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Sample records for activity motor coordination

  1. From Spontaneous Motor Activity to Coordinated Behaviour: A Developmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Hugo Gravato; Bharadwaj, Arjun; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the developmental path that links the primary behaviours observed during foetal stages to the full fledged behaviours observed in adults is still beyond our understanding. Often theories of motor control try to deal with the process of incremental learning in an abstract and modular way without establishing any correspondence with the mammalian developmental stages. In this paper, we propose a computational model that links three distinct behaviours which appear at three different stages of development. In order of appearance, these behaviours are: spontaneous motor activity (SMA), reflexes, and coordinated behaviours, such as locomotion. The goal of our model is to address in silico four hypotheses that are currently hard to verify in vivo: First, the hypothesis that spinal reflex circuits can be self-organized from the sensor and motor activity induced by SMA. Second, the hypothesis that supraspinal systems can modulate reflex circuits to achieve coordinated behaviour. Third, the hypothesis that, since SMA is observed in an organism throughout its entire lifetime, it provides a mechanism suitable to maintain the reflex circuits aligned with the musculoskeletal system, and thus adapt to changes in body morphology. And fourth, the hypothesis that by changing the modulation of the reflex circuits over time, one can switch between different coordinated behaviours. Our model is tested in a simulated musculoskeletal leg actuated by six muscles arranged in a number of different ways. Hopping is used as a case study of coordinated behaviour. Our results show that reflex circuits can be self-organized from SMA, and that, once these circuits are in place, they can be modulated to achieve coordinated behaviour. In addition, our results show that our model can naturally adapt to different morphological changes and perform behavioural transitions. PMID:25057775

  2. Motor coordination as predictor of physical activity in childhood.

    PubMed

    Lopes, V P; Rodrigues, L P; Maia, J A R; Malina, R M

    2011-10-01

    This study considers relationships among motor coordination (MC), physical fitness (PF) and physical activity (PA) in children followed longitudinally from 6 to 10 years. It is hypothesized that MC is a significant and primary predictor of PA in children. Subjects were 142 girls and 143 boys. Height, weight and skinfolds; PA (Godin-Shephard questionnaire); MC (Körperkoordination Test für Kinder); and PF (five fitness items) were measured. Hierarchical linear modeling with MC and PF as predictors of PA was used. The retained model indicated that PA at baseline differed significantly between boys (48.3 MET/week) and girls (40.0 MET/week). The interaction of MC and 1 mile run/walk had a positive influence on level of PA. The general trend for a decrease in PA level across years was attenuated or amplified depending on initial level of MC. The estimated rate of decline in PA was negligible for children with higher levels of MC at 6 years, but was augmented by 2.58 and 2.47 units each year, respectively, for children with low and average levels of initial MC. In conclusion MC is an important predictor of PA in children 6-10 years of age.

  3. Physical activity, physical fitness, gross motor coordination, and metabolic syndrome: focus of twin research in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, José António Ribeiro; Santos, Daniel; de Freitas, Duarte Luis; Thomis, Martine

    2013-02-01

    A very brief history of Portuguese twin research in sport and human movement sciences is presented. Recruitment procedures, zygosity determination, and phenotypes are given for twins and their parents from the mainland, and Azores and Madeira archipelagos. Preliminary findings are mostly related to physical activity, health-related physical fitness, gross motor coordination, neuromotor development, and metabolic syndrome traits.

  4. Understanding social motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna

    2011-10-01

    Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain.

  5. Laterality of movement-related activity reflects transformation of coordinates in ventral premotor cortex and primary motor cortex of monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Kiyoshi

    2007-10-01

    The ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and the primary motor cortex (MI) of monkeys participate in various sensorimotor integrations, such as the transformation of coordinates from visual to motor space, because the areas contain movement-related neuronal activity reflecting either visual or motor space. In addition to relationship to visual and motor space, laterality of the activity could indicate stages in the visuomotor transformation. Thus we examined laterality and relationship to visual and motor space of movement-related neuronal activity in the PMv and MI of monkeys performing a fast-reaching task with the left or right arm, toward targets with visual and motor coordinates that had been dissociated by shift prisms. We determined laterality of each activity quantitatively and classified it into four types: activity that consistently depended on target locations in either head-centered visual coordinates (V-type) or motor coordinates (M-type) and those that had either differential or nondifferential activity for both coordinates (B- and N-types). A majority of M-type neurons in the areas had preferences for reaching movements with the arm contralateral to the hemisphere where neuronal activity was recorded. In contrast, most of the V-type neurons were recorded in the PMv and exhibited less laterality than the M-type. The B- and N-types were recorded in the PMv and MI and exhibited intermediate properties between the V- and M-types when laterality and correlations to visual and motor space of them were jointly examined. These results suggest that the cortical motor areas contribute to the transformation of coordinates to generate final motor commands.

  6. Coordinated motor activity in simulated spinal networks emerges from simple biologically plausible rules of connectivity.

    PubMed

    Dale, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    The spinal motor circuits of the Xenopus embryo have been simulated in a 400-neuron network. To explore the consequences of differing patterns of synaptic connectivity within the network for the generation of the motor rhythm, a system of biologically plausible rules was devised to control synapse formation by three parameters. Each neuron had an intrinsic probability of synapse formation (P(soma), specified by a space constant lambda) that was a monotonically decreasing function of its soma location in the rostro-caudal axis of the simulated network. The neurons had rostral and caudal going axons of specified length (L(axon)) associated with a probability of synapse formation (P(axon)). The final probability of synapse formation was the product of P(soma) and P(axon). Realistic coordinated activity only occurred when L(axon) and the probabilities of interconnection were sufficiently high. Increasing the values of the three network parameters reduced the burst duration, cycle period, and rostro-caudal delay and increased the reliability with which the network functioned as measured by the coefficient of variance of these parameters. Whereas both L(axon) and P(axon) had powerful and consistent effects on network output, the effects of lambda on burst duration and rostro-caudal delay were more variable and depended on the values of the other two parameters. This network model can reproduce the rostro-caudal coordination of swimming without using coupled oscillator theory. The changes in network connectivity and resulting changes in activity explored by the model mimic the development of the motor pattern for swimming in the real embryo.

  7. Difference in Activity in the Supplementary Motor Area Depending on Limb Combination of Hand–Foot Coordinated Movements

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Kento; Kawashima, Saeko; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Periodic interlimb coordination shows lower performance when the ipsilateral hand and foot (e.g., right hand and right foot) are simultaneously moved than when the contralateral hand and foot (e.g., right hand and left foot) are simultaneously moved. The present study aimed to investigate how brain activity that is related to the dependence of hand–foot coordination on limb combination, using functional magnetic imaging. Twenty-one right-handed subjects performed periodic coordinated movements of the ipsilateral or contralateral hand and foot in the same or opposite direction in the sagittal plane. Kinematic data showed that performance was lower for the ipsilateral hand–foot coordination than for the contralateral one. A comparison of brain activity between the same and opposite directions showed that there was a greater activation of supplementary motor area for ipsilateral hand–foot coordination as compared to that seen during contralateral hand–foot coordination. We speculate that this might reflect a difference in the degree of inhibition of the neural circuit that disrupts opposite directional movements between ipsilateral and contralateral hand–foot coordinated movements. PMID:27757079

  8. Measuring motor coordination in mice.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Robert M J

    2013-01-01

    Mice are increasingly being used in behavioral neuroscience, largely replacing rats as the behaviorist's animal of choice. Before aspects of behavior such as emotionality or cognition can be assessed, however, it is vital to determine whether the motor capabilities of e.g. a mutant or lesioned mouse allow such an assessment. Performance on a maze task requiring strength and coordination, such as the Morris water maze, might well be impaired in a mouse by motor, rather than cognitive, impairments, so it is essential to selectively dissect the latter from the former. For example, sensorimotor impairments caused by NMDA antagonists have been shown to impair water maze performance(2). Motor coordination has traditionally been assessed in mice and rats by the rotarod test, in which the animal is placed on a horizontal rod that rotates about its long axis; the animal must walk forwards to remain upright and not fall off. Both set speed and accelerating versions of the rotarod are available. The other three tests described in this article (horizontal bar, static rods and parallel bars) all measure coordination on static apparatus. The horizontal bar also requires strength for adequate performance, particularly of the forelimbs as the mouse initially grips the bar just with the front paws. Adult rats do not perform well on tests such as the static rods and parallel bars (personal observations); they appear less well coordinated than mice. I have only tested male rats, however, and male mice seem generally less well coordinated than females. Mice appear to have a higher strength:weight ratio than rats; the Latin name, Mus musculus, seems entirely appropriate. The rotarod, the variations of the foot fault test(12) or the Catwalk (Noldus)(15) apparatus are generally used to assess motor coordination in rats. PMID:23748408

  9. Rhythmic motor activity and interlimb co-ordination in the developing pouch young of a wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed Central

    Ho, S M

    1997-01-01

    1. The forelimb motor behaviour of developing wallaby was studied. A clock-like alternating movement was reactivated whenever the animal was removed from the pouch. 2. Forelimb stepping frequency increased during the first 3 weeks of development, while the phase relationship remained constant. Forelimb activity could be affected by altering the afferent feedback from the contralateral limb, or an increase in ambient temperature. 3. In vitro experiments were performed using an isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparation from animals up to 6 weeks postnatal. Fictive locomotor activity could be evoked by electrical stimulation or bath-applied NMDA (< 10 microM). 4. Bath-applied strychnine (10-25 microM) and bicuculline (10-50 microM) disrupted the phase relationship between motor pools, while rhythmic motor discharge remained in the absence of these inhibitory pathways. 5. The present findings indicate that the pattern generator that underlies the robust forelimb movement during the first journey to the pouch is retained for different motor functions during in-pouch development. The neural network that underlies such behaviour can be divided into two major components, a rhythm generator within each hemicord, and a pattern co-ordinating pathway which involve both glycinergic and GABAergic interneurones. PMID:9218221

  10. Heterogeneity of dynein structure implies coordinated suppression of dynein motor activity in the axoneme.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Aditi; Ishikawa, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    Axonemal dyneins provide the driving force for flagellar/ciliary bending. Nucleotide-induced conformational changes of flagellar dynein have been found both in vitro and in situ by electron microscopy, and in situ studies demonstrated the coexistence of at least two conformations in axonemes in the presence of nucleotides (the apo and the nucleotide-bound forms). The distribution of the two forms suggested cooperativity between adjacent dyneins on axonemal microtubule doublets. Although the mechanism of such cooperativity is unknown it might be related to the mechanism of bending. To explore the mechanism by which structural heterogeneity of axonemal dyneins is induced by nucleotides, we used cilia from Tetrahymena thermophila to examine the structure of dyneins in a) the intact axoneme and b) microtubule doublets separated from the axoneme, both with and without additional pure microtubules. We also employed an ATPase assay on these specimens to investigate dynein activity functionally. Dyneins on separated doublets show more activation by nucleotides than those in the intact axoneme, both structurally and in the ATPase assay, and this is especially pronounced when the doublets are coupled with added microtubules, as expected. Paralleling the reduced ATPase activity in the intact axonemes, a lower proportion of these dyneins are in the nucleotide-bound form. This indicates a coordinated suppression of dynein activity in the axoneme, which could be the key for understanding the bending mechanism.

  11. Electromyographic Activity of Hand Muscles in a Motor Coordination Game: Effect of Incentive Scheme and Its Relation with Social Capital

    PubMed Central

    Censolo, Roberto; Craighero, Laila; Ponti, Giovanni; Rizzo, Leonzio; Canto, Rosario; Fadiga, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Background A vast body of social and cognitive psychology studies in humans reports evidence that external rewards, typically monetary ones, undermine intrinsic motivation. These findings challenge the standard selfish-rationality assumption at the core of economic reasoning. In the present work we aimed at investigating whether the different modulation of a given monetary reward automatically and unconsciously affects effort and performance of participants involved in a game devoid of visual and verbal interaction and without any perspective-taking activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Twelve pairs of participants were submitted to a simple motor coordination game while recording the electromyographic activity of First Dorsal Interosseus (FDI), the muscle mainly involved in the task. EMG data show a clear effect of alternative rewards strategies on subjects' motor behavior. Moreover, participants' stock of relevant past social experiences, measured by a specifically designed questionnaire, was significantly correlated with EMG activity, showing that only low social capital subjects responded to monetary incentives consistently with a standard rationality prediction. Conclusions/Significance Our findings show that the effect of extrinsic motivations on performance may arise outside social contexts involving complex cognitive processes due to conscious perspective-taking activity. More importantly, the peculiar performance of low social capital individuals, in agreement with standard economic reasoning, adds to the knowledge of the circumstances that makes the crowding out/in of intrinsic motivation likely to occur. This may help in improving the prediction and accuracy of economic models and reconcile this puzzling effect of external incentives with economic theory. PMID:21464986

  12. Relationship between motor skills, participation in leisure activities and quality of life of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: temporal aspects.

    PubMed

    Raz-Silbiger, S; Lifshitz, N; Katz, N; Steinhart, S; Cermak, S A; Weintraub, N

    2015-03-01

    The study examined the relationship between motor skills, participation in leisure activities and quality of life (QOL), within a temporal context (school year vs. summer vacation and school days vs. weekends). Parents of 22 children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and of 55 typically developing children, aged 6-11, filled out two questionnaires relating to their children's participation in leisure activities (vigorous, moderate and sedentary) and QOL. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) was administered to their children. Results showed that among the children with DCD, balance scores positively correlated with participation in sedentary activities, and in both groups both balance and aiming and catching were related to the physical and school aspects of QOL. Furthermore, participation in vigorous activities in the summer was positively correlated with social and school QOL. In contrast, among typically developing children, participation in vigorous activities during the school year was negatively correlated with school QOL. Finally, in both groups, participation in sedentary activities during school days was negatively correlated with school QOL. These results suggest that the parents' perceptions of their children's QOL may be related to the level of activeness of the leisure activities but also to temporal aspects. Therefore, it is important that therapists and educators consider the temporal aspects, when consulting with parents and their children regarding participation in leisure activities.

  13. Motor Coordination and Intelligence Level in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsec, Jurij; Pisot, Rado

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor coordination and intelligence level in adolescents. The sample was comprised of 550 adolescents from Slovenia, aged 13.1 years (SD = 0.87), who attended elementary schools. For assessment of motor coordination a battery of eight tests were used. Assessment of intelligence was carried out with…

  14. Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Richard Alan, II

    2003-01-01

    As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for

  15. Motor Coordination and Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Since Piaget, the view that motor and cognitive development are interrelated has gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research on this issue is still rare. Few studies show a correlation of performance in cognitive and motor tasks in typically developing children. More specifically, Diamond A. (2000) hypothesizes an involvement of executive…

  16. Coordination and Fine Motor Control Depends on Drosophila TRPγ

    PubMed Central

    Akitake, Bradley; Ren, Qiuting; Boiko, Nina; Ni, Jinfei; Sokabe, Takaaki; Stockand, James D.; Eaton, Benjamin A.; Montell, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Motor coordination is broadly divided into gross and fine motor control, both of which depend on proprioceptive organs. However, the channels that function specifically in fine motor control are unknown. Here, we show that mutations in trpγ disrupt fine motor control while leaving gross motor proficiency intact. The mutants are unable to coordinate precise leg movements during walking, and are ineffective in traversing large gaps due to an inability in making subtle postural adaptations that are requisite for this task. TRPγ is expressed in proprioceptive organs, and is required in both neurons and glia for gap crossing. We expressed TRPγ in vitro, and found that its activity is promoted by membrane stretch. A mutation eliminating the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger suppresses the gap crossing phenotype of trpγ flies. Our findings indicate that TRPγ contributes to fine motor control through mechanical activation in proprioceptive organs, thereby promoting Ca2+ influx, which is required for function. PMID:26028119

  17. Cyclic motor activity; migrating motor complex: 1985.

    PubMed

    Sarna, S K

    1985-10-01

    Most of the gastrointestinal tract and the biliary tract have a cyclic motor activity. The electric counterpart of this motor activity is called cyclic myoelectric activity. A typical motor cycle in the LES, stomach, and small intestine is composed of a quiescent state, followed by progressively increasing amplitude and frequency of contractions culminating in a state of maximal contractile activity. The colonic motor cycle has only the quiescent and the contractile states. In the small intestine, these motor complexes migrate in an aborad direction, and in the colon in both orad and aborad directions. The mechanisms of initiation and migration of these complexes are best understood in the small intestine. Both the initiation and migration of these complexes seem to be controlled by enteric neural mechanisms. The functions of the enteric mechanisms may be modulated by the central nervous system and by circulating endogenous substances. The mechanisms of initiation of these complexes are not completely understood in the rest of the gastrointestinal tract and in the biliary tract. The physiologic function of these motor complexes that occur only after several hours of fast in the upper gastrointestinal tract of nonruminants may be to clean the digestive tract of residual food, secretions, and cellular debris. This function is aided by a coordinated secretion of enzymes, acid, and bicarbonate. In ruminants, phase III activity is associated with the distal propulsion of ingested food. The function of colonic motor complexes that are not coordinated with the cyclic motor activities of the rest of the gastrointestinal tract may be only to move contents back and forth for optimal absorption. PMID:3896912

  18. Motor Ability and Weight Status Are Determinants of Out-of-School Activity Participation for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Lee, Velma Y. L.; Chan, Nerita N. C.; Chan, Rachel S. H.; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with…

  19. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial of the impact of virtual reality games on motor competence, physical activity, and mental health in children with developmental coordination disorder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A healthy start to life requires adequate motor development and physical activity participation. Currently 5-15% of children have impaired motor development without any obvious disorder. These children are at greater risk of obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, low social confidence and poor mental health. Traditional electronic game use may impact on motor development and physical activity creating a vicious cycle. However new virtual reality (VR) game interfaces may provide motor experiences that enhance motor development and lead to an increase in motor coordination and better physical activity and mental health outcomes. VR games are beginning to be used for rehabilitation, however there is no reported trial of the impact of these games on motor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. Methods This cross-over randomised and controlled trial will examine whether motor coordination is enhanced by access to active electronic games and whether daily activity, attitudes to physical activity and mental health are also enhanced. Thirty children aged 10-12 years with poor motor coordination (≤ 15th percentile) will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no active electronic games' and 'active electronic games'. Each child will participate in both conditions for 16 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is motor coordination, assessed by kinematic and kinetic motion analysis laboratory measures. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed by accelerometry, coordination in daily life by parent report questionnaire and attitudes to physical activity, self-confidence, anxiety and depressed mood will be assessed by self report questionnaire. A sample of 30 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 5 point difference in motor coordination on the MABC-2 TIS scale (mean 17, sd = 5). Discussion This is the first trial to examine the impact of new

  20. Attentional Demands on Motor-Respiratory Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Eric E.; Amazeen, Polemnia G.

    2009-01-01

    Athletic performance requires the pacing of breathing with exercise, known as motor-respiratory coordination (MRC). In this study, we added cognitive and physical constraints while participants intentionally controlled their breathing locations during rhythmic arm movement. This is the first study to examine a cognitive constraint on MRC.…

  1. Effects of an aqueous extract of Orbignya phalerata Mart on locomotor activity and motor coordination in mice and as antioxidant in vitro.

    PubMed

    Silva, A P dos S; Cerqueira, G S; Nunes, L C C; de Freitas, R M

    2012-03-01

    The antioxidant activities of aqueous extract (AE) of Orbignya phalerata were assessed in vitro as well as its effect on locomotor activity and motor coordination in mice. AE does not possesses a strong antioxidant potential according to the scavenging assays; it also did not present scavenger activity in vitro. Following oral administration, AE (1, 2 and 3 g/kg) did not significantly change the motor activity of animals when compared with the control group, up to 24 h after administration and did not alter the remaining time of the animals on the Rota-rod apparatus. Further studies currently in progress will enable us to understand the mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of Orbignya phalerata widely used in Brazilian flok medicine.

  2. Gender differential effects of developmental exposure to methyl-mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls 126 or 153, or its combinations on motor activity and coordination.

    PubMed

    Cauli, Omar; Piedrafita, Blanca; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2013-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (MeHg) are persistent organic pollutants accumulating in the food chain. Pre- and neonatal exposure to these neurotoxicants may affect brain development and lead to long-lasting alterations in cerebral function, which can result in motor alterations in youth and/or adulthood. Some neurotoxicants induce gender specific effects. The aims of the present work were to: (1) assess the effects of developmental exposure to MeHg, PCB 153 or PCB 126 on spontaneous locomotor and vertical activity and motor coordination when the rats are 2-month old; (2) assess whether perinatal exposure to combinations of MeHg with PCB153 or PCB126 alter the effects of the individual neurotoxicants; (3) follow the progression of motor alterations when the rats are 3-, 5- and 7-month old; (4) assess if the effects are similar or different in males and females. Pregnant rats were treated with MeHg (0.5mg/kgday); PCB126 (100ng/kgday) or PCB153 (1mg/kgday) or with combinations of MeHg with each PCB, administered in food from gestational day 7 until weaning at post-natal day 21. PCB 126 impaired motor coordination at 2 months in males but not in females. PCB 153 impaired coordination both in males and females. Combinations of MeHg with PCB153 or PCB126 did not affect motor coordination, indicating that MeHg counteracts the effects of the PBCs. The combination of MeHg and PCB153 induces hypolocomotion at 2 months but hyperactivity at 7 months while the individual compounds did not induce any effect. PCB126 induced gender selective effects, reducing locomotor activity at 2 months in females but not in males. The combination of MeHg and PCB126 behaves as PCB126 alone. All compounds and combinations tested induce gender-selective alterations in vertical activity. The effects on locomotor and vertical activity change with age in the same rats. At 2 months all compounds and combinations reduce vertical activity in females but not in males. At 7 months

  3. The Development of Motor Coordination in Drosophila Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Sarah; Evers, Jan Felix; Fiala, André; Bate, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We use non-invasive muscle imaging to study onset of motor activity and emergence of coordinated movement in Drosophila embryos. Earliest movements are myogenic and neurally controlled muscle contractions first appear with the onset of bursting activity 17 hours after egg laying. Initial episodes of activity are poorly organised and coordinated crawling sequences only begin to appear after a further hour of bursting. Thus network performance improves during this first period of activity. The embryo continues to exhibit bursts of crawling like sequences until shortly before hatching, while other reflexes also mature. Bursting does not begin as a reflex response to sensory input but appears to reflect the onset of spontaneous activity in the motor network. It does not require GABA-ergic transmission, and using a light activated channel to excite the network we demonstrate activity dependent depression that may cause burst termination. PMID:18927150

  4. Acquisition and reacquisition of motor coordination in musicians.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Shinichi; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-03-01

    Precise control of movement timing plays a key role in musical performance. This motor skill requires coordination across multiple joints and muscles, which is acquired through extensive musical training from childhood. However, extensive training has a potential risk of causing neurological disorders that impair fine motor control, such as task-specific tremor and focal dystonia. Recent technological advances in measurement and analysis of biological data, as well as noninvasive manipulation of neuronal activities, have promoted the understanding of computational and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying acquisition, loss, and reacquisition of dexterous movements through musical practice and rehabilitation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the behavioral and neurophysiological basis of motor virtuosity and disorder in musicians, representative extremes of human motor skill. We also report novel evidence of effects of noninvasive neurorehabilitation that combined transcranial direct-current stimulation and motor rehabilitation over multiple days on musician's dystonia, which offers a promising therapeutic means.

  5. Motor coordination deficits in mice lacking RGS9.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Jacqueline; Hoang, Chau V; Potts, Bryan; Gold, Stephen J; Powell, Craig M

    2008-01-23

    RGS9-2 is a striatum-enriched protein that negatively modulates dopamine and opioid receptor signaling. We examined the role of RGS9-2 in modulating complex behavior. Genetic deletion of RGS9-2 does not lead to global impairments, but results in selective abnormalities in certain behavioral domains. RGS9 knockout (KO) mice have decreased motor coordination on the accelerating rotarod and deficits in working memory as measured in the delayed-match-to-place version of the water maze. In contrast, RGS9 KO mice exhibit normal locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior, cue and contextual fear conditioning, startle threshold, and pre-pulse inhibition. These studies are the first to describe a role for RGS9-2 in motor coordination and working memory and implicate RGS9-2 as a potential therapeutic target for motor and cognitive dysfunction.

  6. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

    PubMed

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination. PMID:27547193

  7. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation

    PubMed Central

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N.; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G.; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination. PMID:27547193

  8. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

    PubMed

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  9. Impaired Visuo-Motor Sequence Learning in Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gheysen, Freja; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Fias, Wim

    2011-01-01

    The defining feature of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is the marked impairment in the development of motor coordination (DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000). In the current study, we focused on one core aspect of motor coordination: learning to correctly sequence movements. We investigated the procedural, visuo-motor…

  10. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-01

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus.

  11. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-01

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. PMID:25891406

  12. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  13. Coordinating Shared Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  14. Shared Activity Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Barrett, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    Interacting agents that interleave planning and execution must reach consensus on their commitments to each other. In domains where agents have varying degrees of interaction and different constraints on communication and computation, agents will require different coordination protocols in order to efficiently reach consensus in real time. We briefly describe a largely unexplored class of real-time, distributed planning problems (inspired by interacting spacecraft missions), new challenges they pose, and a general approach to solving the problems. These problems involve self-interested agents that have infrequent communication but collaborate on joint activities. We describe a Shared Activity Coordination (SHAC) framework that provides a decentralized algorithm for negotiating the scheduling of shared activities in a dynamic environment, a soft, real-time approach to reaching consensus during execution with limited communication, and a foundation for customizing protocols for negotiating planner interactions. We apply SHAC to a realistic simulation of interacting Mars missions and illustrate the simplicity of protocol development.

  15. Variation in sport participation, fitness and motor coordination with socioeconomic status among Flemish children.

    PubMed

    Vandendriessche, Joric B; Vandorpe, Barbara F R; Vaeyens, Roel; Malina, Robert M; Lefevre, Johan; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M

    2012-02-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is often indicated as a factor that influences physical activity and associated health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between SES and sport participation, morphology, fitness and motor coordination in a sample of 1955 Flemish children 6-11 years of age. Gender, age and SES-specific values for morphologic dimensions, amount and type of sport participation and fitness and motor coordination tests were compared. SES was positively and significantly associated with sport participation and sports club membership in both sexes. Although differences were not consistently significant, morphologic dimensions and tests of fitness and motor coordination showed a trend in favor of children from higher SES. The results suggest that public and local authorities should consider providing equal opportunities for children in all social strata and especially those in the lower SES to experience the beneficial effects of sport participation through which they can enhance levels of physical fitness and motor coordination. PMID:22433257

  16. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Impairs Motor Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jian-Wei; Li, Yi-Fei; Wang, Zhao-Tao; Jia, Wei-Qiang; Xu, Ru-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellum plays an essential role in balance and motor coordination. Purkinje cells (PCs) are the sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex and are critical for the execution of its functions, including motor coordination. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is involved in the innate immune response and is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system; however, little is known about its role in cerebellum-related motor functions. To address this question, we evaluated motor behavior in TLR4 deficient mice. We found that TLR4−∕− mice showed impaired motor coordination. Morphological analyses revealed that TLR4 deficiency was associated with a reduction in the thickness of the molecular layer of the cerebellum. TLR4 was highly expressed in PCs but not in Bergmann glia or cerebellar granule cells; however, loss of TLR4 decreased the number of PCs. These findings suggest a novel role for TLR4 in cerebellum-related motor coordination through maintenance of the PC population. PMID:26909014

  17. Obesity and Motor Coordination Ability in Taiwanese Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yi-Ching; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between obesity and motor coordination ability in Taiwanese children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). 2029 children (1078 boys, 951 girls) aged nine to ten years were chosen randomly from 14 elementary schools across Taiwan. We used bioelectrical impedance…

  18. Similarities between GCS and human motor cortex: complex movement coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos

    2014-07-01

    The "Gran Telescopio de Canarias" (GTC1) is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). The GTC control system (GCS), the brain of the telescope, is is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. On the other hand, the Human motor cortex (HMC) is a region of the cerebrum responsible for the coordination of planning, control, and executing voluntary movements. If we analyze both systems, as far as the movement control of their mechanisms and body parts is concerned, we can find extraordinary similarities in their architectures. Both are structured in layers, and their functionalities are comparable from the movement conception until the movement action itself: In the GCS we can enumerate the Sequencer high level components, the Coordination libraries, the Control Kit library and the Device Driver library as the subsystems involved in the telescope movement control. If we look at the motor cortex, we can also enumerate the primary motor cortex, the secondary motor cortices, which include the posterior parietal cortex, the premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area (SMA), the motor units, the sensory organs and the basal ganglia. From all these components/areas we will analyze in depth the several subcortical regions, of the the motor cortex, that are involved in organizing motor programs for complex movements and the GCS coordination framework, which is composed by a set of classes that allow to the high level components to transparently control a group of mechanisms simultaneously.

  19. Motor Skill Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bo, Jin; Lee, Chi-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are characterized as having motor difficulties and learning impairment that may last well into adolescence and adulthood. Although behavioral deficits have been identified in many domains such as visuo-spatial processing, kinesthetic perception, and cross-modal sensory integration, recent…

  20. Continual coordination of shared activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B. J.; Barrett, A.

    2002-01-01

    Interacting agents that interleave planning and execution must reach consensus on their commitments to each other. For domains with varying degrees of interaction and different constraints on communication and computation, agents will require different coordination protocols in order to efficiently achieve their goals. ShAC (Shared Activity Coordination) is a framework for designing coordination protocols and an algorithm for continually coordinating agents using these protocols during execution. We show how a variety of protocols can be constructed using this framework and describe how ShAC coordinates two rovers and an orbiter in a simulated Mars scenario.

  1. A bipedal DNA Brownian motor with coordinated legs.

    PubMed

    Omabegho, Tosan; Sha, Ruojie; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2009-04-01

    A substantial challenge in engineering molecular motors is designing mechanisms to coordinate the motion between multiple domains of the motor so as to bias random thermal motion. For bipedal motors, this challenge takes the form of coordinating the movement of the biped's legs so that they can move in a synchronized fashion. To address this problem, we have constructed an autonomous DNA bipedal walker that coordinates the action of its two legs by cyclically catalyzing the hybridization of metastable DNA fuel strands. This process leads to a chemically ratcheted walk along a directionally polar DNA track. By covalently cross-linking aliquots of the walker to its track in successive walking states, we demonstrate that this Brownian motor can complete a full walking cycle on a track whose length could be extended for longer walks. We believe that this study helps to uncover principles behind the design of unidirectional devices that can function without intervention. This device should be able to fulfill roles that entail the performance of useful mechanical work on the nanometer scale.

  2. Conserved role of Drosophila melanogaster FoxP in motor coordination and courtship song.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Kristy J; Wassmer, Taryn L; Deitcher, David L

    2014-07-15

    FoxP2 is a highly conserved vertebrate transcription factor known for its importance in human speech and language production. Disruption of FoxP2 in several vertebrate models indicates a conserved functional role for this gene in both sound production and motor coordination. Although FoxP2 is known to be strongly expressed in brain regions important for motor coordination, little is known about FoxP2's role in the nervous system. The recent discovery of the well-conserved Drosophila melanogaster homolog, FoxP, provides an opportunity to study the role of this crucial gene in an invertebrate model. We hypothesized that, like FoxP2, Drosophila FoxP is important for behaviors requiring fine motor coordination. We used targeted RNA interference to reduce expression of FoxP and assayed the effects on a variety of adult behaviors. Male flies with reduced FoxP expression exhibit decreased levels of courtship behavior, altered pulse-song structure, and sex-specific motor impairments in walking and flight. Acute disruption of synaptic activity in FoxP expressing neurons using a temperature-sensitive shibire allele dramatically impaired motor coordination. Utilizing a GFP reporter to visualize FoxP in the fly brain reveals expression in relatively few neurons in distributed clusters within the larval and adult CNS, including distinct labeling of the adult protocerebral bridge - a section of the insect central complex known to be important for motor coordination and thought to be homologous to areas of the vertebrate basal ganglia. Our results establish the necessity of this gene in motor coordination in an invertebrate model and suggest a functional homology with vertebrate FoxP2. PMID:24747661

  3. Motor adaptation and generalization of reaching movements using motor primitives based on spatial coordinates.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2015-02-15

    The brain processes sensory and motor information in a wide range of coordinate systems, ranging from retinal coordinates in vision to body-centered coordinates in areas that control musculature. Here we focus on the coordinate system used in the motor cortex to guide actions and examine physiological and psychophysical evidence for an allocentric reference frame based on spatial coordinates. When the equations of motion governing reaching dynamics are expressed as spatial vectors, each term is a vector cross product between a limb-segment position and a velocity or acceleration. We extend this computational framework to motor adaptation, in which the cross-product terms form adaptive bases for canceling imposed perturbations. Coefficients of the velocity- and acceleration-dependent cross products are assumed to undergo plastic changes to compensate the force-field or visuomotor perturbations. Consistent with experimental findings, each of the cross products had a distinct reference frame, which predicted how an acquired remapping generalized to untrained location in the workspace. In response to force field or visual rotation, mainly the coefficients of the velocity- or acceleration-dependent cross products adapted, leading to transfer in an intrinsic or extrinsic reference frame, respectively. The model further predicted that remapping of visuomotor rotation should under- or overgeneralize in a distal or proximal workspace. The cross-product bases can explain the distinct patterns of generalization in visuomotor and force-field adaptation in a unified way, showing that kinematic and dynamic motor adaptation need not arise through separate neural substrates.

  4. Peer Victimization and Depression in Children with and without Motor Coordination Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Wenonah N.; Missiuna, Cheryl; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a chronic disability that impacts children's performance of everyday motor-based activities and is associated with the development of secondary social and mental health problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate peer victimization and depression in children who were and were not at risk for…

  5. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex modulates supplementary motor area in coordinated unimanual motor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Avisa; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Burgess, Ashley; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Bressler, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Motor control is integral to all types of human behavior, and the dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) is thought to play an important role in the brain network underlying motor control. Yet the role of the dACC in motor control is under-characterized. Here we aimed to characterize the dACC’s role in adolescent brain network interactions during a simple motor control task involving visually coordinated unimanual finger movements. Network interactions were assessed using both undirected and directed functional connectivity analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals, comparing the task with a rest condition. The relation between the dACC and Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) was compared to that between the dACC and Primary Motor Cortex (M1). The directed signal from dACC to SMA was significantly elevated during motor control in the task. By contrast, the directed signal from SMA to dACC, both directed signals between dACC and M1, and the undirected functional connections of dACC with SMA and M1, all did not differ between task and rest. Undirected coupling of dACC with both SMA and dACC, and only the dACC-to-SMA directed signal, were significantly greater for a proactive than a reactive task condition, suggesting that dACC plays a role in motor control by maintaining stimulus timing expectancy. Overall, these results suggest that the dACC selectively modulates the SMA during visually coordinated unimanual behavior in adolescence. The role of the dACC as an important brain area for the mediation of task-related motor control may be in place in adolescence, continuing into adulthood. The task and analytic approach described here should be extended to the study of healthy adults to examine network profiles of the dACC during basic motor behavior. PMID:26089783

  6. Bimanual motor coordination controlled by cooperative interactions in intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Takeshi; Ito, Koji; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Although strong motor coordination in intrinsic muscle coordinates has frequently been reported for bimanual movements, coordination in extrinsic visual coordinates is also crucial in various bimanual tasks. To explore the bimanual coordination mechanisms in terms of the frame of reference, here we characterized implicit bilateral interactions in visuomotor tasks. Visual perturbations (finger-cursor gain change) were applied while participants performed a rhythmic tracking task with both index fingers under an in-phase or anti-phase relationship in extrinsic coordinates. When they corrected the right finger's amplitude, the left finger's amplitude unintentionally also changed [motor interference (MI)], despite the instruction to keep its amplitude constant. Notably, we observed two specificities: one was large MI and low relative-phase variability (PV) under the intrinsic in-phase condition, and the other was large MI and high PV under the extrinsic in-phase condition. Additionally, using a multiple-interaction model, we successfully decomposed MI into intrinsic components caused by motor correction and extrinsic components caused by visual-cursor mismatch of the right finger's movements. This analysis revealed that the central nervous system facilitates MI by combining intrinsic and extrinsic components in the condition with in-phases in both intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates, and that under-additivity of the effects is explained by the brain's preference for the intrinsic interaction over extrinsic interaction. In contrast, the PV was significantly correlated with the intrinsic component, suggesting that the intrinsic interaction dominantly contributed to bimanual movement stabilization. The inconsistent features of MI and PV suggest that the central nervous system regulates multiple levels of bilateral interactions for various bimanual tasks.

  7. Bimanual motor coordination controlled by cooperative interactions in intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Takeshi; Ito, Koji; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Although strong motor coordination in intrinsic muscle coordinates has frequently been reported for bimanual movements, coordination in extrinsic visual coordinates is also crucial in various bimanual tasks. To explore the bimanual coordination mechanisms in terms of the frame of reference, here we characterized implicit bilateral interactions in visuomotor tasks. Visual perturbations (finger-cursor gain change) were applied while participants performed a rhythmic tracking task with both index fingers under an in-phase or anti-phase relationship in extrinsic coordinates. When they corrected the right finger's amplitude, the left finger's amplitude unintentionally also changed [motor interference (MI)], despite the instruction to keep its amplitude constant. Notably, we observed two specificities: one was large MI and low relative-phase variability (PV) under the intrinsic in-phase condition, and the other was large MI and high PV under the extrinsic in-phase condition. Additionally, using a multiple-interaction model, we successfully decomposed MI into intrinsic components caused by motor correction and extrinsic components caused by visual-cursor mismatch of the right finger's movements. This analysis revealed that the central nervous system facilitates MI by combining intrinsic and extrinsic components in the condition with in-phases in both intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates, and that under-additivity of the effects is explained by the brain's preference for the intrinsic interaction over extrinsic interaction. In contrast, the PV was significantly correlated with the intrinsic component, suggesting that the intrinsic interaction dominantly contributed to bimanual movement stabilization. The inconsistent features of MI and PV suggest that the central nervous system regulates multiple levels of bilateral interactions for various bimanual tasks. PMID:26540267

  8. Coordination of individual and ensemble cytoskeletal motors studied using tools from DNA nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derr, Nathan Dickson

    The cytoskeletal molecular motors kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein drive many diverse functions within eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for numerous spatially and temporally dependent intracellular processes crucial for cellular activity, including cytokinesis, maintenance of sub-cellular organization and the transport of myriad cargos along microtubule tracks. Cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-1 are processive, but opposite polarity, homodimeric motors; they each can take hundreds of thousands of consecutive steps, but do so in opposite directions along their microtubule tracks. These steps are fueled by the binding and hydrolysis of ATP within the homodimer's two identical protomers. Individual motors achieve their processivity by maintaining asynchrony between the stepping cycles of each protomer, insuring that at least one protomer always maintains contact with the track. How dynein coordinates the asynchronous stepping activity of its protomers is unknown. We developed a versatile method for assembling Saccharomyces cerevisiae dynein heterodimers, using complementary DNA oligonucleotides covalently linked to dynein monomers labeled with different organic fluorophores. Using two-color, single-molecule microscopy and high-precision, two-dimensional tracking, we found that dynein has a highly variable stepping pattern that is distinct from all other processive cytoskeletal motors, which use "hand-over-hand" mechanisms. Uniquely, dynein stepping is stochastic when its two motor domains are close together. However, coordination emerges as the distance between motor domains increases, implying that a tension-based mechanism governs these steps. Many cellular cargos demonstrate bidirectional movement due to the presence of ensembles of both cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-1. To investigate the mechanisms that coordinate the interactions between motors within an ensemble, we constructed programmable synthetic cargos using three-dimensional DNA origami. This system

  9. Role of the motor cortex in the rearrangement of a natural movement coordination in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, O G; Mats, V N; Ponomarev, V N

    2008-07-01

    Chronic experiments on dogs were performed to study the activity of the shoulder muscles involved in elevating the forelimb used by the animal to lift a food-containing cup and keep it elevated during eating. At the early stage of acquisition of this operant reaction, limb-lifting occurred with an anticipatory upward head movement; lowering of the head to the feeder was associated with lowering of the lifted limb. The new coordination required for food to be obtained, i.e., maintaining the elevated limb in a posture with the head lowered, could only be achieved as a result of learning. In untrained dogs with the natural coordination, elevation of the limb occurred with activation of the deltoid and teres major muscles, teres minor being active on standing but ceasing its activity before limb elevation. During training the activity of the teres minor muscle changed to the opposite pattern. Limb elevation in the learned coordination was accompanied by activation of all three shoulder flexors. Lesioning of the motor cortex in the projection area of the "working" limb, but not in other areas, led to impairments of the acquired coordination and a new pattern of shoulder muscle activity. These data led to the conclusion that rearrangement of the initial coordination was linked with the formation of a new means of elevating the limb in which the muscle pattern was supported by the motor cortex.

  10. Perceptuo-motor compatibility governs multisensory integration in bimanual coordination dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zelic, Gregory; Mottet, Denis; Lagarde, Julien

    2016-02-01

    The brain has the remarkable ability to bind together inputs from different sensory origin into a coherent percept. Behavioral benefits can result from such ability, e.g., a person typically responds faster and more accurately to cross-modal stimuli than to unimodal stimuli. To date, it is, however, largely unknown whether such multisensory benefits, shown for discrete reactive behaviors, generalize to the continuous coordination of movements. The present study addressed multisensory integration from the perspective of bimanual coordination dynamics, where the perceptual activity no longer triggers a single response but continuously guides the motor action. The task consisted in coordinating anti-symmetrically the continuous flexion-extension of the index fingers, while synchronizing with an external pacer. Three different configurations of metronome were tested, for which we examined whether a cross-modal pacing (audio-tactile beats) improved the stability of the coordination in comparison with unimodal pacing condition (auditory or tactile beats). We found a more stable bimanual coordination for cross-modal pacing, but only when the metronome configuration directly matched the anti-symmetric coordination pattern. We conclude that multisensory integration can benefit the continuous coordination of movements; however, this is constrained by whether the perceptual and motor activities match in space and time. PMID:26525707

  11. Perceptuo-motor compatibility governs multisensory integration in bimanual coordination dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zelic, Gregory; Mottet, Denis; Lagarde, Julien

    2016-02-01

    The brain has the remarkable ability to bind together inputs from different sensory origin into a coherent percept. Behavioral benefits can result from such ability, e.g., a person typically responds faster and more accurately to cross-modal stimuli than to unimodal stimuli. To date, it is, however, largely unknown whether such multisensory benefits, shown for discrete reactive behaviors, generalize to the continuous coordination of movements. The present study addressed multisensory integration from the perspective of bimanual coordination dynamics, where the perceptual activity no longer triggers a single response but continuously guides the motor action. The task consisted in coordinating anti-symmetrically the continuous flexion-extension of the index fingers, while synchronizing with an external pacer. Three different configurations of metronome were tested, for which we examined whether a cross-modal pacing (audio-tactile beats) improved the stability of the coordination in comparison with unimodal pacing condition (auditory or tactile beats). We found a more stable bimanual coordination for cross-modal pacing, but only when the metronome configuration directly matched the anti-symmetric coordination pattern. We conclude that multisensory integration can benefit the continuous coordination of movements; however, this is constrained by whether the perceptual and motor activities match in space and time.

  12. Activities for a Perceptual Motor Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinning, Dorothy; And Others

    Perceptual motor activities for physically handicapped children are presented in the areas of fine and gross motor skills. Also detailed are activities to develop body image, visual motor skills, and tactile and auditory perception. (JD)

  13. Emergence of Motor Circuit Activity

    PubMed Central

    Law, Chris; Paquet, Michel; Kania, Artur

    2014-01-01

    In the developing nervous system, ordered neuronal activity patterns can occur even in the absence of sensory input and to investigate how these arise, we have used the model system of the embryonic chicken spinal motor circuit, focusing on motor neurons of the lateral motor column (LMC). At the earliest stages of their molecular differentiation, we can detect differences between medial and lateral LMC neurons in terms of expression of neurotransmitter receptor subunits, including CHRNA5, CHRNA7, GRIN2A, GRIK1, HTR1A and HTR1B, as well as the KCC2 transporter. Using patch-clamp recordings we also demonstrate that medial and lateral LMC motor neurons have subtly different activity patterns that reflect the differential expression of neurotransmitter receptor subunits. Using a combination of patch-clamp recordings in single neurons and calcium-imaging of motor neuron populations, we demonstrate that inhibition of nicotinic, muscarinic or GABA-ergic activity, has profound effects of motor circuit activity during the initial stages of neuromuscular junction formation. Finally, by analysing the activity of large populations of motor neurons at different developmental stages, we show that the asynchronous, disordered neuronal activity that occurs at early stages of circuit formation develops into organised, synchronous activity evident at the stage of LMC neuron muscle innervation. In light of the considerable diversity of neurotransmitter receptor expression, activity patterns in the LMC are surprisingly similar between neuronal types, however the emergence of patterned activity, in conjunction with the differential expression of transmitter systems likely leads to the development of near-mature patterns of locomotor activity by perinatal ages. PMID:24722186

  14. Motor activity improves temporal expectancy.

    PubMed

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  15. Motor activity improves temporal expectancy.

    PubMed

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments.

  16. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  17. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Jie; Jew, Chris P; Wager-Miller, James; Straiker, Alex; Spencer, Corinne; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance) in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  18. GPR55, a G-Protein Coupled Receptor for Lysophosphatidylinositol, Plays a Role in Motor Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Jie; Jew, Chris P.; Wager-Miller, James; Straiker, Alex; Spencer, Corinne; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance) in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior. PMID:23565223

  19. Fine Motor Activities Program to Promote Fine Motor Skills in a Case Study of Down's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lersilp, Suchitporn; Putthinoi, Supawadee; Panyo, Kewalin

    2016-01-01

    Children with Down's syndrome have developmental delays, particularly regarding cognitive and motor development. Fine motor skill problems are related to motor development. They have impact on occupational performances in school-age children with Down's syndrome because they relate to participation in school activities, such as grasping, writing, and carrying out self-care duties. This study aimed to develop a fine motor activities program and to examine the efficiency of the program that promoted fine motor skills in a case study of Down's syndrome. The case study subject was an 8 -year-old male called Kai, who had Down's syndrome. He was a first grader in a regular school that provided classrooms for students with special needs. This study used the fine motor activities program with assessment tools, which included 3 subtests of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2) that applied to Upper-limb coordination, Fine motor precision and Manual dexterity; as well as the In-hand Manipulation Checklist, and Jamar Hand Dynamometer Grip Test. The fine motor activities program was implemented separately and consisted of 3 sessions of 45 activities per week for 5 weeks, with each session taking 45 minutes. The results showed obvious improvement of fine motor skills, including bilateral hand coordination, hand prehension, manual dexterity, in-hand manipulation, and hand muscle strength. This positive result was an example of a fine motor intervention program designed and developed for therapists and related service providers in choosing activities that enhance fine motor skills in children with Down's syndrome. PMID:27357876

  20. Structural and Molecular Basis for Coordination in a Viral DNA Packaging Motor

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Aldrete, Emilio; Sherman, Michael B.; Woodson, Michael; Atz, Rockney; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J.; Morais, Marc C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Ring NTPases are a class of ubiquitous molecular motors involved in basic biological partitioning processes. dsDNA viruses encode ring ATPases that translocate their genomes to near-crystalline densities within pre-assembled viral capsids. Here, X-ray crystallography, cryoEM, and biochemical analyses of the dsDNA packaging motor in bacteriophage phi29 show how individual subunits are arranged in a pentameric ATPase ring, and suggest how their activities are coordinated to translocate dsDNA. The resulting pseudo-atomic structure of the motor and accompanying functional analyses show how ATP is bound in the ATPase active site; identify two DNA contacts, including a potential DNA translocating loop; demonstrate that a trans-acting arginine finger is involved in coordinating hydrolysis around the ring; and suggest a functional coupling between the arginine finger and the DNA translocating loop. The ability to visualize the motor in action illuminates how the different motor components interact with each other and with their DNA substrate. PMID:26904950

  1. Continual coordination through shared activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Barrett, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    Interacting agents that interleave planning and execution must reach consensus on their commitments to each other. In domains where agents have varying degrees of interaction and different constraints on communication and computation, agents will require different coordination protocols in order to efficiently reach consensus in real time. We briefly describe a largely unexplored class of realtime, distributed planning problems (inspired by interacting spacecraft missions), new challenges they pose, and a general approach to solving the problems. These problems involve self-interested agents that have infrequent communication but collaborate on joint activities. We describe a Shared Activity Coordination (SHAC) framework that provides a decentralized algorithm for negotiating the scheduling of shared activities over the lifetimes of separate missions, a soft, real-time approach to reaching consensus during execution with limited communication, and a foundation for customizing protocols for negotiating planner interactions. We apply SHAC to a realistic simulation of interacting Mars missions and illustrate the simplicity of protocol development.

  2. Motor coordination in weightless conditions revealed by long-term microgravity adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, Guido; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Massion, Jean; Pedotti, Antonio

    2001-08-01

    The functional approach to studying human motor systems attempts to give a better understanding of the processes behind planning movements and their coordinated performance by relying on weightlessness as a particularly enlightening experimental condition. Indeed, quantitative monitoring of sensorimotor adaptation of subjects exposed to weightlessness outlines the functional role of gravity in motor and postural organization. The recent accessibility of the MIR Space Station has allowed for the first time experimental quantitative kinematic analysis of long-term sensorimotor and postural adaptation to the weightless environment though opto-electronic techniques. In the frame of the EUROMIR'95 Mission, two protocols of voluntary posture perturbation (erect posture, EP; forward trunk bending, FTB) were carried out during four months of microgravity exposure. Results show that postural strategies for quasistatic body orientation in weightlessness are based on the alignment of geometrical body axes (head and trunk) along external references. A proper whole body positioning appears to be recovered only after months of microgravity exposure. By contrast, typically terrestrial strategies of co-ordination between movement and posture are promptly restored and used when performing motor activities in the weightless environment. This result is explained under the assumption that there may be different sensorimotor integration processes for static and dynamic postural function and that the organisation of coordinated movement might rely stably on egocentric references and kinematic synergies for motor control.

  3. Motor skills in Brazilian children with developmental coordination disorder versus children with motor typical development.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana Amélia; Magalhães, Livia Castro; Rezende, Marcia Bastos

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the study were to compare the performance of children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and motor typically developing peers on items from the Assessment of Motor Coordination and Dexterity (AMCD), to determine whether age, gender and type of school had significant impact on the scores of the AMCD items, to estimate the frequency of DCD among Brazilian children ages 7 and 8 years and to investigate whether children with DCD exhibit more symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder than children with motor typical development. A total of 793 children were screened by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire - Brazilian version (DCDQ-Brazil); 90 were identified as at risk for DCD; 91 matched controls were selected from the remaining participants. Children in both groups were evaluated with the AMCD, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-II) and Raven's coloured progressive matrices. Thirty-four children were classified as probable DCD, as defined by a combination of the DCDQ-Brazil and MABC-II scores (fifth percentile). The final frequency of DCD among children ages 7 and 8 years was 4.3%. There were significant differences between children with and without DCD on the majority of AMCD items, indicating its potential for identifying DCD in Brazilian children. The use of a motor test (MABC-II) that is not validated for the Brazilian children is a limitation of the present study. Further studies should investigate whether the AMCD is useful for identifying DCD in other age groups and in children from different regions of Brazil. The application of the AMCD may potentially contribute in improving occupational therapy practice in Brazil and in identifying children that could benefit from occupational therapy services.

  4. Motor coordination of articulators depends on the place of articulation.

    PubMed

    Inoue-Arai, Maristela Sayuri; Ono, Takashi; Honda, Ei-ichi; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Moriyama, Keiji

    2009-05-16

    Although the sounds/p/and/k/are both voiceless plosives, they have different places of articulation: bilabial and velar, respectively. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among articulators in plosives with reference to their place of articulation. Ten healthy subjects repeated bilabial and velar plosives in synchronization with magnetic resonance scanning. Each run was measured using a gradient echo sequence. Several linear and angular variables were defined to delineate the individual movements of articulators and to determine the temporal relationships among articulators. These variables showed distinctive changes depending on the place of articulation. In addition, movement of the velum was significantly correlated with that of the lips and the anterior part of the tongue in the bilabial plosive and with the posterior part of the tongue in the velar plosive. We conclude that unitary motor coordination of articulators depends on the place of articulation. PMID:19126418

  5. Coordinated recruitment of Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors to Rab11 vesicle membranes

    PubMed Central

    Pylypenko, Olena; Welz, Tobias; Tittel, Janine; Kollmar, Martin; Chardon, Florian; Malherbe, Gilles; Weiss, Sabine; Michel, Carina Ida Luise; Samol-Wolf, Annette; Grasskamp, Andreas Till; Hume, Alistair; Goud, Bruno; Baron, Bruno; England, Patrick; Titus, Margaret A; Schwille, Petra; Weidemann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence for a coupling of actin assembly and myosin motor activity in cells. However, mechanisms for recruitment of actin nucleators and motors on specific membrane compartments remain unclear. Here we report how Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors coordinate their specific membrane recruitment. The myosin V globular tail domain (MyoV-GTD) interacts directly with an evolutionarily conserved Spir sequence motif. We determined crystal structures of MyoVa-GTD bound either to the Spir-2 motif or to Rab11 and show that a Spir-2:MyoVa:Rab11 complex can form. The ternary complex architecture explains how Rab11 vesicles support coordinated F-actin nucleation and myosin force generation for vesicle transport and tethering. New insights are also provided into how myosin activation can be coupled with the generation of actin tracks. Since MyoV binds several Rab GTPases, synchronized nucleator and motor targeting could provide a common mechanism to control force generation and motility in different cellular processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17523.001 PMID:27623148

  6. Coordinated recruitment of Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors to Rab11 vesicle membranes.

    PubMed

    Pylypenko, Olena; Welz, Tobias; Tittel, Janine; Kollmar, Martin; Chardon, Florian; Malherbe, Gilles; Weiss, Sabine; Michel, Carina Ida Luise; Samol-Wolf, Annette; Grasskamp, Andreas Till; Hume, Alistair; Goud, Bruno; Baron, Bruno; England, Patrick; Titus, Margaret A; Schwille, Petra; Weidemann, Thomas; Houdusse, Anne; Kerkhoff, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence for a coupling of actin assembly and myosin motor activity in cells. However, mechanisms for recruitment of actin nucleators and motors on specific membrane compartments remain unclear. Here we report how Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors coordinate their specific membrane recruitment. The myosin V globular tail domain (MyoV-GTD) interacts directly with an evolutionarily conserved Spir sequence motif. We determined crystal structures of MyoVa-GTD bound either to the Spir-2 motif or to Rab11 and show that a Spir-2:MyoVa:Rab11 complex can form. The ternary complex architecture explains how Rab11 vesicles support coordinated F-actin nucleation and myosin force generation for vesicle transport and tethering. New insights are also provided into how myosin activation can be coupled with the generation of actin tracks. Since MyoV binds several Rab GTPases, synchronized nucleator and motor targeting could provide a common mechanism to control force generation and motility in different cellular processes. PMID:27623148

  7. Dynein motors: How AAA+ ring opening and closing coordinates microtubule binding and linker movement.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Helgo

    2015-05-01

    Dyneins are a family of motor proteins that move along the microtubule. Motility is generated in the motor domain, which consists of a ring of six AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) domains, the linker and the microtubule-binding domain (MTBD). The cyclic ATP-hydrolysis in the AAA+ ring causes the remodelling of the linker, which creates the necessary force for movement. The production of force has to be synchronized with cycles of microtubule detachment and rebinding to efficiently create movement along the microtubule. The analysis of four dynein motor domain crystal structures in the essay presented here provides evidence that this crucial coordination is carried out by open/closed AAA+ ring conformations.

  8. A novel role for the immunophilin FKBP52 in motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Young, Matthew J; Geiszler, Philippine C; Pardon, Marie-Christine

    2016-10-15

    FKBP52 is a ubiquitously distributed immunophilin that has been associated with wide-ranging functions in cell signalling as well as hormonal and stress responses. Amongst other pathways, it acts via complex-formation with corticosteroid receptors and has consequently been associated with stress- and age- related neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Reduced levels of FKBP52 have been linked to tau dysfunction and amyloid beta toxicity in AD. However, FKBP52's role in cognition and neurodegenerative disorder-like phenotypes remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed therefore at investigating the cognitive and behavioural effects of reduced FKBP52 levels of genetically modified mice during ageing. Female and male FKBP52(+/+), FKBP52(+/-) and FKBP52(-/-) mice were compared at two-, ten-, twelve-, fifteen- and eighteen-months-of-age in a series of behavioural tests covering specie-specific behaviour, motor activity and coordination, fear-, spatial and recognition memory as well as curiosity and emotionality. Whilst cognitively unimpaired, FKBP52(+/-) mice performed worse on an accelerating rotating rod than FKBP52(+/+) littermates across all age-groups suggesting that FKBP52 is involved in processes controlling motor coordination. This deficit did not exacerbate with age but did worsen with repeated testing; pointing towards a role for FKBP52 in learning of tasks requiring motor coordination abilities. This study contributes to the knowledge base of FKBP52's implication in neurodegenerative diseases by demonstrating that FKBP52 by itself does not directly affect cognition and may therefore rather play an indirect, modulatory role in the functional pathology of AD, whereas it directly affects motor coordination, an early sign of neurodegenerative damages to the brain.

