest is about 1.4km. The number of infrasound sensors are between 4(TJIAR) and 18(YAGAR), and 1~5 seismometers are collocated with infrasound sensors. Many interesting infrasound signals associated with different type of sources, such as blasting, large earthquake, bolide, volcanic explosion are detected by KIN in the past 15 years. We have analyzed the infrasound signals possibly associated with the japanese volcanic explosions with reference to volcanic activity report published by Japanese Meteorological Agency. Analysis results of many events, for example, Asama volcano explosion in 2004 and Shinmoe volcano in 2011, are well matched with the official report. In some cases, however, corresponding infrasound signals are not identified. By comparison of the infrasound signals from different volcanoes, we also found that the characteristics of signals are distinguishing. It may imply that the specific volcano has its own unique fingerprint in terms of infrasound signal. It might be investigated by long-term infrasound monitoring for a specific volcano as a ground truth generating repetitive infrasound signal.

  4. Vein networks in hydrothermal systems provide constraints for the monitoring of active volcanoes.

    PubMed

    Cucci, Luigi; Di Luccio, Francesca; Esposito, Alessandra; Ventura, Guido

    2017-12-01

    Vein networks affect the hydrothermal systems of many volcanoes, and variations in their arrangement may precede hydrothermal and volcanic eruptions. However, the long-term evolution of vein networks is often unknown because data are lacking. We analyze two gypsum-filled vein networks affecting the hydrothermal field of the active Lipari volcanic Island (Italy) to reconstruct the dynamics of the hydrothermal processes. The older network (E1) consists of sub-vertical, N-S striking veins; the younger network (E2) consists of veins without a preferred strike and dip. E2 veins have larger aperture/length, fracture density, dilatancy, and finite extension than E1. The fluid overpressure of E2 is larger than that of E1 veins, whereas the hydraulic conductance is lower. The larger number of fracture intersections in E2 slows down the fluid movement, and favors fluid interference effects and pressurization. Depths of the E1 and E2 hydrothermal sources are 0.8 km and 4.6 km, respectively. The decrease in the fluid flux, depth of the hydrothermal source, and the pressurization increase in E2 are likely associated to a magma reservoir. The decrease of fluid discharge in hydrothermal fields may reflect pressurization at depth potentially preceding hydrothermal explosions. This has significant implications for the long-term monitoring strategy of volcanoes.

  5. Anion-activated, thermoreversible gelation system for the capture, release, and visual monitoring of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Lee, Songyi; Liu, Yifan; Lee, Minji; Yin, Jun; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Yoon, Juyoung

    2014-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important green house gas. This is providing an incentive to develop new strategies to detect and capture CO2. Achieving both functions within a single molecular system represents an unmet challenge in terms of molecular design and could translate into enhanced ease of use. Here, we report an anion-activated chemosensor system, NAP-chol 1, that permits dissolved CO2 to be detected in organic media via simple color changes or through ratiometric differences in fluorescence intensity. NAP-chol 1 also acts as a super gelator for DMSO. The resulting gel is transfo