  9. A novel role for the immunophilin FKBP52 in motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Young, Matthew J; Geiszler, Philippine C; Pardon, Marie-Christine

    2016-10-15

    FKBP52 is a ubiquitously distributed immunophilin that has been associated with wide-ranging functions in cell signalling as well as hormonal and stress responses. Amongst other pathways, it acts via complex-formation with corticosteroid receptors and has consequently been associated with stress- and age- related neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Reduced levels of FKBP52 have been linked to tau dysfunction and amyloid beta toxicity in AD. However, FKBP52's role in cognition and neurodegenerative disorder-like phenotypes remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed therefore at investigating the cognitive and behavioural effects of reduced FKBP52 levels of genetically modified mice during ageing. Female and male FKBP52(+/+), FKBP52(+/-) and FKBP52(-/-) mice were compared at two-, ten-, twelve-, fifteen- and eighteen-months-of-age in a series of behavioural tests covering specie-specific behaviour, motor activity and coordination, fear-, spatial and recognition memory as well as curiosity and emotionality. Whilst cognitively unimpaired, FKBP52(+/-) mice performed worse on an accelerating rotating rod than FKBP52(+/+) littermates across all age-groups suggesting that FKBP52 is involved in processes controlling motor coordination. This deficit did not exacerbate with age but did worsen with repeated testing; pointing towards a role for FKBP52 in learning of tasks requiring motor coordination abilities. This study contributes to the knowledge base of FKBP52's implication in neurodegenerative diseases by demonstrating that FKBP52 by itself does not directly affect cognition and may therefore rather play an indirect, modulatory role in the functional pathology of AD, whereas it directly affects motor coordination, an early sign of neurodegenerative damages to the brain. PMID:27418439

  10. An Examination of the Relationship between Motor Coordination and Executive Functions in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P.; Kane, Robert; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Research suggests important links between motor coordination and executive functions. The current study examined whether motor coordination predicts working memory, inhibition, and switching performance, extending previous research by accounting for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and other confounding factors,…

  11. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status.

  12. Motor Coordination in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Synthesis and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Kimberly A.; Hass, Chris J.; Naik, Sagar K.; Lodha, Neha; Cauraugh, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Are motor coordination deficits an underlying cardinal feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? Database searches identified 83 ASD studies focused on motor coordination, arm movements, gait, or postural stability deficits. Data extraction involved between-group comparisons for ASD and typically developing controls (N = 51). Rigorous…

  13. Motor Coordination Difficulties and Physical Fitness of Extremely-Low-Birthweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Yvonne R.; Danks, Marcella; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Gray, Peter H.; Cooper, David; Poulsen, Leith; Watter, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    Motor coordination difficulties and poor fitness exist in the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) population. This study investigated the relative impact of motor coordination on the fitness of ELBW children aged 11 to 13 years. One hundred and nine children were recruited to the study: 54 ELBW participants (mean age at assessment 12y 6mo; 31 male,…

  14. Central generation of grooming motor patterns and interlimb coordination in locusts.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, A; Laurent, G

    1996-12-15

    Coordinated bursts of leg motoneuron activity were evoked in locusts with deefferented legs by tactile stimulation of sites that evoke grooming behavior. This suggests that insect thoracic ganglia contain central pattern generators for directed leg movements. Motoneuron recordings were made from metathoracic and mesothoracic nerves, after eliminating all leg motor innervation, as well as all input from the brain, subesophageal ganglion, and prothoracic ganglion. Strong, brief trochanteral levator motoneuron bursts occurred, together with silence of the slow and fast trochanteral depressor motoneurons and activation of the common inhibitor motoneuron. The metathoracic slow tibial extensor motoneuron was active in a pattern distinct from its activity during walking or during rhythms evoked by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. Preparations in which the metathoracic ganglion was isolated from all other ganglia could still produce fictive motor patterns in response to tactile stimulation of metathoracic locations. Bursts of trochanteral levator and depressor motoneurons were clearly coordinated between the left and right metathoracic hemiganglia and also between the mesothoracic and the ipsilateral metathoracic ganglia. These data provide clear evidence for centrally generated interlimb coordination in an insect.

  15. Condition and Co-Ordination Abilities in Motor Performance of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzbarska, Ingrid; Piatkowska, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess motor performance of pre-school children and the hierarchy of motor and physical variables. Material and methods: A group of 64 boys and 60 girls aged 5-6 years were subjected to 7 motor tests measuring the condition and co-ordination features. The results were subjected to cluster analysis in order to establish the hierarchy…

  16. A θ-γ oscillation code for neuronal coordination during motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Jun; Isomura, Yoshikazu; Arai, Kensuke; Harukuni, Rie; Fukai, Tomoki

    2013-11-20

    Sequential motor behavior requires a progression of discrete preparation and execution states. However, the organization of state-dependent activity in neuronal ensembles of motor cortex is poorly understood. Here, we recorded neuronal spiking and local field potential activity from rat motor cortex during reward-motivated movement and observed robust behavioral state-dependent coordination between neuronal spiking, γ oscillations, and θ oscillations. Slow and fast γ oscillations appeared during distinct movement states and entrained neuronal firing. γ oscillations, in turn, were coupled to θ oscillations, and neurons encoding different behavioral states fired at distinct phases of θ in a highly layer-dependent manner. These findings indicate that θ and nested dual band γ oscillations serve as the temporal structure for the selection of a conserved set of functional channels in motor cortical layer activity during animal movement. Furthermore, these results also suggest that cross-frequency couplings between oscillatory neuronal ensemble activities are part of the general coding mechanism in cortex.

  17. Motor activity under weightless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.; Cherepakhin, M. A.; Yuganov, Y. M.

    1975-01-01

    The material presented on the motor activity under weightless conditions (brief and long) leads to the conclusion that it is not significantly disrupted, if those being examined are secured at the workplaces. Some discoordination of movement, moderately expressed disruption of the precision of reproduction of assigned muscular forces, etc., were observed. Motor disorders decrease significantly in proportion to the length of stay under weightless conditions. This apparently takes place, as a consequence of formation of a new functional system, adequate to the conditions of weightlessness. Tests on intact and labyrinthectomized animals have demonstrated that signaling from the inner ear receptors is superfluous in weightlessness, since it promotes the onset of disruptions in the combined work of the position analyzers.

  18. Jump Rope Training: Balance and Motor Coordination in Preadolescent Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Trecroci, Athos; Cavaggioni, Luca; Caccia, Riccardo; Alberti, Giampietro

    2015-12-01

    within a regular soccer program can be an additional method to improve balance and motor coordination.The performance improvement in the Harre Circuit Test associated with jump rope training can potentially be attributed to an enhancement of the inter-limb coordination and SSC ability.Results from the present study indicate that young soccer players should be encouraged to practice general physical activities together with sport-specific exercise during their training sessions.

  19. Jump Rope Training: Balance and Motor Coordination in Preadolescent Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Trecroci, Athos; Cavaggioni, Luca; Caccia, Riccardo; Alberti, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    within a regular soccer program can be an additional method to improve balance and motor coordination. The performance improvement in the Harre Circuit Test associated with jump rope training can potentially be attributed to an enhancement of the inter-limb coordination and SSC ability. Results from the present study indicate that young soccer players should be encouraged to practice general physical activities together with sport-specific exercise during their training sessions. PMID:26664276

  20. Retrograde NGF Axonal Transport—Motor Coordination in the Unidirectional Motility Regime

    PubMed Central

    Chowdary, Praveen D.; Che, Daphne L.; Zhang, Kai; Cui, Bianxiao

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed motion analysis of retrograde nerve growth factor (NGF) endosomes in axons to show that mechanical tugs-of-war and intracellular motor regulation are complimentary features of the near-unidirectional endosome directionality. We used quantum dots to fluorescently label NGF and acquired trajectories of retrograde quantum-dot-NGF-endosomes with <20-nm accuracy at 32 Hz in microfluidic neuron cultures. Using a combination of transient motion analysis and Bayesian parsing, we partitioned the trajectories into sustained periods of retrograde (dynein-driven) motion, constrained pauses, and brief anterograde (kinesin-driven) reversals. The data shows many aspects of mechanical tugs-of-war and multiple-motor mechanics in NGF-endosome transport. However, we found that stochastic mechanical models based on in vitro parameters cannot simulate the experimental data, unless the microtubule-binding affinity of kinesins on the endosome is tuned down by 10 times. Specifically, the simulations suggest that the NGF-endosomes are driven on average by 5–6 active dyneins and 1–2 downregulated kinesins. This is also supported by the dynamics of endosomes detaching under load in axons, showcasing the cooperativity of multiple dyneins and the subdued activity of kinesins. We discuss the possible motor coordination mechanism consistent with motor regulation and tugs-of-war for future investigations. PMID:26039170

  1. Visual-motor coordination and intelligence as predictors of reading, mathematics, and written language ability.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, D J; Britt, T W

    1994-06-01

    Previous research on the relationship between visual-motor coordination and academic achievement has been equivocal and has frequently not included controls for the effect of intelligence on achievement. In the present study, scores on three tests of children's visual-motor coordination correlated moderately to highly with scores on a test of reading, mathematics, and written language for a sample of 44 elementary school children referred for learning difficulties. Multiple regression analyses indicated that visual-motor coordination scores accounted for little unique achievement test score variance when IQs were included in the equations.

  2. Motor Cortex Activity Organizes the Developing Rubrospinal System.

    PubMed

    Williams, Preston T J A; Martin, John H

    2015-09-30

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal systems function in skilled movement control. A key question is how do these systems develop the capacity to coordinate their motor functions and, in turn, if the red nucleus/rubrospinal tract (RN/RST) compensates for developmental corticospinal injury? We used the cat to investigate whether the developing rubrospinal system is shaped by activity-dependent interactions with the developing corticospinal system. We unilaterally inactivated M1 by muscimol microinfusion between postnatal weeks 5 and 7 to examine activity-dependent interactions and whether the RN/RST compensates for corticospinal tract (CST) developmental motor impairments and CST misprojections after M1 inactivation. We examined the RN motor map and RST cervical projections at 7 weeks of age, while the corticospinal system was inactivated, and at 14 weeks, after activity returned. During M1 inactivation, the RN on the same side showed normal RST projections and reduced motor thresholds, suggestive of precocious development. By contrast, the RN on the untreated/active M1 side showed sparse RST projections and an immature motor map. After M1 activity returned later in adolescent cat development, RN on the active M1/CST side continued to show a substantial loss of spinal terminations and an impaired motor map. RN/RST on the inactivated side regressed to a smaller map and fewer axons. Our findings suggest that the developing rubrospinal system is under activity-dependent regulation by the corticospinal system for establishing mature RST connections and RN motor map. The lack of RS compensation on the non-inactivated side can be explained by development of ipsilateral misprojections from the active M1 that outcompete the RST. Significance statement: Skilled movements reflect the activity of multiple descending motor systems and their interactions with spinal motor circuits. Currently, there is little insight into whether motor systems interact during development to

  3. Motor Cortex Activity Organizes the Developing Rubrospinal System

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Preston T.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal systems function in skilled movement control. A key question is how do these systems develop the capacity to coordinate their motor functions and, in turn, if the red nucleus/rubrospinal tract (RN/RST) compensates for developmental corticospinal injury? We used the cat to investigate whether the developing rubrospinal system is shaped by activity-dependent interactions with the developing corticospinal system. We unilaterally inactivated M1 by muscimol microinfusion between postnatal weeks 5 and 7 to examine activity-dependent interactions and whether the RN/RST compensates for corticospinal tract (CST) developmental motor impairments and CST misprojections after M1 inactivation. We examined the RN motor map and RST cervical projections at 7 weeks of age, while the corticospinal system was inactivated, and at 14 weeks, after activity returned. During M1 inactivation, the RN on the same side showed normal RST projections and reduced motor thresholds, suggestive of precocious development. By contrast, the RN on the untreated/active M1 side showed sparse RST projections and an immature motor map. After M1 activity returned later in adolescent cat development, RN on the active M1/CST side continued to show a substantial loss of spinal terminations and an impaired motor map. RN/RST on the inactivated side regressed to a smaller map and fewer axons. Our findings suggest that the developing rubrospinal system is under activity-dependent regulation by the corticospinal system for establishing mature RST connections and RN motor map. The lack of RS compensation on the non-inactivated side can be explained by development of ipsilateral misprojections from the active M1 that outcompete the RST. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Skilled movements reflect the activity of multiple descending motor systems and their interactions with spinal motor circuits. Currently, there is little insight into whether motor systems interact during development to

  4. Motor Cortex Activity Organizes the Developing Rubrospinal System.

    PubMed

    Williams, Preston T J A; Martin, John H

    2015-09-30

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal systems function in skilled movement control. A key question is how do these systems develop the capacity to coordinate their motor functions and, in turn, if the red nucleus/rubrospinal tract (RN/RST) compensates for developmental corticospinal injury? We used the cat to investigate whether the developing rubrospinal system is shaped by activity-dependent interactions with the developing corticospinal system. We unilaterally inactivated M1 by muscimol microinfusion between postnatal weeks 5 and 7 to examine activity-dependent interactions and whether the RN/RST compensates for corticospinal tract (CST) developmental motor impairments and CST misprojections after M1 inactivation. We examined the RN motor map and RST cervical projections at 7 weeks of age, while the corticospinal system was inactivated, and at 14 weeks, after activity returned. During M1 inactivation, the RN on the same side showed normal RST projections and reduced motor thresholds, suggestive of precocious development. By contrast, the RN on the untreated/active M1 side showed sparse RST projections and an immature motor map. After M1 activity returned later in adolescent cat development, RN on the active M1/CST side continued to show a substantial loss of spinal terminations and an impaired motor map. RN/RST on the inactivated side regressed to a smaller map and fewer axons. Our findings suggest that the developing rubrospinal system is under activity-dependent regulation by the corticospinal system for establishing mature RST connections and RN motor map. The lack of RS compensation on the non-inactivated side can be explained by development of ipsilateral misprojections from the active M1 that outcompete the RST. Significance statement: Skilled movements reflect the activity of multiple descending motor systems and their interactions with spinal motor circuits. Currently, there is little insight into whether motor systems interact during development to

  5. Differences in eye-hand motor coordination of video-game users and non-users.

    PubMed

    Griffith, J L; Voloschin, P; Gibb, G D; Bailey, J R

    1983-08-01

    The recent proliferation of electronic video games has caused an outcry from those who question the merits of the games, while others maintain the games improve eye-hand coordination. At present, no empirical data are available to indicate whether there are differences in eye-hand coordination between video game users and non-users. Comparing 31 video game users and 31 non-users showed users have significantly better eye-hand motor coordination on a pursuit rotor. However, no relationship was found between an individual's eye-hand motor coordination and the amount of time spent weekly playing video games or the length of experience with video games. PMID:6622153

  6. Coordinated Neuronal Activity Enhances Corticocortical Communication.

    PubMed

    Zandvakili, Amin; Kohn, Adam

    2015-08-19

    Relaying neural signals between cortical areas is central to cognition and sensory processing. The temporal coordination of activity in a source population has been suggested to determine corticocortical signaling efficacy, but others have argued that coordination is functionally irrelevant. We reasoned that if coordination significantly influenced signaling, spiking in downstream networks should be preceded by transiently elevated coordination in a source population. We developed a metric to quantify network coordination in brief epochs, and applied it to simultaneous recordings of neuronal populations in cortical areas V1 and V2 of the macaque monkey. Spiking in the input layers of V2 was preceded by brief epochs of elevated V1 coordination, but this was not the case in other layers of V2. Our results indicate that V1 coordination influences its signaling to direct downstream targets, but that coordinated V1 epochs do not propagate through multiple downstream networks as in some corticocortical signaling schemes. PMID:26291164

  7. Motor Performance and Rhythmic Perception of Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disability and Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartasidou, Lefkothea; Varsamis, Panagiotis; Sampsonidou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Professionals who work with children presenting intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are concerned with their motor development and their rhythmic perception. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between a motor performance test and a music rhythmic test that measures…

  8. Psychosocial Adjustment and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder Using Different Motor Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Hu, Fu-Chang; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the consistency between the findings of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) as identified by the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), and explored the psychosocial and attention characteristics of children with DCD identified by the two motor tests,…

  9. Continual coordination of spacecraft through shared activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B. J.; Barrett, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    Interacting agents that interleave planning and execution must reach consensus on their commitments to each other. In domains where agents have varying degrees of interaction and different constraints on communication and computation, agents will require different coordination protocols in order to efficiently reach consensus. ShAC (Shared Activity Coordination) is a framework for designing coordination protocols with an algorithm for continually coordinating agents using these protocols during execution. We show how to construct a wide range of protocols using this framework and describe how ShAC coordinates two rovers and an orbiter in a simulated Mars scenario.

  10. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  11. Motor Coordination Dynamics Underlying Graphic Motion in 7- to 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danna, Jeremy; Enderli, Fabienne; Athenes, Sylvie; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Using concepts and tools of a dynamical system approach in order to understand motor coordination underlying graphomotor skills, the aim of the current study was to establish whether the basic coordination dynamics found in adults is already established in children at elementary school, when handwriting is trained and eventually acquired. In the…

  12. Heartbeat control in the medicinal leech: a model system for understanding the origin, coordination, and modulation of rhythmic motor patterns.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, R L; Nadim, F; Olsen, O H

    1995-07-01

    We have analyzed in detail the neuronal network that generates heartbeat in the leech. Reciprocally inhibitory pairs of heart interneurons form oscillators that pace the heartbeat rhythm. Other heart interneurons coordinate these oscillators. These coordinating interneurons, along with the oscillators interneurons, form an eight-cell timing oscillator network for heartbeat. Still other interneurons, along with the oscillator interneurons, inhibit heart motor neurons, sculpting their activity into rhythmic bursts. Critical switch interneurons interface between the oscillator interneurons and the other premotor interneurons to produce two alternating coordination states of the motor neurons. The periods of the oscillator interneurons are modulated by endogenous RFamide neuropeptides. We have explored the ionic currents and graded and spike-mediated synaptic transmission that promote oscillation in the oscillator interneurons and have incorporated these data into a conductance-based computer model. This model has been of considerable predictive value and has led to new insights into how reciprocally inhibitory neurons produce oscillation. We are now in a strong position to expand this model upward, to encompass the entire heartbeat network, horizontally, to elucidate the mechanisms of FMRFamide modulation, and downward, to incorporate cellular morphology. By studying the mechanisms of motor pattern formation in the leech, using modeling studies in conjunction with parallel physiological experiments, we can contribute to a deeper understanding of how rhythmic motor acts are generated, coordinated, modulated, and reconfigured at the level of networks, cells, ionic currents, and synapses.

  13. Perceptual Learning Immediately Yields New Stable Motor Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Andrew D.; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    Coordinated rhythmic movement is specifically structured in humans. Movement at 0[degrees] mean relative phase is maximally stable, 180[degrees] is less stable, and other coordinations can, but must, be learned. Variations in perceptual ability play a key role in determining the observed stabilities so we investigated whether stable movements can…

  14. Social Motor Coordination in Unaffected Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients: A Potential Intermediate Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Capdevielle, Delphine; Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C.; Salesse, Robin N.; Bardy, Benoît G.; Boulenger, Jean Philippe; Gély-Nargeot, Marie Christine; Attal, Jérôme; Raffard, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Intermediate endophenotypes emerge as an important concept in the study of schizophrenia. Although research on phenotypes mainly investigated cognitive, metabolic or neurophysiological markers so far, some authors also examined the motor behavior anomalies as a potential trait-marker of the disease. However, no research has investigated social motor coordination despite the possible importance of its anomalies in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was thus to determine whether coordination modifications previously demonstrated in schizophrenia are trait-markers that might be associated with the risk for this pathology. Interpersonal motor coordination in 27 unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and 27 healthy controls was assessed using a hand-held pendulum task to examine the presence of interpersonal coordination impairments in individuals at risk for the disorder. Measures of neurologic soft signs, clinical variables and neurocognitive functions were collected to assess the cognitive and clinical correlates of social coordination impairments in at-risk relatives. After controlling for potential confounding variables, unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients had impaired intentional interpersonal coordination compared to healthy controls while unintentional interpersonal coordination was preserved. More specifically, in intentional coordination, the unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients exhibited coordination patterns that had greater variability and in which relatives did not lead the coordination. These results show that unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients, like the patients themselves, also present deficits in intentional interpersonal coordination. For the first time, these results suggest that intentional interpersonal coordination impairments might be a potential motor intermediate endophenotype of schizophrenia opening new perspectives for early diagnosis. PMID:24106467

  15. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Hallett, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that CD with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated 2-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Eleven CD patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula, and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system, which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation.

  16. Multimodality in infancy: vocal-motor and speech-gesture coordinations in typical and atypical development

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Jana M.

    2011-01-01

    From very early in life, expressive behavior is multimodal, with early behavioral coordinations being refined and strengthened over time as they become used for the communication of meaning. Of these communicative coordinations, those that involve gesture and speech have received perhaps the greatest empirical attention, but little is known about the developmental origins of the gesture-speech link. One possibility is that the origins of speech-gesture coordinations lie in hand-mouth linkages that are observed in the everyday sensorimotor activity of very young infants who do not yet use the hand or mouth to communicate meaning. In this article, I review evidence suggesting that the study of gesture-speech links and developmentally prior couplings between the vocal and motor systems in infancy can provide valuable insight into a number of later developments that reflect the cognitive interdependence of gesture and speech. These include aspects of language development and delay, the infant origins of the adult speech-gesture system, and early signs of autism spectrum disorder. Implications of these findings for studying the development of multimodal communication are considered. PMID:21494413

  17. Neuromusculoskeletal models based on the muscle synergy hypothesis for the investigation of adaptive motor control in locomotion via sensory-motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Shinya; Funato, Tetsuro

    2016-03-01

    Humans and animals walk adaptively in diverse situations by skillfully manipulating their complicated and redundant musculoskeletal systems. From an analysis of measured electromyographic (EMG) data, it appears that despite complicated spatiotemporal properties, muscle activation patterns can be explained by a low dimensional spatiotemporal structure. More specifically, they can be accounted for by the combination of a small number of basic activation patterns. The basic patterns and distribution weights indicate temporal and spatial structures, respectively, and the weights show the muscle sets that are activated synchronously. In addition, various locomotor behaviors have similar low dimensional structures and major differences appear in the basic patterns. These analysis results suggest that neural systems use muscle group combinations to solve motor control redundancy problems (muscle synergy hypothesis) and manipulate those basic patterns to create various locomotor functions. However, it remains unclear how the neural system controls such muscle groups and basic patterns through neuromechanical interactions in order to achieve adaptive locomotor behavior. This paper reviews simulation studies that explored adaptive motor control in locomotion via sensory-motor coordination using neuromusculoskeletal models based on the muscle synergy hypothesis. Herein, the neural mechanism in motor control related to the muscle synergy for adaptive locomotion and a potential muscle synergy analysis method including neuromusculoskeletal modeling for motor impairments and rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:26616311

  18. Motor Activity and the Education of Retardates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    Presented are chapters concerned with the relationship of motor activity to education. The topics discussed are research, movement and performance in infants and children, principles of teaching motor skills; arousal level and attention; scribbling, drawing, writing, strength, flexibility, endurance, and control of large muscles; music and rhythm;…

  19. Recovery of motor coordination after exercise is correlated to enhancement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in lactational vanadium-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dean-Chuan; Lin, Yu-Yi; Lin, Hwai-Ting

    2015-07-23

    Lactational exposure to vanadium can reduce the locomotor activity in adult animals. In this study, we investigated whether lactational vanadium exposure impairs the motor coordination and whether exercise ameliorates this dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley dams were treated with or without vanadium during lactation. The weaned male offspring were trained to treadmill running for 5 weeks and then examined their motor coordination on a rotarod. The neuroprotective effect of exercise was evaluated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in plasma and cerebellum. The results demonstrated that vanadium-exposed rats exhibited impaired motor coordination and reduced plasma and cerebellar BDNF levels. Treadmill running during childhood-adolescence prevented the impaired motor coordination in the lactational vanadium-exposed rats. The beneficial effect of treadmill running on motor coordination in the vanadium-exposed rats was correlated to the normalization of plasma and cerebellar BDNF levels, as well as the increased TrkB phosphorylation in the cerebellum. The result suggests that exercise may prevent the impairment of motor coordination in the lactational vanadium-exposed rats.

  20. New Angles on Motor and Sensory Coordination in Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldey, Ellen S.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of presentations that were included in the Medical Symposium at the 1998 Learning Disabilities Association conference. The symposium addressed vestibular control and eye movement, postural sway and balance, cerebellar dysfunction, the role of the frontal lobe, developmental coordination disorder, and sensory integration…

  1. Intact Procedural Motor Sequence Learning in Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Caroline; Catale, Corinne; Willems, Sylvie; Meulemans, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibility of a procedural learning deficit among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We tested 34 children aged 6-12 years with and without DCD using the serial reaction time task, in which the standard keyboard was replaced by a touch screen in order to minimize the impact…

  2. Relations between Temperament, Sensory Processing, and Motor Coordination in 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Atsuko; Sukigara, Masune; Miyachi, Taishi; Nakai, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills and differences in sensory processing have been noted as behavioral markers of common neurodevelopmental disorders. A total of 171 healthy children (81 girls, 90 boys) were investigated at age 3 to examine relations between temperament, sensory processing, and motor coordination. Using the Japanese versions of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), the Sensory Profile (SP-J), and the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ), this study examines an expanded model based on Rothbart's three-factor temperamental theory (surgency, negative affect, effortful control) through covariance structure analysis. The results indicate that effortful control affects both sensory processing and motor coordination. The subscale of the LDCDQ, control during movement, is also influenced by surgency, while temperamental negative affect and surgency each have an effect on subscales of the SP-J. PMID:27199852

  3. Impairments in motor coordination without major changes in cerebellar plasticity in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Galante, Micaela; Jani, Harsha; Vanes, Lesley; Daniel, Hervé; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Bliss, Timothy V P; Morice, Elise

    2009-04-15

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder arising from the presence of a third copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). Recently, O'Doherty et al. [An aneuploid mouse strain carrying human chromosome 21 with Down syndrome phenotypes. Science 309 (2005) 2033-2037] generated a trans-species aneuploid mouse line (Tc1) that carries an almost complete Hsa21. The Tc1 mouse is the most complete animal model for DS currently available. Tc1 mice show many features that relate to human DS, including alterations in memory, synaptic plasticity, cerebellar neuronal number, heart development and mandible size. Because motor deficits are one of the most frequently occurring features of DS, we have undertaken a detailed analysis of motor behaviour in cerebellum-dependent learning tasks that require high motor coordination and balance. In addition, basic electrophysiological properties of cerebellar circuitry and synaptic plasticity have been investigated. Our results reveal that, compared with controls, Tc1 mice exhibit a higher spontaneous locomotor activity, a reduced ability to habituate to their environments, a different gait and major deficits on several measures of motor coordination and balance in the rota rod and static rod tests. Moreover, cerebellar long-term depression is essentially normal in Tc1 mice, with only a slight difference in time course. Our observations provide further evidence that support the validity of the Tc1 mouse as a model for DS, which will help us to provide insights into the causal factors responsible for motor deficits observed in persons with DS.

  4. [Motor-coordination disorders in patients with infantile cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Aslanov, A M; Avakian, G N; Bulaeva, N V; Kovaleva, N I

    1984-01-01

    A clinico-electrophysiological study of motor-coordinatory impairments was carried out in 117 patients with infantile cerebral paralysis. The results obtained suggest a possibility of a slow rate of myelinization, inadequate development of the coordinatory systems due to early damage to the brain associated with the systemic localization of the defect, and the obligatory involvement of extrapyramidal impairments in the realization of pathological dyskinesias. The clinical and electrophysiological examination made it possible to sum up all clinical manifestations of the pathology under a heading "discoordinatory extrapyramidal dyskinesias". PMID:6506951

  5. Mushroom bodies enhance initial motor activity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Serway, Christine N; Kaufman, Rebecca R; Strauss, Roland; de Belle, J Steven

    2009-01-01

    The central body (or central complex, CCX) and the mushroom bodies (MBs) are brain structures in most insect phyla that have been shown to influence aspects of locomotion. The CCX regulates motor coordination and enhances activity while MBs have, thus far, been shown to suppress motor activity levels measured over time intervals ranging from hours to weeks. In this report, we investigate MB involvement in motor behavior during the initial stages (15 minutes) of walking in Buridan's paradigm. We measured aspects of walking in flies that had MB lesions induced by mutations in six different genes and by chemical ablation. All tested flies were later examined histologically to assess MB neuroanatomy. Mutant strains with MB structural defects were generally less active in walking than wild-type flies. Most mutants in which MBs were also ablated with hydroxyurea (HU) showed additional activity decrements. Variation in measures of velocity and orientation to landmarks among wild-type and mutant flies was attributed to pleiotropy, rather than to MB lesions. We conclude that MBs upregulate activity during the initial stages of walking, but suppress activity thereafter. An MB influence on decision making has been shown in a wide range of complex behaviors. We suggest that MBs provide appropriate contextual information to motor output systems in the brain, indirectly fine tuning walking by modifying the quantity (i.e., activity) of behavior.

  6. Brief report: Response inhibition and processing speed in children with motor difficulties and developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Marialivia; Leonard, Hayley C; Hill, Elisabeth L; Henry, Lucy A

    2016-01-01

    A previous study reported that children with poor motor skills, classified as having motor difficulties (MD) or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), produced more errors in a motor response inhibition task compared to typically developing (TD) children but did not differ in verbal inhibition errors. The present study investigated whether these groups differed in the length of time they took to respond in order to achieve these levels of accuracy, and whether any differences in response speed could be explained by generally slow information processing in children with poor motor skills. Timing data from the Verbal Inhibition Motor Inhibition test were analyzed to identify differences in performance between the groups on verbal and motor inhibition, as well as on processing speed measures from standardized batteries. Although children with MD and DCD produced more errors in the motor inhibition task than TD children, the current analyses found that they did not take longer to complete the task. Children with DCD were slower at inhibiting verbal responses than TD children, while the MD group seemed to perform at an intermediate level between the other groups in terms of verbal inhibition speed. Slow processing speed did not account for these group differences. Results extended previous research into response inhibition in children with poor motor skills by explicitly comparing motor and verbal responses, and suggesting that slow performance, even when accurate, may be attributable to an inefficient way of inhibiting responses, rather than slow information processing speed per se.

  7. Mechanical Operation and Intersubunit Coordination of Ring-Shaped Molecular Motors: Insights from Single-Molecule Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shixin; Chistol, Gheorghe; Bustamante, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Ring NTPases represent a large and diverse group of proteins that couple their nucleotide hydrolysis activity to a mechanical task involving force generation and some type of transport process in the cell. Because of their shape, these enzymes often operate as gates that separate distinct cellular compartments to control and regulate the passage of chemical species across them. In this manner, ions and small molecules are moved across membranes, biopolymer substrates are segregated between cells or moved into confined spaces, double-stranded nucleic acids are separated into single strands to provide access to the genetic information, and polypeptides are unfolded and processed for recycling. Here we review the recent advances in the characterization of these motors using single-molecule manipulation and detection approaches. We describe the various mechanisms by which ring motors convert chemical energy to mechanical force or torque and coordinate the activities of individual subunits that constitute the ring. We also examine how single-molecule studies have contributed to a better understanding of the structural elements involved in motor-substrate interaction, mechanochemical coupling, and intersubunit coordination. Finally, we discuss how these molecular motors tailor their operation—often through regulation by other cofactors—to suit their unique biological functions. PMID:24806916

  8. Motor patterns during active electrosensory acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Volker; Geurten, Bart R. H.; Sanguinetti-Scheck, Juan I.; Gómez-Sena, Leonel; Engelmann, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Motor patterns displayed during active electrosensory acquisition of information seem to be an essential part of a sensory strategy by which weakly electric fish actively generate and shape sensory flow. These active sensing strategies are expected to adaptively optimize ongoing behavior with respect to either motor efficiency or sensory information gained. The tight link between the motor domain and sensory perception in active electrolocation make weakly electric fish like Gnathonemus petersii an ideal system for studying sensory-motor interactions in the form of active sensing strategies. Analyzing the movements and electric signals of solitary fish during unrestrained exploration of objects in the dark, we here present the first formal quantification of motor patterns used by fish during electrolocation. Based on a cluster analysis of the kinematic values we categorized the basic units of motion. These were then analyzed for their associative grouping to identify and extract short coherent chains of behavior. This enabled the description of sensory behavior on different levels of complexity: from single movements, over short behaviors to more complex behavioral sequences during which the kinematics alter between different behaviors. We present detailed data for three classified patterns and provide evidence that these can be considered as motor components of active sensing strategies. In accordance with the idea of active sensing strategies, we found categorical motor patterns to be modified by the sensory context. In addition these motor patterns were linked with changes in the temporal sampling in form of differing electric organ discharge frequencies and differing spatial distributions. The ability to detect such strategies quantitatively will allow future research to investigate the impact of such behaviors on sensing. PMID:24904337

  9. Motor patterns during active electrosensory acquisition.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Volker; Geurten, Bart R H; Sanguinetti-Scheck, Juan I; Gómez-Sena, Leonel; Engelmann, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Motor patterns displayed during active electrosensory acquisition of information seem to be an essential part of a sensory strategy by which weakly electric fish actively generate and shape sensory flow. These active sensing strategies are expected to adaptively optimize ongoing behavior with respect to either motor efficiency or sensory information gained. The tight link between the motor domain and sensory perception in active electrolocation make weakly electric fish like Gnathonemus petersii an ideal system for studying sensory-motor interactions in the form of active sensing strategies. Analyzing the movements and electric signals of solitary fish during unrestrained exploration of objects in the dark, we here present the first formal quantification of motor patterns used by fish during electrolocation. Based on a cluster analysis of the kinematic values we categorized the basic units of motion. These were then analyzed for their associative grouping to identify and extract short coherent chains of behavior. This enabled the description of sensory behavior on different levels of complexity: from single movements, over short behaviors to more complex behavioral sequences during which the kinematics alter between different behaviors. We present detailed data for three classified patterns and provide evidence that these can be considered as motor components of active sensing strategies. In accordance with the idea of active sensing strategies, we found categorical motor patterns to be modified by the sensory context. In addition these motor patterns were linked with changes in the temporal sampling in form of differing electric organ discharge frequencies and differing spatial distributions. The ability to detect such strategies quantitatively will allow future research to investigate the impact of such behaviors on sensing. PMID:24904337

  10. Mice lacking the transcription factor SHOX2 display impaired cerebellar development and deficits in motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Jessica M; McAllister, Brendan B; Dyck, Richard H; Percival, Christopher J; Kurrasch, Deborah M; Cobb, John

    2015-03-01

    Purkinje cells of the developing cerebellum secrete the morphogen sonic hedgehog (SHH), which is required to maintain the proliferative state of granule cell precursors (GCPs) prior to their differentiation and migration to form the internal granule layer (IGL). Despite a wealth of knowledge regarding the function of SHH during cerebellar development, the upstream regulators of Shh expression during this process remain largely unknown. Here we report that the murine short stature homeobox 2 (Shox2) gene is required for normal Shh expression in dorsal-residing Purkinje cells. Using two different Cre drivers, we show that elimination of Shox2 in the brain results in developmental defects in the inferior colliculus and cerebellum. Specifically, loss of Shox2 in the cerebellum results in precocious differentiation and migration of GCPs from the external granule layer (EGL) to the IGL. This correlates with premature bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) expression in granule cells of the dorsal cerebellum. The size of the neonatal cerebellum is reduced in Shox2-mutant animals, which is consistent with a reduction in the number of GCPs present in the EGL, and could account for the smaller vermis and thinner IGL present in adult Shox2mutants. Shox2-mutant mice also display reduced exploratory activity, altered gait and impaired motor coordination. Our findings are the first to show a role for Shox2 in brain development. We provide evidence that Shox2 plays an important role during cerebellar development, perhaps to maintain the proper balance of Shh and Bmp expression levels in the dorsal vermis, and demonstrate that in the absence of Shox2, mice display both cerebellar impairments and deficits in motor coordination, ultimately highlighting the importance of Shox2 in the cerebellum.

  11. Infant Vocal-Motor Coordination: Precursor to the Gesture-Speech System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Jana M.; Fagan, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to provide a general picture of infant vocal-motor coordination and test predictions generated by Iverson and Thelen's (1999) model of the development of the gesture-speech system. Forty-seven 6- to 9-month-old infants were videotaped with a primary caregiver during rattle and toy play. Results indicated an age-related…

  12. The Effects of Coordination and Movement Education on Pre School Children's Basic Motor Skills Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altinkök, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted for the purpose of analyzing the effect of the movement education program through a 12-week-coordination on the development of basic motor movements of pre-school children. A total of 78 students of pre-school period, 38 of whom were in the experimental group and 40 of whom were in the control group, were incorporated…

  13. A review of five tests to identify motor coordination difficulties in young adults.

    PubMed

    Hands, Beth; Licari, Melissa; Piek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties with low motor competence in childhood and adolescence, such as that seen in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), often persist into adulthood. Identification of DCD at all ages is particularly challenging and problematic because of the diversity of motor symptoms. Many tests of motor proficiency and impairment have been developed for children up to 12 years of age. Whilst identification of DCD is important during childhood, it is of equal importance to identify and monitor the impact of this impairment as an individual grows and develops. Currently there is no test specifically designed to support diagnosis and monitor change in the age range 16-30 years. In this article we review five tests that have been used to assess motor competence among young adults (Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2, McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development, Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2, Tufts Assessment of Motor Performance and the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment). Key issues relevant to testing motor skills in older populations, such as the inclusion of age appropriate skills, are explored. While the BOT-2 provided the most evidence for valid and reliable measurement of Criterion A of the diagnostic criteria for DCD among this age group, no test adequately evaluated Criterion B. Further evaluation of motor skill assessment among the young adult population is needed. PMID:26057836

  14. A review of five tests to identify motor coordination difficulties in young adults.

    PubMed

    Hands, Beth; Licari, Melissa; Piek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties with low motor competence in childhood and adolescence, such as that seen in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), often persist into adulthood. Identification of DCD at all ages is particularly challenging and problematic because of the diversity of motor symptoms. Many tests of motor proficiency and impairment have been developed for children up to 12 years of age. Whilst identification of DCD is important during childhood, it is of equal importance to identify and monitor the impact of this impairment as an individual grows and develops. Currently there is no test specifically designed to support diagnosis and monitor change in the age range 16-30 years. In this article we review five tests that have been used to assess motor competence among young adults (Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2, McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development, Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2, Tufts Assessment of Motor Performance and the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment). Key issues relevant to testing motor skills in older populations, such as the inclusion of age appropriate skills, are explored. While the BOT-2 provided the most evidence for valid and reliable measurement of Criterion A of the diagnostic criteria for DCD among this age group, no test adequately evaluated Criterion B. Further evaluation of motor skill assessment among the young adult population is needed.

  15. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Raquel; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gomes, Thayse; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC). Participants (n = 390), recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF), physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF) and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels). It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF) significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05), individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05), and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05). School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface) explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities. PMID:26264007

  16. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  17. Attention during functional tasks is associated with motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Joanne W Y; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Yam, Timothy T T; Chiu, Hsiu-Ching; Fong, Daniel Y T; Cheung, C Y; Yuen, Lily; Yu, Esther Y T; Hung, Yeung Sam; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Ng, Shamay S M

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional and exploratory study aimed to compare motor performance and electroencephalographic (EEG) attention levels in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with typical development, and determine the relationship between motor performance and the real-time EEG attention level in children with DCD.Eighty-six children with DCD [DCD: n = 57; DCD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): n = 29] and 99 children with typical development were recruited. Their motor performance was assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) and attention during the tasks of the MABC was evaluated by EEG.All children with DCD had higher MABC impairment scores and lower EEG attention scores than their peers (P < 0.05). After accounting for age, sex, body mass index, and physical activity level, the attention index remained significantly associated with the MABC total impairment score and explained 14.1% of the variance in children who had DCD but not ADHD (P = 0.009) and 17.5% of the variance in children with both DCD and ADHD (P = 0.007). Children with DCD had poorer motor performance and were less attentive to movements than their peers. Their poor motor performance may be explained by inattention.

  18. Attention during functional tasks is associated with motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Joanne W Y; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Yam, Timothy T T; Chiu, Hsiu-Ching; Fong, Daniel Y T; Cheung, C Y; Yuen, Lily; Yu, Esther Y T; Hung, Yeung Sam; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Ng, Shamay S M

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional and exploratory study aimed to compare motor performance and electroencephalographic (EEG) attention levels in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with typical development, and determine the relationship between motor performance and the real-time EEG attention level in children with DCD.Eighty-six children with DCD [DCD: n = 57; DCD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): n = 29] and 99 children with typical development were recruited. Their motor performance was assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) and attention during the tasks of the MABC was evaluated by EEG.All children with DCD had higher MABC impairment scores and lower EEG attention scores than their peers (P < 0.05). After accounting for age, sex, body mass index, and physical activity level, the attention index remained significantly associated with the MABC total impairment score and explained 14.1% of the variance in children who had DCD but not ADHD (P = 0.009) and 17.5% of the variance in children with both DCD and ADHD (P = 0.007). Children with DCD had poorer motor performance and were less attentive to movements than their peers. Their poor motor performance may be explained by inattention. PMID:27631272

  19. Motor Coordination Correlates with Academic Achievement and Cognitive Function in Children

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Valter R.; Ribeiro, Michelle L. Scipião; Melo, Thais; de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo; Guimarães, Thiago T.; Araújo, Narahyana B.; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Deslandes, Andréa C.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exercise and cognition is an important topic of research that only recently began to unravel. Here, we set out to investigate the relation between motor skills, cognitive function, and school performance in 45 students from 8 to 14 years of age. We used a cross-sectional design to evaluate motor coordination (Touch Test Disc), agility (Shuttle Run Speed—running back and forth), school performance (Academic Achievement Test), the Stroop test, and six sub-tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). We found, that the Touch Test Disc was the best predictor of school performance (R2 = 0.20). Significant correlations were also observed between motor coordination and several indices of cognitive function, such as the total score of the Academic Achievement Test (AAT; Spearman's rho = 0.536; p ≤ 0.001), as well as two WISC-IV sub-tests: block design (R = −0.438; p = 0.003) and cancelation (rho = −0.471; p = 0.001). All the other cognitive variables pointed in the same direction, and even correlated with agility, but did not reach statistical significance. Altogether, the data indicate that visual motor coordination and visual selective attention, but not agility, may influence academic achievement and cognitive function. The results highlight the importance of investigating the correlation between physical skills and different aspects of cognition. PMID:27014130

  20. Optical activity and Alfred Werner's coordination chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Karl-Heinz; Berke, Heinz

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted, that Pasteur's seminal discovery of the opposite optical activity of ammonium sodium tartrate enantiomorphs in solution gave the spark to organic stereochemistry and led to the development of the tetrahedron model by van't Hoff and Le Bel. The proof that chirality is inherently connected to octahedral coordination chemistry fostered greatly Werner's spatial views of metal complexes and his coordination theory. The actual proof of principle was established via separation of diastereomeric camphor sulfonate salts of racemic metal complexes. PMID:20928897

  1. Motor coordination, empathy, and social behaviour in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Ariane; Piek, Jan P; Dyck, Murray J

    2005-07-01

    Children with motor coordination problems are known to have emotional difficulties and poor social skills. The current study investigated whether children with poor motor ability have poor emotion recognition skills, and whether these could be linked to problems in social behaviour. It was hypothesized that difficulties in empathic ability might be related to the poor visuo-spatial processing ability identified in children with developmental coordination disorder (as defined by the American Psychiatric Association). The relationship between motor coordination, emotion recognition, and social behaviour was examined in a sample of 234 children (113 males, 121 females; mean age 9y 7mo, [SD 1y 8mo] age range 6y 8mo to 12y 11mo). From this sample two groups of 39 children each (17 females, 22 males), one group with motor difficulties (mean age 9y 11mo [SD 2y], range 6y 11mo to 12y 11mo) and the other of control children (mean age 10y [SD ly 11mo], range 6y 11mo to 12y 11mo), matched for age and sex, were compared using a set of six emotion recognition scales that measured both verbal and perceptual aspects of empathic ability. Children with motor difficulties were found to perform more poorly on scales measuring the ability to recognize static and changing facial expressions of emotion. This difference remained even when visuo-spatial processing was controlled. When controlling for emotion recognition and visuo-spatial organization, a child's motor ability remained a significant predictor of social behaviour.

  2. Selective Modulation of Histaminergic Inputs on Projection Neurons of Cerebellum Rapidly Promotes Motor Coordination via HCN Channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhuang, Qian-Xing; Li, Bin; Wu, Guan-Yi; Yung, Wing-Ho; Zhu, Jing-Ning; Wang, Jian-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Insights into function of central histaminergic system, a general modulator originating from the hypothalamus for whole brain activity, in motor control are critical for understanding the mechanism underlying somatic-nonsomatic integration. Here, we show a novel selective role of histamine in the cerebellar nuclei, the final integrative center and output of the cerebellum. Histamine depolarizes projection neurons but not interneurons in the cerebellar nuclei via the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels coupled to histamine H2 receptors, which are exclusively expressed on glutamatergic and glycinergic projection neurons. Furthermore, blockage of HCN channels to block endogenous histaminergic afferent inputs in the cerebellar nuclei significantly attenuates motor balance and coordination. Therefore, through directly and quickly modulation on projection neurons but not interneurons in the cerebellar nuclei, central histaminergic system may act as a critical biasing force to not only promptly regulate ongoing movement but also realize a rapid integration of somatic and nonsomatic response.

  3. Mg2+ coordinating dynamics in Mg:ATP fueled motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojovschi, A.; Liu, Ming S.; Sadus, Richard J.

    2014-03-01

    The coordination of Mg2+ with the triphosphate group of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in motor proteins is investigated using data mining and molecular dynamics. The possible coordination structures available from crystal data for actin, myosin, RNA polymerase, DNA polymerase, DNA helicase, and F1-ATPase are verified and investigated further by molecular dynamics. Coordination states are evaluated using structural analysis and quantified by radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and pair interaction energy calculations. The results reveal a diverse range of both transitory and stable coordination arrangements between Mg2+ and ATP. The two most stable coordinating states occur when Mg2+ coordinates two or three oxygens from the triphosphate group of ATP. Evidence for five-site coordination is also reported involving water in addition to the triphosphate group. The stable states correspond to a pair interaction energy of either ˜-2750 kJ/mol or -3500 kJ/mol. The role of water molecules in the hydration shell surrounding Mg2+ is also reported.

  4. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  5. Physical Activity and Fitness in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivilis, Irina; Hay, John; Cairney, John; Klentrou, Panagiota; Liu, Jian; Faught, Brent E.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor proficiency that interferes with a child's activities of daily living. Activities that most young children engage in such as running, walking, and jumping are important for the proper development of fitness and overall health. However, children…

  6. Insulin-like growth factor-I mitigates motor coordination deficits associated with neonatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    McGough, Nancy N H; Thomas, Jennifer D; Dominguez, Hector D; Riley, Edward P

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can affect brain development, leading to behavioral problems, including overactivity, motor dysfunction and learning deficits. Despite warnings about the effects of drinking during pregnancy, rates of fetal alcohol syndrome remain unchanged and thus, there is an urgent need to identify interventions that reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is neuroprotective against ethanol-related toxicity and promotes white matter production following a number of insults. Given that prenatal alcohol leads to cell death and white matter deficits, the present study examined whether IGF-I could reduce the severity of behavioral deficits associated with developmental alcohol exposure. Sprague-Dawley rat pups received ethanol intubations (5.25 g/kg/day) or sham intubations on postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development equivalent to the third trimester. On PD 10-13, subjects from each treatment received 0 or 10 microg IGF-I intranasally each day. Subjects were then tested on a series of behavioral tasks including open field activity (PD 18-21), parallel bar motor coordination (PD 30-32) and Morris maze spatial learning (PD 45-52). Ethanol exposure produced overactivity, motor coordination impairments, and spatial learning deficits. IGF-I treatment significantly mitigated ethanol's effects on motor coordination, but not on the other two behavioral tasks. These data indicate that IGF-I may be a potential treatment for some of ethanol's damaging effects, a finding that has important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy.

  7. 40 CFR 798.6200 - Motor activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the dose or equivalent independent variable. A single administration of the dose (or equivalent... systematically related to treatment. Among the variables which can affect motor activity are sound level, size... addition to the reporting requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the final test...

  8. 40 CFR 798.6200 - Motor activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the dose or equivalent independent variable. A single administration of the dose (or equivalent... systematically related to treatment. Among the variables which can affect motor activity are sound level, size... addition to the reporting requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the final test...

  9. 40 CFR 798.6200 - Motor activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle is used in administering the test substance, a vehicle control group. If the toxic properties of...) General. In the assessment and evaluation of the toxic characteristics of a substance, determination of the effects of administration of the substance on motor activity is......

  10. Update of technical coordinating committee activities

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Technical Coordinating Committee has its origins in the earliest days of implementing the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act. Between 1982 and 1985, individuals in several of the states felt that coordination among the states would be beneficial to all by affording states a cost-effective method for sharing ideas, discussing alternatives, and presenting solutions to common problems. At the current time, the committee comprises members from each of the sited states. Various compacts, federal agencies, and industry groups participate in committee activities. The Low-Level Management Program provides support for the committee through the provision of logistical support and limited manpower allocation. Activities of the committee have recently focused on waste treatment and minimization technologies. The committee also has worked diligently to see the review of the 3RSTAT computer code completed. The committee has taken a position on various regulatory proposals the past year. The committee expects to continue its work until new sites are brought online.

  11. Disentangling fine motor skills' relations to academic achievement: the relative contributions of visual-spatial integration and visual-motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Abby G; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, the majority of research linking fine motor skills and academic achievement has not determined which specific components of fine motor skill are driving this relation. The few studies that have looked at associations of separate fine motor tasks with achievement suggest that copying tasks that tap visual-spatial integration skills are most closely related to achievement. The present study examined two separate elements of fine motor skills--visual-motor coordination and visual-spatial integration--and their associations with various measures of academic achievement. Visual-motor coordination was measured using tracing tasks, while visual-spatial integration was measured using copy-a-figure tasks. After controlling for gender, socioeconomic status, IQ, and visual-motor coordination, and visual-spatial integration explained significant variance in children's math and written expression achievement. Knowing that visual-spatial integration skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potential avenues for targeted math and writing interventions for children of all ages.

  12. Neurotoxicity induced by alkyl nitrites: Impairment in learning/memory and motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hye Jin; Kim, Yun Ji; Jeon, Seo Young; Kim, Young-Hoon; Shin, Jisoon; Yun, Jaesuk; Han, Kyoungmoon; Park, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2016-04-21

    Although alkyl nitrites are used as recreational drugs, there is only little research data regarding their effects on the central nervous system including their neurotoxicity. This study investigated the neurotoxicity of three representative alkyl nitrites (isobutyl nitrite, isoamyl nitrite, and butyl nitrite), and whether it affected learning/memory function and motor coordination in rodents. Morris water maze test was performed in mice after administrating the mice with varying doses of the substances in two different injection schedules of memory acquisition and memory retention. A rota-rod test was then performed in rats. All tested alkyl nitrites lowered the rodents' capacity for learning and memory, as assessed by both the acquisition and retention tests. The results of the rota-rod test showed that isobutyl nitrite in particular impaired motor coordination in chronically treated rats. The mice chronically injected with isoamyl nitrite also showed impaired function, while butyl nitrite had no significant effect. The results of the water maze test suggest that alkyl nitrites may impair learning and memory. Additionally, isoamyl nitrite affected the rodents' motor coordination ability. Collectively, our findings suggest that alkyl nitrites may induce neurotoxicity, especially on the aspect of learning and memory function.

  13. Comparison of motor praxis and performance in children with varying levels of developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shao-Hsia; Yu, Nan-Ying

    2016-08-01

    The praxis test is a less well-documented method to determine functional manifestations of childhood dyspraxia. For this study, children aged 6-8years were recruited as follows: 17 children with DCD, 18 at risk of DCD and 35 without obvious problems in motor coordination. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) was used to measure motor performance and identify the motor incoordination. This study developed a battery of tests to assess limb praxis using a praxis imagery questionnaire, gesture representation, and questions about knowledge of object use. In the comparison of subtests within the praxis test, significant differences were observed across groups on the praxis imagery questionnaire and gesture representation tests but not on knowledge of object use. Similar results were observed in the correlation analyses, in which a weak relationship between MABC-2 and praxis tests was observed. The DCD group had lower scores on the praxis imagery questionnaire, whereas the group at risk of DCD had lower scores on most gesture production tests. Our study provides a better understanding of the nature of the childhood dyspraxia and sheds light on its effect on motor coordination to identify praxis tests with specific clinical meanings in children with movement disorders. PMID:27101560

  14. Endogenous patterns of activity are required for the maturation of a motor network

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Sarah J.; Evers, Jan Felix; Bate, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Many parts of the nervous system become active before development is complete, including the embryonic spinal cord. Remarkably, although the subject has been debated for over a century (Harrison, 1904), it is still unclear whether such activity is required for normal development of motor circuitry. In Drosophila, embryonic motor output is initially poorly organised, and coordinated crawling-like behaviour gradually emerges over the subsequent phase of development. We show that reversibly blocking synaptic transmission during this phase severely delays the first appearance of coordinated movements. When we interfere with the pattern of neuronal firing during this period, coordination is also delayed or blocked. We conclude that there is a period during which endogenous patterns of neuronal activity are required for the normal development of motor circuits in Drosophila. PMID:21775590

  15. Coordinated motor neuron axon growth and neuromuscular synaptogenesis are promoted by CPG15 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Javaherian, Ashkan; Cline, Hollis T

    2005-02-17

    We have used in vivo time-lapse two-photon imaging of single motor neuron axons labeled with GFP combined with labeling of presynaptic vesicle clusters and postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors in Xenopus laevis tadpoles to determine the dynamic rearrangement of individual axon branches and synaptogenesis during motor axon arbor development. Control GFP-labeled axons are highly dynamic during the period when axon arbors are elaborating. Axon branches emerge from sites of synaptic vesicle clusters. These data indicate that motor neuron axon elaboration and synaptogenesis are concurrent and iterative. We tested the role of Candidate Plasticity Gene 15 (CPG15, also known as Neuritin), an activity-regulated gene that is expressed in the developing motor neurons in this process. CPG15 expression enhances the development of motor neuron axon arbors by promoting neuromuscular synaptogenesis and by increasing the addition of new axon branches. PMID:15721237

  16. ACTIVITIES OF HUMAN GENIOGLOSSUS MOTOR UNITS

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, E. Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Upper airway muscles play an important role in regulating airway lumen and in increasing the ability of the pharynx to remain patent in the face of subatmospheric intraluminal pressures produced during inspiration. Due to the considerable technical challenges associated with recording from muscles of the upper airway, much of the experimental work conducted in human subjects has centered on recording respiratory-related activities of the extrinsic tongue protudor muscle, the genioglossus (GG). The GG is one of eight muscles that invest the human tongue (Abd-El-Malek, 1939). All eight muscles are innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) the cell bodies of which are located in the hypoglossal motor nucleus (HMN) of the caudal medulla. Much of the earlier work on the respiratory-related activity of XII motoneurons was based on recordings obtained from single motor axons dissected from the whole XII nerve or from whole muscle GG EMG recordings. Detailed information regarding respiratory-related GG motor unit activities was lacking until as recently as 2006. This paper examines key findings that have emerged from the last decade of work conducted in human subjects. Wherever appropriate, these results are compared with results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies conducted in non-human mammals. The review is written with the objective of facilitating some discussion and some new thoughts regarding future research directions. The material is framed around four topics: a) Motor unit type, b) Rate coding and recruitment, c) Motor unit activity patterns, and d) A compartment based view of pharyngeal airway control. PMID:21558022

  17. Poly I:C induced microglial activation impairs motor activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Patro, I K; Amit; Shrivastava, M; Bhumika, S; Patro, N

    2010-02-01

    Polyinosinic:polycytidic acid (poly I:C) is a synthetic double stranded RNA, which mimics with viral genome and mediates immune activation response similar to double stranded RNA virus infection into the brain. Microglial cells are the immune competent cells of the central nervous system having Toll like receptors-3 on their surface. Upon establishing that poly I:C infusion into the brain causes microgliosis by creating a viral infection model, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of microglial activation following poly I:C infusion on motor activity. We infused 100 microl of 1% solution of Poly I:C in TBE buffer directly into the lateral ventricle and TBE buffer as vehicle to controls. A significantly higher microglial cell count as compared to control on 2, 3 and 7 days post infusion was recorded. Motor activity and microglial cell count was assessed in both controls and poly I:C infused rats on 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post infusion. A significant decrease in motor activity and motor coordination occurred with respect to control. The results clearly demonstrate that microglial activation has a direct relevance with decreased motor activity. Findings could also have their importance in understanding the role of microglial cells on behavioral aspects in viral diseases.

  18. Coordinating activities between NOAA and other agencies.

    PubMed

    Fritz, A T; Buchman, M F

    1997-11-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) mandate protection of public health, welfare, and the environment at Superfund hazardous waste sites. The NCP requires lead response agenciesto integrate baseline risk assessments into the remedial process that "assess threats to the environment." EPA policy statements direct regional offices to perform thorough, consistent ecological risk assessments, and stress the importance of coordination and technical consultation with the natural resource trustees. As a Federal natural trustee, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) role and responsibilities within the CERCLA process also are defined and mandated by Federal law. NOAA is responsible for identifying sites in the coastal zone that may affect natural resources, evaluating injury to trust resources, and providing technical advice on assessments and remedial and restoration alternatives. Statutes require lead cleanup agencies and trustee agencies to notify and coordinate with each other during CERCLA response. Over the past ten years, NOAA has gained valuable experience and technical expertise in environmental assessments and in evaluating contaminated aquatic environments. NOAA fulfills its responsibilities through an effective network of Coastal Resource Coordinators (CRCs) who can rapidly respond to local technical requirements and priorities, and coordinate effectively with technical and trustee representatives. In addition to CRCs, an interdisciplinary support group provides technical expertise in the scientific disciplines required to respond to the needs of regional activities. NOAA provides CRCs to coastal EPA regional offices for technical support, and to act as liaisons with Federal and state natural resource trustee agencies. The CRCs help EPA and other lead response agencies identify and assess risks to coastal resources

  19. Coordinating activities between NOAA and other agencies.

    PubMed

    Fritz, A T; Buchman, M F

    1997-11-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) mandate protection of public health, welfare, and the environment at Superfund hazardous waste sites. The NCP requires lead response agenciesto integrate baseline risk assessments into the remedial process that "assess threats to the environment." EPA policy statements direct regional offices to perform thorough, consistent ecological risk assessments, and stress the importance of coordination and technical consultation with the natural resource trustees. As a Federal natural trustee, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) role and responsibilities within the CERCLA process also are defined and mandated by Federal law. NOAA is responsible for identifying sites in the coastal zone that may affect natural resources, evaluating injury to trust resources, and providing technical advice on assessments and remedial and restoration alternatives. Statutes require lead cleanup agencies and trustee agencies to notify and coordinate with each other during CERCLA response. Over the past ten years, NOAA has gained valuable experience and technical expertise in environmental assessments and in evaluating contaminated aquatic environments. NOAA fulfills its responsibilities through an effective network of Coastal Resource Coordinators (CRCs) who can rapidly respond to local technical requirements and priorities, and coordinate effectively with technical and trustee representatives. In addition to CRCs, an interdisciplinary support group provides technical expertise in the scientific disciplines required to respond to the needs of regional activities. NOAA provides CRCs to coastal EPA regional offices for technical support, and to act as liaisons with Federal and state natural resource trustee agencies. The CRCs help EPA and other lead response agencies identify and assess risks to coastal resources

  20. Coordination of autophagy with other cellular activities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Qin, Zheng-hong

    2013-01-01

    The cell biological phenomenon of autophagy has attracted increasing attention in recent years, partly as a consequence of the discovery of key components of its cellular machinery. Autophagy plays a crucial role in a myriad of cellular functions. Autophagy has its own regulatory mechanisms, but this process is not isolated. Autophagy is coordinated with other cellular activities to maintain cell homeostasis. Autophagy is critical for a range of human physiological processes. The multifunctional roles of autophagy are explained by its ability to interact with several key components of various cell pathways. In this review, we focus on the coordination between autophagy and other physiological processes, including the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), energy homeostasis, aging, programmed cell death, the immune responses, microbial invasion and inflammation. The insights gained from investigating autophagic networks should increase our understanding of their roles in human diseases and their potential as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23474706

  1. Motor simulation and the coordination of self and other in real-time joint action.

    PubMed

    Novembre, Giacomo; Ticini, Luca F; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Keller, Peter E

    2014-08-01

    Joint actions require the integration of simultaneous self- and other-related behaviour. Here, we investigated whether this function is underpinned by motor simulation, that is the capacity to represent a perceived action in terms of the neural resources required to execute it. This was tested in a music performance experiment wherein on-line brain stimulation (double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, dTMS) was employed to interfere with motor simulation. Pianists played the right-hand part of piano pieces in synchrony with a recording of the left-hand part, which had (Trained) or had not (Untrained) been practiced beforehand. Training was assumed to enhance motor simulation. The task required adaptation to tempo changes in the left-hand part that, in critical conditions, were preceded by dTMS delivered over the right primary motor cortex. Accuracy of tempo adaptation following dTMS or sham stimulations was compared across Trained and Untrained conditions. Results indicate that dTMS impaired tempo adaptation accuracy only during the perception of trained actions. The magnitude of this interference was greater in empathic individuals possessing a strong tendency to adopt others' perspectives. These findings suggest that motor simulation provides a functional resource for the temporal coordination of one's own behaviour with others in dynamic social contexts.

  2. Patterns of presynaptic activity and synaptic strength interact to produce motor output.

    PubMed

    Wright, Terrence Michael; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2011-11-30

    Motor neuron activity is coordinated by premotor networks into a functional motor pattern by complex patterns of synaptic drive. These patterns combine both the temporal pattern of spikes of the premotor network and the profiles of synaptic strengths (i.e., conductances). Given the complexity of premotor networks in vertebrates, it has been difficult to ascertain the relative contributions of temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles to the motor patterns observed in these animals. Here, we use the leech (Hirudo sp.) heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG), in which we can measure both the temporal pattern and the synaptic strength profiles of the entire premotor network and the motor outflow in individual animals. In this system, a series of motor neurons all receive input from the same premotor interneurons of the CPG but must be coordinated differentially to produce a functional pattern. These properties allow a theoretical and experimental dissection of the rules that govern how temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles are combined in motor neurons so that functional motor patterns emerge, including an analysis of the impact of animal-to-animal variation in input to such variation in output. In the leech, segmental heart motor neurons are coordinated alternately in a synchronous and peristaltic pattern. We show that synchronous motor patterns result from a nearly synchronous premotor temporal pattern produced by the leech heartbeat CPG. For peristaltic motor patterns, the staggered premotor temporal pattern determines the phase range over which segmental motor neurons can fire while synaptic strength profiles define the intersegmental motor phase progression realized.

  3. Active training paradigm for motor imagery BCI.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Liqing

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows the use of brain activities for people to directly communicate with the external world or to control external devices without participation of any peripheral nerves and muscles. Motor imagery is one of the most popular modes in the research field of brain-computer interface. Although motor imagery BCI has some advantages compared with other modes of BCI, such as asynchronization, it is necessary to require training sessions before using it. The performance of trained BCI system depends on the quality of training samples or the subject engagement. In order to improve training effect and decrease training time, we proposed a new paradigm where subjects participated in training more actively than in the traditional paradigm. In the traditional paradigm, a cue (to indicate what kind of motor imagery should be imagined during the current trial) is given to the subject at the beginning of a trial or during a trial, and this cue is also used as a label for this trial. It is usually assumed that labels for trials are accurate in the traditional paradigm, although subjects may not have performed the required or correct kind of motor imagery, and trials may thus be mislabeled. And then those mislabeled trials give rise to interference during model training. In our proposed paradigm, the subject is required to reconfirm the label and can correct the label when necessary. This active training paradigm may generate better training samples with fewer inconsistent labels because it overcomes mistakes when subject's motor imagination does not match the given cues. The experiments confirm that our proposed paradigm achieves better performance; the improvement is significant according to statistical analysis. PMID:22476215

  4. Enhanced Multisensory Integration and Motor Reactivation after Active Motor Learning of Audiovisual Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Andrew J.; James, Thomas W.; James, Karin Harman

    2011-01-01

    Everyday experience affords us many opportunities to learn about objects through multiple senses using physical interaction. Previous work has shown that active motor learning of unisensory items enhances memory and leads to the involvement of motor systems during subsequent perception. However, the impact of active motor learning on subsequent…

  5. Coordination of breathing with nonrespiratory activities.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, James C

    2012-04-01

    Many articles in this section of Comprehensive Physiology are concerned with the development and function of a central pattern generator (CPG) for the control of breathing in vertebrate animals. The action of the respiratory CPG is extensively modified by cortical and other descending influences as well as by feedback from peripheral sensory systems. The central nervous system also incorporates other CPGs, which orchestrate a wide variety of discrete and repetitive, voluntary and involuntary movements. The coordination of breathing with these other activities requires interaction and coordination between the respiratory CPG and those governing the nonrespiratory activities. Most of these interactions are complex and poorly understood. They seem to involve both conventional synaptic crosstalk between groups of neurons and fluid identity of neurons as belonging to one CPG or another: neurons that normally participate in breathing may be temporarily borrowed or hijacked by a competing or interrupting activity. This review explores the control of breathing as it is influenced by many activities that are generally considered to be nonrespiratory. The mechanistic detail varies greatly among topics, reflecting the wide variety of pertinent experiments.

  6. [Quantification of motor activity in biomedicine].

    PubMed

    Giannazzo, E

    1993-01-01

    A computer-assisted analysis of motor activity was carried out using ultrasound waves, that are not invasive and free from any kind of interference, because of their specific characteristics. We worked out the Doppler's effect which determines a frequency variation on the reflected wave from any body in motion. That variation is linked to the velocity of the moving body and the superimposition of the emitted wave with those reflected, results in beats, which have a frequency proportional to the motor activity velocity. Our research group planned and carried out an electronic quantification apparatus that can be interfaced with a personal computer system by means of an Analog to Digital acquisition card. The performed test on the apparatus confirmed that the theory that the number of antinodes detected was proportional to the space covered by the moving body. The equipment was also tested on several types of animals.

  7. GR3027 antagonizes GABAA receptor-potentiating neurosteroids and restores spatial learning and motor coordination in rats with chronic hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maja; Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Strömberg, Jessica; Malinina, Evgenya; Ragagnin, Gianna; Doverskog, Magnus; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Felipo, Vicente

    2015-09-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the primary complications of liver cirrhosis. Current treatments for HE, mainly directed to reduction of ammonia levels, are not effective enough because they cannot completely eliminate hyperammonemia and inflammation, which induce the neurological alterations. Studies in animal models show that overactivation of GABAA receptors is involved in cognitive and motor impairment in HE and that reducing this activation restores these functions. We have developed a new compound, GR3027, that selectively antagonizes the enhanced activation of GABAA receptors by neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone and 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (THDOC). This work aimed to assess whether GR3027 improves motor incoordination, spatial learning, and circadian rhythms of activity in rats with HE. GR3027 was administered subcutaneously to two main models of HE: rats with chronic hyperammonemia due to ammonia feeding and rats with portacaval shunts (PCS). Motor coordination was assessed in beam walking and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and the radial maze. Circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity were also assessed. In both hyperammonemic and PCS rats, GR3027 restores motor coordination, spatial memory in the Morris water maze, and spatial learning in the radial maze. GR3027 also partially restores circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity in PCS rats. GR3027 is a novel approach to treatment of HE that would normalize neurological functions altered because of enhanced GABAergic tone, affording more complete normalization of cognitive and motor function than current treatments for HE.

  8. GR3027 antagonizes GABAA receptor-potentiating neurosteroids and restores spatial learning and motor coordination in rats with chronic hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Maja; Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Strömberg, Jessica; Malinina, Evgenya; Ragagnin, Gianna; Doverskog, Magnus; Bäckström, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the primary complications of liver cirrhosis. Current treatments for HE, mainly directed to reduction of ammonia levels, are not effective enough because they cannot completely eliminate hyperammonemia and inflammation, which induce the neurological alterations. Studies in animal models show that overactivation of GABAA receptors is involved in cognitive and motor impairment in HE and that reducing this activation restores these functions. We have developed a new compound, GR3027, that selectively antagonizes the enhanced activation of GABAA receptors by neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone and 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (THDOC). This work aimed to assess whether GR3027 improves motor incoordination, spatial learning, and circadian rhythms of activity in rats with HE. GR3027 was administered subcutaneously to two main models of HE: rats with chronic hyperammonemia due to ammonia feeding and rats with portacaval shunts (PCS). Motor coordination was assessed in beam walking and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and the radial maze. Circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity were also assessed. In both hyperammonemic and PCS rats, GR3027 restores motor coordination, spatial memory in the Morris water maze, and spatial learning in the radial maze. GR3027 also partially restores circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity in PCS rats. GR3027 is a novel approach to treatment of HE that would normalize neurological functions altered because of enhanced GABAergic tone, affording more complete normalization of cognitive and motor function than current treatments for HE. PMID:26138462

  9. GR3027 antagonizes GABAA receptor-potentiating neurosteroids and restores spatial learning and motor coordination in rats with chronic hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maja; Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Strömberg, Jessica; Malinina, Evgenya; Ragagnin, Gianna; Doverskog, Magnus; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Felipo, Vicente

    2015-09-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the primary complications of liver cirrhosis. Current treatments for HE, mainly directed to reduction of ammonia levels, are not effective enough because they cannot completely eliminate hyperammonemia and inflammation, which induce the neurological alterations. Studies in animal models show that overactivation of GABAA receptors is involved in cognitive and motor impairment in HE and that reducing this activation restores these functions. We have developed a new compound, GR3027, that selectively antagonizes the enhanced activation of GABAA receptors by neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone and 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (THDOC). This work aimed to assess whether GR3027 improves motor incoordination, spatial learning, and circadian rhythms of activity in rats with HE. GR3027 was administered subcutaneously to two main models of HE: rats with chronic hyperammonemia due to ammonia feeding and rats with portacaval shunts (PCS). Motor coordination was assessed in beam walking and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and the radial maze. Circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity were also assessed. In both hyperammonemic and PCS rats, GR3027 restores motor coordination, spatial memory in the Morris water maze, and spatial learning in the radial maze. GR3027 also partially restores circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity in PCS rats. GR3027 is a novel approach to treatment of HE that would normalize neurological functions altered because of enhanced GABAergic tone, affording more complete normalization of cognitive and motor function than current treatments for HE. PMID:26138462

  10. Goal Scoring in Soccer: A Polar Coordinate Analysis of Motor Skills Used by Lionel Messi.

    PubMed

    Castañer, Marta; Barreira, Daniel; Camerino, Oleguer; Anguera, M Teresa; Canton, Albert; Hileno, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Soccer research has traditionally focused on technical and tactical aspects of team play, but few studies have analyzed motor skills in individual actions, such as goal scoring. The objective of this study was to investigate how Lionel Messi, one of the world's top soccer players, uses his motor skills and laterality in individual attacking actions resulting in a goal. We analyzed 103 goals scored by Messi between over a decade in three competitions: La Liga (n = 74), Copa del Rey (n = 8), and the UEFA Champions League (n = 21). We used an ad-hoc observation instrument (OSMOS-soccer player) comprising 10 criteria and 50 categories; polar coordinate analysis, a powerful data reduction technique, revealed significant associations for body part and orientation, foot contact zone, turn direction, and locomotion. No significant associations were observed for pitch area or interaction with opponents. Our analysis confirms significant associations between different aspects of motor skill use by Messi immediately before scoring, namely use of lower limbs, foot contact zones, turn direction, use of wings, and orientation of body to move toward the goal. Studies of motor skills in soccer could shed light on the qualities that make certain players unique. PMID:27303357

  11. Goal Scoring in Soccer: A Polar Coordinate Analysis of Motor Skills Used by Lionel Messi

    PubMed Central

    Castañer, Marta; Barreira, Daniel; Camerino, Oleguer; Anguera, M. Teresa; Canton, Albert; Hileno, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Soccer research has traditionally focused on technical and tactical aspects of team play, but few studies have analyzed motor skills in individual actions, such as goal scoring. The objective of this study was to investigate how Lionel Messi, one of the world's top soccer players, uses his motor skills and laterality in individual attacking actions resulting in a goal. We analyzed 103 goals scored by Messi between over a decade in three competitions: La Liga (n = 74), Copa del Rey (n = 8), and the UEFA Champions League (n = 21). We used an ad-hoc observation instrument (OSMOS-soccer player) comprising 10 criteria and 50 categories; polar coordinate analysis, a powerful data reduction technique, revealed significant associations for body part and orientation, foot contact zone, turn direction, and locomotion. No significant associations were observed for pitch area or interaction with opponents. Our analysis confirms significant associations between different aspects of motor skill use by Messi immediately before scoring, namely use of lower limbs, foot contact zones, turn direction, use of wings, and orientation of body to move toward the goal. Studies of motor skills in soccer could shed light on the qualities that make certain players unique. PMID:27303357

  12. Independent and Combined Effects of Sex and Biological Maturation on Motor Coordination and Performance in Prepubertal Children.

    PubMed

    Luz, Leonardo G O; Cumming, Sean P; Duarte, João P; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Almeida, Maria J; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides; Padez, Cristina; Carmo, Bruno Cleiton M; Santos, Rute; Seabra, André; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J

    2016-04-01

    Sex differences and maturation-associated variation in fitness and motor coordination were examined in children aged 8-9 years (n = 128, 67 girls). Assessments included stature and body mass, two-component body composition, percentage of predicted adult stature (as an index of biological maturation), and motor performance and coordination (Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder). Compared to girls, boys were less advanced in maturation status, possessed larger fat mass, demonstrated superior performances in six tests of fitness, and obtained one superior score on the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. After controlling for somatic maturation, sex differences persisted in the two multivariate domains: motor performance and motor coordination.

  13. Coordinated network activity in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Draguhn, Andreas; Keller, Martin; Reichinnek, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus expresses a variety of highly organized network states which bind its individual neurons into collective modes of activity. These patterns go along with characteristic oscillations of extracellular potential known as theta, gamma, and ripple oscillations. Such network oscillations share some important features throughout the entire central nervous system of higher animals: they are restricted to a defined behavioral state, they are mostly generated by subthreshold synaptic activity, and they entrain active neurons to fire action potentials at strictly defined phases of the oscillation cycle, thereby providing a unifying 'zeitgeber' for coordinated multineuronal activity. Recent work from the hippocampus of rodents and humans has revealed how the resulting spatiotemporal patterns support the formation of neuronal assemblies which, in our present understanding, form the neuronal correlate of spatial, declarative, or episodic memories. In this review, we introduce the major types of spatiotemporal activity patterns in the hippocampus, describe the underlying neuronal mechanisms, and illustrate the concept of memory formation within oscillating networks. Research on hippocampus-dependent memory has become a key model system at the interface between cellular and cognitive neurosciences. The next step will be to translate our increasing insight into the mechanisms and systemic functions of neuronal networks into urgently needed new therapeutic strategies. PMID:24777128

  14. Coordinated network activity in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Draguhn, Andreas; Keller, Martin; Reichinnek, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus expresses a variety of highly organized network states which bind its individual neurons into collective modes of activity. These patterns go along with characteristic oscillations of extracellular potential known as theta, gamma, and ripple oscillations. Such network oscillations share some important features throughout the entire central nervous system of higher animals: they are restricted to a defined behavioral state, they are mostly generated by subthreshold synaptic activity, and they entrain active neurons to fire action potentials at strictly defined phases of the oscillation cycle, thereby providing a unifying 'zeitgeber' for coordinated multineuronal activity. Recent work from the hippocampus of rodents and humans has revealed how the resulting spatiotemporal patterns support the formation of neuronal assemblies which, in our present understanding, form the neuronal correlate of spatial, declarative, or episodic memories. In this review, we introduce the major types of spatiotemporal activity patterns in the hippocampus, describe the underlying neuronal mechanisms, and illustrate the concept of memory formation within oscillating networks. Research on hippocampus-dependent memory has become a key model system at the interface between cellular and cognitive neurosciences. The next step will be to translate our increasing insight into the mechanisms and systemic functions of neuronal networks into urgently needed new therapeutic strategies.

  15. Observation of microtubule-based motor protein activity.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, Roger D

    2015-02-01

    It is possible to detect the presence of motor proteins that have the ability to translocate particles along microtubules. The two procedures described here were developed to detect microtubule-dependent motor protein activity in cell lysates or of purified proteins. In the first procedure, latex beads bound to the putative motor protein are assayed for their ability to translocate along microtubules in an ATP-dependent fashion. If motor protein activity is present, it will bind to the beads and translocate them unidirectionally along the microtubules. In the second procedure, motor proteins induce microtubule gliding over a glass coverslip surface that is coated with active motor protein. Because the mass of a microtubule is negligible compared to that of a coverslip or slide, the microtubule glides over the glass surface when the surface is coated with active motor protein. Also included here are descriptions of assays designed to determine the directionality of movement of microtubule-based motor proteins. PMID:25646501

  16. Motor coordination and mental health in extremely low birth weight survivors during the first four decades of life.

    PubMed

    Poole, Kristie L; Schmidt, Louis A; Missiuna, Cheryl; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    The co-morbidity of motor coordination and mental health problems is an increasing concern. While links between poor motor coordination and mental health have been examined extensively in individuals born at normal birth weight (NBW; >2500g), relatively little research has examined these associations in special populations, particularly those born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000g). In this study, we examined whether birth weight status (ELBW vs. NBW) moderated associations between motor coordination problems and levels of mental health problems from childhood into the fourth decade of life. The present study utilized the oldest known prospectively followed, population-based cohort of ELBW survivors (n=151). This group was born between 1977 and 1982 in Ontario, Canada and was compared to a matched group of NBW controls (n=145). Mental health problems were measured at age 8 using parent and teacher reports, and at age 22-26 and 29-36 using self-reports. Childhood motor coordination was retrospectively reported at age 29-36. In both ELBW and NBW groups, childhood coordination problems were associated with elevated levels of inattention and symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, we observed stronger associations between childhood motor coordination problems and mental health problems in NBW controls at 22-26 and 29-36 years of age than in ELBW survivors. Our findings highlight the importance of recognizing and screening for motor coordination problems not only in vulnerable, at-risk children, but in all children, as motor difficulties appear to be associated with mental health problems well into adult life.

  17. 30 CFR 229.122 - Coordination of audit activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination of audit activities. 229.122... MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Oil and Gas, Onshore Delegation Requirements § 229.122 Coordination of audit... resolution of any coordination problems encountered during the conduct of delegation activities....

  18. Stimulating music increases motor coordination in patients afflicted with Morbus Parkinson.

    PubMed

    Bernatzky, Günther; Bernatzky, Patrick; Hesse, Horst-Peter; Staffen, Wolfgang; Ladurner, Gunther

    2004-05-01

    The present study measured the short-term effect of special stimulating music on motor coordination in Parkinson patients. Eleven patients with a dominant akinetic Parkinson syndrome as well as ten healthy persons (age-matched control group) participated in this study. In the Parkinson group, the measurement of fine motor coordination with the 'Vienna Test System' showed an improvement in two (aiming, line tracking) of the four subtests after listening to the music. The patients improved their performance with the right arm significantly in the subtest aiming-error-time. No statistical differences were found in the other two subtests (steadiness, tapping) in both groups. There was also no improvement in frequency of tapping movement on the power-force-working-plate. Accordingly, music effects more the precision of a movement than the speediness. The measurements on the power-force-working-plate showed a significant improvement in two of five measured parameters: contact time, variability coefficient for total step and impact maximum changed significantly. This study gives evidence that specific music can improve the precision of arm and finger movements. PMID:15135879

  19. ACR-12 ionotropic acetylcholine receptor complexes regulate inhibitory motor neuron activity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Petrash, Hilary A; Philbrook, Alison; Haburcak, Marian; Barbagallo, Belinda; Francis, Michael M

    2013-03-27

    Heterogeneity in the composition of neurotransmitter receptors is thought to provide functional diversity that may be important in patterning neural activity and shaping behavior (Dani and Bertrand, 2007; Sassoè-Pognetto, 2011). However, this idea has remained difficult to evaluate directly because of the complexity of neuronal connectivity patterns and uncertainty about the molecular composition of specific receptor types in vivo. Here we dissect how molecular diversity across receptor types contributes to the coordinated activity of excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons express distinct populations of ionotropic acetylcholine receptors (iAChRs) requiring the ACR-12 subunit. The activity level of excitatory motor neurons is influenced through activation of nonsynaptic iAChRs (Jospin et al., 2009; Barbagallo et al., 2010). In contrast, synaptic coupling of excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons is achieved through a second population of iAChRs specifically localized at postsynaptic sites on inhibitory motor neurons. Loss of ACR-12 iAChRs from inhibitory motor neurons leads to reduced synaptic drive, decreased inhibitory neuromuscular signaling, and variability in the sinusoidal motor pattern. Our results provide new insights into mechanisms that establish appropriately balanced excitation and inhibition in the generation of a rhythmic motor behavior and reveal functionally diverse roles for iAChR-mediated signaling in this process. PMID:23536067

  20. Perceptual Estimates of Motor Skill Proficiency Are Constrained by the Stability of Coordination Patterns.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, John J

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated that motor skill proficiency ratings are constrained by the same order parameter dynamics that constrain action production and action perception processes. Participants produced rhythmic actions simulated by an animated stick figure of the human arm. The primary finding was that participants' proficiency ratings covaried most with relative phase (φ) variability compared to mean relative phase. In-phase (φ = 0°) was produced with the least variability and received the highest proficiency rating, whereas the patterns φ = ±150° were attempted with the most variability and received the lowest proficiency ratings. A temporal delay in attempting to produce the animated pattern had a large impact on produced relative phase, yet had little impact on the proficiency ratings. Proprioceptive processes provide individuals information on motor skill proficiency. The lead or lag motion of the hand to forearm segment of the animated arm was identified consistently through visual processes and revealed asymmetries in the mapping of visual input to motor output. The results are consistent with concepts from the dynamic pattern theory of coordination and are discussed with regard to relative phase as an informational variable that constraints the perception-action system across many levels. PMID:25763507

  1. Perceptual Estimates of Motor Skill Proficiency Are Constrained by the Stability of Coordination Patterns.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, John J

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated that motor skill proficiency ratings are constrained by the same order parameter dynamics that constrain action production and action perception processes. Participants produced rhythmic actions simulated by an animated stick figure of the human arm. The primary finding was that participants' proficiency ratings covaried most with relative phase (φ) variability compared to mean relative phase. In-phase (φ = 0°) was produced with the least variability and received the highest proficiency rating, whereas the patterns φ = ±150° were attempted with the most variability and received the lowest proficiency ratings. A temporal delay in attempting to produce the animated pattern had a large impact on produced relative phase, yet had little impact on the proficiency ratings. Proprioceptive processes provide individuals information on motor skill proficiency. The lead or lag motion of the hand to forearm segment of the animated arm was identified consistently through visual processes and revealed asymmetries in the mapping of visual input to motor output. The results are consistent with concepts from the dynamic pattern theory of coordination and are discussed with regard to relative phase as an informational variable that constraints the perception-action system across many levels.

  2. Influence of methylphenidate on motor performance and attention in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention deficit hyperactive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-06-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children with comorbid DCD and ADHD. Participants were 30 children (24 boys) aged 5.10-12.7 years diagnosed with both DCD and ADHD. Conners' Parent Rating Scale was used to reaffirm ADHD diagnosis and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire was used to diagnose DCD. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 and the online continuous performance test were administrated to all participants twice, with and without methylphenidate. The tests were administered on two separate days in a blind design. Motor performance and attention scores were significantly better with methylphenidate than without it (p<0.001 for improvement in the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 and p<0.006 for the online continuous performance test scores). The findings suggest that methylphenidate improves both attention and motor coordination in children with coexisting DCD and ADHD. More research is needed to disentangle the causality of the improvement effect and whether improvement in motor coordination is directly affected by methylphenidate or mediated by improvement in attention.

  3. Motor Learning: An Analysis of 100 Trials of a Ski Slalom Game in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.; Jelsma, Lemke Dorothee; Ferguson, Gillian D.; Geuze, Reint H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is often characterized as a skill acquisition deficit disorder, few studies have addressed the process of motor learning. This study examined learning of a novel motor task; the Wii Fit ski slalom game. The main objectives were to determine: 1) whether learning occurs over 100 trial runs of the game, 2) if the learning curve is different between children with and without DCD, 3) if learning is different in an easier or harder version of the task, 4) if learning transfers to other balance tasks. Method 17 children with DCD (6–10 years) and a matched control group of 17 typically developing (TD) children engaged in 20 minutes of gaming, twice a week for five weeks. Each training session comprised of alternating trial runs, with five runs at an easy level and five runs at a difficult level. Wii scores, which combine speed and accuracy per run, were recorded. Standardized balance tasks were used to measure transfer. Results Significant differences in initial performance were found between groups on the Wii score and balance tasks. Both groups improved their Wii score over the five weeks. Improvement in the easy and in the hard task did not differ between groups. Retention in the time between training sessions was not different between TD and DCD groups either. The DCD group improved significantly on all balance tasks. Conclusions The findings in this study give a fairly coherent picture of the learning process over a medium time scale (5 weeks) in children novice to active computer games; they learn, retain and there is evidence of transfer to other balance tasks. The rate of motor learning is similar for those with and without DCD. Our results raise a number of questions about motor learning that need to be addressed in future research. PMID:26466324

  4. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    PubMed

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system. PMID:18470821

  5. Myosin II Motors and F-Actin Dynamics Drive the Coordinated Movement of the Centrosome and Soma during CNS Glial-Guided Neuronal Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Solecki, Dr. David; Trivedi, Dr. Niraj; Govek, Eve-Ellen; Kerekes, Ryan A; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Hatten, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Lamination of cortical regions of the vertebrate brain depends on glial-guided neuronal migration. The conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha} localizes to the centrosome and coordinates forward movement of the centrosome and soma in migrating neurons. The cytoskeletal components that produce this unique form of cell polarity and their relationship to polarity signaling cascades are unknown. We show that F-actin and Myosin II motors are enriched in the neuronal leading process and that Myosin II activity is necessary for leading process actin dynamics. Inhibition of Myosin II decreased the speed of centrosome and somal movement, whereas Myosin II activation increased coordinated movement. Ectopic expression or silencing of Par6{alpha} inhibited Myosin II motors by decreasing Myosin light-chain phosphorylation. These findings suggest leading-process Myosin II may function to 'pull' the centrosome and soma forward during glial-guided migration by a mechanism involving the conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha}.

  6. A model of movement coordinates in the motor cortex: posture-dependent changes in the gain and direction of single cell tuning curves.

    PubMed

    Ajemian, R; Bullock, D; Grossberg, S

    2001-12-01

    This article outlines a methodology for investigating the coordinate systems by which movement variables are encoded in the firing rates of individual motor cortical neurons. Recent neurophysiological experiments have probed the issue of underlying coordinates by examining how cellular preferred directions (as determined by the center-out task) change with posture. Several key experimental findings have resulted that constrain hypotheses about how motor cortical cells encode movement information. But while the significance of shifts in preferred direction is well known and widely accepted, posture-dependent changes in the depth of modulation of a cell's tuning curve--that is, gain changes--have not been similarly identified as a means of coordinate inference. This article develops a vector field framework in which the preferred direction and the gain of a cell's tuning curve are viewed as dual components of a unitary response vector. The formalism can be used to compute how each aspect of cell response covaries with posture as a function of the coordinate system in which a given cell is hypothesized to encode its movement information. Such an integrated approach leads to a model of motor cortical cell activity that codifies the following four observations: (i) cell activity correlates with hand movement direction; (ii) cell activity correlates with hand movement speed; (iii) preferred directions vary with posture; and (iv) the modulation depth of tuning curves varies with posture. Finally, the model suggests general methods for testing coordinate hypotheses at the single-cell level and simulates an example protocol for three possible coordinate systems: Cartesian spatial, shoulder-centered, and joint angle.

  7. Effects of two different programs of modern sports dancing on motor coordination, strength, and speed.

    PubMed

    Uzunovic, Slavoljub; Kostic, Radmila; Zivkovic, Dobrica

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of two different programs of modern sports dancing on coordination, strength, and speed in 60 beginner-level female dancers, aged 13 and 14 yrs. The subjects were divided into two experimental groups (E1 and E2), each numbering 30 subjects, drawn from local dance clubs. In order to determine motor coordination, strength, and speed, we used 15 measurements. The groups were tested before and after the experimental programs. Both experimental programs lasted for 18 wks, with training sessions twice a week for 60 minutes. The subjects from the E1 group trained according to a new experimental program of disco dance (DD) modern sports dance, and the E2 group trained according to the classic DD program of the same kind for beginner selections. The obtained results were assessed by statistical analysis: a paired-samples t-test and MANCOVA/ANCOVA. The results indicated that following the experimental programs, both groups showed a statistically significant improvement in the evaluated skills, but the changes among the E1 group subjects were more pronounced. The basic assumption of this research was confirmed, that the new experimental DD program has a significant influence on coordination, strength, and speed. In relation to these changes, the application of the new DD program was recommended for beginner dancers. PMID:21120267

  8. Effects of two different programs of modern sports dancing on motor coordination, strength, and speed.

    PubMed

    Uzunovic, Slavoljub; Kostic, Radmila; Zivkovic, Dobrica

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of two different programs of modern sports dancing on coordination, strength, and speed in 60 beginner-level female dancers, aged 13 and 14 yrs. The subjects were divided into two experimental groups (E1 and E2), each numbering 30 subjects, drawn from local dance clubs. In order to determine motor coordination, strength, and speed, we used 15 measurements. The groups were tested before and after the experimental programs. Both experimental programs lasted for 18 wks, with training sessions twice a week for 60 minutes. The subjects from the E1 group trained according to a new experimental program of disco dance (DD) modern sports dance, and the E2 group trained according to the classic DD program of the same kind for beginner selections. The obtained results were assessed by statistical analysis: a paired-samples t-test and MANCOVA/ANCOVA. The results indicated that following the experimental programs, both groups showed a statistically significant improvement in the evaluated skills, but the changes among the E1 group subjects were more pronounced. The basic assumption of this research was confirmed, that the new experimental DD program has a significant influence on coordination, strength, and speed. In relation to these changes, the application of the new DD program was recommended for beginner dancers.

  9. Development of motor coordination and cerebellar structure in male and female rat neonates exposed to hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Baxter, M. G.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that the developing rat cerebellum is affected by exposure to hypergravity. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that the changes in cerebellar structure in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates may affect their motor coordination. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravitational loading. To test this hypothesis, we compared motor behavior, cerebellar structure, and protein expression in rat neonates exposed to 1.5 1.75G on a 24-ft centrifuge daily for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10, through birth on G22/G23 and through postnatal day (P) 21. Exposure to hypergravity impacted the neurodevelopmental process as indicated by: (1) impaired righting response on P3, more than doubling the righting time at 1.75G, and (2) delayed onset of the startle response by one day, from P9 in controls to P10 in hypergravity-exposed pups. Hypergravity exposure resulted in impaired motor functions as evidenced by performance on a rotarod on P21; the duration of the stay on the rotarod recorded for 1.75G pups of both sexes was one tenth that of the stationary control (SC) pups. These changes in motor behavior were associated with cerebellar changes: (1) cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased by 7.5% in 1.5G-exposed male pups, 27.5% in 1.75G-exposed male pups, 17.5% in 1.5G-exposed female pups, and 22.5% in 1.75G female pups and (2) changes in the expression of glial and neuronal proteins. The results of this study suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development as evidenced by decreased cerebellar mass and altered cerebellar protein expression; cerebellar changes observed in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates are associated with impaired motor behavior. Furthermore, the response to hypergravity appears to be different in male and female neonates. If one accepts that the hypergravity paradigm is a useful animal model with which to predict those biological processes

  10. The spinning task: a new protocol to easily assess motor coordination and resistance in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Blazina, Ana R; Vianna, Mônica R; Lara, Diogo R

    2013-12-01

    The increasing use of adult zebrafish in behavioral studies has created the need for new and improved protocols. Our investigation sought to evaluate the swimming behavior of zebrafish against a water current using the newly developed Spinning Task. Zebrafish were individually placed in a beaker containing a spinning magnetic stirrer and their latency to be swept into the whirlpool was recorded. We characterized that larger fish (>4 cm) and lower rpm decreased the swimming time in the Spinning Task. There was also a dose-related reduction in swimming after acute treatment with haloperidol, valproic acid, clonazepam, and ethanol, which alter coordination. Importantly, at doses that reduced swimming time in the Spinning Task, these drugs influenced absolute turn angle (ethanol increased and the other drugs decreased), but had no effect of distance travelled in a regular water tank. These results suggest that the Spinning Task is a useful protocol to add information to the assessment of zebrafish motor behavior. PMID:24044654

  11. The resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 boosts motor coordination and physical strength

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hea-Jong; Sharma, Satya Priya; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Baek, So-Hyeon; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of current genetic modifications in crops is to boost agricultural production or to develop GM crops with an improved nutrient profile by introducing a new trait to the plants. A GM crop surpassing the ability of the introduced genetic characteristics has not been developed yet. Here, we show that the resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526, a GM crop, has unexpectedly high beneficial health effects surpassing the introduced genetic characteristic of resveratrol synthetic ability. The synergistic effect of its innate and transgenic properties not only ameliorates age-related deterioration but also boosts motor coordination and physical strength during the aging process. The gene expression profiling analyses by DNA chip showed that the gene expression pattern of mice fed resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 was very different from mice fed either resveratrol or Dongjin rice alone, respectively, modifying expression of genes related to aging regulation, cell differentiation, extracellular matrix, neurogenesis, or secretion. PMID:27044601

  12. The resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 boosts motor coordination and physical strength.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hea-Jong; Sharma, Satya Priya; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Baek, So-Hyeon; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of current genetic modifications in crops is to boost agricultural production or to develop GM crops with an improved nutrient profile by introducing a new trait to the plants. A GM crop surpassing the ability of the introduced genetic characteristics has not been developed yet. Here, we show that the resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526, a GM crop, has unexpectedly high beneficial health effects surpassing the introduced genetic characteristic of resveratrol synthetic ability. The synergistic effect of its innate and transgenic properties not only ameliorates age-related deterioration but also boosts motor coordination and physical strength during the aging process. The gene expression profiling analyses by DNA chip showed that the gene expression pattern of mice fed resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 was very different from mice fed either resveratrol or Dongjin rice alone, respectively, modifying expression of genes related to aging regulation, cell differentiation, extracellular matrix, neurogenesis, or secretion. PMID:27044601

  13. A new neural net approach to robot 3D perception and visuo-motor coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan

    1992-01-01

    A novel neural network approach to robot hand-eye coordination is presented. The approach provides a true sense of visual error servoing, redundant arm configuration control for collision avoidance, and invariant visuo-motor learning under gazing control. A 3-D perception network is introduced to represent the robot internal 3-D metric space in which visual error servoing and arm configuration control are performed. The arm kinematic network performs the bidirectional association between 3-D space arm configurations and joint angles, and enforces the legitimate arm configurations. The arm kinematic net is structured by a radial-based competitive and cooperative network with hierarchical self-organizing learning. The main goal of the present work is to demonstrate that the neural net representation of the robot 3-D perception net serves as an important intermediate functional block connecting robot eyes and arms.

  14. Mechanical coordination in motor ensembles revealed using engineered artificial myosin filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariadi, R. F.; Sommese, R. F.; Adhikari, A. S.; Taylor, R. E.; Sutton, S.; Spudich, J. A.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.

    2015-08-01

    The sarcomere of muscle is composed of tens of thousands of myosin motors that self-assemble into thick filaments and interact with surrounding actin-based thin filaments in a dense, near-crystalline hexagonal lattice. Together, these actin-myosin interactions enable large-scale movement and force generation, two primary attributes of muscle. Research on isolated fibres has provided considerable insight into the collective properties of muscle, but how actin-myosin interactions are coordinated in an ensemble remains poorly understood. Here, we show that artificial myosin filaments, engineered using a DNA nanotube scaffold, provide precise control over motor number, type and spacing. Using both dimeric myosin V- and myosin VI-labelled nanotubes, we find that neither myosin density nor spacing has a significant effect on the gliding speed of actin filaments. This observation supports a simple model of myosin ensembles as energy reservoirs that buffer individual stochastic events to bring about smooth, continuous motion. Furthermore, gliding speed increases with cross-bridge compliance, but is limited by Brownian effects. As a first step to reconstituting muscle motility, we demonstrate human β-cardiac myosin-driven gliding of actin filaments on DNA nanotubes.

  15. Bilateral coordination and the motor basis of female preference for sexual signals in canary song.

    PubMed

    Suthers, Roderick A; Vallet, Eric; Kreutzer, Michel

    2012-09-01

    The preference of female songbirds for particular traits in the songs of courting males has received considerable attention, but the relationship of preferred traits to male quality is poorly understood. Female domestic canaries (Serinus canaria, Linnaeus) preferentially solicit copulation with males that sing special high repetition rate, wide-band, multi-note syllables, called 'sexy' or A-syllables. Syllables are separated by minibreaths but each note is produced by pulsatile expiration, allowing high repetition rates and long duration phrases. The wide bandwidth is achieved by including two notes produced sequentially on opposite sides of the syrinx, in which the left and right sides are specialized for low or high frequencies, respectively. The emphasis of low frequencies is facilitated by a positive relationship between syllable repetition rate and the bandwidth of the fundamental frequency of notes sung by the left syrinx, such that bandwidth increases with increasing syllable repetition rate. The temporal offset between notes prevents cheating by unilaterally singing a note on the left side with a low fundamental frequency and prominent higher harmonics. The syringeal and respiratory motor patterns by which sexy syllables are produced support the hypothesis that these syllables provide a sensitive vocal-auditory indicator of a male's performance limit for the rapid, precisely coordinated interhemispheric switching, which is essential for many sensory and motor processes involving specialized contributions from each cerebral hemisphere.

  16. Bilateral coordination and the motor basis of female preference for sexual signals in canary song.

    PubMed

    Suthers, Roderick A; Vallet, Eric; Kreutzer, Michel

    2012-09-01

    The preference of female songbirds for particular traits in the songs of courting males has received considerable attention, but the relationship of preferred traits to male quality is poorly understood. Female domestic canaries (Serinus canaria, Linnaeus) preferentially solicit copulation with males that sing special high repetition rate, wide-band, multi-note syllables, called 'sexy' or A-syllables. Syllables are separated by minibreaths but each note is produced by pulsatile expiration, allowing high repetition rates and long duration phrases. The wide bandwidth is achieved by including two notes produced sequentially on opposite sides of the syrinx, in which the left and right sides are specialized for low or high frequencies, respectively. The emphasis of low frequencies is facilitated by a positive relationship between syllable repetition rate and the bandwidth of the fundamental frequency of notes sung by the left syrinx, such that bandwidth increases with increasing syllable repetition rate. The temporal offset between notes prevents cheating by unilaterally singing a note on the left side with a low fundamental frequency and prominent higher harmonics. The syringeal and respiratory motor patterns by which sexy syllables are produced support the hypothesis that these syllables provide a sensitive vocal-auditory indicator of a male's performance limit for the rapid, precisely coordinated interhemispheric switching, which is essential for many sensory and motor processes involving specialized contributions from each cerebral hemisphere. PMID:22875764

  17. Mechanical coordination in motor ensembles revealed using engineered artificial myosin filaments.

    PubMed

    Hariadi, R F; Sommese, R F; Adhikari, A S; Taylor, R E; Sutton, S; Spudich, J A; Sivaramakrishnan, S

    2015-08-01

    The sarcomere of muscle is composed of tens of thousands of myosin motors that self-assemble into thick filaments and interact with surrounding actin-based thin filaments in a dense, near-crystalline hexagonal lattice. Together, these actin-myosin interactions enable large-scale movement and force generation, two primary attributes of muscle. Research on isolated fibres has provided considerable insight into the collective properties of muscle, but how actin-myosin interactions are coordinated in an ensemble remains poorly understood. Here, we show that artificial myosin filaments, engineered using a DNA nanotube scaffold, provide precise control over motor number, type and spacing. Using both dimeric myosin V- and myosin VI-labelled nanotubes, we find that neither myosin density nor spacing has a significant effect on the gliding speed of actin filaments. This observation supports a simple model of myosin ensembles as energy reservoirs that buffer individual stochastic events to bring about smooth, continuous motion. Furthermore, gliding speed increases with cross-bridge compliance, but is limited by Brownian effects. As a first step to reconstituting muscle motility, we demonstrate human β-cardiac myosin-driven gliding of actin filaments on DNA nanotubes. PMID:26149240

  18. Sensory-motor deficits in children with developmental coordination disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Piek, Jan P; Dyck, Murray J

    2004-10-01

    Children who have been diagnosed with any one developmental disorder are very likely to meet diagnostic criteria for some other developmental disorder. Although comorbidity has long been acknowledged in childhood disorders, little is understood about the mechanisms that are responsible for the high level of comorbidity. In a series of studies, we have investigated the link between sensory-motor deficits and developmental disorders. Poor sensory-motor integration has long been implicated as a cause of motor problems in developmental disorders such as developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and our recent research has also investigated sensory-motor deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic disorder. Based on a critical examination of relevant literature and some of our recent research findings, we argue that the importance of poor sensory-motor functioning in discriminating children with different disorders has been underestimated. Poor sensory-motor coordination appears to be linked to DCD, but not ADHD. Also, sensory-motor deficits in children with DCD and autistic disorder may provide insight into some of the social difficulties found in these groups of children. This research will increase our understanding of why children with one developmental disorder typically also have problems in other areas.

  19. Motor and non-motor error and the influence of error magnitude on brain activity.

    PubMed

    Nadig, Karin Graziella; Jäncke, Lutz; Lüchinger, Roger; Lutz, Kai

    2010-04-01

    It has been shown that frontal cortical areas increase their activity during error perception and error processing. However, it is not yet clear whether perception of motor errors is processed in the same frontal areas as perception of errors in cognitive tasks. It is also unclear whether brain activity level is influenced by the magnitude of error. For this purpose, we conducted a study in which subjects were confronted with motor and non-motor errors, and had them perform a sensorimotor transformation task in which they were likely to commit motor errors of different magnitudes (internal errors). In addition to the internally committed motor errors, non-motor errors (external errors) were added to the feedback in some trials. We found that activity in the anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), cerebellum, precuneus, and posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) correlated positively with the magnitude of external errors. The middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and the pMFC cortex correlated positively with the magnitude of the total error fed back to subjects (internal plus external). No significant positive correlation between internal error and brain activity could be detected. These results indicate that motor errors have a differential effect on brain activity compared with non-motor errors.

  20. Binocular Perception of 2D Lateral Motion and Guidance of Coordinated Motor Behavior.

    PubMed

    Fath, Aaron J; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2016-04-01

    Zannoli, Cass, Alais, and Mamassian (2012) found greater audiovisual lag between a tone and disparity-defined stimuli moving laterally (90-170 ms) than for disparity-defined stimuli moving in depth or luminance-defined stimuli moving laterally or in depth (50-60 ms). We tested if this increased lag presents an impediment to visually guided coordination with laterally moving objects. Participants used a joystick to move a virtual object in several constant relative phases with a laterally oscillating stimulus. Both the participant-controlled object and the target object were presented using a disparity-defined display that yielded information through changes in disparity over time (CDOT) or using a luminance-defined display that additionally provided information through monocular motion and interocular velocity differences (IOVD). Performance was comparable for both disparity-defined and luminance-defined displays in all relative phases. This suggests that, despite lag, perception of lateral motion through CDOT is generally sufficient to guide coordinated motor behavior.

  1. Motor activity of pregnant tethered sows.

    PubMed

    Cariolet, R; Dantzer, R

    1984-01-01

    Continuous recording of body postures (standing or lying) using photocells connected to an event recorder was carried out on 125 pregnant sows tethered either by a thoracic girth or by a neck harness in six different farms, at different times of the year. Standing activity occupied an average of 250 min per day. This position occurred mainly during daytime, with amount of standing during the night (10 p.m. to 6 p.m.) averaging less than 2% of the total time. This mean value was found in 4 farms out of 6. However, on one farm, standing postures lasted 390 min and this hyperactivity was associated with stereotypes. In another farm, time spent standing did not exceed 180 min. In all cases, multiparous sows spent about 60% more time standing than first or second litter sows. Time spent standing was dependent on other animal characteristics such as physical condition and foot condition, and also on environmental factors. Activity rhythms were synchronized by food distribution. These results are discussed together with the potential of using motor activity to characterize adaptability of sows to tethering.

  2. Hypocretinergic neurons are activated in conjunction with goal-oriented survival-related motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Ramos, Oscar V; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2011-10-24

    Hypocretinergic neurons are located in the area of the lateral hypothalamus which is responsible for mediating goal-directed, survival-related behaviors. Consequently, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system functions to promote these behaviors including those patterns of somatomotor activation upon which they are based. Further, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system is not involved with repetitive motor activities unless they occur in conjunction with the goal-oriented behaviors that are governed by the lateral hypothalamus. In order to determine the veracity of these hypotheses, we examined Fos immunoreactivity (as a marker of neuronal activity) in hypocretinergic neurons in the cat during: a) Exploratory Motor Activity; b) Locomotion without Reward; c) Locomotion with Reward; and d) Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Significantly greater numbers of hypocretinergic neurons expressed c-fos when the animals were exploring an unknown environment during Exploratory Motor Activity compared with all other paradigms. In addition, a larger number of Hcrt+Fos+neurons were activated during Locomotion with Reward than during Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Finally, very few hypocretinergic neurons were activated during Locomotion without Reward and Wakefulness without Motor Activity, wherein there was an absence of goal-directed activities. We conclude that the hypocretinergic system does not promote wakefulness per se or motor activity per se but is responsible for mediating specific goal-oriented behaviors that take place during wakefulness. Accordingly, we suggest that the hypocretinergic system is responsible for controlling the somatomotor system and coordinating its activity with other systems in order to produce successful goal-oriented survival-related behaviors that are controlled by the lateral hypothalamus. PMID:21839102

  3. Hypocretinergic neurons are activated in conjunction with goal-oriented survival-related motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Ramos, Oscar V; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2011-10-24

    Hypocretinergic neurons are located in the area of the lateral hypothalamus which is responsible for mediating goal-directed, survival-related behaviors. Consequently, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system functions to promote these behaviors including those patterns of somatomotor activation upon which they are based. Further, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system is not involved with repetitive motor activities unless they occur in conjunction with the goal-oriented behaviors that are governed by the lateral hypothalamus. In order to determine the veracity of these hypotheses, we examined Fos immunoreactivity (as a marker of neuronal activity) in hypocretinergic neurons in the cat during: a) Exploratory Motor Activity; b) Locomotion without Reward; c) Locomotion with Reward; and d) Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Significantly greater numbers of hypocretinergic neurons expressed c-fos when the animals were exploring an unknown environment during Exploratory Motor Activity compared with all other paradigms. In addition, a larger number of Hcrt+Fos+neurons were activated during Locomotion with Reward than during Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Finally, very few hypocretinergic neurons were activated during Locomotion without Reward and Wakefulness without Motor Activity, wherein there was an absence of goal-directed activities. We conclude that the hypocretinergic system does not promote wakefulness per se or motor activity per se but is responsible for mediating specific goal-oriented behaviors that take place during wakefulness. Accordingly, we suggest that the hypocretinergic system is responsible for controlling the somatomotor system and coordinating its activity with other systems in order to produce successful goal-oriented survival-related behaviors that are controlled by the lateral hypothalamus.

  4. Physical activity and motor decline in older persons.

    PubMed

    Buchman, A S; Boyle, P A; Wilson, R S; Bienias, Julia L; Bennett, D A

    2007-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that physical activity modifies the course of age-related motor decline. More than 850 older participants of the Rush Memory and Aging Project underwent baseline assessment of physical activity and annual motor testing for up to 8 years. Nine strength measures and nine motor performance measures were summarized into composite measures of motor function. In generalized estimating equation models, global motor function declined during follow-up (estimate, -0.072; SE, 0.008; P < 0.001). Each additional hour of physical activity at baseline was associated with about a 5% decrease in the rate of global motor function decline (estimate, 0.004; SE, 0.001; P = 0.007). Secondary analyses suggested that the association of physical activity with motor decline was mostly due to the effect of physical activity on the rate of motor performance decline. Thus, higher levels of physical activity are associated with a slower rate of motor decline in older persons.

  5. 34 CFR 75.580 - Coordination with other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination with other activities. 75.580 Section 75.580 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.580 Coordination with other activities. A...

  6. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation.

    PubMed

    Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Pekanovic, Ana; Atiemo, Clement Osei; Marshall, John; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA), leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC) activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease.

  7. High dosage of monosodium glutamate causes deficits of the motor coordination and the number of cerebellar Purkinje cells of rats.

    PubMed

    Prastiwi, D; Djunaidi, A; Partadiredja, G

    2015-11-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been widely used throughout the world as a flavoring agent of food. However, MSG at certain dosages is also thought to cause damage to many organs, including cerebellum. This study aimed at investigating the effects of different doses of MSG on the motor coordination and the number of Purkinje cells of the cerebellum of Wistar rats. A total of 24 male rats aged 4 to 5 weeks were divided into four groups, namely, control (C), T2.5, T3, and T3.5 groups, which received intraperitoneal injection of 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 2.5 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG, 3.0 mg/g bw of MSG, and 3.5 mg/g bw of MSG, respectively, for 10 consecutive days. The motor coordination of the rats was examined prior and subsequent to the treatment. The number of cerebellar Purkinje cells was estimated using physical fractionator method. It has been found that the administration of MSG at a dosage of 3.5 mg/g bw, but not at lower dosages, caused a significant decrease of motor coordination and the estimated total number of Purkinje cells of rats. There was also a significant correlation between motor coordination and the total number of Purkinje cells.

  8. Overlapping Phenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-Syndrome Comparison of Motor and Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Emma; Leonard, Hayley C.; Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Motor and social difficulties are often found in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), to varying degrees. This study investigated the extent of overlap of these problems in children aged 7-10 years who had a diagnosis of either ASD or DCD, compared to typically-developing controls.…

  9. Framework for coordination of activities in dynamic situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Jörn; Charoy, François; El Khoury, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Recent disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005, have shown several issues for the coordination of human activities in these dynamic situations. Contemporary tools for the coordination used in the disaster response, such as e-mail, Whiteboards or phones, only allow for unstructured coordination, which can cause coordination problems. Hence, we discuss about the current information systems for coordinating the activities in a structured manner and identify their weaknesses in the context of a process modelling effort conducted together with experienced disaster managers. Afterwards, we propose a framework for coordination of activities in dynamic situations. The framework presented in this paper has been implemented as an extension to an open collaboration service. This shows how it can be used in the context of other tools required for disaster response management, such as maps, pictures or videos of the situation. The work described here is the foundation for enabling inter-organisational coordination of activities relevant in other domains, e.g. enterprise support processes, production processes or distributed software development projects. Furthermore, comments by disaster managers show that the concepts are relevant for their work. The expected impact is a more effective and efficient coordination of human activities in dynamic situations by structuring what needs to be coordinated.

  10. 20 CFR 631.37 - Coordination activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Services under this part shall be integrated or coordinated with services and payments made available under...) and the unemployment compensation system consistent with the limitation on administrative expenses... compensation system and worker readjustment programs (section 314(f)). (c) Services under this part shall...

  11. Multiplayer Activities That Develop Mathematical Coordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Lauren J.; Tanimoto, Steven L.; Rothenberg, Alex I.; Hutama, Danny C.; Wong, Tina H.

    Four computer applications are presented that encourage students to develop "mathematical coordination"--the ability to manipulate numerical variables in cooperation with other students so as to achieve a definite goal. The programs enable a form of computer-supported cooperative learning (CSCL). This paper describes the rationale and design of…

  12. Spatial memory deficits and motor coordination facilitation in cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wincott, Charlotte M; Kim, Seonil; Titcombe, Roseann F; Tukey, David S; Girma, Hiwot K; Pick, Joseph E; Devito, Loren M; Hofmann, Franz; Hoeffer, Charles; Ziff, Edward B

    2013-01-01

    Activity-dependent trafficking of AMPA receptors to synapses regulates synaptic strength. Activation of the NMDA receptor induces several second messenger pathways that contribute to receptor trafficking-dependent plasticity, including the NO pathway, which elevates cGMP. In turn, cGMP activates the cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII), which phosphorylates the AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 at serine 845, a critical step facilitating synaptic delivery in the mechanism of activity-dependent synaptic potentiation. Since cGKII is expressed in the striatum, amygdala, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus, it has been proposed that mice lacking cGKII may present phenotypic differences compared to their wild-type littermates in emotion-dependent tasks, learning and memory, and drug reward salience. Previous studies have shown that cGKII KO mice ingest higher amounts of ethanol as well as exhibit elevated anxiety levels compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. Here, we show that cGKII KO mice are significantly deficient in spatial learning while exhibiting facilitated motor coordination, demonstrating a clear dependence of memory-based tasks on cGKII. We also show diminished GluA1 phosphorylation in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of cGKII KO prefrontal cortex while in hippocampal PSD fractions, phosphorylation was not significantly altered. These data suggest that the role of cGKII may be more robust in particular brain regions, thereby impacting complex behaviors dependent on these regions differently.

  13. Altered cortico-basal ganglia motor pathways reflect reduced volitional motor activity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bracht, Tobias; Schnell, Susanne; Federspiel, Andrea; Razavi, Nadja; Horn, Helge; Strik, Werner; Wiest, Roland; Dierks, Thomas; Müller, Thomas J; Walther, Sebastian

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the neurobiology of hypokinesia in schizophrenia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate alterations of white matter motor pathways in schizophrenia and to relate our findings to objectively measured motor activity. We examined 21 schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging and actigraphy. We applied a probabilistic fibre tracking approach to investigate pathways connecting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), the supplementary motor area proper (SMA-proper), the primary motor cortex (M1), the caudate nucleus, the striatum, the pallidum and the thalamus. Schizophrenia patients had lower activity levels than controls. In schizophrenia we found higher probability indices forming part of a bundle of interest (PIBI) in pathways connecting rACC, pre-SMA and SMA-proper as well as in pathways connecting M1 and pre-SMA with caudate nucleus, putamen, pallidum and thalamus and a reduced spatial extension of motor pathways in schizophrenia. There was a positive correlation between PIBI and activity level in the right pre-SMA-pallidum and the left M1-thalamus connection in healthy controls, and in the left pre-SMA-SMA-proper pathway in schizophrenia. Our results point to reduced volitional motor activity and altered motor pathway organisation in schizophrenia. The identified associations between the amount of movement and structural connectivity of motor pathways suggest dysfunction of cortico-basal ganglia pathways in the pathophysiology of hypokinesia in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients may use cortical pathways involving the supplementary motor area to compensate for basal ganglia dysfunction.

  14. Reduced motor cortex activity during movement preparation following a period of motor skill practice.

    PubMed

    Wright, David J; Holmes, Paul; Di Russo, Francesco; Loporto, Michela; Smith, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Experts in a skill produce movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) of smaller amplitude and later onset than novices. This may indicate that, following long-term training, experts require less effort to plan motor skill performance. However, no longitudinal evidence exists to support this claim. To address this, EEG was used to study the effect of motor skill training on cortical activity related to motor planning. Ten non-musicians took part in a 5-week training study learning to play guitar. At week 1, the MRCP was recorded from motor areas whilst participants played the G Major scale. Following a period of practice of the scale, the MRCP was recorded again at week 5. Results showed that the amplitude of the later pre-movement components were smaller at week 5 compared to week 1. This may indicate that, following training, less activity at motor cortex sites is involved in motor skill preparation. This supports claims for a more efficient motor preparation following motor skill training. PMID:23251647

  15. Motor imagery of hand actions: Decoding the content of motor imagery from brain activity in frontal and parietal motor areas.

    PubMed

    Pilgramm, Sebastian; de Haas, Benjamin; Helm, Fabian; Zentgraf, Karen; Stark, Rudolf; Munzert, Jörn; Krüger, Britta

    2016-01-01

    How motor maps are organized while imagining actions is an intensely debated issue. It is particularly unclear whether motor imagery relies on action-specific representations in premotor and posterior parietal cortices. This study tackled this issue by attempting to decode the content of motor imagery from spatial patterns of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signals recorded in the frontoparietal motor imagery network. During fMRI-scanning, 20 right-handed volunteers worked on three experimental conditions and one baseline condition. In the experimental conditions, they had to imagine three different types of right-hand actions: an aiming movement, an extension-flexion movement, and a squeezing movement. The identity of imagined actions was decoded from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals they evoked in premotor and posterior parietal cortices using multivoxel pattern analysis. Results showed that the content of motor imagery (i.e., the action type) could be decoded significantly above chance level from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals in both frontal (PMC, M1) and parietal areas (SPL, IPL, IPS). An exploratory searchlight analysis revealed significant clusters motor- and motor-associated cortices, as well as in visual cortices. Hence, the data provide evidence that patterns of activity within premotor and posterior parietal cortex vary systematically with the specific type of hand action being imagined. PMID:26452176

  16. Keep your head on straight: facilitating sensori-motor transformations for eye-hand coordination.

    PubMed

    Tagliabue, M; Arnoux, L; McIntyre, J

    2013-09-17

    In many day-to-day situations humans manifest a marked tendency to hold the head vertical while performing sensori-motor actions. For instance, when performing coordinated whole-body motor tasks, such as skiing, gymnastics or simply walking, and even when driving a car, human subjects will strive to keep the head aligned with the gravito-inertial vector. Until now, this phenomenon has been thought of as a means to limit variations of sensory signals emanating from the eyes and inner ears. Recent theories suggest that for the task of aligning the hand to a target, the CNS compares target and hand concurrently in both visual and kinesthetic domains, rather than combining sensory data into a single, multimodal reference frame. This implies that when sensory information is lacking in one modality, it must be 'reconstructed' based on information from the other. Here we asked subjects to reach to a visual target with the unseen hand. In this situation, the CNS might reconstruct the orientation of the target in kinesthetic space or reconstruct the orientation of the hand in visual space, or both. By having subjects tilt the head during target acquisition or during movement execution, we show a greater propensity to perform the sensory reconstruction that can be achieved when the head is held upright. These results suggest that the reason humans tend to keep their head upright may also have to do with how the brain manipulates and stores spatial information between reference frames and between sensory modalities, rather than only being tied to the specific problem of stabilizing visual and vestibular inputs.

  17. A structural pathway for activation of the kinesin motor ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Mikyung; Zhang, Xiaohua; Park, Cheon-Gil; Park, Hee-Won; Endow, Sharyn A.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular motors move along actin or microtubules by rapidly hydrolyzing ATP and undergoing changes in filament-binding affinity with steps of the nucleotide hydrolysis cycle. It is generally accepted that motor binding to its filament greatly increases the rate of ATP hydrolysis, but the structural changes in the motor associated with ATPase activation are not known. To identify the conformational changes underlying motor movement on its filament, we solved the crystal structures of three kinesin mutants that decouple nucleotide and microtubule binding by the motor, and block microtubule-activated, but not basal, ATPase activity. Conformational changes in the structures include a disordered loop and helices in the switch I region and a visible switch II loop, which is disordered in wild-type structures. Switch I moved closer to the bound nucleotide in two mutant structures, perturbing water-mediated interactions with the Mg2+. This could weaken Mg2+ binding and accelerate ADP release to activate the motor ATPase. The structural changes we observe define a signaling pathway within the motor for ATPase activation that is likely to be essential for motor movement on microtubules. PMID:11387196

  18. Neuromodulation of parietal and motor activity affects motor planning and execution.

    PubMed

    Convento, Silvia; Bolognini, Nadia; Fusaro, Martina; Lollo, Federica; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool, which effectively modulates behavior, and related brain activity. When applied to the primary motor cortex (M1), tDCS affects motor function, enhancing or decreasing performance of both healthy participants and brain-damaged patients. Beyond M1, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is also crucially involved in controlling and guiding movement. Therefore, we explored whether the modulation of cortical excitability within PPC can also affect hand motor function in healthy right-handed participants. In Experiment 1, anodal tDCS (2 mA, 10 min) was applied to PPC and to M1 of both hemispheres. Skilled motor function of the non-dominant left hand, measured using the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTT), improved after anodal tDCS of the right, contralateral M1, as well as after the anodal stimulation of the left, ipsilateral PPC. Conversely, in Experiment 2, cathodal tDCS of the left PPC, or of the right M1, reduced motor performance of the left hand. Finally, Experiment 3 shows that the anodal tDCS of the left PPC selectively facilitated action planning, while the anodal tDCS of the right M1 modulated action execution only. This evidence shows that motor improvement induced by left parietal and right motor stimulations relies on substantial different mechanisms, opening up novel perspectives in the neurorehabilitation of stroke patients with motor and apraxic disorders.

  19. 34 CFR 76.580 - Coordination with other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination with other activities. 76.580 Section 76.580 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Indirect Cost Rates § 76.580 Coordination with...

  20. Meta-Coordination Activities: Exploring Articulation Work in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of distributed activities is central to organizational work. The effective functioning of organizations hinges on their ability to manage interdependencies both within (intra-) and between (inter-) various departments. However, more than just the management of these individual dependencies is required for smooth coordination in…

  1. The origin of word-related motor activity.

    PubMed

    Papeo, Liuba; Lingnau, Angelika; Agosta, Sara; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Battelli, Lorella; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2015-06-01

    Conceptual processing of verbs consistently recruits the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (lpMTG). The left precentral motor cortex also responds to verbs, with higher activity for action than nonaction verbs. The early timing of this effect has suggested that motor features of words' meaning are accessed directly, bypassing access to conceptual representations in lpMTG. An alternative hypothesis is that the retrieval of conceptual representations in lpMTG is necessary to drive more specific, motor-related representations in the precentral gyrus. To test these hypotheses, we first showed that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the verb-preferring lpMTG site selectively impoverished the semantic processing of verbs. In a second experiment, rTMS perturbation of lpMTG, relative to no stimulation (no-rTMS), eliminated the action-nonaction verb distinction in motor activity, as indexed by motor-evoked potentials induced in peripheral muscles with single-pulse TMS over the left primary motor cortex. rTMS pertubation of an occipital control site, relative to no-rTMS, did not affect the action-nonaction verb distinction in motor activity, but the verb contrast did not differ reliably from the lpMTG effect. The results show that lpMTG carries core semantic information necessary to drive the activation of specific (motor) features in the precentral gyrus.

  2. [Disruption of acquired head and paw movement coordination after unilateral lesioning of the motor cortex in dogs (a kinematic analysis)].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, O G; Mats, V N

    2001-01-01

    Dogs were trained to remove a cup with meat to the head bent down to the feeder and hold the limb flexed during eating. At the early stage of learning, the stable innate head-forelimb coordination characteristic for untrained animals was manifest. The forelimb flexion was accompanied by anticipatory lifting of the bent head, and the following bending of the head led to an extension of the flexed forelimb. The opposite coordination, i.e., the lifting and holding of the forelimb when the head is bent down, was achieved only by training. The lesion of the motor cortex contralateral to the working forelimb in the trained dogs led to a prolonged disturbance of the simultaneous holding of the flexed forelimb and the head bent down. The lesion of the motor cortex did not affect the individual movements but disturbed their coordination. In the operated dogs the innate relationships between the head and forelimb movement recovered. The results support the previous finding that the lesion of the motor cortex led to recovery of the innate coordination transformed in the process of learning.

  3. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Rymer, William Z

    2016-03-21

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy.

  4. Motor skill learning requires active central myelination.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Ian A; Ohayon, David; Li, Huiliang; de Faria, Joana Paes; Emery, Ben; Tohyama, Koujiro; Richardson, William D

    2014-10-17

    Myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (OLs) are formed continuously in the healthy adult brain. In this work, we study the function of these late-forming cells and the myelin they produce. Learning a new motor skill (such as juggling) alters the structure of the brain's white matter, which contains many OLs, suggesting that late-born OLs might contribute to motor learning. Consistent with this idea, we show that production of newly formed OLs is briefly accelerated in mice that learn a new skill (running on a "complex wheel" with irregularly spaced rungs). By genetically manipulating the transcription factor myelin regulatory factor in OL precursors, we blocked production of new OLs during adulthood without affecting preexisting OLs or myelin. This prevented the mice from mastering the complex wheel. Thus, generation of new OLs and myelin is important for learning motor skills. PMID:25324381

  5. Neural Underpinnings of Impaired Predictive Motor Timing in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debrabant, Julie; Gheysen, Freja; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2013-01-01

    A dysfunction in predictive motor timing is put forward to underlie DCD-related motor problems. Predictive timing allows for the pre-selection of motor programmes (except "program" in computers) in order to decrease processing load and facilitate reactions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the neural…

  6. Learning to associate novel words with motor actions: language-induced motor activity following short training.

    PubMed

    Fargier, Raphaël; Paulignan, Yves; Boulenger, Véronique; Monaghan, Padraic; Reboul, Anne; Nazir, Tatjana A

    2012-07-01

    Action words referring to face, arm or leg actions activate areas along the motor strip that also control the planning and execution of the actions specified by the words. This electroencephalogram (EEG) study aimed to test the learning profile of this language-induced motor activity. Participants were trained to associate novel verbal stimuli to videos of object-oriented hand and arm movements or animated visual images on two consecutive days. Each training session was preceded and followed by a test-session with isolated videos and verbal stimuli. We measured motor-related brain activity (reflected by a desynchronization in the μ frequency bands; 8-12 Hz range) localized at centro-parietal and fronto-central electrodes. We compared activity from viewing the videos to activity resulting from processing the language stimuli only. At centro-parietal electrodes, stable action-related μ suppression was observed during viewing of videos in each test-session of the two days. For processing of verbal stimuli associated with motor actions, a similar pattern of activity was evident only in the second test-session of Day 1. Over the fronto-central regions, μ suppression was observed in the second test-session of Day 2 for the videos and in the second test-session of Day 1 for the verbal stimuli. Whereas the centro-parietal μ suppression can be attributed to motor events actually experienced during training, the fronto-central μ suppression seems to serve as a convergence zone that mediates underspecified motor information. Consequently, sensory-motor reactivations through which concepts are comprehended seem to differ in neural dynamics from those implicated in their acquisition.

  7. Sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder Subjects and methods 37 cases with developmental coordination disorder and 35 healthy age-matched peers were included in this study. Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test was used for evaluating the sensory integration and Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM) was used for evaluating the activities of daily living. Results Significant differences were found in the visual shape perception, position in space, and design copying (p < 0.05). According to the results of somatosensory perception tests, significant differences were found in kinesthesia, manual form perception, finger identification, figure-ground perception, localization of tactile stimuli, double tactile stimuli perception (p < 0.05). Control group was better in motor planning (p < 0.05). Comprehension, expression, social communication, problem solving, and memory skills were significant in favor of the control group (p < 0.05). Graphestesia and self-care domain was found to be correlated (r = 0,491, p = 0.002) between the groups. Discussion Special education and rehabilitation programs including sensory integration therapy and motor performance will increase independence in the activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder. PMID:22546072

  8. Antibacterial activity of silver camphorimine coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, João M S; Galvão, Adelino M; Guerreiro, Soraia I; Leitão, Jorge H; Suarez, Ana C; Carvalho, M Fernanda N N

    2016-04-28

    Five new silver camphorimine complexes of general formula [Ag(NO3)(Y)L] were synthesized and fully characterized using spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The structure of [Ag(NO3)(OC10H14NC6H4NC10H14O)] () was analyzed using single crystal X-ray diffraction, showing that it arranges as a coordination polymer formed by sequential Ag(NO3) units bridged by the bi-camphor ligand (). The antimicrobial properties of the new complexes were screened using the disk diffusion method and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were assessed against selected bacterial strains of the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia contaminans. The lowest MICs were observed for , with estimated values of 72, 20, 32 and 19 μg mL(-1) for S. aureus, E. coli, B. contaminans, and P. aeruginosa, respectively. In the case of S. aureus, similar MIC values were obtained for silver nitrate and compound . All five compounds were bactericidal when used in concentrations equal or above the MIC value, as found by enumerating the total colony forming units (CFUs) after incubation in their presence. PMID:27007331

  9. Role of Gaze Cues in Interpersonal Motor Coordination: Towards Higher Affiliation in Human-Robot Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Khoramshahi, Mahdi; Shukla, Ashwini; Raffard, Stéphane; Bardy, Benoît G.; Billard, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to follow one another’s gaze plays an important role in our social cognition; especially when we synchronously perform tasks together. We investigate how gaze cues can improve performance in a simple coordination task (i.e., the mirror game), whereby two players mirror each other’s hand motions. In this game, each player is either a leader or follower. To study the effect of gaze in a systematic manner, the leader’s role is played by a robotic avatar. We contrast two conditions, in which the avatar provides or not explicit gaze cues that indicate the next location of its hand. Specifically, we investigated (a) whether participants are able to exploit these gaze cues to improve their coordination, (b) how gaze cues affect action prediction and temporal coordination, and (c) whether introducing active gaze behavior for avatars makes them more realistic and human-like (from the user point of view). Methodology/Principal Findings 43 subjects participated in 8 trials of the mirror game. Each subject performed the game in the two conditions (with and without gaze cues). In this within-subject study, the order of the conditions was randomized across participants, and subjective assessment of the avatar’s realism was assessed by administering a post-hoc questionnaire. When gaze cues were provided, a quantitative assessment of synchrony between participants and the avatar revealed a significant improvement in subject reaction-time (RT). This confirms our hypothesis that gaze cues improve the follower’s ability to predict the avatar’s action. An analysis of the pattern of frequency across the two players’ hand movements reveals that the gaze cues improve the overall temporal coordination across the two players. Finally, analysis of the subjective evaluations from the questionnaires reveals that, in the presence of gaze cues, participants found it not only more human-like/realistic, but also easier to interact with the avatar. Conclusion

  10. Coordination and standardization of federal sedimentation activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glysson, G. Douglas; Gray, John R.

    1997-01-01

    - precipitation information critical to water resources management. Memorandum M-92-01 covers primarily freshwater bodies and includes activities, such as "development and distribution of consensus standards, field-data collection and laboratory analytical methods, data processing and interpretation, data-base management, quality control and quality assurance, and water- resources appraisals, assessments, and investigations." Research activities are not included.

  11. Individual variation in sleep and motor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiangdong; Yang, Linghui; Sanford, Larry D

    2007-06-01

    We examined individual differences in sleep and motor activity across 2 consecutive days in rats. EEG and motor activity were recorded via telemetry in Wistar rats (n=29) for 48h under well-habituated conditions. Rats were grouped based on sleep amounts and stability across days (short [SS, n=7], intermediate [IS, n=15] and long [LS, n=7] sleep) and comparisons were conducted to determine group differences for measures of sleep and motor activity. We found that correlations across recording days were significant for all selected sleep measures and motor activity counts. Rankings for 24h total sleep time and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) were SSmotor activity counts (per waking min) were greater (32-38%) in SS compared to LS rats on both recording days. The results indicate that individual differences in sleep and motor activity in Wistar rats are stable across days. Differences between SS and LS rats have parallels to those reported for short and long sleep humans.

  12. Motor cortex activity predicts response alternation during sensorimotor decisions

    PubMed Central

    Pape, Anna-Antonia; Siegel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Our actions are constantly guided by decisions based on sensory information. The motor cortex is traditionally viewed as the final output stage in this process, merely executing motor responses based on these decisions. However, it is not clear if, beyond this role, the motor cortex itself impacts response selection. Here, we report activity fluctuations over motor cortex measured using MEG, which are unrelated to choice content and predict responses to a visuomotor task seconds before decisions are made. These fluctuations are strongly influenced by the previous trial's response and predict a tendency to switch between response alternatives for consecutive decisions. This alternation behaviour depends on the size of neural signals still present from the previous response. Our results uncover a response-alternation bias in sensorimotor decision making. Furthermore, they suggest that motor cortex is more than an output stage and instead shapes response selection during sensorimotor decision making. PMID:27713396

  13. Can Kinesiological Activities Change "Pure" Motor Development in Preschool Children during One School Year?

    PubMed

    Krneta, Željko; Casals, Cristina; Bala, Gustav; Madić, Dejan; Pavlović, Slobodan; Drid, Patrik

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an additional, organized, and more intensive kinesiological treatment on "pure" motor abilities in preschool children. In the present study an experimental treatment was carried out on a sample of 37 preschool boys by applying kinesiological activities. The 60 minute treatment was applied over a period of one school year (9 months), twice a week. A control group of 31 boys were trained according to the regular program for preschool institutions. Treatment effects were assessed by 8 motor ability tests and 5 anthropometric measures. The significant differences between the groups, which were observed after the final measurement and compared to the initial one, proved that the kinesiological treatment had a positive impact on the general development of "pure" motor abilities. The most significant effect of experimental kinesiological treatment was the improvement in whole body force, flexibility and coordination of preschool boys. These findings, obtained only in one school year, point to the importance of physical exercise and the application of additional kinesiological activities with various modalities, to improve motor development, even morphological growth and development in preschool children. The effects of the perennial application of kinesiological activities, under the supervision of kinesiological professionals, could be beneficial and could form the basis for a better biological and motor development in older age.

  14. Motor imagery of hand actions: Decoding the content of motor imagery from brain activity in frontal and parietal motor areas

    PubMed Central

    Pilgramm, Sebastian; de Haas, Benjamin; Helm, Fabian; Zentgraf, Karen; Stark, Rudolf; Munzert, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract How motor maps are organized while imagining actions is an intensely debated issue. It is particularly unclear whether motor imagery relies on action‐specific representations in premotor and posterior parietal cortices. This study tackled this issue by attempting to decode the content of motor imagery from spatial patterns of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signals recorded in the frontoparietal motor imagery network. During fMRI‐scanning, 20 right‐handed volunteers worked on three experimental conditions and one baseline condition. In the experimental conditions, they had to imagine three different types of right‐hand actions: an aiming movement, an extension–flexion movement, and a squeezing movement. The identity of imagined actions was decoded from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals they evoked in premotor and posterior parietal cortices using multivoxel pattern analysis. Results showed that the content of motor imagery (i.e., the action type) could be decoded significantly above chance level from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals in both frontal (PMC, M1) and parietal areas (SPL, IPL, IPS). An exploratory searchlight analysis revealed significant clusters motor‐ and motor‐associated cortices, as well as in visual cortices. Hence, the data provide evidence that patterns of activity within premotor and posterior parietal cortex vary systematically with the specific type of hand action being imagined. Hum Brain Mapp 37:81–93, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26452176

  15. White matter integrity associated with volitional motor activity.

    PubMed

    Walther, Sebastian; Federspiel, Andrea; Horn, Helge; Wiest, Roland; Dierks, Thomas; Strik, Werner; Müller, Thomas J

    2010-03-31

    Variations of white matter integrity have been associated with interindividual differences in brain function. Still, little is known about the impact of white matter integrity on quantitative motor behaviour. Diffusion tensor imaging and continuous wrist actigraphy were measured on the same day in 12 individuals. Fractional anisotropy as measure of white matter integrity was correlated with the motor activity level. Positive correlations of fractional anisotropy and activity level were detected in the cingulum and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus underneath the precentral gyrus. Negative correlations were found in the left corticobulbar tract, in the right posterior corpus callosum and in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus. Volitional motor activity was associated with white matter integrity in motor relevant fiber tracts.

  16. Lessons Learned from Coordinating Relay Activities at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Roy E.; Hwang, Pauline; Waggoner, Bruce; McLaughlin, Bruce; Fieseler, Paul; Thomas, Reid; Bigwood, Maria; Herrera, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The Mission Management Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was tasked with coordinating the relay of data between multiple spacecraft at Mars in support of the Mars Exploration Rover Missions in early 2004. The confluence of three orbiters (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express), two rovers (Spirit and Opportunity), and one lander (Beagle 2) has provided a challenging operational scenario that required careful coordination between missions to provide the necessary support and to avoid potential interference during simultaneous relay sessions. As these coordination efforts progressed, several important lessons were learned that should be applied to future Mars relay activities.

  17. Developmental Coordination Disorder, An Umbrella Term for Motor Impairments in Children: Nature and Co-Morbid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence; Lalanne, Christophe; Golse, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) defines a heterogeneous class of children exhibiting marked impairment in motor coordination as a general group of deficits in fine and gross motricity (subtype mixed group) common to all research studies, and with a variety of other motor disorders that have been little investigated. No consensus about symptoms and etiology has been established. Methods: Data from 58 children aged 6 to 13 years with DCD were collected on DSM-IV criteria, similar to DSM-5 criteria. They had no other medical condition and inclusion criteria were strict (born full-term, no medication, no occupational/physical therapy). Multivariate statistical methods were used to evidence relevant interactions between discriminant features in a general DCD subtype group and to highlight specific co-morbidities. The study examined age-calibrated standardized scores from completed assessments of psychological, neuropsychological, and neuropsychomotor functions, and more specifically the presence of minor neurological dysfunctions (MND) including neurological soft signs (NSS), without evidence of focal neurological brain involvement. These were not considered in most previous studies. Results: Findings show the salient DCD markers for the mixed subtype (imitation of gestures, digital perception, digital praxia, manual dexterity, upper, and lower limb coordination), vs. surprising co-morbidities, with 33% of MND with mild spasticity from phasic stretch reflex (PSR), not associated with the above impairments but rather with sitting tone (p = 0.004) and dysdiadochokinesia (p = 0.011). PSR was not specific to a DCD subtype but was related to increased impairment of coordination between upper and lower limbs and manual dexterity. Our results highlight the major contribution of an extensive neuro-developmental assessment (mental and physical). Discussion: The present study provides important new evidence in favor of a complete physical neuropsychomotor

  18. The dopaminergic system in upper limb motor blocks (ULMB) investigated during bimanual coordination in Parkinson's disease (PD).

    PubMed

    Brown, Matt J N; Almeida, Quincy J; Rahimi, Fariborz

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb motor blocks (ULMB) (inability to initiate or sudden discontinue in voluntary movements) have been identified in both unimanual and bimanual tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, ULMB have been observed during rhythmic bimanual coordination when switching between phase patterns which is required (e.g. between in-phase and anti-phase). While sensory-perceptual mechanisms have recently been suggested to be involved in lower limb freezing, there has been no consensus on the mechanism that evokes ULMB or whether motor blocks respond to dopamine replacement like other motor symptoms of PD. The current study investigated the occurrence of ULMB in PD participants without ('off') and with ('on') dopamine replacement using bimanual wrist flexion-extension with external auditory cues. In Experiment 1, coordination was performed in either in-phase (simultaneous flexion and extension) or anti-phase (asymmetrical flexion and extension between the limbs) in one of three sensory conditions: no vision, normal vision or augmented vision. Cycle frequency was increased within each trial across seven cycle frequencies (0.75-2 Hz). In Experiment 2, coordination was initiated in either phase pattern and participants were cued to make an intentional switch between phases in the middle of trials. Trials were performed at one of two cycle frequencies (1 or 2 Hz) and one of two sensory conditions: no vision or normal vision. Healthy age-matched control participants were also investigated in both experiments for the occurrence of motor blocks that were measured using automated detection from a computer algorithm. The results from Experiment 1 indicated that increasing cycle frequency resulted in more ULMB in individuals with PD during continuous coordinated movement, regardless of dopaminergic status, phase pattern or sensory condition. Experiment 2 also confirmed an increased occurrence of ULMB with increased cycle frequency. Furthermore, a large

  19. The dopaminergic system in upper limb motor blocks (ULMB) investigated during bimanual coordination in Parkinson's disease (PD).

    PubMed

    Brown, Matt J N; Almeida, Quincy J; Rahimi, Fariborz

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb motor blocks (ULMB) (inability to initiate or sudden discontinue in voluntary movements) have been identified in both unimanual and bimanual tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, ULMB have been observed during rhythmic bimanual coordination when switching between phase patterns which is required (e.g. between in-phase and anti-phase). While sensory-perceptual mechanisms have recently been suggested to be involved in lower limb freezing, there has been no consensus on the mechanism that evokes ULMB or whether motor blocks respond to dopamine replacement like other motor symptoms of PD. The current study investigated the occurrence of ULMB in PD participants without ('off') and with ('on') dopamine replacement using bimanual wrist flexion-extension with external auditory cues. In Experiment 1, coordination was performed in either in-phase (simultaneous flexion and extension) or anti-phase (asymmetrical flexion and extension between the limbs) in one of three sensory conditions: no vision, normal vision or augmented vision. Cycle frequency was increased within each trial across seven cycle frequencies (0.75-2 Hz). In Experiment 2, coordination was initiated in either phase pattern and participants were cued to make an intentional switch between phases in the middle of trials. Trials were performed at one of two cycle frequencies (1 or 2 Hz) and one of two sensory conditions: no vision or normal vision. Healthy age-matched control participants were also investigated in both experiments for the occurrence of motor blocks that were measured using automated detection from a computer algorithm. The results from Experiment 1 indicated that increasing cycle frequency resulted in more ULMB in individuals with PD during continuous coordinated movement, regardless of dopaminergic status, phase pattern or sensory condition. Experiment 2 also confirmed an increased occurrence of ULMB with increased cycle frequency. Furthermore, a large

  20. Cooccurrence of problems in activity level, attention, psychosocial adjustment, reading and writing in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Chuang, I-Ching; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the cooccurrence of problems in activity level, attention, reading, writing and psychosocial adjustment of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A parent-report questionnaire, the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire - Chinese version (DCDQ-C), was used to screen first to third graders from 13 mainstream schools in Taipei. Two standardized motor tests were then administered to those who scored below 10% on the DCDQ-C. Tests of activity level, attention, reading, writing and psychosocial adjustment were then administered to this sample. Thirty-eight children identified as DCD, 32 as suspect for DCD and 82 as normal comparison were included in the final sample. Multivariate analysis of variance comparing the three groups (DCD, suspect DCD, and comparison) revealed that both children with DCD and suspect for DCD obtained significantly poorer scores on measures of attention and reading, and were more hyperactive than comparison children. Children with DCD and suspect for DCD were also reported to have more internalizing and social problems than children without motor problems. No significant differences, however, were noted between children with different degree of motor coordination problems (categorized as DCD and suspect for DCD) on any measure. Furthermore, a high percentage of children in both the DCD and suspect groups fell in the clinical range of attention, activity level and psychosocial adjustment problems. The results revealed a high risk for these problems in nonreferred children with motor coordination problems. The high percentage of clinical range behavioral problems warrants attention of clinicians who work with children with motor coordination difficulties to the need to promote early identification and referral.

  1. [The motor activity study segment as pilot study of The Child and Adolescent Health Survey].

    PubMed

    Kahl, H; Emmel, J

    2002-12-01

    In the Health Survey for Children and Adolescents the examination of motor activity is one aspect of physical health covered by the study. This underlines the importance of physical activity for physical development in early years. This first representative child and adolescent study for Germany intends to obtain data on motor activity and to allow for the implementation of specific intervention programmes encouraging physical activity. The specific general conditions under which the survey is conducted restrict the selection and scope of possible instruments to a minimal programme, including fitness tests, strength in combination with endurance and coordinative skills as well as flexibility. In a pilot study the suitability, feasibility and the obtained evidence of selected single motor tests were tested. This article explains the choice of instruments and methods used in the examination of physical fitness. It also discusses methodological difficulties which affect the standardisation of tests and the requirements regarding personnel. A major concern of the pilot study was the evaluation of tested instruments with regard to gender and age differences. For the main survey the following tests are recommended: coordination (balancing backwards, one-leg-footing, sideway jumping), perseverance (sit-ups, push-ups), and flexibility (trunk bending).

  2. Adaptations of motor neural structures' activity to lapses in attention.

    PubMed

    Derosière, Gérard; Billot, Maxime; Ward, E Tomas; Perrey, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Sustained attention is fundamental for cognition and when impaired, impacts negatively on important contemporary living skills. Degradation in sustained attention is characterized by the time-on-task (TOT) effect, which manifests as a gradual increase in reaction time (RT). The TOT effect is accompanied by changes in relative brain activity patterns in attention-related areas, most noticeably in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the right parietal areas. However, activity changes in task-relevant motor structures have not been confirmed to date. This article describes an investigation of such motor-related activity changes as measured with 1) the time course of corticospinal excitability (CSE) through single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation; and 2) the changes in activity of premotor (PMC), primary motor (M1), PFC, and right parietal areas by means of near-infrared spectroscopy, during a sustained attention RT task exhibiting the TOT effect. Our results corroborate established findings such as a significant increase (P < 0.05) in lateral prefrontal and right parietal areas activity after the emergence of the TOT effect but also reveal adaptations in the form of motor activity changes--in particular, a significant increase in CSE (P < 0.01) and in primary motor area (M1) activity (P < 0.05).

  3. Does the coordination of verbal and motor information explain the development of counting in children?

    PubMed

    Camos, V; Barrouillet, P; Fayol, M

    2001-03-01

    Counting is often considered to be the coordination of two actions: saying the number-words and pointing to each object. We report three experiments to test the hypothesis that this coordination requires the use of the central executive (A. D. Baddeley, 1990), and that the cost of coordination decreases with age. Participants were 5- and 9-year-old children and adults. At all ages tested, the manipulation of the difficulty of each component affected counting performance but did not make coordination more difficult. These results suggest that, at least from the age 5, counting is a procedure in which the control of coordination is not attention demanding. PMID:11222001

  4. Telemetric motor activity in children. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Foster, F G; McPartland, R J; Kupfer, D J

    1977-01-01

    A lightweight telemetric mobility sensing system was used to study the relationship between high levels of motor activity during free-play and school performance. Among the 21 normal children, there was a significant correlation between high ankle motor activity during free-play, poor school achievement, the presence of neurological soft signs, and a poor self-image. Those normals whose free-play ankle activity was above the mean, also had significantly more errors and performed at a significantly lower level on the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test than children whose activity was below the mean. This preliminary study suggests that the telemetric mobility sensing system can be easily applied to children to assess clinically relevant components of psychomotor activity.

  5. Motor imagery skills of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jacqueline; Omizzolo, Cristina; Galea, Mary P; Vance, Alasdair

    2013-02-01

    Up to 50% of children with ADHD experience motor impairment consistent with DCD. Debate continues as to whether this impairment is linked to inattention or is a genuine motor deficit. This study aimed to determine whether (1) inattention was greater in ADHD+DCD than in ADHD alone and (2) motor imagery deficits observed in DCD were present in ADHD+DCD. Four groups aged 7-12 years-ADHD, combined type, with motor impairment (ADHD+DCD; N=16) and alone (ADHD; N=14), DCD (N=10) and typically developing comparison children (N=18) participated. Levels of inattention did not differ between ADHD groups. On an imagined pointing task, children with DCD did not conform to speed accuracy trade-offs during imagined movements, but all other groups did. However, on a hand rotation task, both the ADHD+DCD and DCD groups were less accurate than the non-motor impaired groups, a finding not explained by differences in IQ, age, or working memory capacity. Overall, there was evidence that children with ADHD+DCD experience genuine motor control impairments indicating the impact of motor impairment in ADHD and its causal risk factors require more study. Motor impairment in ADHD should not be dismissed as a by-product of inattention. PMID:23176812

  6. Motor imagery skills of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jacqueline; Omizzolo, Cristina; Galea, Mary P; Vance, Alasdair

    2013-02-01

    Up to 50% of children with ADHD experience motor impairment consistent with DCD. Debate continues as to whether this impairment is linked to inattention or is a genuine motor deficit. This study aimed to determine whether (1) inattention was greater in ADHD+DCD than in ADHD alone and (2) motor imagery deficits observed in DCD were present in ADHD+DCD. Four groups aged 7-12 years-ADHD, combined type, with motor impairment (ADHD+DCD; N=16) and alone (ADHD; N=14), DCD (N=10) and typically developing comparison children (N=18) participated. Levels of inattention did not differ between ADHD groups. On an imagined pointing task, children with DCD did not conform to speed accuracy trade-offs during imagined movements, but all other groups did. However, on a hand rotation task, both the ADHD+DCD and DCD groups were less accurate than the non-motor impaired groups, a finding not explained by differences in IQ, age, or working memory capacity. Overall, there was evidence that children with ADHD+DCD experience genuine motor control impairments indicating the impact of motor impairment in ADHD and its causal risk factors require more study. Motor impairment in ADHD should not be dismissed as a by-product of inattention.

  7. The effect of oral motor activity on the athletic performance of professional golfers.

    PubMed

    Ringhof, Steffen; Hellmann, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Etz, Eike; Schindler, Hans J; Stein, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS) might affect human motor control. In particular, improvements in postural stability and muscle strength have been observed as a result of voluntary jaw clenching. Potential benefits of jaw aligning appliances on muscle strength and golf performance have also been described. These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. Participants were 14 male professional golfers - seven with sleep bruxism and seven without - randomly performing golf shots over 60m, 160m, or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control condition. Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60m, 160 m, or driving distance. These findings were reinforced by impact variables such as club head speed and ball speed, which were also not indicative of significant effects. The results thus showed that the strength improvements and stabilizing effects described previously are, apparently, not transferable to such coordination-demanding sports as golf. This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. Interestingly, subjects without sleep bruxism performed significantly better at the short distance (60 m) than those with bruxism. Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to improve sports performance are, however, completely unwarranted.

  8. The effect of oral motor activity on the athletic performance of professional golfers

    PubMed Central

    Ringhof, Steffen; Hellmann, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Etz, Eike; Schindler, Hans J.; Stein, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS) might affect human motor control. In particular, improvements in postural stability and muscle strength have been observed as a result of voluntary jaw clenching. Potential benefits of jaw aligning appliances on muscle strength and golf performance have also been described. These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. Participants were 14 male professional golfers – seven with sleep bruxism and seven without – randomly performing golf shots over 60m, 160m, or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control condition. Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60m, 160 m, or driving distance. These findings were reinforced by impact variables such as club head speed and ball speed, which were also not indicative of significant effects. The results thus showed that the strength improvements and stabilizing effects described previously are, apparently, not transferable to such coordination-demanding sports as golf. This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. Interestingly, subjects without sleep bruxism performed significantly better at the short distance (60 m) than those with bruxism. Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to improve sports performance are, however, completely unwarranted. PMID

  9. The effect of oral motor activity on the athletic performance of professional golfers.

    PubMed

    Ringhof, Steffen; Hellmann, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Etz, Eike; Schindler, Hans J; Stein, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS) might affect human motor control. In particular, improvements in postural stability and muscle strength have been observed as a result of voluntary jaw clenching. Potential benefits of jaw aligning appliances on muscle strength and golf performance have also been described. These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. Participants were 14 male professional golfers - seven with sleep bruxism and seven without - randomly performing golf shots over 60m, 160m, or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control condition. Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60m, 160 m, or driving distance. These findings were reinforced by impact variables such as club head speed and ball speed, which were also not indicative of significant effects. The results thus showed that the strength improvements and stabilizing effects described previously are, apparently, not transferable to such coordination-demanding sports as golf. This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. Interestingly, subjects without sleep bruxism performed significantly better at the short distance (60 m) than those with bruxism. Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to improve sports performance are, however, completely unwarranted. PMID

  10. Team-Teaching in Physical Education for Promoting Coordinative Motor Skills in Children: The More You Invest the More You Get

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardaglio, Giulia; Marasso, Danilo; Magno, Francesca; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Ciairano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Standard physical education (PE) programs and the team-teaching methodology have rarely been evaluated to investigate their real efficacy in changing children's motor skills. Aims: The aims of this study are two-fold: The first aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a PE program for improving coordinative motor skills in the team…

  11. Social interaction is associated with changes in infants’ motor activity

    PubMed Central

    Scola, Céline; Bourjade, Marie; Jover, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Background In developmental research, infants are commonly assumed to be early stakeholders in interactions with their caregivers. The tools that infants can use to interact with others vary from visual contact to smiling or vocalizing, and also include motor activity. However, surprisingly few studies have explored how the nature and context of social interactions affect infants’ engagement in motor activity. Methods We investigated the kinematic properties of foot and face movements produced by 11 infants aged between 5 and 9 months during six contrasting dyadic episodes (i.e. passive presence of a stranger or the infant's mother, weak or intense interaction with the stranger/mother as she sings a nursery play song). Results The infants’ face and foot motor activity was significantly reduced during the interactive episodes, compared with the episodes without any interaction, in both the mother and stranger conditions. Furthermore, the level of their motor activity was significantly lower in the stranger condition than in the mother one for some parameters. Conclusion These results are in line with those reported by previous studies and confirm the relevance of using motor activity to delineate the early forms of interactive episodes in infants. PMID:26546793

  12. Developmental changes in motor cortex activity as infants develop functional motor skills.

    PubMed

    Nishiyori, Ryota; Bisconti, Silvia; Meehan, Sean K; Ulrich, Beverly D

    2016-09-01

    Despite extensive research examining overt behavioral changes of motor skills in infants, the neural basis underlying the emergence of functional motor control has yet to be determined. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record hemodynamic activity of the primary motor cortex (M1) from 22 infants (11 six month-olds, 11 twelve month-olds) as they reached for an object, and stepped while supported over a treadmill. Based on the developmental systems framework, we hypothesized that as infants increased goal-directed experience, neural activity shifts from a diffused to focal pattern. Results showed that for reaching, younger infants showed diffuse areas of M1 activity that became focused by 12 months. For elicited stepping, younger infants produced much less M1 activity which shifted to diffuse activity by 12 months. Thus, the data suggest that as infants gain goal-directed experience, M1 activity emerges, initially showing a diffuse area of activity, becoming refined as the behavior stabilizes. Our data begin to document the cortical activity underlying early functional skill acquisition.

  13. JNK1 controls dendritic field size in L2/3 and L5 of the motor cortex, constrains soma size, and influences fine motor coordination

    PubMed Central

    Komulainen, Emilia; Zdrojewska, Justyna; Freemantle, Erika; Mohammad, Hasan; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Deshpande, Prasannakumar; Marchisella, Francesca; Mysore, Raghavendra; Hollos, Patrik; Michelsen, Kimmo A.; Mågard, Mats; Rauvala, Heikki; James, Peter; Coffey, Eleanor T.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic anomalies on the JNK pathway confer susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and intellectual disability. The mechanism whereby a gain or loss of function in JNK signaling predisposes to these prevalent dendrite disorders, with associated motor dysfunction, remains unclear. Here we find that JNK1 regulates the dendritic field of L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse motor cortex (M1), the main excitatory pathway controlling voluntary movement. In Jnk1-/- mice, basal dendrite branching of L5 pyramidal neurons is increased in M1, as is cell soma size, whereas in L2/3, dendritic arborization is decreased. We show that JNK1 phosphorylates rat HMW-MAP2 on T1619, T1622, and T1625 (Uniprot P15146) corresponding to mouse T1617, T1620, T1623, to create a binding motif, that is critical for MAP2 interaction with and stabilization of microtubules, and dendrite growth control. Targeted expression in M1 of GFP-HMW-MAP2 that is pseudo-phosphorylated on T1619, T1622, and T1625 increases dendrite complexity in L2/3 indicating that JNK1 phosphorylation of HMW-MAP2 regulates the dendritic field. Consistent with the morphological changes observed in L2/3 and L5, Jnk1-/- mice exhibit deficits in limb placement and motor coordination, while stride length is reduced in older animals. In summary, JNK1 phosphorylates HMW-MAP2 to increase its stabilization of microtubules while at the same time controlling dendritic fields in the main excitatory pathway of M1. Moreover, JNK1 contributes to normal functioning of fine motor coordination. We report for the first time, a quantitative Sholl analysis of dendrite architecture, and of motor behavior in Jnk1-/- mice. Our results illustrate the molecular and behavioral consequences of interrupted JNK1 signaling and provide new ground for mechanistic understanding of those prevalent neuropyschiatric disorders where genetic disruption of the JNK pathway is central. PMID:25309320

  14. Coordinating Computing, Network and Archiving activities within INAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasian, F.; Bodo, G.; Fini, L.; Garilli, B.; Longo, G.; Massimino, P.; Nanni, M.; Smareglia, R.

    When INAF was reformed, it was decided to create a `Computing, Network and Archives Service' within the Projects Department, in order to coordinate all computer-related activities and to properly harmonize management and development policies in the field. A `Computing, Network and Archives Committee' was immediately nominated for the duration of one year to cope with the immediate needs. The Committee has the task of identifying and making operational strategies to coordinate activities in the areas of interest, improving service to all users, implementing synergies and economies, while guaranteeing a single INAF contact point for all external institutions working in the field.

  15. Arm and leg coordination during treadmill walking in individuals with motor incomplete spinal cord injury: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tester, Nicole J; Barbeau, Hugues; Howland, Dena R; Cantrell, Amy; Behrman, Andrea L

    2012-05-01

    Arm and leg coordination naturally emerges during walking, but can be affected by stroke or Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this preliminary study was to characterize arm and leg coordination during treadmill walking at self-selected comfortable walking speeds (CWSs) in individuals using arm swing with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Hip and shoulder angle cycle durations and amplitudes, strength of peak correlations between contralateral hip and shoulder joint angle time series, the time shifts at which these peak correlations occur, and associated variability were quantified. Outcomes in individuals with iSCI selecting fast CWSs (range, 1.0-1.3m/s) and speed-matched individuals without neurological injuries are similar. Differences, however, are detected in individuals with iSCI selecting slow CWSs (range, 0.25-0.65 m/s) and may represent compensatory strategies to improve walking balance or forward propulsion. These individuals elicit a 1:1, arm:leg frequency ratio versus the 2:1 ratio observed in non-injured individuals. Shoulder and hip movement patterns, however, are highly reproducible (coordinated) in participants with iSCI, regardless of CWS. This high degree of inter-extremity coordination could reflect an inability to modify a single movement pattern post-iSCI. Combined, these data suggest inter-extremity walking coordination may be altered, but is present after iSCI, and therefore may be regulated, in part, by neural control.

  16. The Dynamic Association between Motor Skill Development and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2007-01-01

    Although significant attention has been given to promoting physical activity among children, little attention has been given to the developmental process of how children learn to move or to the changing role that motor skill development plays in children's physical activity levels as they grow. In order to successfully address the obesity…

  17. Probing the Mechanism of Oscillations in Newborn Motor Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Steven S.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclical fluctuation in spontaneous motor activity (CM) emerges in fetus and persists in newborn. This "resetting" experiment perturbed CM by noise stimulus during infants' active sleep. Pre- and postperturbation CM were measured and compared. Subjects were 33 infants between 1 and 3 days of age. The stimulus induced a relative slowing of CM…

  18. Cortical entrainment of human hypoglossal motor unit activities

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Christopher M.; Nickerson, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Output from the primary motor cortex contains oscillations that can have frequency-specific effects on the firing of motoneurons (MNs). Whereas much is known about the effects of oscillatory cortical drive on the output of spinal MN pools, considerably less is known about the effects on cranial motor nuclei, which govern speech/oromotor control. Here, we investigated cortical input to one such motor pool, the hypoglossal motor nucleus (HMN), which controls muscles of the tongue. We recorded intramuscular genioglossus electromyogram (EMG) and scalp EEG from healthy adult subjects performing a tongue protrusion task. Cortical entrainment of HMN population activity was assessed by measuring coherence between EEG and multiunit EMG activity. In addition, cortical entrainment of individual MN firing activity was assessed by measuring phase locking between single motor unit (SMU) action potentials and EEG oscillations. We found that cortical entrainment of multiunit activity was detectable within the 15- to 40-Hz frequency range but was inconsistent across recordings. By comparison, cortical entrainment of SMU spike timing was reliable within the same frequency range. Furthermore, this effect was found to be intermittent over time. Our study represents an important step in understanding corticomuscular synchronization in the context of human oromotor control and is the first study to document SMU entrainment by cortical oscillations in vivo. PMID:22049332

  19. Level of independence of motor unit properties from neuromuscular activity.

    PubMed

    Pierotti, D J; Roy, R R; Hodgson, J A; Edgerton, V R

    1994-11-01

    Neuromuscular activity was eliminated in the tibialis anterior muscle of adult cats for 6 months by spinal isolation (SI), i.e., complete spinal cord transections at T-12-13 and at L-7-S-1, plus bilateral dorsal rhizotomy between the two transection sites. One motor unit from each muscle was isolated using ventral root teasing procedures and physiologically tested. The fibers belonging to each motor unit were visualized in PAS-stained sections by the loss of glycogen following prolonged repetitive stimulation. Qualitatively, the normal enzymatic interrelationships among fibers identified by myosin heavy chain composition were unchanged by SI. Generally, each motor unit from SI cats were of a single myosin immunohistochemical type. The same physiological motor unit types that typify control muscles were found in SI cats. In SI compared to control cats, there was approximately a 10% increase in the number of muscle fibers expressing fast myosin. Mean fiber activity levels of ATPase and SDH for a given fiber type (based on MHC antibody reactions) decreased by approximately 10% and 25%, whereas GPD activity increased approximately 35%. It is concluded that differential levels or patterns of activity are not essential to maintain the range of histochemical and physiological motor unit types found in the tibialis anterior of normal adult cats.

  20. Euro-VO-Coordination of virtual observatory activities in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Françoise; Allen, Mark G.; Arviset, Christophe; Lawrence, Andy; Pasian, Fabio; Solano, Enrique; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    The European Virtual Observatory Euro-VO has been coordinating European VO activities through a series of projects co-funded by the European Commission over the last 15 years. The bulk of VO work in Europe is ensured by the national VO initiatives and those of intergovernmental agencies. VO activities at the European level coordinate the work in support of the three "pillars" of the Virtual Observatory: support to the scientific community, take-up by the data providers, and technological activities. Several Euro-VO projects have also provided direct support to selected developments and prototyping. This paper explains the methodology used by Euro-VO over the years. It summarises the activities which were performed and their evolutions at different stages of the development of the VO, explains the Euro-VO role with respect to the international and national levels of VO activities, details the lessons learnt for best practices for the coordination of the VO building blocks, and the liaison with other European initiatives, documenting the added-value of European coordination. Finally, the current status and next steps of Euro-VO are briefly addressed.

  1. Introduction of a method for quantitative evaluation of spontaneous motor activity development with age in infants.

    PubMed

    Disselhorst-Klug, Catherine; Heinze, Franziska; Breitbach-Faller, Nico; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Rau, Günter

    2012-04-01

    Coordination between perception and action is required to interact with the environment successfully. This is already trained by very young infants who perform spontaneous movements to learn how their body interacts with the environment. The strategies used by the infants for this purpose change with age. Therefore, very early progresses in action control made by the infants can be investigated by monitoring the development of spontaneous motor activity. In this paper, an objective method is introduced, which allows the quantitative evaluation of the development of spontaneous motor activity in newborns. The introduced methodology is based on the acquisition of spontaneous movement trajectories of the feet by 3D movement analysis and subsequent calculation of specific movement parameters from them. With these movement-based parameters, it was possible to provide an objective description of age-dependent developmental steps in healthy newborns younger than 6 months. Furthermore, it has been shown that pathologies like infantile cerebral palsy influence development of motor activity significantly. Since the introduced methodology is objective and quantitative, it is suitable to monitor how newborns train their cognitive processes, which will enable them to cope with their environment by motor interaction.

  2. Stature and jumping height are required in female volleyball, but motor coordination is a key factor for future elite success.

    PubMed

    Pion, Johan A; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter N; Segers, Veerle I; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-06-01

    It was hypothesized that differences in anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination would be found between Belgian elite and sub-elite level female volleyball players using a retrospective analysis of test results gathered over a 5-year period. The test sample in this study consisted of 21 young female volleyball players (15.3 ± 1.5 years) who were selected to train at the Flemish Top Sports Academy for Volleyball in 2008. All players (elite, n = 13; sub-elite, n = 8) were included in the same talent development program, and the elite-level athletes were of a high to very high performance levels according to European competition level in 2013. Five multivariate analyses of variance were used. There was no significant effect of playing level on measures of anthropometry (F = 0.455, p = 0.718, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.07), flexibility (F = 1.861, p = 0.188, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.19), strength (F = 1.218, p = 0.355, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.32); and speed and agility (F = 1.176, p = 0.350, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.18). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant multivariate effects between playing levels for motor coordination (F = 3.470, p = 0.036, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.59). A Mann-Whitney U test and a sequential discriminant analysis confirmed these results. Previous research revealed that stature and jump height are prerequisites for talent identification in female volleyball. In addition, the results show that motor coordination is an important factor in determining inclusion into the elite level in female volleyball. PMID:25436627

  3. A multi-joint lower-limb tracking-trajectory test for the assessment of motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Bizzini, Mario; Schatt, Sandra; Munzinger, Urs

    This study aimed to determine whether a lower-limb trajectory-tracking task performed on a leg press machine, that is commonly adopted in both rehabilitation and resistance training settings, could yield reliable assessment of motor coordination in able-bodied individuals. Twenty-two female subjects allocated to two experimental groups were tested and retested after 48-72 h. Group A was fully familiarized with the experimental procedures before each test while group B received only verbal instructions. The unilateral coordination test consisted of target tracking during a simulated half squat including eccentric and concentric actions. In both groups, tracking error showed significant test-retest reliability with ICC values of 0.77-0.80 (p < 0.05). Significant group (A < B) and time (day 2 < day 1) main effects were found for tracking error, while there was no significant influence of action mode and dominance. Tracking error significantly decreased in the group A ( approximately 15%) but not in the group B on retest. Action mode (eccentric versus concentric), side dominance and familiarization on day 1 had no effect on tracking error. However, movement control significantly improved at day 2, thus confirming the occurrence of short-term motor learning and the sensitivity of the present trajectory-tracking test. For the first time, a simple test for the assessment of motor coordination during multi-joint closed-kinetic chain action of lower limb muscles has been proposed. Its uniqueness is represented by the specificity for rehabilitation and resistance training settings. Further studies with larger sample groups (e.g., male subjects and patients) and including neurophysiological measurements are needed.

  4. Coordination Analysis Reveals Differences in Motor Strategies for the High Bar Longswing among Novice Adults

    PubMed Central

    Busquets, Albert; Marina, Michel; Irurtia, Alfredo; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M.

    2013-01-01

    Coordination between arm-trunk and trunk-leg is important for effective longswing performance. This research describes inter-segmental coordination changes after a practice period of longswing on high bar in a novice cohort. Novices were divided by initial skill level (talent) into two groups: spontaneously-talented, (ST, n = 10, closer to expert performance) and non-spontaneously-talented (NST, n = 15). Additionally, post-practice longswing coordination was compared to expert gymnasts (n = 9). Longswing amplitude and coordination (inter-joint reversal points and continuous relative phase, CRP) were assessed for pre- and post-practice sessions. ANOVAs showed similar practice effects in swing enlargements for the ST (11%) and NST (18%), but inter-joint reversal points and positive area in CRP during the downswing were different. Due to practice, the ST group paired shoulder and hip reversal points (events) during the downswing closer and with larger velocity of the arm in relation to the trunk than the NST group. The NST failed to modify coordination probably due to a large variability at the beginning of the downswing. Given a similar amount of practice, talent could help to achieve the right temporal events’ sequence during downswing, which would allow the exploration of different segmental coordination. However, upswing coordination of the novice groups (ST and NST) requires more focused practice to achieve expert levels than downswing, especially the arm-trunk coordination. PMID:23840720

  5. A new redox-active coordination polymer with cobalticinium dicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Mitsuru; Hayakawa, Yuri; Miyazawa, Makoto; Oyama, Aiko; Unoura, Kei; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki; Naito, Tetsuyoshi; Maeda, Kenji; Uchida, Fumio

    2004-09-20

    A new two-dimensional coordination polymer with cobalticinium 1,1'-dicarboxylate (ccdc) incorporated in the framework has been prepared, the ccdc functioning as unique monoanionic dicarboxylate ligands. The compound shows a high redox activity based on the ccdc units.

  6. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 500. (e) States may apply asset management principles and techniques in establishing planning... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination of planning process activities. 450.208 Section 450.208 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING...

  7. A circuit for motor cortical modulation of auditory cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Anders; Schneider, David M; Takatoh, Jun; Sakurai, Katsuyasu; Wang, Fan; Mooney, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Normal hearing depends on the ability to distinguish self-generated sounds from other sounds, and this ability is thought to involve neural circuits that convey copies of motor command signals to various levels of the auditory system. Although such interactions at the cortical level are believed to facilitate auditory comprehension during movements and drive auditory hallucinations in pathological states, the synaptic organization and function of circuitry linking the motor and auditory cortices remain unclear. Here we describe experiments in the mouse that characterize circuitry well suited to transmit motor-related signals to the auditory cortex. Using retrograde viral tracing, we established that neurons in superficial and deep layers of the medial agranular motor cortex (M2) project directly to the auditory cortex and that the axons of some of these deep-layer cells also target brainstem motor regions. Using in vitro whole-cell physiology, optogenetics, and pharmacology, we determined that M2 axons make excitatory synapses in the auditory cortex but exert a primarily suppressive effect on auditory cortical neuron activity mediated in part by feedforward inhibition involving parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Using in vivo intracellular physiology, optogenetics, and sound playback, we also found that directly activating M2 axon terminals in the auditory cortex suppresses spontaneous and stimulus-evoked synaptic activity in auditory cortical neurons and that this effect depends on the relative timing of motor cortical activity and auditory stimulation. These experiments delineate the structural and functional properties of a corticocortical circuit that could enable movement-related suppression of auditory cortical activity. PMID:24005287

  8. An efficient algorithm to identify coordinately activated transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haiyan

    2010-03-01

    Identification of transcription factor (TF) activities associated with a certain physiological/experimental condition is one of the preliminary steps to reconstruct transcriptional regulatory networks and to identify signal transduction pathways. TF activities are often indicated by the activities of its target genes. Existing studies on identifying TF activities through target genes usually assume the equivalence between co-regulation and co-expression. However, genes with correlated expression profiles may not be co-regulated. In the mean time, although multiple TFs can be activated coordinately, there is a lack of efficient methods to identify coordinately activated TFs. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm embedding a dynamic programming procedure to identify a subset of TFs that are potentially coordinately activated under a given condition by utilizing ranked lists of differentially expressed target genes. Applying our algorithm to microarray expression data sets for a number of diseases, our approach found subsets of TFs that are highly likely associated with the given disease processes. PMID:20060041

  9. The origin of segmentation motor activity in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Huizinga, Jan D; Chen, Ji-Hong; Zhu, Yong Fang; Pawelka, Andrew; McGinn, Ryan J; Bardakjian, Berj L; Parsons, Sean P; Kunze, Wolfgang A; Wu, Richard You; Bercik, Premysl; Khoshdel, Amir; Chen, Sifeng; Yin, Sheng; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Yuanjie; Gao, Qingmin; Li, Kongling; Hu, Xinghai; Zarate, Natalia; Collins, Phillip; Pistilli, Marc; Ma, Junling; Zhang, Ruixue; Chen, David

    2014-01-01

    The segmentation motor activity of the gut that facilitates absorption of nutrients was first described in the late 19th century, but the fundamental mechanisms underlying it remain poorly understood. The dominant theory suggests alternate excitation and inhibition from the enteric nervous system. Here we demonstrate that typical segmentation can occur after total nerve blockade. The segmentation motor pattern emerges when the amplitude of the dominant pacemaker, the slow wave generated by interstitial cells of Cajal associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP), is modulated by the phase of induced lower frequency rhythmic transient depolarizations, generated by ICC associated with the deep muscular plexus (ICC-DMP), resulting in a waxing and waning of the amplitude of the slow wave and a rhythmic checkered pattern of segmentation motor activity. Phase-amplitude modulation of the slow waves points to an underlying system of coupled nonlinear oscillators originating in the networks of ICC.

  10. Abstract art and cortical motor activation: an EEG study

    PubMed Central

    Umilta', M. Alessandra; Berchio, Cristina; Sestito, Mariateresa; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    The role of the motor system in the perception of visual art remains to be better understood. Earlier studies on the visual perception of abstract art (from Gestalt theory, as in Arnheim, 1954 and 1988, to balance preference studies as in Locher and Stappers, 2002, and more recent work by Locher et al., 2007; Redies, 2007, and Taylor et al., 2011), neglected the question, while the field of neuroesthetics (Ramachandran and Hirstein, 1999; Zeki, 1999) mostly concentrated on figurative works. Much recent work has demonstrated the multimodality of vision, encompassing the activation of motor, somatosensory, and viscero-motor brain regions. The present study investigated whether the observation of high-resolution digitized static images of abstract paintings by Lucio Fontana is associated with specific cortical motor activation in the beholder's brain. Mu rhythm suppression was evoked by the observation of original art works but not by control stimuli (as in the case of graphically modified versions of these works). Most interestingly, previous visual exposure to the stimuli did not affect the mu rhythm suppression induced by their observation. The present results clearly show the involvement of the cortical motor system in the viewing of static abstract art works. PMID:23162456

  11. Bilateral motor tasks involve more brain regions and higher neural activation than unilateral tasks: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Noble, Jeremy W; Eng, Janice J; Boyd, Lara A

    2014-09-01

    Movements that involve simultaneous coordination of muscles of the right and left lower limbs form a large part of our daily activities (e.g., standing, rising from a chair). This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine which brain areas are used to control coordinated lower-limb movements, specifically comparing regions that are activated during bilateral exertions to those performed unilaterally. Plantarflexor exertions were produced at a target force level of 15% of the participants' maximum voluntary contraction, in three conditions, with their right (dominant) foot, with their left foot, and with both feet simultaneously. A voxel-wise analysis determined which regions were active in the bilateral, but not in the unilateral conditions. In addition, a region of interest (ROI) approach was used to determine differences in the percent signal change (PSC) between the conditions within motor areas. The voxel-wise analysis showed a large number of regions (cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar) that were active during the bilateral condition, but not during either unilateral condition. The ROI analysis showed several motor regions with higher activation in the bilateral condition than unilateral conditions; further, the magnitude of bilateral PSC was more than the sum of the two unilateral conditions in several of these regions. We postulate that the greater levels of activation during bilateral exertions may arise from interhemispheric inhibition, as well as from the greater need for motor coordination (e.g., synchronizing the two limbs to activate together) and visual processing (e.g., monitoring of two visual stimuli).

  12. Deficits in Lower Limb Muscle Reflex Contraction Latency and Peak Force Are Associated With Impairments in Postural Control and Gross Motor Skills of Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Ng, Shamay S.M.; Guo, X.; Wang, Yuling; Chung, Raymond C.K.; Stat, Grad; Ki, W.Y.; Macfarlane, Duncan J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional, exploratory study aimed to compare neuromuscular performance, balance and motor skills proficiencies of typically developing children and those with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and to determine associations of these neuromuscular factors with balance and motor skills performances in children with DCD. One hundred thirty children with DCD and 117 typically developing children participated in the study. Medial hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies in response to an unexpected posterior-to-anterior trunk perturbation were assessed by electromyography and accelerometer. Hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle peak force and time to peak force were quantified by dynamometer, and balance and motor skills performances were evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Independent t tests revealed that children with DCD had longer hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies (P < 0.001) and lower isometric peak forces (P < 0.001), but not times to peak forces (P > 0.025), than the controls. Multiple regression analysis accounting for basic demographics showed that gastrocnemius peak force was independently associated with the MABC balance subscore and ball skills subscore, accounting for 5.7% (P = 0.003) and 8.5% (P = 0.001) of the variance, respectively. Gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latency also explained 11.4% (P < 0.001) of the variance in the MABC ball skills subscore. Children with DCD had delayed leg muscle activation onset times and lower isometric peak forces. Gastrocnemius peak force was associated with balance and ball skills performances, whereas timing of gastrocnemius muscle activation was a determinant of ball skill performance in the DCD population. PMID:26469921

  13. Pulsed Light Stimulation Increases Boundary Preference and Periodicity of Episodic Motor Activity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shuang; Xiao, Chengfeng; Robertson, R. Meldrum

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the therapeutic benefits of long-term sensory stimulation for improving cognitive abilities and motor performance of stroke patients. The rationale is that such stimulation would activate mechanisms of neural plasticity to promote enhanced coordination and associated circuit functions. Experimental approaches to characterize such mechanisms are needed. Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most attractive model organisms to investigate neural mechanisms responsible for stimulation-induced behaviors with its powerful accessibility to genetic analysis. In this study, the effect of chronic sensory stimulation (pulsed light stimulation) on motor activity in w1118 flies was investigated. Flies were exposed to a chronic pulsed light stimulation protocol prior to testing their performance in a standard locomotion assay. Flies responded to pulsed light stimulation with increased boundary preference and travel distance in a circular arena. In addition, pulsed light stimulation increased the power of extracellular electrical activity, leading to the enhancement of periodic electrical activity which was associated with a centrally-generated motor pattern (struggling behavior). In contrast, such periodic events were largely missing in w1118 flies without pulsed light treatment. These data suggest that the sensory stimulation induced a response in motor activity associated with the modifications of electrical activity in the central nervous system (CNS). Finally, without pulsed light treatment, the wild-type genetic background was associated with the occurrence of the periodic activity in wild-type Canton S (CS) flies, and w+ modulated the consistency of periodicity. We conclude that pulsed light stimulation modifies behavioral and electrophysiological activities in w1118 flies. These data provide a foundation for future research on the genetic mechanisms of neural plasticity underlying such behavioral modification. PMID:27684063

  14. Conservative nature of oestradiol signalling pathways in the brain lobes of octopus vulgaris involved in reproduction, learning and motor coordination.

    PubMed

    De Lisa, E; Paolucci, M; Di Cosmo, A

    2012-02-01

    Oestradiol plays crucial roles in the mammalian brain by modulating reproductive behaviour, neural plasticity and pain perception. The cephalopod Octopus vulgaris is considered, along with its relatives, to be the most behaviourally advanced invertebrate, although the neurophysiological basis of its behaviours, including pain perception, remain largely unknown. In the present study, using a combination of molecular and imaging techniques, we found that oestradiol up-regulated O. vulgaris gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (Oct-GnRH) and O. vulgaris oestrogen receptor (Oct-ER) mRNA levels in the olfactory lobes; in turn, Oct-ER mRNA was regulated by NMDA in lobes involved in learning and motor coordination. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis revealed that oestradiol binds Oct-ER causing conformational modifications and nuclear translocation consistent with the classical genomic mechanism of the oestrogen receptor. Moreover, oestradiol triggered a calcium influx and cyclic AMP response element binding protein phosphorylation via membrane receptors, providing evidence for a rapid nongenomic action of oestradiol in O. vulgaris. In the present study, we demonstrate, for the first time, the physiological role of oestradiol in the brain lobes of O. vulgaris involved in reproduction, learning and motor coordination.

  15. Brains and Brawn: Complex Motor Activities to Maximize Cognitive Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, David

    2015-01-01

    The target articles in this special issue address the timely question of embodied cognition in the classroom, and in particular the potential of this approach to facilitate learning in children. The interest for motor activities within settings that typically give little space to nontraditional content is proof of a shift from a Cartesian…

  16. Face Preference in Infancy and Its Relation to Motor Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Klaus; Needham, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Infants' preference for faces was investigated in a cross-sectional sample of 75 children, aged 3 to 11 months, and 23 adults. A visual preference paradigm was used where pairs of faces and toys were presented side-by-side while eye gaze was recorded. In addition, motor activity was assessed via parent report and the relation between motor…

  17. Recreational Activities and Motor Skills of Children in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Viviene A.; Crane, Jeff R.; Brown, Amy; Williams, Buffy-Lynne; Bell, Rick I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developmental theorists suggest that physical activity during early childhood promotes fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency; and that differences in FMS proficiency are largely related to children's experiences. Aim: To examine associations between participation in different types of recreation/leisure and FMS proficiency of boys…

  18. Sport and Other Motor Activities of Warsaw Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biernat, Elzbieta

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the engagement of students of Warsaw university schools in sports and in recreational motor activities. Material and methods: A cohort (n = 1100) of students attending B.S. or M.S. courses at 6 university schools in Warsaw were studied by applying questionnaire techniques. The questions pertained to participation in…

  19. Motor Coordination Difficulties in a Municipality Group and in a Clinical Sample of Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Synnove; Berg, Karin; Ellertsen, Bjorn; Tonnessen, Finn-Egil

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate incidence, severity and types of motor problems in two groups of poor readers compared to good reading controls. A group of children with severe dyslexia referred to specialist evaluation, a teacher selected municipality sample comprising the 5% poorest readers, and a control group consisting of the 5%…

  20. Short Term Auditory Pacing Changes Dual Motor Task Coordination in Children with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getchell, Nancy; Mackenzie, Samuel J.; Marmon, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of short-term auditory pacing practice on dual motor task performance in children with and without dyslexia. Groups included dyslexic with Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) scores greater than 15th percentile (D_HIGH, n = 18; mean age 9.89 [plus or minus] 2.0 years), dyslexic with MABC [less than or…

  1. Are Cortical Motor Maps Based on Body Parts or Coordinated Actions? Implications for Embodied Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The embodied cognition approach to the study of the mind proposes that higher order mental processes such as concept formation and language are essentially based on perceptual and motor processes. Contrary to the classical approach in cognitive science, in which concepts are viewed as amodal, arbitrary symbols, embodied semantics argues that…

  2. Transplantation of cerebellar neural stem cells improves motor coordination and neuropathology in Machado-Joseph disease mice.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Liliana S; Nóbrega, Clévio; Hirai, Hirokazu; Kaspar, Brian K; Pereira de Almeida, Luís

    2015-02-01

    Machado-Joseph disease is a neurodegenerative disease without effective treatment. Patients with Machado-Joseph disease exhibit significant motor impairments such as gait ataxia, associated with multiple neuropathological changes including mutant ATXN3 inclusions, marked neuronal loss and atrophy of the cerebellum. Thus, an effective treatment of symptomatic patients with Machado-Joseph disease may require cell replacement, which we investigated in this study. For this purpose, we injected cerebellar neural stem cells into the cerebellum of adult Machado-Joseph disease transgenic mice and assessed the effect on the neuropathology, neuroinflammation mediators and neurotrophic factor levels and motor coordination. We found that upon transplantation into the cerebellum of adult Machado-Joseph disease mice, cerebellar neural stem cells differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Importantly, cerebellar neural stem cell transplantation mediated a significant and robust alleviation of the motor behaviour impairments, which correlated with preservation from Machado-Joseph disease-associated neuropathology, namely reduction of Purkinje cell loss, reduction of cellular layer shrinkage and mutant ATXN3 aggregates. Additionally, a significant reduction of neuroinflammation and an increase of neurotrophic factors levels was observed, indicating that transplantation of cerebellar neural stem cells also triggers important neuroprotective effects. Thus, cerebellar neural stem cells have the potential to be used as a cell replacement and neuroprotective approach for Machado-Joseph disease therapy.

  3. 3D visualization of movements can amplify motor cortex activation during subsequent motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Sollfrank, Teresa; Hart, Daniel; Goodsell, Rachel; Foster, Jonathan; Tan, Tele

    2015-01-01

    A repetitive movement practice by motor imagery (MI) can influence motor cortical excitability in the electroencephalogram (EEG). This study investigated if a realistic visualization in 3D of upper and lower limb movements can amplify motor related potentials during subsequent MI. We hypothesized that a richer sensory visualization might be more effective during instrumental conditioning, resulting in a more pronounced event related desynchronization (ERD) of the upper alpha band (10-12 Hz) over the sensorimotor cortices thereby potentially improving MI based brain-computer interface (BCI) protocols for motor rehabilitation. The results show a strong increase of the characteristic patterns of ERD of the upper alpha band components for left and right limb MI present over the sensorimotor areas in both visualization conditions. Overall, significant differences were observed as a function of visualization modality (VM; 2D vs. 3D). The largest upper alpha band power decrease was obtained during MI after a 3-dimensional visualization. In total in 12 out of 20 tasks the end-user of the 3D visualization group showed an enhanced upper alpha ERD relative to 2D VM group, with statistical significance in nine tasks.With a realistic visualization of the limb movements, we tried to increase motor cortex activation during subsequent MI. The feedback and the feedback environment should be inherently motivating and relevant for the learner and should have an appeal of novelty, real-world relevance or aesthetic value (Ryan and Deci, 2000; Merrill, 2007). Realistic visual feedback, consistent with the participant's MI, might be helpful for accomplishing successful MI and the use of such feedback may assist in making BCI a more natural interface for MI based BCI rehabilitation.

  4. 3D visualization of movements can amplify motor cortex activation during subsequent motor imagery

    PubMed Central

    Sollfrank, Teresa; Hart, Daniel; Goodsell, Rachel; Foster, Jonathan; Tan, Tele

    2015-01-01

    A repetitive movement practice by motor imagery (MI) can influence motor cortical excitability in the electroencephalogram (EEG). This study investigated if a realistic visualization in 3D of upper and lower limb movements can amplify motor related potentials during subsequent MI. We hypothesized that a richer sensory visualization might be more effective during instrumental conditioning, resulting in a more pronounced event related desynchronization (ERD) of the upper alpha band (10–12 Hz) over the sensorimotor cortices thereby potentially improving MI based brain-computer interface (BCI) protocols for motor rehabilitation. The results show a strong increase of the characteristic patterns of ERD of the upper alpha band components for left and right limb MI present over the sensorimotor areas in both visualization conditions. Overall, significant differences were observed as a function of visualization modality (VM; 2D vs. 3D). The largest upper alpha band power decrease was obtained during MI after a 3-dimensional visualization. In total in 12 out of 20 tasks the end-user of the 3D visualization group showed an enhanced upper alpha ERD relative to 2D VM group, with statistical significance in nine tasks.With a realistic visualization of the limb movements, we tried to increase motor cortex activation during subsequent MI. The feedback and the feedback environment should be inherently motivating and relevant for the learner and should have an appeal of novelty, real-world relevance or aesthetic value (Ryan and Deci, 2000; Merrill, 2007). Realistic visual feedback, consistent with the participant’s MI, might be helpful for accomplishing successful MI and the use of such feedback may assist in making BCI a more natural interface for MI based BCI rehabilitation. PMID:26347642

  5. Dynamical behaviors of a plate activated by an induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcheutchoua Fossi, D. O.; Woafo, P.

    2010-08-01

    Dynamics and chaotification of a system consisting of an induction motor activating a mobile plate (with variable contents) fixed to a spring are studied. The dynamical model of the device is presented and the electromechanical equations are formulated. The oscillations of the plate are analyzed through variations of the following reliable control parameters: phase voltage supply of the motor, frequency of the external source and mass of the plate. The dynamics of the system near the fundamental resonance region presents jump phenomenon. Mapping of the control parameters planes in terms of types of motion reveals period- n motion, quasi-periodicity and chaos. Anti-control of chaos of the induction motor is also obtained using the field-oriented control associated to the time delay feedback control.

  6. Effects of novelty stress on hippocampal gene expression, corticosterone and motor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kurumaji, Akeo; Umino, Masakazu; Nishikawa, Toru

    2011-10-01

    Exposure to novelty, a mild psychological stressor, induces neuronal activations in the hippocampus of rodents, which may play an important role in the adaptation to stress. We examined the changes in three parameters, i.e., gene expression in the hippocampus using a RT-PCR method, corticosterone and motor activity, in mice exposed to a new environment for 120min. A sharp and short-lasting increase in the gene expression of a set of stress-related genes previously reported, e.g., Fos and Nr4a1, was observed during the stress, with a similar pattern of changes in corticosterone. The motor activity gradually decreased during the novelty stress, indicating a process of adaptation to the new environment. In addition, in order to minimize the effects of elevated adrenal hormones by the stress, we carried out experiments on adrenalectomized (ADX) mice. However, the adrenalectomy produced minimal changes in the pattern and the magnitude of the gene response after the stress, while the motor activity showed a relatively slower pattern of adaptation in the ADX mice. Hence, the present study suggests that there was a coordinated adaptation process to the new environment in mice, and that the transcriptional response was mediated by neuronal networks rather than by adrenal hormones.

  7. Motor activity is modulated via different neuronal circuits in rats with chronic liver failure than in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Cauli, Omar; Mlili, Nisrin; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2007-04-01

    The mechanisms by which liver failure alters motor function remain unclear. It has been suggested that liver disease alters the neuronal circuit between basal ganglia and cortex that modulates motor function. Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) by injecting (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) activates this circuit and induces locomotion We analysed by in vivo brain microdialysis the function of the circuits that modulate motor function in rats with liver failure due to portacaval shunt (PCS). We inserted cannulae in the NAcc and microdialysis probes in the NAcc, ventral pallidum (VP), substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), medio-dorsal thalamus (MDT), ventro-medial thalamus (VMT) or prefrontal cortex (PFCx). We injected DHPG in the NAcc and analysed extracellular neurotransmitters concentration in these areas. The results indicate that in control rats DHPG induces locomotion by activating the 'normal' neuronal circuit: NAcc --> VP --> MDT --> PFCx. In PCS rats this circuit is not activated. In PCS rats, DHPG injection activates an 'alternative' circuit: NAcc --> SNr --> VMT --> PFCx. This circuit is not activated in control rats. DHPG injection increases dopamine in the NAcc of control but not of PCS rats, and glutamate in PCS but not in control rats. DHPG-induced increase in dopamine would activate the 'normal' neuronal circuit, while an increase in glutamate would activate the 'alternative' circuit. The identification of the mechanisms responsible for altered motor function and coordination in liver disease would allow designing treatments to improve motor function in patients with hepatic encephalopathy.

  8. Predictive motor activation during action observation in human infants.

    PubMed

    Southgate, Victoria; Johnson, Mark H; Osborne, Tamsin; Csibra, Gergely

    2009-12-23

    Certain regions of the human brain are activated both during action execution and action observation. This so-called 'mirror neuron system' has been proposed to enable an observer to understand an action through a process of internal motor simulation. Although there has been much speculation about the existence of such a system from early in life, to date there is little direct evidence that young infants recruit brain areas involved in action production during action observation. To address this question, we identified the individual frequency range in which sensorimotor alpha-band activity was attenuated in nine-month-old infants' electroencephalographs (EEGs) during elicited reaching for objects, and measured whether activity in this frequency range was also modulated by observing others' actions. We found that observing a grasping action resulted in motor activation in the infant brain, but that this activity began prior to observation of the action, once it could be anticipated. These results demonstrate not only that infants, like adults, display overlapping neural activity during execution and observation of actions, but that this activation, rather than being directly induced by the visual input, is driven by infants' understanding of a forthcoming action. These results provide support for theories implicating the motor system in action prediction. PMID:19675001

  9. Vicarious motor activation during action perception: beyond correlational evidence

    PubMed Central

    Avenanti, Alessio; Candidi, Matteo; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Neurophysiological and imaging studies have shown that seeing the actions of other individuals brings about the vicarious activation of motor regions involved in performing the same actions. While this suggests a simulative mechanism mediating the perception of others' actions, one cannot use such evidence to make inferences about the functional significance of vicarious activations. Indeed, a central aim in social neuroscience is to comprehend how vicarious activations allow the understanding of other people's behavior, and this requires to use stimulation or lesion methods to establish causal links from brain activity to cognitive functions. In the present work, we review studies investigating the effects of transient manipulations of brain activity or stable lesions in the motor system on individuals' ability to perceive and understand the actions of others. We conclude there is now compelling evidence that neural activity in the motor system is critical for such cognitive ability. More research using causal methods, however, is needed in order to disclose the limits and the conditions under which vicarious activations are required to perceive and understand actions of others as well as their emotions and somatic feelings. PMID:23675338

  10. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  11. Discharge pattern of tonically activated motor units during unloading.

    PubMed

    Gerilovsky, L; Struppler, A; Velho, F; Niehage, O

    1990-12-01

    In order to analyse the EMG pattern during unloading of brachial biceps muscle, the interference EMG and single motor unit activity were investigated. The measurements were done on seven healthy subjects with two types of unloading techniques: a) active unloading, when the subjects resisted against an external load (10, 20, 30 and 40 N) which is suddenly released, and b) passive unloading, performed by low inertia torque motors with independently adjustable background extension and suddenly applied flexion torques. Following active unloading the silent period duration, the amplitude of the rebound and its segmentation into consecutive bursts is changing with initial load, whereas the silent period latency remains constant. Following passive unloading the acceleration influences predominantly the amplitude of the rebound, without changing its latency and silent period duration. The initial voluntary activity influences both silent period duration and rebound parameters (latency, amplitude and duration). PMID:2286170

  12. Attraction and social coordination: mutual entrainment of vocal activity rhythms.

    PubMed

    McGarva, Andrew R; Warner, Rebecca M

    2003-05-01

    To investigate factors that affect the mutual entrainment of vocal activity rhythms, female general psychology students paired according to attitude similarity questionnaires engaged in 40-minute introductory conversations. Fourier analyses performed on speakers' on-off vocal activity demonstrated periodic oscillations in talkativeness. Although some dyads coordinated their vocal activity rhythms, speech accommodation was not predicted by attitude similarity or attraction and did not affect ratings of conversation quality. These rhythms of dialogue appear resistant to change, their behavioral momentum rooted perhaps in an underlying chronobiology. PMID:12845943

  13. Attraction and social coordination: mutual entrainment of vocal activity rhythms.

    PubMed

    McGarva, Andrew R; Warner, Rebecca M

    2003-05-01

    To investigate factors that affect the mutual entrainment of vocal activity rhythms, female general psychology students paired according to attitude similarity questionnaires engaged in 40-minute introductory conversations. Fourier analyses performed on speakers' on-off vocal activity demonstrated periodic oscillations in talkativeness. Although some dyads coordinated their vocal activity rhythms, speech accommodation was not predicted by attitude similarity or attraction and did not affect ratings of conversation quality. These rhythms of dialogue appear resistant to change, their behavioral momentum rooted perhaps in an underlying chronobiology.

  14. Anthropometric Characteristics, Physical Fitness and Motor Coordination of 9 to 11 Year Old Children Participating in a Wide Range of Sports

    PubMed Central

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Hartman, Esther; Willemse, Bas; Philippaerts, Renaat; Visscher, Chris; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 9 to 11 year old children participating in a specific sport already exhibit a specific anthropometric, physical fitness and motor coordination profile, in line with the requirements of that particular sport. In addition, the profiles in children with a different training volume were compared and possible differences in training hours per week between children from a low, moderate, and high level of physical fitness and motor coordination were investigated. Methods and Results Data of 620 children, 347 boys and 273 girls, who participated in the Flemish Sports Compass were used. Only the primary sport of each child was considered and six groups of sports (Ball sports, Dance, Gymnastics, Martial arts, Racquet sports and Swimming) were formed based on common characteristics. Measurements consisted of 17 tests. Independent T-tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests revealed few differences between the groups of sports and the discriminant analyses with the moderate and low active group did not show any significant results (p > .05). However, when discriminating among the high active children, a 85.2 % correct classification between six groups of sports was found (Wilks’ Λ = .137 and p < .001). Finally, children performing under average on the tests spent significantly fewer hours in sport per week (2.50 ± 1.84 hours) compared to the children performing best (3.25 ± 2.60 hours) (p = .016) and the children performing above average (2.90 ± 1.96 hours) (p = .029) on physical fitness and motor coordination. Discussion The study showed that in general, children at a young age do not exhibit sport-specific characteristics, except in children with a high training volume. It is possible that on the one hand, children have not spent enough time yet in their sport to develop sport-specific qualities. On the other hand, it could be possible that they do not take individual qualities into account when choosing a sport

  15. Critical points in the forelimb fictive locomotor cycle and motor coordination: effects of phasic retractions and protractions of the shoulder in the cat.

    PubMed

    Saltiel, Philippe; Rossignol, Serge

    2004-09-01

    This study investigates the responses to phasic shoulder retractions or protractions given at different times in the fictive locomotor cycle of the forelimbs of decerebrate cats. Generally, the responses in flexor and extensor muscles acting at the shoulder or elbow were bilaterally coordinated according to a negative feedback scheme. Perturbations in the direction of the movements that would have taken place if the animal had not been paralyzed tended to shorten the duration of the burst of activity of the muscles active during that phase and vice versa in the opposite phase. Changes in response patterns took place around critical points corresponding to the critical points B-D described in the companion paper using tonic perturbations of the limb. Past point C, at 58% of the ipsilateral extensor burst, protractions no longer prolonged the burst and no longer delayed onset of the contralateral extensor. At point B, occurring at 41% of the contralateral extensor burst, ipsilateral protractions maximally shortened the ipsilateral flexor phase, advancing ipsilateral extensor onset (point D) to point C of the contralateral extensor burst. During a critical period from the end of the ipsilateral flexor (point D) until the contralateral flexor onset, retractions elicited two alternative responses. Either the contralateral extensor activity was abolished and the contralateral flexor turned on, or it persisted for another cycle. We argue that the critical points found here correspond to critical biomechanical events in real locomotion and may underlie a phase-dependent motor coordination.

  16. Subcortical evoked activity and motor enhancement in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Anzak, Anam; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Khan, Sadaquate; Javed, Shazia; Gill, Steven S; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Akram, Harith; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Enhancements in motor performance have been demonstrated in response to intense stimuli both in healthy subjects and in the form of 'paradoxical kinesis' in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we identify a mid-latency evoked potential in local field potential recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus, which scales in amplitude with both the intensity of the stimulus delivered and corresponding enhancements in biomechanical measures of maximal handgrips, independent of the dopaminergic state of our subjects with Parkinson's disease. Recordings of a similar evoked potential in the related pedunculopontine nucleus - a key component of the reticular activating system - provide support for this neural signature in the subthalmic nucleus being a novel correlate of ascending arousal, propagated from the reticular activating system to exert an 'energizing' influence on motor circuitry. Future manipulation of this system linking arousal and motor performance may provide a novel approach for the non-dopaminergic enhancement of motor performance in patients with hypokinetic disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

  17. Subcortical evoked activity and motor enhancement in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Anzak, Anam; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Khan, Sadaquate; Javed, Shazia; Gill, Steven S.; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Akram, Harith; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Green, Alexander L.; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Enhancements in motor performance have been demonstrated in response to intense stimuli both in healthy subjects and in the form of ‘paradoxical kinesis’ in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we identify a mid-latency evoked potential in local field potential recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus, which scales in amplitude with both the intensity of the stimulus delivered and corresponding enhancements in biomechanical measures of maximal handgrips, independent of the dopaminergic state of our subjects with Parkinson's disease. Recordings of a similar evoked potential in the related pedunculopontine nucleus – a key component of the reticular activating system – provide support for this neural signature in the subthalmic nucleus being a novel correlate of ascending arousal, propagated from the reticular activating system to exert an ‘energizing’ influence on motor circuitry. Future manipulation of this system linking arousal and motor performance may provide a novel approach for the non-dopaminergic enhancement of motor performance in patients with hypokinetic disorders such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:26687971

  18. Motor Coordination and Social-Emotional Behaviour in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piek, Jan P.; Bradbury, Greer S.; Elsley, Sharon C.; Tate, Lucinda

    2008-01-01

    School-age children with movement problems such as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are known to have social and emotional difficulties. However, little research has investigated younger children to determine whether these problems emerge at school age or are present earlier. The aim of the current study was to investigate the…

  19. Characterization of Motor Control in Handwriting Difficulties in Children with or without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shao-Hsia; Yu, Nan-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to characterize handwriting deficits in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) using computerized movement analyses. Method: Seventy-two children (40 females, 32 males; mean age 7y, SD 7mo; range 6y 2mo to 7y 11mo) with handwriting deficits (33 with DCD, 39 without DCD); and 22 age- and…

  20. Ice nucleus activity measurements of solid rocket motor exhaust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The ice Nucleus activity of exhaust particles generated from combustion of Space Shuttle propellant in small rocket motors has been measured. The activity at -20 C was substantially lower than that of aerosols generated by unpressurized combustion of propellant samples in previous studies. The activity decays rapidly with time and is decreased further in the presence of moist air. These tests corroborate the low effectivity ice nucleus measurement results obtained in the exhaust ground cloud of the Space Shuttle. Such low ice nucleus activity implies that Space Shuttle induced inadvertent weather modification via an ice phase process is extremely unlikely.

  1. Approaches to Programs of Motor Development and Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    This teaching guide for motor development in the primary grades describes various areas of concern in motor development and suggests activities for the development of young children in each area. Section I discusses the importance of motor development. The next six sections define and describe particular areas of motor development and suggest…

  2. Impairment of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-controlled motor activity in LYN-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Umemori, H; Ogura, H; Tozawa, N; Mikoshiba, K; Nishizumi, H; Yamamoto, T

    2003-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, an ionotropic glutamate receptor, is implicated in motor activity that is regulated in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of the brain. A Src family kinase Lyn is highly expressed in striatum, cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum in the brain. Here we show that spontaneous motor activity is suppressed in lyn-/- mice. S.c. injection of methylphenidate, which causes accumulation of dopamine in synapses, reveals that dopaminergic pathway is normal in lyn-/- mice. After blocking the NMDA receptor, motor activity of lyn-/- mice increased to the same level as that of wild type mice. Therefore, the NMDA receptor-mediated signaling is enhanced in lyn-/- mice, indicating that Lyn regulates the NMDA receptor pathway negatively. Intriguingly, the activity of protein kinase C (PKC), an enzyme regulated downstream of NMDA receptors, is increased in lyn-/- mice. The present data suggest that the NMDA receptor signal that is enhanced in the absence of Lyn suppresses the motor activity, probably through inhibition of dopaminergic pathway at striatum. We conclude that Lyn contributes to coordination of motor activity through regulation of the NMDA pathway. It appears that this negative regulation involves suppression of downstream signaling of NMDA receptor such as those mediated by PKC.

  3. Relationships between coordination, active drag and propelling efficiency in crawl.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ludovic; Schnitzler, Christophe; Bideault, Gautier; Alberty, Morgan; Chollet, Didier; Toussaint, Huub Martin

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the relationships between the index of coordination (IdC) and active drag (D) assuming that at constant average speed, average drag equals average propulsion. The relationship between IdC and propulsive efficiency (ep) was also investigated at maximal speed. Twenty national swimmers completed two incremental speed tests swimming front crawl with arms only in free condition and using a measurement of active drag system. Each test was composed of eight 25-m bouts from 60% to 100% of maximal intensity whereby each lap was swum at constant speed. Different regression models were tested to analyse IdC-D relationship. Correlation between IdC and ep was calculated. IdC was linked to D by linear regression (IdC=0.246·D-27.06; R(2)=0.88, P<.05); swimmers switched from catch-up to superposition coordination mode at a speed of ∼1.55ms(-1) where average D is ∼110N. No correlation between IdC and ep at maximal speed was found. The intra-individual analysis revealed that coordination plays an important role in scaling propulsive forces with higher speed levels such that these are adapted to aquatic resistance. Inter-individual analysis showed that high IdC did not relate to a high ep suggesting an individual optimization of force and power generation is at play to reach high speeds.

  4. Chemical and thermal modulation of molecular motor activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Weili

    Molecular motors of kinesin and dynein families are responsible for various intracellular activities, from long distance movement of organelles, vesicles, protein complexes, and mRNAs to powering mitotic processes. They can take nanometer steps using chemical energy from the hydrolysis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and their dysfunction is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases that require long distance transport of cargos. Here I report on the study of the properties of molecular motors at a single-molecule level using optical trappings. I first studied the inhibition properties of kinesin motors by marine natural compound adociasulfates. I showed that adociasulfates compete with microtubules for binding to kinesins and thus inhibit kinesins' activity. Although adociasulfates are a strong inhibitor for all kinesin members, they show a much higher inhibition effect for conventional kinesins than for mitotic kinesins. Thus adociasulfates can be used to specifically inhibit conventional kinesins. By comparing the inhibition of kinesins by two structurally similar adociasulfates, one can see that the negatively charged sulfate residue of adociasulfates can be replaced by other negative residues and thus make it possible for adociasulfate-derived compounds to be more cell permeable. Kinesins and dyneins move cargos towards opposite directions along a microtubule. Cargos with both kinesins and dyneins attached often move bidirectionally due to undergoing a tug-of-war between the oppositely moving kinesin and dynein motors. Here I studied the effect of temperature on microtubule-based kinesin and dynein motor transport. While kinesins' and dyneins' velocities are closely matched above 15 °C, below this temperature the dyneins' velocity decreases much faster than the kinesins'. The kinesins' and dyneins' forces do not measurably change with temperature. The results suggest that temperature has significant effects on bidirectional transport and can be used to

  5. Subacute exposure to 50-Hz electromagnetic fields affect prenatal and neonatal mice's motor coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnini, Lama; Ali, Hassan Al; Qassab, Narjis Al; Arab, Eman Al; Kamal, Amer

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the possible effect of ELF-EMFs on motor performance in mice (prenatal and neonatal exposed mice). The mice performance is evaluated after 5 days of subacute exposure. Immature mice have been chosen for this study because the immature rodent brain still has the capacity to undergo proliferation, differentiation, and reorganization. Results from the rotarod experiments demonstrated a pronounced deficit in the learning abilities of the prenatal exposed groups, but no pronounced effect was observed for the neonatal exposed group.

  6. Neural oscillations: beta band activity across motor networks.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Preeya; Carmena, Jose M

    2015-06-01

    Local field potential (LFP) activity in motor cortical and basal ganglia regions exhibits prominent beta (15-40Hz) oscillations during reaching and grasping, muscular contraction, and attention tasks. While in vitro and computational work has revealed specific mechanisms that may give rise to the frequency and duration of this oscillation, there is still controversy about what behavioral processes ultimately drive it. Here, simultaneous behavioral and large-scale neural recording experiments from non-human primate and human subjects are reviewed in the context of specific hypotheses about how beta band activity is generated. Finally, a new experimental paradigm utilizing operant conditioning combined with motor tasks is proposed as a way to further investigate this oscillation. PMID:25528615

  7. Gross motor development and physical activity in kindergarten age children.

    PubMed

    Colella, Dario; Morano, Milena

    2011-10-01

    Physical activity in kindergarten is a fundamental part of the child's educational process. Body experience and physical activity contribute to the development of self-awareness and the learning of different modes of expression, as well as encouraging the acquisition of physically active lifestyles. Recent scientific evidence has confirmed the role of physical activity in disease prevention and quality of life improvement, and stressed the importance of integrated educational programmes promoting physical activity and healthy eating habits. A key priority of scientific research is to identify the opportunities and methods of motor learning and to increase the daily physical activity levels of children by reducing sedentary time and promoting active play and transport (i.e. walking, cycling). Family, school and community involvement are all needed to assure adherence to the official guidelines on how much physical activity children need to boost their health and stave off obesity.

  8. Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on information processing, motor coordination and subjective reports of intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.; Henges, Amy L.; Ramsey, Meagan A.; Young, Chelsea R.

    2011-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has become a popular and controversial practice among young people. Increased rates of impaired driving and injuries have been associated with AmED consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine if the consumption of AmED alters cognitive processing and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Eighteen participants (9 men and 9 women) attended 4 test sessions where they received one of 4 doses in random order (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED, or a placebo beverage). Performance on a psychological refractory period (PRP) task was used to measure dual-task information processing and performance on the Purdue pegboard task was used to measure simple and complex motor coordination following dose administration. In addition, various subjective measures of stimulation, sedation, impairment, and level of intoxication were recorded. The results indicated that alcohol slowed dual-task information processing and impaired simple and complex motor coordination. The co-administration of the energy drink with alcohol did not alter the alcohol-induced impairment on these objective measures. For subjective effects, alcohol increases various ratings indicative of feelings of intoxication. More importantly, co-administration of the energy drink with alcohol reduced perceptions of mental fatigue and enhanced feelings of stimulation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, AmED may contribute to a high-risk scenario for a drinker. The mix of behavioral impairment with reduced fatigue and enhanced stimulation may lead AmED consumers to erroneously perceive themselves better able to function than is actually the case. PMID:22023670

  9. Examining the relationship between motor assessments and handwriting consistency in children with and without probable developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Bo, Jin; Colbert, Alison; Lee, Chi-Mei; Schaffert, Jeffrey; Oswald, Kaitlin; Neill, Rebecca

    2014-09-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) often experience difficulties in handwriting. The current study examined the relationships between three motor assessments and the spatial and temporal consistency of handwriting. Twelve children with probable DCD and 29 children from 7 to 12 years who were typically developing wrote the lowercase letters "e" and "l" in cursive and printed forms repetitively on a digitizing tablet. Three behavioral assessments, including the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), the Minnesota Handwriting Assessment (MHA) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), were administered. Children with probable DCD had low scores on the VMI, MABC and MHA and showed high temporal, not spatial, variability in the letter-writing task. Their MABC scores related to temporal consistency in all handwriting conditions, and the Legibility scores in their MHA correlated with temporal consistency in cursive "e" and printed "l". It appears that children with probable DCD have prominent difficulties on the temporal aspect of handwriting. While the MHA is a good product-oriented assessment for measuring handwriting deficits, the MABC shows promise as a good assessment for capturing the temporal process of handwriting in children with DCD. PMID:24873991

  10. Effect of Hfe Deficiency on Memory Capacity and Motor Coordination after Manganese Exposure by Drinking Water in Mice.

    PubMed

    Alsulimani, Helal Hussain; Ye, Qi; Kim, Jonghan

    2015-12-01

    Excess manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic. Increased manganese stores in the brain are associated with a number of behavioral problems, including motor dysfunction, memory loss and psychiatric disorders. We previously showed that the transport and neurotoxicity of manganese after intranasal instillation of the metal are altered in Hfe-deficient mice, a mouse model of the iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). However, it is not fully understood whether loss of Hfe function modifies Mn neurotoxicity after ingestion. To investigate the role of Hfe in oral Mn toxicity, we exposed Hfe-knockout (Hfe (-/-)) and their control wild-type (Hfe (+/+)) mice to MnCl2 in drinking water (5 mg/mL) for 5 weeks. Motor coordination and spatial memory capacity were determined by the rotarod test and the Barnes maze test, respectively. Brain and liver metal levels were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared with the water-drinking group, mice drinking Mn significantly increased Mn concentrations in the liver and brain of both genotypes. Mn exposure decreased iron levels in the liver, but not in the brain. Neither Mn nor Hfe deficiency altered tissue concentrations of copper or zinc. The rotarod test showed that Mn exposure decreased motor skills in Hfe (+/+) mice, but not in Hfe (-/-) mice (p = 0.023). In the Barns maze test, latency to find the target hole was not altered in Mn-exposed Hfe (+/+) compared with water-drinking Hfe (+/+) mice. However, Mn-exposed Hfe (-/-) mice spent more time to find the target hole than Mn-drinking Hfe (+/+) mice (p = 0.028). These data indicate that loss of Hfe function impairs spatial memory upon Mn exposure in drinking water. Our results suggest that individuals with hemochromatosis could be more vulnerable to memory deficits induced by Mn ingestion from our environment. The pathophysiological role of HFE in manganese neurotoxicity should be carefully examined in patients with HFE-associated hemochromatosis and

  11. Visuo-motor coordination ability predicts performance with brain-computer interfaces controlled by modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR).

    PubMed

    Hammer, Eva M; Kaufmann, Tobias; Kleih, Sonja C; Blankertz, Benjamin; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) was suggested as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Yet, there is a population of users estimated between 10 to 50% not able to achieve reliable control and only about 20% of users achieve high (80-100%) performance. Predicting performance prior to BCI use would facilitate selection of the most feasible system for an individual, thus constitute a practical benefit for the user, and increase our knowledge about the correlates of BCI control. In a recent study, we predicted SMR-BCI performance from psychological variables that were assessed prior to the BCI sessions and BCI control was supported with machine-learning techniques. We described two significant psychological predictors, namely the visuo-motor coordination ability and the ability to concentrate on the task. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these results thereby validating these predictors within a neurofeedback based SMR-BCI that involved no machine learning.Thirty-three healthy BCI novices participated in a calibration session and three further neurofeedback training sessions. Two variables were related with mean SMR-BCI performance: (1) a measure for the accuracy of fine motor skills, i.e., a trade for a person's visuo-motor control ability; and (2) subject's "attentional impulsivity". In a linear regression they accounted for almost 20% in variance of SMR-BCI performance, but predictor (1) failed significance. Nevertheless, on the basis of our prior regression model for sensorimotor control ability we could predict current SMR-BCI performance with an average prediction error of M = 12.07%. In more than 50% of the participants, the prediction error was smaller than 10%. Hence, psychological variables played a moderate role in predicting SMR-BCI performance in a neurofeedback approach that involved no machine learning. Future studies are needed to further consolidate (or reject) the present predictors.

  12. Visuo-motor coordination ability predicts performance with brain-computer interfaces controlled by modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR)

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Eva M.; Kaufmann, Tobias; Kleih, Sonja C.; Blankertz, Benjamin; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) was suggested as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Yet, there is a population of users estimated between 10 to 50% not able to achieve reliable control and only about 20% of users achieve high (80–100%) performance. Predicting performance prior to BCI use would facilitate selection of the most feasible system for an individual, thus constitute a practical benefit for the user, and increase our knowledge about the correlates of BCI control. In a recent study, we predicted SMR-BCI performance from psychological variables that were assessed prior to the BCI sessions and BCI control was supported with machine-learning techniques. We described two significant psychological predictors, namely the visuo-motor coordination ability and the ability to concentrate on the task. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these results thereby validating these predictors within a neurofeedback based SMR-BCI that involved no machine learning.Thirty-three healthy BCI novices participated in a calibration session and three further neurofeedback training sessions. Two variables were related with mean SMR-BCI performance: (1) a measure for the accuracy of fine motor skills, i.e., a trade for a person’s visuo-motor control ability; and (2) subject’s “attentional impulsivity”. In a linear regression they accounted for almost 20% in variance of SMR-BCI performance, but predictor (1) failed significance. Nevertheless, on the basis of our prior regression model for sensorimotor control ability we could predict current SMR-BCI performance with an average prediction error of M = 12.07%. In more than 50% of the participants, the prediction error was smaller than 10%. Hence, psychological variables played a moderate role in predicting SMR-BCI performance in a neurofeedback approach that involved no machine learning. Future studies are needed to further consolidate (or reject) the present predictors. PMID:25147518

  13. Effect of Hfe Deficiency on Memory Capacity and Motor Coordination after Manganese Exposure by Drinking Water in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alsulimani, Helal Hussain; Ye, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Excess manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic. Increased manganese stores in the brain are associated with a number of behavioral problems, including motor dysfunction, memory loss and psychiatric disorders. We previously showed that the transport and neurotoxicity of manganese after intranasal instillation of the metal are altered in Hfe-deficient mice, a mouse model of the iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). However, it is not fully understood whether loss of Hfe function modifies Mn neurotoxicity after ingestion. To investigate the role of Hfe in oral Mn toxicity, we exposed Hfe-knockout (Hfe-/-) and their control wild-type (Hfe+/+) mice to MnCl2 in drinking water (5 mg/mL) for 5 weeks. Motor coordination and spatial memory capacity were determined by the rotarod test and the Barnes maze test, respectively. Brain and liver metal levels were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared with the water-drinking group, mice drinking Mn significantly increased Mn concentrations in the liver and brain of both genotypes. Mn exposure decreased iron levels in the liver, but not in the brain. Neither Mn nor Hfe deficiency altered tissue concentrations of copper or zinc. The rotarod test showed that Mn exposure decreased motor skills in Hfe+/+ mice, but not in Hfe-/- mice (p = 0.023). In the Barns maze test, latency to find the target hole was not altered in Mn-exposed Hfe+/+ compared with water-drinking Hfe+/+ mice. However, Mn-exposed Hfe-/- mice spent more time to find the target hole than Mn-drinking Hfe+/+ mice (p = 0.028). These data indicate that loss of Hfe function impairs spatial memory upon Mn exposure in drinking water. Our results suggest that individuals with hemochromatosis could be more vulnerable to memory deficits induced by Mn ingestion from our environment. The pathophysiological role of HFE in manganese neurotoxicity should be carefully examined in patients with HFE-associated hemochromatosis and other iron overload

  14. Coordinating complex decision support activities across distributed applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative activities. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for distributed communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous distributed applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between distributed applications.

  15. Induction of Neuron-Specific Degradation of Coenzyme A Models Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration by Reducing Motor Coordination in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shumar, Stephanie A.; Fagone, Paolo; Alfonso-Pecchio, Adolfo; Gray, John T.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Jackowski, Suzanne; Leonardi, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Background Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, PKAN, is an inherited disorder characterized by progressive impairment in motor coordination and caused by mutations in PANK2, a human gene that encodes one of four pantothenate kinase (PanK) isoforms. PanK initiates the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA), an essential cofactor that plays a key role in energy metabolism and lipid synthesis. Most of the mutations in PANK2 reduce or abolish the activity of the enzyme. This evidence has led to the hypothesis that lower CoA might be the underlying cause of the neurodegeneration in PKAN patients; however, no mouse model of the disease is currently available to investigate the connection between neuronal CoA levels and neurodegeneration. Indeed, genetic and/or dietary manipulations aimed at reducing whole-body CoA synthesis have not produced a desirable PKAN model, and this has greatly hindered the discovery of a treatment for the disease. Objective, Methods, Results and Conclusions Cellular CoA levels are tightly regulated by a balance between synthesis and degradation. CoA degradation is catalyzed by two peroxisomal nudix hydrolases, Nudt7 and Nudt19. In this study we sought to reduce neuronal CoA in mice through the alternative approach of increasing Nudt7-mediated CoA degradation. This was achieved by combining the use of an adeno-associated virus-based expression system with the synapsin (Syn) promoter. We show that mice with neuronal overexpression of a cytosolic version of Nudt7 (scAAV9-Syn-Nudt7cyt) exhibit a significant decrease in brain CoA levels in conjunction with a reduction in motor coordination. These results strongly support the existence of a link between CoA levels and neuronal function and show that scAAV9-Syn-Nudt7cyt mice can be used to model PKAN. PMID:26052948

  16. Age-related changes in human posture control: Motor coordination tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1989-01-01

    Postural responses to support surface displacements were measured in 214 normal human subjects ranging in age from 7 to 81 years. Motor tests measured leg muscle Electromyography (EMG) latencies, body sway, and the amplitude and timing of changes in center of pressure displacements in response to sudden forward and backward horizontal translations of the support surface upon which the subjects stood. There were small increases in both EMG latencies and the time to reach the peak amplitude of center of pressure responses with increasing age. The amplitude of center of pressure responses showed little change with age if the amplitude measures were normalized by a factor related to subject height. In general, postural responses to sudden translations showed minimal changes with age, and all age related trends which were identified were small relative to the variability within the population.

  17. MicroRNA-8 promotes robust motor axon targeting by coordinate regulation of cell adhesion molecules during synapse development

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cecilia S.; Zhai, Bo; Mauss, Alex; Landgraf, Matthias; Gygi, Stephen; Van Vactor, David

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal connectivity and specificity rely upon precise coordinated deployment of multiple cell-surface and secreted molecules. MicroRNAs have tremendous potential for shaping neural circuitry by fine-tuning the spatio-temporal expression of key synaptic effector molecules. The highly conserved microRNA miR-8 is required during late stages of neuromuscular synapse development in Drosophila. However, its role in initial synapse formation was previously unknown. Detailed analysis of synaptogenesis in this system now reveals that miR-8 is required at the earliest stages of muscle target contact by RP3 motor axons. We find that the localization of multiple synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) is dependent on the expression of miR-8, suggesting that miR-8 regulates the initial assembly of synaptic sites. Using stable isotope labelling in vivo and comparative mass spectrometry, we find that miR-8 is required for normal expression of multiple proteins, including the CAMs Fasciclin III (FasIII) and Neuroglian (Nrg). Genetic analysis suggests that Nrg and FasIII collaborate downstream of miR-8 to promote accurate target recognition. Unlike the function of miR-8 at mature larval neuromuscular junctions, at the embryonic stage we find that miR-8 controls key effectors on both sides of the synapse. MiR-8 controls multiple stages of synapse formation through the coordinate regulation of both pre- and postsynaptic cell adhesion proteins. PMID:25135978

  18. MicroRNA-8 promotes robust motor axon targeting by coordinate regulation of cell adhesion molecules during synapse development.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cecilia S; Zhai, Bo; Mauss, Alex; Landgraf, Matthias; Gygi, Stephen; Van Vactor, David

    2014-09-26

    Neuronal connectivity and specificity rely upon precise coordinated deployment of multiple cell-surface and secreted molecules. MicroRNAs have tremendous potential for shaping neural circuitry by fine-tuning the spatio-temporal expression of key synaptic effector molecules. The highly conserved microRNA miR-8 is required during late stages of neuromuscular synapse development in Drosophila. However, its role in initial synapse formation was previously unknown. Detailed analysis of synaptogenesis in this system now reveals that miR-8 is required at the earliest stages of muscle target contact by RP3 motor axons. We find that the localization of multiple synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) is dependent on the expression of miR-8, suggesting that miR-8 regulates the initial assembly of synaptic sites. Using stable isotope labelling in vivo and comparative mass spectrometry, we find that miR-8 is required for normal expression of multiple proteins, including the CAMs Fasciclin III (FasIII) and Neuroglian (Nrg). Genetic analysis suggests that Nrg and FasIII collaborate downstream of miR-8 to promote accurate target recognition. Unlike the function of miR-8 at mature larval neuromuscular junctions, at the embryonic stage we find that miR-8 controls key effectors on both sides of the synapse. MiR-8 controls multiple stages of synapse formation through the coordinate regulation of both pre- and postsynaptic cell adhesion proteins.

  19. Time of Day – Effects on Motor Coordination and Reactive Strength in Elite Athletes and Untrained Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Battaglia, Claudia; Giombini, Arrigo; Piazza, Marina; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Pigozzi, Fabio; Borrione, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: the issue of time-of-day effects on performance is crucial when considering the goal of reaching peak results in sport disciplines. The present study was designed to examine time-of-day effects in adolescents on motor coordination, assessed with Hirtz’s battery and neuromuscular components of strength, evaluated with reactive strength tests. Methods: forty-two elite female gymnasts, aged 13.3 ± 0.5 years (Mean ± SD), were recruited for the study. Fifty healthy female students (aged 12.8 ± 1.7 years) served as the control group. All participants underwent the testing sessions over two days at two different times of day in a randomized order. Results: Oral temperature was measured at the two times of the day and a significant diurnal variation (p < 0.01) in both groups was found. MANOVA revealed significant group differences in the overall tests (p < 0.01). The gymnast group showed no significant differences in the coordination tests with respect to the time of day, but significant differences were observed for reactive strength as assessed with the vertical jump tests (p < 0.01). Gyamnasts attained better results in the evening in the reactive strength tests [flight time (F1.90 = 17.322 p < 0.01) and ground contact time (F1.90 = 8.372; p < 0.01) of the hopping test]. Conclusion: the temperature effect was more evident in the reactive strength tests and orientation test, especially in the gymnast group in which this effect added to their usual training time effect. The time-since-awakening influenced coordination performances in complex tasks more than reaction strength tests in simple tasks. The main outcome of the study was that we did not observe time-of-day effects on coordination skills in elite gymnasts and in untrained adolescents. The time of day in which athletes usually trained these skills could influence these results. Key points The results obtained in this study suggested that the best time to perform a particular task depends

  20. Experimentally induced diabetes causes glial activation, glutamate toxicity and cellular damage leading to changes in motor function

    PubMed Central

    Nagayach, Aarti; Patro, Nisha; Patro, Ishan

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral impairments are the most empirical consequence of diabetes mellitus documented in both humans and animal models, but the underlying causes are still poorly understood. As the cerebellum plays a major role in coordination and execution of the motor functions, we investigated the possible involvement of glial activation, cellular degeneration and glutamate transportation in the cerebellum of rats, rendered diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 45 mg/kg body weight; intraperitoneally). Motor function alterations were studied using Rotarod test (motor coordination) and grip strength (muscle activity) at 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th week post-diabetic confirmation. Scenario of glial (astroglia and microglia) activation, cell death and glutamate transportation was gaged using immunohistochemistry, histological study and image analysis. Cellular degeneration was clearly demarcated in the diabetic cerebellum. Glial cells were showing sequential and marked activation following diabetes in terms of both morphology and cell number. Bergmann glial cells were hypertrophied and distorted. Active caspase-3 positive apoptotic cells were profoundly present in all three cerebellar layers. Reduced co-labeling of GLT-1 and GFAP revealed the altered glutamate transportation in cerebellum following diabetes. These results, exclusively derived from histology, immunohistochemistry and cellular quantification, provide first insight over the associative reciprocity between the glial activation, cellular degeneration and reduced glutamate transportation, which presumably lead to the behavioral alterations following STZ-induced diabetes. PMID:25400546

  1. Classification of physical activities based on body-segments coordination.

    PubMed

    Fradet, Laetitia; Marin, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    Numerous innovations based on connected objects and physical activity (PA) monitoring have been proposed. However, recognition of PAs requires robust algorithm and methodology. The current study presents an innovative approach for PA recognition. It is based on the heuristic definition of postures and the use of body-segments coordination obtained through external sensors. The first part of this study presents the methodology required to define the set of accelerations which is the most appropriate to represent the particular body-segments coordination involved in the chosen PAs (here walking, running, and cycling). For that purpose, subjects of different ages and heterogeneous physical conditions walked, ran, cycled, and performed daily activities at different paces. From the 3D motion capture, vertical and horizontal accelerations of 8 anatomical landmarks representative of the body were computed. Then, the 680 combinations from up to 3 accelerations were compared to identify the most appropriate set of acceleration to discriminate the PAs in terms of body segment coordinations. The discrimination was based on the maximal Hausdorff Distance obtained between the different set of accelerations. The vertical accelerations of both knees demonstrated the best PAs discrimination. The second step was the proof of concept, implementing the proposed algorithm to classify PAs of new group of subjects. The originality of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to use the subject's specific measures as reference data. With the proposed algorithm, 94% of the trials were correctly classified. In conclusion, our study proposed a flexible and extendable methodology. At the current stage, the algorithm has been shown to be valid for heterogeneous subjects, which suggests that it could be deployed in clinical or health-related applications regardless of the subjects' physical abilities or characteristics.

  2. Classification of physical activities based on body-segments coordination.

    PubMed

    Fradet, Laetitia; Marin, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    Numerous innovations based on connected objects and physical activity (PA) monitoring have been proposed. However, recognition of PAs requires robust algorithm and methodology. The current study presents an innovative approach for PA recognition. It is based on the heuristic definition of postures and the use of body-segments coordination obtained through external sensors. The first part of this study presents the methodology required to define the set of accelerations which is the most appropriate to represent the particular body-segments coordination involved in the chosen PAs (here walking, running, and cycling). For that purpose, subjects of different ages and heterogeneous physical conditions walked, ran, cycled, and performed daily activities at different paces. From the 3D motion capture, vertical and horizontal accelerations of 8 anatomical landmarks representative of the body were computed. Then, the 680 combinations from up to 3 accelerations were compared to identify the most appropriate set of acceleration to discriminate the PAs in terms of body segment coordinations. The discrimination was based on the maximal Hausdorff Distance obtained between the different set of accelerations. The vertical accelerations of both knees demonstrated the best PAs discrimination. The second step was the proof of concept, implementing the proposed algorithm to classify PAs of new group of subjects. The originality of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to use the subject's specific measures as reference data. With the proposed algorithm, 94% of the trials were correctly classified. In conclusion, our study proposed a flexible and extendable methodology. At the current stage, the algorithm has been shown to be valid for heterogeneous subjects, which suggests that it could be deployed in clinical or health-related applications regardless of the subjects' physical abilities or characteristics. PMID:27441831

  3. Insect motor control: methodological advances, descending control and inter-leg coordination on the move.

    PubMed

    Borgmann, Anke; Büschges, Ansgar

    2015-08-01

    Modern approaches, including high performance video, neurophysiology, and neurogenetics, allow to analyze invertebrate behavior on all levels of generation and performance in an unprecedented way. They allow observation and classification of behavior in controlled conditions, dissection of behavioral sequencing, identification of levels of processing and locations of associated sub-networks and, finally, identification of neuronal components and topologies contributing to specific aspects of behaviors. Recently conceptual and methodological progress has contributed to unraveling the neural structures underlying descending control of insect behavior as well as the mechanisms in charge of generating coordinated locomotor movements of the invertebrate extremities during walking. This brief review summarizes some of the most exciting new findings in these areas of research from the past years.

  4. Developmental Coordination Disorder and Other Motor Control Problems in Girls with Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Svenny; Beckung, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Examine the rate, predictors, and effect on daily life skills of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and other motor control difficulties in school age girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in preschool age girls with ASD referred to a neuropsychiatric clinic, and in a community…

  5. Stability of Motor Problems in Young Children with or at Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders, ADHD, and or Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Waelvelde, Hilde; Oostra, Ann; DeWitte, Griet; van den Broeck, Christine; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of motor problems in a clinically referred sample of children with, or at risk of, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and/or developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: Participants were 49 children (39 males, 10 females; mean age 5y…

  6. The Role of Self-Regulatory and Metacognitive Competence in the Motor Performance Difficulties of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Theoretical and Empirical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokic, Claire Sangster; Whitebread, David

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) experience difficulty coping with everyday demands due to difficulties in performing motor tasks. Recently, a cognitive learning paradigm has been applied to studying the nature of the problems experienced by children with DCD, which assumes that these children have fewer cognitive and…

  7. Can the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Test Be the "Gold Standard" for the Motor Assessment of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis; Ellinoudis, Theodoros; Fatouros, Ioannis; Giannakidou, Dimitra; Kourtessis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is an important risk factor in the development of children that can have a significant academic and social impact. This reinforces the need for its timely identification using appropriate assessment methods and accurate screening tests. The commonly used standardized motor test for the DCD identification…

  8. Chronic Assessment of Diaphragm Muscle EMG Activity across Motor Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Carlos B.; Seven, Yasin B.; Hurtado-Palomino, Juan N.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.

    2011-01-01

    The diaphragm muscle is main inspiratory muscle in mammals. Quantitative analyses documenting the reliability of chronic diaphragm EMG recordings are lacking. Assessment of ventilatory and non-ventilatory motor behaviors may facilitate evaluating diaphragm EMG activity over time. We hypothesized that normalization of diaphragm EMG amplitude across behaviors provides stable and reliable parameters for longitudinal assessments of diaphragm activity. We found that diaphragm EMG activity shows substantial intra-animal variability over 6 weeks, with coefficient of variation (CV) for different behaviors ~29–42%. Normalization of diaphragm EMG activity to near maximal behaviors (e.g., deep breathing) reduced intra-animal variability over time (CV ~22–29%). Plethysmographic measurements of eupneic ventilation were also stable over 6 weeks (CV ~13% for minute ventilation). Thus, stable and reliable measurements of diaphragm EMG activity can be obtained longitudinally using chronically implanted electrodes by examining multiple motor behaviors. By quantitatively determining the reliability of longitudinal diaphragm EMG analyses, we provide an important tool for evaluating the progression of diseases or injuries that impair ventilation. PMID:21414423

  9. Effects of motor fatigue on human brain activity, an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    van Duinen, Hiske; Renken, Remco; Maurits, Natasha; Zijdewind, Inge

    2007-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate effects of motor fatigue on brain activation in humans, using fMRI. First, we assessed brain activation that correlated with muscle activity during brief contractions at different force levels (force modulation). Second, a similar analysis was done for sustained contractions inducing motor fatigue. Third, we studied changes in brain activation due to motor fatigue over time. And fourth, we investigated cross-over effects of fatigue by comparing brain activation before and after the fatiguing condition during simple and high-order motor tasks (reaction time tasks). Several motor areas in the brain showed increased activity with increased muscle activity, both during force modulation and motor fatigue. Interestingly, the cerebellum showed a smaller increase in activation, during compensatory activation due to fatigue, while additional activation was found in the pre-supplementary motor area and in a frontal area. During motor fatigue, there was a decrease in force production, an increase in force variability, and an increase in muscle activity. Brain areas comparable with the aforementioned areas also showed stronger activation over time. After fatigue, reaction time task performance remained the same (compared to before fatigue), while increased activation in orbitofrontal areas was found. Furthermore, there was a reduction in subjects' maximal voluntary contraction force, accompanied by a decrease in activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA). These results suggest that especially the activity in the SMA and frontal areas is affected by motor fatigue.

  10. PRMT8 as a phospholipase regulates Purkinje cell dendritic arborization and motor coordination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun-Dal; Park, Kyung-Eui; Ishida, Junji; Kako, Koichiro; Hamada, Juri; Kani, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Miki; Namiki, Kana; Fukui, Hajime; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Hibi, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kanaho, Yasunori; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi; Mochizuki, Naoki; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The development of vertebrate neurons requires a change in membrane phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolism. Although PC hydrolysis is essential for enhanced axonal outgrowth mediated by phospholipase D (PLD), less is known about the determinants of PC metabolism on dendritic arborization. We show that protein arginine methyltransferase 8 (PRMT8) acts as a phospholipase that directly hydrolyzes PC, generating choline and phosphatidic acid. We found that PRMT8 knockout mice (prmt8−/−) displayed abnormal motor behaviors, including hindlimb clasping and hyperactivity. Moreover, prmt8−/− mice and TALEN-induced zebrafish prmt8 mutants and morphants showed abnormal phenotypes, including the development of dendritic trees in Purkinje cells and altered cerebellar structure. Choline and acetylcholine levels were significantly decreased, whereas PC levels were increased, in the cerebellum of prmt8−/− mice. Our findings suggest that PRMT8 acts both as an arginine methyltransferase and as a PC-hydrolyzing PLD that is essential for proper neurological functions. PMID:26665171

  11. D-serine regulates cerebellar LTD and motor coordination through the δ2 glutamate receptor.

    PubMed

    Kakegawa, Wataru; Miyoshi, Yurika; Hamase, Kenji; Matsuda, Shinji; Matsuda, Keiko; Kohda, Kazuhisa; Emi, Kyoichi; Motohashi, Junko; Konno, Ryuichi; Zaitsu, Kiyoshi; Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2011-05-01

    D-serine (D-Ser) is an endogenous co-agonist for NMDA receptors and regulates neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in the forebrain. D-Ser is also found in the cerebellum during the early postnatal period. Although D-Ser binds to the δ2 glutamate receptor (GluD2, Grid2) in vitro, its physiological significance has remained unclear. Here we show that D-Ser serves as an endogenous ligand for GluD2 to regulate long-term depression (LTD) at synapses between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells in the immature cerebellum. D-Ser was released mainly from Bergmann glia after the burst stimulation of parallel fibers in immature, but not mature, cerebellum. D-Ser rapidly induced endocytosis of AMPA receptors and mutually occluded LTD in wild-type, but not Grid2-null, Purkinje cells. Moreover, mice expressing mutant GluD2 in which the binding site for D-Ser was disrupted showed impaired LTD and motor dyscoordination during development. These results indicate that glial D-Ser regulates synaptic plasticity and cerebellar functions by interacting with GluD2. PMID:21460832

  12. D-serine regulates cerebellar LTD and motor coordination through the δ2 glutamate receptor.

    PubMed

    Kakegawa, Wataru; Miyoshi, Yurika; Hamase, Kenji; Matsuda, Shinji; Matsuda, Keiko; Kohda, Kazuhisa; Emi, Kyoichi; Motohashi, Junko; Konno, Ryuichi; Zaitsu, Kiyoshi; Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2011-05-01

    D-serine (D-Ser) is an endogenous co-agonist for NMDA receptors and regulates neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in the forebrain. D-Ser is also found in the cerebellum during the early postnatal period. Although D-Ser binds to the δ2 glutamate receptor (GluD2, Grid2) in vitro, its physiological significance has remained unclear. Here we show that D-Ser serves as an endogenous ligand for GluD2 to regulate long-term depression (LTD) at synapses between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells in the immature cerebellum. D-Ser was released mainly from Bergmann glia after the burst stimulation of parallel fibers in immature, but not mature, cerebellum. D-Ser rapidly induced endocytosis of AMPA receptors and mutually occluded LTD in wild-type, but not Grid2-null, Purkinje cells. Moreover, mice expressing mutant GluD2 in which the binding site for D-Ser was disrupted showed impaired LTD and motor dyscoordination during development. These results indicate that glial D-Ser regulates synaptic plasticity and cerebellar functions by interacting with GluD2.

  13. AMPK Agonist AICAR Improves Cognition and Motor Coordination in Young and Aged Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilo, Tali; Guerrieri, Davide; Zhang, Yongqing; Collica, Sarah C.; Becker, Kevin G.; van Praag, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    Normal aging can result in a decline of memory and muscle function. Exercise may prevent or delay these changes. However, aging-associated frailty can preclude physical activity. In young sedentary animals, pharmacological activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a transcriptional regulator important for muscle physiology, enhanced…

  14. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity in Wistar and August rats with low and high motor activity (a cytochemical study).

    PubMed

    Sergutina, A V; Rakhmanova, V I

    2014-08-01

    Acetylcholinesterase activity was quantitatively evaluated by cytochemical method in brain structures (layers III and V of the sensorimotor cortex, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus CA3 field) of August and Wistar rats demonstrating high and low motor activity in the open field test. In August rats, acetylcholinesterase activity in the analyzed brain structures prevailed in animals with high motor activity in comparison with rats with low motor activity. In Wistar rats, the differences between the animals demonstrating high and low motor activity were less pronounced, but varied depending on the experimental series of studies. Comparisons of August rats with low motor activity and Wistar rats with high motor activity (maximum difference of motor function in these animals) revealed significant excess of acetylcholinesterase activity in layer III of the sensorimotor cortex in August rats and no differences in other brain structures of the examined animals.

  15. [Simple and useful evaluation of motor difficulty in childhood (9-12 years old children ) by interview score on motor skills and soft neurological signs--aim for the diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder].

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Shuhei

    2009-09-01

    Many children with developmental disorders are known to have motor impairment such as clumsiness and poor physical ability;however, the objective evaluation of such difficulties is not easy in routine clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to establish a simple method for evaluating motor difficulty of childhood. This method employs a scored interview and examination for detecting soft neurological signs (SNSs). After a preliminary survey with 22 normal children, we set the items and the cutoffs for the interview and SNSs. The interview consisted of questions pertaining to 12 items related to a child's motor skills in his/her past and current life, such as skipping, jumping a rope, ball sports, origami, and using chopsticks. The SNS evaluation included 5 tests, namely, standing on one leg with eyes closed, diadochokinesia, associated movements during diadochokinesia, finger opposition test, and laterally fixed gaze. We applied this method to 43 children, including 25 cases of developmental disorders. Children showing significantly high scores in both the interview and SNS were assigned to the "with motor difficulty" group, while those with low scores in both the tests were assigned to the "without motor difficulty" group. The remaining children were assigned to the "with suspicious motor difficulty" group. More than 90% of the children in the "with motor difficulty" group had high impairment scores in Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), a standardized motor test, whereas 82% of the children in the "without motor difficulty" group revealed no motor impairment. Thus, we conclude that our simple method and criteria would be useful for the evaluation of motor difficulty of childhood. Further, we have discussed the diagnostic process for developmental coordination disorder using our evaluation method.

  16. Simulating Activities: Relating Motives, Deliberation and Attentive Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Activities are located behaviors, taking time, conceived as socially meaningful, and usually involving interaction with tools and the environment. In modeling human cognition as a form of problem solving (goal-directed search and operator sequencing), cognitive science researchers have not adequately studied "off-task" activities (e.g., waiting), non-intellectual motives (e.g., hunger), sustaining a goal state (e.g., playful interaction), and coupled perceptual-motor dynamics (e.g., following someone). These aspects of human behavior have been considered in bits and pieces in past research, identified as scripts, human factors, behavior settings, ensemble, flow experience, and situated action. More broadly, activity theory provides a comprehensive framework relating motives, goals, and operations. This paper ties these ideas together, using examples from work life in a Canadian High Arctic research station. The emphasis is on simulating human behavior as it naturally occurs, such that "working" is understood as an aspect of living. The result is a synthesis of previously unrelated analytic perspectives and a broader appreciation of the nature of human cognition. Simulating activities in this comprehensive way is useful for understanding work practice, promoting learning, and designing better tools, including human-robot systems.

  17. Active Fault Tolerant Control for Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhnifer, Moussa

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasonic piezoelectric motor technology is an important system component in integrated mechatronics devices working on extreme operating conditions. Due to these constraints, robustness and performance of the control interfaces should be taken into account in the motor design. In this paper, we apply a new architecture for a fault tolerant control using Youla parameterization for an ultrasonic piezoelectric motor. The distinguished feature of proposed controller architecture is that it shows structurally how the controller design for performance and robustness may be done separately which has the potential to overcome the conflict between performance and robustness in the traditional feedback framework. A fault tolerant control architecture includes two parts: one part for performance and the other part for robustness. The controller design works in such a way that the feedback control system will be solely controlled by the proportional plus double-integral PI2 performance controller for a nominal model without disturbances and H∞ robustification controller will only be activated in the presence of the uncertainties or an external disturbances. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault tolerant control architecture.

  18. Relation between cooperative molecular motors and active Brownian particles.

    PubMed

    Touya, Clément; Schwalger, Tilo; Lindner, Benjamin

    2011-05-01

    Active Brownian particles (ABPs), obeying a nonlinear Langevin equation with speed-dependent drift and noise amplitude, are well-known models used to describe self-propelled motion in biology. In this paper we study a model describing the stochastic dynamics of a group of coupled molecular motors (CMMs). Using two independent numerical methods, one based on the stationary velocity distribution of the motors and the other one on the local increments (also known as the Kramers-Moyal coefficients) of the velocity, we establish a connection between the CMM and the ABP models. The parameters extracted for the ABP via the two methods show good agreement for both symmetric and asymmetric cases and are independent of N, the number of motors, provided that N is not too small. This indicates that one can indeed describe the CMM problem with a simpler ABP model. However, the power spectrum of velocity fluctuations in the CMM model reveals a peak at a finite frequency, a peak which is absent in the velocity spectrum of the ABP model. This implies richer dynamic features of the CMM model which cannot be captured by an ABP model.

  19. Motor neuronal activity varies least among individuals when it matters most for behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cullins, Miranda J.; Shaw, Kendrick M.; Gill, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    How does motor neuronal variability affect behavior? To explore this question, we quantified activity of multiple individual identified motor neurons mediating biting and swallowing in intact, behaving Aplysia californica by recording from the protractor muscle and the three nerves containing the majority of motor neurons controlling the feeding musculature. We measured multiple motor components: duration of the activity of identified motor neurons as well as their relative timing. At the same time, we measured behavioral efficacy: amplitude of grasping movement during biting and amplitude of net inward food movement during swallowing. We observed that the total duration of the behaviors varied: Within animals, biting duration shortened from the first to the second and third bites; between animals, biting and swallowing durations varied. To study other sources of variation, motor components were divided by behavior duration (i.e., normalized). Even after normalization, distributions of motor component durations could distinguish animals as unique individuals. However, the degree to which a motor component varied among individuals depended on the role of that motor component in a behavior. Motor neuronal activity that was essential for the expression of biting or swallowing was similar among animals, whereas motor neuronal activity that was not essential for that behavior varied more from individual to individual. These results suggest that motor neuronal activity that matters most for the expression of a particular behavior may vary least from individual to individual. Shaping individual variability to ensure behavioral efficacy may be a general principle for the operation of motor systems. PMID:25411463

  20. Impact of Cerebral Visual Impairments on Motor Skills: Implications for Developmental Coordination Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chokron, Sylvie; Dutton, Gordon N.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) has become the primary cause of visual impairment and blindness in children in industrialized countries. Its prevalence has increased sharply, due to increased survival rates of children who sustain severe neurological conditions during the perinatal period. Improved diagnosis has probably contributed to this increase. As in adults, the nature and severity of CVI in children relate to the cause, location and extent of damage to the brain. In the present paper, we define CVI and how this impacts on visual function. We then define developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and discuss the link between CVI and DCD. The neuroanatomical correlates and aetiologies of DCD are also presented in relationship with CVI as well as the consequences of perinatal asphyxia (PA) and preterm birth on the occurrence and nature of DCD and CVI. This paper underlines why there are both clinical and theoretical reasons to disentangle CVI and DCD, and to categorize the features with more precision. In order to offer the most appropriate rehabilitation, we propose a systematic and rapid evaluation of visual function in at-risk children who have survived preterm birth or PA whether or not they have been diagnosed with cerebral palsy or DCD. PMID:27757087

  1. Revealing hot executive function in children with motor coordination problems: What's the go?

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, S; Steenbergen, B; Piek, J P; Caeyenberghs, K; Wilson, P H

    2016-07-01

    Recent research suggests that children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) often show deficits in executive functioning (EF) and, more specifically, the ability to use inhibitory control in 'hot', emotionally rewarding contexts. This study optimized the assessment of sensitivity of children with DCD to emotionally significant stimuli by using easily discriminable emotional expressions in a go/no-go task. Thirty-six children (12 with DCD), aged 7-12years, completed an emotional go/no-go task in which neutral facial expressions were paired with either happy or sad ones. Each expression was used as both, a go and no-go target in different runs of the task. There were no group differences in omission errors; however, the DCD group made significantly more commission errors to happy no-go faces. The particular pattern of performance in DCD confirms earlier reports of (hot) EF deficits. Specifically, a problem of inhibitory control appears to underlie the atypical pattern of performance seen in DCD on both cold and hot EF tasks. Disrupted coupling between cognitive control and emotion processing networks, such as fronto-parietal and fronto-striatal networks, may contribute to reduced inhibitory control in DCD. The implications for a broader theoretical account of DCD are discussed, as are implications for intervention. PMID:27254817

  2. Active learning of novel sound-producing objects: motor reactivation and enhancement of visuo-motor connectivity.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew J; James, Karin Harman

    2013-02-01

    Our experience with the world commonly involves physical interaction with objects enabling us to learn associations between multisensory information perceived during an event and our actions that create an event. The interplay among active interactions during learning and multisensory integration of object properties is not well understood. To better understand how action might enhance multisensory associative recognition, we investigated the interplay among motor and perceptual systems after active learning. Fifteen participants were included in an fMRI study during which they learned visuo-auditory-motor associations between novel objects and the sounds they produce, either through self-generated actions on the objects (active learning) or by observing an experimenter produce the actions (passive learning). Immediately after learning, behavioral and BOLD fMRI measures were collected while perceiving the objects used during unisensory and multisensory training in associative perception and recognition tasks. Active learning was faster and led to more accurate recognition of audiovisual associations than passive learning. Functional ROI analyses showed that in motor, somatosensory, and cerebellar regions there was greater activation during both the perception and recognition of actively learned associations. Finally, functional connectivity between visual- and motor-related processing regions was enhanced during the presentation of actively learned audiovisual associations. Overall, the results of the current study clarify and extend our own previous work [Butler, A. J., James, T. W., & Harman James, K. Enhanced multisensory integration and motor reactivation after active motor learning of audiovisual associations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 3515-3528, 2011] by providing several novel findings and highlighting the task-based nature of motor reactivation and retrieval after active learning.

  3. Decreased motor activity of hyperactive children on dextroamphetamine during active gym program.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, J L; Tepsic, P N; Grice, J; Johnson, C; Langer, D

    1980-07-01

    The motor activity of 10 hyperactive boys was measured during eight 1-hour active gym classes. Children received either dextroaomphetamine (0.5 mg/kg) or placebo elixir before each class, in a double-blind design. The program for each of the classes was participation in the active sports: hockey, basketball, and/or roller skating; the "task" throughout each hour was to play vigorously and continuously. The boys' mean hourly activity following amphetamine was slightly but significantly less than that following placebo. This finding is contradictory to the hypothesis that improved attention to an active task on stimulant would result in increased motor activity, and suggests the possibility of an independent direct effect of amphetamine on the motor system.

  4. A Lamellar Coordination Polymer with Remarkable Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Ricardo F; Antunes, Margarida M; Silva, Patrícia; Barbosa, Paula; Figueiredo, Filipe; Linden, Anthony; Rocha, João; Valente, Anabela A; Almeida Paz, Filipe A

    2016-09-01

    A positively charged lamellar coordination polymer based on a flexible triphosphonic acid linker is reported. [Gd(H4 nmp)(H2 O)2 ]Cl⋅2 H2 O (1) [H6 nmp=nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid)] was obtained by a one-pot approach by using water as a green solvent and by forcing the inclusion of additional acid sites by employing HCl in the synthesis. Compound 1 acts as a versatile heterogeneous acid catalyst with outstanding activity in organic reactions such as alcoholysis of styrene oxide, acetalization of benzaldehyde and cyclohexanaldehyde and ketalization of cyclohexanone. For all reaction systems, very high conversions were reached (92-97 %) in only 15-30 min under mild conditions (35 °C, atmospheric pressure). The coordination polymer exhibits a protonic conductivity of 1.23×10(-5)  S cm(-1) at 98 % relative humidity and 40 °C. PMID:27505712

  5. Fluoxetine modulates motor performance and cerebral activation of patients recovering from stroke.

    PubMed

    Pariente, J; Loubinoux, I; Carel, C; Albucher, J F; Leger, A; Manelfe, C; Rascol, O; Chollet, F

    2001-12-01

    In order to determine the influence of a single dose of fluoxetine on the cerebral motor activation of lacunar stroke patients in the early phase of recovery, we conducted a prospective, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study on 8 patients with pure motor hemiparesia. Each patient underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations: one under fluoxetine and one under placebo. The first was performed 2 weeks after stroke onset and the second a week later. During the two fMRI examinations, patients performed an active controlled motor task with the affected hand and a passive one conducted by the examiner with the same hand. Motor performance was evaluated by motor tests under placebo and under fluoxetine immediately before the examinations to investigate the effect of fluoxetine on motor function. Under fluoxetine, during the active motor task, hyperactivation in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex was found. Moreover, fluoxetine significantly improved motor skills of the affected side. We found that a single dose of fluoxetine was enough to modulate cerebral sensory-motor activation in patients. This redistribution of activation toward the motor cortex output activation was associated with an enhancement of motor performance. PMID:11761469

  6. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. PMID:15739850

  7. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state.

  8. V1 and V2b interneurons secure the alternating flexor-extensor motor activity mice require for limbed locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingming; Lanuza, Guillermo M.; Britz, Olivier; Wang, Zhi; Siembab, Valerie C.; Zhang, Ying; Velasquez, Tomoko; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Frank, Eric; Goulding, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The reciprocal activation of flexor and extensor muscles constitutes the fundamental mechanism that tetrapod vertebrates use for locomotion and limb-driven reflex behaviors. This aspect of motor coordination is controlled by inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord; however, the identity of the spinal interneurons that serve this function is not known. Here we show that the production of an alternating flexor-extensor motor rhythm depends on the composite activities of two classes of ventrally-located inhibitory neurons, V1 and V2b interneurons (INs). Abrogating V1 and V2b IN-derived neurotransmission in the isolated spinal cord results in a synchronous pattern of L2 flexor-related and L5 extensor-related locomotor activity. Mice lacking V1 and V2b inhibition are unable to articulate their limb joints and display marked deficits in limb-driven reflex movements. Taken together, these findings identify V1- and V2b-derived neurons as the core interneuronal components of the limb central pattern generator (CPG) that coordinate flexor-extensor motor activity. PMID:24698273

  9. V1 and v2b interneurons secure the alternating flexor-extensor motor activity mice require for limbed locomotion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingming; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Britz, Olivier; Wang, Zhi; Siembab, Valerie C; Zhang, Ying; Velasquez, Tomoko; Alvarez, Francisco J; Frank, Eric; Goulding, Martyn

    2014-04-01

    Reciprocal activation of flexor and extensor muscles constitutes the fundamental mechanism that tetrapod vertebrates use for locomotion and limb-driven reflex behaviors. This aspect of motor coordination is controlled by inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord; however, the identity of the spinal interneurons that serve this function is not known. Here, we show that the production of an alternating flexor-extensor motor rhythm depends on the composite activities of two classes of ventrally located inhibitory neurons, V1 and V2b interneurons (INs). Abrogating V1 and V2b IN-derived neurotransmission in the isolated spinal cord results in a synchronous pattern of L2 flexor-related and L5 extensor-related locomotor activity. Mice lacking V1 and V2b inhibition are unable to articulate their limb joints and display marked deficits in limb-driven reflex movements. Taken together, these findings identify V1- and V2b-derived neurons as the core interneuronal components of the limb central pattern generator (CPG) that coordinate flexor-extensor motor activity.

  10. Activity of motor cortex neurons during backward locomotion.

    PubMed

    Zelenin, P V; Deliagina, T G; Orlovsky, G N; Karayannidou, A; Stout, E E; Sirota, M G; Beloozerova, I N

    2011-06-01

    Forward walking (FW) and backward walking (BW) are two important forms of locomotion in quadrupeds. Participation of the motor cortex in the control of FW has been intensively studied, whereas cortical activity during BW has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze locomotion-related activity of the motor cortex during BW and compare it with that during FW. For this purpose, we recorded activity of individual neurons in the cat during BW and FW. We found that the discharge frequency in almost all neurons was modulated in the rhythm of stepping during both FW and BW. However, the modulation patterns during BW and FW were different in 80% of neurons. To determine the source of modulating influences (forelimb controllers vs. hindlimb controllers), the neurons were recorded not only during quadrupedal locomotion but also during bipedal locomotion (with either forelimbs or hindlimbs walking), and their modulation patterns were compared. We found that during BW (like during FW), modulation in some neurons was determined by inputs from limb controllers of only one girdle, whereas the other neurons received inputs from both girdles. The combinations of inputs could depend on the direction of locomotion. Most often (in 51% of forelimb-related neurons and in 34% of the hindlimb-related neurons), the neurons received inputs only from their own girdle when this girdle was leading and from both girdles when this girdle was trailing. This reconfiguration of inputs suggests flexibility of the functional roles of individual cortical neurons during different forms of locomotion.

  11. Decreased Activation of Subcortical Brain Areas in the Motor Fatigue State: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li J; Song, Zheng; Pan, Zhu J; Cheng, Jia L; Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e., thalamus and basal ganglia areas) are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state.

  12. Decreased Activation of Subcortical Brain Areas in the Motor Fatigue State: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Li J.; Song, Zheng; Pan, Zhu J.; Cheng, Jia L.; Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e., thalamus and basal ganglia areas) are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state. PMID:27536264

  13. Decreased Activation of Subcortical Brain Areas in the Motor Fatigue State: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li J; Song, Zheng; Pan, Zhu J; Cheng, Jia L; Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e., thalamus and basal ganglia areas) are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state. PMID:27536264

  14. 48 CFR 2452.237-72 - Coordination of data collection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Coordination of data... Provisions and Clauses 2452.237-72 Coordination of data collection activities. As prescribed in 2437.110(c... identical information from ten or more public respondents. Coordination of Data Collection Activities...

  15. 75 FR 15496 - Agency Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT)) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT)) Activity Under OMB Review...).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Patient Satisfaction Survey, VA...

  16. 75 FR 2595 - Proposed Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Activity: Comment... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT)...

  17. Using a model to assess the role of the spatiotemporal pattern of inhibitory input and intrasegmental electrical coupling in the intersegmental and side-to-side coordination of motor neurons by the leech heartbeat central pattern generator.

    PubMed

    García, Paul S; Wright, Terrence M; Cunningham, Ian R; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2008-09-01

    Previously we presented a quantitative description of the spatiotemporal pattern of inhibitory synaptic input from the heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG) to segmental motor neurons that drive heartbeat in the medicinal leech and the resultant coordination of CPG interneurons and motor neurons. To begin elucidating the mechanisms of coordination, we explore intersegmental and side-to-side coordination in an ensemble model of all heart motor neurons and their known synaptic inputs and electrical coupling. Model motor neuron intrinsic properties were kept simple, enabling us to determine the extent to which input and electrical coupling acting together can account for observed coordination in the living system in the absence of a substantive contribution from the motor neurons themselves. The living system produces an asymmetric motor pattern: motor neurons on one side fire nearly in synchrony (synchronous), whereas on the other they fire in a rear-to-front progression (peristaltic). The model reproduces the general trends of intersegmental and side-to-side phase relations among motor neurons, but the match with the living system is not quantitatively accurate. Thus realistic (experimentally determined) inputs do not produce similarly realistic output in our model, suggesting that motor neuron intrinsic properties may contribute to their coordination. By varying parameters that determine electrical coupling, conduction delays, intraburst synaptic plasticity, and motor neuron excitability, we show that the most important determinant of intersegmental and side-to-side phase relations in the model was the spatiotemporal pattern of synaptic inputs, although phasing was influenced significantly by electrical coupling. PMID:18579654

  18. Resting state cerebral blood flow and objective motor activity reveal basal ganglia dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Walther, Sebastian; Federspiel, Andrea; Horn, Helge; Razavi, Nadja; Wiest, Roland; Dierks, Thomas; Strik, Werner; Müller, Thomas Jörg

    2011-05-31

    Reduced motor activity has been reported in schizophrenia and was associated with subtype, psychopathology and medication. Still, little is known about the neurobiology of motor retardation. To identify neural correlates of motor activity, resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) was correlated with objective motor activity of the same day. Participants comprised 11 schizophrenia patients and 14 controls who underwent magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling and wrist actigraphy. Patients had reduced activity levels and reduced perfusion of the left parahippocampal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right thalamus, and right prefrontal cortex. In controls, but not in schizophrenia, CBF was correlated with activity in the right thalamic ventral anterior (VA) nucleus, a key module within basal ganglia-cortical motor circuits. In contrast, only in schizophrenia patients positive correlations of CBF and motor activity were found in bilateral prefrontal areas and in the right rostral cingulate motor area (rCMA). Grey matter volume correlated with motor activity only in the left posterior cingulate cortex of the patients. The findings suggest that basal ganglia motor control is impaired in schizophrenia. In addition, CBF of cortical areas critical for motor control was associated with volitional motor behavior, which may be a compensatory mechanism for basal ganglia dysfunction.

  19. Active Learning: Learning a Motor Skill Without a Coach

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Vincent S.; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-01-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are “active learners”: we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence. PMID:18509079

  20. Active learning: learning a motor skill without a coach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vincent S; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-08-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are "active learners": we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence. PMID:18509079

  1. The Movement Assessment Battery in Greek Preschoolers: The Impact of Age, Gender, Birth Order, and Physical Activity on Motor Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of…

  2. Active stresses and hydrodynamics of microtubule/motor-protein assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelley, Michael

    2014-03-01

    In biologically-inspired soft active materials, chemical energy (typically from ATP) is transduced to generate active stresses arising from reconiguration or forcing of the microstructure. This can lead to novel material organization, mechanical properties, and active flows. While much focus has been on active gels and motile suspensions, another important class are suspensions of microtubules (MTs) crosslinked by motile molecular motors. These are central actors in biological phenomena such as pronuclear transport and spindle formation. Here we develop a multi-scale theory for studying such systems. At the discrete level, we use Brownian dynamics of MTs with moving crosslinks to study microscopic organization and active stress development. We observe, surprisingly, that activity generated extensile stresses arise from both polarity sorting and crosslink relaxation. These simulations estimate polarity-dependent active stress coeffcients in a Doi-Onsager kinetic theory - similar to those developed previously for motile suspensions - that captures polarity sorting and induced hydrodynamic flows. In simulating recent experiments of active flows on immersed surfaces, the model exhibits turbulent-like dynamics, and the continous generation and annihilation of disclination defects associated with coherent flow structures. We can associate the system's coherent features with instabilities of aligned linear and nonlinear states.

  3. Strain Mediated Adaptation Is Key for Myosin Mechanochemistry: Discovering General Rules for Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Jana, Biman; Onuchic, José N

    2016-08-01

    A structure-based model of myosin motor is built in the same spirit of our early work for kinesin-1 and Ncd towards physical understanding of its mechanochemical cycle. We find a structural adaptation of the motor head domain in post-powerstroke state that signals faster ADP release from it compared to the same from the motor head in the pre-powerstroke state. For dimeric myosin, an additional forward strain on the trailing head, originating from the postponed powerstroke state of the leading head in the waiting state of myosin, further increases the rate of ADP release. This coordination between the two heads is the essence of the processivity of the cycle. Our model provides a structural description of the powerstroke step of the cycle as an allosteric transition of the converter domain in response to the Pi release. Additionally, the variation in structural elements peripheral to catalytic motor domain is the deciding factor behind diverse directionalities of myosin motors (myosin V & VI). Finally, we observe that there are general rules for functional molecular motors across the different families. Allosteric structural adaptation of the catalytic motor head in different nucleotide states is crucial for mechanochemistry. Strain-mediated coordination between motor heads is essential for processivity and the variation of peripheral structural elements is essential for their diverse functionalities. PMID:27494025

  4. Strain Mediated Adaptation Is Key for Myosin Mechanochemistry: Discovering General Rules for Motor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Biman; Onuchic, José N.

    2016-01-01

    A structure-based model of myosin motor is built in the same spirit of our early work for kinesin-1 and Ncd towards physical understanding of its mechanochemical cycle. We find a structural adaptation of the motor head domain in post-powerstroke state that signals faster ADP release from it compared to the same from the motor head in the pre-powerstroke state. For dimeric myosin, an additional forward strain on the trailing head, originating from the postponed powerstroke state of the leading head in the waiting state of myosin, further increases the rate of ADP release. This coordination between the two heads is the essence of the processivity of the cycle. Our model provides a structural description of the powerstroke step of the cycle as an allosteric transition of the converter domain in response to the Pi release. Additionally, the variation in structural elements peripheral to catalytic motor domain is the deciding factor behind diverse directionalities of myosin motors (myosin V & VI). Finally, we observe that there are general rules for functional molecular motors across the different families. Allosteric structural adaptation of the catalytic motor head in different nucleotide states is crucial for mechanochemistry. Strain-mediated coordination between motor heads is essential for processivity and the variation of peripheral structural elements is essential for their diverse functionalities. PMID:27494025

  5. From Cerebellar Activation and Connectivity to Cognition: A Review of the Quadrato Motor Training.

    PubMed

    Ben-Soussan, Tal Dotan; Glicksohn, Joseph; Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the cerebellum is increasingly recognized, not only in motor control but also in cognitive learning and function. Nevertheless, the relationship between training-induced cerebellar activation and electrophysiological and structural changes in humans has yet to be established. In the current paper, we suggest a general model tying cerebellar function to cognitive improvement, via neuronal synchronization, as well as biochemical and anatomical changes. We then suggest that sensorimotor training provides an optimal paradigm to test the proposed model and review supporting evidence of Quadrato Motor Training (QMT), a sensorimotor training aimed at increasing attention and coordination. Subsequently, we discuss the possible mechanisms through which QMT may exert its beneficial effects on cognition (e.g., increased creativity, reflectivity, and reading), focusing on cerebellar alpha activity as a possible mediating mechanism allowing cognitive improvement, molecular and anatomical changes. Using the example of QMT research, this paper emphasizes the importance of investigating whole-body sensorimotor training paradigms utilizing a multidisciplinary approach and its implications to healthy brain development. PMID:26539545

  6. From Cerebellar Activation and Connectivity to Cognition: A Review of the Quadrato Motor Training

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Soussan, Tal Dotan; Glicksohn, Joseph; Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the cerebellum is increasingly recognized, not only in motor control but also in cognitive learning and function. Nevertheless, the relationship between training-induced cerebellar activation and electrophysiological and structural changes in humans has yet to be established. In the current paper, we suggest a general model tying cerebellar function to cognitive improvement, via neuronal synchronization, as well as biochemical and anatomical changes. We then suggest that sensorimotor training provides an optimal paradigm to test the proposed model and review supporting evidence of Quadrato Motor Training (QMT), a sensorimotor training aimed at increasing attention and coordination. Subsequently, we discuss the possible mechanisms through which QMT may exert its beneficial effects on cognition (e.g., increased creativity, reflectivity, and reading), focusing on cerebellar alpha activity as a possible mediating mechanism allowing cognitive improvement, molecular and anatomical changes. Using the example of QMT research, this paper emphasizes the importance of investigating whole-body sensorimotor training paradigms utilizing a multidisciplinary approach and its implications to healthy brain development. PMID:26539545

  7. Participation in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Risk for Obesity in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-cultural Study.

    PubMed

    Cermak, S A; Katz, N; Weintraub, N; Steinhart, S; Raz-Silbiger, S; Munoz, M; Lifshitz, N

    2015-12-01

    Decreased physical activity has been linked to poor fitness and obesity, resulting in increased risk for health concerns. The objective is to study the relationships between children's motor coordination and their physical activity, sedentary behaviour, fitness and weight status in a cross-cultural study in the United States and Israel. Participants included 118 children 6-11 years of age: 53 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 65 typical children. The US sample included 31 DCD children and 44 typical children. The Israeli sample included 22 DCD children and 21 typical children. Participants were assessed on Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, strength test of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 and Six-minute Walk Test and wore an accelerometer. Parents completed physical activity questionnaires and demographic information. Body mass index was calculated based on height and weight. Testing took place in two sessions. Findings are that in both Israel and the United States, children with DCD demonstrated significantly reduced physical activity, increased sedentary behaviour, poorer fitness and increased overweight compared with typical children. No significant differences were found for country. With relevance to clinical practice, fitness and obesity are major concerns for children with DCD in both countries. Inclusion of occupational therapy in health promotion for this population is critical. Additional studies with testers blind to group, larger samples and other countries are recommended.

  8. Participation in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Risk for Obesity in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-cultural Study.

    PubMed

    Cermak, S A; Katz, N; Weintraub, N; Steinhart, S; Raz-Silbiger, S; Munoz, M; Lifshitz, N

    2015-12-01

    Decreased physical activity has been linked to poor fitness and obesity, resulting in increased risk for health concerns. The objective is to study the relationships between children's motor coordination and their physical activity, sedentary behaviour, fitness and weight status in a cross-cultural study in the United States and Israel. Participants included 118 children 6-11 years of age: 53 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 65 typical children. The US sample included 31 DCD children and 44 typical children. The Israeli sample included 22 DCD children and 21 typical children. Participants were assessed on Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, strength test of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 and Six-minute Walk Test and wore an accelerometer. Parents completed physical activity questionnaires and demographic information. Body mass index was calculated based on height and weight. Testing took place in two sessions. Findings are that in both Israel and the United States, children with DCD demonstrated significantly reduced physical activity, increased sedentary behaviour, poorer fitness and increased overweight compared with typical children. No significant differences were found for country. With relevance to clinical practice, fitness and obesity are major concerns for children with DCD in both countries. Inclusion of occupational therapy in health promotion for this population is critical. Additional studies with testers blind to group, larger samples and other countries are recommended. PMID:26123622

  9. Familiarity modulates motor activation while other species' actions are observed: a magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Lucia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-03-01

    Observing other people's actions facilitates the observer's motor system as compared with observing the same individuals at rest. This motor activation is thought to result from mirror-like activity in fronto-parietal areas, which enhances the excitability of the primary motor cortex via cortico-cortical pathways. Although covert motor activation in response to observed actions has been widely investigated between conspecifics, how humans cope with other species' actions has received less attention. For example, it remains unclear whether the human motor system is activated by observing other species' actions, and whether prior familiarity with the non-conspecific agent modulates this activation. Here, we combined single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor-evoked potential recording to explore the impact of familiarity on motor activation during the observation of non-conspecific actions. Videos displaying actions performed either by a conspecific (human) or by a non-conspecific (dog) were shown to individuals who had prior familiarity or no familiarity at all with the non-conspecific agent. We found that, whereas individuals with long-lasting familiarity showed similar levels of motor activation for human and canine actions, individuals who had no familiarity showed higher motor activation for human than for canine actions. These findings suggest that the human motor system is flexible enough to resonate with other species, and that familiarity plays a key role in tuning this ability. PMID:26666833

  10. The influence of motor expertise on the brain activity of motor task performance: A meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has investigated the influence of long-term motor training on the brain activity of motor processes, but the findings are inconsistent. To clarify how acquiring motor expertise induces cortical reorganization during motor task performance, the current study conducted a quantitative meta-analysis on 26 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that investigate motor task performance in people with long-term motor training experience (e.g., athletes, musicians, and dancers) and control participants. Meta-analysis of the brain activation in motor experts and novices showed similar effects in the bilateral frontal and parietal regions. The meta-analysis on the contrast between motor experts and novices indicated that experts showed stronger effects in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) than did novices in motor execution and prediction tasks. In motor observation tasks, experts showed stronger effects in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 9) and left precentral gyrus (BA 6) than novices. On the contrary, novices had stronger effects in the right motor areas and basal ganglia as compared with motor experts. These results indicate that motor experts have effect increases in brain areas involved in action planning and action comprehension, and suggest that intensive motor training might elaborate the motor representation related to the task performance.

  11. Bacterial Cyclic AMP-Phosphodiesterase Activity Coordinates Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kalivoda, Eric J.; Brothers, Kimberly M.; Stella, Nicholas A.; Schmitt, Matthew J.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm-related infections are a major contributor to human disease, and the capacity for surface attachment and biofilm formation are key attributes for the pathogenesis of microbes. Serratia marcescens type I fimbriae-dependent biofilms are coordinated by the adenylate cyclase, CyaA, and the cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex. This study uses S. marcescens as a model system to test the role of cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity in controlling biofilm formation. Herein we describe the characterization of a putative S. marcescens cAMP-phosphodiesterase gene (SMA3506), designated as cpdS, and demonstrated to be a functional cAMP-phosphodiesterase both in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of cpdS resulted in defective biofilm formation and reduced type I fimbriae production, whereas multicopy expression of cpdS conferred a type I fimbriae-dependent hyper-biofilm. Together, these results support a model in which bacterial cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity modulates biofilm formation. PMID:23923059

  12. Nanometer precision robot for active photonics alignment using INCHWORM motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, David A.; Ragona, Sid P.

    2001-05-01

    To keep pace with the increasing demand for higher throughput, lower cost per unit and tighter specifications, manufacturers of fiber optic devices are now looking towards a new generation of automated alignment tools. The ideal alignment tool has six degrees-of-freedom (DOF), (X,Y,Z, Yaw, Pitch, Roll) repeatability better than 50 nanometers, travel greater than 10 millimeters and is fully automated. In this paper we describe the use of INCHWORM motor technology to produce a new nano-robotic system that demonstrates a major advancement toward the ideal photonics alignment tool. The INCHWORM actuator is uniquely suited to provide nanometer resolution movements over tens of millimeters of range with very high stiffness and stability. The clamp-extend-clamp-retract stepping sequence produces direct linear motion with no backlash. INCHWORM motors are integrated in cross roller bearing stages to achieve 20 nanometer and 0.1 arc second closed-loop resolution. The high stiffness and stability of the solid-state piezoelectric actuators hold position to a single count on a glass scale encoder while generating zero heat. Mounting fixtures hold optical elements so that their geometric centers coincide with the virtual point of rotation. Active alignment processes for selected photonics components, as well as intensity maps of components are presented.

  13. Disentangling Fine Motor Skills' Relations to Academic Achievement: The Relative Contributions of Visual-Spatial Integration and Visual-Motor Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Abby G.; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout…

  14. IH activity is increased in populations of slow versus fast motor axons of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Chad; Jones, Kelvin E.

    2014-01-01

    Much is known about the electrophysiological variation in motoneuron somata across different motor units. However, comparatively less is known about electrophysiological variation in motor axons and how this could impact function or electrodiagnosis in healthy or diseased states. We performed nerve excitability testing on two groups of motor axons in Sprague–Dawley rats that are known to differ significantly in their chronic daily activity patterns and in the relative proportion of motor unit types: one group innervating the soleus (“slow motor axons”) and the other group innervating the tibialis anterior (“fast motor axons”) muscles. We found that slow motor axons have significantly larger accommodation compared to fast motor axons upon application of a 100 ms hyperpolarizing conditioning stimulus that is 40% of axon threshold (Z = 3.24, p = 0.001) or 20% of axon threshold (Z = 2.67, p = 0.008). Slow motor axons had larger accommodation to hyperpolarizing currents in the current-threshold measurement (-80% Z = 3.07, p = 0.002; -90% Z = 2.98, p = 0.003). In addition, we found that slow motor axons have a significantly smaller rheobase than fast motor axons (Z = -1.99, p = 0.047) accompanied by a lower threshold in stimulus-response curves. The results provide evidence that slow motor axons have greater activity of the hyperpolarization-activated inwardly rectifying cation conductance (IH) than fast motor axons. It is possible that this difference between fast and slow axons is caused by an adaptation to their chronic differences in daily activity patterns, and that this adaptation might have a functional effect on the motor unit. Moreover, these findings indicate that slow and fast motor axons may react differently to pathological conditions. PMID:25309406

  15. Activity-driven synaptic and axonal degeneration in canine motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Dario I; Rich, Mark M; Wang, Qingbo; Cope, Timothy C; Pinter, Martin J

    2004-08-01

    The role of neuronal activity in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of increasing motor neuron activity on the pathogenesis of a canine version of inherited motor neuron disease (hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy). Activity of motor neurons innervating the ankle extensor muscle medial gastrocnemius (MG) was increased by denervating close synergist muscles. In affected animals, 4 wk of synergist denervation accelerated loss of motor-unit function relative to control muscles and decreased motor axon conduction velocities. Slowing of axon conduction was greatest in the most distal portions of motor axons. Morphological analysis of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) showed that these functional changes were associated with increased loss of intact innervation and with the appearance of significant motor axon and motor terminal sprouting. These effects were not observed in the MG muscles of age-matched, normal animals with synergist denervation for 5 wk. The results indicate that motor neuron action potential activity is a major contributing factor to the loss of motor-unit function and degeneration in inherited canine motor neuron disease.

  16. Motor imagery-based brain activity parallels that of motor execution: evidence from magnetic source imaging of cortical oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kraeutner, Sarah; Gionfriddo, Alicia; Bardouille, Timothy; Boe, Shaun

    2014-11-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is a form of practice in which an individual mentally performs a motor task. Previous research suggests that skill acquisition via MI is facilitated by repetitive activation of brain regions in the sensorimotor network similar to that of motor execution, however this evidence is conflicting. Further, many studies do not control for overt muscle activity and thus the activation patterns reported for MI may be driven in part by actual movement. The purpose of the current research is to further establish MI as a secondary modality of skill acquisition by providing electrophysiological evidence of an overlap between brain areas recruited for motor execution and imagery. Non-disabled participants (N=18; 24.7±3.8 years) performed both execution and imagery of a unilateral sequence button-press task. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was utilized to capture neural activity, while electromyography used to rigorously monitor muscle activity. Event-related synchronization/desynchronization (ERS/ERD) analysis was conducted in the beta frequency band (15-30 Hz). Whole head dual-state beamformer analysis was applied to MEG data and 3D t-tests were conducted after Talairach normalization. Source-level analysis showed that MI has similar patterns of spatial activity as ME, including activation of contralateral primary motor and somatosensory cortices. However, this activation is significantly less intense during MI (p<0.05). As well, activation during ME was more lateralized (i.e., within the contralateral hemisphere). These results confirm that ME and MI have similar spatial activation patterns. Thus, the current research provides direct electrophysiological evidence to further establish MI as a secondary form of skill acquisition.

  17. The roles of various projection areas of the motor cortex in the reorganization of the natural coordination of head and forelimb movements in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, O G; Mats, V N

    2006-11-01

    A food-related operant reaction was developed in dogs, in which animals had to maintain tonic elevation of the forelimb to hold a bowl while eating with the head tilted towards the feeder. The acquisition of this reaction involved rearrangement of the natural coordination of head and limb movements which appeared at an early stage of training of the dogs. Forelimb elevation was initially accompanied by anticipatory raising of the head, while lowering of the head led to lowering of the elevated limb. Limb elevation could only be maintained in the posture in which the head was raised. The new coordination required for obtaining food, contrary to the innate coordination and consisting of tonic elevation of the limb with the head lowered, could only be achieved as a result of training. Previous studies have established that lesioning of the primary motor cortex (MI) in the hemisphere contralateral to the working limb leads to stable impairment of the learned coordination, with regression to the initial coordination. The present report describes studies of the effects of local lesions of various projection areas of MI on performance of the learned coordination. Dogs which had acquired the learned operant reaction requiring the new head/limb coordination showed impairment only after lesioning of the representation area of the working limb in the MI; lesioning of the representation area of the head had no such effect.

  18. Actin network architecture can determine myosin motor activity.

    PubMed

    Reymann, Anne-Cécile; Boujemaa-Paterski, Rajaa; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Guérin, Christophe; Cao, Wenxiang; Chin, Harvey F; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2012-06-01

    The organization of actin filaments into higher-ordered structures governs eukaryotic cell shape and movement. Global actin network size and architecture are maintained in a dynamic steady state through regulated assembly and disassembly. Here, we used experimentally defined actin structures in vitro to investigate how the activity of myosin motors depends on network architecture. Direct visualization of filaments revealed myosin-induced actin network deformation. During this reorganization, myosins selectively contracted and disassembled antiparallel actin structures, while parallel actin bundles remained unaffected. The local distribution of nucleation sites and the resulting orientation of actin filaments appeared to regulate the scalability of the contraction process. This "orientation selection" mechanism for selective contraction and disassembly suggests how the dynamics of the cellular actin cytoskeleton can be spatially controlled by actomyosin contractility.

  19. Modulation of motor cortex neuronal activity and motor behavior during subthalamic nucleus stimulation in the normal primate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Luke A; Xu, Weidong; Baker, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jianyu; Vitek, Jerrold L

    2015-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-established surgical therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). An emerging hypothesis is that the therapeutic benefit of DBS is derived from direct modulation of primary motor cortex (M1), yet little is known about the influence of STN DBS on individual neurons in M1. We investigated the effect of STN DBS, delivered at discrete interval intensities (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%) of corticospinal tract threshold (CSTT), on motor performance and M1 neuronal activity in a naive nonhuman primate. Motor performance during a food reach and retrieval task improved during low-intensity stimulation (20% CSTT) but worsened as intensity approached the threshold for activation of corticospinal fibers (80% and 100% CSTT). To assess cortical effects of STN DBS, spontaneous, extracellular neuronal activity was collected from M1 neurons before, during, and after DBS at the same CSTT stimulus intensities. STN DBS significantly modulated the firing of a majority of M1 neurons; however, the direction of effect varied with stimulus intensity such that, at 20% CSTT, most neurons were suppressed, whereas at the highest stimulus intensities the majority of neurons were activated. At a population level, firing rates increased as stimulus intensity increased. These results show that STN DBS influences both motor performance and M1 neuronal activity systematically according to stimulus intensity. In addition, the unanticipated reduction in reach times suggests that STN DBS, at stimulus intensities lower than typically used for treatment of PD motor signs, can enhance normal motor performance.

  20. Atypical within- and between-hemisphere motor network functional connections in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Kevin R; Langevin, Lisa Marie; Dewey, Deborah; Goodyear, Bradley G

    2016-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders; however, the neural mechanisms of this comorbidity are poorly understood. Previous research has demonstrated that children with DCD and ADHD have altered brain region communication, particularly within the motor network. The structure and function of the motor network in a typically developing brain exhibits hemispheric dominance. It is plausible that functional deficits observed in children with DCD and ADHD are associated with neurodevelopmental alterations in within- and between-hemisphere motor network functional connection strength that disrupt this hemispheric dominance. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine functional connections of the left and right primary and sensory motor (SM1) cortices in children with DCD, ADHD and DCD + ADHD, relative to typically developing children. Our findings revealed that children with DCD, ADHD and DCD + ADHD exhibit atypical within- and between-hemisphere functional connection strength between SM1 and regions of the basal ganglia, as well as the cerebellum. Our findings further support the assertion that development of atypical motor network connections represents common and distinct neural mechanisms underlying DCD and ADHD. In children with DCD and DCD + ADHD (but not ADHD), a significant correlation was observed between clinical assessment of motor function and the strength of functional connections between right SM1 and anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and regions involved in visuospatial processing. This latter finding suggests that behavioral phenotypes associated with atypical motor network development differ between individuals with DCD and those with ADHD. PMID:27419066

  1. [The effect of different motor regimens modulating spontaneous activity on rat behavior].

    PubMed

    Kulikov, V P; Kiselev, V I; Konev, I V

    1993-01-01

    A method was developed of non-stressful modulation of spontaneous motor activity of rats. Restraint of mobility was found to inhibit spontaneous activity. Physiological stimulation of muscle activity by means of complication of food-procuring behaviour was accompanied by increase of spontaneous activity. Physiological stimulation of motor activity was characterized by stability of orienting-exploratory behaviour, emotional reactivity, expression of "freedom response", the best learning and working abilities of the animals. Regimes with imposing or restriction of muscle activity favoured the inhibition of spontaneous activity and the decrease of efficiency of adaptive behaviour. Motor regimes accompanied by increase of spontaneous activity were found to be optimal for adaptive behaviour.

  2. First MRI application of an active breathing coordinator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaza, E.; Symonds-Tayler, R.; Collins, D. J.; McDonald, F.; McNair, H. A.; Scurr, E.; Koh, D.-M.; Leach, M. O.

    2015-02-01

    A commercial active breathing coordinator (ABC) device, employed to hold respiration at a specific level for a predefined duration, was successfully adapted for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use for the first time. Potential effects of the necessary modifications were assessed and taken into account. Automatic MR acquisition during ABC breath holding was achieved. The feasibility of MR-ABC thoracic and abdominal examinations together with the advantages of imaging in repeated ABC-controlled breath holds were demonstrated on healthy volunteers. Five lung cancer patients were imaged under MR-ABC, visually confirming the very good intra-session reproducibility of organ position in images acquired with the same patient positioning as used for computed tomography (CT). Using identical ABC settings, good MR-CT inter-modality registration was achieved. This demonstrates the value of ABC, since application of T1, T2 and diffusion weighted MR sequences provides a wider range of contrast mechanisms and additional diagnostic information compared to CT, thus improving radiotherapy treatment planning and assessment.

  3. Motor unit regulation of mammalian pharyngeal dilator muscle activity.

    PubMed Central

    van Lunteren, E; Dick, T E

    1989-01-01

    The present study examined the cellular regulation of one of the pharyngeal dilator muscles, the geniohyoid, by assessing its motor unit (MU) behavior in anesthetized cats. During spontaneous breathing, MU that (a) were active during inspiration only (I-MU) and (b) were active during both inspiration and expiration (I/E-MU) were identified. I-MU had a later inspiratory onset time and a shorter duration of inspiratory firing than did I/E-MU (P less than 0.002 and P less than 0.0001, respectively). I-MU were usually quiescent whereas I/E-MU were usually active during the last 20% of inspiration. I/E-MU fired more rapidly (P less than 0.00001) and for relatively longer periods of time (P less than 0.00001) during inspiration than during expiration. End-expiratory airway occlusion (preventing lung expansion during inspiration) augmented the inspiratory activity of both I-MU and I/E-MU. Conversely, end-expiratory airway occlusion reduced the absolute and relative firing durations (P less than 0.002 and P less than 0.00002, respectively) and the firing frequency (P less than 0.001) of I/E-MU activity during expiration. These results indicate that (a) the complex pattern of pharyngeal dilator muscle activity is due to the integrated activity of a heterogeneous group of MU, (b) changes in the degree to which pharyngeal dilator muscles are active result from combinations of MU recruitment/decruitment and modulations of the frequency and duration of MU firing, and (c) gating of lung-volume afferent information occurs during the respiratory cycle. PMID:2760202

  4. Altered cerebellum development and impaired motor coordination in mice lacking the Btg1 gene: Involvement of cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Manuela; Micheli, Laura; D'Andrea, Giorgio; De Bardi, Marco; Scheijen, Blanca; Ciotti, MariaTeresa; Leonardi, Luca; Luvisetto, Siro; Tirone, Felice

    2015-12-01

    Cerebellar granule neurons develop postnatally from cerebellar granule precursors (GCPs), which are located in the external granule layer (EGL) where they massively proliferate. Thereafter, GCPs become postmitotic, migrate inward to form the internal granule layer (IGL), further differentiate and form synapses with Purkinje cell dendrites. We previously showed that the Btg family gene, Tis21/Btg2, is required for normal GCP migration. Here we investigated the role in cerebellar development of the related gene, Btg1, which regulates stem cell quiescence in adult neurogenic niches, and is expressed in the cerebellum. Knockout of Btg1 in mice caused a major increase of the proliferation of the GCPs in the EGL, whose thickness increased, remaining hyperplastic even after postnatal day 14, when the EGL is normally reduced to a few GCP layers. This was accompanied by a slight decrease of differentiation and migration of the GCPs and increase of apoptosis. The GCPs of double Btg1/Tis21-null mice presented combined major defects of proliferation and migration outside the EGL, indicating that each gene plays unique and crucial roles in cerebellar development. Remarkably, these developmental defects lead to a permanent increase of the adult cerebellar volume in Btg1-null and double mutant mice, and to impairment in all mutants, including Tis21-null, of the cerebellum-dependent motor coordination. Gain- and loss-of-function strategies in a GCP cell line revealed that Btg1 regulates the proliferation of GCPs selectively through cyclin D1. Thus, Btg1 plays a critical role for cerebellar maturation and function.

  5. Perinatal exposure to low-dose methylmercury induces dysfunction of motor coordination with decreases in synaptophysin expression in the cerebellar granule cells of rats.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Masatake; Cheng, Jinping; Zhao, Wenchang

    2012-06-29

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental pollutant that is toxic to the developing central nervous system (CNS) in children, even at low exposure levels. Perinatal exposure to MeHg is known to induce neurological symptoms with neuropathological changes in the CNS. However, the relationship between the neurological symptoms and neuropathological changes induced in offspring as a result of exposure to low-dose MeHg is not well defined. In the present study, neurobehavioral analyses revealed that exposure to a low level of MeHg (5 ppm in drinking water) during developmental caused a significant deficit in the motor coordination of rats in the rotating rod test. In contrast, general neuropathological findings, including neuronal cell death and the subsequent nerve inflammation, were not observed in the region of the cerebellum responsible for regulating motor coordination. Surprisingly, the expression of synaptophysin (SPP), a marker protein for synaptic formation, significantly decreased in cerebellar granule cells. These results showed that perinatal exposure to low-dose MeHg causes neurobehavioral impairment without general neuropathological changes in rats. We demonstrated for the first time that exposure to low-dose MeHg during development induces the dysfunction of motor coordination due to changes of synaptic homeostasis in cerebellar granule cells.

  6. [The module "Motorik" in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Motor fitness and physical activity of children and young people].

    PubMed

    Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K

    2007-01-01

    Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.

  7. Photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite materials: Photoresponse region extension and quantum yields enhancement via the loading of PANI nanofibers on surface of coordination polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Zhongping; Qi, Ji; Xu, Xinxin Liu, Lu; Wang, Yi

    2013-09-15

    To enhance photocatalytic property of coordination polymer in visible light region, polyaniline (PANI) loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst was synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on the surface of coordination polymer. The photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was investigated. Compared with pure coordination polymer photocatalyst, which can decompose RhB merely under UV light irradiation, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst displays more excellent photocatalytic activity in visible light region. Furthermore, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst exhibits outstanding stability during the degradation of RhB. - Graphical abstract: PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material, which displays excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light was firstly synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on surface of coordination polymer. Display Omitted - Highlights: • This PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material represents the first conductive polymer loaded coordination polymer composite material. • PANI/coordination polymer composite material displays more excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO in visible light region. • The “combination” of coordination polymer and PANI will enable us to design high-activity, high-stability and visible light driven photocatalyst in the future.

  8. Motor overflow in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is associated with decreased extent of neural activation in the motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, Andrew; Rosch, Keri S; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Crocetti, Deana; MacNeil, Lindsey; Barber, Anita D; Muschelli, John; Caffo, Brian; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-09-30

    Motor overflow is a developmental phenomenon that typically disappears by late childhood. Abnormal persistence of motor overflow is often present in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a finger-sequencing task to examine whether excessive motor overflow in children with ADHD is associated with decreased extent of motor circuit activation. Thirty-four right-handed children (18 typically developing controls, 16 ADHD) completed fMRI while performing a finger-sequencing task. Motor overflow was evaluated during a finger-sequencing task and a motor examination (the PANESS) performed outside the scanner. Diagnostic differences in behavioral measures of overflow and extent of activation in the contralateral and ipsilateral motor network ROIs were examined, along with correlations between overflow and extent of activation. Children with ADHD demonstrated greater overflow and lesser extent of activation in left primary motor cortex (BA4) and bilateral premotor cortex (BA6) and supplementary motor area (SMA) during right-hand finger-sequencing compared to controls. Decreased extent of primary motor and premotor activation correlated with increased hand-related overflow movements in children with ADHD but not controls. These findings suggest that overflow movements in children with ADHD may reflect decreased recruitment of neural circuitry involved in active inhibition of homologous motor circuitry unnecessary to task execution.

  9. Effects of aripiprazole/OPC-14597 on motor activity, pharmacological models of psychosis, and brain activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, R E; Risterucci, C; Moreau, J L; von Kienlin, M; Künnecke, B; Maco, M; Freichel, C; Riemer, C; Spooren, W

    2008-02-01

    Aripiprazole (OPC-14597) is an antipsychotic with a unique pharmacology as a dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist, which has been demonstrated to reduce symptoms of schizophrenia. To further profile this compound in preclinical models, we examined aripiprazole-induced activity changes as measured by pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and characterized the drug in several rodent models of motor behaviors and of psychosis. Continuous arterial spin labeling MRI measuring blood perfusion (as an indirect measure of activity) reveals that aripiprazole dose-dependently decreased brain activity in the entorhinal piriform cortex, perirhinal cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, and basolateral amygdala. While no deficits were observed in the rotarod test for motor coordination in the simpler (8 RPM) version, in the more challenging condition (16 RPM) doses of 10 and 30mg/kg i.p. produced deficits. Catalepsy was seen only at the highest dose tested (30mg/kg i.p.) and only at the 3 and 6h time points, not at the 1h time point. In pharmacological models of psychosis, 1-30mg/kg aripiprazole i.p. effectively reduced locomotor activity induced by dopamine agonists (amphetamine and apomorphine), NMDA antagonists (MK-801 and phencyclidine (PCP)), and a serotonin agonist (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)). However, aripiprazole reversed prepulse inhibition deficits induced by amphetamine, but not by any of the other agents tested. Aripiprazole alters brain activity in regions relevant to schizophrenia, and furthermore, has a pharmacological profile that differs for the two psychosis models tested and does not match the typical or atypical psychotics. Thus, D2 partial agonists may constitute a new group of antipsychotics.

  10. Coordinating the activities of a planner and an execution agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tate, Austin

    1989-01-01

    A research program was defined that will explore the link between planning and execution systems. A simple scenario was defined in which a very capable off-line planning system interacts with the user and a smaller, less capable, on-line real-time system executing plans and reacting to faults. However, the on-line execution system may have a more flexible representation of the plans it is executing. This imbalance in the capabilities of the two agents involved should clarify some of the research objectives and give an experimental framework for the work. The task is to investigate the knowledge representations and communication protocols needed to link a user stating some requirements for a task to be carried out through a planning system to the (remote) execution agent that can carry out the user's wishes. The notion that a single representation can encapsulate the expression of the user's requirements, the capabilities for action, the communication to the execution agent, the successful or faulty response from the execution agent and the means of keeping the user informed, is examined. Methods of creating plan patches to update the plans separately held by each of the parties involved to keep them in step as they each react to changing circumstances in real-time is investigated. This involves the specification of plan patch attachment points that can be understood by the recipient. Transaction based methods are also investigated for coordinating the activities of the planner with those of the execution agent and user. The trial application area for the research is in the command and control of an advanced Earth Observation Space Platform.

  11. Identification of Inhibitory Premotor Interneurons Activated at a Late Phase in a Motor Cycle during Drosophila Larval Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Yuki; Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Tomoko; Zlatic, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic motor patterns underlying many types of locomotion are thought to be produced by central pattern generators (CPGs). Our knowledge of how CPG networks generate motor patterns in complex nervous systems remains incomplete, despite decades of work in a variety of model organisms. Substrate borne locomotion in Drosophila larvae is driven by waves of muscular contraction that propagate through multiple body segments. We use the motor circuitry underlying crawling in larval Drosophila as a model to try to understand how segmentally coordinated rhythmic motor patterns are generated. Whereas muscles, motoneurons and sensory neurons have been well investigated in this system, far less is known about the identities and function of interneurons. Our recent study identified a class of glutamatergic premotor interneurons, PMSIs (period-positive median segmental interneurons), that regulate the speed of locomotion. Here, we report on the identification of a distinct class of glutamatergic premotor interneurons called Glutamatergic Ventro-Lateral Interneurons (GVLIs). We used calcium imaging to search for interneurons that show rhythmic activity and identified GVLIs as interneurons showing wave-like activity during peristalsis. Paired GVLIs were present in each abdominal segment A1-A7 and locally extended an axon towards a dorsal neuropile region, where they formed GRASP-positive putative synaptic contacts with motoneurons. The interneurons expressed vesicular glutamate transporter (vGluT) and thus likely secrete glutamate, a neurotransmitter known to inhibit motoneurons. These anatomical results suggest that GVLIs are premotor interneurons that locally inhibit motoneurons in the same segment. Consistent with this, optogenetic activation of GVLIs with the red-shifted channelrhodopsin, CsChrimson ceased ongoing peristalsis in crawling larvae. Simultaneous calcium imaging of the activity of GVLIs and motoneurons showed that GVLIs’ wave-like activity lagged behind that of

  12. Method for the evaluation of structure-activity relationship information associated with coordinated activity cliffs.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Dilyana; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-08-14

    Activity cliffs are generally defined as pairs of active compounds having a large difference in potency. Although this definition of activity cliffs focuses on compound pairs, the vast majority of cliffs are formed in a coordinated manner. This means that multiple highly and weakly potent compounds form series of activity cliffs, which often overlap. In activity cliff networks, coordinated cliffs emerge as disjoint activity cliff clusters. Recently, we have identified all cliff clusters from current bioactive compounds and analyzed their topologies. For structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, activity cliff clusters are of high interest, since they contain more SAR information than cliffs that are individually considered. For medicinal chemistry applications, a key question becomes how to best extract SAR information from activity cliff clusters. This represents a challenging problem, given the complexity of many activity cliff configurations. Herein we introduce a generally applicable methodology to organize activity cliff clusters on the basis of structural relationships, prioritize clusters, and systematically extract SAR information from them. PMID:25014781

  13. Meeting Learning Challenges: Working with Children Who Have Motor Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stanley I.

    2005-01-01

    Problems with large-motor coordination is motor planning and sequencing. This is the ability to carry out actions that require five or six steps. For example, many children can take off their coats, hang them in their cubbies, walk back to a table, sit at the table, and get ready for an activity. A child with coordination problems is likely to…

  14. The Pex1/Pex6 complex is a heterohexameric AAA+ motor with alternating and highly coordinated subunits

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Brooke M.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Lander, Gabriel C.; Martin, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Pex1 and Pex6 are Type-2 AAA+ ATPases required for the de-novo biogenesis of peroxisomes. Mutations in Pex1 and Pex6 account for the majority of the most severe forms of peroxisome biogenesis disorders in humans. Here we show that the ATP-dependent complex of Pex1 and Pex6 from S. cerevisiae is a heterohexamer with alternating subunits. Within the Pex1/Pex6 complex, only the D2 ATPase ring hydrolyzes ATP, while nucleotide binding in the D1 ring promotes complex assembly. ATP hydrolysis by Pex1 is highly coordinated with that of Pex6. Furthermore, Pex15, the membrane anchor required for Pex1/Pex6 recruitment to peroxisomes inhibits the ATP-hydrolysis activity of Pex1/Pex6. PMID:25659908

  15. Motor Prediction at the Edge of Instability: Alteration of Grip Force Control during Changes in Bimanual Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danion, Frederic; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2010-01-01

    Predicting the consequences of actions is fundamental for skilled motor behavior. We investigated whether motor prediction is influenced by the fact that some movements are easier to perform and stabilize than others. Twelve subjects performed a bimanual rhythmical task either symmetrically or asymmetrically (the latter being more difficult and…

  16. Summary of Session Activities: Coordination of Environmental Education Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeler, Michael; Mahootian, Farzad

    1995-01-01

    In this session, we address four fundamental questions related to environmental fields with emphasis on education. These are: What are the goals, objectives, and practical opportunities for coordinating our projects? How can we improve awareness of, interest in, access to, and support the products of our work? How can we build relationships between projects for scientific, educational, technical, and programmatic benefit? How can we evaluate the effectiveness of coordination efforts. In this working session, we produced answers to these questions and proposed a structure for future collaboration.

  17. Multimotor transport in a system of active and inactive kinesin-1 motors.

    PubMed

    Scharrel, Lara; Ma, Rui; Schneider, René; Jülicher, Frank; Diez, Stefan

    2014-07-15

    Long-range directional transport in cells is facilitated by microtubule-based motor proteins. One example is transport in a nerve cell, where small groups of motor proteins, such as kinesins and cytoplasmic dynein, work together to ensure the supply and clearance of cellular material along the axon. Defects in axonal transport have been linked to Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, it is not known in detail how multimotor-based cargo transport is impaired if a fraction of the motors are defective. To mimic impaired multimotor transport in vitro, we performed gliding motility assays with varying fractions of active kinesin-1 motors and inactive kinesin-1 motor mutants. We found that impaired transport manifests in multiple motility regimes: 1), a fast-motility regime characterized by gliding at velocities close to the single-molecule velocity of the active motors; 2), a slow-motility regime characterized by gliding at close-to zero velocity or full stopping; and 3), a regime in which fast and slow motilities coexist. Notably, the transition from the fast to the slow regime occurred sharply at a threshold fraction of active motors. Based on single-motor parameters, we developed a stochastic model and a mean-field theoretical description that explain our experimental findings. Our results demonstrate that impaired multimotor transport mostly occurs in an either/or fashion: depending on the ratio of active to inactive motors, transport is either performed at close to full speed or is out of action.

  18. Activation of thalamus in motor imagery results from gating by hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Katharina; Bacht, Katrin; Prochnow, Denise; Schramm, Stefanie; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2013-02-01

    The ability to mentally imagine the performance of automatic movements has been well-established being employed in sports and physiotherapy as a tool for motor learning and rehabilitation. This is probably mediated by engagement of the same brain areas as during real motor performance. Here we investigated the effect of hypnotic trance on the cerebral activation pattern engaged in motor imagery in 16 healthy, right-handed subjects using fMRI. Motor imagery as compared with rest was related to activations in the left medial frontal areas (preSMA/SMA), prefrontal- and frontal areas, putamen and inferior parietal areas. When compared with performance of the same movements motor imagery resulted in activation of the left middle frontal cortex, precuneus, and posterior cingulate. Under hypnotic trance there was one extra-activation in the left thalamus which occurred specifically in the motor imagery condition. The regional beta indices were highly correlated among the areas of the cortical-subcortical motor network. Our data accord with the notion that hypnotic trance enhances the motor control circuit engaged in motor imagery by modulating the gating function of the thalamus.

  19. Stem cell cytoskeleton is slaved to active motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehfeldt, Florian; Brown, Andre; Engler, Adam; Discher, Dennis

    2007-03-01

    Cells feel their physical microenvironment through their adhesion and respond to it in various ways. Indeed, matrix elasticity can even guide the differentiation of human adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) [Engler et al. Cell 2006]. Sparse cultures of MSCs on elastic collagen--coated substrates that are respectively soft, stiff, or extremely stiff were shown to induce neurogenesis, myogenesis, and osteogenesis. Lineage commitment was evaluated by morphological analysis, protein expression profiles, and transcription microarrays. Differentiation could be completely blocked with a specific non-muscle myosin II (NMM II) inhibitor, suggesting that contractile motor activity is essential for the cells to sense matrix elasticity. Current studies by AFM and near-field fluorescence imaging show that NMM II inhibition in stem cells on rigid glass surfaces promotes actin-rich dendritic outgrowth resembling neurite extension. Dynamic cell studies have been conducted to elucidate the complex molecular interplay of the contractile apparatus in response to selected physical and biochemical stimuli. Additional insight is being gained by using AFM to investigate the local elasticity of the cell's cytoskeletal force sensing machinery.

  20. The role of the posterior parietal cortex in stereopsis and hand-eye coordination during motor task behaviours.

    PubMed

    Paggetti, Giulia; Leff, Daniel Richard; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Mylonas, George; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Menegaz, Gloria

    2015-05-01

    The field of 'Neuroergonomics' has the potential to improve safety in high-risk operative environments through a better appreciation of the way in which the brain responds during human-tool interactions. This is especially relevant to minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Amongst the many challenges imposed on the surgeon by traditional MIS (laparoscopy), arguably the greatest is the loss of depth perception. Robotic MIS platforms, on the other hand, provide the surgeon with a magnified three-dimensional view of the environment, and as a result may offload a degree of the cognitive burden. The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays an integral role in human depth perception. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that differences in PPC activation between monoscopic and stereoscopic vision may be observed. In order to investigate this hypothesis, the current study explores disparities in PPC responses between monoscopic and stereoscopic visual perception to better de-couple the burden imposed by laparoscopy and robotic surgery on the operator's brain. Fourteen participants conducted tasks of depth perception and hand-eye coordination under both monoscopic and stereoscopic visual feedback. Cortical haemodynamic responses were monitored throughout using optical functional neuroimaging. Overall, recruitment of the bilateral superior parietal lobule was observed during both depth perception and hand-eye coordination tasks. This occurred contrary to our hypothesis, regardless of the mode of visual feedback. Operator technical performance was significantly different in two- and three-dimensional visual displays. These differences in technical performance do not appear to be explained by significant differences in parietal lobe processing.

  1. Motor Coordination and Health-Related Physical Fitness of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Three-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yao-Chuen; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Hsieh, Chiu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease. While previous studies have identified children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) to be less physically fit than typically developing (TD) peers, there is limited longitudinal research in this area. This study was undertaken to evaluate concomitant…

  2. Remote control of molecular motors using light-activated gearshifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Zev

    2013-03-01

    Engineering molecular motors with dynamically controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in vivo and provide sophisticated components for directed nanoscale transport in vitro. We previously constructed myosin motors that respond to a change in [Ca++] by reversing their direction of motion along the polarized actin filament. To expand the potential applications of controllable molecular motors, we have now developed myosins that shift gears in response to blue light illumination. Light is a versatile control signal that can be readily modulated in time and space, and is generally orthogonal to cellular signaling. Using structure-guided protein engineering, we have incorporated LOV photoreceptor domains into the lever arms of chimeric myosins, resulting in motors that robustly speed up, slow down, or switch directions upon illumination. These genetically encoded motors should be directly deployable inside living cells. Our successful designs include constructs based on two different myosin classes, and we show that optical velocity control can be implemented in motors that move at microns/sec speeds, enabling practical biological and bioengineering applications.

  3. The movement assessment battery in Greek preschoolers: the impact of age, gender, birth order, and physical activity on motor outcome.

    PubMed

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of differences in motor performance with regards to age, gender, participation in sports and order of birth in the family. Performance profiles on the movement ABC were used to classify 412 Greek children aged 4-6 years old. It appears from the results that the occurrence rate of probable developmental coordination disorders (DCD) was 5.4%. Significant differences were observed in all independent variables except the order of birth in the family. The findings reinforce the need for the evaluation of motor performance in preschool-aged children, in order specific individual motor profiles to be established for optimizing and adapting early intervention programs.

  4. Active head rotations and eye-head coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zangemeister, W. H.; Stark, L.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that head movements play an important role in gaze. The interaction between eye and head movements involves both their shared role in directing gaze and the compensatory vestibular ocular reflex. The dynamics of head trajectories are discussed, taking into account the use of parameterization to obtain the peak velocity, peak accelerations, the times of these extrema, and the duration of the movement. Attention is given to the main sequence, neck muscle EMG and details of the head-movement trajectory, types of head model accelerations, the latency of eye and head movement in coordinated gaze, gaze latency as a function of various factors, and coordinated gaze types. Clinical examples of gaze-plane analysis are considered along with the instantaneous change of compensatory eye movement (CEM) gain, and aspects of variability.

  5. Somatostatin receptor 2 knockout/lacZ knockin mice show impaired motor coordination and reveal sites of somatostatin action within the striatum.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jeremy P; Hathway, Gareth J; Clarke, Neil J; Jowett, Mike I; Topps, Stephanie; Kendrick, Keith M; Humphrey, Patrick P A; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Emson, Piers C

    2003-05-01

    The peptide somatostatin can modulate the functional output of the basal ganglia. The exact sites and mechanisms of this action, however, are poorly understood, and the physiological context in which somatostatin acts is unknown. Somatostatin acts as a neuromodulator via a family of five 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors, SSTR1-5, one of which, SSTR2, is known to be functional in the striatum. We have investigated the role of SSTR2 in basal ganglia function using mice in which Sstr2 has been inactivated and replaced by the lacZ reporter gene. Analysis of Sstr2lacZ expression in the brain by beta-galactosidase histochemistry demonstrated a widespread pattern of expression. By comparison to previously published in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical data, Sstr2lacZ expression was shown to accurately recapitulate that of Sstr2 and thus provided a highly sensitive model to investigate cell-type-specific expression of Sstr2. In the striatum, Sstr2 expression was identified in medium spiny projection neurons restricted to the matrix compartment and in cholinergic interneurons. Sstr2 expression was not detected in any other nuclei of the basal ganglia except for a sparse number of nondopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Microdialysis in the striatum showed Sstr2-null mice were selectively refractory to somatostatin-induced dopamine and glutamate release. In behavioural tests, Sstr2-null mice showed normal levels of locomotor activity and normal coordination in undemanding tasks. However, in beam-walking, a test of fine motor control, Sstr2-null mice were severely impaired. Together these data implicate an important neuromodulatory role for SSTR2 in the striatum. PMID:12752788

  6. Neural Activation in Humans during a Simple Motor Task Differs between BDNF Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Grön, Georg; Sim, Eun-Jin; Stingl, Julia C.; Kammer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has been linked to decreased synaptic plasticity involved in motor learning tasks. We investigated whether individual differences in this polymorphism may promote differences in neural activity during a two-alternative forced-choice motor performance. In two separate sessions, the BOLD signal from 22 right-handed healthy men was measured during button presses with the left and right index finger upon visual presentation of an arrow. 11 men were Val66Val carriers (ValVal group), the other 11 men carried either the Val66Met or the Met66Met polymorphism (Non-ValVal group). Reaction times, resting and active motor thresholds did not differ between ValVal and Non-ValVal groups. Compared to the ValVal group the Non-ValVal group showed significantly higher BOLD signals in the right SMA and motor cingulate cortex during motor performance. This difference was highly consistent for both hands and across all four sessions. Our finding suggests that this BDNF polymorphism may not only influence complex performance during motor learning but is already associated with activation differences during rather simple motor tasks. The higher BOLD signal observed in Non-ValVal subjects suggests the presence of cumulative effects of the polymorphism on the motor system, and may reflect compensatory functional activation mediating equal behavioral performance between groups. PMID:24828051

  7. Children Move to Learn: A Guide to Planning Gross Motor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Judy

    This guide for persons working with young children with gross motor delays is designed to be used in the assessment of gross motor abilities, the detection and identification of delays and the planning and implementation of appropriate Individual Activity Plans (IAP) for correcting the delays. Observation guidelines in the form of questions (Can…

  8. Multi-channel NIRS of the primary motor cortex to discriminate hand from foot activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenraadt, K. L. M.; Duysens, J.; Smeenk, M.; Keijsers, N. L. W.

    2012-08-01

    The poor spatial resolution of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) makes it difficult to distinguish two closely located cortical areas from each other. Here, a combination of multi-channel NIRS and a centre of gravity (CoG) approach (widely accepted in the field of transcranial magnetic stimulation; TMS) was used to discriminate between closely located cortical areas activated during hand and foot movements. Similarly, the possibility of separating the more anteriorly represented discrete movements from rhythmic movements was studied. Thirteen healthy right-handed subjects performed rhythmic or discrete (‘task’) hand or foot (‘extremity’) tapping. Hemodynamic responses were measured using an 8-channel NIRS setup. For oxyhemoglobin (OHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb), a CoG was determined for each condition using the mean hemodynamic responses and the coordinates of the channels. Significant hemodynamic responses were found for hand and foot movements. Based on the HHb responses, the NIRS-CoG of hand movements was located 0.6 cm more laterally compared to the NIRS-CoG of foot movements. For OHb responses no difference in NIRS-CoG was found for ‘extremity’ nor for ‘task’. This is the first NIRS study showing hemodynamic responses for isolated foot movements. Furthermore, HHb responses have the potential to be used in multi-channel NIRS experiments requiring differential activation of motor cortex areas linked to either hand or foot movements.

  9. Effects of VIP and NO on the motor activity of vascularly perfused rat proximal colon.

    PubMed

    Kumano, K; Fujimura, M; Oshima, S; Yamamoto, H; Hayashi, N; Nakamura, T; Fujimiya, M

    2001-01-01

    The effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and nitric oxide (NO) on the motor activity of the rat proximal colon were examined in an ex vivo model of vascularly perfused rat proximal colon. VIP reduced motor activity and this inhibitory effect was not altered by either atropine, hexamethonium, tetrodotoxin (TTX) nor TTX plus acetylcholine (ACh), but was completely antagonized by NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) and by VIP receptor antagonist, VIP(10-28). These results suggest that VIP may exert a direct inhibitory effect on the motor activity of the rat proximal colon via a VIP receptor located on the smooth muscle and this effect is mediated by NO but not by cholinergic pathways. Atropine and hexamethonium reduced but ACh stimulated motor activity and the effect of ACh was not changed by TTX, suggesting that the cholinergic pathway may exert a direct stimulatory effect on motor activity. Single injection of TTX, VIP(10-28) or L-NA induced a marked increase in motor activity, suggesting that the motor activity of rat proximal colon is tonically suppressed by VIP and NO generating pathways, and elimination of inhibitory neurotransmission by TTX may induce an abnormal increase of the motor activity. The interaction between VIP and NO in regulation of motor activity was further examined by a measurement of NO release from vascularly perfused rat proximal colon. Results showed that NO release was significantly increased during infusion of VIP and this response was reversed by L-NA. These results suggest that VIP generating neurons may inhibit colonic motility by stimulating endogenous NO production in either smooth muscle cells or nerve terminals.

  10. Reversed light-dark cycle and cage enrichment effects on ethanol-induced deficits in motor coordination assessed in inbred mouse strains with a compact battery of refined tests.

    PubMed

    Munn, Elizabeth; Bunning, Mark; Prada, Sofia; Bohlen, Martin; Crabbe, John C; Wahlsten, Douglas

    2011-10-31

    The laboratory environment existing outside the test situation itself can have a substantial influence on results of some behavioral tests with mice, and the extent of these influences sometimes depends on genotype. For alcohol research, the principal issue is whether genotype-related ethanol effects will themselves be altered by common variations in the lab environment or instead will be essentially the same across a wide range of lab environments. Data from 20 inbred strains were used to reduce an original battery of seven tests of alcohol intoxication to a compact battery of four tests: the balance beam and grip strength with a 1.25 g/kg ethanol dose and the accelerating rotarod and open-field activation tests with 1.75 g/kg. The abbreviated battery was then used to study eight inbred strains housed under a normal or reversed light-dark cycle, or a standard or enriched home cage environment. The light-dark cycle had no discernable effects on any measure of behavior or response to alcohol. Cage enrichment markedly improved motor coordination in most strains. Ethanol-induced motor coordination deficits were robust; the well-documented strain-dependent effects of ethanol were not altered by cage enrichment.

  11. Structural brain correlates of unconstrained motor activity in people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Tom F D; Hunter, Michael D; Wilkinson, Iain D; Green, Russell D J; Spence, Sean A

    2005-11-01

    Avolition affects quality of life in chronic schizophrenia. We investigated the relationship between unconstrained motor activity and the volume of key executive brain regions in 16 male patients with schizophrenia. Wristworn actigraphy monitors were used to record motor activity over a 20 h period. Structural magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were parcellated and individual volumes for anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex extracted. Patients'total activity was positively correlated with volume of left anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that the volume of specific executive structures may affect (quantifiable) motor behaviours, having further implications for models of the 'will' and avolition.

  12. Long-term dietary extra-virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols reverses age-related dysfunctions in motor coordination and contextual memory in mice: role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Pitozzi, Vanessa; Jacomelli, Michela; Catelan, Dolores; Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Biggeri, Annibale; Dolara, Piero; Giovannelli, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of olive oil phenols on brain aging in mice and to verify whether the antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of these polyphenols were involved. C57Bl/6J mice were fed from middle age to senescence with extra-virgin olive oil (10% wt/wt dry diet) rich in phenols (total polyphenol dose/day, 6 mg/kg). Behavioral tests were employed to assess cognitive, motor, and emotional behavior after 6 or 12 months of treatment. Parameters of oxidative status and inflammation were measured in different brain areas at the same times and evaluated for correlation with behavioral changes. The treatment with olive oil phenols improved contextual memory in the step-down test to levels similar to young animals and prevented the age-related impairment in motor coordination in the rotarod test. This motor effect was correlated with reduced lipid peroxidation in the cerebellum (p<0.05), whereas the memory effect did not correlate with oxidation or inflammation parameters. In conclusion, this work points out that natural polyphenols contained in extra-virgin olive oil can improve some age-related dysfunctions by differentially affecting different brain areas. Such a modulation can be obtained with an olive oil intake that is normal in the Mediterranean area, provided that the oil has a sufficiently high content of polyphenols.

  13. Effects of laxative and nonlaxative hydrophilic polymers on canine small intestinal motor activity.

    PubMed

    Russell, J; Bass, P

    1986-03-01

    Bulk-forming laxatives increase fecal volume and elicit aborally directed colonic motility patterns. Recently, it was demonstrated that test meals of the bulk-laxative fibers (cellulose and bran) elicited organized jejunal motor activity while nonlaxative fiber meals (guar) elicited unorganized jejunal motor activity. However, whether bulk-forming laxatives, as a class of compounds, differentially affect small intestinal motility has not been studied. Therefore, a study was made of the effects of the bulk laxatives psyllium and polycarbophil and the nonlaxative pectin on canine jejunal motor activity. Psyllium and pectin are examples of dietary fiber, while polycarbophil is a synthetic polymer. Pectin and psyllium test meals presented as viscous gels. In contrast, polycarbophil meals presented as a combination of discrete particles plus meal water. After each meal, measurements were made of the jejunal motility index, the time of reappearance of interdigestive burst activity, and overall motility patterns. Pectin and psyllium meals increased in viscosity as meal fiber content increased. As meal content and hence viscosity increased, both the laxative (psyllium) and nonlaxative (pectin) fiber meals elicited increasing jejunal motor activity and delays in the reappearance of the burst interval. For both fiber types, motor activity presented as randomly appearing contractions. In contrast, meals of the laxative polycarbophil elicited no more motor activity than the saline control meal. However, this control-level amount of activity presented as propagated clusters of contractions, ie, the "laxative-induced pattern." Polycarbophil did not delay the reappearance of burst activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. How coordinate and categorical spatial relations combine with egocentric and allocentric reference frames in a motor task: effects of delay and stimuli characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ruotolo, Francesco; van der Ham, Ineke; Postma, Albert; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Iachini, Tina

    2015-05-01

    This study explores how people represent spatial information in order to accomplish a visuo-motor task. To this aim we combined two fundamental components of the human visuo-spatial system: egocentric and allocentric frames of reference and coordinate and categorical spatial relations. Specifically, participants learned the position of three objects and then had to judge the distance (coordinate information) and the relation (categorical information) of a target object with respect to themselves (egocentric frame) or with respect to another object (allocentric frame). They gave spatial judgments by reaching and touching the exact position or the side previously occupied by the target object. The possible influence of stimuli characteristics (3D objects vs. 2D images) and delay between learning phase and testing phase (1.5 vs. 5s) was also assessed. Results showed an advantage of egocentric coordinate judgments over the allocentric coordinate ones independently from the kind of stimuli used and the temporal parameters of the response, whereas egocentric categorical judgments were more accurate than allocentric categorical ones only with 3D stimuli and when an immediate response was requested. This pattern of data is discussed in the light of the "perception-action" model by Milner and Goodale [13] and of neuroimaging evidence about frames of reference and spatial relations.

  15. How coordinate and categorical spatial relations combine with egocentric and allocentric reference frames in a motor task: effects of delay and stimuli characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ruotolo, Francesco; van der Ham, Ineke; Postma, Albert; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Iachini, Tina

    2015-05-01

    This study explores how people represent spatial information in order to accomplish a visuo-motor task. To this aim we combined two fundamental components of the human visuo-spatial system: egocentric and allocentric frames of reference and coordinate and categorical spatial relations. Specifically, participants learned the position of three objects and then had to judge the distance (coordinate information) and the relation (categorical information) of a target object with respect to themselves (egocentric frame) or with respect to another object (allocentric frame). They gave spatial judgments by reaching and touching the exact position or the side previously occupied by the target object. The possible influence of stimuli characteristics (3D objects vs. 2D images) and delay between learning phase and testing phase (1.5 vs. 5s) was also assessed. Results showed an advantage of egocentric coordinate judgments over the allocentric coordinate ones independently from the kind of stimuli used and the temporal parameters of the response, whereas egocentric categorical judgments were more accurate than allocentric categorical ones only with 3D stimuli and when an immediate response was requested. This pattern of data is discussed in the light of the "perception-action" model by Milner and Goodale [13] and of neuroimaging evidence about frames of reference and spatial relations. PMID:25698602

  16. Opposing regulation of dopaminergic activity and exploratory motor behavior by forebrain and brainstem cholinergic circuits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jyoti C; Rossignol, Elsa; Rice, Margaret E; Machold, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine transmission is critical for exploratory motor behaviour. A key regulator is acetylcholine; forebrain acetylcholine regulates striatal dopamine release, whereas brainstem cholinergic inputs regulate the transition of dopamine neurons from tonic to burst firing modes. How these sources of cholinergic activity combine to control dopamine efflux and exploratory motor behaviour is unclear. Here we show that mice lacking total forebrain acetylcholine exhibit enhanced frequency-dependent striatal dopamine release and are hyperactive in a novel environment, whereas mice lacking rostral brainstem acetylcholine are hypoactive. Exploratory motor behaviour is normalized by the removal of both cholinergic sources. Involvement of dopamine in the exploratory motor phenotypes observed in these mutants is indicated by their altered sensitivity to the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist raclopride. These results support a model in which forebrain and brainstem cholinergic systems act in tandem to regulate striatal dopamine signalling for proper control of motor activity.

  17. Phrenic long-term facilitation requires PKCθ activity within phrenic motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Devinney, Michael J; Fields, Daryl P; Huxtable, Adrianne G; Peterson, Timothy J; Dale, Erica A; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2015-05-27

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces a form of spinal motor plasticity known as phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF); pLTF is a prolonged increase in phrenic motor output after AIH has ended. In anesthetized rats, we demonstrate that pLTF requires activity of the novel PKC isoform, PKCθ, and that the relevant PKCθ is within phrenic motor neurons. Whereas spinal PKCθ inhibitors block pLTF, inhibitors targeting other PKC isoforms do not. PKCθ is highly expressed in phrenic motor neurons, and PKCθ knockdown with intrapleural siRNAs abolishes pLTF. Intrapleural siRNAs targeting PKCζ, an atypical PKC isoform expressed in phrenic motor neurons that underlies a distinct form of phrenic motor plasticity, does not affect pLTF. Thus, PKCθ plays a critical role in spinal AIH-induced respiratory motor plasticity, and the relevant PKCθ is localized within phrenic motor neurons. Intrapleural siRNA delivery has considerable potential as a therapeutic tool to selectively manipulate plasticity in vital respiratory motor neurons. PMID:26019328

  18. Phrenic Long-Term Facilitation Requires PKCθ Activity within Phrenic Motor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Devinney, Michael J.; Fields, Daryl P.; Huxtable, Adrianne G.; Peterson, Timothy J.; Dale, Erica A.

    2015-01-01

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces a form of spinal motor plasticity known as phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF); pLTF is a prolonged increase in phrenic motor output after AIH has ended. In anesthetized rats, we demonstrate that pLTF requires activity of the novel PKC isoform, PKCθ, and that the relevant PKCθ is within phrenic motor neurons. Whereas spinal PKCθ inhibitors block pLTF, inhibitors targeting other PKC isoforms do not. PKCθ is highly expressed in phrenic motor neurons, and PKCθ knockdown with intrapleural siRNAs abolishes pLTF. Intrapleural siRNAs targeting PKCζ, an atypical PKC isoform expressed in phrenic motor neurons that underlies a distinct form of phrenic motor plasticity, does not affect pLTF. Thus, PKCθ plays a critical role in spinal AIH-induced respiratory motor plasticity, and the relevant PKCθ is localized within phrenic motor neurons. Intrapleural siRNA delivery has considerable potential as a therapeutic tool to selectively manipulate plasticity in vital respiratory motor neurons. PMID:26019328

  19. Analysis of automated quantification of motor activity in REM sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Rune; Nikolic, Miki; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Kempfner, Lykke; Jennum, Poul

    2015-10-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and REM sleep without atonia. Atonia is evaluated on the basis of visual criteria, but there is a need for more objective, quantitative measurements. We aimed to define and optimize a method for establishing baseline and all other parameters in automatic quantifying submental motor activity during REM sleep. We analysed the electromyographic activity of the submental muscle in polysomnographs of 29 patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), 29 controls and 43 Parkinson's (PD) patients. Six adjustable parameters for motor activity were defined. Motor activity was detected and quantified automatically. The optimal parameters for separating RBD patients from controls were investigated by identifying the greatest area under the receiver operating curve from a total of 648 possible combinations. The optimal parameters were validated on PD patients. Automatic baseline estimation improved characterization of atonia during REM sleep, as it eliminates inter/intra-observer variability and can be standardized across diagnostic centres. We found an optimized method for quantifying motor activity during REM sleep. The method was stable and can be used to differentiate RBD from controls and to quantify motor activity during REM sleep in patients with neurodegeneration. No control had more than 30% of REM sleep with increased motor activity; patients with known RBD had as low activity as 4.5%. We developed and applied a sensitive, quantitative, automatic algorithm to evaluate loss of atonia in RBD patients. PMID:25923472

  20. Analysis of automated quantification of motor activity in REM sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Rune; Nikolic, Miki; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Kempfner, Lykke; Jennum, Poul

    2015-10-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and REM sleep without atonia. Atonia is evaluated on the basis of visual criteria, but there is a need for more objective, quantitative measurements. We aimed to define and optimize a method for establishing baseline and all other parameters in automatic quantifying submental motor activity during REM sleep. We analysed the electromyographic activity of the submental muscle in polysomnographs of 29 patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), 29 controls and 43 Parkinson's (PD) patients. Six adjustable parameters for motor activity were defined. Motor activity was detected and quantified automatically. The optimal parameters for separating RBD patients from controls were investigated by identifying the greatest area under the receiver operating curve from a total of 648 possible combinations. The optimal parameters were validated on PD patients. Automatic baseline estimation improved characterization of atonia during REM sleep, as it eliminates inter/intra-observer variability and can be standardized across diagnostic centres. We found an optimized method for quantifying motor activity during REM sleep. The method was stable and can be used to differentiate RBD from controls and to quantify motor activity during REM sleep in patients with neurodegeneration. No control had more than 30% of REM sleep with increased motor activity; patients with known RBD had as low activity as 4.5%. We developed and applied a sensitive, quantitative, automatic algorithm to evaluate loss of atonia in RBD patients.

  1. Deficits in Lower Limb Muscle Reflex Contraction Latency and Peak Force Are Associated With Impairments in Postural Control and Gross Motor Skills of Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Guo, X; Wang, Yuling; Chung, Raymond C K; Stat, Grad; Ki, W Y; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional, exploratory study aimed to compare neuromuscular performance, balance and motor skills proficiencies of typically developing children and those with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and to determine associations of these neuromuscular factors with balance and motor skills performances in children with DCD.One hundred thirty children with DCD and 117 typically developing children participated in the study. Medial hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies in response to an unexpected posterior-to-anterior trunk perturbation were assessed by electromyography and accelerometer. Hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle peak force and time to peak force were quantified by dynamometer, and balance and motor skills performances were evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC).Independent t tests revealed that children with DCD had longer hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies (P < 0.001) and lower isometric peak forces (P < 0.001), but not times to peak forces (P > 0.025), than the controls. Multiple regression analysis accounting for basic demographics showed that gastrocnemius peak force was independently associated with the MABC balance subscore and ball skills subscore, accounting for 5.7% (P = 0.003) and 8.5% (P = 0.001) of the variance, respectively. Gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latency also explained 11.4% (P < 0.001) of the variance in the MABC ball skills subscore.Children with DCD had delayed leg muscle activation onset times and lower isometric peak forces. Gastrocnemius peak force was associated with balance and ball skills performances, whereas timing of gastrocnemius muscle activation was a determinant of ball skill performance in the DCD population.

  2. Rectification of SEMG as a tool to demonstrate synchronous motor unit activity during vibration.

    PubMed

    Sebik, Oguz; Karacan, Ilhan; Cidem, Muharrem; Türker, Kemal S

    2013-04-01

    The use of surface electromyography (SEMG) in vibration studies is problematic since motion artifacts occupy the same frequency band with the SEMG signal containing information on synchronous motor unit activity. We hypothesize that using a harsher, 80-500 Hz band-pass filter and using rectification can help eliminate motion artifacts and provide a way to observe synchronous motor unit activity that is phase locked to vibration using SEMG recordings only. Multi Motor Unit (MMU) action potentials using intramuscular electrodes along with SEMG were recorded from the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) of six healthy male volunteers. Data were collected during whole body vibration, using vibration frequencies of 30 Hz, 35 Hz, 40 Hz or 50 Hz. A computer simulation was used to investigate the efficacy of filtering under different scenarios: with or without artifacts and/or motor unit synchronization. Our findings indicate that motor unit synchronization took place during WBV as verified by MMU recordings. A harsh filtering regimen along with rectification proved successful in demonstrating motor unit synchronization in SEMG recordings. Our findings were further supported by the results from the computer simulation, which indicated that filtering and rectification was efficient in discriminating motion artifacts from motor unit synchronization. We suggest that the proposed signal processing technique may provide a new methodology to evaluate the effects of vibration treatments using only SEMG. This is a major advantage, as this non-intrusive method is able to overcome movement artifacts and also indicate the synchronization of underlying motor units.

  3. [Hygienic assessment of organization of motor activity in primary class pupils of full-day schools].

    PubMed

    Khramtsov, P I; Bakanov, I M

    2009-01-01

    The impact of a routine with the traditional organization of motor activity, a more extensive motor regimen with additional lessons of physical training, eurhythmics, and swimming, as well as a motor regimen of prophylactic and health-improving orientation of the Health School, which is at the most integrated into an educational process, on exercise performance, lung capacity, carpal muscle strength, physical fitness, and nonspecific resistance was studied in 156 first-to-second-form pupils at a two-year follow-up. The traditional motor regimen was found to fail to significantly increase functional parameters. Higher increment rates of the study parameters were observed with the extensive motor regimen. The Health School motor regimen providing a uniform motor activity distribution in the first and second half of a day and a predominance of a dynamic component over a statistical one was also favorable to the maintenance of increment rates of the parameters at 2 years of the follow-up, which implies the developing nature of this regimen. Hygienic recommendations to optimize the traditional motor regimen were worked out for full-day school pupils.

  4. A Guide for Perceptual-Motor Training Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Euclid - Lyndhurst City Schools, Lyndhurst, OH.

    This document has been prepared as part of a kindergarten perceptual-training program of the South Euclid-Lyndhurst City School District near Cleveland, Ohio. The guide contains information on training and procedures related to perceptual-motor learning. This information is structured primarily into 150 lesson plans, devised as 30-minute sessions…

  5. Project Success for the SLD Child, Motor-Perception Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne - Carroll Public Schools, Wayne, NE.

    Presented is a curriculum guide for a perceptual motor program which was developed by Project Success (Nebraska) through a Title III grant for language learning disabled elementary level students in kindergarten through grade 3. The program is said to be arranged in a hierarchy of skills ranging from simple to complex and to be written so that the…

  6. Demonstration of motor imagery movement and phantom movement-related neuronal activity in human thalamus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William S; Weiss, Nirit; Lawson, Herman Christopher; Ohara, Shinji; Rowland, Lance; Lenz, Frederick A

    2011-01-26

    Functional imaging studies show that motor imagery activates multiple structures in the human forebrain. We now show that phantom movements in an amputee and imagined movements in intact individuals elicit responses from neurons in several human thalamic nuclei. These include the somatic sensory nucleus receiving input from the periphery (ventral caudal), and the motor nuclei receiving input from the cerebellum [ventral intermediate (Vim)] and the basal ganglia [ventral oral posterior (Vop)]. Seven neurons in the amputee showed phantom movement-related activity (three Vim, two Vop, and two ventral caudal). In addition, seven neurons in a group of three controls showed motor imagery-related activity (four Vim and three Vop). These studies were performed during single neuron recording sessions in patients undergoing therapeutic treatment of phantom pain, tremor, and chronic pain conditions by thalamic stimulation. The activity of neurons in these sensory and motor nuclei, respectively, may encode the expected sensory consequences and the dynamics of planned movements.

  7. Indatraline: synthesis and effect on the motor activity of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Márcia; Siqueira, Fernanda A; Garcia-Mijares, Miriam; Silva, Luiz F; Silva, Maria T A

    2011-11-10

    A new approach for the synthesis of indatraline was developed using as the key step an iodine(III)-mediated ring contraction of a 1,2-dihydronaphthalene derivative. Behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of indatraline and of its precursor indanamide on the motor activity of Wistar rats. Specific indexes for ambulation, raising and stereotypy were computed one, two and three hours after i.p. drug administration. Indatraline effects on motor activity lasted for at least three hours. On the other hand, no significant differences in motor activity were observed using indanamide. The results suggest that indatraline has a long lasting effect on motor activity and add evidence in favor of the potential use of that compound as a substitute in cocaine addiction.

  8. CORRELATIONS OF PESTICIDE-INDUCED CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION AND MOTOR ACTIVITY CHANGES IN ADULT RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute neurobehavioral effects of acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides are primarily due to overstimulation of the cholinergic system. Lowered motor activity levels represent a sensitive endpoint with which to monitor functional changes in laboratory animals exposed to ...

  9. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  10. 48 CFR 2452.237-72 - Coordination of data collection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... identical information from ten or more public respondents. Coordination of Data Collection Activities (APR... identical information from ten or more public respondents, the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C....

  11. Coordination of hand shape.

    PubMed

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-01

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness. PMID:21389230

  12. Coordination of Hand Shape

    PubMed Central

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In Experiment 1, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness. PMID:21389230

  13. The Assessment of Postural Control, Reflex Integration, and Bilateral Motor Coordination of Young Handicapped Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGangi, Georgia; Larsen, Lawrence A.

    A measurement device, Assessment of Sensorimotor Integration in Preschool Children, was developed to assess postural control, reflex integration and bilateral motor integration in developmentally delayed children (3 to 5 years old). The test was administered to 113 normal children and results were compared with data collected on 23 developmentally…

  14. Motor Coordination Difficulties in 5-6-Year-Old Children with Severe Behavioural and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Synnove; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Ellertsen, Bjorn; Nodland, Magne; Larsen, Tommy Bade

    2006-01-01

    Incidence, severity and types of motor difficulties in children with severe behavioural and emotional problems were evaluated. A group of 6-year-olds (n = 29) with such problems and controls (n = 29) were compared on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC). The groups were compared on total scores as well as manual dexterity, ball…

  15. Motor impairments screened by the movement assessment battery for children-2 are related to the visual-perceptual deficits in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Ju, Yan-Ying; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Chen, Chia-Ling; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Tseng, Kevin C; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2014-09-01

    This study was to examine to what extent the motor deficits of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) verified by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) are linked to their visual-perceptual abilities. Seventeen children with DCD and seventeen typically developing children (TD) aged 5-10 years screened from a total of 250 children were recruited. The assessments included MABC-2, traditional test of visual perceptual skills (TVPS-R), and computerized test for sequential coupling of eye and hand as well as motion coherence. The results indicated that children with DCD scored lower than TD in MABC-2, and their total scores were highly correlated with manual dexterity component scores. DCD group also showed poor visual-perceptual abilities in various aspects. The visual discrimination and visual sequential memory from the TVPS-R, the sequential coupling of eye and hand, and the motion coherence demonstrated a moderate or strong correlation with the MABC-2 in the DCD rather than the TD group. It was concluded that the motor problems screened by MABC-2 were significantly related to the visual-perceptual deficits of children with DCD. MABC-2 is suggested to be a prescreening tool to identify the visual-perceptual related motor deficits.

  16. Oropharyngeal Control of Hand-Mouth Coordination in Newborn Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochat, Philippe; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Identifies a coordinative structure of action that integrates hand and mouth activities within hours after birth. Found that presenting neonates with a sucrose solution focused gross motor patterns of hand movement on the oral and perioral regions. (SKC)

  17. Heartbeat control in leeches. II. Fictive motor pattern.

    PubMed

    Wenning, Angela; Hill, Andrew A V; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2004-01-01

    The rhythmic beating of the tube-like hearts in the medicinal leech is driven and coordinated by rhythmic activity in segmental heart motor neurons. The motor neurons are controlled by rhythmic inhibitory input from a network of heart interneurons that compose the heartbeat central pattern generator. In the preceding paper, we described the constriction pattern of the hearts in quiescent intact animals and showed that one heart constricts in a rear-to-front wave (peristaltic coordination mode), while the other heart constricts in near unison over its length (synchronous coordination mode) and that they regularly switch coordination modes. Here we analyze intersegmental and side-to-side-coordination of the fictive motor pattern for heartbeat in denervated nerve cords. We show that the intersegmental phase relations among heart motor neurons in both coordination modes are independent of heartbeat period. This finding enables us to combine data from different experiments to form a detailed analysis of the relative phases, duty cycle, and intraburst spike frequency of the bursts of the segmental heart motor neurons. The fictive motor pattern and the constriction pattern seen in intact leeches closely match in their intersegmental and side-to-side coordination, indicating that sensory feedback is not necessary for properly phased intersegmental coordination. Moreover, the regular switches in coordination mode of the fictive motor pattern mimic those seen in intact animals indicating that these switches likely arise by a central mechanism.

  18. Esterases activity in the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum exposed to chlorpyrifos and its implication to motor activity.

    PubMed

    Robles-Mendoza, Cecilia; Zúñiga-Lagunes, Sebastian R; Ponce de León-Hill, Claudia A; Hernández-Soto, Jesús; Vanegas-Pérez, Cecilia

    2011-10-01

    The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is a neotenic salamander considered a good biological model due to its ability to regenerate limbs, tail, brain and heart cells. Nevertheless, severe reduction of A. mexicanum wild populations in the lacustrine area of Xochimilco, the natural habitat of the axolotl, could be related to several environmental pressures as the presence of organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), intensively applied in agricultural activities in Xochimilco. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of environmentally realistic chlorpyrifos (CPF) concentrations, a OPP commonly used in this zone, on esterases activity (acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase) and bioconcentration of CPF and to relate them with the motor activity of A. mexicanum juveniles. Axolotls were exposed 48 h to 0.05 and 0.1mg CPF/L, and the responses were evaluated at the end of the CPF exposure. Results suggest that CPF is bioconcentrated into axolotls and that the CPF internal concentrations are related with the observed inhibition activity of AChE (>50%) and CbE (≈ 50%). CPF concentration responsible of the inhibition of the 50% of AChE activity (IC50) was estimated in 0.04 mg CPF/L; however IC50 for CbE activity was not possible to calculate since inhibition levels were lower than 50%, results that suggest a higher resistance of CbE enzymatic activity to CPF. However, motor activity was a more sensitive endpoint to CPF poisoning since time that axolotls spent active and walking, frequency and speed of swimming, frequency of prey attack were reduced >90% of control groups. The motor activity alterations in the axolotl could be related with the registered esterases inhibition. Thus important alterations on axolotls were identified even at short time and low concentrations of CPF exposure. Also, it was possible to link biochemical responses as esterases activity with higher levels of biological organization as behavior. This study provides tools for the regulation of the

  19. Decoding human motor activity from EEG single trials for a discrete two-dimensional cursor control.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dandan; Lin, Peter; Fei, Ding-Yu; Chen, Xuedong; Bai, Ou

    2009-08-01

    This study aims to explore whether human intentions to move or cease to move right and left hands can be decoded from spatiotemporal features in non-invasive EEG in order to control a discrete two-dimensional cursor movement for a potential multidimensional brain-computer interface (BCI). Five naïve subjects performed either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window by using motor execution with physical movement or motor imagery. Spatial filtering, temporal filtering, feature selection and classification methods were explored. The performance of the proposed BCI was evaluated by both offline classification and online two-dimensional cursor control. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) and post-movement event-related synchronization (ERS) were observed on the contralateral hemisphere to the hand moved for both motor execution and motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity in the contralateral hemisphere over the motor cortex provided the best detection of either sustained or ceased movement of the right or left hand. The offline classification of four motor tasks (sustain or cease to move right or left hand) provided 10-fold cross-validation accuracy as high as 88% for motor execution and 73% for motor imagery. The subjects participating in experiments with physical movement were able to complete the online game with motor execution at an average accuracy of 85.5 +/- 4.65%; the subjects participating in motor imagery study also completed the game successfully. The proposed BCI provides a new practical multidimensional method by noninvasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior, which does not need long-term training.

  20. Decoding human motor activity from EEG single trials for a discrete two-dimensional cursor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dandan; Lin, Peter; Fei, Ding-Yu; Chen, Xuedong; Bai, Ou

    2009-08-01

    This study aims to explore whether human intentions to move or cease to move right and left hands can be decoded from spatiotemporal features in non-invasive EEG in order to control a discrete two-dimensional cursor movement for a potential multidimensional brain-computer interface (BCI). Five naïve subjects performed either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window by using motor execution with physical movement or motor imagery. Spatial filtering, temporal filtering, feature selection and classification methods were explored. The performance of the proposed BCI was evaluated by both offline classification and online two-dimensional cursor control. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) and post-movement event-related synchronization (ERS) were observed on the contralateral hemisphere to the hand moved for both motor execution and motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity in the contralateral hemisphere over the motor cortex provided the best detection of either sustained or ceased movement of the right or left hand. The offline classification of four motor tasks (sustain or cease to move right or left hand) provided 10-fold cross-validation accuracy as high as 88% for motor execution and 73% for motor imagery. The subjects participating in experiments with physical movement were able to complete the online game with motor execution at an average accuracy of 85.5 ± 4.65%; the subjects participating in motor imagery study also completed the game successfully. The proposed BCI provides a new practical multidimensional method by noninvasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior, which does not need long-term training.

  1. Motor and non-motor circuitry activation induced by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson’s disease patients: Intraoperative fMRI for DBS

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Emily J.; Testini, Paola; Min, Hoon-Ki; Gibson, William S.; Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Favazza, Christopher P.; Felmlee, Joel P.; Kim, Inyong; Welker, Kirk M.; Clayton, Daniel A.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Chang, Su-youne; Lee, Kendall H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with PD would affect the activity of both motor and non-motor networks, we applied intraoperative fMRI to patients receiving DBS. Patients and Methods Ten patients receiving STN DBS for PD underwent intraoperative 1.5T fMRI during high frequency stimulation delivered via an external pulse generator. The study was conducted between the dates of January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014. Results We observed blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes (FDR<.001) in the motor circuitry, including primary motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices, thalamus, pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), and cerebellum, as well as in the limbic circuitry, including cingulate and insular cortices. Activation of the motor network was observed also after applying a Bonferroni correction (p<.001) to our dataset, suggesting that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. Conclusions These findings support the modulatory role of STN DBS on the activity of motor and non-motor networks, and suggest complex mechanisms at the basis of the efficacy of this treatment modality. Furthermore, these results suggest that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. With further studies combining the use of real time intraoperative fMRI with clinical outcomes in patients treated with DBS, functional imaging techniques have the potential not only to elucidate the mechanisms of DBS functioning, but also to guide and assist in the surgical treatment of patients affected by movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26046412

  2. The use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for imaging human motor neuronal activation in the brain

    PubMed Central

    PAHK, KISOO; PARK, KUN-WOO; PYUN, SUNG BOM; LEE, JAE SUNG; KIM, SUNGEUN; CHOE, JAE GOL

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to visualize human motor neuronal activation in the brain using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and to develop an FDG-PET procedure for imaging neuronal activation. A male volunteer underwent 20 min periods of rest and motor activation, whilst being assessed using FDG-PET on two consecutive days. The motor task, which involved repetitively grasping and releasing the right hand, was performed during the initial 5 min of the activation period. Subtraction of the rest period signal from the activation PET images was performed using the subtraction ictal single-photon emission computed tomography co-registered to magnetic resonance imaging method. The subtracted image detected activation of the contralateral (left) primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, and ipsilateral (right) cerebellum. In the present study, FDG-PET detected significantly increased motor-associated activation of the brain in a subject performing a motor task. PMID:26668604

  3. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Andersen, Lars L; Kirk, Niels; Pedersen, Mogens T; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized with 7 functional coordination exercises 12 times during 4 weeks before testing. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was obtained from rectus abdominus, erector spinae, obliquus externus, and trapezius during the exercises with 2-4 levels of progression. Electromyography was normalized to the maximal EMG activity during maximal voluntary contractions, and a p value < 0.05 was considered significant. All recorded muscles reached sufficiently high levels of activity during the coordination exercises for strength gain (>60% of maximal EMG activity). Type of exercise played a significant role for the attained muscle activity. Body position during the exercises was important for the activity of the erector spinae, and level of progression was important for the activity of the trapezius. The findings indicate that depending on type, body position, and level of progression, functional coordination training can be performed with a muscle activity sufficient for strength gain. Functional coordination training may therefore be a good choice for prevention or rehabilitation of musculoskeletal pain or injury in the neck, shoulder, or trunk muscles.

  4. [Indexes of integrative activity of motor system in norm and at neuromotor pathology].

    PubMed

    Aleksanian, Z A; Romanov, S P

    2012-11-01

    Characteristics of integrative activity of motor control system are received by the methods of the time series analysis. The methods allow to give an objective estimation of human brain pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems functional state. Authors consider the voluntary regulation of isometric effort as a model of movement and investigate this effort as the integrative motor output of a motor control system. Using of peculiar methodology of non-invasive research of parameters of isometric effort as indexes of CNS integrative activity, and application of modern methods of the time-series analysis has allowed to receive a new data concerning an estimation of activity of structures of motor control system in norm and in some neurodegenerative diseases of CNS (Parkinson's diseases, multiple sclerosis). These results represent the new knowledge in the field of movement physiology, and also expand opportunity of hardware diagnostics of neuromotor dysfunctions.

  5. Motor neuron-specific overexpression of the presynaptic choline transporter: impact on motor endurance and evoked muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Lund, D; Ruggiero, A M; Ferguson, S M; Wright, J; English, B A; Reisz, P A; Whitaker, S M; Peltier, A C; Blakely, R D

    2010-12-29

    The presynaptic, hemicholinium-3 sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) supplies choline for acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis. In mice, a homozygous deletion of CHT (CHT-/-) leads to premature cessation of spontaneous or evoked neuromuscular signaling and is associated with perinatal cyanosis and lethality within 1 h. Heterozygous (CHT+/-) mice exhibit diminished brain ACh levels and demonstrate an inability to sustain vigorous motor activity. We sought to explore the contribution of CHT gene dosage to motor function in greater detail using transgenic mice where CHT is expressed under control of the motor neuron promoter Hb9 (Hb9:CHT). On a CHT-/- background, the Hb9:CHT transgene conferred mice with the ability to move and breath for a postnatal period of ∼24 h, thus increasing survival. Conversely, Hb9:CHT expression on a wild-type background (CHT+/+;Hb9:CHT) leads to an increased capacity for treadmill running compared to wild-type littermates. Analysis of the stimulated compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in these animals under basal conditions established that CHT+/+;Hb9:CHT mice display an unexpected, bidirectional change, producing either elevated or reduced CMAP amplitude, relative to CHT+/+ animals. To examine whether these two groups arise from underlying changes in synaptic properties, we used high-frequency stimulation of motor axons to assess CMAP recovery kinetics. Although CHT+/+; Hb9:CHT mice in the two groups display an equivalent, time-dependent reduction in CMAP amplitude, animals with a higher basal CMAP amplitude demonstrate a significantly enhanced rate of recovery. To explain our findings, we propose a model whereby CHT support for neuromuscular signaling involves contributions to ACh synthesis as well as cholinergic synaptic vesicle availability.

  6. Early motor skill competence as a mediator of child and adult physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Davis, Robert E.; Fu, Yang-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In order to effectively promote physical activity (PA) during childhood, and across the lifespan, a better understanding of the role of early motor skill development on child and adult PA is needed. Methods: Here, we propose a conceptual model delineating the hypothesized influence of motor skill development on child and adult PA, while providing an overview of the current empirical research related to this model. Results: There is consistent and emerging evidence showing that adequate motor skill competence, particularly locomotor and gross motor skills, is associated with increased PA levels during the preschool, child, and adolescent years, with early motor skill development also influencing enjoyment of PA as well as long-term PA and motor skill performance. The physical education setting appears to be a well-suited environment for motor skill development. Conclusion: Employing appropriate strategies to target motor skill development across the childhood years is of paramount interest in helping shape children's PA behavior, their experiences related to PA, as well as maintain their PA. PMID:26844157

  7. Brain Activation Patterns Characterizing Different Phases of Motor Action: Execution, Choice and Ideation.

    PubMed

    Gardini, Simona; Venneri, Annalena; McGeown, William Jonathan; Toraci, Cristian; Nocetti, Luca; Porro, Carlo Adolfo; Caffarra, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Motor behaviour is controlled by a large set of interacting neural structures, subserving the different components involved in hierarchical motor processes. Few studies have investigated the neural substrate of higher-order motor ideation, i.e. the mental operation of conceiving a movement. The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging study was to segregate the neural structures involved in motor ideation from those involved in movement choice and execution. An index finger movement paradigm was adopted, including three different conditions: performing a pre-specified movement, choosing and executing a movement and ideating a movement of choice. The tasks involved either the right or left hand, in separate runs. Neuroimaging results were obtained by comparing the different experimental conditions and computing conjunction maps of the right and left hands for each contrast. Pre-specified movement execution was supported by bilateral fronto-parietal motor regions, the cerebellum and putamen. Choosing and executing finger movement involved mainly left fronto-temporal areas and the anterior cingulate. Motor ideation activated almost exclusively left hemisphere regions, including the inferior, middle and superior frontal regions, middle temporal and middle occipital gyri. These findings show that motor ideation is controlled by a cortical network mainly involved in abstract thinking, cognitive and motor control, semantic and visual imagery processes. PMID:27072014

  8. How actin initiates the motor activity of Myosin.

    PubMed

    Llinas, Paola; Isabet, Tatiana; Song, Lin; Ropars, Virginie; Zong, Bin; Benisty, Hannah; Sirigu, Serena; Morris, Carl; Kikuti, Carlos; Safer, Dan; Sweeney, H Lee; Houdusse, Anne

    2015-05-26

    Fundamental to cellular processes are directional movements driven by molecular motors. A common theme for these and other molecular machines driven by ATP is that controlled release of hydrolysis products is essential for using the chemical energy efficiently. Mechanochemical transduction by myosin motors on actin is coupled to unknown structural changes that result in the sequential release of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and MgADP. We present here a myosin structure possessing an actin-binding interface and a tunnel (back door) that creates an escape route for Pi with a minimal rotation of the myosin lever arm that drives movements. We propose that this state represents the beginning of the powerstroke on actin and that Pi translocation from the nucleotide pocket triggered by actin binding initiates myosin force generation. This elucidates how actin initiates force generation and movement and may represent a strategy common to many molecular machines.

  9. 15 CFR 930.66 - Supplemental coordination for proposed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... proposed activity will affect any coastal use or resource substantially different than originally described... supporting a finding of substantially different coastal effects than originally described and the...

  10. 15 CFR 930.66 - Supplemental coordination for proposed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... proposed activity will affect any coastal use or resource substantially different than originally described... supporting a finding of substantially different coastal effects than originally described and the...

  11. 15 CFR 930.66 - Supplemental coordination for proposed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proposed activity will affect any coastal use or resource substantially different than originally described... supporting a finding of substantially different coastal effects than originally described and the...

  12. 15 CFR 930.66 - Supplemental coordination for proposed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... proposed activity will affect any coastal use or resource substantially different than originally described... supporting a finding of substantially different coastal effects than originally described and the...

  13. 15 CFR 930.66 - Supplemental coordination for proposed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... proposed activity will affect any coastal use or resource substantially different than originally described... supporting a finding of substantially different coastal effects than originally described and the...

  14. Variations of intestinal motor activity in bladder replacements and in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Lobel, B; Guille, F; Olivo, J F; Gosselin, A; Goldwasser, B

    1993-12-01

    Urinary reservoirs are made from intestinal segments. The motor activity of the intestinal tract is regulated by hormonal and neurological controls. This study compares the motor activity of intestine in situ with those of a neobladder, following oral intake. The changes in motor activity before and after ingestion of standardized 570 Kcal meal were measured simultaneously in the duodenum and in the neobladder of 4 patients who underwent a Camey tubularized ileocystoplasty. Similar motor movements were produced in the graft and in the duodenum. Modifications due to oral intake were then measured in 14 patients with various types of urinary reservoirs (ilea, ileo-colic or colic; and tubularized or detubularized) by measuring the pressure inside the graft. After oral intake the compliance of the detubularized colic and ileocolic reservoirs was greater than that of ileal reservoirs, even after detubularization, since the motor activity and the basal pressure increased greatly in the tubularized or detubularized ileal bladders and much less in the detubularized colic and ileocolic bladders. It is well known that digestion is maximal in the second half of the night, therefore this link between intestinal and neobladder motor activity might explain one of several mechanisms involved in nocturnal increase in reservoir pressure and urine incontinence.

  15. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

  16. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  17. High-resolution genetic mapping of mammalian motor activity levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Kas, M J H; de Mooij-van Malsen, J G; de Krom, M; van Gassen, K L I; van Lith, H A; Olivier, B; Oppelaar, H; Hendriks, J; de Wit, M; Groot Koerkamp, M J A; Holstege, F C P; van Oost, B A; de Graan, P N E

    2009-02-01

    The generation of motor activity levels is under tight neural control to execute essential behaviors, such as movement toward food or for social interaction. To identify novel neurobiological mechanisms underlying motor activity levels, we studied a panel of chromosome substitution (CS) strains derived from mice with high (C57BL/6J strain) or low motor activity levels (A/J strain) using automated home cage behavioral registration. In this study, we genetically mapped the expression of baseline motor activity levels (horizontal distance moved) to mouse chromosome 1. Further genetic mapping of this trait revealed an 8.3-Mb quantitative trait locus (QTL) interval. This locus is distinct from the QTL interval for open-field anxiety-related motor behavior on this chromosome. By data mining, an existing phenotypic and genotypic data set of 2445 genetically heterogeneous mice (http://gscan.well.ox.ac.uk/), we confirmed linkage to the peak marker at 79 970 253 bp and refined the QTL to a 312-kb interval containing a single gene (A830043J08Rik). Sequence analysis showed a nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region of the Riken gene. Genome-wide microarray gene expression profiling in brains of discordant F(2) individuals from CS strain 1 showed a significant upregulation of Epha4 in low-active F(2) individuals. Inclusion of a genetic marker for Epha4 confirmed that this gene is located outside of the QTL interval. Both Epha4 and A830043J08Rik are expressed in brain motor circuits, and similar to Epha4 mutants, we found linkage between reduced motor neurons number and A/J chromosome 1. Our findings provide a novel QTL and a potential downstream target underlying motor circuitry development and the expression of physical activity levels.

  18. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  19. [History and activities of the Rescue Coordination Center].

    PubMed

    Hausman, A

    1983-01-01

    The founder and first director of the C.C.R. enumerates the principles that led to the conception and the achievement of the C.C.R. He reviews the principal rescue activities during these 25 years and mentions the development of supplementary activities on safety, ergonomics and respiratory protection during the last few years.

  20. Coordination of degrees of freedom and stabilization of task variables in a complex motor skill: expertise-related differences in cello bowing.

    PubMed

    Verrel, Julius; Pologe, Steven; Manselle, Wayne; Lindenberger, Ulman; Woollacott, Marjorie

    2013-02-01

    Stringed instrument bowing is a complex sensorimotor skill, involving fine regulation of bow orientation and motion relative to the string. In this study, we characterize this skill in terms of stabilization of specific bow parameters as well as the underlying use and coordination of the degrees of freedom (DOF) of the right bowing arm. Age-matched samples of 10 advanced cellists and 10 cello novices took part in the study. Kinematic bow movement data were analyzed with respect to task variables suggested by the cello teaching literature: position and orientation of the bow relative to the string, bow velocity, and timing. Joint motion of the bowing arm was analyzed in terms of movement amplitude and inter-joint coordination (principal component analysis). As expected, novices showed poorer control of bowing parameters. In addition, novices differed markedly from advanced players in the use and coordination of the DOF of the bowing arm, with the elbow and wrist showing less overall movement and a reduced proportion of variance explained by the first principal component (PC1). In contrast, larger amounts of shoulder variance were explained by PC1 in novices compared to experts. Our findings support Bernstein's theory of graded skill acquisition, according to which early stages of motor skill learning are characterized by a "freezing" of movement DOF, while later learning stages exploit the DOF, possibly following a proximal-to-distal sequence, for improved task performance. PMID:23109087

  1. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  2. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  3. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  4. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  5. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  6. Variability, Covariation, and Invariance with Respect to Coordinate Systems in Motor Control: Reply to Smeets and Louw (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Hermann; Frank, Till D.; Sternad, Dagmar

    2007-01-01

    In their comment on the tolerance-noise covariation (TNC) method for decomposing variability by H. Muller and D. Sternad (2003, 2004b), J. B. J. Smeets and S. Louw show that covariation (C), as defined within the TNC method, is not invariant with respect to coordinate transformations and contend that it is, therefore, meaningless. Although the…

  7. Orientation-dependent changes in single motor neuron activity during adaptive soft-bodied locomotion.

    PubMed

    Metallo, Cinzia; Trimmer, Barry A

    2015-01-01

    Recent major advances in understanding the organizational principles underlying motor control have focused on a small number of animal species with stiff articulated skeletons. These model systems have the advantage of easily quantifiable mechanics, but the neural codes underlying different movements are difficult to characterize because they typically involve a large population of neurons controlling each muscle. As a result, studying how neural codes drive adaptive changes in behavior is extremely challenging. This problem is highly simplified in the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta, which, in its larval stage (caterpillar), is predominantly soft-bodied. Since each M. sexta muscle is innervated by one, occasionally two, excitatory motor neurons, the electrical activity generated by each muscle can be mapped to individual motor neurons. In the present study, muscle activation patterns were converted into motor neuron frequency patterns by identifying single excitatory junction potentials within recorded electromyographic traces. This conversion was carried out with single motor neuron resolution thanks to the high signal selectivity of newly developed flexible microelectrode arrays, which were specifically designed to record from M. sexta muscles. It was discovered that the timing of motor neuron activity and gait kinematics depend on the orientation of the plane of motion during locomotion. We report that, during climbing, the motor neurons monitored in the present study shift their activity to correlate with movements in the animal's more anterior segments. This orientation-dependent shift in motor activity is in agreement with the expected shift in the propulsive forces required for climbing. Our results suggest that, contrary to what has been previously hypothesized, M.sexta uses central command timing for adaptive load compensation. PMID:25765841

  8. Splitting of the cerebellar vermis in juvenile rats--effects on social behavior, vocalization and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Afif, Shadi; Staden, Mareike; Krauss, Joachim K; Schwabe, Kerstin; Hermann, Elvis J

    2013-08-01

    Radical resection of malignant midline tumors of the posterior fossa in childhood followed by adjuvant therapies like chemotherapy or radiotherapy often leads to longterm survival and even healing of such patients. Therefore, quality of life becomes particular important. Postoperative neurological deficits, such as cerebellar mutism and ataxia have been attributed to splitting of the cerebellar vermis to remove these tumors. Here, we tested the effect of vermian splitting in juvenile rats on social behavior, vocalization and motor activity. Juvenile male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 23 days, underwent vermian splitting under general anesthesia after medial suboccipital craniotomy (lesioned group, n=16). In sham-lesioned rats, only craniotomy was performed and the dura was opened with release of cerebrospinal fluid (n=16). Naïve rats served as controls (n=14). All groups were tested on day 0 (before surgery), and on days 1-4 and 7 after surgery for locomotor activity, motor coordination, social behavior, and ultrasound vocalization during social interaction. Finally, splitting of the vermis was histologically verified. Social interaction was reduced for two days after surgery in lesioned rats compared to sham-lesioned rats and controls. Vocalization was decreased for one day compared to controls. Locomotor activity was disturbed for several days after surgery in both lesioned and sham-lesioned rats as compared to controls. Deficient social behavior and vocalization after surgery are related to vermian splitting in juvenile rats. These results indicate that similar to the human context vermian splitting can reduce communicative drive in the early postsurgical phase.

  9. Activation of the motor cortex during phasic rapid eye movement sleep

    PubMed Central

    De Carli, Fabrizio; Proserpio, Paola; Morrone, Elisa; Sartori, Ivana; Ferrara, Michele; Gibbs, Steve Alex; De Gennaro, Luigi; Lo Russo, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    When dreaming during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, we can perform complex motor behaviors while remaining motionless. How the motor cortex behaves during this state remains unknown. Here, using intracerebral electrodes sampling the human motor cortex in pharmacoresistant epileptic patients, we report a pattern of electroencephalographic activation during REM sleep similar to that observed during the performance of a voluntary movement during wakefulness. This pattern is present during phasic REM sleep but not during tonic REM sleep, the latter resembling relaxed wakefulness. This finding may help clarify certain phenomenological aspects observed in REM sleep behavior disorder. Ann Neurol 2016;79:326–330 PMID:26575212

  10. Principles of Motor Unit Physiology Evolve With Advances in Technology.

    PubMed

    Farina, Dario; Negro, Francesco; Muceli, Silvia; Enoka, Roger M

    2016-03-01

    Movements are generated by the coordinated activation of motor units. Recent technological advances have made it possible to identify the concurrent activity of several tens of motor units, in contrast with much smaller samples available in classic studies. We discuss how these advances in technology have enabled the development of a population perspective of how the central nervous system controls motor unit activity and thereby the forces exerted by muscles.

  11. Cytoskeletal motor-driven active self-assembly in in vitro systems.

    PubMed

    Lam, A T; VanDelinder, V; Kabir, A M R; Hess, H; Bachand, G D; Kakugo, A

    2016-01-28

    Molecular motor-driven self-assembly has been an active area of soft matter research for the past decade. Because molecular motors transform chemical energy into mechanical work, systems which employ molecular motors to drive self-assembly processes are able to overcome kinetic and thermodynamic limits on assembly time, size, complexity, and structure. Here, we review the progress in elucidating and demonstrating the rules and capabilities of motor-driven active self-assembly. We focus on the types of structures created and the degree of control realized over these structures, and discuss the next steps necessary to achieve the full potential of this assembly mode which complements robotic manipulation and passive self-assembly.

  12. Measurements of Myosin-II Motor Activity During Cytokinesis in Fission Yeast.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qing; Pollard, Luther W; Lord, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Fission yeast myosin-II (Myo2p) represents the critical actin-based motor protein that drives actomyosin ring assembly and constriction during cytokinesis. We detail three different methods to measure Myo2p motor function. Actin-activated ATPases provide a readout of actomyosin ATPase motor activity in a bulk assay; actin filament motility assays reveal the speed and efficiency of myosin-driven actin filament gliding (when motors are anchored); myosin-bead motility assays reveal the speed and efficiency of myosin ensembles traveling along actin filaments (when actin is anchored). Collectively, these methods allow us to combine the standard in vivo approaches common to fission yeast with in vitro biochemical methods to learn more about the mechanistic action of myosin-II during cytokinesis.

  13. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  14. Get Kids Moving: Simple Activities To Build Gross-Motor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the importance of activities to build gross motor skills and provides hints for encouraging such activities. Specific areas of activities presented are: (1) running and jumping; (2) music games; (3) action games; (4) races; (5) bed sheets or parachutes; (6) hula hoops; (7) balls; (8) batting; (9) balance; and (10) creative movement. (SD)

  15. Understanding physical activity and motivations for children with developmental coordination disorder: an investigation using the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Matthew Y W; Cairney, John; Hay, John A; Faught, Brent E

    2013-11-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, affecting approximately 5-6% of children. Previous research has consistently found children with DCD being less physically active compared to typically-developing (TD) children; however, the psychosocial factors associated with physical activity for children with DCD are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine how theory-based physical activity cognitions impacts physical activity behaviors for children with and without DCD. Participants included a sample of boys (N=61, Mage=13.25 ±.46) with DCD (n=19) and without DCD (n=42), drawn from a larger prospective cohort study. A questionnaire with psychosocial measures was first administered, and accelerometers were used to assess their physical activity behavior over the subsequent week. Findings indicate that DCD was significantly associated with lower physical activity (F(1,58)=6.51, p<.05), and poorer physical activity cognitions (F(4,56) Wilks Lambda=2.78, p<.05). Meditational analyses found attitudes (B=.23, p<.05) and subjective norms (B=.31, p<.05) partially mediating the relationship between DCD and physical activity. Overall, this study further confirms that the activity deficit that exists among boys with DCD, and that the relationship is partially mediated through some physical activity cognitions. Interventions should target the perceived approval of influential people, and the personal evaluations of physical activity for boys with motoric difficulties. These findings further emphasizes the discrepancy in physical activity that exist between boys with DCD and TD boys, and highlight the need to better understand the psychological factors related to physical activity for children with DCD.

  16. An identified glutamatergic interneuron patterns feeding motor activity via both excitation and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, E M; Gregory, K; Murphy, A D

    1995-03-01

    1. Previously we demonstrated that glutamate is an important neurotransmitter in the CNS of Helisoma. Exogenous glutamate applied to the buccal ganglia mimicked both the excitatory and inhibitory effects of subunit 2 (S2) of the tripartite central pattern generator (CPG) on S2 postsynaptic motor neurons. Here we identify buccal interneuron B2 as an S2 interneuron by utilizing a combination of electrophysiology, pharmacology, and intracellular staining. In addition, neurons that were electrophysiologically and morphologically characterized as neuron B2 demonstrated antiglutamate immunoreactivity, suggesting that neuron B2 is a source of endogenous glutamate in the buccal ganglia. 2. Depolarization of neuron B2 evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials in motor neurons excited by S2. The excitatory effects of B2 depolarization and S2 activation were reversibly antagonized by the ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione, similar to the antagonism shown previously for application of exogenous glutamate. Depolarization of neuron B2 also evoked inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in motor neurons inhibited by S2. When such motor neurons were maintained in isolated cell culture, application of exogenous glutamate produced a direct hyperpolarization of the membrane potential. 3. The activity of neuron B2 is necessary for the production of the standard pattern of buccal motor neuron activity, which underlies functional feeding movements. The subunits of the tripartite buccal CPG must be active in the temporal sequence S1-S2-S3 to produce the standard feeding pattern. Rhythmic inhibition from neuron B2 terminated activity in S1 postsynaptic motor neurons and entrained the frequency of activity in S3 postsynaptic motor neurons. Hyperpolarization of neuron B2 disrupted the production of the standard motor pattern by eliminating S2 postsynaptic potentials in identified buccal motor neurons, thereby prolonging S1 activity and disrupting S3

  17. Neurotensin Changes Propulsive Activity into a Segmental Motor Pattern in the Rat Colon

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongfei; Chen, Ji-Hong; Yang, Zixian; Huang, Min; Yu, Yuanjie; Tan, Shiyun; Luo, Hesheng; Huizinga, Jan D

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Neurotensin is a gut-brain peptide with both inhibitory and excitatory actions on the colonic musculature; our objective was to understand the implications of this for motor patterns occurring in the intact colon of the rat. Methods The effects of neurotensin with concentrations ranging from 0.1–100 nM were studied in the intact rat colon in vitro, by investigating spatio-temporal maps created from video recordings of colonic motility before and after neurotensin. Results Low concentration of neurotensin (0.1–1 nM) inhibited propagating long distance contractions and rhythmic propagating motor complexes; in its place a slow propagating rhythmic segmental motor pattern developed. The neurotensin receptor 1 antagonist SR-48692 prevented the development of the segmental motor pattern. Higher concentrations of neurotensin (10 nM and 100 nM) were capable of restoring long distance contraction activity and inhibiting the segmental activity. The slow propagating segmental contraction showed a rhythmic contraction—relaxation cycle at the slow wave frequency originating from the interstitial cells of Cajal associated with the myenteric plexus pacemaker. High concentrations given without prior additions of low concentrations did not evoke the segmental motor pattern. These actions occurred when neurotensin was given in the bath solution or intraluminally. The segmental motor pattern evoked by neurotensin was inhibited by the neural conduction blocker lidocaine. Conclusions Neurotensin (0.1–1 nM) inhibits the dominant propulsive motor patterns of the colon and a distinct motor pattern of rhythmic slow propagating segmental contractions develops. This motor pattern has the hallmarks of haustral boundary contractions. PMID:26882114

  18. Subcellular and Dynamic Coordination between Src Activity and Cell Protrusion in Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Yue; Qian, Tongcheng; Wu, Yiqian; Seong, Jihye; Gong, Ya; Ma, Hongwei; Wang, Yingxiao; Lu, Shaoying

    2015-01-01

    Migration of endothelial cells is essential for wound healing and angiogenesis. Src kinase activity plays important roles at the protrusions of migrating endothelial cells. However, the spatiotemporal coordination between Src kinase activity and the protrusion of cell edge remains unclear. Therefore, we investigate these coordinated molecular events at the initiation of cell migration, by integrating microfabrication, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, and automated computational image analysis. We demonstrate that the physical release of restrictive micropattern triggered a significant decrease of Src activity at the protrusive edge of endothelial cells. Computational cross-correlation analysis reveals that the decrease of Src activity occurred earlier in time, and was well-coordinated with the protrusion of cell edge in polarized cells, but not in non-polarized cells. These results suggest that the spatiotemporal control of Src kinase activity is well-coordinated with cell polarization and protrusion in endothelial cells upon the release of physical constraint, as that experienced by endothelial cells sprouting from stiff tumor micro-environment during angiogenesis. Therefore, our integrative approach enabled the discovery of a new model where Src is de-activated in coordination with membrane protrusion, providing important insights into the regulation of endothelial migration and angiogenesis. PMID:26261043

  19. [Participation of the primary motor cortex in programming of muscle activity during catching of falling object].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Lipshits, M I

    2011-01-01

    Object fell into the cup that sitting subject held between thumb and index fingers. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex was performed early before and during anticipatory grip force increasing. Comparison of current EMG activity of adductor pollicis brevis and first dorsal interosseous muscles and responses of these muscles on TMS showed that responses were increased before the raising of muscle activity. From the other side only slight augmentation of responses was observed during subsequent strong muscle activation. It is assumed that the increasing of the TMS responses that occurred before the initiation of muscle activity reflects the enhancement ofthe motor cortex excitability associated to specific processes related to the motor cortex participation in programming of the muscles activities. PMID:22117465

  20. Planning and Coordination of a Reach-Grasp-Eat Task in Children with Hemiplegia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ya-Ching; Henderson, Eugene R.; Akbasheva, Frida; Valte, Leslie; Ke, Wei Shan; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with hemiplegia have deficits in motor planning in addition to their impairments in movement of their more-affected upper extremity (UE). However, little is known about the relationship between motor planning and multi-segment coordination during functional activities in this population. In the present study, motor planning strategies and…

  1. Locomotor corollary activation of trigeminal motoneurons: coupling of discrete motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hänzi, Sara; Banchi, Roberto; Straka, Hans; Chagnaud, Boris P

    2015-06-01

    During motor behavior, corollary discharges of the underlying motor commands inform sensory-motor systems about impending or ongoing movements. These signals generally limit the impact of self-generated sensory stimuli but also induce motor reactions that stabilize sensory perception. Here, we demonstrate in isolated preparations of Xenopus laevis tadpoles that locomotor corollary discharge provokes a retraction of the mechanoreceptive tentacles during fictive swimming. In the absence of sensory feedback, these signals activate a cluster of trigeminal motoneurons that cause a contraction of the tentacle muscle. This corollary discharge encodes duration and strength of locomotor activity, thereby ensuring a reliable coupling between locomotion and tentacle motion. The strict phase coupling between the trigeminal and spinal motor activity, present in many cases, suggests that the respective corollary discharge is causally related to the ongoing locomotor output and derives at least in part from the spinal central pattern generator; however, additional contributions from midbrain and/or hindbrain locomotor centers are likely. The swimming-related retraction might protect the touch-receptive Merkel cells on the tentacle from sensory over-stimulation and damage and/or reduce the hydrodynamic drag. The intrinsic nature of the coupling of tentacle retraction to locomotion is an excellent example of a context-dependent, direct link between otherwise discrete motor behaviors.

  2. BDNF heightens the sensitivity of motor neurons to excitotoxic insults through activation of TrkB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Peter; Kalb, Robert G.; Walton, K. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The survival promoting and neuroprotective actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are well known but under certain circumstances this growth factor can also exacerbate excitotoxic insults to neurons. Prior exploration of the receptor through which BDNF exerts this action on motor neurons deflects attention away from p75. Here we investigated the possibility that BDNF acts through the receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkB, to confer on motor neurons sensitivity to excitotoxic challenge. We blocked BDNF activation of TrkB using a dominant negative TrkB mutant or a TrkB function blocking antibody, and found that this protected motor neurons against excitotoxic insult in cultures of mixed spinal cord neurons. Addition of a function blocking antibody to BDNF to mixed spinal cord neuron cultures is also neuroprotective indicating that endogenously produced BDNF participates in vulnerability to excitotoxicity. We next examined the intracellular signaling cascades that are engaged upon TrkB activation. Previously we found that inhibition of the phosphatidylinositide-3'-kinase (PI3'K) pathway blocks BDNF-induced excitotoxic sensitivity. Here we show that expression of a constitutively active catalytic subunit of PI3'K, p110, confers excitotoxic sensitivity (ES) upon motor neurons not incubated with BDNF. Parallel studies with purified motor neurons confirm that these events are likely to be occuring specifically within motor neurons. The abrogation of BDNF's capacity to accentuate excitotoxic insults may make it a more attractive neuroprotective agent.

  3. Alterations of white matter integrity related to motor activity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Walther, Sebastian; Federspiel, Andrea; Horn, Helge; Razavi, Nadja; Wiest, Roland; Dierks, Thomas; Strik, Werner; Müller, Thomas J

    2011-06-01

    Altered structural connectivity is a key finding in schizophrenia, but the meaning of white matter alterations for behavior is rarely studied. In healthy subjects, motor activity correlated with white matter integrity in motor tracts. To explore the relation of motor activity and fractional anisotropy (FA) in schizophrenia, we investigated 19 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy control subjects using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and actigraphy on the same day. Schizophrenia patients had lower activity levels (AL). In both groups linear relations of AL and FA were detected in several brain regions. Schizophrenia patients had lower FA values in prefrontal and left temporal clusters. Furthermore, using a general linear model, we found linear negative associations of FA and AL underneath the right supplemental motor area (SMA), the right precentral gyrus and posterior cingulum in patients. This effect within the SMA was not seen in controls. This association in schizophrenia patients may contribute to the well known dysfunctions of motor control. Thus, structural disconnectivity could lead to disturbed motor behavior in schizophrenia.

  4. Increased muscle activation following motor imagery during the rehabilitation of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Lebon, Florent; Guillot, Aymeric; Collet, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is the mental representation of an action without any concomitant movement. MI has been used frequently after peripheral injuries to decrease pain and facilitate rehabilitation. However, little is known about the effects of MI on muscle activation underlying the motor recovery. This study aimed to assess the therapeutic effects of MI on the activation of lower limb muscles, as well as on the time course of functional recovery and pain after surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Twelve patients with a torn ACL were randomly assigned to a MI or control group, who both received a series of physiotherapy. Electromyographic activity of the quadriceps, pain, anthropometrical data, and lower limb motor ability were measured throughout a 12-session therapy. The data provided evidence that MI elicited greater muscle activation, even though imagery practice did not result in pain decrease. Muscle activation increase might originate from a redistribution of the central neuronal activity, as there was no anthropometric change in lower limb muscles after imagery practice. This study confirmed the effectiveness of integrating MI in a rehabilitation process by facilitating muscular properties recovery following motor impairment. MI may thus be considered a reliable adjunct therapy to help injured patients to recover motor functions after reconstructive surgery of ACL.

  5. Impacts of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Motor Coordination and Higher Cognitive Development in Vietnamese Preschool Children: A Five-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Pham, Tai The; Ozawa, Kyoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Tuong Quy; Hoang, Luong Van; Tran, Anh Hai; Phan, Vu Huy Anh; Nakai, Akio; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. Our previous epidemiological studies showed adverse effects of dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment for the first 3 years of life. Subsequently, we extended the follow-up period and investigated the influence of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment, including motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, in preschool children. Presently, we investigated 176 children in a hot spot of dioxin contamination who were followed up from birth until 5 years old. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measuring dioxin levels in maternal breast milk. Dioxin toxicity was evaluated using two indices; toxic equivalent (TEQ)-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs) and concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Coordinated movements, including manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (Movement ABC-2). Cognitive ability was assessed using the nonverbal index (NVI) of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II). In boys, total test and balance scores of Movement ABC-2 were significantly lower in the high TEQ- PCDDs/Fs group compared with the moderate and low exposure groups. NVI scores and the pattern reasoning subscale of the KABC-II indicating planning ability were also significantly lower in the high TCDD exposure group compared with the low exposure group of boys. However, in girls, no significant differences in Movement ABC-2 and KABC-II scores were found among the different TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure groups. Furthermore, in high risk cases, five boys and one girl highly exposed to TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD had double the risk for difficulties in both neurodevelopmental skills. These results suggest differential impacts of TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure on motor coordination and

  6. Impacts of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Motor Coordination and Higher Cognitive Development in Vietnamese Preschool Children: A Five-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Pham, Tai The; Ozawa, Kyoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Tuong Quy; Hoang, Luong Van; Tran, Anh Hai; Phan, Vu Huy Anh; Nakai, Akio; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. Our previous epidemiological studies showed adverse effects of dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment for the first 3 years of life. Subsequently, we extended the follow-up period and investigated the influence of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment, including motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, in preschool children. Presently, we investigated 176 children in a hot spot of dioxin contamination who were followed up from birth until 5 years old. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measuring dioxin levels in maternal breast milk. Dioxin toxicity was evaluated using two indices; toxic equivalent (TEQ)-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs) and concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Coordinated movements, including manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (Movement ABC-2). Cognitive ability was assessed using the nonverbal index (NVI) of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II). In boys, total test and balance scores of Movement ABC-2 were significantly lower in the high TEQ- PCDDs/Fs group compared with the moderate and low exposure groups. NVI scores and the pattern reasoning subscale of the KABC-II indicating planning ability were also significantly lower in the high TCDD exposure group compared with the low exposure group of boys. However, in girls, no significant differences in Movement ABC-2 and KABC-II scores were found among the different TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure groups. Furthermore, in high risk cases, five boys and one girl highly exposed to TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD had double the risk for difficulties in both neurodevelopmental skills. These results suggest differential impacts of TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure on motor coordination and

  7. Impacts of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Motor Coordination and Higher Cognitive Development in Vietnamese Preschool Children: A Five-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Pham, Tai The; Ozawa, Kyoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Tuong Quy; Hoang, Luong Van; Tran, Anh Hai; Phan, Vu Huy Anh; Nakai, Akio; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. Our previous epidemiological studies showed adverse effects of dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment for the first 3 years of life. Subsequently, we extended the follow-up period and investigated the influence of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment, including motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, in preschool children. Presently, we investigated 176 children in a hot spot of dioxin contamination who were followed up from birth until 5 years old. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measuring dioxin levels in maternal breast milk. Dioxin toxicity was evaluated using two indices; toxic equivalent (TEQ)-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs) and concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Coordinated movements, including manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (Movement ABC-2). Cognitive ability was assessed using the nonverbal index (NVI) of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II). In boys, total test and balance scores of Movement ABC-2 were significantly lower in the high TEQ- PCDDs/Fs group compared with the moderate and low exposure groups. NVI scores and the pattern reasoning subscale of the KABC-II indicating planning ability were also significantly lower in the high TCDD exposure group compared with the low exposure group of boys. However, in girls, no significant differences in Movement ABC-2 and KABC-II scores were found among the different TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure groups. Furthermore, in high risk cases, five boys and one girl highly exposed to TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD had double the risk for difficulties in both neurodevelopmental skills. These results suggest differential impacts of TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure on motor coordination and

  8. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    PubMed

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  9. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    PubMed

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  10. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    PubMed Central

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  11. Motor coordination in mice with hotfoot, Lurcher, and double mutations of the Grid2 gene encoding the delta-2 excitatory amino acid receptor.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, R; Hayzoun, K; Selimi, F; Mariani, J; Strazielle, C

    2003-11-01

    Grid2(ho/ho) is a loss of function gene mutation resulting in abnormal dendritic arborizations of Purkinje cells. These mutants were compared in a series of motor coordination tests requiring balance and equilibrium to nonataxic controls (Grid2(ho/+)) and to a double mutant (Grid2(ho/Lc)) with an inserted Lc mutation. The performance of Grid2(ho/ho) mutant mice was poorer than that of controls on stationary beam, coat hanger, unsteady platform, and rotorod tests. Grid2(ho/Lc) did not differ from Grid2(Lc/+) mice. However, the insertion of the Lc mutation in Grid2(ho/Lc) potentiated the deficits found in Grid2(ho/ho) in stationary beam, unsteady platform, and rotorod tests. These results indicate a deleterious effect of the Lc mutation on Grid2-deficient mice.

  12. Fine motor control

    MedlinePlus

    ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To have fine motor control, children need: Awareness and planning Coordination Muscle ...

  13. Coordinated Activities of Human Dicer Domains in Regulatory RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Enbo; Zhou, Kaihong; Kidwell, Mary Anne; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The conserved ribonuclease Dicer generates microRNAs and short interfering RNAs that guide gene silencing in eukaryotes. The specific contributions of human Dicer's structural domains to RNA product length and substrate preference are incompletely understood, due in part to the difficulties of Dicer purification. Here we show that active forms of human Dicer can be assembled from recombinant polypeptides expressed in bacteria. Using this system, we find that three distinct modes of RNA recognition give rise to Dicer's fidelity and product length specificity. The first involves anchoring one end of a dsRNA helix within the PAZ domain, which can assemble in trans with Dicer's catalytic domains to reconstitute an accurate but non-substrate-selective dicing activity. The second entails non-specific RNA binding by the double-stranded RNA binding domain (dsRBD), an interaction that is essential for substrate recruitment in the absence of the PAZ domain. The third mode of recognition involves hairpin RNA loop recognition by the helicase domain, which ensures efficient processing of specific substrates. These results reveal distinct interactions of each Dicer domain with different RNA structural features, and provide a facile system for investigating the molecular mechanisms of human miRNA biogenesis. PMID:22727743

  14. Motor units in incomplete spinal cord injury: electrical activity, contractile properties and the effects of biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Stein, R B; Brucker, B S; Ayyar, D R

    1990-10-01

    The electrical and contractile properties of hand muscles in a selected population of quadriplegic subjects were studied intensively before and after EMG biofeedback. Spontaneously active motor units and units that could only be slowly and weakly activated were observed in these subjects, in addition to units that were voluntarily activated normally. This suggests a considerable overlap of surviving motor neurons to a single muscle that are below, near or above the level of a lesion. Despite the common occurrence of polyphasic potentials and other signs of neuromuscular reinnervation, the average twitch tension of single motor units in hand muscles of quadriplegic subjects was not significantly different from that in control subjects. Nor did it increase after biofeedback training that typically increased the peak surface EMG by a factor of 2-5 times. The percentage of spontaneously active units was also constant. The surface EMG may be increased during biofeedback by using higher firing rates in motor units that can already be activated, rather than by recruiting previously unavailable motor units. PMID:2266370

  15. Enhanced activation of motor execution networks using action observation combined with imagination of lower limb movements.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Michael; Estévez, Natalia; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kiper, Daniel; Kollias, Spyros S; Eng, Kynan; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI) in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective) of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O), observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI), or imitate the action (O-IMIT). We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i) combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI) enhances activation compared to observation-only (O) in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii) it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks. PMID:24015241

  16. Enhanced Activation of Motor Execution Networks Using Action Observation Combined with Imagination of Lower Limb Movements

    PubMed Central

    Villiger, Michael; Estévez, Natalia; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kiper, Daniel; Kollias, Spyros S.; Eng, Kynan; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI) in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective) of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O), observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI), or imitate the action (O-IMIT). We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i) combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI) enhances activation compared to observation-only (O) in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii) it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks. PMID:24015241

  17. Can Gymnastic Teacher Predict Leisure Activity Preference among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Hanna-Kassis, Amany; Rosenblum, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze: (1) whether significant differences exist between children with typical development and children with developmental coordination disorders (DCD) in their preference to participate in leisure activities (2) whether the teacher estimation of activity form (TEAF) evaluation predicts participation preference.…

  18. Rapid and enhanced activation of microporous coordination polymers by flowing supercritical CO.sub.2

    DOEpatents

    Matzger, Adam J.; Liu, Baojian; Wong-Foy, Antek G.

    2016-07-19

    Flowing supercritical CO.sub.2 is used to activate metal organic framework materials (MOF). MOFs are activated directly from N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) thus avoiding exchange with a volatile solvent. Most MCPs display increased surface areas directly after treatment although those with coordinatively unsaturated metal centers benefit from additional heating.

  19. Body side-specific control of motor activity during turning in a walking animal.

    PubMed

    Gruhn, Matthias; Rosenbaum, Philipp; Bockemühl, Till; Büschges, Ansgar

    2016-04-27

    Animals and humans need to move deftly and flexibly to adapt to environmental demands. Despite a large body of work on the neural control of walking in invertebrates and vertebrates alike, the mechanisms underlying the motor flexibility that is needed to adjust the motor behavior remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated optomotor-induced turning and the neuronal mechanisms underlying the differences between the leg movements of the two body sides in the stick insect Carausius morosus. We present data to show that the generation of turning kinematics in an insect are the combined result of descending unilateral commands that change the leg motor output via task-specific modifications in the processing of local sensory feedback as well as modification of the activity of local central pattern generating networks in a body-side-specific way. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the specificity of such modifications in a defined motor task.

  20. Differences in hemodynamic activations between motor imagery and upper limb FES with NIRS.

    PubMed

    Schürholz, Markus; Rana, Mohit; Robinson, Neethu; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Cho, Woosang; Rohm, Martin; Rupp, Rudiger; Birbaumer, Niels; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could act as a tool for rehabilitation of stroke patients due to the neural activity induced by motor imagery aided by real-time feedback of hemodynamic activation. When combined with functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the affected limb, BCI is expected to have an even greater benefit due to the contingency established between motor imagery and afferent, haptic feedback from stimulation. Yet, few studies have explored such an approach, presumably due to the difficulty in dissociating and thus decoding the hemodynamic response (HDR) between motor imagery and peripheral stimulation. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that NIRS signals elicited by motor imagery can be reliably discriminated from those due to FES, by first performing a univariate analysis of the NIRS signals, and subsequently by multivariate pattern classification. Our results showing that robust classification of motor imagery from the rest condition is possible support previous findings that imagery could be used to drive a BCI based on NIRS. More importantly, we demonstrate for the first time the successful classification of motor imagery and FES, indicating that it is technically feasible to implement a contingent NIRS-BCI with FES. PMID:23366984

  1. Enhancing Motor Network Activity Using Real-Time Functional MRI Neurofeedback of Left Premotor Cortex.

    PubMed

    Marins, Theo F; Rodrigues, Erika C; Engel, Annerose; Hoefle, Sebastian; Basílio, Rodrigo; Lent, Roberto; Moll, Jorge; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Neurofeedback by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique of potential therapeutic relevance that allows individuals to be aware of their own neurophysiological responses and to voluntarily modulate the activity of specific brain regions, such as the premotor cortex (PMC), important for motor recovery after brain injury. We investigated (i) whether healthy human volunteers are able to up-regulate the activity of the left PMC during a right hand finger tapping motor imagery (MI) task while receiving continuous fMRI-neurofeedback, and (ii) whether successful modulation of brain activity influenced non-targeted motor control regions. During the MI task, participants of the neurofeedback group (NFB) received ongoing visual feedback representing the level of fMRI responses within their left PMC. Control (CTL) group participants were shown similar visual stimuli, but these were non-contingent on brain activity. Both groups showed equivalent levels of behavioral ratings on arousal and MI, before and during the fMRI protocol. In the NFB, but not in CLT group, brain activation during the last run compared to the first run revealed increased activation in the left PMC. In addition, the NFB group showed increased activation in motor control regions extending beyond the left PMC target area, including the supplementary motor area, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Moreover, in the last run, the NFB group showed stronger activation in the left PMC/inferior frontal gyrus when compared to the CTL group. Our results indicate that modulation of PMC and associated motor control areas can be achieved during a single neurofeedback-fMRI session. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of MI-based neurofeedback training, with direct implications for rehabilitation strategies in severe brain disorders, such as stroke. PMID:26733832

  2. Enhancing Motor Network Activity Using Real-Time Functional MRI Neurofeedback of Left Premotor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Marins, Theo F.; Rodrigues, Erika C.; Engel, Annerose; Hoefle, Sebastian; Basílio, Rodrigo; Lent, Roberto; Moll, Jorge; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Neurofeedback by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique of potential therapeutic relevance that allows individuals to be aware of their own neurophysiological responses and to voluntarily modulate the activity of specific brain regions, such as the premotor cortex (PMC), important for motor recovery after brain injury. We investigated (i) whether healthy human volunteers are able to up-regulate the activity of the left PMC during a right hand finger tapping motor imagery (MI) task while receiving continuous fMRI-neurofeedback, and (ii) whether successful modulation of brain activity influenced non-targeted motor control regions. During the MI task, participants of the neurofeedback group (NFB) received ongoing visual feedback representing the level of fMRI responses within their left PMC. Control (CTL) group participants were shown similar visual stimuli, but these were non-contingent on brain activity. Both groups showed equivalent levels of behavioral ratings on arousal and MI, before and during the fMRI protocol. In the NFB, but not in CLT group, brain activation during the last run compared to the first run revealed increased activation in the left PMC. In addition, the NFB group showed increased activation in motor control regions extending beyond the left PMC target area, including the supplementary motor area, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Moreover, in the last run, the NFB group showed stronger activation in the left PMC/inferior frontal gyrus when compared to the CTL group. Our results indicate that modulation of PMC and associated motor control areas can be achieved during a single neurofeedback-fMRI session. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of MI-based neurofeedback training, with direct implications for rehabilitation strategies in severe brain disorders, such as stroke. PMID:26733832

  3. Modeling spontaneous activity across an excitable epithelium: Support for a coordination scenario of early neural evolution

    PubMed Central

    de Wiljes, Oltman O.; van Elburg, Ronald A. J.; Biehl, Michael; Keijzer, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    Internal coordination models hold that early nervous systems evolved in the first place to coordinate internal activity at a multicellular level, most notably the use of multicellular contractility as an effector for motility. A recent example of such a model, the skin brain thesis, suggests that excitable epithelia using chemical signaling are a potential candidate as a nervous system precursor. We developed a computational model and a measure for whole body coordination to investigate the coordinative properties of such excitable epithelia. Using this measure we show that excitable epithelia can spontaneously exhibit body-scale patterns of activation. Relevant factors determining the extent of patterning are the noise level for exocytosis, relative body dimensions, and body size. In smaller bodies whole-body coordination emerges from cellular excitability and bidirectional excitatory transmission alone. Our results show that basic internal coordination as proposed by the skin brain thesis could have arisen in this potential nervous system precursor, supporting that this configuration may have played a role as a proto-neural system and requires further investigation. PMID:26441620

  4. Catalytic activity of unsaturated coordinated Cu-MOF to the hydroxylation of phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Lijuan; Chen, Chao; Lan, Fan; Deng, Shengjun; Xiao, Weiming; Zhang, Ning

    2011-05-01

    A 2D metal-organic framework [Cu 2 (BPTC) (Im) 4(H 2O) (DMF)] n ( 1) with unsaturated coordinated Cu(II) sites has been prepared under solvothermal condition, and applied to the hydroxylation of phenol after activating. The catalytic results indicate that 1a (the activated 1) exhibits an obvious activity for phenol hydroxylation at 40 °C for 4 h. Compared to the control experiments where the free Cu(II) (from Cu(OAc) 2 salt) has been utilized as the catalysts, 1a shows the higher selectivity to diphenols. This suggests that the coordinated environment of unsaturated coordinated Cu(II) sites in the 2D layer play the key role in the phenol hydroxylation.

  5. Supramolecular coordination and antimicrobial activities of constructed mixed ligand complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sonbati, A. Z.; Diab, M. A.; El-Bindary, A. A.; Abou-Dobara, M. I.; Seyam, H. A.

    2013-03-01

    A novel series of copper(II) and palladium(II) with 4-derivatives benzaldehyde pyrazolone (Ln) were synthesized. The mixed ligand complexes were prepared by using 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) as second ligand. The structure of these complexes was identified and confirm by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, UV-Vis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy and magnetic moment measurements as well as thermal analysis. The ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand through ON donor sites. ESR spectra show the simultaneous presence of a planar trans and a nearly planar cis isomers in the 1:2 ratio for all N,O complexes [Cu(Ln)2]Cl2ṡ2H2O. Schiff bases (Ln) were tested against bacterial species; namely two Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungal species (Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporium, Penicillium italicum and Alternaria alternata). The tested compounds have antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus and K. pneumoniae.

  6. A Compilation of Perceptual Motor Activities to Aid in the Development of the Orthopedically Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Michelle; And Others

    Provided is information on games, activities, and resources for enhancing perceptual motor development in the orthopedically handicapped child. Compiled are materials which include the following: an explanation of bilateral, alternating lateral, and integrated lateral games and activities for developing awareness of the two sides of the body; a…

  7. A Developmental Perspective on the Role of Motor Skill Competence in Physical Activity: An Emergent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Roberton, Mary Ann; Rudisill, Mary E.; Garcia, Clersida; Garcia, Luis E.

    2008-01-01

    Although significant attention has been paid to promoting the importance of physical activity in children, adolescents, and adults, we do not currently understand how to promote sustained physical activity levels throughout the lifespan. We contend that previous research has failed to consider the dynamic and synergistic role that motor skill…

  8. Modulation of Motor Area Activity during Observation of Unnatural Body Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimada, Sotaro; Oki, Kazuma

    2012-01-01

    The mirror neuron system (MNS) is activated when observing the actions of others. However, it remains unclear whether the MNS responds more strongly to natural bodily actions in the observer's motor repertoire than to unnatural actions. We investigated whether MNS activity is modulated by the unnaturalness of an observed action by inserting short…

  9. The Longitudinal Course of Gross Motor Activity in Schizophrenia – Within and between Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Sebastian; Stegmayer, Katharina; Horn, Helge; Rampa, Luca; Razavi, Nadja; Müller, Thomas J.; Strik, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with heterogeneous course of positive and negative symptoms. In addition, reduced motor activity as measured by wrist actigraphy has been reported. However, longitudinal studies of spontaneous motor activity are missing. We aimed to explore whether activity levels were stable within and between psychotic episodes. Furthermore, we investigated the association with the course of negative symptoms. In 45 medicated patients, we investigated motor behavior within a psychotic episode. In addition, we followed 18 medicated patients across 2 episodes. Wrist actigraphy and psychopathological ratings were applied. Within an episode symptoms changed but activity levels did not vary systematically. Activity at baseline predicted the course of negative symptoms. Between two episodes activity recordings were much more stable. Again, activity at the index episode predicted the outcome of negative symptoms. In sum, spontaneous motor activity shares trait and state characteristics, the latter are associated with negative symptom course. Actigraphy may therefore become an important ambulatory instrument to monitor negative symptoms and treatment outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:25698981

  10. Associations among Elementary School Children’s Actual Motor Competence, Perceived Motor Competence, Physical Activity and BMI: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Stodden, David; Brian, Ali; True, Larissa; Cardon, Greet; Tallir, Isabel; Haerens, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Background Positive associations between motor competence and physical activity have been identified by means of variable-centered analyses. To expand the understanding of these associations, this study used a person-centered approach to investigate whether different combinations (i.e., profiles) of actual and perceived motor competence exist (aim 1); and to examine differences in physical activity levels (aim 2) and weight status (aim 3) among children with different motor competence-based profiles. Materials and Methods Children’s (N = 361; 180 boys = 50%; Mage = 9.50±1.24yrs) actual motor competence was measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and their perceived motor competence via the Self Perception Profile for Children. We assessed physical activity via accelerometers; height through stadiometers, and weight through scales. Cluster analyses (aim 1) and MANCOVAs (aim 2 & 3) were used to analyze the data. Results The analysis generated two predictable groups: one group displaying relatively high levels of both actual (M TGMD-2 percentile = 42.54, SD = 2.33) and perceived motor competence (M = 3.42, SD = .37; high-high), and one group with relatively low levels of both (M percentile = 9.71, SD = 3.21; M PMC = 2.52, SD = .35; low-low). One additional group was also identified as having relatively low levels of actual motor competence (M percentile = 4.22, SD = 2.85) but relatively high levels of perceived motor competence (M = 3.52, SD = .30; low-high). The high-high group demonstrated higher daily physical activity (M = 48.39±2.03) and lower BMI (M = 18.13±.43) than the low-low group (MMVPA = 37.93±2.01; MBMI = 20.22±.42). The low-high group had similar physical activity-levels as the low-low group (M = 36.21±2.18) and did not significantly differ in BMI (M = 19.49±.46) from the other two groups. Conclusions A combination of high actual and perceived motor competence is related to higher physical activity and lower weight status. It is thus

  11. Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates auditory verbal hallucination from imagining the hallucination☆

    PubMed Central

    Raij, Tuukka T.; Riekki, Tapani J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal