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Sample records for activity mvpa methods

  1. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) reveals abnormal fMRI activity in both the “core” and “extended” face network in congenital prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Rivolta, Davide; Woolgar, Alexandra; Palermo, Romina; Butko, Marina; Schmalzl, Laura; Williams, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to identify faces is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical brain regions in humans. It is still a matter of debate which regions represent the functional substrate of congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a condition characterized by a lifelong impairment in face recognition, and affecting around 2.5% of the general population. Here, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to measure neural responses to faces, objects, bodies, and body-parts in a group of seven CPs and ten healthy control participants. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of the fMRI data we demonstrate that neural activity within the “core” (i.e., occipital face area and fusiform face area) and “extended” (i.e., anterior temporal cortex) face regions in CPs showed reduced discriminability between faces and objects. Reduced differentiation between faces and objects in CP was also seen in the right parahippocampal cortex. In contrast, discriminability between faces and bodies/body-parts and objects and bodies/body-parts across the ventral visual system was typical in CPs. In addition to MVPA analysis, we also ran traditional mass-univariate analysis, which failed to show any group differences in face and object discriminability. In sum, these findings demonstrate (i) face-object representations impairments in CP which encompass both the “core” and “extended” face regions, and (ii) superior power of MVPA in detecting group differences. PMID:25431556

  2. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) reveals abnormal fMRI activity in both the "core" and "extended" face network in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Rivolta, Davide; Woolgar, Alexandra; Palermo, Romina; Butko, Marina; Schmalzl, Laura; Williams, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    The ability to identify faces is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical brain regions in humans. It is still a matter of debate which regions represent the functional substrate of congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a condition characterized by a lifelong impairment in face recognition, and affecting around 2.5% of the general population. Here, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to measure neural responses to faces, objects, bodies, and body-parts in a group of seven CPs and ten healthy control participants. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of the fMRI data we demonstrate that neural activity within the "core" (i.e., occipital face area and fusiform face area) and "extended" (i.e., anterior temporal cortex) face regions in CPs showed reduced discriminability between faces and objects. Reduced differentiation between faces and objects in CP was also seen in the right parahippocampal cortex. In contrast, discriminability between faces and bodies/body-parts and objects and bodies/body-parts across the ventral visual system was typical in CPs. In addition to MVPA analysis, we also ran traditional mass-univariate analysis, which failed to show any group differences in face and object discriminability. In sum, these findings demonstrate (i) face-object representations impairments in CP which encompass both the "core" and "extended" face regions, and (ii) superior power of MVPA in detecting group differences.

  3. Resolving ambiguities of MVPA using explicit models of representation

    PubMed Central

    Naselaris, Thomas; Kay, Kendrick N.

    2015-01-01

    We advocate a shift in emphasis within cognitive neuroscience from multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to the design and testing of explicit models of neural representation. With such models it becomes possible to identify the specific representations encoded in patterns of brain activity and to map them across the brain. PMID:26412094

  4. Implementing Change to Arrest the Decline in Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) for Adolescent Girls in Two Rural and Regional High Schools: A Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith; Puglisi, Lauren; Perry, Janine

    2012-01-01

    Inactivity has been linked to a range of lifestyle conditions such as hypertension, type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease (World Health Organisation, 2009). Engagement in physical activity and in sport has been consistently reported to decline as the general population ages (Telama et al., 2005). In particular, the age of adolescence has…

  5. PyMVPA: A python toolbox for multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Michael; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Sederberg, Per B; Hanson, Stephen José; Haxby, James V; Pollmann, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Decoding patterns of neural activity onto cognitive states is one of the central goals of functional brain imaging. Standard univariate fMRI analysis methods, which correlate cognitive and perceptual function with the blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal, have proven successful in identifying anatomical regions based on signal increases during cognitive and perceptual tasks. Recently, researchers have begun to explore new multivariate techniques that have proven to be more flexible, more reliable, and more sensitive than standard univariate analysis. Drawing on the field of statistical learning theory, these new classifier-based analysis techniques possess explanatory power that could provide new insights into the functional properties of the brain. However, unlike the wealth of software packages for univariate analyses, there are few packages that facilitate multivariate pattern classification analyses of fMRI data. Here we introduce a Python-based, cross-platform, and open-source software toolbox, called PyMVPA, for the application of classifier-based analysis techniques to fMRI datasets. PyMVPA makes use of Python's ability to access libraries written in a large variety of programming languages and computing environments to interface with the wealth of existing machine learning packages. We present the framework in this paper and provide illustrative examples on its usage, features, and programmability.

  6. CoSMoMVPA: Multi-Modal Multivariate Pattern Analysis of Neuroimaging Data in Matlab/GNU Octave.

    PubMed

    Oosterhof, Nikolaas N; Connolly, Andrew C; Haxby, James V

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the popularity of multivariate pattern (MVP) analysis of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data, and, to a much lesser extent, magneto- and electro-encephalography (M/EEG) data. We present CoSMoMVPA, a lightweight MVPA (MVP analysis) toolbox implemented in the intersection of the Matlab and GNU Octave languages, that treats both fMRI and M/EEG data as first-class citizens. CoSMoMVPA supports all state-of-the-art MVP analysis techniques, including searchlight analyses, classification, correlations, representational similarity analysis, and the time generalization method. These can be used to address both data-driven and hypothesis-driven questions about neural organization and representations, both within and across: space, time, frequency bands, neuroimaging modalities, individuals, and species. It uses a uniform data representation of fMRI data in the volume or on the surface, and of M/EEG data at the sensor and source level. Through various external toolboxes, it directly supports reading and writing a variety of fMRI and M/EEG neuroimaging formats, and, where applicable, can convert between them. As a result, it can be integrated readily in existing pipelines and used with existing preprocessed datasets. CoSMoMVPA overloads the traditional volumetric searchlight concept to support neighborhoods for M/EEG and surface-based fMRI data, which supports localization of multivariate effects of interest across space, time, and frequency dimensions. CoSMoMVPA also provides a generalized approach to multiple comparison correction across these dimensions using Threshold-Free Cluster Enhancement with state-of-the-art clustering and permutation techniques. CoSMoMVPA is highly modular and uses abstractions to provide a uniform interface for a variety of MVP measures. Typical analyses require a few lines of code, making it accessible to beginner users. At the same time, expert programmers can easily extend its functionality. CoSMoMVPA

  7. CoSMoMVPA: Multi-Modal Multivariate Pattern Analysis of Neuroimaging Data in Matlab/GNU Octave

    PubMed Central

    Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.; Connolly, Andrew C.; Haxby, James V.

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the popularity of multivariate pattern (MVP) analysis of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data, and, to a much lesser extent, magneto- and electro-encephalography (M/EEG) data. We present CoSMoMVPA, a lightweight MVPA (MVP analysis) toolbox implemented in the intersection of the Matlab and GNU Octave languages, that treats both fMRI and M/EEG data as first-class citizens. CoSMoMVPA supports all state-of-the-art MVP analysis techniques, including searchlight analyses, classification, correlations, representational similarity analysis, and the time generalization method. These can be used to address both data-driven and hypothesis-driven questions about neural organization and representations, both within and across: space, time, frequency bands, neuroimaging modalities, individuals, and species. It uses a uniform data representation of fMRI data in the volume or on the surface, and of M/EEG data at the sensor and source level. Through various external toolboxes, it directly supports reading and writing a variety of fMRI and M/EEG neuroimaging formats, and, where applicable, can convert between them. As a result, it can be integrated readily in existing pipelines and used with existing preprocessed datasets. CoSMoMVPA overloads the traditional volumetric searchlight concept to support neighborhoods for M/EEG and surface-based fMRI data, which supports localization of multivariate effects of interest across space, time, and frequency dimensions. CoSMoMVPA also provides a generalized approach to multiple comparison correction across these dimensions using Threshold-Free Cluster Enhancement with state-of-the-art clustering and permutation techniques. CoSMoMVPA is highly modular and uses abstractions to provide a uniform interface for a variety of MVP measures. Typical analyses require a few lines of code, making it accessible to beginner users. At the same time, expert programmers can easily extend its functionality. CoSMoMVPA

  8. PyMVPA: MultiVariate Pattern Analysis in Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Michael; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.

    2017-03-01

    PyMVPA eases statistical learning analyses of large datasets. It offers an extensible framework with a high-level interface to a broad range of algorithms for classification, regression, feature selection, data import and export. It is designed to integrate well with related software packages, such as scikit-learn, shogun, and MDP.

  9. Single-unit recordings in the macaque face patch system reveal limitations of fMRI MVPA.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Julien; de Berker, Archy Otto; Tsao, Doris Ying

    2015-02-11

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data has become an important technique for cognitive neuroscientists in recent years; however, the relationship between fMRI MVPA and the underlying neural population activity remains unexamined. Here, we performed MVPA of fMRI data and single-unit data in the same species, the macaque monkey. Facial recognition in the macaque is subserved by a well characterized system of cortical patches, which provided the test bed for our comparison. We showed that neural population information about face viewpoint was readily accessible with fMRI MVPA from all face patches, in agreement with single-unit data. Information about face identity, although it was very strongly represented in the populations of units of the anterior face patches, could not be retrieved from the same data. The discrepancy was especially striking in patch AL, where neurons encode both the identity and viewpoint of human faces. From an analysis of the characteristics of the neural representations for viewpoint and identity, we conclude that fMRI MVPA cannot decode information contained in the weakly clustered neuronal responses responsible for coding the identity of human faces in the macaque brain. Although further studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between information decodable from fMRI multivoxel patterns versus single-unit populations for other variables in other brain regions, our result has important implications for the interpretation of negative findings in fMRI multivoxel pattern analyses.

  10. Investigation of Pupils' Levels of MVPA and VPA during Physical Education Units Focused on Direct Instruction and Tactical Games Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Stephen; Smith, Lindsey; Fairclough, Stuart; Savory, Louise; Kerr, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) levels of pupils during coeducational physical education units focused on direct instruction and tactical games models (TGM). Thirty-two children (11-12 years, 17 girls) were randomly assigned to either a direct instruction (control) or TGM…

  11. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  12. Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in the After-School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Karen J.; Geller, Karly S.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: No research to date has extensively described moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and healthful eating (HE) opportunities in the after-school environment. The current study described the quality of the after-school environment for its impact on children's MVPA and HE. Methods: An alliance of 7 elementary schools and Boys and…

  13. Physical Activity Pattern of Prepubescent Filipino School Children during School Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Consuelo B.; Grimmer-Somers, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about pre-pubescent Filipino children's involvement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). There are international guidelines regarding required levels of MVPA for healthy children. Methods: This study describes participation of 11- to 12-year-olds in randomly selected public and private schools in San Juan,…

  14. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Method: Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5 to 18 years old enrolled in 58…

  15. Messages to promote physical activity: Are descriptors of required duration and intensity related to intentions to be more active?

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Emily C. L.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Taylor, Ian M.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.; Webb, Oliver J.; Sherar, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Mass-media campaigns such as, “Change4Life’ in the UK and “get active America” in the US, promote physical activity (PA) recommendations of at least 150 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). We investigated whether different messages used in MVPA campaigns were associated with intention to engage in more MVPA. Materials and Methods: Theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs; subjective norms, affective attitudes, instrumental attitudes and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were applied to explain the associations between campaign messages and intentions to engage in more MVPA. Results: A total of 1412 UK adults completed an online survey on MVPA and TPB. The sample was 70% female and 93% white with 23% reporting meeting PA guidelines. Participants received one of three messages: A walking message either with or without the 150 min/week threshold (WalkT; WalkNT); a physiological description of MVPA with the 150 min/week threshold (PhysT). ANCOVA examined group differences in intention. Path analysis evaluated mediation by TPB variables. ANCOVA identified lower intentions to increase MVPA in group PhysT relative to WalkT and WalkNT (P < 0.001). PBC mediated this relationship in WalkT (β = 0.014, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.004–0.028) whereas affective attitudes mediated this relationship in WalkNT (β = 0.059, 95% CI = 0.006–0.113). Conclusions: Campaigns promoting MVPA guidelines need to choose their messages carefully. Messages which exemplified MVPA through walking were associated with higher intentions to increase MVPA than messages using a physiological description. Further, PBC was enhanced when the 150 min/week threshold was promoted alongside the walking exemplar. Future exemplars should be investigated to inform adults how to meet MVPA guidelines. PMID:27462619

  16. Effectiveness of a 12-month randomized clinical trial to increase physical activity in multiethnic postpartum women: Results from Hawaii’s Nā Mikimiki Project

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; White, Kami K.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Saiki, Kara; Brown, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few postpartum ethnic minority women perform leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The study tested the effectiveness of a 12-month tailored intervention to increase MVPA in women with infants 2–12 months old. Methods From 2008–2011, women (n=311) with infants (average age = 5.7 months) from Honolulu, Hawaii were randomly assigned to receive tailored telephone calls and access to a mom-centric website (n=154) or access to a standard PA website (n=157). MVPA was measured at baseline, 6, and 12 months using self-report and acclerometers. Results Controlling for covariates, the tailored condition significantly increased self-reported MVPA from an average of 44 to 246 minutes/week compared with 46 to 156 minutes/week for the standard condition (p=0.027). Mothers with ≥ 2 children had significantly greater increases in MVPA in response to the tailored intervention than those with one child (p=0.016). Accelerometer-measured MVPA significantly increased over time (p=0.0001), with no condition differences. There was evidence of reactivity to initially wearing accelerometers; the tailored intervention significantly increased MVPA among women with low baseline accelerometer MVPA minutes, but not among those with high minutes (pinteraction=0.053). Conclusion A tailored intervention effectively increased MVPA over 12 months in multiethnic women with infants, particularly those with more than one child. PMID:25285751

  17. Physical Activity of Preschool-Aged Latino Children in Farmworker Families

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Zapata Roblyer, Martha I.; Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A.; Ip, Edward H.; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe time spent in sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by children in Latino farmworker families; and delineate sources of variation in sedentary and MVPA. Method Data were from mother-child dyads (N = 248) in Latino farmworker households in North Carolina. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers; mothers described their children’s characteristics and their physical and social environments. Results Children spent 6.2 hours/day sedentary (Median=369 minutes), and 6.0 minutes/day in MVPA. Children in Head Start spent more time sedentary, whereas children living where dogs roam freely were less sedentary. Children whose mothers limited screen time spent 2 more minutes in MVPA. Conclusions Preschool-aged Latino children in farmworker families are sedentary, engaging in very little MVPA. PMID:24933141

  18. Context-Specific Outdoor Time and Physical Activity among School-Children Across Gender and Age: Using Accelerometers and GPS to Advance Methods

    PubMed Central

    Klinker, Charlotte Demant; Schipperijn, Jasper; Kerr, Jacqueline; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Troelsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Being outdoors has a positive influence on health among children. Evidence in this area is limited and many studies have used self-reported measures. Objective context-specific assessment of physical activity patterns and correlates, such as outdoor time, may progress this field. Aims: To employ novel objective measures to assess age and gender differences in context-specific outdoor weekday behavior patterns among school-children [outdoor time and outdoor moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] and to investigate associations between context-specific outdoor time and MVPA. Methods: A total of 170 children had at least one weekday of 9 h combined accelerometer and global positioning system data and were included in the analyses. The data were processed using the personal activity and location measurement system (PALMS) and a purpose-built PostgreSQL database resulting in context-specific measures for outdoor time, outdoor MVPA, and overall daily MVPA. In addition, 4 domains (leisure, school, transport, and home) and 11 subdomains (e.g., urban green space and sports facilities) were created and assessed. Multilevel analyses provided results on age and gender differences and the association between outdoor time and MVPA. Results: Girls compared to boys had fewer outdoor minutes (p < 0.05), spent a smaller proportion of their overall daily time outdoors (p < 0.05), had fewer outdoor MVPA minutes during the day (p < 0.001) and in 11 contexts. Children compared to adolescents had more outdoor minutes (p < 0.05). During school and within recess, children compared to adolescents had more outdoor MVPA (p < 0.001) and outdoor time (p < 0.001). A 1-h increase in outdoor time was associated with 9.9 more minutes of MVPA (p < 0.001). Conclusion: A new methodology to assess the context-specific outdoor time and physical activity patterns has been developed and can be expanded to other populations. Different context

  19. Process Evaluation of an Intervention to Increase Child Activity Levels in Afterschool Programs

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Saunders, Ruth; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying effective strategies in Afterschool programs (ASPs) to increase children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the ASP setting is crucial. This study describes the process evaluation outcomes from an intervention to reduce child sedentary time and increase MVPA in ASPs. Methods Four ASPs participated in a quasi-experimental single-group pre-post study targeting child sedentary time and MVPA. The strategies implemented to help ASPs meet Physical Activity Standards consisted of detailed schedules, professional development trainings, on-site booster sessions, and technical assistance. Process evaluation related to staff behaviors was collected via systematic observation to identify the interventions impact on the physical and social environment of the ASP. Random-effects regression models examined the impact of the intervention on boys/girls observed sedentary behavior, MVPA, and changes in staff behaviors. Results Increases in MVPA and reductions in sedentary behavior were observed during enrichment, academics, organized and free-play physical activities (PA). Corresponding changes in staff behaviors were observed during these ASP contexts. For example, staff reduced child idle-time during organized PA (38.9%-1.8%) and provided energizers more often during enrichment (0.2%-11.5%). Conclusions This study identified changes in staff behavior during ASP contexts that led to increases in child MVPA and decreases in child sedentary behavior. PMID:24836999

  20. Associations between Screen Time and Physical Activity among Spanish Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A.; Martí-Trujillo, Sara; Lera-Navarro, Angela; Dorado-García, Cecilia; González-Henríquez, Juan J.; Sanchís-Moysi, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    Background Excessive time in front of a single or several screens could explain a displacement of physical activity. The present study aimed at determining whether screen-time is associated with a reduced level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Spanish adolescents living in favorable environmental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to select 3503 adolescents (12–18 years old) from the school population of Gran Canaria, Spain. MVPA, screen-time in front of television, computer, video game console and portable console was assessed in the classroom by fulfilling a standardized questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted by a set of social-environmental variables were carried out. Forty-six percent of girls (95% CI±2.3%) and 26% of boys (95% CI±2.1%) did not meet the MVPA recommendations for adolescents. Major gender differences were observed in the time devoted to vigorous PA, video games and the total time spent on screen-based activities. Boys who reported 4 hours•week−1 or more to total screen-time showed a 64% (OR = 0.61, 95% CI, 0.44–0.86) increased risk of failing to achieve the recommended adolescent MVPA level. Participation in organized physical activities and sports competitions were more strongly associated with MVPA than screen-related behaviors. Conclusions/Significance No single screen-related behavior explained the reduction of MVPA in adolescents. However, the total time accumulated through several screen-related behaviors was negatively associated with MVPA level in boys. This association could be due to lower availability of time for exercise as the time devoted to sedentary screen-time activities increases. Participation in organized physical activities seems to counteract the negative impact of excessive time in front of screens on physical activity. PMID:21909435

  1. Using accelerometers and global positioning system devices to assess gender and age differences in children’s school, transport, leisure and home based physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge on domain-specific physical activity (PA) has the potential to advance public health interventions and inform new policies promoting children’s PA. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess domains (leisure, school, transport, home) and subdomains (e.g., recess, playgrounds, and urban green space) for week day moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) using objective measures and investigate gender and age differences. Methods Participants included 367 Danish children and adolescents (11–16 years, 52% girls) with combined accelerometer and Global Positioning System (GPS) data (mean 2.5 days, 12.7 hrs/day). The Personal Activity and Location Measurement System and a purpose-built database assessed data in 15-second epochs to determine PA and assign epochs to 4 domains and 11 subdomains. Frequencies and proportions of time spent in MVPA were determined and differences assessed using multi-level modeling. Results More than 90% of MVPA was objectively assigned to domains/subdomains. Boys accumulated more MVPA overall, in leisure, school and transport (all p < 0.05). Children compared with adolescents accumulated more MVPA, primarily through more school MVPA (p < 0.05). Boys spent a large proportion of time accumulating MVPA in playgrounds, active transport, Physical Education, sports facilities, urban green space and school grounds. Girls spent a significant proportion of time accumulating MVPA in active transport and playgrounds. No gender or age differences were found in the home domain. Conclusions Large variations were found in PA frequency and intensity across domains/subdomains. Significant gender differences were found, with girls being less active in almost all domains and subdomains. Objectively measured patterns of PA across domains/subdomains can be used to better tailor PA interventions and inform future policies for promoting child PA. PMID:24457029

  2. Physical Activity Levels and Domains Assessed by Accelerometry in German Adolescents from GINIplus and LISAplus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maia P.; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is a well-known and underused protective factor for numerous health outcomes, and interventions are hampered by lack of objective data. We combined accelerometers with diaries to estimate the contributions to total activity from different domains throughout the day and week in adolescents. Methods Accelerometric and diary data from 1403 adolescents (45% male, mean age 15.6 ± 0.5 years) were combined to evaluate daily levels and domains of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during a typical week. Freedson’s cutoff points were applied to determine levels of activity. Total activity was broken down into school physical education (PE), school outside PE, transportation to school, sport, and other time. Results About 2/3 of adolescents’ time was spent sedentary, 1/3 in light activity, and about 5% in MVPA. Boys and girls averaged 46 (SD 22) and 38 (23) minutes MVPA per day. Adolescents were most active during leisure sport, spending about 30% of it in MVPA, followed by PE (about 20%) transport to school (14%) and either school class time or other time (3%). PE provided 5% of total MVPA, while leisure sport provided 16% and transportation to school 8%. School was the most sedentary part of the day with over 75% of time outside PE spent sedentary. Conclusions These German adolescents were typical of Europeans in showing low levels of physical activity, with significant contributions from leisure sport, transportation and school PE. Leisure sport was the most active part of the day, and participation did not vary significantly by sex, study center (region of Germany) or BMI. Transportation to school was frequent and thus accounted for a significant fraction of total MVPA. This indicates that even in a population with good access to dedicated sporting activities, frequent active transportation can add significantly to total MVPA. PMID:27010227

  3. A process-oriented measure of habit strength for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Grove, J. Robert; Zillich, Irja; Medic, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Habitual action is an important aspect of health behaviour, but the relevance of various habit strength indicators continues to be debated. This study focused specifically on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and evaluated the construct validity of a framework emphasizing patterned action, stimulus-response bonding, automaticity, and negative consequences for nonperformance as indicators of habit strength for this form of exercise. Methods: Upper-level undergraduates (N = 124) provided demographic information and responded to questionnaire items assessing historical MVPA involvement, current MVPA involvement, and the four proposed habit strength dimensions. Factor analyses were used to examine the latent structure of the habit strength indicators, and the model's construct validity was evaluated via an examination of relationships with repetition history and current behaviour. Results: At a measurement level, findings indicated that the proposed four-component model possessed psychometric integrity as a coherent set of factors. Criterion-related validity was also demonstrated via significant changes in three of the four factors as a function of past involvement in MVPA and significant correlations with the frequency, duration, and intensity of current MVPA. Conclusions: These findings support the construct validity of this exercise habit strength model and suggest that it could provide a template for future research on how MVPA habits are developed and maintained. PMID:25750789

  4. Sedentary behavior, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Meghan K.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Emerging work is starting to investigate the cumulative effects of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on health. The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative and independent associations of MVPA, sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length (LTL). Methods: Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 1868 adults 20+ years); analyzed in 2016. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were subjectively assessed with cardiorespiratory fitness determined from a submaximal treadmill-based test; participants were classified as above or below the median values for each of these three parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each participant to assess LTL via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, with participants grouped into LTL tertiles. Results: Participants who engaged in higher MVPA, sat less and had higher cardiorespiratory fitness had an increased odds (ranging from 85% to 105%) of being in LTL tertile 3 (vs. 1). In an extended adjusted multinomial logistic regression model, only MVPA was positively associated with LTL (odds ration [OR] = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.99-1.90; P = 0.05). Conclusion: All three behavior characteristics, but particularly MVPA, may be important in preserving LTLs. PMID:28058238

  5. Sedentary behavior, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    Background: Emerging work is starting to investigate the cumulative effects of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on health. The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative and independent associations of MVPA, sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length (LTL). Methods: Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 1868 adults 20+ years); analyzed in 2016. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were subjectively assessed with cardiorespiratory fitness determined from a submaximal treadmill-based test; participants were classified as above or below the median values for each of these three parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each participant to assess LTL via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, with participants grouped into LTL tertiles. Results: Participants who engaged in higher MVPA, sat less and had higher cardiorespiratory fitness had an increased odds (ranging from 85% to 105%) of being in LTL tertile 3 (vs. 1). In an extended adjusted multinomial logistic regression model, only MVPA was positively associated with LTL (odds ration [OR] = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.99-1.90; P = 0.05). Conclusion: All three behavior characteristics, but particularly MVPA, may be important in preserving LTLs.

  6. Physical activity levels, duration pattern and adherence to WHO recommendations in German adults

    PubMed Central

    Luzak, Agnes; Heier, Margit; Thorand, Barbara; Laxy, Michael; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Background Intensity and duration of physical activity are associated with the achievement of health benefits. Our aim was to characterize physical activity behavior in terms of intensity, duration pattern, and adherence to the WHO physical activity recommendations in a population-based sample of adults from southern Germany. Further, we investigated associations between physical activity and sex, age, and body mass index (BMI), considering also common chronic diseases. Methods We analyzed 475 subjects (47% males, mean age 58 years, range 48–68 years) who wore ActiGraph accelerometers for up to seven days. Measured accelerations per minute obtained from the vertical axis (uniaxial) and the vector magnitude of all three axes (triaxial) were classified as sedentary, light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to predefined acceleration count cut-offs. The average minutes/day spent in each activity level per subject served as outcome. Associations of sex, age, BMI, and seven chronic diseases or health limitations, with the activity levels were analyzed by negative binomial regression. Results Most of the wear time was spent in sedentarism (median 61%/day), whereas the median time spent in MVPA was only 3%, with men achieving more MVPA than women (35 vs. 28 minutes/day, p<0.05). Almost two thirds of MVPA was achieved in short bouts of less than 5 minutes, and 35% of the subjects did not achieve a single 10-minute bout. Hence, only 14% adhered to the WHO recommendation of 2.5 hours of MVPA/week in at least 10-minute bouts. Females, older subjects and obese subjects spent less time in MVPA (p<0.05), but no clear association with hypertension, asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety/depression, pain or walking difficulties was observed in regression analyses with MVPA as outcome. Conclusions Activity behavior among middle-aged German adults was highly insufficient, indicating a further need for physical activity promotion in

  7. What barriers thwart postpartum women's physical activity goals during a 12-month intervention? A process evaluation of the Nā Mikimiki Project.

    PubMed

    Albright, Cheryl L; Saiki, Kara; Steffen, Alana D; Woekel, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 70% of new mothers do not meet national guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The Nā Mikimiki ("the active ones") Project (2008-2011) was designed to increase MVPA among women with infants 2-12 months old. Participants' barriers to exercising and achievement of specific MVPA goals were discussed during telephone counseling calls over 12 months. Healthy, inactive women (n = 115, mean age = 31 ± 5 years, infants' mean age = 5.5 ± 3 months; 80% racial/ethnic minorities) received a total of 17 calls over 12 months in three phases. During Phase 1 weekly calls were made for a month, in Phase 2 biweekly calls were made for 2 months, and in Phase 3 monthly calls were made for 9 months. Across all phases, the most frequent barriers to achieving MVPA goals were: time/too busy (25%), sick child (11%), and illness (10%). Goals for MVPA minutes per week were achieved or surpassed 40.6% of the time during weekly calls, 39.9% during biweekly calls, and 42.0% during monthly calls. The least likely MVPA goals to be achieved (p < 0.04) were those which the woman encountered and for which she failed to overcome the barriers she had previously anticipated would impair her improvement of MVPA. This process evaluation demonstrated that telephone counseling somewhat facilitated the resolution of barriers and achievement of MVPA goals; thus, if clinical settings adopted such methods, chronic disease risks could be reduced in this vulnerable population of new mothers.

  8. Are Older Adults Physically Active Enough – A Matter of Assessment Method? The Generation 100 Study

    PubMed Central

    Zisko, Nina; Ingebrigtsen, Jan Erik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Stensvold, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) is beneficial for general health. As a result, adults around the world are recommended to undertake regular PA of either absolute or relative intensity. Traditionally, adherence to PA recommendation is assessed by accelerometers that record absolute intensity thresholds. Since ageing often results in a decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), older adults (aged > 65 years) might be more susceptible to not meeting the PA recommendation when measured in absolute terms. The aim of the present study was to compare the adherence to the PA recommendation using both absolute and relative thresholds. Additionally, we aimed to report the reference values for overall PA in a large sample of Norwegian older adults. Methods PA was assessed for 7 days using the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer in 1219 older adults (624 females) aged 70–77 years. Overall PA was measured as counts per minute (CPM) and steps. Absolute and relative moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) thresholds were applied to quantify adherence to PA recommendation. The relative MVPA thresholds were developed specifically for the Generation 100 population sample. CRF was directly measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Results Proportions meeting PA recommendation were 29% and 71% when utilizing absolute and relative MVPA, respectively. More females met the relative PA recommendation compared to males. Overall PA was higher among the youngest age group. Older adults with medium- and high levels of CRF were more physically active, compared to those with the lowest levels of CRF. Conclusion This is the first study to compare adherence to PA recommendation, using absolute and relative intensity thresholds among older adults. The present study clearly illustrates the consequences of using different methodological approaches to surveillance of PA across age, gender and CRF in a population of older adults. PMID:27893785

  9. Objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration: independent and combined associations with adiposity in canadian children

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, J-P; Leduc, G; Boyer, C; Bélanger, P; LeBlanc, A G; Borghese, M M; Tremblay, M S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine independent and combined associations among objectively measured movement/non-movement behaviors (moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), total sedentary time and sleep duration) and adiposity indicators in a sample of Canadian children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 507 children aged 9–11 years from Ottawa, Canada. Movement/non-movement behaviors were assessed using an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer over 7 days (24-h protocol). Outcomes included percentage body fat (bioelectrical impedance) and waist-to-height ratio. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, maturity offset, fast food consumption, annual household income and highest level of parental education, MVPA was inversely and sedentary time positively associated with adiposity indicators, whereas sleep duration was not. However, only MVPA remained significantly associated with adiposity indicators after additional adjustment for the other movement/non-movement behaviors. Combined associations using tertiles of the three movement/non-movement behaviors showed that higher levels of MVPA were associated with lower adiposity indicators, irrespective of total sedentary time and sleep duration. Conclusions: Higher levels of MVPA were associated with lower adiposity in this sample of children regardless of sedentary time and sleep duration. Although correlational in nature, these findings suggest that future efforts of obesity reduction should focus more on increasing MVPA than on reducing sedentary time or increasing sleep duration to maximize the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:24911633

  10. Social support and physical activity change in Latinas: Results from the Seamos Saludables trial

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Becky; Dunsiger, Shira I.; Pekmezi, Dori; Larsen, Britta A.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Family responsibilities and poor social support are barriers to physical activity among Latinas. This study evaluated the effects of a home- and print-based intervention on social support, moderating effects of familial ties on support and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and mediating effects of support on MVPA. Methods Participants were randomized to receive through the mail either individually tailored physical activity intervention or general wellness print materials. Familial ties and social support were assessed by marital and child status and the social support for physical activity measure, respectively. MVPA was measured using the 7-day Physical Activity Recall Interview and accelerometer. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months post-treatment, and 12 months follow-up. Results Participants (n=266; 40.6 ± 9.9 years old) were mostly immigrant and Spanish-speaking Latinas. The intervention group achieved greater increases in family and friend support compared to the wellness control group from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up (p<0.05). Intervention changes in support did not depend on marital or child status. The intervention also increased minutes per week of MVPA more than the wellness control (p<0.05) and the effect did not depend on marital or child status. There were significant indirect effects of treatment, indicating the intervention achieved greater increases in MVPA by increasing family (ab=5.21, SE=2.94, 95% CI=0.91–14.11) and friend (ab=6.83, SE=5.15, 95% CI=0.16–20.56) support. Conclusions The intervention improved and sustained support from family and friends and MVPA irrespective of familial ties. Social support mediated increases in MVPA. PMID:26863464

  11. Determinants of Physical Activity in Middle School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trost, Stewart G.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in sixth grade students. Student surveys on physical activity behavior and attitudes and measurement of MVPA indicated that the TRA and TPB accounted for only a small percentage of the variance in MVPA. (SM)

  12. Association of Environment and Policy Characteristics on Children’s Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity and Time Spent Sedentary in Afterschool Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ajja, Rahma; Clennin, Morgan N.; Weaver, R. Glenn; Moore, Justin B.; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Pate, Russell R.; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Afterschool programs (ASPs) are an important setting in which to promote children’s physical activity. This study examines the association of environmental and policy characteristics on the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior of children attending ASPs. Methods A total of 1,302 children attending 20 ASPs across South Carolina wore accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X+) for up to 4 non-consecutive days. Policy-level characteristics were evaluated using the Healthy Afterschool Program Index-Physical Activity (HAPI-PA) scale. Physical activity space was measured using a measuring wheel (indoor, ft2) and GIS (outdoor, acres). The structure (free-play or organized) of activity opportunities, was evaluated via direct observation. Time spent in MVPA and sedentary, both indoors and outdoors, was estimated using accelerometry. Results For every 5000ft2 of utilized indoor activity space an additional 2.4 and 3.3 minutes/day of sedentary behavior was observed among boys and girls, respectively. A higher ratio of free-play to organized play was associated with higher indoor sedentary behavior among boys and girls (3.9 minutes/day and 10.0 minutes/day, respectively). For every one acre of outdoor activity space used, an additional 2.7 minutes/day of MVPA was observed for boys. A higher free-play to organized play ratio was associated with higher outdoor MVPA for boys and girls (4.4 and 3.4 minutes/day increase, respectively). Policy characteristics were unrelated to MVPA levels and time spent sedentary. Conclusion Findings indicate that policies and the size of activity space had limited influence on MVPA and sedentary behavior, suggesting that programmatic structure may be a more effective option to improve MVPA levels of children attending ASPs. PMID:25251100

  13. 24 h Accelerometry: impact of sleep-screening methods on estimates of sedentary behaviour and physical activity while awake.

    PubMed

    Meredith-Jones, Kim; Williams, Sheila; Galland, Barbara; Kennedy, Gavin; Taylor, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Although accelerometers can assess sleep and activity over 24 h, sleep data must be removed before physical activity and sedentary time can be examined appropriately. We compared the effect of 6 different sleep-scoring rules on physical activity and sedentary time. Activity and sleep were obtained by accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X) over 7 days in 291 children (51.3% overweight or obese) aged 4-8.9 years. Three methods removed sleep using individualised time filters and two methods applied standard time filters to remove sleep each day (9 pm-6 am, 12 am-6 am). The final method did not remove sleep but simply defined non-wear as at least 60 min of consecutive zeros over the 24-h period. Different methods of removing sleep from 24-h data markedly affect estimates of sedentary time, yielding values ranging from 556 to 1145 min/day. Estimates of non-wear time (33-193 min), wear time (736-1337 min) and counts per minute (384-658) also showed considerable variation. By contrast, estimates of moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) were similar, varying by less than 1 min/day. Different scoring methods to remove sleep from 24-h accelerometry data do not affect measures of MVPA, whereas estimates of counts per minute and sedentary time depend considerably on which technique is used.

  14. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A.; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8 ± 0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). Results On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4–76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km2 (95% CI 1.3–3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2–24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1–23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3–34.3) elsewhere. Conclusion School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered. PMID:26807349

  15. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    PubMed Central

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Methods Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5–18 yr. enrolled in 58 dance classes at 21 dance studios in Southern California. MVPA and SB were assessed with accelerometry, with data aggregated to 15-sec epochs. Percent and minutes of MVPA and SB during dance class segments and percent of class time and minutes spent in each segment were calculated using Freedson age-specific cut points. Differences in MVPA (>3 METS) and SB (<100 counts/min) were examined using mixed effects linear regression. Results The length of each class segment was fairly consistent across dance types, with the exception that in ballet, more time was spent in technique as compared to private jazz/hip-hop classes, and Latin-flamenco and less time was spent in routine/practice as compared to Latin-salsa/ballet folklorico. Segment type accounted for 17% of the variance in the proportion of the segment spent in MVPA. The proportion of the segment in MVPA was higher for routine/practice (44.2%) than technique (34.7%). The proportion of the segment in SB was lowest for routine/practice (22.8%). Conclusion The structure of dance lessons can impact youth’s physical activity. Working with instructors to increase time in routine/practice during dance classes could contribute to physical activity promotion in youth. PMID:25775088

  16. The contribution of dance to daily physical activity among adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Structured physical activity (PA) programs are well positioned to promote PA among youth, however, little is known about these programs, particularly dance classes. The aims of this study were to: 1) describe PA levels of girls enrolled in dance classes, 2) determine the contribution of dance classes to total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and 3) compare PA between days with a dance class (program days) and days without a dance class (non-program days). Methods Participants were 149 girls (11-18 years) enrolled in dance classes in 11 dance studios. Overall PA was assessed with accelerometry for 8 consecutive days, and girls reported when they attended dance classes during those days. The percent contribution of dance classes to total MVPA was calculated, and data were reduced to compare PA on program days to non-program days. Data were analyzed using mixed models, adjusting for total monitoring time. Results Girls engaged in 25.0 ± 0.9 minutes/day of MVPA. Dance classes contributed 28.7% (95% CI: 25.9%-31.6%) to girls' total MVPA. Girls accumulated more MVPA on program (28.7 ± 1.4 minutes/day) than non-program days (16.4 ± 1.5 minutes/day) (p < 0.001). Girls had less sedentary behavior on program (554.0 ± 8.1 minutes/day) than non-program days (600.2 ± 8.7 minutes/day) (p < 0.001). Conclusions Dance classes contributed a substantial proportion (29%) to girls' total MVPA, and girls accumulated 70% more MVPA and 8% less sedentary behavior on program days than on non-program days. Dance classes can make an important contribution to girls' total physical activity. PMID:21816074

  17. Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity across Body Mass Index in Females: Moderating Effect of Endocannabinoids and Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Sauchelli, Sarah; Pastor, Antoni; Gonzalez, Marcela L.; de la Torre, Rafael; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Real, Jose M.; Fernández-García, Jose C.; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Roser; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Arcelus, Jon; Fagundo, Ana B.; Agüera, Zaida; Miró, Jordi; Casanueva, Felipe F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Endocannabinoids and temperament traits have been linked to both physical activity and body mass index (BMI) however no study has explored how these factors interact in females. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to 1) examine differences among distinct BMI groups on daytime physical activity and time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), temperament traits and plasma endocannabinoid concentrations; and 2) explore the association and interaction between MVPA, temperament, endocannabinoids and BMI. Methods Physical activity was measured with the wrist-worn accelerometer Actiwatch AW7, in a sample of 189 female participants (43 morbid obese, 30 obese, and 116 healthy-weight controls). The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised questionnaire was used to assess personality traits. BMI was calculated by bioelectrical impedance analysis via the TANITA digital scale. Blood analyses were conducted to measure levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds. Path-analysis was performed to examine the association between predictive variables and MVPA. Results Obese groups showed lower MVPA and dysfunctional temperament traits compared to healthy-weight controls. Plasma concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglyceryl (2-AG) were greater in obese groups. Path-analysis identified a direct effect between greater MVPA and low BMI (b = −0.13, p = .039) and high MVPA levels were associated with elevated anandamide (AEA) levels (b = 0.16, p = .049) and N-oleylethanolamide (OEA) levels (b = 0.22, p = .004), as well as high Novelty seeking (b = 0.18, p<.001) and low Harm avoidance (b = −0.16, p<.001). Conclusions Obese individuals showed a distinct temperament profile and circulating endocannabinoids compared to controls. Temperament and endocannabinoids may act as moderators of the low MVPA in obesity. PMID:25101961

  18. Socioeconomic status indicators, physical activity, and overweight/obesity in Brazilian children

    PubMed Central

    Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Mire, Emily; Barreira, Tiago V; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Katzmarzyk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and physical activity and overweight/obesity in children. Methods: 485 children wore accelerometers for 7 days. Variables included time in sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and steps/day. Children were further categorized as meeting or not meeting guidelines of ≥60min/day MVPA and ≥12,000 steps/day. Body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) were measured using bioelectrical impedance. Overweight/obesity was defined as BMI >+1 SD and BF% ≥85th percentile. Parents answered questionnaires that questioned total annual household income, parental education level, parental employment status and automobile ownership. Results: Children averaged 59.5min/day in MVPA (44.1% met MVPA guidelines), and 9639 steps/day (18.4% met steps/day guidelines). 45.4% and 33% were overweight/obese classified by BMI and BF% respectively. Higher relative total annual household income level (Odds Ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval=0.15-0.65), and relatively higher maternal (OR=0.38; 95%CI=0.20-0.72) and paternal (OR=0.36; 95%CI=0.17-0.75) education levels were associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines. Household automobile ownership was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA (OR=0.48; 95%CI=0.31-0.75) and steps/day guidelines (OR=0.44; 95%CI=0.26-0.74). Conclusions: SES indicators were not associated with overweight/obesity, but higher SES was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines. PMID:26975562

  19. Objective Quantification of Physical Activity in Bariatric Surgery Candidates and Normal-Weight Controls

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; Jakicic, John M.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Thomas, J. Graham; Leahey, Tricia M.; Sax, Harry C.; Pohl, Dieter; Roye, G.D.; Ryder, Beth A.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is an important component of weight loss programs and may be encouraged for severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. However, few studies have determined the amount and intensity of activities undertaken preoperatively by bariatric surgery patients using objective measures. Methods Using RT3 tri-axial accelerometers, this study compared 38 bariatric surgery candidates and 20 normal-weight controls on: 1) activity counts/hour; 2) minutes/day spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and vigorous intensity PA (VPA); and 3) level of compliance with national recommendations to accumulate 150 minutes/week of MVPA in bouts ≥ 10 minutes. Results Surgery candidates, compared to controls, recorded significantly (Ps < 0.01) fewer activity counts/hour (13799 ± 3758 vs 19462 ± 4259) and spent fewer minutes/day engaged in MVPA (26.4 ± 23.0 vs 52.4 ± 24.7) and VPA (1.2 ± 3.4 vs 11.8 ± 9.0). More than two-thirds (68%) of surgery candidates versus 13% of NW did not accumulate any MVPA in bouts ≥ 10 minutes and only 4.5% of Ob met the weekly MVPA recommendation compared to 40% of NW. Conclusion Bariatric surgery candidates have low PA levels and rarely engage in PA bouts of sufficient duration and intensity to maintain and improve health. Additional research is needed to determine how best to increase PA in bariatric surgery candidates. PMID:19837009

  20. Physical activity mediates the relationship between perceived crime safety and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Barbara B.; Werner, Carol M.; Smith, Ken R.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current cross-sectional study tests whether low perceived crime safety is associated with body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk and whether less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) accounts for part of this relationship. Method Adults (n=864) from a relatively low-income and ethnically mixed neighborhood in Salt Lake City UT (2012) were assessed for perceived crime safety, objective physical activity, and BMI measures. Results This neighborhood had lower perceived safety than for other published studies utilizing this safety measure. In a mediation test, lower perceived crime safety was significantly associated with higher BMI and greater risk of obesity, net of control variables. Residents with lower perceived safety had less MVPA. Lower MVPA partially explained the relationship between less safety and both elevated BMI and higher obesity risk, suggesting that perceiving less crime safety limits MVPA which, in turn, increases weight. Conclusion In this neighborhood, with relatively low perceived safety from crime, residents’ low perceived safety related to more obesity and higher BMI; lower MVPA among residents explained part of this relationship. If residents are to become more active in their neighborhood it may be important to address perceived crime safety as part of broader efforts to enhance active living. PMID:24963894

  1. Accelerometry-Derived Physical Activity of First through Third Grade Children during the Segmented School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Crimarco, Anthony; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Webster, Collin A.; Burns, Ryan D.; Hannon, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools should provide children 30 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity (MVPA). Determining school day segments that contribute to children's MVPA can inform school-based activity promotion. The purpose of this paper was to identify the proportion of children accumulating 30 minutes/day of school-based MVPA, and to…

  2. Healthy Active Living: A Residence Community-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity and Healthy Eating during the Transition to First-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Denver M. Y.; Bray, Steve R.; Beatty, Kevin R.; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a Healthy Active Living (HAL) community intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), and psychosocial mediators of physical activity among students transitioning into university. Methods: Sixty undergraduate students were assigned to reside in either the…

  3. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict the Physical Activity of Children: Probing Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The primary objective of this study was to use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to examine the association between TPB variables and the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of children in Shanghai, China. Gender differences were also explored. Methods. The participants were 353 children (180 boys and 173 girls) aged 9 to 13 years from three primary schools in Shanghai. Accelerometers were used to measure the MVPA duration of the children. Questionnaires that focused on attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) related to MVPA engagement were completed by the participants. Results. Regression analyses revealed that intention, and not PBC, accounted for 9% of the variance in MVPA. Meanwhile, attitude and PBC explained 33% of the variance in intentions to engage in MVPA. In terms of gender differences, TPB performed better in the physical activity (PA) domain for boys than for girls. Furthermore, attitude and PBC were significantly associated with intention among boys, whereas only PBC was significantly related to intention among girls. Conclusion. Practitioners should consider tailoring intervention to address gender differences to increase leisure-time PA participation of children. PMID:26649307

  4. Daily physical activity in young children and their parents: A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan G; Dewey, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about physical activity (PA) in young children and about the relationship between their PA and that of their parents. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of the present study (Y-Be-Active) was to examine the daily PA levels of young children and their parents, and to explore the relationship between children’s and parents’ PA. METHOD: Fifty-four children (mean age 4.3 years) and their parents (54 mothers, mean age 35.8 years; 50 fathers, mean age 38.2 years) wore accelerometers for three weekdays and two weekend days. Parents also completed questionnaires on family sociodemographics and PA habits. RESULTS: Children spent most of their time in light PA. Almost all children attained 30 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and most boys and girls attained 60 min of daily MVPA on weekdays. Only 60% of fathers and approximately one-half of mothers attained 30 min of daily MVPA on weekdays and weekend days. Children’s and fathers’ PA were correlated on weekends. Few parents (20% to 30%) participated regularly in organised PA with their child. Fathers’ involvement in PA with their children was associated with higher MVPA in children. CONCLUSIONS: Many young children and parents did not meet current Canadian recommendations for daily PA. Parental involvement in PA with their young children, particularly the involvement of fathers, appeared to promote higher levels of MVPA in young children. PMID:23450045

  5. Locations of Physical Activity as Assessed by GPS in Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Kerr, Jacqueline; Saelens, Brian E.; Natarajan, Loki; Frank, Lawrence D.; Glanz, Karen; Conway, Terry L.; Chapman, Jim E.; Cain, Kelli L.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare adolescents’ physical activity at home, near home, at school, near school, and at other locations. METHODS: Adolescents (N = 549) were ages 12 to 16 years (49.9% girls, 31.3% nonwhite or Hispanic) from 447 census block groups in 2 US regions. Accelerometers and Global Positioning System devices assessed minutes of and proportion of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in each of the 5 locations. Mixed-effects regression compared MVPA across locations and demographic factors. RESULTS: Forty-two percent of adolescents’ overall MVPA occurred at school, 18.7% at home, 18.3% in other (nonhome, nonschool) locations, and 20.6% near home or school. Youth had 10 more minutes (30% more) of overall MVPA on school days than on nonschool days. However, the percentage of location time spent in MVPA was lowest at school (4.8% on school days) and highest near home and near school (9.5%–10.4%). Girls had 2.6 to 5.5 fewer minutes per day of MVPA than boys in all locations except near school. CONCLUSIONS: Although a majority of adolescents’ physical activity occurred at school, the low proportion of active time relative to the large amount of time spent at school suggests potential for increasing school-based activity. Increasing time spent in the neighborhood appears promising for increasing overall physical activity, because a high proportion of neighborhood time was active. Increasing youth physical activity to support metabolic health requires strategies for increasing use of physical activity–supportive locations (eg, neighborhoods) and environmental and program improvements in unsupportive locations (eg, schools, homes). PMID:26647375

  6. Improving Academic Performance of School-Age Children by Physical Activity in the Classroom: 1-Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background: An intervention was designed that combined physical activity with learning activities. It was based upon evidence for positive effects of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on academic achievement. The aim of this study was to describe the program implementation and effects on academic achievement after 1?year. Methods:…

  7. Alternative High School Students' Physical Activity: Role of Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Denyelle Baete; Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Sirard, John; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine physical activity self-efficacy as a mediator of the association between perceived barriers to PA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among alternative high school (AHS) students. Methods: Students (N = 145) from 6 AHS completed self-report questionnaires. Results: Mediation analyses revealed partial mediation…

  8. Comparison of Social Variables for Understanding Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Ruth P.; Motl, Robert W.; Dowda, Marsha; Dishman, Rod K.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate social support and theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs in explaining physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods : One thousand seven hundred ninety-seven 8 th -grade girls completed a survey measuring social provisions, family support, TPB constructs, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and team sport…

  9. Independent Associations between Sedentary Time, Moderate-To-Vigorous Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cardio-Metabolic Health: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Johan; Wijtzes, Anne; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Bourgois, Jan G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the independent associations of sedentary time (ST), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with clustered cardio-metabolic risk and its individual components (waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure). We also investigated whether any associations between MVPA or ST and clustered cardio-metabolic risk were mediated by CRF. MVPA, ST, CRF and individual cardio-metabolic components were measured in a population-based sample of 341 adults (age 53.8 ± 8.9 years; 61% men) between 2012 and 2014. MVPA and ST were measured with the SenseWear pro 3 Armband and CRF was measured with a maximal exercise test. Multiple linear regression models and the product of coefficients method were used to examine independent associations and mediation effects, respectively. Results showed that low MVPA and low CRF were associated with a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.26 and β = -0.43, both p<0.001, respectively). CRF explained 73% of the variance in the association between MVPA and clustered cardio-metabolic risk and attenuated this association to non-significance. After mutual adjustment for MVPA and ST, CRF was the most important risk factor for a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.39, p<0.001). In conclusion, because of the mediating role of CRF, lifestyle-interventions need to be feasible yet challenging enough to lead to increases in CRF to improve someone’s cardio-metabolic health. PMID:27463377

  10. Combined influence of epoch length, cut-point and bout duration on accelerometry-derived physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is difficult to compare accelerometer-derived estimates of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between studies due to differences in data processing procedures. We aimed to evaluate the effects of accelerometer processing options on total and bout-accumulated time spent in MVPA in adults. Methods 267 participants from the ProActive Trial provided 1236 days of valid physical activity (PA) data, collected using a 5-s epoch with ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers. We integrated data over 5-s to 60-s epoch lengths (EL) and applied two-level mixed effects regression models to MVPA time, defined using 1500 to 2500 counts/minute (cpm) cut-points (CP) and bout durations (BD) from 1 to 15 min. Results Total MVPA time was lower on longer EL and higher CP (47 vs 26 min/day and 26 vs 5 min/day on 1500 vs 2500 cpm on 5-s and 60-s epoch, respectively); this could be approximated as MVPA = exp[2.197 + 0.279*log(CP) + 6.120*log(EL) - 0.869*log(CP)*log(EL)] with an 800 min/day wear-time. In contrast, EL was positively associated with time spent in bout-accumulated MVPA; the approximating equation being MVPA = exp[54.679 - 6.268*log(CP) + 6.387*log(EL) - 10.000*log(BD) - 0.162*log(EL)*log(BD) - 0.626*log(CP)*log(EL) + 1.033*log(CP)*log(BD)]. BD and CP were inversely associated with MVPA, with higher values attenuating the influence of EL. Conclusions EL, CP and BD interact to influence estimates of accelerometer-determined MVPA. In general, higher CP and longer BD result in lower MVPA but the direction of association for EL depends on BD. Reporting scaling coefficients for these key parameters across their frequently used ranges would facilitate comparisons of population-level accelerometry estimates of MVPA. PMID:24612726

  11. Associations of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity and body mass index with glycated haemoglobin within the general population: a cross-sectional analysis of the 2008 Health Survey for England

    PubMed Central

    Bakrania, Kishan; Yates, Thomas; Edwardson, Charlotte L; Bodicoat, Danielle H; Esliger, Dale W; Gill, Jason M R; Kazi, Aadil; Velayudhan, Latha; Sinclair, Alan J; Sattar, Naveed; Biddle, Stuart J H; Hamer, Mark; Davies, Melanie J; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the associations of objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body mass index (BMI) with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in a national sample of English adults. Methods The 2008 Health Survey for England data were used with 1109 participants aged ≥18 providing complete data. MVPA time was assessed using an accelerometer. Weighted linear regression models, adjusted for several confounders, quantified the associations between continuous measures of MVPA and BMI with HbA1c. Interaction analyses were implemented to observe whether the association of MVPA with HbA1c was modified by BMI or vice versa. Further weighted linear regression models examined the differences in HbA1c across four mutually exclusive categories of MVPA and BMI: (1) ‘physically active and non-obese’, (2) ‘physically active and obese’, (3) ‘physically inactive and non-obese’ and (4) ‘physically inactive and obese’. ‘Physically active’ was defined as: ≥150 min/week of MVPA. ‘Obese’ was defined as: BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2. A wide range of sensitivity analyses were also implemented. Results Every 30 min/day increment in MVPA was associated with a 0.7 mmol/mol (0.07% (p<0.001)) lower HbA1c level. Each 1 kg/m2 increment in BMI was associated with a 0.2 mmol/mol (0.02% (p<0.001)) higher HbA1c level. The association of MVPA with HbA1c was stronger in obese individuals (−1.5 mmol/mol (−0.13% (p<0.001))) than non-obese individuals (−0.7 mmol/mol (−0.06% (p<0.001))); p=0.004 for interaction. The association of BMI with HbA1c remained stable across MVPA categories. Compared with individuals categorised as ‘physically inactive and obese’, only those categorised as ‘physically active and obese’ or ‘physically active and non-obese’ had lower HbA1c levels by 2.1 mmol/mol (0.19% (p=0.005)) and 3.5 mmol/mol (0.32% (p<0.001)), respectively. Sensitivity analyses indicated robustness and stability

  12. Physical Activity, Sedentary Time and Physical Capability in Early Old Age: British Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Andrew J. M.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Kuh, Diana; Brage, Soren; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the associations of time spent sedentary, in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) with physical capability measures at age 60-64 years. Methods Time spent sedentary and in MVPA and, PAEE were assessed using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing among 1727 participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in England, Scotland and Wales as part of a detailed clinical assessment undertaken in 2006-2010. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between standardised measures of each of these behavioural variables with grip strength, chair rise and timed up-&-go (TUG) speed and standing balance time. Results Greater time spent in MVPA was associated with higher levels of physical capability; adjusted mean differences in each capability measure per 1standard deviation increase in MVPA time were: grip strength (0.477 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.015 to 0.939), chair rise speed (0.429 stands/min, 95% CI: 0.093 to 0.764), standing balance time (0.028 s, 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.053) and TUG speed (0.019 m/s, 95% CI: 0.011 to 0.026). In contrast, time spent sedentary was associated with lower grip strength (-0.540 kg, 95% CI: -1.013 to -0.066) and TUG speed (-0.011 m/s, 95% CI: -0.019 to -0.004). Associations for PAEE were similar to those for MVPA. Conclusion Higher levels of MVPA and overall physical activity (PAEE) are associated with greater levels of physical capability whereas time spent sedentary is associated with lower levels of capability. Future intervention studies in older adults should focus on both the promotion of physical activity and reduction in time spent sedentary. PMID:25961736

  13. A functional analysis of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in young children.

    PubMed

    Larson, Tracy A; Normand, Matthew P; Morley, Allison J; Miller, Bryon G

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate physical activity increases the risks related to a number of health problems in children, most notably obesity and the corresponding range of associated health problems. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a functional analysis to investigate the effects of several consequent variables on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). We observed the level of MVPA exhibited by 2 preschool children in 4 conditions: alone, attention contingent on MVPA, adult interaction contingent on MVPA, and escape from task demands contingent on MVPA. These four conditions were compared to a naturalistic baseline and to a control condition. Overall, results indicated that the children were most active when attention and interactive play were contingent on MVPA. Social environments that encourage MVPA could be arranged based on this information, with these arrangements tailored to the individual child.

  14. Associations between Physical Activity and Health-Related Factors in a National Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinger, Mary K.; Brittain, Danielle R.; Hutchinson, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between meeting the current moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendation and health-related factors in a national sample of college students. Participants: Participants (N = 67,861) completed the National College Health Assessment II during the Fall 2008/Spring 2009 academic year. Methods:…

  15. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Breast Cancer Survivors: New Insight into Activity Patterns and Potential Intervention Targets

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Siobhan M.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Steeves, Jeremy; McClain, James; Alfano, Catherine M.; McAuley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background Inactivity and sedentary behavior are related to poorer health outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, few studies examining these behaviors in survivors have used objective measures, considered activities other than moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity (MVPA) and/or sedentary behavior (i.e. low intensity activities) or compared survivors to healthy controls. The purpose of the present study is to compare accelerometer-measured activity of various intensities (total, light, lifestyle, MVPA) and sedentary behavior between breast cancer survivors and non-cancer controls. Methods An imputation-based approach of independent sample t-tests adjusting for multiple comparisons was used to compare estimates of participation in each activity and sedentary behavior between survivors [n=398; M(SD)age=56.95 (9.11)] and block-matched non-cancer controls [n=1120; M(SD)age=54.88 (16.11)]. Potential moderating effects of body mass index (BMI), age, and education were also examined. Results Breast cancer survivors registered less daily total (282.8 v. 346.9) light (199.1 v. 259.3) and lifestyle (62.0 v. 71.7) activity minutes and more MVPA (21.6 v. 15.9) and sedentary behavior (555.7 v. 500.6) minutes than controls (p<0.001 for all). These relationships were largely consistent across BMI, age and education. On average, survivors spent an estimated 66.4% of their waking time sedentary and 31.1% in light/lifestyle activity and 2.6% in MVPA. Conclusions Breast cancer survivors are more sedentary and participate in less low intensity activity than controls. Although survivors registered more MVPA, these levels were insufficient. Future research should explore these differences and potential benefits of targeting low intensity activities and reducing sedentary time in this population. PMID:26026737

  16. Correlates of home and neighbourhood-based physical activity in UK 3–4-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Kathryn R.; van Sluijs, Esther M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identifying context-specific correlates of home- and neighbourhood-based physical activity in preschool-aged children may help improve intervention program development for these settings. Methods: A total of 153 3–4-year-old children were recruited through preschool settings in Cambridgeshire (January–July 2013). Children wore Actiheart accelerometers for ≤7 days to assess their sedentary time (ST), light-(LPA) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). A parent-completed questionnaire assessed correlates across the ecological model and the child’s preschool attendance during the measurement week. Only accelerometer data for times when children were at home were used. Multilevel models (Level 1: days; Level 2: child) examined associations between maternal-reported exposure variables and each outcome (children’s home- and neighbourhood-based ST, LPA and MVPA) (main analysis). Further analyses included the subsample of children with complete paternal correlates data (father analysis). Results: In the main analyses, children with older siblings engaged in less ST. Children whose mothers reported being ‘moderately inactive’ or ‘active’ (vs. inactive) engaged in less LPA, while children whose mothers worked >35 h week−1 engaged in less MVPA. More equipment at home was associated with lower LPA but greater MVPA. In the father analysis, father’s television viewing before 6 pm was associated with greater ST and less MVPA in children; the negative association between mother’s activity and children’s LPA was retained. Conclusion: Family demographics and parental behaviours appear to have the strongest association with children’s home- and neighbourhood-based ST, LPA and MVPA. This study further highlights the importance of examining both maternal and paternal behaviours. PMID:27175002

  17. Association of physiological and psychological health outcomes with physical activity and sedentary behavior in adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jeanette M; Cox, Daniel; Rice, David J

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between change in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) over a 6-month period with physiological and psychological factors in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Participants included 26 middle-aged (mean age=56.1±10.8 years; 42% women), overweight/obese (mean body mass index (BMI) =37.22±8.78 kg/m2) adults who had been diagnosed with T2D within the past 5 years (mean HbA1c=7.81%). Participants underwent a physical examination, blood tests, and psychological questionnaires, including a self-report questionnaire that assessed the consumption of high glycemic and low glycemic load foods. Participants wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days to assess MVPA and SB. All measures were collected at baseline and at the 6-month follow-up. Spearman rank correlations and regression models were conducted to examine the relationship between activity variables, and the association of activity measures with health outcomes at the 6-month follow-up. Results Decreases in duration of SB bouts and increases in MVPA were associated with decreased levels of HbA1c (p<0.05). Over 50% of the variance in HbA1c levels could be attributed to changes in MVPA and SB. Conclusions MVPA and SB were independently associated with diabetes-related health outcomes. Results suggest that emphasis should be placed on increasing MVPA while decreasing SB, particularly duration of SB bouts. This suggests that even small changes in daily behavior may contribute to improvement in diabetes-related health outcomes.

  18. Physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women is associated with higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and with reduced insulin response through interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, Mireille N M; Peinhaupt, Miriam; Eekhoff, Marelise E W; Heinemann, Akos; Oostdam, Nicolette; Wouters, Maurice G A J; van Mechelen, Willem; Desoye, Gernot

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Previously, we reported the positive association of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese pregnant women. We sought to assess whether these MVPA-induced changes in insulin sensitivity are mediated by changes in interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in 46 overweight and obese women at risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. Objective physical activity measurements and fasting blood samples were taken at 15, 24, and 32 weeks of pregnancy. At 24 and 32 weeks, a 100-g oral glucose test was performed in addition. Cytokines, C-reactive protein, and glucose and insulin levels were measured, and insulin sensitivity and first-phase insulin response were calculated. Relationships between the different parameters were assessed using linear regression models, adjusting for maternal age and BMI. RESULTS All cytokines were elevated in women with higher levels of MVPA at 15 weeks of gestation. Higher IL-6 was related to a lower first-phase insulin response (β -810.5 [95% CI -1,524.5 to -96.5]; P = 0.03). TNF-α and IL-1β had different effects in women with low MVPA (with low IL-6 levels) compared with more active women. CRP was not related to MVPA. CONCLUSIONS The association of MVPA with insulin sensitivity and first-phase insulin response may be (partly) mediated by IL-6, since this cytokine was related to reduced first-phase insulin response. The possible positive effects of the elevated cytokine profile in active obese pregnant women warrant further study.

  19. Physical Activity of Fifth to Sixth Graders during School Hours According to School Race/Ethnicity: Suburban Cook County, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Soyang; Mason, Maryann; Welch, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background: We compared moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and inactivity levels among fifth and sixth graders during school hours according to school-level race/ethnicity and income attributes to inform school-based obesity interventions in Illinois Suburban Cook County (SCC). Methods: Fifth- and sixth-grade students…

  20. Objective Estimates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Wei; Tate, Deborah F.; Bond, Dale S.; Wing, Rena R.

    2017-01-01

    Background. This study examines factors associated with physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) in young adults (18–35 years) and compares objective and subjective assessment measures of PA and SB. Methods. 595 young adults (27.7 ± 4.4 years; 25.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) enrolled in the Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention (SNAP) trial. Hours/day spent in SB (<1.5 METs) and minutes/week spent in bout-related moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA; ≥3 METs and ≥10 min) were assessed using self-report and objective measures. Demographic factors associated with SB and MVPA were also explored (i.e., age, gender, BMI, ethnicity, work and relationship status, and number of children). Results. Objective MVPA (263 ± 246 min/wk) was greater than self-report estimates (208 ± 198 min/wk; p < 0.001) and differed by 156 ± 198 min/wk at the individual level (i.e., the absolute difference). Females, overweight participants, African Americans, and those with children participated in the least amount of MVPA. Objective estimates of SB (9.1 ± 1.8 hr/day; 64.5% of wear time) were lower than subjective estimates (10.1 ± 3.5 hr/day; p < 0.001), differing by 2.6 ± 2.5 hr/day for each participant. Conclusion. Young adults interested in weight gain prevention engage in both high levels of MVPA and SB, with participants self-reporting fewer MVPA minutes and more SB compared to objective estimates. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01183689). PMID:28116151

  1. Where can they play? Outdoor spaces and physical activity among adolescents in U.S. urbanized areas

    PubMed Central

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Casanova, Kathleen; Richardson, Andrea S.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate behavior-specific effects of several objectively-measured outdoor spaces on different types of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a large, diverse sample of U.S. adolescents. Methods Using data from Wave I (1994–95) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (U.S., n=10,359) and a linked geographic information system, we calculated percent greenspace coverage and distance to the nearest neighborhood and major parks. Using sex-stratified multivariable logistic regression, we modeled reported participation in wheel-based activities, active sports, exercise, and ≥5 MVPA bouts/week as a function of each outdoor space variable, controlling for individual- and neighborhood-level sociodemographics. Results Availability of major or neighborhood parks was associated with higher participation in active sports and, in females, wheel-based activity and reporting ≥5 MVPA bouts/week [OR (95% CI): up to 1.71 (1.29. 2.27)]. Greater greenspace coverage was associated with reporting ≥5 MVPA bouts/week in males and females [OR (95% CI): up to 1.62 (1.10, 2.39) for 10.1 to 20% versus ≤10% greenspace] and exercise participation in females [OR (95% CI): up to 1.73 (1.21, 2.49)]. Conclusions Provision of outdoor spaces may promote different types of physical activities, with potentially greater benefits in female adolescents, who have particularly low physical activity levels. PMID:20655948

  2. Physical activity levels in three Brazilian birth cohorts as assessed with raw triaxial wrist accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Inácio CM; van Hees, Vincent T; Ramires, Virgílio V; Knuth, Alan G; Bielemann, Renata M; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Hallal, Pedro C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Data on objectively measured physical activity are lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe objectively measured overall physical activity and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in individuals from the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts, according to weight status, socioeconomic status (SES) and sex. Methods: All children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in hospitals in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, constitute the sampling frame; of these 99% agreed to participate. The most recent follow-ups were conducted between 2010 and 2013. In total, 8974 individuals provided valid data derived from raw triaxial wrist accelerometry. The average acceleration is presented in milli-g (1 mg = 0.001g), and time (min/d) spent in MVPA (>100 mg) is presented in 5- and 10-min bouts. Results: Mean acceleration in the 1982 (mean age 30.2 years), 1993 (mean age 18.4 years) and 2004 (mean age 6.7 years) cohorts was 35 mg, 39 mg and 60 mg, respectively. Time spent in MVPA was 26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 25; 27], 43 (95% CI 42; 44) and 45 (95% CI 43; 46) min/d in the three cohorts, respectively, using 10-min bouts. Mean MVPA was on average 42% higher when using 5-min bouts. Males were more active than females and physical activity was inversely associated with age of the cohort and SES. Normal-weight individuals were more active than underweight, overweight and obese participants. Conclusions: Overall physical activity and time spent in MVPA differed by cohort (age), sex, weight status and SES. Higher levels of activity in low SES groups may be explained by incidental physical activity. PMID:25361583

  3. Battery equalization active methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  4. Cross-sectional and prospective associations between moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time with adiposity in children

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Adilson; Minderico, Cláudia; Martins, Sandra; Palmeira, António; Ekelund, Ulf; Sardinha, Luís B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) have both been suggested as potential risk factors for adiposity in children. However, there is paucity of data examining the temporal associations between these variables. Objective This study aimed to analyze the cross-sectional and prospective associations between PA, SED and body composition in children. Methods 510 children (age at baseline 10.1±0.8, age at follow up 11.8±0.9) from 6 Portuguese schools from the Oeiras Municipality participated in this study. PA and SED were measured by accelerometry and trunk fat mass (TFM) and body fat mass (BFM) were measured by Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated as BFM divided by height squared. Several regression models adjusted for age, sex, maturity status, follow-up duration, baseline levels of the outcome variable, and SED or MVPA were performed. Results Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) (min/d) was cross-sectionally inversely associated with adiposity indexes (FMI, TFM, BFM). Adiposity indexes were inversely associated with time in MVPA. In prospective analyses, MVPA was associated with a lower levels of FMI (β=−0.37, 95% CI: −0.49 to −0.26, p<0.001), TFM (β=−0.20, 95% CI: −0.29 to −0.10, p<0.001), and BFM (β=−0.37, 95% CI: −0.49 to −0.26, p<0.001). When the model was adjusted for age, sex, maturity status and for baseline levels of the outcome variables MVPA remained a significant predictor of lower adiposity indexes (FMI: β=−0.09, 95% CI: −0.16 to −0.01, p<0.05; TFM: β=−0.08, 95% CI: −0.15 to −0.01, p<0.05; BFM: β=−0.07, 95% CI: −0.15 to 0.00, p<0.05). Adiposity was not associated with MVPA when modeled as the exposure in prospective analyses. SED was not related with adiposity indexes, except for the relationship with FMI. Conclusions In cross-sectional and prospective analyses, MVPA is associated with lower adiposity independent of covariates and SED. Results suggest that

  5. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Marinac, Catherine R.; Godbole, Suneeta; Kerr, Jacqueline; Natarajan, Loki; Patterson, Ruth E.; Hartman, Sheri J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and cognitive functioning in breast cancer survivors. Methods Participants were 136 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Cognitive functioning was assessed using a comprehensive computerized neuropsychological test. 7-day physical activity was assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Linear regression models examined associations of minutes per day of physical activity at various intensities on individual cognitive functioning domains. The partially adjusted model controlled for primary confounders (model 1), and subsequent adjustments were made for chemotherapy history (model 2), and BMI (model 3). Interaction and stratified models examined BMI as an effect modifier. Results Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was associated with Information Processing Speed. Specifically, ten minutes of MVPA was associated with a 1.35-point higher score (out of 100) on the Information Processing Speed domain in the partially adjusted model, and a 1.29-point higher score when chemotherapy was added to the model (both p<.05). There was a significant BMI x MVPA interaction (p=.051). In models stratified by BMI (<25 vs. ≥25 kg/m2), the favorable association between MVPA and Information Processing Speed was stronger in the subsample of overweight and obese women (p<.05), but not statistically significant in the leaner subsample. Light-intensity physical activity was not significantly associated with any of the measured domains of cognitive function. Conclusions MVPA may have favorable effects on Information Processing Speed in breast cancer survivors, particularly among overweight or obese women. Implications for Cancer Survivors Interventions targeting increased physical activity may enhance aspects of cognitive function among breast cancer survivors. PMID:25304986

  6. Child Care Center Characteristics Associated With Preschoolers’ Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Kristen A.; Khoury, Jane C.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite children spending long hours in child care centers, it is unknown what center characteristics are associated with children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at the center and over the 24-hour day. Methods Mixed model ANOVA evaluated associations between 23 center characteristics (e.g., policies, facilities, practices, and staff training) and time in MVPA, measured with accelerometers, at the child care center and over the 24-hour day among 388 preschoolers from 30 randomly selected child care centers in Cincinnati, Ohio. Data collection occurred from November 2009 through January 2011; data analyses occurred in 2012–2014. Results Ninety percent of centers reported scheduling two or more outdoor sessions daily, yet only 40% of children had two or more outdoor sessions; 32% had no time outdoors. Eighty-three percent of centers reported scheduling ≥60 minutes outdoors; 28% of children experienced this during observation. Children spent a mean (SE) of 2.0 (0.06) minutes/hour in MVPA. Children with ≥60 minutes outdoor time had 0.6 minutes/hour more MVPA in child care (p=0.001), and 0.5 minutes/hour over the 24-hour day (p=0.001) than those who did not. Presence of an indoor play space, large outdoor playground, portable or fixed play equipment, staff PA training, weather and clothing policies, and TV/computer use were not related to children’s MVPA. Conclusions Outdoor time occurred less frequently than scheduled. Children with ≥60 minutes of outdoor time at the center were more active than children without. Centers may increase preschoolers’ PA by adhering to the scheduled ≥60 minutes of outdoor time daily. PMID:26585052

  7. Understanding the accuracy of parental perceptions of child physical activity: a mixed methods analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kesten, Joanna M.; Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon J.; Edwards, Mark J.; Pool, Laura; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interventions to increase children’s physical activity (PA) have achieved limited success. This may be attributed to inaccurate parental perceptions of their children’s PA and a lack of recognition of a need to change activity levels. Methods Fifty-three parents participated in semi-structured interviews to determine perceptions of child PA. Perceptions were compared to children’s measured MVPA (classified as meeting or not meeting UK guidelines) to produce three categories: “accurate”, “over-estimate”, “under-estimate”. Deductive content analysis was performed to understand the accuracy of parental perceptions. Results All parents of children meeting the PA guidelines accurately perceived their child’s PA; whilst the majority of parents whose child did not meet the guidelines overestimated their PA. Most parents were unconcerned about their child’s PA level, viewing them as naturally active and willing to be active. Qualitative explanations for perceptions of insufficient activity included children having health problems and preferences for inactive pursuits, and parents having difficulty facilitating PA in poor weather and not always observing their child’s PA level. Social comparisons also influenced parental perceptions. Conclusions Strategies to improve parental awareness of child PA are needed. Perceptions of child PA may be informed by child “busyness”, being unaware of activity levels, and social comparisons. PMID:25872227

  8. The Relationship between Psychosocial Correlates and Physical Activity in Underserved Adolescent Boys and Girls in the ACT Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lawman, Hannah G.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Resnicow, Ken; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests motivation, enjoyment, and self-efficacy may be important psychosocial factors for understanding physical activity (PA) in youth. While previous studies have shown mixed results, emerging evidence indicates relationships between psychosocial factors and PA may be stronger in boys than girls. This study expands on previous research by examining the effects of motivation, enjoyment and self-efficacy on PA in underserved adolescent (low income, ethnic minorities) boys and girls. Based on previous literature, it was hypothesized the effects of motivation, enjoyment and self-efficacy on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) would be stronger in boys than in girls. Methods Baseline cross-sectional data were obtained from a randomized, school-based trial (Active by Choice Today; ACT) in underserved 6th graders (N=771 girls, 651 boys). Intrapersonal variables for PA were assessed via self-report and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for each predictor. MVPA was assessed with 7-day accelerometry estimates. Results Multivariate regression analyses stratified by sex demonstrated a significant positive main effect of self-efficacy and motivation on MVPA for girls. Boys also showed a positive trend for the effect of motivation on MVPA. Conclusions The results from this study suggest motivation and self-efficacy should be better integrated to facilitate the development of more effective interventions for increasing PA in underserved adolescents. PMID:21359129

  9. Physical activity in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; O’Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children’s physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. METHODS We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry on weekdays during preschool (In-School), non-school (Non-School) and all day (All Day). Minutes/hour of light, moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and total PA (light + MVPA) were calculated. RESULTS Children attending Montessori preschools accumulated more In-School light (7.7 vs. 6.5 min/hr), MVPA (7.7 vs. 6.5 min/hr) and total PA (15.4 vs. 13.0 min/hr) than children attending traditional preschools, after adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parent education and neighborhood poverty index. For Non-School (8.5 vs. 6.2 min/hr) and All Day (8.5 vs. 7.6 min/hr), children in Montessori preschools accumulated more MVPA than children in traditional preschools. In-School PA was higher for children in private Montessori than public Montessori preschools (8.1 vs. 7.0 min/hr; 8.1 vs. 6.7 min/hr; 16.1 vs. 13.6 min/hr, for light, MVPA, and total PA, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Children attending Montessori preschools were more active than children attending traditional preschools. Adopting the Montessori system may be an important strategy for promoting PA in children. PMID:25274171

  10. Comparison of IPAQ-SF and Two Other Physical Activity Questionnaires with Accelerometer in Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Mäestu, Jarek; Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak; Vainik, Uku

    2017-01-01

    Self-report measures of physical activity (PA) are easy to use and popular but their reliability is often questioned. Therefore, the general aim of the present study was to investigate the association of PA questionnaires with accelerometer derived PA, in a sample of adolescent boys. In total, 191 pubertal boys (mean age 14.0 years) completed three self-report questionnaires and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT1M) for 7 consecutive days. The PA questionnaires were: International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), Tartu Physical Activity Questionnaire (TPAQ), and the Inactivity subscale from Domain-Specific Impulsivity (DSI) scale. All three questionnaires were significantly correlated with accelerometer derived MVPA: the correlations were 0.31 for the IPAQ-SF MVPA, 0.34 for the TPAQ MVPA and -0.29 for the DSI Inactivity scale. Nevertheless, none of the questionnaires can be used as a reliable individual-level estimate of MVPA in male adolescents. The boys underreported their MVPA in IPAQ-SF as compared to accelerometer-derived MVPA (respective averages 43 and 56 minutes); underreporting was more marked in active boys with average daily MVPA at least 60 minutes, and was not significant in less active boys. Conversely, MVPA index from TPAQ overestimated the MVPA in less active boys but underestimated it in more active boys. The sedentary time reported in IPAQ-SF was an underestimate as compared to accelerometer-derived sedentary time (averages 519 and 545 minutes, respectively). PMID:28056080

  11. A Short-Term Physical Activity Randomized Trial in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    PubMed Central

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Harsha, David; Kennedy, Betty M.; Johnson, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine if a short-term pedometer-based intervention results in immediate increases in time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to a minimal educational intervention. Methods A sample of 43 overweight adults 35 to 64 years of age participated in a one week pedometer-based feasibility trial monitored by accelerometry. Participants were randomized into a one-week education-only group or a group that also wore a pedometer. Accelerometer-measured MVPA was measured over 7 days at baseline and again for 7 days immediately post-intervention. Results Minutes of MVPA increased significantly in the overall sample (p = 0.02); however, the effect of adding the pedometer to the education program was not significant (p = 0.89). Mean (±SE) MVPA increased from 12.7±2.4 min/day to 16.2±3.6 min/day in the education-only group and from 13.2±3.3 min/day to 16.3±3.9 min/day in the education+pedometer group. The correlation between change in steps/day and change in MVPA was 0.69 (p<0.0001). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the addition of a pedometer to a short-term education program does not produce added benefits with respect to increasing physical activity in the Lower Mississippi Delta. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01264757 PMID:22046325

  12. Associations between Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity and Neighbourhood Recreational Facilities: The Features of the Facilities Matter

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ka Yiu; Lee, Paul H.; Macfarlane, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the associations between objectively-assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and perceived/objective measures of neighbourhood recreational facilities categorized into indoor or outdoor, public, residential or commercial facilities. The associations between facility perceptions and objectively-assessed numbers of recreational facilities were also examined. Method: A questionnaire was used on 480 adults to measure local facility perceptions, with 154 participants wearing ActiGraph accelerometers for ≥4 days. The objectively-assessed number of neighbourhood recreational facilities were examined using direct observations and Geographical Information System data. Results: Both positive and negative associations were found between MVPA and perceived/objective measures of recreational facilities. Some associations depended on whether the recreational facilities were indoor or outdoor, public or residential facilities. The objectively-assessed number of most public recreational facilities was associated with the corresponding facility perceptions, but the size of effect was generally lower than for residential recreational facilities. Conclusions: The objectively-assessed number of residential outdoor table tennis courts and public indoor swimming pools, the objectively-assessed presence of tennis courts and swimming pools, and the perceived presence of bike lanes and swimming pools were positive determinants of MVPA. It is suggested to categorize the recreational facilities into smaller divisions in order to identify unique associations with MVPA. PMID:25485980

  13. Variability and Stability in Daily Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity among 10 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sara; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Day-to-day variability and stability of children’s physical activity levels across days of the week are not well understood. Our aims were to examine the day-to-day variability of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), to determine factors influencing the day-to-day variability of MVPA and to estimate stability of MVPA in children. The sample comprises 686 Portuguese children (10 years of age). MVPA was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed from measured height and weight. Daily changes in MVPA and their correlates (gender, BMI, and maturity) were modeled with a multilevel approach, and tracking was calculated using Foulkes & Davies γ. A total of 51.3% of boys and 26.2% of girls achieved 60 min/day of MVPA on average. Daily MVPA was lower during the weekend (23.6% of boys and 13.6% of girls comply with the recommended 60 min/day of MVPA) compared to weekdays (60.8% and 35.4%, boys and girls, respectively). Normal weight children were more active than obese children and no effect was found for biological maturation. Tracking is low in both boys (γ = 0.59 ± 0.01) and girls (γ = 0.56 ± 0.01). Children’s MVPA levels during a week are highly unstable. In summary, boys are more active than girls, maturation does not affect their MVPA, and obese children are less likely to meet 60 min/day of MVPA. These results highlight the importance of providing opportunities for increasing children’s daily MVPA on all days of week, especially on the weekend. PMID:26262632

  14. Active Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  15. Exercise improves quality of life in bariatric surgery candidates: Results from the Bari-Active trial

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; Thomas, J. Graham; King, Wendy C.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Trautvetter, Jennifer; Unick, Jessica L.; Ryder, Beth A.; Pohl, Dieter; Roye, G. Dean; Sax, Harry C.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the impact of a pre-bariatric surgery physical activity intervention (PAI), designed to increase bout-related (≥10-minute) moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS Analyses included 75 adult participants (86.7% female; BMI=45.0±6.5 kg/m2) who were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of PAI (n=40) or standard pre-surgical care (SC; n=35). PAI received six individual weekly counseling sessions to increase walking exercise. Participants wore an objective PA monitor for 7 days and completed the SF-36 Health Survey at baseline and post-intervention to evaluate bout-related MVPA and HRQoL changes, respectively. RESULTS PAI increased bout-related MVPA from baseline to post-intervention (4.4±5.5 to 21.0±21.4 minutes/day) versus no change (7.9±16.6 to 7.6±11.5 minutes/day) for SC (p=0.001). PAI reported greater improvements than SC on all SF-36 physical and mental scales (p<0.05), except role-emotional. In PAI, better baseline scores on the physical function and general health scales predicted greater bout-related MVPA increases (p<0.05), and greater bout-related MVPA increases were associated with greater post-intervention improvements on the physical function, bodily pain, and general health scales (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Increasing PA preoperatively improves physical and mental HRQoL in bariatric surgery candidates. Future studies should examine whether this effect improves surgical safety, weight loss outcomes, and postoperative HRQoL. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00962325 PMID:25611582

  16. Spatial Analysis of Crime Incidence and Adolescent Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Alyssa I.; Carnes, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Crime is believed to be a barrier to physical activity among youth, but findings are inconsistent. This study compares the spatial distribution of crime incidences and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents in Massachusetts between 2011 and 2012, and examines the correlation between crime and MVPA. Eighty adolescents provided objective physical activity (accelerometer) and location (Global Positioning Systems) data. Crime report data were obtained from the city police department. Data were mapped using geographic information systems, and crime and MVPA densities were calculated using kernel density estimations. Spearman’s correlation tested for associations between crime and MVPA. Overall, 1,694 reported crimes and 16,702 minutes of MVPA were included in analyses. A strong positive correlation was present between crime and adolescent MVPA (ρ=0.72, p<0.0001). Crime remained positively associated with MVPA in locations falling within the lowest quartile (ρ=0.43, p<0.0001) and highest quartile (ρ=0.32, p<0.0001) of crime density. This study found a strong positive association between crime and adolescent MVPA, despite research suggesting the opposite relationship. This counterintuitive finding may be explained by the logic of a common destination: neighborhood spaces which are desirable destinations and promote physical activity may likewise attract crime. PMID:26820115

  17. Moderating effects of age, gender and education on the associations of perceived neighborhood environment attributes with accelerometer-based physical activity: The IPEN adult study.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salvo, Deborah; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan; Owen, Neville; Mitas, Josef; Troelsen, Jens; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Davey, Rachel; Reis, Rodrigo; Sarmiento, Olga L; Schofield, Grant; Conway, Terry L; Sallis, James F

    2015-11-01

    The study's purpose was to examine age, gender, and education as potential moderators of the associations of perceived neighborhood environment variables with accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were from 7273 adults from 16 sites (11 countries) that were part of a coordinated multi-country cross-sectional study. Age moderated the associations of perceived crime safety, and perceiving no major physical barriers to walking, with MVPA: positive associations were only found in older adults. Perceived land use mix-access was linearly (positive) associated with MVPA in men, and curvilinearly in women. Perceived crime safety was related to MVPA only in women. No moderating relationships were found for education. Overall the associations of adults' perceptions of environmental attributes with MVPA were largely independent of the socio-demographic factors examined. These findings are encouraging, suggesting that efforts to optimize the perceived built and social environment may act in a socially-equitable manner to facilitate MVPA.

  18. 24 Hours of Sleep, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Activity with Nine Wearable Devices

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Mary E.; Buman, Matthew P.; Haskell, William L.; McConnell, Michael V.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Getting enough sleep, exercising and limiting sedentary activities can greatly contribute to disease prevention and overall health and longevity. Measuring the full 24-hour activity cycle - sleep, sedentary behavior (SED), light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) - may now be feasible using small wearable devices. PURPOSE This study compares nine devices for accuracy in 24-hour activity measurement. METHODS Adults (N=40, 47% male) wore nine devices for 24-hours: Actigraph GT3X+, activPAL, Fitbit One, GENEactiv, Jawbone Up, LUMOback, Nike Fuelband, Omron pedometer, and Z-Machine. Comparisons (to standards) were made for total sleep time (Z-machine), time spent in SED (activPAL), LPA (GT3x+), MVPA (GT3x+), and steps (Omron). Analysis included mean absolute percent error, equivalence testing, and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS Error rates ranged from 8.1–16.9% for sleep; 9.5–65.8% for SED; 19.7–28.0% for LPA; 51.8–92% for MVPA; and 14.1–29.9% for steps. Equivalence testing indicated only two comparisons were significantly equivalent to standards: the LUMOback for sedentary behavior and the GT3X+ for sleep. Bland-Altman plots indicated GT3X+ had the closest measurement for sleep, LUMOback for sedentary behavior, GENEactiv for LPA, Fitbit for MVPA and GT3X+ for steps. CONCLUSIONS Currently, no device accurately captures activity data across the entire 24-hour day, but the future of activity measurement should aim for accurate 24-hour measurement as a goal. Researchers should continue to select measurement devices based on their primary outcomes of interest. PMID:26484953

  19. Objectively measured physical activity during pregnancy: a study in obese and overweight women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obese and overweight women may benefit from increased physical activity (PA) during pregnancy. There is limited published data describing objectively measured PA in such women. Methods A longitudinal observational study of PA intensity, type and duration using objective and subjective measurement methods. Fifty five pregnant women with booking body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 were recruited from a hospital ultrasound clinic in North East England. 26 (47%) were nulliparous and 22 (40%) were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). PA was measured by accelerometry and self report questionnaire at 13 weeks, 26 weeks and/or 36 weeks gestation. Outcome measures were daily duration of light, moderate or vigorous activity assessed by accelerometry; calculated overall PA energy expenditure, (PAEE), and PAEE within four domains of activity based on self report. Results At median 13 weeks gestation, women recorded a median 125 mins/day light activity and 35 mins/day moderate or vigorous activity (MVPA). 65% achieved the minimum recommended 30 mins/day MVPA. This proportion was maintained at 26 weeks (62%) and 36 weeks (71%). Women achieving more than 30 mins/day MVPA in the first trimester showed a significant reduction in duration of MVPA by the third trimester (11 mins/day, p = 0.003). Walking, swimming and floor exercises were the most commonly reported recreational activities but their contribution to estimated energy expenditure was small. Conclusion Overweight and obese pregnant women can achieve and maintain recommended levels of PA throughout pregnancy. Interventions to promote PA should target changes in habitual activities at work and at home, and in particular walking. PMID:21114834

  20. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent girls’ physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls’ participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222) and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. Results There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=−0.45, p=0.042) and indulgent (B=−0.56, p=0.002) parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033) parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048) and week day (p=0.013) MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006); and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004), highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Conclusion Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can inform the

  1. Activity Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children at Risk for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Senso, Meghan M.; Trost, Stewart G.; Crain, A. Lauren; Seburg, Elisabeth M.; Anderson, Julie D.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of obesity in young children highlights the importance of early interventions to promote physical activity (PA), there are limited data on activity patterns in this age group. The purpose of this study is to describe activity patterns in preschool-aged children and explore differences by weight status. Methods Analyses use baseline data from Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids- Preschool, a pilot obesity prevention trial of preschool-aged children overweight or at risk for overweight. A modified parent-reported version of the previous-day PA recall was used to summarize types of activity. Accelerometry was used to summarize daily and hourly activity patterns. Results “Playing with toys” accounted for the largest proportion of a child’s previous day, followed by “meals and snacks”, and “chores”. Accelerometry-measured daily time spent in sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was 412, 247, and 69 minutes, respectively. Percent of hourly time spent in MVPA ranged from 3% to 13%, peaking in the late morning and evening hours. There were no statistically significant MVPA differences by weight status. Conclusions This study extends our understanding of activity types, amounts, and patterns in preschool-age children and warrants further exploration of differences in physical activity patterns by weight status. PMID:25133750

  2. Measuring Physical Activity in Free-Living Conditions—Comparison of Three Accelerometry-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Leinonen, Anna-Maiju; Ahola, Riikka; Kulmala, Janne; Hakonen, Harto; Vähä-Ypyä, Henri; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Auvinen, Juha; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Sievänen, Harri; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo

    2017-01-01

    We examined the agreement in time spent on different physical activity (PA) levels using (1) mean amplitude deviation (MAD) of raw acceleration from the hip, (2) wrist-worn Polar Active, and (3) hip-worn Actigraph counts using Freedson's cut-points among adults under free-living conditions. PA was measured in 41 volunteers (mean age 47.6 years) for 14 days. Two MET-based threshold sets were used for MAD and Polar Active for sedentary time (ST) and time spent in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) PA. Actigraph counts were divided into PA classes, ≤100 counts/min for ST and Freedson's cut-points for LPA, MPA, and VPA. Analysis criteria were simultaneous use of devices for at least 4 days of >500 min/d. The between-method differences were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance test. Bland-Altman plots and ROC graphs were also employed. Valid data were available from 27 participants. Polar Active produced the highest amount of VPA with both thresholds (≥5 and ≥6 MET; mean difference 17.9–30.9 min/d, P < 0.001). With the threshold 3–6 MET for MPA, Polar Active indicated 19.2 min/d more than MAD (95% CI 5.8–32.6) and 51.0 min/d more than Actigraph (95% CI 36.7–65.2). The results did not differ with 3.5–5 MET for MPA [F(1.44, 37.43) = 1.92, P = 0.170]. MAD and Actigraph were closest to each other for ST with the threshold < 1.5 MET (mean difference 22.2 min/d, 95% CI 7.1–37.3). With the threshold <2 MET, Polar Active and Actigraph provided similar results (mean difference 7.0 min/d, 95% CI −17.8–31.7). Moderate to high agreement (area under the ROC curve 0.806–0.963) was found between the methods for the fulfillment of the recommendation for daily moderate-to-vigorous PA of 60 min. In free-living conditions the agreement between MAD, Polar Active, and Actigraph for measuring time spent on different activity levels in adults was dependent on the activity thresholds used and PA intensity. ROC analyses showed moderate to

  3. Bari-Active: A randomized controlled trial of a preoperative intervention to increase physical activity in bariatric surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Thomas, J. Graham; Trautvetter, Jennifer; Unick, Jessica L.; Jakicic, John M.; Pohl, Dieter; Ryder, Beth A.; Roye, G. Dean; Sax, Harry C.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Habitual physical activity (PA) may help to optimize bariatric surgery outcomes; however objective PA measures show that most patients have low PA preoperatively and make only modest PA changes postoperatively. Patients require additional support to adopt habitual PA. Objectives: Test the efficacy of a preoperative PA intervention (PAI) versus standard pre-surgical care (SC) for increasing daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in bariatric surgery patients. Setting: University Hospital, United States. Methods: Outcomes analysis included 75 participants (86.7% women; 46.0±8.9 years; Body Mass Index [BMI]=45.0±6.5 kg/m2) who were randomly assigned preoperatively to 6 weeks of PAI (n=40) or SC (n=35). PAI received weekly individual face-to-face sessions with tailored instruction in behavioral strategies (e.g., self-monitoring, goal-setting) to increase home-based walking exercise. The primary outcome, pre- to post-intervention change in daily bout-related (≥10-min bouts) and total (≥1-minute bouts) MVPA minutes, was assessed objectively via a multi-sensor monitor worn for 7 days at baseline- and post-intervention. Results: Retention was 84% at the post-intervention primary end point. In intent-to-treat analyses with baseline value carried forward for missing data and adjusted for baseline MVPA, PAI achieved a mean increase of 16.6±20.6 minutes/day in bout-related MVPA (baseline: 4.4±5.5 to post-intervention: 21.0±21.4 minutes/day) compared to no change (−0.3±12.7 minutes/day; baseline: 7.9±16.6 to post-intervention: 7.6±11.5 minutes/day) for SC (p=0.001). Similarly, PAI achieved a mean increase of 21.0±26.9 minutes/day in total MVPA (baseline: 30.9±21.2 to post-intervention: 51.9±30.0 minutes/day), whereas SC demonstrated no change (− 0.1±16.3 minutes/day; baseline: 33.7±33.2 to post-intervention: 33.6±28.5 minutes/day) (p=0.001). Conclusions: With behavioral intervention, patients can significantly increase MVPA before bariatric

  4. Time with friends and physical activity as mechanisms linking obesity and television viewing among youth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Though bivariate relationships between childhood obesity, physical activity, friendships and television viewing are well documented, empirical assessment of the extent to which links between obesity and television may be mediated by these factors is scarce. This study examines the possibility that time with friends and physical activity are potential mechanisms linking overweight/obesity to television viewing in youth. Methods Data were drawn from children ages 10-18 years old (M = 13.81, SD = 2.55) participating in the 2002 wave of Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) (n = 1,545). Data were collected both directly and via self-report from children and their parents. Path analysis was employed to examine a model whereby the relationships between youth overweight/obesity and television viewing were mediated by time spent with friends and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results Overweight/obesity was directly related to less time spent with friends, but not to MVPA. Time spent with friends was directly and positively related to MVPA, and directly and negatively related to time spent watching television without friends. In turn, MVPA was directly and negatively related to watching television without friends. There were significant indirect effects of both overweight/obesity and time with friends on television viewing through MVPA, and of overweight/obesity on MVPA through time with friends. Net of any indirect effects, the direct effect of overweight/obesity on television viewing remained. The final model fit the data extremely well (χ2 = 5.77, df = 5, p<0.0001, RMSEA = 0.01, CFI = 0.99, TLI =0.99). Conclusions We found good evidence that the positive relationships between time with friends and physical activity are important mediators of links between overweight/obesity and television viewing in youth. These findings highlight the importance of moving from examinations of bivariate relationships

  5. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal) Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Adama; Thiam, Mbeugué; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diongue, Ousmane; Mégné, Ndé; Diallo, Khady; Sembène, Pape Malick; Wade, Salimata

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA) levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI) and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA) in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24) in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day) in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23) of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day) children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004). Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children. PMID:27735876

  6. Physical activity and sedentary lifestyle in children as time-limited functions: usefulness of the principal component analysis method.

    PubMed

    Guinhouya, Comlavi B; Soubrier, Stephane; Vilhelm, Christian; Ravaux, Pierre; Lemdani, Mohamed; Durocher, Alain; Hubert, Hervé

    2007-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the hourly variation in and the interplay between physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB) in order to highlight key time periods for physical activity interventions for children. Data for physical activity and SB obtained with ActiGraph in 56 boys and 47 girls aged from 8 to 11 years. These data were divided into sixty minute-time samples for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB, and analyzed using a principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation statistics. The PCA provides 10 factors which account for 80.4% of the inertia. Only two of these factors did not display competition between MVPA and SB. Contrary to some reports, a coefficient of correlation of -.68 (p < 10(-4)) was found between daily time spent at MVPA and SB. Some salient traits of children's behaviors were shown through PCA. The results suggested that efficacy of interventions targeting the morning hours (07:00 AM-11:59 AM) and the afternoon period (02:00 PM-05:59 PM) warrants attention.

  7. Equating accelerometer estimates of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity: in search of the Rosetta Stone.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Daniel B; Beets, Michael W; Byun, Wonwoo; Welk, Greg; Bottai, Matteo; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell

    2011-09-01

    No universally accepted ActiGraph accelerometer cutpoints for quantifying moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) exist. Estimates of MVPA from one set of cutpoints cannot be directly compared to MVPA estimates using different cutpoints, even when the same outcome units are reported (MVPA mind(-1)). The purpose of this study was to illustrate the utility of an equating system that translates reported MVPA estimates from one set of cutpoints into another, to better inform public health policy. Secondary data analysis. ActiGraph data from a large preschool project (N=419, 3-6-yr-olds, CHAMPS) was used to conduct the analyses. Conversions were made among five different published MVPA cutpoints for children: Pate (PT), Sirard (SR), Puyau (PY), Van Cauwengerghe (VC), and Freedson Equation (FR). A 10-fold cross-validation procedure was used to develop prediction equations using MVPA estimated from each of the five sets of cutpoints as the dependent variable, with estimated MVPA from one of the other four sets of cutpoints (e.g., PT MVPA predicted from FR MVPA). The mean levels of MVPA for the total sample ranged from 22.5 (PY) to 269.0 (FR) mind(-1). Across the prediction models (5 total), the median proportion of variance explained (R(2)) was 0.76 (range 0.48-0.97). The median absolute percent error was 17.2% (range 6.3-38.4%). The prediction equations developed here allow for direct comparisons between studies employing different ActiGraph cutpoints in preschool-age children. These prediction equations give public health researchers and policy makers a more concise picture of physical activity levels of preschool-aged children.

  8. Fundamental movement skills and physical activity among children living in low-income communities: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although previous studies have demonstrated that children with high levels of fundamental movement skill competency are more active throughout the day, little is known regarding children’s fundamental movement skill competency and their physical activity during key time periods of the school day (i.e., lunchtime, recess and after-school). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between fundamental movement skill competency and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) throughout the school day among children attending primary schools in low-income communities. Methods Eight primary schools from low-income communities and 460 children (8.5 ± 0.6 years, 54% girls) were involved in the study. Children’s fundamental movement skill competency (TGMD-2; 6 locomotor and 6 object-control skills), objectively measured physical activity (ActiGraph GT3X and GT3X + accelerometers), height, weight and demographics were assessed. Multilevel linear mixed models were used to assess the cross-sectional associations between fundamental movement skills and MVPA. Results After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and socio-economic status, locomotor skill competency was positively associated with total (P = 0.002, r = 0.15) and after-school (P = 0.014, r = 0.13) MVPA. Object-control skill competency was positively associated with total (P < 0.001, r = 0.20), lunchtime (P = 0.03, r = 0.10), recess (P = 0.006, r = 0.11) and after-school (P = 0.022, r = 0.13) MVPA. Conclusions Object-control skill competency appears to be a better predictor of children’s MVPA during school-based physical activity opportunities than locomotor skill competency. Improving fundamental movement skill competency, particularly object-control skills, may contribute to increased levels of children’s MVPA throughout the day. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN

  9. MoveU? Assessing a Social Marketing Campaign to Promote Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarapicchia, Tanya M. F.; Sabiston, Catherine M. F.; Brownrigg, Michelle; Blackburn-Evans, Althea; Cressy, Jill; Robb, Janine; Faulkner, Guy E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: MoveU is a social marketing initiative aimed at increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among undergraduate students. Using the Hierarchy of Effects model (HOEM), this study identified awareness of MoveU and examined associations between awareness, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, intentions, and MVPA. Participants:…

  10. Parental Influence on the Physical Activity of Chinese Children: Do Gender Differences Occur?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijuan, Wang; Jiancui, Sun; Suzhe, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association among parental moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), parental support, and the MVPA of children by gender. Participants comprised of 172 boys and 151 girls aged seven to 11 years old from three primary schools in Shanghai. Their parents were also included as research respondents. Accelerometers…

  11. Step-based translation of physical activity guidelines in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine how many steps/day equate to current moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines in a population from the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) of the United States, 58 overweight adults wore an Actigraph accelerometer (GT3X) for up to two weeks. Minutes/day in MVPA was a good pred...

  12. Perceived crime and traffic safety is related to physical activity among adults in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neighborhood safety is inconsistently related to physical activity, but is seldom studied in developing countries. This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood safety and physical activity among Nigerian adults. Methods In a cross-sectional study, accelerometer-based physical activity (MVPA), reported walking, perceived crime and traffic safety were measured in 219 Nigerian adults. Logistic regression analysis was conducted, and the odds ratio for meeting health guidelines for MVPA and walking was calculated in relation to four safety variables, after adjustment for potential confounders. Results Sufficient MVPA was related to more perception of safety from traffic to walk (OR=2.28, CI=1.13- 6.25) and more safety from crime at night (OR=1.68, CI=1.07-3.64), but with less perception of safety from crime during the day to walk (OR=0.34, CI=0.06- 0.91). More crime safety during the day and night were associated with more walking. Conclusions Perceived safety from crime and traffic were associated with physical activity among Nigerian adults. These findings provide preliminary evidence on the need to provide safe traffic and crime environments that will make it easier and more likely for African adults to be physically active. PMID:22520066

  13. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Dyck, Delfien Van; Hinckson, Erica; Schipperijn, Jasper; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Owen, Neville; Davey, Rachel C; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Mitáš, Josef; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Schofield, Grant; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived environmental attributes with objectively-measured PA outcomes; between-site differences in such associations; and, the extent to which perceived environmental attributes explain between-site differences in PA. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 16 cities located in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA. Participants were 6,968 adults residing in administrative units stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. Predictors were 10 perceived neighborhood environmental attributes. Outcome measures were accelerometry-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and meeting the PA guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention (420 min/week of MVPA). Results Most perceived neighborhood attributes were positively associated with the PA outcomes in the pooled, site-adjusted, single-predictor models. Associations were generalizable across geographical locations. Aesthetics and land use mix – access were significant predictors of both PA outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. Environmental attributes accounted for within-site variability in MVPA corresponding to a 3 min/d or 21 min/week standard deviation. Large between-site differences in PA outcomes were observed: 15.9% to 16.8% of these differences were explained by perceived environmental attributes. All neighborhood attributes were associated with between-site differences in the total effects of the perceived environment on PA outcomes. Conclusions Residents’ perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines

  14. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women.

  15. Built Environment Influences of Children’s Physical Activity: Examining Differences by Neighbourhood Size and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Christine A.; Clark, Andrew F.; Gilliland, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    Neighbourhoods can facilitate or constrain moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children by providing or restricting opportunities for MVPA. However, there is no consensus on how to define a child’s neighbourhood. This study examines the influence of the neighbourhood built environment on objectively measured MVPA among 435 children (aged 9–14 years) in London (ON, Canada). As there is no consensus on how to delineate a child’s neighbourhood, a geographic information system was used to generate measures of the neighbourhood built environment at two buffer sizes (500 m and 800 m) around each child’s home. Linear regression models with robust standard errors (cluster) were used to analyze the relationship between built environment characteristics and average daily MVPA during non-school hours on weekdays. Sex-stratified models assessed sex-specific relationships. When accounting for individual and neighbourhood socio-demographic variables, park space and multi-use path space were found to influence children’s MVPA. Sex-stratified models found significant associations between MVPA and park space, with the 800 m buffer best explaining boys’ MVPA and the 500 m buffer best explaining girls’ MVPA. Findings emphasize that, when designing built environments, programs, and policies to facilitate physical activity, it is important to consider that the size of the neighbourhood influencing a child’s physical activity may differ according to sex. PMID:26784212

  16. Schoolyard physical activity of 6–11 year old children assessed by GPS and accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Children’s current physical activity levels are disturbingly low when compared to recommended levels. This may be changed by intervening in the school environment. However, at present, it is unclear to what extent schoolyard physical activity contributes towards reaching the daily physical activity guideline. The aim of this study was to examine how long and at what intensity children are physically active at the schoolyard during different time segments of the day. Moreover, the contribution of schoolyard physical activity towards achieving the recommended guideline for daily physical activity was investigated. Methods Children (n=76) between the age of 6–11 years were recruited in six different schools in five cities (>70.000 residents) in the Netherlands. During the weekdays of a regular school week, childrens’ physical activity and location were measured with ActiGraph accelerometers and Travelrecorder GPS receivers. Data was collected from December 2008 to April 2009. From the data, the amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on and outside the schoolyard was established. Moreover, the percentage of MVPA on the schoolyard was compared between the following segments of the day: pre-school, school, school recess, lunch break and post-school. Differences between boys and girls were compared using linear and logistic mixed-effects models. Results On average, children spent 40.1 minutes/day on the schoolyard. During this time, boys were more active on the schoolyard, with 27.3% of their time spent as MVPA compared to 16.7% among girls (OR=2.11 [95% CI 1.54 - 2.90]). The children were most active on the schoolyard during school recess, during which boys recorded 39.5% and girls recorded 23.4% of the time as MVPA (OR=2.55 [95% CI: 1.69 - 3.85]). Although children were only present at the schoolyard for 6.1% of the total reported time, this time contributed towards 17.5% and 16.8% of boys’ and girls’ minutes of MVPA. Conclusions On

  17. Attributes of Child Care Centers and Outdoor Play Areas Associated with Preschoolers' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Okely, Anthony D.; Masters, Jane M.; Moore, Gary T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined characteristics of child care centers associated with preschoolers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior while in child care (MVPA-C, SB-C), and attributes of outdoor play areas associated with the same behaviors during outdoor time (MVPA-O, SB-O). Participants were 89 children (3 -5 years) recruited…

  18. Effects of Physical Education on Objectively Determined Physical Activity in Primary School Children--Which Proportioning Is Best?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kesztyus, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jurgen M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical Education (PE) can foster regular physical activity (PA) in children. However, children engage in insufficient moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during PE. This study objectively investigated MVPA of children during a single, compared with double PE-period. In 294 children (7.1 ± 0.7 years) PA was objectively assessed. PE periods were…

  19. Dog Walking among Adolescents: Correlates and Contribution to Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Glanz, Karen; Frank, Lawrence D.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the association of dog walking with adolescents’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and BMI, and identify correlates of dog walking. METHODS/DESIGN Participants were 12–17 year-olds (n=925) from the Baltimore, MD and Seattle, WA regions. Differences in accelerometer-assessed minutes/day of MVPA and self-reported BMI (percentile) were compared among adolescents (1) without a dog (n=441) and those with a dog who (2) did (≥1 days/week, n=300) or (3) did not (n=184) walk it. Correlates of (1) dog walking (any vs. none) among adolescents with dogs (n=484), and (2) days/week of dog walking among dog walkers (n=300) were investigated. Potential correlates included: demographic, psychosocial, home environment, perceived neighborhood environment, and objective neighborhood environment factors. RESULTS 52% of adolescents lived in a household with a dog, and 62% of those reported dog walking ≥1 day/week. Dog walkers had 4–5 more minutes/day of MVPA than non-dog-walkers and non-dog-owners. BMI was not associated with dog walking or ownership. Among households with dogs, adolescents who lived in objectively walkable neighborhoods were 12% more likely to walk their dog than those in less walkable neighborhoods. Among dog walkers, having a multi-family home, college-educated parent, lower perceived traffic safety, higher street connectivity and less mixed use were related to more days/week of dog walking. CONCLUSIONS Dog walkers had 7–8% more minutes/day of MVPA than non-dog walkers, and correlates of dog walking were found at multiple levels of influence. Results suggest multilevel interventions that include both environmental and psychosocial components to increase dog walking should be evaluated. PMID:26601644

  20. Physical Activity, Mind Wandering, Affect, and Sleep: An Ecological Momentary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Michael; Roberts, Sarah; Crato, Ines; Ehlers, Diane; McAuley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background A considerable portion of daily thought is spent in mind wandering. This behavior has been related to positive (eg, future planning, problem solving) and negative (eg, unhappiness, impaired cognitive performance) outcomes. Objective Based on previous research suggesting future-oriented (ie, prospective) mind wandering may support autobiographical planning and self-regulation, this study examined associations between hourly mind wandering and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and the impact of affect and daily sleep on these relations. Methods College-aged adults (N=33) participated in a mobile phone-delivered ecological momentary assessment study for 1 week. Sixteen hourly prompts assessing mind wandering and affect were delivered daily via participants’ mobile phones. Perceived sleep quality and duration was assessed during the first prompt each day, and participants wore an ActiGraph accelerometer during waking hours throughout the study week. Results Study findings suggest present-moment mind wandering was positively associated with future MVPA (P=.03), and this relationship was moderated by affective state (P=.04). Moreover, excessive sleep the previous evening was related to less MVPA across the following day (P=.007). Further, mind wandering was positively related to activity only among those who did not oversleep (P=.007). Conclusions Together, these results have implications for multiple health behavior interventions targeting physical activity, affect, and sleep. Researchers may also build on this work by studying these relationships in the context of other important behaviors and psychosocial factors (eg, tobacco use, depression, loneliness). PMID:27580673

  1. Intrapersonal, social and physical environmental determinants of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in working-age women: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of North American adult females do not meet current physical activity recommendations (150 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) per week accrued in ≥10 min bouts) ultimately placing themselves at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Working-age females face particular challenges in meeting physical activity recommendations as they have multiple demands, including occupational, family and social demands. To develop effective interventions to increase MVPA among working-age females, it is necessary to identify and understand the strongest modifiable determinants influencing these behaviours. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence to identify intrapersonal, social and environmental determinants of MVPA among working-age females. Methods/Design Six electronic databases will be searched to identify all prospective cohort studies that report on intrapersonal, social and/or environmental determinants of MVPA in working-age females. Grey literature sources including theses, published conference abstracts and websites from relevant organizations will also be included. Articles that report on intrapersonal (e.g. health status, self-efficacy, socio-economic status (SES), stress, depression), social environmental (e.g. crime, safety, area SES, social support, climate and capital, policies), and environmental (e.g. weather, workplace, home, neighbourhood, recreation environment, active transportation) determinants of MVPA in a working-age (mean age 18–65 years) female population will be included. Risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies using the Tool to Assess Risk of Bias in Cohort Studies and the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Harvest plots will be used to synthesize results across all determinants, and meta-analyses will be conducted where possible among studies with sufficient homogeneity

  2. Active school transport and weekday physical activity in 9–11-year-old children from 12 countries

    PubMed Central

    Denstel, K D; Broyles, S T; Larouche, R; Sarmiento, O L; Barreira, T V; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Active school transport (AST) may increase the time that children spend in physical activity (PA). This study examined relationships between AST and weekday moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity (LPA), sedentary time (SED) and total activity during naturally organized time periods (daily, before school, during school and after school) in a sample of children from 12 countries. METHODS: The sample included 6224 children aged 9–11 years. PA and sedentary time were objectively measured using Actigraph accelerometers. AST was self-reported by participants. Multilevel generalized linear and logistic regression statistical models were used to determine associations between PA, SED and AST across and within study sites. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, highest parental educational attainment, BMI z-score and accelerometer wear time, children who engaged in AST accumulated significantly more weekday MVPA during all studied time periods and significantly less time in LPA before school compared with children who used motorized transport to school. AST was unrelated to time spent in sedentary behaviors. Across all study sites, AST was associated with 6.0 min (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7–7.3; P<0.0001) more of weekday MVPA; however, there was some evidence that this differed across study sites (P for interaction=0.06). Significant positive associations were identified within 7 of 12 study sites, with differences ranging from 4.6 min (95% CI: 0.3–8.9; P=0.04, in Canada) to 10.2 min (95% CI: 5.9–14.4; P<0.0001, in Brazil) more of daily MVPA among children who engaged in AST compared with motorized transport. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that AST was associated with children spending more time engaged in MVPA throughout the day and less time in LPA before school. AST represents a good behavioral target to increase levels of PA in children. PMID:27152177

  3. Weight Status and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helen; Blanco, Estela; Algarín, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Wing, David; Godino, Job G.; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    We tested the independent and combined influence of overweight/obesity and meeting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines (≥60 minutes per day) on cardiometabolic risk factors among healthy adolescents. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and activity by accelerometer in 223 adolescents. They were categorized as overweight/obese versus normal weight and meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for MVPA per day. Adolescents were 16.8 years, 41% overweight/obese, 30% met MVPA guidelines, 50% low high-density lipoprotein, 22% high triglycerides, 12% high blood pressure, and 6% high fasting glucose. Controlling for sex, overweight/obese adolescents who did not meet MVPA guidelines had 4.0 and 11.9 increased odds for elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure, respectively, compared to normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines. Overweight/obese and normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines did not differ in cardiometabolic risk factors. Among overweight/obese adolescents, being physically active attenuated the likelihood of high triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. PMID:27803943

  4. The impact of the built environment on young people's physical activity patterns: a suburban-rural comparison using GPS.

    PubMed

    Collins, Peter; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Lyons, Mark

    2012-08-24

    The built environment in which young people live has a significant influence on their physical activity (PA). However, little is known regarding how youth from suburban and rural settings utilise their surrounding environments to participate in free-living PA. 50 adolescents aged 13-14 years old (22 rural; 28 suburban) wore an integrated GPS and heart rate device during non-school hours and completed a daily PA diary over 7 days. Descriptive statistics and analyses of variance were used to explore differences in the amount and location of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between genders and youth from different geographical settings. Suburban youth participated in significantly (p = 0.004) more daily PA (52.14 minutes MVPA) and were more extensive in their utilisation of their surroundings, compared to rural youth (26.61 minutes MVPA). Suburban youth visited more public recreational facilities and spent significantly more time outdoors and on local streets (109.71 minutes and 44.62 minutes, respectively) compared to rural youth (55.98 minutes and 17.15 minutes, respectively) during weekdays. Rural youth on average spent significantly more time within the home (350.69 minutes) during weekends compared to suburban youth (214.82 minutes). Rural females were the least active group of adolescents, participating in the least amount of daily PA (20.14 minutes MVPA) and spending the least amount of time outdoors (31.37 minutes) during weekdays. Time spent outdoors was positively associated with PA. The findings highlight the disparity in PA levels and the utilisation of the surrounding built environment between youth from two different geographical settings and possible environmental causes are discussed. The study supports the use of GPS (combined with other methods) in investigating geographical differences in young people's PA and movement patterns. This method provides a wealth of information that may assist future policies and interventions in identifying

  5. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary-time are associated with arterial stiffness in Brazilian young adults

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Vianna, Carolina Ávila; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando C.; Ekelund, Ulf; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with pulse wave velocity (PWV) in Brazilian young adults. Methods Cross-sectional analysis with participants of the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort who were followed-up from birth to 30 years of age. Overall physical activity (PA) assessed as the average acceleration (mg), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA – min/day) and sedentary time (min/day) were calculated from acceleration data. Carotid-femoral PWV (m/s) was assessed using a portable ultrasound. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were analyzed as possible mediators. Multiple linear regression and g-computation formula were used in the analyses. Results Complete data were available for 1241 individuals. PWV was significantly lower in the two highest quartiles of overall PA (0.26 m/s) compared with the lowest quartile. Participants in the highest quartile of sedentary time had 0.39 m/s higher PWV (95%CI: 0.20; 0.57) than those in the lowest quartile. Individuals achieving ≥30 min/day in MVPA had lower PWV (β = −0.35; 95%CI: −0.56; −0.14). Mutually adjusted analyses between MVPA and sedentary time and PWV changed the coefficients, although results from sedentary time remained more consistent. WC captured 44% of the association between MVPA and PWV. DBP explained 46% of the association between acceleration and PWV. Conclusions Physical activity was inversely related to PWV in young adults, whereas sedentary time was positively associated. Such associations were only partially mediated by WC and DBP. PMID:26386211

  6. Use of global positioning system for physical activity research in youth: ESPAÇOS Adolescentes, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alberico, Claudia Oliveira; Schipperijn, Jasper; Reis, Rodrigo S

    2016-12-23

    The built environment is an important factor associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB) during adolescence. This study presents the methods for objective assessment of context-specific moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB, as well as describes results from the first project using such methodology in adolescents from a developing country. An initial sample of 381 adolescents was recruited from 32 census tracts in Curitiba, Brazil (2013); 80 had their homes geocoded and wore accelerometer and GPS devices for seven days. Four domains were defined as important contexts: home, school, transport and leisure. The majority of participants (n=80) were boys (46; 57.5%), with a normal BMI (52; 65.0%) and a mean age (SD) of 14.5 (5.5) years. Adolescents spent most of their time at home, engaging in SB. Overall, the largest proportion of MVPA was while in transport (17.1% of time spent in this context) and SB while in leisure (188.6min per day). Participants engaged in MVPA for a median of 28.7 (IQR 18.2-43.2) and 17.9 (IQR 9.2-32.1) minutes during week and weekend days, respectively. Participants spent most of their day in the leisure and home domains. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer data allowed objective identification of the amount of time spent in MVPA and SB in four different domains. Though the combination of objective measures is still an emerging methodology, this is a promising and feasible approach to understanding interactions between people and their environments in developing countries.

  7. Validation of a New Counter for Direct Observation of Physical Activity in Parks

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah A.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Marsh, Terry; Williamson, Stephanie; Raaen, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prior tools to observe large groups of people in parks have not allowed disaggregation of physical activity levels by age group and gender simultaneously, making it impossible to determine which subgroups engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study aims to examine the reliability of a 12-button counter to simultaneously assess MVPA by age and gender subgroups in park settings. Methods A total of 1,160 pairs of observations were conducted in 481 target areas of 19 neighborhood parks in the great Los Angeles area between June 2013 and March 2014. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by Pearson’s correlation, intra-class correlation (ICC), and agreement probability in the total metabolic equivalents (METs) and METs spent in MVPA. Cosine similarity was used to check the resemblance of distributions among age and gender categories. Pictures taken in a total of 112 target areas at the beginning of the observations were used as a second check on the reliability of direct observation. Results Inter-rater reliability was high for the total METs and METs in all age and gender categories (between 0.82 and 0.97), except for male seniors (correlations and ICC between 0.64 and 0.77, agreement probability 0.85 to 0.86). Reliability was higher for total METs than for METs spent in MVPA. Correlation and ICC between observers’ measurement and picture-based counts are also high (between 0.79 and 0.94). Conclusion Trained observers can reliably use the 12-button counter to accurately assess PA distribution and disparities by age and gender. PMID:26103584

  8. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (P<0.001), five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002), daily steps (P=0.003), and MV-PA (P=0.022) compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001) and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014) in the COPD group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion Impairments in balance and reductions in physical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity. PMID:27445470

  9. Active Play Opportunities at Child Care

    PubMed Central

    Saelens, Brian E.; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) is important for children’s health and development, yet preschoolers are not meeting PA recommendations. The objective of this study was to examine different PA opportunities at child care and how variation in indoor versus outdoor and free versus teacher-led opportunities relate to children’s PA. METHODS: An observational study of 98 children (mean age 4.5 years, 49% girls) from 10 child care centers. Classrooms were observed for at least 4 full days per center (total 50 days) to categorize time into (1) not an active play opportunity (APO); (2) naptime; (3) APO, outdoor free play; (4) APO, outdoor teacher-led; (5) APO, indoor free play; and (6) APO, indoor teacher-led. Children wore accelerometers during observations. Linear regression models examined the influence of APO categories on moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. RESULTS: Children’s activity was 73% sedentary, 13% light, and 14% MVPA. For 88% of time children did not have APOs, including 26% time as naptime. On average, 48 minutes per day were APOs (41% sedentary, 18% light, and 41% MVPA), 33 minutes per day were outdoors. The most frequent APO was outdoor free play (8% of time); outdoor teacher-led time was <1%. Children were more active and less sedentary outdoors versus indoors and during the child-initiated APOs (indoors and outdoors) versus teacher-led APOs. CONCLUSIONS: Preschoolers were presented with significantly fewer than recommended opportunities for PA at child care. More APOs are needed for children to meet recommendations, particularly those that encourage more outdoor time, more teacher-led and child-initiated active play, and flexibility in naptime for preschoolers. PMID:25986016

  10. Decoding the Formation of New Semantics: MVPA Investigation of Rapid Neocortical Plasticity during Associative Encoding through Fast Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Atir-Sharon, Tali; Gilboa, Asaf; Hazan, Hananel; Koilis, Ester; Manevitz, Larry M.

    2015-01-01

    Neocortical structures typically only support slow acquisition of declarative memory; however, learning through fast mapping may facilitate rapid learning-induced cortical plasticity and hippocampal-independent integration of novel associations into existing semantic networks. During fast mapping the meaning of new words and concepts is inferred, and durable novel associations are incidentally formed, a process thought to support early childhood's exuberant learning. The anterior temporal lobe, a cortical semantic memory hub, may critically support such learning. We investigated encoding of semantic associations through fast mapping using fMRI and multivoxel pattern analysis. Subsequent memory performance following fast mapping was more efficiently predicted using anterior temporal lobe than hippocampal voxels, while standard explicit encoding was best predicted by hippocampal activity. Searchlight algorithms revealed additional activity patterns that predicted successful fast mapping semantic learning located in lateral occipitotemporal and parietotemporal neocortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. By contrast, successful explicit encoding could be classified by activity in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal and parahippocampal cortices. We propose that fast mapping promotes incidental rapid integration of new associations into existing neocortical semantic networks by activating related, nonoverlapping conceptual knowledge. In healthy adults, this is better captured by unique anterior and lateral temporal lobe activity patterns, while hippocampal involvement is less predictive of this kind of learning. PMID:26257961

  11. Light-Intensity Activity Attenuates Functional Decline in Older Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Cindy K.; Morey, Miriam C.; Desmond, Renee A.; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Sloane, Richard; Snyder, Denise C.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    While moderate-vigorous intensity physical activities (MVPA) confer the greatest health benefits, evidence suggests that light-intensity activities are also beneficial, particularly for older adults and individuals with moderate-severe comorbidities. Purpose To examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between light-intensity activity and physical function in older cancer survivors at increased risk for age- and treatment-related comorbidities, including accelerated functional decline. Methods The analysis included data from 641 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors (54% female) aged 65 and older who participated in a 1-year, home-based diet and exercise intervention designed to reduce the rate of physical function decline. ANCOVA was used to compare means of physical function across levels of PA intensity (low-light (LLPA): 1.5-2.0 METs; high-light (HLPA): 2.1-2.9 METs; MVPA: ≥3.0 METs). Results In cross-sectional analyses, increasing tertiles of light-intensity activity were associated with higher scores for all 3 measures of physical function (all p-values <0.005), after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, comorbidity, symptoms, and MVPA. Associations were stronger for HLPA than for LLPA. Compared with survivors who decreased or remained stable in MVPA and HLPA at the post-intervention follow-up, those who increased in HLPA, but decreased or remained stable in MVPA, reported higher physical function scores (LSMeans (95% CI): SF-36 physical function subscale: -5.58 (-7.96, -3.20) vs. -2.54 (-5.83, 0.75), p=0.14; basic lower extremity function: -2.00 (-3.45, -0.55) vs. 0.28 (-1.72, 2.28), p=0.07; advanced lower extremity function: -2.58 (-4.00, -1.15) vs. 0.44 (-1.52, 2.40), p=0.01). Conclusion Our findings suggest that increasing light-intensity activities, especially HLPA, may be a viable approach to reducing the rate of physical function decline in individuals who are unable or reluctant to initiate or maintain adequate levels of moderate

  12. Level and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis of the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study_2

    PubMed Central

    Balducci, Stefano; D’Errico, Valeria; Haxhi, Jonida; Sacchetti, Massimo; Orlando, Giorgio; Cardelli, Patrizia; Di Biase, Nicolina; Bollanti, Lucilla; Conti, Francesco; Zanuso, Silvano; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with type 2 diabetes usually show reduced physical activity (PA) and increased sedentary (SED)-time, though to a varying extent, especially for low-intensity PA (LPA), a major determinant of daily energy expenditure that is not accurately captured by questionnaires. This study assessed the level and correlates of PA and SED-time in patients from the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study_2 (IDES_2). Methods Three-hundred physically inactive and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the IDES_2 to be randomized to an intervention group, receiving theoretical and practical exercise counseling, and a control group, receiving standard care. At baseline, LPA, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), and SED-time were measured by accelerometer. Physical fitness and cardiovascular risk factors and scores were also assessed. Results LPA was 3.93±1.35 hours∙day-1, MVPA was 12.4±4.6 min∙day-1, and SED-time was 11.6±1.2 hours∙day-1, with a large range of values (0.89–7.11 hours∙day-1, 0.6–21.0 min∙day-1, and 9.14–15.28 hours∙day-1, respectively). At bivariate analysis, LPA and MVPA correlated with better cardiovascular risk profile and fitness parameters, whereas the opposite was observed for SED-time. Likewise, values of LPA, MVPA, and SED-time falling in the best tertile were associated with optimal or acceptable levels of cardiovascular risk factors and scores. At multivariate analysis, age, female gender, HbA1c, BMI or waist circumference, and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (for LPA and SED-time only) were negatively associated with LPA and MPA and positively associated with SED-time in an independent manner. Conclusions Physically inactive and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes from the IDES_2 show a low level of PA, though values of LPA, MVPA, and SED-time vary largely. Furthermore, there is a strong correlation of these measures with glycemic control, adiposity and inflammation, thus suggesting that even

  13. Estimating Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in a Free-Living Context: A Pragmatic Comparison of Consumer-Based Activity Trackers and ActiGraph Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Norman; Burton, Nicola W; Pavey, Toby G; Gilson, Nicholas D; Brown, Wendy J

    2016-01-01

    Background Activity trackers are increasingly popular with both consumers and researchers for monitoring activity and for promoting positive behavior change. However, there is a lack of research investigating the performance of these devices in free-living contexts, for which findings are likely to vary from studies conducted in well-controlled laboratory settings. Objective The aim was to compare Fitbit One and Jawbone UP estimates of steps, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary behavior with data from the ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer in a free-living context. Methods Thirty-two participants were recruited using convenience sampling; 29 provided valid data for this study (female: 90%, 26/29; age: mean 39.6, SD 11.0 years). On two occasions for 7 days each, participants wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer on their right hip and either a hip-worn Fitbit One (n=14) or wrist-worn Jawbone UP (n=15) activity tracker. Daily estimates of steps and very active minutes were derived from the Fitbit One (n=135 days) and steps, active time, and longest idle time from the Jawbone UP (n=154 days). Daily estimates of steps, MVPA, and longest sedentary bout were derived from the corresponding days of ActiGraph data. Correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots with examination of systematic bias were used to assess convergent validity and agreement between the devices and the ActiGraph. Cohen’s kappa was used to assess the agreement between each device and the ActiGraph for classification of active versus inactive (≥10,000 steps per day and ≥30 min/day of MVPA) comparable with public health guidelines. Results Correlations with ActiGraph estimates of steps and MVPA ranged between .72 and .90 for Fitbit One and .56 and .75 for Jawbone UP. Compared with ActiGraph estimates, both devices overestimated daily steps by 8% (Fitbit One) and 14% (Jawbone UP). However, mean differences were larger for daily MVPA (Fitbit One: underestimated by 46%; Jawbone

  14. Effects of a print-mediated intervention on physical activity during transition to the first year of university.

    PubMed

    Bray, Steven R; Beauchamp, Mark R; Latimer, Amy E; Hoar, Sharleen D; Shields, Christopher A; Bruner, Mark W

    2011-04-01

    Transition to the first year of university is linked to steep declines in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a targeted, theory-driven, print-based intervention on MVPA during transition to university. Volunteer participants from five Canadian universities (n=255) completed measures of MVPA at the start of their first semester at university and were randomly assigned to conditions receiving a first-year-student physical activity and action-planning brochure, Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), or a no-intervention control group. Six weeks later, a follow-up measure of MVPA was obtained as well as retrospective accounts of physical activity action-planning strategies and self-efficacy for scheduling physical activity. At the follow-up, students who received the targeted first-year student physical activity brochure reported significantly higher levels of MVPA compared to controls (p<.05) and a trend towards higher MVPA compared to the CPAG group (p=.06). However, there were no differences between groups on action planning or self-efficacy. A theory-driven and targeted print media intervention can offer low-cost and broad-reaching effects that may help students stay more active or curb declining levels of MVPA that occur during transition to university.

  15. Community SES, perceived environment, and physical activity during home-based cardiac rehabilitation: is there a need to consider the urban vs. rural distinction?

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Chris; Rainham, Daniel; McSweeney, Jill; Spence, John; McDonnell, Lisa; Rhodes, Ryan; Reid, Robert; McGannon, Kerry; Edwards, Nancy

    2012-04-01

    Physical activity (MVPA) levels during home-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) remain problematic. Consequently, the present study examined the association between MVPA and urban vs. rural residential status and the perceived environment in patients attending home-based CR. A total of 280 patients completed a questionnaire assessing demographic, clinical, MVPA, and perceived environmental variables measured at baseline and 3 months later. Patient addresses were geocoded and linked to the 2006 Canadian census to establish the urban/rural distinction. Results showed that urban and rural patients had similar baseline MVPA and improvements in MVPA by 3 months. Several perceived environmental variables were significantly related to MVPA throughout home-based CR that were common and urban/rural-specific. Therefore, although there does not appear to be an urban vs. rural advantage in MVPA levels during home-based CR, there does appear to be environmental/MVPA-specific relationships specific to urban and rural patients that may warrant attention.

  16. Domain-Specific Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sprengeler, Ole; Wirsik, Norman; Hebestreit, Antje; Herrmann, Diana; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the extent that different domains contribute to total sedentary (SED), light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). We aimed to identify domain-specific physical activity (PA) patterns in school-aged children who were assessed by questionnaire and accelerometry. For the study, 298 German school children and adolescents aged 6–17 years wore an accelerometer for one week and completed a PA recall-questionnaire for the same period. Spearman coefficients (r) were used to evaluate the agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA in five domains (transport, school hours, physical education, leisure-time, organized sports activities). School hours mainly contributed to the total objectively measured SED, LPA and MVPA (55%, 53% and 46%, respectively), whilst sports activities contributed only 24% to total MVPA. Compared to accelerometry, the proportion of self-reported LPA and MVPA during school hours was substantially underestimated but overestimated during leisure-time. The agreement of self-reported and objectively measured PA was low for total LPA (r = 0.09, 95% CI (confidence interval): −0.03–0.20) and total MVPA (r = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.10–0.32), while moderate agreement was only found for total SED (r = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34–0.53), LPA during transport (r = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.49–0.67) and MVPA during organized sports activities (r = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.38–0.67). Since school hours mainly contribute to total SED, LPA and MVPA and self-reported LPA and MVPA during school were importantly underestimated compared to objectively measured LPA and MVPA, the application of objective measurements is compulsory to characterize the entire activity pattern of school-aged children. PMID:28257046

  17. Development of an Accelerometer-Linked Online Intervention System to Promote Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Nicole; Bradlyn, Andrew; Thompson, Sharon K.; Yen, Sophia; Haritatos, Jana; Dillon, Fred; Cole, Steve W.

    2015-01-01

    Most adolescents do not achieve the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), placing them at increased risk for a diverse array of chronic diseases in adulthood. There is a great need for scalable and effective interventions that can increase MVPA in adolescents. Here we report the results of a measurement validation study and a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment testing the impact of Zamzee, an accelerometer-linked online intervention system that combines proximal performance feedback and incentive motivation features to promote MVPA. In a calibration study that parametrically varied levels of physical activity in 31 12-14 year-old children, the Zamzee activity meter was shown to provide a valid measure of MVPA (sensitivity in detecting MVPA = 85.9%, specificity = 97.5%, and r = .94 correspondence with the benchmark RT3 accelerometer system; all p < .0001). In a subsequent randomized controlled multi-site experiment involving 182 middle school-aged children assessed for MVPA over 6 wks, intent-to-treat analyses found that those who received access to the Zamzee intervention had average MVPA levels 54% greater than those of a passive control group (p < 0.0001) and 68% greater than those of an active control group that received access to a commercially available active videogame (p < .0001). Zamzee’s effects on MVPA did not diminish significantly over the course of the 6-wk study period, and were statistically significant in both females and males, and in normal- vs. high-BMI subgroups. These results provide promising initial indications that combining the Zamzee activity meter with online proximal performance feedback and incentive motivation features can positively impact MVPA levels in adolescents. PMID:26010359

  18. Association between psoriasis and leisure-time physical activity: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Do, Young Kyung; Lakhani, Naheed; Malhotra, Rahul; Halstater, Brian; Theng, Colin; Østbye, Truls

    2015-02-01

    Despite evidence that physical activity can reduce the cardiometabolic risk of patients with psoriasis, these patients may engage in less physical activity than those without psoriasis. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the extent of psoriatic skin lesions with the likelihood of participating in leisure-time moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and metabolic equivalent task (MET)-minutes of MVPA amongst those who participated. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a population-based survey among U.S. adults. A total of 6549 persons aged 20-59 years responded to the 2003-2006 NHANES dermatology questionnaires, which asked about participation in leisure-time MVPA and MET-minutes of MVPA amongst those who participated. Compared with individuals without psoriasis, those with psoriasis were less likely to have engaged in leisure MVPA in the past 30 days, although this association was not statistically significant. Amongst those who participated in leisure-time MVPA, MET-minutes of leisure-time MVPA were lower on average for patients currently having few to extensive cutaneous lesions (but not for those currently having little or no psoriatic patches), relative to individuals never diagnosed with psoriasis by approximately 30%. Clinicians should encourage patients with psoriasis, especially those with more severe disease, to be more physically active; they should help identify and address possible psychological and physical barriers to their patients' physical activity.

  19. School-based friendship networks and children's physical activity: A spatial analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Macdonald-Wallis, Kyle; Jago, Russell; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Thompson, Janice L

    2011-07-01

    Despite the known health benefits, the majority of children do not meet physical activity guidelines, with past interventions to increase physical activity yielding little success. Social and friendship networks have been shown to influence obesity, smoking and academic achievement, and peer-led interventions have successfully reduced the uptake of adolescent smoking. However, the role of social networks on physical activity is not clear. This paper investigates the extent to which friendship networks influence children's physical activity, and attempts to quantify the association using spatial analytical techniques to account for the social influence. Physical activity data were collected for 986 children, aged 10-11 years old, from 40 schools in Bristol, UK. Data from 559 children were used for analysis. Mean accelerometer counts per minute (CPM) and mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day (MVPA) were calculated as objective measures of physical activity. Children nominated up to 4 school-friends, and school-based friendship networks were constructed from these nominations. Networks were tested to assess whether physical activity showed spatial dependence (in terms of social proximity in social space) using Moran's I statistic. Spatial autoregressive modelling was then used to assess the extent of spatial dependence, whilst controlling for other known predictors of physical activity. This model was compared with linear regression models for improvement in goodness-of-fit. Results indicated spatial autocorrelation of both mean MVPA (I = .346) and mean CPM (I = .284) in the data, indicating that children clustered in friendship groups with similar activity levels. Spatial autoregressive modelling of mean MVPA concurred that spatial dependence was present (ρ = .26, p < .001), and improved model fit by 31% on the linear regression model. These results demonstrate an association between physical activity levels of children and their

  20. The association between physical activity and maternal sleep during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Vladutiu, Catherine J; Evenson, Kelly R; Borodulin, Katja; Deng, Yu; Dole, Nancy

    2014-11-01

    Physical activity is associated with improved sleep quality and duration in the general population, but its effect on sleep in postpartum women is unknown. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between hours/week of self-reported domain-specific and overall moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep quality and duration at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of 530 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study. MVPA was not associated with sleep quality or duration at 3-months postpartum. At 12-months postpartum, a 1 h/week increase in recreational MVPA was associated with higher odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (odds ratio, OR 1.14; 95 % confidence interval, CI, 1.03-1.27) and a 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA was associated with lower odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI 0.88-0.99). A 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA (OR 1.08, 95 % CI 1.00-1.16) was associated with higher odds of long sleep duration and 1 h/week increases in indoor household (OR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.01-1.18) and overall MVPA (OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.07) were associated with higher odds of short (vs. normal) sleep duration. Comparing 3-months postpartum to 12-months postpartum, increased work MVPA was associated with good sleep quality (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.12-5.15) and increased indoor household MVPA was associated with short sleep duration (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.05-3.27) as measured at 12-months postpartum. Selected domains of MVPA and their longitudinal increases were associated with sleep quality and duration at 12-months postpartum. Additional research is needed to elucidate whether physical activity can improve postpartum sleep.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Activity and Sitting Time in Cancer Survivors: 2009-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hoon; Lee, Hyo

    2016-12-01

    Objectives: A physically active lifestyle is important for cancer survivors. Therefore, this study was conducted to 1) provide population-based estimates of the prevalence of physical activity and sitting time, and 2) their correlates in Korean cancer survivors. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed a cancer survivor subsample (N=1,482) from 2008-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), data selected with a complex sampling design. Overall and subgroup-specific prevalences of physical activity and sitting time were estimated. Correlates of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity ( MVPA) and sitting time were tested using age-groupspecific hierarchical multiple regression models. Results: Overall adherence rate to physical activity guidelines was 34.9% (95% CI=31.5-38.4). Age-group-specific adherence rates were 41.1% (95% CI=36.3-45.9) in adults (30-64 years old), and 25.3% (95% CI=21.0-25.3) in older adults (65 years or older). Adults spent 213.33 minutes (95% CI=172.4-254.3) per week on MVPA and 55.3 minutes (95% CI=36.4-64.6) on sitting time per day. In adults, sitting time was significantly associated with employed status (B=28.0, p=0.046), smoking (B=-47.4, p=0.020), and number of comorbidity conditions (B=-13, p=.037). MVPA was significantly associated with marital status (B=134.9, p<0.001), employment status (B=98.12, p=.046), and years since cancer diagnosis (B=104.7, p=0.015). Older adults spent 162.2 minutes (95% CI=119.5-204.8) per week on MVPA and 63.0 minutes (95% CI=45.0-89.5) on sitting time per day. Their significant correlates were sex (B= -45.2, p=0.014), smoking (B=-70.14, p<0.001), and years since cancer diagnosis (B=37.0, p=0.024). Age (B=5.8, p=0.042) and marital status (B=83.8, p=0.033) were also significantly associated with MVPA in older adults. Conclusion: A majority of Korean cancer survivors do not sufficiently participate in physical activity. In general, older, unhealthier, non-working, and

  2. Further evaluation of a functional analysis of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in young children.

    PubMed

    Larson, Tracy A; Normand, Matthew P; Morley, Allison J; Miller, Bryon G

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate physical activity increases the risks related to several health problems in children; however, increasing physical activity mitigates these risks. In this study, we examined the relations between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and several environmental conditions (attention, interactive play, alone, escape) with 4 preschool children. We compared the experimental conditions to a control condition and a naturalistic baseline according to a combined multielement and reversal design. Results indicated that all participants were most active in the interactive play condition and that the percentage of MVPA varied across experimental and control conditions. In addition, the frequency and duration of bouts of MVPA were greatest in the interactive play condition. The current study presents a methodology for the identification of environmental contingencies that support increased levels of MVPA in young children, and it holds promise for improving our understanding of the variables related to physical activity.

  3. Moderate activity and fitness, not sedentary time, are independently associated with cardio-metabolic risk in U.S. adults aged 18-49.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, Jeroen H P M; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Koster, Annemarie

    2015-02-23

    This cross-sectional study is one of the first to examine and compare the independent associations of objectively measured sedentary time, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and fitness with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied 543 men and women (aged 18-49 years) from the NHANES 2003-2004 survey. Sedentary time and MVPA were measured by accelerometry. Fitness was assessed with a submaximal treadmill test. Cardio-metabolic risk factors included: waist circumference (WC), BMI, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HDL- and non HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Sedentary time, MVPA and fitness were used as predictors for the cardio-metabolic outcomes in a multiple regression analysis. Standardized regression coefficients were computed. Results show that sedentary time was associated with HDL-cholesterol (β=-0.080, p=0.05) and TG (β=0.080, p=0.03). These results became non-significant after adjustment for MVPA and fitness. MVPA was associated with WC (β=-0.226), BMI (β=-0.239), TG (β=-0.108) and HDL-cholesterol (β=0.144) (all p<0.05). These results remained significant after adjustment for sedentary time and fitness. Fitness was associated with WC (β=-0.287), BMI (β=-0.266), systolic blood pressure (β=-0.159), TG (β=-0.092), and CRP (β=-0.130) (all p<0.05). After adjustment for sedentary time and MVPA these results remained significant. These differences in relative importance of sedentary time, MVPA and fitness on cardio-metabolic-risk are important in the design of prevention programs. In this population, the strength of the associations between MVPA and fitness with cardio-metabolic markers appeared to be similar; both MVPA and fitness showed independent associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors. In contrast, sedentary time showed no independent associations with cardio-metabolic risk after correction for fitness and MVPA.

  4. School time physical activity of students with and without autism spectrum disorders during PE and recess.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2008-10-01

    This study compared moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and students without disabilities during inclusive physical education and recess. Students (7-12 years) wore a uniaxial accelerometer in school for 5 consecutive school days. Results indicated a significant difference between settings, F(1,46) = 15.94, p < .01, partial eta2 = 0.26, observed power = 0.97. Students with and without ASD spent a higher proportion of time in MVPA during physical education than during recess, relative to the amount of time spent in those settings. In addition, structured physical education offers opportunities to increase students' MVPA engagement.

  5. Relationship between physical functioning and physical activity in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether participation in usual moderate-intensity or more-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with physical function performance and to identify sociodemographic, psychosocial, and disease-related covariates that may also compromise physical function performance....

  6. Compliance of physical activity guidelines by chilean low-income children: difference between school and weekend days and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Lorena; Cano, Marcelo; Orellana, Yasna; Kain, Juliana

    2015-05-01

    The main objectives of this study were to compare in 6-9 y Chilean low-income children, daily minutes of moderate/ vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and compliance of the guideline of 60 min of daily MVPA on weekdays versus weekends, by sex and nutritional status (NS). The sample included 250 children (139 boys). Weight and height were measured; MVPA was assessed with NL1000 pedometers during 7 days. The sample was categorized into normal-weight (N) and overweight (OW) according to BMI z score (WHO reference 2007). Comparisons between weekdays and weekends included: a) MVPA by sex, using t-test b) MVPA of N and OW by sex, using ANOVA c) Compliance of guideline by sex and NS, using test of proportions. 66% of the children were OW, accumulating significantly more MVPA on weekdays, 50.5 min versus 40.3; boys more than girls; this result was similar by NS, except for N girls who spent similarly on weekdays as on weekends. Only 33 % boys and 15% girls (p= 0.03) and 17 and 9% (p=0.058) met the guideline on weekdays and weekends respectively, similarly by NS. A very small proportion of children met the MVPA guideline; adopting an active lifestyle is key, considering their high overweight prevalence.

  7. A calorimetric method to determine water activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björklund, Sebastian; Wadsö, Lars

    2011-11-01

    A calorimetric method to determine water activity covering the full range of the water activity scale is presented. A dry stream of nitrogen gas is passed either over the solution whose activity should be determined or left dry before it is saturated by bubbling through water in an isothermal calorimeter. The unknown activity is in principle determined by comparing the thermal power of vaporization related to the gas stream with unknown activity to that with zero activity. Except for three minor corrections (for pressure drop, non-perfect humidification, and evaporative cooling) the unknown water activity is calculated solely based on the water activity end-points zero and unity. Thus, there is no need for calibration with references with known water activities. The method has been evaluated at 30 °C by measuring the water activity of seven aqueous sodium chloride solutions ranging from 0.1 mol kg-1 to 3 mol kg-1 and seven saturated aqueous salt solutions (LiCl, MgCl2, NaBr, NaCl, KCl, KNO3, and K2SO4) with known water activities. The performance of the method was adequate over the complete water activity scale. At high water activities the performance was excellent, which is encouraging as many other methods used for water activity determination have limited performance at high water activities.

  8. The Association Between Physical Activity and Quality of Life Domains Among Older Women.

    PubMed

    Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Moreira, Natália Boneti; de Oliveira, Valdomiro; Mazzardo, Oldemar; de Campos, Wagner

    2015-10-01

    This study examined whether the weekly volume and frequency of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and light walking (LW) were associated with quality of life (QOL) domains of 1,806 older women from Brazil. The WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD instruments were used to measure QOL, while the weekly volume and frequency of MVPA and LW were assessed by IPAQ. An ordinal logistic regression was used as a measure of association. The weekly volumes of MVPA and LW were associated with several domains of QOL. Higher frequency of MVPA was associated with better scores in 10 QOL domains. The weekly frequency of LW, in turn, was associated with all QOL domains. In conclusion, promoting active transport and encouraging physical activity in older adults, for at least 150 min and distributed several days per week, help to increase QOL.

  9. Do children with Down syndrome perform sufficient physical activity to maintain good health? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shields, Nora; Dodd, Karen J; Abblitt, Casey

    2009-10-01

    Our pilot study investigated if children with Down syndrome engaged in the recommended 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) every day. Twenty-three children with Down syndrome (7 girls, 16 boys; mean age 11.7 years, SD = 3.1) wore a triaxial accelerometer for 7 consecutive days to measure their activity levels. The average daily MVPA undertaken was 104.5 min ( SD = 35.3 min). Only 8 of 19 children (42.1%) completed at least 60 min of MVPA each day. Lower amounts of activity were associated with older children (r = -.67, p < .01). Parents, teachers, and health professionals need to encourage children with Down syndrome to take part in more frequent MVPA.

  10. The Effect of Physical Activity on Science Competence and Attitude towards Science Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkenborg, Ann Maria

    This study examines the effect of physical activity on science instruction. To combat the implications of physical inactivity, schools need to be willing to consider all possible opportunities for students to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Integrating physical activity with traditional classroom content is one instructional method to consider. Researchers have typically focused on integration with English/language arts (ELA) and mathematics. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of physical activity on science competence and attitude towards science. Fifty-three third grade children participated in this investigation; one group received science instruction with a physical activity intervention while the other group received traditional science instruction. Participants in both groups completed a modified version of What I Really Think of Science attitude scale (Pell & Jarvis, 2001) and a physical science test of competence prior to and following the intervention. Children were videotaped during science instruction and their movement coded to measure the proportion of time spent in MVPA. Results revealed that children in the intervention group demonstrated greater MVPA during the instructional period. A moderate to large effect size (partial eta squared = .091) was seen in the intervention group science competence post-test indicating greater understanding of force, motion, work, and simple machines concepts than that of the control group who were less physically active. There was no statistically significant attitude difference between the intervention and control groups post-test, (F(1,51) = .375, p = .543). These results provide evidence that integration can effectively present physical science content and have a positive impact on the number of minutes of health-enhancing physical activity in a school day.

  11. Combined Effects of Sedentary Behavior and Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity on Cardiovascular Health in Older, Community-Dwelling Latinos.

    PubMed

    Halloway, Shannon; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E; Semanik, Pamela A; Marquez, David X

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the combined effects of sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on cardiovascular health in older Latinos. In a cross-sectional sample of 147 older, community-dwelling Latinos, time spent in sedentary behavior and MVPA were obtained using accelerometers. Analyses examined the effects of a measure of physical activity that combined levels of sedentary behavior (± 10 daily hours) and MVPA (< 30, 30-150, or > 150 weekly minutes) on cardiovascular health outcomes (blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness). Results suggest that cardiovascular health benefits of MVPA on BMI (p = .005), waist circumference (p = .002), and cardiorespiratory fitness (p = .012) may depend on a participant's level of sedentary behavior. For all three, health benefits of 30-150 weekly minutes of MVPA were found only for those without excessive sedentary behavior (≥ 10 hr). Sedentary behavior may negatively impact cardiovascular health despite moderate participation in MVPA. Health guidelines should suggest reducing sedentary behavior while increasing MVPA.

  12. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour: the role of self-efficacy and past behaviour in predicting the physical activity of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to use an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB), which incorporated additional self-efficacy and past behaviour, to predict the intention to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the MVPA level of Chinese adolescents. Questionnaires that focused on MVPA, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC), self-efficacy and past behaviour related to the MVPA engagement were administered to a sample of 488 young people. Multiple regression analyses provided moderate support for TPB. Three TPB constructs predicted 28.7% of the variance in intentions to engage in MVPA, and that PBC, but not intention, explained 3.4% of the variance in MVPA. Self-efficacy significantly affected intention and behaviour over and above the influence of TPB. Past behaviour had a small but significant improvement in the prediction of intention, but no improvement in the prediction of MVPA. Based on the results, interventions should target adolescent self-efficacy and PBC in physical activity participation.

  13. Validity and Reliability of Fitbit Flex for Step Count, Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity and Activity Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Sushames, Ashleigh; Edwards, Andrew; Thompson, Fintan; McDermott, Robyn; Gebel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the validity and reliability of the Fitbit Flex against direct observation for measuring steps in the laboratory and against the Actigraph for step counts in free-living conditions and for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) overall. Methods Twenty-five adults (12 females, 13 males) wore a Fitbit Flex and an Actigraph GT3X+ during a laboratory based protocol (including walking, incline walking, running and stepping) and free-living conditions during a single day period to examine measurement of steps, AEE and MVPA. Twenty-four of the participants attended a second session using the same protocol. Results Intraclass correlations (ICC) for test-retest reliability of the Fitbit Flex were strong for walking (ICC = 0.57), moderate for stair stepping (ICC = 0.34), and weak for incline walking (ICC = 0.22) and jogging (ICC = 0.26). The Fitbit significantly undercounted walking steps in the laboratory (absolute proportional difference: 21.2%, 95%CI 13.0–29.4%), but it was more accurate, despite slightly over counting, for both jogging (6.4%, 95%CI 3.7–9.0%) and stair stepping (15.5%, 95%CI 10.1–20.9%). The Fitbit had higher coefficients of variation (Cv) for step counts compared to direct observation and the Actigraph. In free-living conditions, the average MVPA minutes were lower in the Fitbit (35.4 minutes) compared to the Actigraph (54.6 minutes), but AEE was greater from the Fitbit (808.1 calories) versus the Actigraph (538.9 calories). The coefficients of variation were similar for AEE for the Actigraph (Cv = 36.0) and Fitbit (Cv = 35.0), but lower in the Actigraph (Cv = 25.5) for MVPA against the Fitbit (Cv = 32.7). Conclusion The Fitbit Flex has moderate validity for measuring physical activity relative to direct observation and the Actigraph. Test-rest reliability of the Fitbit was dependant on activity type and had greater variation between sessions compared to the Actigraph. Physical

  14. ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: 12 month (mid-intervention) report on a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Rachel; Campbell, Elizabeth; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiese, Jarrod; Gillham, Karen; Hollis, Jenna; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a recognised period of physical activity decline, particularly among low-income communities. We report the 12-month (midpoint) effects of a 2-year multicomponent physical activity intervention implemented in disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods A cluster randomised trial was undertaken in 10 secondary schools located in disadvantaged areas in New South Wales, Australia. Students in Grade 7 were recruited, with follow-up in Grade 8. The intervention was guided by socioecological theory and included seven physical activity strategies, and six implementation adoption strategies. The primary outcome was mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day assessed using Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. Outcome data were analysed using repeated measures linear mixed models. Results At baseline, 1150 (93%) students participated in the data collection (mean age 12 years, 48% boys) and 1050 (79%) students participated at 12-month follow-up. By the 12-month follow-up, the six implementation adoption strategies had been used to support schools to deliver four of the seven physical activity elements. There was a significant group-by-time interaction for mean minutes of MVPA per day in favour of the intervention group (adjusted difference between groups at follow-up=3.85 min, 95% CI (0.79 to 6.91), p≤0.01), including significantly more vigorous physical activity (2.45 min, p≤0.01), equating to 27 min more MVPA per week. Summary At 12-month follow-up, the intervention had reduced the decline in physical activity among adolescents from disadvantaged schools. The intervention may assist students to meet physical activity guidelines. PMID:26359346

  15. Comparison of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire and the Short-Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire: An Analysis of Health Survey for England Data

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Shaun; Bridges, Sally; Ng Fat, Linda; Mindell, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire (PASBAQ), used within the Health Survey for England (HSE) at 5-yearly intervals, is not included annually due to funding and interview-length constraints. Policy-makers and data-users are keen to consider shorter instruments such as the Short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for the annual survey. Both questionnaires were administered in HSE 2012, enabling comparative assessment in a random sample of 1252 adults. Methods Relative agreement using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK) statistics was estimated for: sufficient aerobic activity (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] ≥150minutes/week); inactivity (MVPA<30minutes/week); and excessive sitting (≥540minutes/weekday). Cross-sectional associations with health outcomes were compared across tertiles of MVPA and tertiles of sitting time using logistic regression with tests for linear trend. Results Compared with PASBAQ data, IPAQ-assessed estimates of sufficient aerobic activity and inactivity were higher and lower, respectively; estimates of excessive sitting were higher. Demographic patterns in prevalence were similar. Agreement using PABAK statistics was fair-to-moderate for sufficient aerobic activity (0.32–0.49), moderate-to-substantial for inactivity (0.42–0.74), and moderate-to-substantial for excessive sitting (0.49–0.75). As with the PASBAQ, IPAQ-assessed MVPA and sitting each showed graded associations with mental well-being (women: P for trend = 0.003 and 0.004, respectively) and obesity (women: P for trend = 0.007 and 0.014, respectively). Conclusions Capturing habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour through brief questionnaires is complex. Differences in prevalence estimates can reflect differences in questionnaire structure and content rather than differences in reported behaviour. Treating all IPAQ-assessed walking as moderate-intensity contributed to the

  16. Comparison of the EPIC Physical Activity Questionnaire with Combined Heart Rate and Movement Sensing in a Nationally Representative Sample of Older British Adults

    PubMed Central

    España-Romero, Vanesa; Golubic, Rajna; Martin, Kathryn R.; Hardy, Rebecca; Ekelund, Ulf; Kuh, Diana; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Cooper, Rachel; Brage, Soren

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare physical activity (PA) subcomponents from EPIC Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPAQ2) and combined heart rate and movement sensing in older adults. Methods Participants aged 60–64y from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in Great Britain completed EPAQ2, which assesses self-report PA in 4 domains (leisure time, occupation, transportation and domestic life) during the past year and wore a combined sensor for 5 consecutive days. Estimates of PA energy expenditure (PAEE), sedentary behaviour, light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were obtained from EPAQ2 and combined sensing and compared. Complete data were available in 1689 participants (52% women). Results EPAQ2 estimates of PAEE and MVPA were higher than objective estimates and sedentary time and LPA estimates were lower [bias (95% limits of agreement) in men and women were 32.3 (−61.5 to 122.6) and 29.0 (−39.2 to 94.6) kJ/kg/day for PAEE; −4.6 (−10.6 to 1.3) and −6.0 (−10.9 to −1.0) h/day for sedentary time; −171.8 (−454.5 to 110.8) and −60.4 (−367.5 to 246.6) min/day for LPA; 91.1 (−159.5 to 341.8) and 55.4 (−117.2 to 228.0) min/day for MVPA]. There were significant positive correlations between all self-reported and objectively assessed PA subcomponents (rho  = 0.12 to 0.36); the strongest were observed for MVPA (rho = 0.30 men; rho = 0.36 women) and PAEE (rho = 0.26 men; rho = 0.25 women). Conclusion EPAQ2 produces higher estimates of PAEE and MVPA and lower estimates of sedentary and LPA than objective assessment. However, both methodologies rank individuals similarly, suggesting that EPAQ2 may be used in etiological studies in this population. PMID:24516543

  17. Patterns and Associated Factors of Physical Activity among Adolescents in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L.; Ishaku, Cornelius M.; Oyekola, Jameela; Wakawa, Hajara D.; Lawan, Aliyu; Yakubu, Safira; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the context where adolescents’ physical activity (PA) takes place could impact a more targeted approach to implement PA promotion and interventions in Africa. However, standardized data on adolescents’ PA behaviour is lacking in Nigeria. We described PA patterns in the various domains (home, school, transport, leisure-time) and intensity categories (light-intensity PA, moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity [MVPA] and total PA), and their associations with sociodemographic factors and socioeconomic status (SES) among secondary school adolescents in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1006 secondary school adolescents (12–18 years, 50.4% girls) in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Self-reported PA was assessed with an adapted version of the Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Young Adults. Outcomes were weekly minutes (min/wk) of PA spent in the various domains and intensity categories. Multivariate ANOVA was used to examine associations of PA scores (domains and intensity levels) with adolescents’ sociodemographic characteristics and SES, and track differences in PA scores between subgroups. Results The total sample reported most PA at school (1525 min/wk), the least during active transportation (210 min/wk), and only 37% engaged in 60 min of MVPA daily. Boys reported significantly more leisure-time PA (P<0.001), active transportation (P<0.001), MVPA (P = 0.023) and total PA (P = 0.003) than girls, while girls reported more school-based PA (P = 0.009), home-based PA (P<0.001) and light-intensity PA (P<0.001) than boys. Moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.024) and total PA (P = 0.049) were significantly higher in younger age group than in older group. Household car ownership was associated with less active transportation (P = 0.009), less moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.048) and with more leisure-time PA (P = 0.013). High parental SES was associated with more leisure-time PA (P = 0

  18. Physical activity, glycemic control, and diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a national sample.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Hager, Kathy K; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2014-01-01

    To determine if physical activity and/or blood glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) are associated with the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy (PN) in a representative population of diabetics. Three hundred thirty-nine diabetic participants (40-85 yrs) taking part in 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were studied. Participants were defined as having peripheral neuropathy if examination determined ≥1 insensate area in either foot. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was objectively-measured using accelerometry. After adjustments, MVPA was not significantly associated with PN (OR=1.16; 95% CI: 0.48-2.78), nor was HbA1c (OR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.28-1.04). However, there was evidence of statistical interaction (OR=0.24; 95% CI: 0.06-0.87) between MVPA and HbA1c status, showing that diabetics engaging in higher levels of MVPA and having normal HgbA1c levels were less likely to have PN than what would be expected based on the individual effects of MVPA and HbA1c alone. Although MVPA was not directly associated with PN, these findings suggest that proper physical activity, coupled with good glycemic control, is associated with less neuropathy. Future longitudinal studies are required to evaluate whether physical activity and improved glycemic control may help prevent or slow the progression of diabetic end-organ damage, particularly diabetic neuropathy.

  19. Step-based translation of physical activity guidelines in the Lower Mississippi Delta.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Deirdre M; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Champagne, Catherine M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Harsha, David W; Kennedy, Betty M; Johnson, William D; Allen, Ray; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2011-08-01

    To determine how many steps·day(-1) equate to current moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines in a population from the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) of the United States, 58 overweight adults wore an Actigraph accelerometer (GT3X) for up to 2 weeks. Min·day(-1) in MVPA was a good predictor of steps·day(-1) (r(2) = 0.62; p < 0.001; linear regression), such that 30 min of daily MVPA equated to 9154 steps·day(-1) (mixed-model approach). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, sensitivity and specificity were optimized at 8357 steps·day(-1). Results indicate that overweight residents of the LMD should be accumulating at least 8300-9100 steps·day(-1) to meet the recommendation of 30 min·day(-1) MVPA.

  20. METHOD OF SUPPRESSING GASTROINTESTINAL UREASE ACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Visek, W.J.

    1963-04-23

    This patent shows a method of increasing the growth rate of chicks. Certain diacyl substituted ureas such as alloxan, murexide, and barbituric acid are added to their feed, thereby suppressing gastrointestinal urease activity and thus promoting growth. (AEC)

  1. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2006-04-11

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  2. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2002-01-01

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  3. Exploring behavioral markers of long-term physical activity maintenance: a case study of system identification modeling within a behavioral intervention.

    PubMed

    Hekler, Eric B; Buman, Matthew P; Poothakandiyil, Nikhil; Rivera, Daniel E; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Morgan, Adrienne Aiken; McCrae, Christina S; Roberts, Beverly L; Marsiske, Michael; Giacobbi, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    Efficacious interventions to promote long-term maintenance of physical activity are not well understood. Engineers have developed methods to create dynamical system models for modeling idiographic (i.e., within-person) relationships within systems. In behavioral research, dynamical systems modeling may assist in decomposing intervention effects and identifying key behavioral patterns that may foster behavioral maintenance. The Active Adult Mentoring Program was a 16-week randomized controlled trial of a group-based, peer-delivered physical activity intervention targeting older adults. Time-intensive (i.e., daily) physical activity reports were collected throughout the intervention. We explored differential patterns of behavior among participants who received the active intervention (N = 34; 88% women, 64.1 ± 8.3 years of age) and either maintained 150 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA; n = 10) or did not (n = 24) at 18 months following the intervention period. We used dynamical systems modeling to explore whether key intervention components (i.e., self-monitoring, access to an exercise facility, behavioral initiation training, behavioral maintenance training) and theoretically plausible behavioral covariates (i.e., indoor vs. outdoor activity) predicted differential patterns of behavior among maintainers and nonmaintainers. We found that maintainers took longer to reach a steady-state of MVPA. At week 10 of the intervention, nonmaintainers began to drop whereas maintainers increased MVPA. Self-monitoring, behavioral initiation training, percentage of outdoor activity, and behavioral maintenance training, but not access to an exercise facility, were key variables that explained patterns of change among maintainers. Future studies should be conducted to systematically explore these concepts within a priori idiographic (i.e., N-of-1) experimental designs.

  4. Seasonal Variation in Children’s Physical Activity and Sedentary Time

    PubMed Central

    Atkin, Andrew J; Sharp, Stephen J; Harrison, Flo; Brage, Søren; van Sluijs, Esther MF

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Understanding seasonal variation in physical activity is important for informing public health surveillance and intervention design. The aim of the current study was to describe seasonal variation in children’s objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time. Methods Data are from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Participants were invited to wear an accelerometer for seven days on five occasions between November 2008 and January 2010. Outcome variables were sedentary time (<100 counts per minute; min/day) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; >2241 counts per min; min/day). Season was characterised using a categorical variable (spring, summer, autumn, winter) and a continuous function of day of year. Cross-classified linear regression models were used to estimate the association of each of these constructs with the outcome variables. Modification of the seasonal variation by sex, weight status, urban/rural location, parental income and day of the week (week/weekend) was examined using interaction terms in regression models. Results At least 1 wave of valid accelerometer data was obtained from 704 participants (47% male; baseline age 7.6(0.3) years). MVPA was lower in autumn and winter relative to spring, with the magnitude of this difference varying by week/weekend day, sex, weight status, urban/rural location and family income (p for interaction <0.05 in all cases). Total sedentary time was greater in autumn and winter compared to spring; the seasonal effect was stronger at the weekend than during the week (p for interaction <0.01). Conclusion Lower levels of MVPA and elevated sedentary time support the implementation of intervention programmes during autumn and winter. Evidence of greater seasonal variation in weekend behaviour and amongst certain socio-demographic subgroups highlights targets for tailored intervention programmes. PMID:26429733

  5. Relationship between Sedentariness and Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Youth: A Multivariate Multilevel Study

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Hedeker, Donald; dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Souza, Michele; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to jointly analyse moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentariness, and their correlates, in children within their school contexts, using a multivariate multilevel approach. The sample comprises 499 Portuguese children (284 girls) from 23 schools. MVPA and sedentary time were estimated by accelerometer. A set of predictor variables from both child and school levels was tested. Overall, schools explained a small amount of the total variance in both MVPA (5.6%) and sedentariness (3.2%), and a correlation coefficient of −0.45 (p < 0.05) was found between MVPA and sedentariness at the child level. Number of siblings and socioeconomic status (SES) were significantly associated with both sedentariness (SES: β = 2.372 ± 1.183; siblings: β = −8.127 ± 2.759) and MPVA (SES: β = −1.535 ± 0.421; siblings: β = 2.822 ± 0.977), but with opposite signs. Body Mass Index (BMI) (β = −4.804 ± 1.898) and sex (male) (β = 21.561 ± 3.496) were only associated with MVPA. None of the school correlates were statistically significant in their joint effects to simultaneously explain sedentariness and MVPA. These results suggest that although MVPA and sedentariness may be different constructs, they are correlated and this should be taken into account when designing strategies to reduce children’s sedentariness and increase their MVPA. In addition, the small effect of the school context on this relationship highlights the important roles of child and family characteristics. PMID:28165401

  6. Relationship between Sedentariness and Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Youth: A Multivariate Multilevel Study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Hedeker, Donald; Dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Souza, Michele; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2017-02-04

    This study aimed to jointly analyse moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentariness, and their correlates, in children within their school contexts, using a multivariate multilevel approach. The sample comprises 499 Portuguese children (284 girls) from 23 schools. MVPA and sedentary time were estimated by accelerometer. A set of predictor variables from both child and school levels was tested. Overall, schools explained a small amount of the total variance in both MVPA (5.6%) and sedentariness (3.2%), and a correlation coefficient of -0.45 (p < 0.05) was found between MVPA and sedentariness at the child level. Number of siblings and socioeconomic status (SES) were significantly associated with both sedentariness (SES: β = 2.372 ± 1.183; siblings: β = -8.127 ± 2.759) and MPVA (SES: β = -1.535 ± 0.421; siblings: β = 2.822 ± 0.977), but with opposite signs. Body Mass Index (BMI) (β = -4.804 ± 1.898) and sex (male) (β = 21.561 ± 3.496) were only associated with MVPA. None of the school correlates were statistically significant in their joint effects to simultaneously explain sedentariness and MVPA. These results suggest that although MVPA and sedentariness may be different constructs, they are correlated and this should be taken into account when designing strategies to reduce children's sedentariness and increase their MVPA. In addition, the small effect of the school context on this relationship highlights the important roles of child and family characteristics.

  7. Should We Be Looking at the Forest or the Trees? Overall Psychological Need Satisfaction and Individual Needs as Predictors of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Jennifer; Gunnell, Katie E; Teixeira, Pedro; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine whether (a) measures designed to assess satisfaction of competence, autonomy, and relatedness needs in physical activity contexts can represent both general and specific needs satisfaction and (b) the specific needs are associated with concurrent moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) participation (Time 1) and MVPA participation 4 months later (Time 2), beyond general psychological need satisfaction (PNS). Data from 544 adolescents (Mage = 14.1 years, SD = 0.6) were analyzed. A bifactor model specifying four factors (i.e., one general PNS and three specific needs) provided a good fit to the data. Extending the model to predict Time 1 and Time 2 MVPA participation also provided a good fit to the data. General PNS and specific needs had unique and empirically distinguishable associations with MVPA participation. The bifactor operationalization of PNS provides a framework to delineate common and distinctive antecedents and outcomes of general PNS and specific needs.

  8. Composition of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour participation across the school-day, influence of gender and weight status: cross-sectional analyses among disadvantaged Victorian school children

    PubMed Central

    Strugnell, Claudia; Turner, Kyle; Malakellis, Mary; Hayward, Josh; Foster, Charlie; Millar, Lynne; Allender, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background The after-school period has been described as the ‘critical window’ for physical activity (PA) participation. However, little is known about the importance of this window compared with the before and during-school period among socioeconomically disadvantaged children, and influence of gender and weight status. Methods 39 out of 156 (RR=25%) invited primary schools across 26 local government areas in Victoria, Australia, consented to participate with 856 children (RR=36%) participating in the wider study. The analysis sample included 298 Grade 4 and Grade 6 children (mean age: 11.2±1.1; 44% male) whom met minimum accelerometry wear-time criteria and had complete height, weight and health-behaviours questionnaire data. Accelerometry measured duration in daily light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) was calculated for before-school=8–8:59, during-school=9:00–15:29 and after-school=15:30–18:00. Bivariate and multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted. Results During-school represented the greatest accumulation of LPA and MVPA compared with the before and after-school periods. Boys engaged in 102 min/day of LPA (95% CI 98.5 to 104.9) and 62 min/day of MVPA (95% CI 58.9 to 64.7) during-school; girls engaged in 103 min/day of LPA (95% CI 99.7 to 106.5) and 45 min/day of MVPA (95% CI 42.9 to 47.4). Linear regression models indicated that girls with overweight or obesity engaged in significantly less LPA, MVPA and more time in ST during-school. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of in-school PA compared with after-school PA among socioeconomically disadvantage children whom may have fewer resources to participate in after-school PA. PMID:27601489

  9. Assessing physical activity during youth sport: the Observational System for Recording Activity in Children: Youth Sports.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alysia; McDonald, Samantha; McIver, Kerry; Pate, Russell; Trost, Stewart

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and interrater reliability of the Observational System for Recording Activity in Children: Youth Sports (OSRAC:YS). Children (N = 29) participating in a parks and recreation soccer program were observed during regularly scheduled practices. Physical activity (PA) intensity and contextual factors were recorded by momentary time-sampling procedures (10-second observe, 20-second record). Two observers simultaneously observed and recorded children's PA intensity, practice context, social context, coach behavior, and coach proximity. Interrater reliability was based on agreement (Kappa) between the observer's coding for each category, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for percent of time spent in MVPA. Validity was assessed by calculating the correlation between OSRAC:YS estimated and objectively measured MVPA. Kappa statistics for each category demonstrated substantial to almost perfect interobserver agreement (Kappa = 0.67-0.93). The ICC for percent time in MVPA was 0.76 (95% C.I. = 0.49-0.90). A significant correlation (r = .73) was observed for MVPA recorded by observation and MVPA measured via accelerometry. The results indicate the OSRAC:YS is a reliable and valid tool for measuring children's PA and contextual factors during a youth soccer practice.

  10. Methods for using polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity

    DOEpatents

    Morant, Marc D; Harris, Paul

    2016-08-23

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  11. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5,536). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = − 0.01; 95% CI: − 0.01 to − 0.004; P < 0.001), but not sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.0003; 95% CI: − 0.001–0.0001; P = 0.37), was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥ 487.5 min/day) level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.02; 95% CI: − 0.03 to − 0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769). The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA. PMID:26844174

  12. Sports Facilities, Shopping Centers or Homes: What Locations are Important for Adults' Physical Activity? A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Marijke; Ettema, Dick; Pierik, Frank; Dijst, Martin

    2016-03-04

    Physical activity (PA) is influenced by the built environment. However, little is known about the types of built environment where adults spend their time, and at what levels of PA they engage in those environments. Understanding the effect of the built environment on PA requires insight into PA behavior at different types of locations (e.g., home, work, shopping centers, and sports facilities). Therefore, this study describes where adults aged 45-65 years were active with moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA), and examines associations of socio-demographic factors and neighborhood with MVPA at these locations. Participants' (N = 308) PA was measured for seven days using accelerometers and GPS-devices. Adults spent most minutes of MVPA at home and work. Highest MVPA-ratios of total time spent at a location were achieved in sports facilities and during transport. Neighborhood characteristics and socio-demographic factors such as work status, health status and household structure, had significant effects on MVPA at various locations and on total MVPA. Understanding PA behavior at various locations may provide insights that allow professionals in different domains (e.g., health, landscaping, urban planning) to develop strategies to stimulate PA.

  13. Sports Facilities, Shopping Centers or Homes: What Locations are Important for Adults’ Physical Activity? A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Marijke; Ettema, Dick; Pierik, Frank; Dijst, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is influenced by the built environment. However, little is known about the types of built environment where adults spend their time, and at what levels of PA they engage in those environments. Understanding the effect of the built environment on PA requires insight into PA behavior at different types of locations (e.g., home, work, shopping centers, and sports facilities). Therefore, this study describes where adults aged 45–65 years were active with moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA), and examines associations of socio-demographic factors and neighborhood with MVPA at these locations. Participants’ (N = 308) PA was measured for seven days using accelerometers and GPS-devices. Adults spent most minutes of MVPA at home and work. Highest MVPA-ratios of total time spent at a location were achieved in sports facilities and during transport. Neighborhood characteristics and socio-demographic factors such as work status, health status and household structure, had significant effects on MVPA at various locations and on total MVPA. Understanding PA behavior at various locations may provide insights that allow professionals in different domains (e.g., health, landscaping, urban planning) to develop strategies to stimulate PA. PMID:26959041

  14. Residents of highly walkable neighbourhoods in Canadian urban areas do substantially more physical activity: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thielman, Justin; Manson, Heather; Chiu, Maria; Copes, Ray; Rosella, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that neighbourhood walkability is associated with small differences in physical activity; however, the health impacts of these small differences have been questioned. We examined the size of the association of walkability with accelerometer-measured physical activity in a large, national-level Canadian population, and compared results to physical activity levels recommended in international guidelines. Our primary objective was to investigate the direction and size of the differences in physical activity that were related to walkability, and whether these differences depended on age. Methods: Participants were included from among respondents to the 2007-2011 Canadian Health Measures Surveys who lived in urban areas and were aged 6-79 years. The Canadian Health Measures Surveys are ongoing cross-sectional surveys of a Canada-wide population. Respondents were divided into quintiles based on Street Smart Walk Score® values of their census dissemination areas. For all respondents and age subgroups, we used covariate-adjusted generalized linear models to estimate differences between quintiles in accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. Results: We included 7180 respondents. Differences in participant MVPA between highest and lowest Street Smart Walk Score quintiles were 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] -3.2 to 9.6) minutes/day for ages 6-11 years, 11.4 (95% CI 5.3 to 17.4) minutes/day for ages 12-17 years, 9.9 (95% CI 2.4 to 17.4) minutes/day for ages 18-29 years, 14.9 (95% CI 10.2 to 19.6) minutes/day for ages 30-44 years, 11.5 (95% CI 6.7 to 16.3) minutes/day for ages 45-64 years and 6.9 (95% CI 3.1 to 10.8) minutes/day for ages 65-79 years. There were no significant differences in sedentary time in any age group. Interpretation: In all groups except the youngest, participants in the most walkable areas did significantly more MVPA than those in the least walkable areas. For several age

  15. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  16. Active music therapy and Parkinson's disease: methods.

    PubMed

    Pacchetti, C; Aglieri, R; Mancini, F; Martignoni, E; Nappi, G

    1998-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) is an unconventional, multisensorial therapy poorly assessed in medical care but widely used to different ends in a variety of settings. MT has two branches: active and passive. In active MT the utilisation of instruments is structured to correspond to all sensory organs so as to obtain suitable motor and emotional responses. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the effects of MT in the neurorehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD), a common degenerative disorder involving movement and emotional impairment. Sixteen PD patients took part in 13 weekly sessions of MT each lasting 2 hours. At the beginning and at the end of the session, every 2 weeks, the patients were evaluated by a neurologist, who assessed PD severity with UPDRS, emotional functions with Happiness Measures (HM) and quality of life using the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQL). After every session a significant improvement in motor function, particularly in relation to hypokinesia, was observed both in the overall and in the pre-post session evaluations. HM, UPDRS-ADL and PDQL changes confirmed an improving effect of MT on emotional functions, activities of daily living and quality of life. In conclusion, active MT, operating at a multisensorial level, stimulates motor, affective and behavioural functions. Finally, we propose active MT as new method to include in PD rehabilitation programmes. This article describes the methods adopted during MT sessions with PD patients.

  17. Combined Effects of Time Spent in Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors and Sleep on Obesity and Cardio-Metabolic Health Markers: A Novel Compositional Data Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Chastin, Sebastien F M; Palarea-Albaladejo, Javier; Dontje, Manon L; Skelton, Dawn A

    2015-01-01

    The associations between time spent in sleep, sedentary behaviors (SB) and physical activity with health are usually studied without taking into account that time is finite during the day, so time spent in each of these behaviors are codependent. Therefore, little is known about the combined effect of time spent in sleep, SB and physical activity, that together constitute a composite whole, on obesity and cardio-metabolic health markers. Cross-sectional analysis of NHANES 2005-6 cycle on N = 1937 adults, was undertaken using a compositional analysis paradigm, which accounts for this intrinsic codependence. Time spent in SB, light intensity (LIPA) and moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA) was determined from accelerometry and combined with self-reported sleep time to obtain the 24 hour time budget composition. The distribution of time spent in sleep, SB, LIPA and MVPA is significantly associated with BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, plasma glucose, plasma insulin (all p<0.001), and systolic (p<0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.003), but not HDL or LDL. Within the composition, the strongest positive effect is found for the proportion of time spent in MVPA. Strikingly, the effects of MVPA replacing another behavior and of MVPA being displaced by another behavior are asymmetric. For example, re-allocating 10 minutes of SB to MVPA was associated with a lower waist circumference by 0.001% but if 10 minutes of MVPA is displaced by SB this was associated with a 0.84% higher waist circumference. The proportion of time spent in LIPA and SB were detrimentally associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease markers, but the association with SB was stronger. For diabetes risk markers, replacing SB with LIPA was associated with more favorable outcomes. Time spent in MVPA is an important target for intervention and preventing transfer of time from LIPA to SB might lessen the negative effects of physical inactivity.

  18. Combined Effects of Time Spent in Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors and Sleep on Obesity and Cardio-Metabolic Health Markers: A Novel Compositional Data Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Palarea-Albaladejo, Javier; Dontje, Manon L.; Skelton, Dawn A.

    2015-01-01

    The associations between time spent in sleep, sedentary behaviors (SB) and physical activity with health are usually studied without taking into account that time is finite during the day, so time spent in each of these behaviors are codependent. Therefore, little is known about the combined effect of time spent in sleep, SB and physical activity, that together constitute a composite whole, on obesity and cardio-metabolic health markers. Cross-sectional analysis of NHANES 2005–6 cycle on N = 1937 adults, was undertaken using a compositional analysis paradigm, which accounts for this intrinsic codependence. Time spent in SB, light intensity (LIPA) and moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA) was determined from accelerometry and combined with self-reported sleep time to obtain the 24 hour time budget composition. The distribution of time spent in sleep, SB, LIPA and MVPA is significantly associated with BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, plasma glucose, plasma insulin (all p<0.001), and systolic (p<0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.003), but not HDL or LDL. Within the composition, the strongest positive effect is found for the proportion of time spent in MVPA. Strikingly, the effects of MVPA replacing another behavior and of MVPA being displaced by another behavior are asymmetric. For example, re-allocating 10 minutes of SB to MVPA was associated with a lower waist circumference by 0.001% but if 10 minutes of MVPA is displaced by SB this was associated with a 0.84% higher waist circumference. The proportion of time spent in LIPA and SB were detrimentally associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease markers, but the association with SB was stronger. For diabetes risk markers, replacing SB with LIPA was associated with more favorable outcomes. Time spent in MVPA is an important target for intervention and preventing transfer of time from LIPA to SB might lessen the negative effects of physical inactivity. PMID:26461112

  19. Patterns of daily physical activity during school days in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mota, Jorge; Santos, Paula; Guerra, Sandra; Ribeiro, José C; Duarte, José A

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the weekday patterns of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in school children and adolescents and determine if there are periods of the day that are representative of their typical MVPA. The sample comprised 84 subjects (boys, n = 30; girls, n = 54), age 8-15 years old. Daily totals for the physical activity variables were calculated by summing the values from 13 hr of physical activity (PA) measurements (9:00-22:00), with 60-min time blocks comprising each day. The MVPA data values were categorized in four daily periods: morning (9:00-11:59), noon (12:00-14:59), late afternoon (15:00-17.59), and evening (18:00-21.59). Our data show that boys participated significantly more in MVPA than girls. Despite no clear patterns or differences among sex being found, girls showed higher percent of time engaged in MVPA during the morning and early afternoon periods (sum of two periods 51.0%), while boys' percent of time engaged in MVPA is higher at late afternoon and evening periods (sum of two periods 53.8%). The principal components analyses showed four distinct components that accounted for 67% of the variance, as follows: school hours (component 1); lunchtime and outside-school activities (component 2); morning time before school period (component 4); and period before bedtime (component 3) appear as distinct periods of the day. In conclusion, the present study shows that boys engaged more in MVPA than girls. Girls tend to be more active during school periods, while boys are more active after school.

  20. The effect of playground- and nature-based playtime interventions on physical activity and self-esteem in UK school children.

    PubMed

    Barton, Jo; Sandercock, Gavin; Pretty, Jules; Wood, Carly

    2015-01-01

    School playtime provides opportunities for children to engage in physical activity (PA). Playground playtime interventions designed to increase PA have produced differing results. However, nature can also promote PA, through the provision of large open spaces for activity. The purpose of this study is to determine which playtime interventions are most effective at increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and if this varies by school location. Fifty-two children from an urban and rural school participated in a playground sports (PS) and nature-based orienteering intervention during playtime for one week. MVPA was assessed the day before and on the final day of the interventions using accelerometers. Intervention type (p < 0.05) and school location (p < 0.001) significantly influenced MVPA; with PS increasing MVPA more than nature-based orienteering. Urban children seemed to respond to the interventions more positively; however, differences in baseline MVPA might influence these changes. There was a positive correlation for fitness and MVPA during PS (r = 0.32; p < 0.05), but not nature-based orienteering (p > 0.05). The provision of PS influences PA the most; however, a variety of interventions are required to engage less fit children in PA.

  1. [Bioluminescent method of determining antiprotease activity].

    PubMed

    Gitel'zon, I I; Rykov, S A; Kratasiuk, G A; Petushkov, V N; Shvetskiĭ, A G

    1985-11-01

    A method for antiprotease activity measurement based on the use of luminous bacteria luciferase as protein substrate of proteases is suggested. Antiprotease is incubated with protease for 1 to 2 min at 30 degrees C and then it is added to the reaction mixture containing luciferase, NADH: FMN-oxidoreductase and their substrates--myristic aldehyde, FMN and NADH. Biofluorescence is measured in a temperature-controlled cuvette for 1 min. The total time of the measurement is 3 min. The method can be applied both in fine biochemical assays and in medical rapid diagnosis.

  2. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Is Associated with Brain Volumetric Measurements in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Hubbard, Elizabeth A.; Motl, Robert W.; Pilutti, Lara A.; Wetter, Nathan C.; Sutton, Bradley P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Little is known about physical activity and its association with volumes of whole brain gray matter and white matter and deep gray matter structures in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Purpose. This study examined the association between levels of physical activity and brain volumetric measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in MS. Method. 39 persons with MS wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period and underwent a brain MRI. Normalized GM volume (NGMV), normalized WM volume (NWMV), and deep GM structures were calculated from 3D T1-weighted structural brain images. We conducted partial correlations (pr) controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Results. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significantly associated with NGMV (pr = 0.370, p < 0.05), NWMV (pr = 0.433, p < 0.01), hippocampus (pr = 0.499, p < 0.01), thalamus (pr = 0.380, p < 0.05), caudate (pr = 0.539, p < 0.01), putamen (pr = 0.369, p < 0.05), and pallidum (pr = 0.498, p < 0.01) volumes, when controlling for sex, age, clinical course of MS, and Expanded Disability Status Scale score. There were no associations between sedentary and light physical activity with MRI outcomes. Conclusion. Our results provide the first evidence that MVPA is associated with volumes of whole brain GM and WM and deep GM structures that are involved in motor and cognitive functions in MS. PMID:26146460

  3. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2016-02-09

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  4. Method for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2006-06-06

    A non-destructive testing method comprises providing a specimen having at least one positron emitter therein; determining a threshold energy for activating the positron emitter; and determining whether a half-life of the positron emitter is less than a selected half-life. If the half-life of the positron emitter is greater than or equal to the selected half-life, then activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater than the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons in the specimen. If the half-life of the positron emitter is less then the selected half-life, then alternately activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater then the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by positron annihilation within the specimen.

  5. Association of Markers of Inflammation with Sleep and Physical Activity among People Living with HIV or AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michael D.; Jaggers, Jason R.; Dudgeon, Wesley D.; Hébert, James R.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.; Hand, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations of sleep and minutes spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Cross-sectional analyses (n=45) focused on associations of inflammatory outcomes (i.e., CRP and IL-6) with actigraph-derived sleep duration, latency, and efficiency; bedtime; wake time; and wake-after-sleep-onset; as well as MVPA. Least square means for CRP and IL-6 by levels of sleep and MVPA were computed from general linear models. Individuals below the median of sleep duration, above the median for bedtime, and below the median of MVPA minutes had higher CRP or IL-6 levels. Generally, individuals with both low MVPA and poor sleep characteristics had higher inflammation levels than those with more MVPA and better sleep. Understanding the combined impact of multiple lifestyle/behavioral factors on inflammation could inform intervention strategies to reduce inflammation and therefore, chronic disease risk. PMID:25399034

  6. Self-presentation and physical activity in breast cancer survivors: the moderating effect of social cognitive constructs.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2011-12-01

    This study examined (1) the relationships between self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation and impression construction) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among breast cancer survivors, and (2) whether social cognitive constructs (i.e., self-presentational efficacy expectancy [SPEE]; self-presentational outcome expectancy [SPOE]; self-presentational outcome value [SPOV]) moderate these relationships. Breast cancer survivors (N = 169; Mage = 55.06, SD = 10.67 years) completed self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age and body mass index, indicated that impression motivation was a significant correlate of MVPA (β = .25). Furthermore, SPEE (β = .21) and SPOV (β = .27) were moderators of this relationship. The final models accounted for 12-24% of the variance in MVPA. The findings of this study suggest that self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation) may indeed relate to breast cancer survivors' MVPA. In addition, social cognitive constructs (i.e., SPEE, SPOV) moderated the relationship between impression motivation and MVPA. It may be effective to target impression motivation, SPEE, and SPOV in interventions aimed at increasing MVPA among breast cancer survivors.

  7. Environmental and personal correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in African American women: An ecological momentary assessment study.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; Jones, Kelly K; Finnegan, Lorna; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2017-04-01

    The authors of this study examined within-person associations of environmental factors (weather, built and social environmental barriers) and personal factors (daily hassles, affect) with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in African American women aged 25-64 years living in metropolitan Chicago (n = 97). In 2012-13, for seven days, women wore an accelerometer and were signaled five times per day to complete a survey covering environmental and personal factors on a study-provided smartphone. Day-level measures of each were derived, and mixed regression models were used to test associations. Poor weather was associated with a 27.3% reduction in daily MVPA. Associations between built and social environmental barriers and daily MVPA or SB were generally not statistically significant. Negative affect at the first daily signal was associated with a 38.6% decrease in subsequent daily MVPA and a 33.2-minute increase in subsequent daily SB. Each one-minute increase in MVPA during the day was associated with a 2.2% higher likelihood of positive affect at the end of the day. SB during the day was associated with lower subsequent positive affect. Real-time interventions that address overcoming poor weather and negative affect may help African American women increase MVPA and/or decrease SB.

  8. Physical Activity Levels, Frequency, and Type Among Adolescents with and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Stanish, Heidi I; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda G

    2017-03-01

    We compared time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), type, and frequency of participation in physical activities between adolescents with ASD (n = 35) and typically developing (TD) adolescents (n = 60). Accelerometers measured MVPA and participants were interviewed about engagement in physical activities. Adolescents with ASD spent less time in MVPA compared to TD adolescents (29 min/day vs. 50 min/day, p < 0.001) and fewer met the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (14 vs. 29%, p > 0.05). Among adolescents <16 years old, those with ASD participated in fewer activities than TD adolescents (5.3 vs. 7.1 activities, p < 0.03). Walking/hiking and active video gaming were among the top activities for both groups. Findings support the need for interventions that meet the needs of youth with ASD.

  9. Physical Activity and Falls in Older Men: The Critical Role of Mobility Limitations

    PubMed Central

    JEFFERIS, BARBARA J.; MEROM, DAFNA; SARTINI, CLAUDIO; WANNAMETHEE, S. GOYA; ASH, SARAH; LENNON, LUCY T.; ILIFFE, STEVE; KENDRICK, DENISE; WHINCUP, PETER H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Physical activity (PA) has many health benefits but may increase falls risk among older adults. We study how objectively measured habitual daily PA is related to falls by exploring the modifying effect of mobility limitations and the mediating roles of fitness and lower-limb strength. Methods One thousand six hundred fifty-five (53%) of 3137 surviving participants (men age 71–91 yr) in an ongoing UK-population-based cohort study wore an ActiGraph GT3x accelerometer over the hip for 1 wk in 2010–2012 to measure PA (exposure) and reported demographic and health status, including mobility limitations. One year later, 825 men reported falls history (outcome). Results Seven hundred of 825 men had ≥600 min·d−1 of accelerometer wear for ≥3 d. Nineteen percent (n = 128) reported falls 1 yr later. Associations between PA and falls differed by presence of mobility limitations. Among 66% (n = 471) of men without mobility limitations, number of falls increased incrementally (for every 30 min of moderate to vigorous PA [MVPA]: incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–2.03, adjusted for falls risk factors). Step count was not related to number of falls below 9000 steps per day but was related to number of falls ≥9000 steps per day (for every additional 1000 steps per day: IRR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.16–2.18). Among 33% (n = 229) of men with mobility limitations, falls risk declined with increasing activity (for every 1000 steps per day: IRR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70–0.91; for every 30 min of MVPA: IRR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42–0.89; for every additional 30 min of sedentary behavior ≥600 min·d−1: IRR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.07–1.40). Conclusions Interventions to promote MVPA in older men should incorporate falls prevention strategies. Among adults with mobility limitations, trials should investigate whether increasing MVPA levels can reduce falls risk. PMID:25668406

  10. A new method for FMRI activation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jianing; Talavage, Thomas M.; Pollak, Ilya

    2009-02-01

    The objective of fMRI data analysis is to detect the region of the brain that gets activated in response to a specific stimulus presented to the subject. We develop a new algorithm for activation detection in event-related fMRI data. We utilize a forward model for fMRI data acquisition which explicitly incorporates physiological noise, scanner noise and the spatial blurring introduced by the scanner. After slice-by-slice image restoration procedure that independently restores each data slice corresponding to each time index, we estimate the parameters of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) model for each pixel of the restored data. In order to enforce spatial regularity in our estimates, we model the prior distribution of the HRF parameters as a generalized Gaussian Markov random field (GGMRF) model. We develop an algorithm to compute the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimates of the parameters. We then threshold the amplitude parameters to obtain the final activation map. We illustrate our algorithm by comparing it with the widely used general linear model (GLM) method. In synthetic data experiments, under the same probability of false alarm, the probability of correct detection for our method is up to 15% higher than GLM. In real data experiments, through anatomical analysis and benchmark testing using block paradigm results, we demonstrate that our algorithm produces fewer false alarms than GLM.

  11. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fang, Yi; Myrer, Rachel S; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of recommended levels (≥ 30 min/day) of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥ 30 min/day) from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p < 0.01), and were 55% lower for every 1% increase in sedentary time (p < 0.001). Older children had 26% lower odds of meeting the recommended levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p < 0.05). A significant proportion of MVPA variance was explained by classroom and school affiliation (Rho = 0.09 to 0.54, p < 0.001). Daily steps, sedentary times, grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children.

  12. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Ryan D.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Fang, Yi; Myrer, Rachel S.; Fu, You; Hannon, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of recommended levels (≥ 30 min/day) of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥ 30 min/day) from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p < 0.01), and were 55% lower for every 1% increase in sedentary time (p < 0.001). Older children had 26% lower odds of meeting the recommended levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p < 0.05). A significant proportion of MVPA variance was explained by classroom and school affiliation (Rho = 0.09 to 0.54, p < 0.001). Daily steps, sedentary times, grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children. PMID:26844162

  13. System and method for monitoring cellular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Fraser, Scott E. (Inventor); Lansford, Russell D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring cellular activity in a cellular specimen. According to one embodiment, a plurality of excitable markers are applied to the specimen. A multi-photon laser microscope is provided to excite a region of the specimen and cause fluorescence to be radiated from the region. The radiating fluorescence is processed by a spectral analyzer to separate the fluorescence into respective wavelength bands. The respective bands of fluorescence are then collected by an array of detectors, with each detector receiving a corresponding one of the wavelength bands.

  14. System and method for monitoring cellular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Fraser, Scott E. (Inventor); Lansford, Russell D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring cellular activity in a cellular specimen. According to one embodiment, a plurality of excitable markers are applied to the specimen. A multi-photon laser microscope is provided to excite a region of the specimen and cause fluorescence to be radiated from the region. The radiating fluorescence is processed by a spectral analyzer to separate the fluorescence into respective wavelength bands. The respective bands of fluorescence are then collected by an array of detectors, with each detector receiving a corresponding one of the wavelength bands.

  15. Dual stage active magnetic regenerator and method

    DOEpatents

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.

    1999-03-30

    A dual stage active magnetic regenerator refrigerator as well as method using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle includes a high temperature stage refrigerant comprising DyAl.sub.2 or (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 where x is selected to be greater than 0 and less than about 0.3 in combination with a low temperature stage comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 where x is selected to be greater than about 0.5 and less than 1 to provide significantly improved refrigeration efficiency in the liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen.

  16. Dual stage active magnetic regenerator and method

    DOEpatents

    Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1999-03-30

    A dual stage active magnetic regenerator refrigerator as well as method using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle includes a high temperature stage refrigerant comprising DyAl{sub 2} or (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} where x is selected to be greater than 0 and less than about 0.3 in combination with a low temperature stage comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} where x is selected to be greater than about 0.5 and less than 1 to provide significantly improved refrigeration efficiency in the liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen. 17 figs.

  17. Differences in youth and adult physical activity in park settings by sex and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Stanis, Sonja A Wilhelm; Besenyi, Gina M; Child, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    We examined differences by sex and race/ethnicity in the observed moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) of youth and adults in diverse areas of 4 parks in Kansas City, Missouri, in 2009. Male youth were more active on playgrounds and pools or splashpads than female youth. White youth were less active than nonwhite youth in open spaces and on paved trails. Male adults were more active in open spaces than female adults, and white adults were more active on paved trails than nonwhite adults. Understanding variations in MVPA between user groups can inform park design efforts to foster increased activity among all visitors.

  18. Linking Psychological Need Satisfaction and Physical Activity to Dimensions of Health-Related Quality of Life During Adolescence: A Test of Direct, Reciprocal, and Mediating Effects.

    PubMed

    Gunnell, Katie E; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine; Bélanger, Mathieu

    2016-08-01

    Despite research attention toward understanding relationships between psychological need satisfaction (PNS), moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), methodological limitations make it difficult to establish reciprocal and mediating effects. Reciprocal relationships between PNS and MVPA were examined over 4 years, and their effects on adolescents' change in dimensions of HRQoL were examined. Self-reported data were collected from 932 adolescents (Mage = 10.9 years) every 4 months beginning in Grades 5/6. At the between-persons and within-person level, earlier PNS predicted later MVPA whereas earlier MVPA did not predict later PNS. Increases in MVPA were associated with greater change in physical (βlinear = .61, βquadratic = .77, ps = .03) and school functioning (βlinear = .68, βquadratic = .84, ps = .03) but no other dimensions of HRQoL (p > .05). Decreases in PNS were not associated with any of the dimensions of HRQoL. Fostering adolescents' PNS could be a starting point to increase MVPA, which, in turn, may enhance select dimensions of HRQoL.

  19. Patterns of weekday and weekend physical activity in youth in 2 Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Comte, Melisa; Hobin, Erin; Majumdar, Sumit R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Ball, Geoff D C; McGavock, Jonathan

    2013-02-01

    Few Canadian children are meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines for optimal growth and health. There is little information describing the patterns of PA among Canadian youth, so it is difficult to determine where the deficits occur. The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of youth and windows of time characterized by low PA and high sedentary behaviour. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 626 youth (aged 10-15 years) in 2 Canadian provinces. The primary exposure variables included geographic setting (rural vs. urban), sex, and days of the week (weekend days vs. weekdays). The primary outcome measures were minutes of light PA, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary behavior, assessed with accelerometry. Compared with weekdays, MVPA was ∼30% lower on weekend days (55.8 ± 23.0 min vs. 38.7 ± 26.7 min; p < 0.001), whereas light PA was ∼15% higher. Significantly more youth achieved an average of >60 min of MVPA on weekdays than on weekend days (46% vs. 22%; p < 0.001). Sex-specific differences in MVPA were more pronounced on weekdays than on weekend days (∼13 vs ∼8 min per day; p < 0.01). Youth in rural settings achieved ∼9 fewer minutes of MVPA daily than youth in urban settings (p < 0.001). In youth 10 to 15 years of age, daily MVPA is lower and light PA is higher on weekend days than on weekdays. Girls and students living in rural areas were particularly vulnerable to low levels of MVPA.

  20. A Web-Based, Social Networking Physical Activity Intervention for Insufficiently Active Adults Delivered via Facebook App: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Monika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Plotnikoff, Ron; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thomas, Samantha; Nelson-Field, Karen; Olds, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Online social networks offer considerable potential for delivery of socially influential health behavior change interventions. Objective To determine the efficacy, engagement, and feasibility of an online social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers delivered via Facebook app. Methods A total of 110 adults with a mean age of 35.6 years (SD 12.4) were recruited online in teams of 3 to 8 friends. Teams were randomly allocated to receive access to a 50-day online social networking physical activity intervention which included self-monitoring, social elements, and pedometers (“Active Team” Facebook app; n=51 individuals, 12 teams) or a wait-listed control condition (n=59 individuals, 13 teams). Assessments were undertaken online at baseline, 8 weeks, and 20 weeks. The primary outcome measure was self-reported weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes were weekly walking, vigorous physical activity time, moderate physical activity time, overall quality of life, and mental health quality of life. Analyses were undertaken using random-effects mixed modeling, accounting for potential clustering at the team level. Usage statistics were reported descriptively to determine engagement and feasibility. Results At the 8-week follow-up, the intervention participants had significantly increased their total weekly MVPA by 135 minutes relative to the control group (P=.03), due primarily to increases in walking time (155 min/week increase relative to controls, P<.001). However, statistical differences between groups for total weekly MVPA and walking time were lost at the 20-week follow-up. There were no significant changes in vigorous physical activity, nor overall quality of life or mental health quality of life at either time point. High levels of engagement with the intervention, and particularly the self-monitoring features, were observed. Conclusions An online, social networking physical activity intervention with

  1. Impact of a walking school bus program on children's active commuting to school and physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walking School Buses (WSB) are groups of students, led to and from school by adults, in which students are picked up at designated "bus stops". The impact of WSB programs on students' active commuting to school (walking/cycling to school, ACS), and moderate-to vigorous-physical activity (MVPA) has n...

  2. Moderating effects of age, gender and education on the associations of perceived neighborhood environment attributes with accelerometer-based physical activity: the IPEN Adult study Moderating effects of age, gender and education on the associations of perceived neighborhood environment attributes with accelerometer-based physical activity: the IPEN Adult study

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salvo, Deborah; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan; Owen, Neville; Mitas, Josef; Troelsen, Jens; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Davey, Rachel; Reis, Rodrigo; Sarmiento, Olga L; Schofield, Grant; Conway, Terry L; Sallis, James F

    2015-01-01

    The study's purpose was to examine age, gender, and education as potential moderators of the associations of perceived neighborhood environment variables with accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were from 7273 adults from 16 sites (11 countries) that were part of a coordinated multi-country cross-sectional study. Age moderated the associations of perceived crime safety, and perceiving no major physical barriers to walking, with MVPA: positive associations were only found in older adults. Perceived land use mix-access was linearly (positive) associated with MVPA in men, and curvilinearly in women. Perceived crime safety was related to MVPA only in women. No moderating relationships were found for education. Overall the associations of adults’ perceptions of environmental attributes with MVPA were largely independent of the socio-demographic factors examined. These findings are encouraging, suggesting that efforts to optimize the perceived built and social environment may act in a socially-equitable manner to facilitate MVPA. PMID:26454247

  3. Body image, BMI, and physical activity in girls and boys aged 14-16 years.

    PubMed

    Kantanista, Adam; Osiński, Wiesław; Borowiec, Joanna; Tomczak, Maciej; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body image, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys aged 14-16 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was evaluated by the Physical Activity Screening Measure. Body image was assessed using the Feelings and Attitudes Towards the Body Scale, and participants' BMI was determined based on measured height and weight. Compared to boys, girls reported more negative body image (p<.05). The results of the three-way hierarchical regression revealed that body image was a statistically significant positive predictor of MVPA for adolescents, regardless of BMI. Additionally, body image was a stronger predictor of MVPA in boys than in girls. These findings suggest that body image, rather than BMI, is important in undertaking physical activity in adolescents and should be considered when preparing programs aimed at improving physical activity.

  4. Actively controlled vibration welding system and method

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Wayne W.; Kang, Bongsu; Tan, Chin-An

    2013-04-02

    A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an active material element, and anvil assembly. The assembly may include an anvil body connected to a back plate and support member. The element, e.g., a piezoelectric stack or shape memory alloy, is positioned with respect to the assembly. The horn vibrates in a desirable first direction to form a weld on a work piece. The element controls any vibrations in a second direction by applying calibrated response to the anvil body in the second direction. A method for controlling undesirable vibrations in the system includes positioning the element with respect to the anvil assembly, connecting the anvil body to the support member through the back plate, vibrating the horn in a desirable first direction, and transmitting an input signal to the element to control vibration in an undesirable second direction.

  5. Associations of season and region on objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hagströmer, Maria; Rizzo, Nico S; Sjöström, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and regional variation may influence physical activity (PA) patterns. These associations are in need of further investigation. The objective of the current study was to examine the association of season and region on objectively measured PA. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study with 1172 participants living in Sweden. Data on PA were collected throughout a calendar year using accelerometry. Regions were categorised as south (Götaland), central (Svealand) and north (Norrland). Outcome variables included accelerometer-measured mean counts per minute, sedentary time and time in low intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (MVPA) or greater. ANCOVA was used to determine the associations of season and region with PA, adjusting for sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and education. The results showed that during the Spring season more time was spent in MVPA than during the Autumn. For participants living in the south of Sweden, a significant trend for season was found for MVPA, with Spring having the highest MVPA (P = 0.025). Season had a borderline significant association with MVPA or higher intensity activities (P = 0.051). No significant effects of region or season on total PA, low-intensity PA and sedentary periods of time were observed. The results indicate that studies conducted in a population living in high latitudes, may not be significantly affected by seasonality or region when assessing PA.

  6. Physical Activity Measured by Accelerometry and its Associations With Cardiac Structure and Vascular Function in Young and Middle‐Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Charlotte; Lyass, Asya; Larson, Martin G.; Spartano, Nicole L.; Vita, Joseph A.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Esliger, Dale W.; Blease, Susan J.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with several health benefits, including lower cardiovascular disease risk. The independent influence of physical activity on cardiac and vascular function in the community, however, has been sparsely investigated. Measures and Results We related objective measures of moderate‐ to vigorous‐intensity physical activity (MVPA, assessed by accelerometry) to cardiac and vascular indices in 2376 participants of the Framingham Heart Study third generation cohort (54% women, mean age 47 years). Using multivariable regression models, we related MVPA to the following echocardiographic and vascular measures: left ventricular mass, left atrial and aortic root sizes, carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and forward pressure wave. Men and women engaged in MVPA 29.9±21.4 and 25.5±19.4 min/day, respectively. Higher values of MVPA (per 10‐minute increment) were associated with lower carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (estimate −0.53 ms/m; P=0.006) and lower forward pressure wave (estimate −0.23 mm Hg; P=0.03) but were not associated with augmentation index (estimate 0.13%; P=0.25). MVPA was associated positively with loge left ventricular mass (estimate 0.006 loge [g/m2]; P=0.0003), left ventricular wall thickness (estimate 0.07 mm; P=0.0001), and left atrial dimension (estimate 0.10 mm; P=0.01). MVPA also tended to be positively associated with aortic root dimension (estimate 0.05 mm; P=0.052). Associations of MVPA with cardiovascular measures were similar, in general, for bouts lasting <10 versus ≥10 minutes. Conclusions In our community‐based sample, greater physical activity was associated with lower vascular stiffness but with higher echocardiographic left ventricular mass and left atrial size. These findings suggest complex relations of usual levels of physical activity and cardiovascular remodeling. PMID:25792127

  7. Radio Active Waste Management: Underground Repository Method

    SciTech Connect

    Rudrapati Sandesh Kumar; Payal Shirvastava

    2002-07-01

    Finding a solution for nuclear waste is a key issue, not only for the protection of the environment but also for the future of the nuclear industry. Ten years from now, when the first decisions for the replacement of existing nuclear power plants will have to be made, The general public will require to know the solution for nuclear waste before accepting new nuclear plants. In other words, an acceptable solution for the management of nuclear waste is a prerequisite for a renewal of nuclear power. Most existing wastes are being stored in safe conditions waiting for permanent solution, with some exceptions in the former Eastern Bloc. Temporary surface or shallow storage is a well known technique widely used all over the world. A significant research effort has been made by the author of this paper in the direction of underground repository. The underground repository appears to be a good solution. Trying to transform dangerous long lived radionuclides into less harmful short lived or stable elements is a logical idea. It is indeed possible to incinerate or transmute heavy atoms of long lived elements in fast breeder reactors or even in pressurised or boiling water reactors. There are also new types of reactors which could be used, namely accelerator driven systems. High level and long lived wastes (spent fuel and vitrified waste) contain a mixture of high activity (heat producing) short lived nuclides and low activity long lived alpha emitting nuclides. To avoid any alteration due to temperature of the engineered or geological barrier surrounding the waste underground, it is necessary to store the packages on the surface for several decades (50 years or more) to allow a sufficient temperature decrease before disposing of them underground. In all cases, surface (or shallow) storage is needed as a temporary solution. This paper gives a detailed and comprehensive view of the Deep Geological Repository, providing a pragmatic picture of the means to make this method, a

  8. The Effectiveness of Interventions on Sustained Childhood Physical Activity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Jamie; Scarborough, Peter; Foster, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased physical activity (PA) has been associated with a reduction in non-communicable disease risk factors and outcomes. However, interventions to increase childhood PA typically produce small to negligible effects. Recent reviews are limited due to lack of post-intervention follow-up measurement. This review aimed to examine measured effects at least six months post-intervention. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, SportDiscus and Google Scholar between 1st January 1991 and 1st November 2014 for controlled studies reporting six-month post-intervention measurement for children aged 5 to 18 years. 14 studies met inclusion criteria; 12 reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (n = 5790) and 10 reported total PA (TPA) (n = 4855). We calculated overall effect estimates and 95% CI’s using random effects modelling with inverse variance weighting. Mean difference was calculated for MVPA, with standardised mean difference calculated to TPA due to measurement variation. Meta-regression assessed heterogeneity by continuous level variables. Negligible mean difference in MVPA existed in favour of the intervention group, amounting to 1.47 (95% CI -1.88, 4.82) mins/day compared to controls, while no difference was recorded on TPA. Sub-group analyses revealed males (2.65 mins/day: 95% CI 2.03, 3.27) reported higher levels of MVPA than females (-0.42 mins/day: 95% CI -7.77, 6.94), community settings (2.67 mins/day: 95% CI 2.05, 3.28) were more effective than school settings (1.70 mins/day: 95% CI -4.84, 8.25), and that treatment (4.47 mins/day: 95% CI -0.81, 9.76) demonstrated greater effects than population approaches (1.03 mins/day: 95% CI -2.54, 4.60). Meta-regression revealed no significant differences by factor on pooled effects. Significant heterogeneity existed between studies and potential for small study effects was present. Conclusions Improved PA levels subsequent to intervention were not maintained six

  9. Distant Interactions and Their Effects on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…

  10. Social and Environmental Factors Associated with Preschoolers' Nonsedentary Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Addy, Cheryl L.; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The twofold purposes of the investigation were (a) to describe with direct observation data the physical activity behaviors and the accompanying social and environmental events of those behaviors for children in preschools and (b) to determine which contextual conditions were predictors of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and…

  11. Physical activity assessed in routine care predicts mortality after a COPD hospitalisation

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Marilyn L.; Gould, Michael K.; Liu, In-Lu Amy; Lee, Janet S.

    2016-01-01

    The independent relationship between physical inactivity and risk of death after an index chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) hospitalisation is unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a large integrated healthcare system. Patients were included if they were hospitalised for COPD between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All-cause mortality in the 12 months after discharge was the primary outcome. Physical activity, expressed as self-reported minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), was routinely assessed at outpatient visits prior to hospitalisation. 1727 (73%) patients were inactive (0 min of MVPA per week), 412 (17%) were insufficiently active (1–149 min of MVPA per week) and 231 (10%) were active (≥150 min of MVPA per week). Adjusted Cox regression models assessed risk of death across the MVPA categories. Among 2370 patients (55% females and mean age 73±11 years), there were 464 (20%) deaths. Patients who were insufficiently active or active had a 28% (adjusted HR 0.72 (95% CI 0.54–0.97), p=0.03) and 47% (adjusted HR 0.53 (95% CI 0.34–0.84), p<0.01) lower risk of death, respectively, in the 12 months following an index COPD hospitalisation compared to inactive patients. Any level of MVPA is associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality after a COPD hospitalisation. Routine assessment of physical activity in clinical care would identify persons at high risk for dying after COPD hospitalisation. PMID:27730174

  12. Impact of a walking school bus program on children’s active commuting to school and physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Walking School Bus (WSB) pilot program was evaluated to determine the impact on student’s Active Commuting to School (ACS) and moderate-to vigorous- physical activity (MVPA). We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 8 low income, elementary schools in Houston, TX, USA. Students (n=149) wer...

  13. Predicting objectively assessed physical activity from the content and regulation of exercise goals: evidence for a mediational model.

    PubMed

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2011-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the purpose of this work was to examine effects of the content and motivation of adults' exercise goals on objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). After reporting the content and motivation of their exercise goals, 101 adult participants (Mage = 38.79 years; SD = 11.5) wore an ActiGraph (GT1M) accelerometer for seven days. Accelerometer data were analyzed to provide estimates of engagement in MVPA and bouts of physical activity. Goal content did not directly predict behavioral engagement; however, mediation analysis revealed that goal content predicted behavior via autonomous exercise motivation. Specifically, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals for exercise had a positive indirect effect on average daily MVPA, average daily MVPA accumulated in 10-min bouts and the number of days on which participants performed 30 or more minutes of MVPA through autonomous motivation. These results support a motivational sequence in which intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals influence physical activity behavior because such goals are associated with more autonomous forms of exercise motivation.

  14. A Count Model to Study the Correlates of 60 Min of Daily Physical Activity in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alessandra; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9–11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane–Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p < 0.001) from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates’ roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children. PMID:25730296

  15. Examination of perceived neighborhood characteristics and transportation on changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior: The Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Kelly R; Murray, David M; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Cohen, Deborah A

    2010-09-01

    We examined the association between perceived neighborhood characteristics and transport and 2-year changes in accelerometer-determined nonschool MET-weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA) and sedentary behavior of adolescent girls. Reporting that children do not play outdoors in their neighborhood, that their neighborhood was well lit, and that there were trails in their neighborhood were each associated with significant decreases in nonschool MW-MVPA. None of the neighborhood or transportation measures was associated with changes in nonschool sedentary behavior. Further work is needed to understand the determinants of the decline in physical activity and the increase in sedentary behavior among adolescent girls.

  16. Identification of the impact of crime on physical activity depends upon neighbourhood scale: multilevel evidence from 203,883 Australians.

    PubMed

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    Equivocal findings on crime as a deterrent for physical activity may be due to effects of geographic scale on exposure measurement. To investigate this hypothesis, physical activity was measured in 203,883 Australians and linked to standardised crime counts within small ('Census Collection Districts'; approx. 330 residents) and larger areas ('Statistical Local Areas'; approx. 32,000 residents). A median rate ratio of 2.26 indicated substantive geographic variation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Adjusting for confounders, multilevel negative binomial regression reported lower MVPA with more crime consistently in small, but not in larger areas. Reducing small pockets of local crime may encourage more physically active lifestyles.

  17. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2016-10-25

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacylethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings. The subject matter disclosed herein relates to enhancers of amidohydrolase activity.

  18. Perceptions of the Neighborhood Environment and Children’s Afterschool Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Samantha M; Dowda, Marsha; Colabianchi, Natalie; Porter, Dwayne; Dishman, Rod K.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests the neighborhood environment may be an important influence on children’s physical activity (PA) behaviors; however, findings are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to further understand the relationship between perceptions of the neighborhood environment and children’s afterschool moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Utilizing a structural equation modeling technique, we tested a conceptual model linking parent and child perceptions of the neighborhood environment, parent support for PA, and child outdoor PA with children’s afterschool MVPA. We found that child perception of the neighborhood environment and outdoor PA were positively associated with afterschool MVPA. In addition, parent support for PA positively influenced children’s outdoor PA. The neighborhood environment and outdoor activity appear to play an influential role on children’s afterschool PA behaviors. PMID:25679820

  19. Relationship between physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in independent community-living elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Fraile-Bermúdez, A B; Kortajarena, M; Zarrazquin, I; Maquibar, A; Yanguas, J J; Sánchez-Fernández, C E; Gil, J; Irazusta, A; Ruiz-Litago, F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between objective data of physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in older men and women. Participants were old adults, aged≥60years (61 women and 34 men) who were all capable of performing basic daily activities by themselves and lived on their own. To describe physical activity we used objective data measured by accelerometers which record active and sedentary periods during everyday life for five days. Determination of oxidative stress was conducted from three perspectives: determination plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma antioxidant enzyme activities, i.e., glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and membrane lipid peroxidation (TBARS). In the group of women, those who met physical activity recommendations (WR) had lower level of TAS. In addition, the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negatively correlated with TAS. Simultaneously, MVPA was correlated with increase in the GPx antioxidant enzyme activity, and the counts per minute were positively correlated with CAT activity. In the group of men, the cpm and the MVPA were negatively correlated with lipid peroxidation while lifestyle physical activity was positively correlated with CAT activity. These findings suggest that MVPA in the elderly although it is related to a decrease in the TAS in women, induces adaptive increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and decreases lipid peroxidation in both women and men. These results suggest that at this time of life, it is not only the amount of physical activity performed that is important but also its intensity.

  20. Transit Use, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index Changes: Objective Measures Associated With Complete Street Light-Rail Construction

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Carol M.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed effects on physical activity (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah. Methods. Participants in the Moving Across Places Study resided within 2 kilometers of the new line. They wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) loggers for 1 week before and after rail construction. Regression analyses compared change scores of participants who never rode transit with continuing, former, and new riders, after adjustment for control variables (total n = 537). Results. New riders had significantly more accelerometer-measured counts per minute than never-riders (P < .01), and former riders had significantly fewer (P < .01). New riders lost (P < .05) and former riders gained (P < .01) weight. Former riders lost 6.4 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per 10 hours of accelerometer wear (P < .01) and gained 16.4 minutes of sedentary time (P < .01). New riders gained 4.2 MVPA minutes (P < .05) and lost 12.8 (P < .05) sedentary minutes per 10 hours accelerometer wear. Conclusions. In light of the health benefits of transit ridership in the complete street area, research should address how to encourage more sustained ridership. PMID:25973829

  1. Physical activity and sedentary behavior across 12 months in cohort samples of couples without children, expecting their first child, and expecting their second child.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Benoit, Cecilia; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Naylor, Patti Jean; Symons Downs, Danielle; Warburton, Darren E R

    2014-06-01

    The onset of parenthood has been reported as a reason for steep declines in moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), but also increases in light activity rather than sedentary behavior. We examined the activity profiles of three cohorts of couples (couples without children, and first-time parents and second time parents) across 12 months. Participants were 314 adults (102 not expecting a child, 136 expecting first-child, 76 expecting second child) who completed baseline demographics and 7-day accelerometry, followed by assessments at 6 and 12 months. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that parents who were expecting their second child had lower MVPA; yet were less sedentary/had higher light intensity activity compared to other couples at baseline. First-time mothers' physical activity pattern changed to match the profiles of parents who were now parenting two children across the first 12 months of child-rearing. Findings support MVPA interventions targeting new mothers.

  2. The Effect of Physical Activity on Science Competence and Attitude towards Science Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinkenborg, Ann Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of physical activity on science instruction. To combat the implications of physical inactivity, schools need to be willing to consider all possible opportunities for students to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Integrating physical activity with traditional classroom content is one…

  3. Bone speed of sound and physical activity levels of overweight and normal-weight girls and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yao, Mathew; Ludwa, Izabella; Corbett, Lauren; Klentrou, Panagiota; Bonsu, Peter; Gammage, Kimberley; Falk, Bareket

    2011-02-01

    Bone properties, reflected by speed of sound (SOS), and physical activity levels were examined in overweight (OW) girls (n = 19) and adolescents (n = 22), in comparison with normal-weight (NW) girls (n = 21) and adolescents (n = 13). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was higher in NW than in OW in both age groups. Tibial SOS was lower in OW compared with NW in both age groups. MVPA correlated with tibial SOS, once age was partialed out. The results suggest that overweight girls and adolescents are characterized by low tibial SOS, which may be partially attributed to lower physical activity levels.

  4. [Preference for behavior conducive to physical activity and physical activity levels of children from a southern Brazil city].

    PubMed

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to describe preferences for behavior conducive to physical activity (PA) and to evaluate the influence of these preferences on physical activity of children from Pelotas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. It involved a cross-sectional study with children aged 4 to 11. Behavior conducive to PA was evaluated using the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ). Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured by accelerometry. Variance analysis and linear regression were performed to evaluate associations between questions from the NPAQ and independent variables and between each form of behavior and time spent in MVPA, respectively. Children in the higher economic bracket liked to draw more and preferred less vigorous games and playing outside than poorer children. Older children were less extrovert and liked to draw less than younger children. Enjoying sports, disliking drawing and liking to play outside were positively associated with daily time spent in MVPA. Some characteristics studied were associated with behavior conducive to PA, and economic status proved to be the most important influence. Preferences like enjoying sports positively influenced the time spent in MVPA.

  5. Quantitative Method of Measuring Metastatic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The metastatic potential of tumors can be evaluated by the quantitative detection of urokinase and DNA. The cell sample selected for examination is analyzed for the presence of high levels of urokinase and abnormal DNA using analytical flow cytometry and digital image analysis. Other factors such as membrane associated uroldnase, increased DNA synthesis rates and certain receptors can be used in the method for detection of potentially invasive tumors.

  6. Associations of objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity and sedentary time with all-cause mortality in a population of adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bakrania, Kishan; Edwardson, Charlotte L; Khunti, Kamlesh; Henson, Joseph; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Hamer, Mark; Davies, Melanie J; Yates, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The relationships of physical activity and sedentary time with all-cause mortality in those at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are unexplored. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the associations of objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time with all-cause mortality in a population of adults at high risk of T2DM. In 2010-2011, 712 adults (Leicestershire, U.K.), identified as being at high risk of T2DM, consented to be followed up for mortality. MVPA and sedentary time were assessed by accelerometer; those with valid data (≥ 10 hours of wear-time/day with ≥ 4 days of data) were included. Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to investigate the independent associations of MVPA and sedentary time with all-cause mortality. 683 participants (250 females (36.6%)) were included and during a mean follow-up period of 5.7 years, 26 deaths were registered. Every 10% increase in MVPA time/day was associated with a 5% lower risk of all-cause mortality [Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.95 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.91, 0.98); p = 0.004]; indicating that for the average adult in this cohort undertaking approximately 27.5 minutes of MVPA/day, this benefit would be associated with only 2.75 additional minutes of MVPA/day. Conversely, sedentary time showed no association with all-cause mortality [HR (every 10-minute increase in sedentary time/day): 0.99 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.03); p = 0.589]. These data support the importance of MVPA in adults at high risk of T2DM. The association between sedentary time and mortality in this population needs further investigation.

  7. Accelerometer assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and successful ageing: results from the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Menai, Mehdi; van Hees, Vincent T.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Sabia, Séverine

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is key for successful ageing, but questions remain regarding the optimal physical activity pattern. We examined the cross-sectional association between physical activity and successful ageing using data on 3,749 participants (age range = 60–83years) of the Whitehall II study. The participants underwent a clinical assessment, completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire, and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days. Successful ageing was defined as good cognitive, motor, and respiratory functioning, along with absence of disability, mental health problems, and major chronic diseases. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) episodes assessed by accelerometer was classified as “short” (1–9.59 minutes) and “long” (≥10 minutes) bouts. Linear multivariate regression showed that successful agers (N = 789) reported 3.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39–6.19) minutes more daily MVPA than other participants. Accelerometer data showed this difference to be 3.40 (95% CI:2.44–4.35) minutes for MVPA undertaken in short bouts, 4.16 (95% CI:3.11–5.20) minutes for long bouts, and 7.55 (95% CI:5.86–9.24) minutes for all MVPA bouts lasting 1 minute or more. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that participants undertaking ≥150 minutes of MVPA per week were more likely to be successful agers with both self-reported (Odd Ratio (OR) = 1.29,95% (CI):1.09–1.53) and accelerometer data (length bout ≥1 minute:OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.60–2.30). Successful agers practice more MVPA, having both more short and long bouts, than non-successful agers. PMID:28367987

  8. Active magnetic regenerator method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    DeGregoria, Anthony J.; Zimm, Carl B.; Janda, Dennis J.; Lubasz, Richard A.; Jastrab, Alexander G.; Johnson, Joseph W.; Ludeman, Evan M.

    1993-01-01

    In an active magnetic regenerator apparatus having a regenerator bed of material exhibiting the magnetocaloric effect, flow of heat transfer fluid through the bed is unbalanced, so that more fluid flows through the bed from the hot side of the bed to the cold side than from the cold side to the hot side. The excess heat transfer fluid is diverted back to the hot side of the bed. The diverted fluid may be passed through a heat exchanger to draw heat from a fluid to be cooled. The apparatus may be operated at cryogenic temperatures, and the heat transfer fluid may be helium gas and the fluid to be cooled may be hydrogen gas, which is liquified by the device. The apparatus can be formed in multiple stages to allow a greater span of cooling temperatures than a single stage, and each stage may be comprised of two bed parts. Where two bed parts are employed in each stage, a portion of the fluid passing from the hot side to the cold side of a first bed part which does not have a magnetic field applied thereto is diverted back to the cold side of the other bed part in the stage, where it is passed through to the hot side. The remainder of the fluid from the cold side of the bed part of the first stage is passed to the hot side of the bed part of the second stage.

  9. Sex Equity and Physical Activity Levels in Coeducational Physical Education: Exploring the Potential of Modified Game Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Ragnar; da Costa, Francisco Carreiro; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Haerens, Leen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Physical education should promote an active and healthy lifestyle with an emphasis on students' preparation for lifelong physical activity. "Healthy People 2010" recommends that physical education is offered on a daily basis and that pupils engage in physical activities of moderate to vigorous intensity (MVPA) during at least…

  10. Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Chinese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study initially validates the Chinese version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), which has been identified as a potentially valid instrument to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children among diverse racial groups. The psychometric properti...

  11. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  12. Do Children with down Syndrome Perform Sufficient Physical Activity to Maintain Good Health? A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Nora; Dodd, Karen J.; Abblitt, Casey

    2009-01-01

    Our pilot study investigated if children with Down syndrome engaged in the recommended 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) every day. Twenty-three children with Down syndrome (7 girls, 16 boys; mean age 11.7 years, SD = 3.1) wore a triaxial accelerometer for 7 consecutive days to measure their activity levels. The average…

  13. Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation across Physical Education Classes: The Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony; Hagger, Martin; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the link between students' expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, out-of-school activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation across secondary school physical education (PE) classes. The sample comprised 96 students (58 girls, 38 boys; Mage = 15.03, SD = 0.94) from…

  14. Accelerometer steps/day translation of moderate-to-vigorous activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) guidelines are typically communicated in terms of duration, frequency, and intensity, e.g., 30 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on at least 5 days/week. Step counters can be used to collect objective PA expressed as steps/day; howeverc the associat...

  15. Schoolyard Characteristics, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior: Combining GPS and Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kann, Dave H. H.; de Vries, Sanne I.; Schipperijn, Jasper; de Vries, Nanne K.; Jansen, Maria W. J.; Kremers, Stef P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is decreasing among children, while sedentary behavior (SB) is increasing. Schoolyards seem suitable settings to influence children's PA behavior. This study investigated the associations between schoolyard characteristics and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB of children aged 8-11 years at…

  16. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-05-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children's MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types, and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the SOSPAN (System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1,733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150 minutes) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer, and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs' physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities.

  17. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children’s MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150min) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs’ physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. PMID:25586132

  18. Patterns of Walkability, Transit, and Recreation Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Marc A.; Todd, Michael; Kurka, Jonathan; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diverse combinations of built environment (BE) features for physical activity (PA) are understudied. This study explored whether patterns of GIS-derived BE features explained objective and self-reported PA, sedentary behavior, and BMI. Methods Neighborhood Quality of Life Study participants (N=2,199, aged 20–65 years, 48.2% female, 26% ethnic minority) were sampled in 2001–2005 from Seattle/King County, WA and Baltimore, MD/Washington, DC regions. Their addresses were geocoded to compute net residential density, land use mix, retail floor area ratio, intersection density, public transit, and public park and private recreation facility densities using a 1-km network buffer. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) were estimated from these variables. Multilevel regression models compared profiles on accelerometer-measured moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and self-reported PA, adjusting for covariates and clustering. Analyses were conducted in 2013–2014. Results Seattle region LPAs yielded four profiles, including low walkable/transit/recreation (L-L-L), mean walkability/transit/recreation (M-M-M), moderately high walkability/transit/recreation (MH-MH-MH), and high walkability/transit/recreation (H-H-H). All measures were higher in the H-H-H than the L-L-L profile (difference of 17.1 minutes/day for MVPA, 146.5 minutes/week for walking for transportation, 58.2 minutes/week for leisure-time PA, and 2.2 BMI points; all p<0.05). Baltimore region LPAs yielded four profiles, including L-L-L, M-M-M, high land use mix, transit, and recreation (HLU-HT-HRA), and high intersection density, high retail floor area ratio (HID-HRFAR). HLU-HT-HRA and L-L-L differed by 12.3 MVPA minutes/day; HID-HRFAR and L-L-L differed by 157.4 minutes/week for walking for transportation (all p<0.05). Conclusions Patterns of environmental features explain greater differences in adults’ PA than the four-component walkability index. PMID:26232902

  19. First year physical activity findings from turn up the HEAT (Healthy Eating and Activity Time) in summer day camps

    PubMed Central

    Brazendale, Keith; Chandler, Jessica L.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Moore, Justin B.; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Beets, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Summer day camps (SDCs) serve 14 million children yearly in the U.S. and aim to provide participating children with 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study evaluated an intervention designed to increase the percent of children meeting this MVPA guideline. Design Two-group, pre-post quasi-experimental. Setting/Participants Twenty SDCs serving 1,830 children aged 5–12 years were assigned to MVPA intervention (n = 10) or healthy eating attention control (n = 10). Intervention The STEPs (Strategies to Enhance Practice) intervention is a capacity-building approach grounded in the Theory of Expanded, Extended and Enhanced Opportunities. Camp leaders and staff receive training to expand (e.g., introduction of activity breaks/active field trips), extend (e.g., schedule minimum of 3 hours/day for PA opportunities), and enhance (e.g., maximize MVPA children accumulate during schedule activity) activity opportunities. Camps in the comparison condition received support for improving the types of foods/beverages served. Main outcome measures Percent of children accumulating the 60min/d MVPA guideline at baseline (summer 2015) and post-test (summer 2016) measured via wrist-accelerometry. Results Multilevel logistic regression conducted fall 2016 indicated boys and girls attending intervention SDCs were 2.04 (95CI = 1.10,3.78) and 3.84 (95CI = 2.02,7.33) times more likely to meet the 60min/d guideline compared to boys and girls attending control SDCs, respectively. This corresponded to increases of +10.6% (78–89%) and +12.6% (69–82%) in the percentage of boys and girls meeting the guideline in intervention SDCs, respectively. Boys in comparison SDCs increased by +1.6% (81–83%) and girls decreased by -5.5% (76–71%). Process data indicated intervention SDCs successfully extended and enhanced PA opportunities, but were unable to expand PA opportunities, compared to control SDCs. Conclusions Although substantial proportions of

  20. The Reality-Based Learning Method: A Simple Method for Keeping Teaching Activities Relevant and Effective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Louise W.; Van Doren, Doris C.

    2004-01-01

    Active and experiential learning theory have not dramatically changed collegiate classroom teaching methods, although they have long been included in the pedagogical literature. This article presents an evolved method, reality based learning, that aids professors in including active learning activities with feelings of clarity and confidence. The…

  1. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  2. Association of Objectively Measured Physical Activity with Cognitive Function in Older Adults - The REGARDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenfei; Howard, Virginia J.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Hutto, Brent; Blair, Steven N.; Vena, John E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Rhodes, David; Hooker, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cognitive function in white and black older adults. Design Cross-sectional. Setting REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study Participants Older adults who provided valid data from accelerometer and cognitive function tests (N=7,098). Measurements Actical™ accelerometers provided estimates of PA variables for 4–7 consecutive days. PA count cut-points of 50 counts per minute (cpm) and 1065 cpm were applied to differentiate between being sedentary and light PA, and light and moderate-to-vigorous PA, respectively. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was defined by the Six-Item Screener (scored <4 out of 6). Letter fluency, animal fluency, word list learning and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (orientation and recall), were conducted to assess memory and executive function. Results Of 7,098 participants (70.1 ± 8.5 yr, 54.2% women, 31.5% black), 359 (5.1%) exhibited impaired cognition within ±12 months of PA measurement. The average proportion of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA%) was 1.4 ± 1.9%. Participants in the highest quartile of MVPA% (approximately 258.3 min/wk of MVPA) were less likely to be cognitively impaired than those in the lowest quartile (OR [95%C.I.] = 0.65 [0.43–0.97]). MVPA% was also significantly associated with z-scores of executive function and memory (P<0.001). Similar analyses of proportion of time spent in light PA (LPA%) and sedentary time (ST%) showed no significant associations with cognitive function. Conclusion Higher levels of objectively measured MVPA%, rather than LPA% or ST%, were associated with lower prevalence of cognitive impairment and better performance in memory and executive function in aging people. The amount of MVPA associated with lower prevalence of cognitive impairment is consistent with meeting PA guidelines. PMID:26691697

  3. Objective measures of the built environment and physical activity in children: from walkability to moveability.

    PubMed

    Buck, Christoph; Tkaczick, Tobias; Pitsiladis, Yannis; De Bourdehaudhuij, Ilse; Reisch, Lucia; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pigeot, Iris

    2015-02-01

    Features of the built environment that may influence physical activity (PA) levels are commonly captured using a so-called walkability index. Since such indices typically describe opportunities for walking in everyday life of adults, they might not be applicable to assess urban opportunities for PA in children. Particularly, the spatial availability of recreational facilities may have an impact on PA in children and should be additionally considered. We linked individual data of 400 2- to 9-year-old children recruited in the European IDEFICS study to geographic data of one German study region, based on individual network-dependent neighborhoods. Environmental features of the walkability concept and the availability of recreational facilities, i.e. playgrounds, green spaces, and parks, were measured. Relevant features were combined to a moveability index that should capture urban opportunities for PA in children. A gamma log-regression model was used to model linear and non-linear effects of individual variables on accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) stratified by pre-school children (<6 years) and school children (≥6 years). Single environmental features and the resulting indices were separately included into the model to investigate the effect of each variable on MVPA. In school children, commonly used features such as residential density [Formula: see text], intersection density [Formula: see text], and public transit density [Formula: see text] showed a positive effect on MVPA, while land use mix revealed a negative effect on MVPA [Formula: see text]. In particular, playground density [Formula: see text] and density of public open spaces, i.e., playgrounds and parks combined [Formula: see text], showed positive effects on MVPA. However, availability of green spaces showed no effect on MVPA. Different moveability indices were constructed based on the walkability index accounting for the negative impact of land use mix. Moveability

  4. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  5. A method for fabrication of an activator from photopolymer plastic.

    PubMed

    Djurkova, A A; Stoilov, G N; Iovchev, S I

    2001-01-01

    The authors propose the fabrication of activators from photopolymerizing plastic. The advantages of this method are reviewed in comparison to the classical technology for fabrication of complicated constructions from hydropolymerizing plastic: Lack of residual monomer. Simplification of technology. Significant shortening of the time necessary to obtain the ready apparatus. Easy adjustment and good adaptation. The method is recommended as a method of choice in the practical fabrication of the activator for clinical application.

  6. Gender and School-Level Differences in Students' Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity Levels When Taught Basketball through the Tactical Games Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Stephen; Smith, Megan L.; Song, Yang; Robertson, David; Brown, Renee; Smith, Lindsey R.

    2016-01-01

    The Tactical Games Model (TGM) prefaces the cognitive components of physical education (PE), which has implications for physical activity (PA) accumulation. PA recommendations suggest students reach 50% moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). However, this criterion does not indicate the contribution from vigorous physical activity (VPA).…

  7. Sedentary behavior and physical activity are independently related to functional fitness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Baptista, Fátima; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Mota, Jorge; Sardinha, Luís B

    2012-12-01

    The last decades of life have been traditionally viewed as a time of inevitable disease and frailty. Sedentary living and physical activity may influence capacity to perform activities that are needed to maintain physical independence in daily living. A total of 117 males and 195 females, aged 65-103years, were assessed for physical activity and sedentary time with accelerometers and for functional fitness with the Senior Fitness Test battery. Based on the individual scores for each fitness item, a Z-score was created. Associations between functional fitness with sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were analyzed. A negative association was found between the composite Z-score for functional fitness and the sedentary time, even adjusting for MVPA and other confounders. On the other hand, MVPA was positively associated with the composite Z-score for functional fitness, independently of the sedentary time. In conclusion elderly who spend more time in physical activity or less time in sedentary behaviors exhibit improved functional fitness and other confounders. The results reinforce the importance of promoting both the reduction of sedentary behaviors and the increase of MVPA in this age group, as it may interfere at older ages in order to preserve functional fitness and performance of daily functioning tasks.

  8. Using Teacher-Implemented Playground Interventions to Increase Engagement, Social Behaviors, and Physical Activity for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Lane, Justin D.; Shepley, Collin; Kroll, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism have deficits in social communication and may engage in less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than children without disabilities. In this study, a classroom teacher implemented two interventions in the context of an alternating treatments design. Physical activity, engagement, and social behaviors were monitored…

  9. Modifying the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time to Measure Teacher Practices Related to Physical Activity Promotion: SOFIT+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Choukroun, Hadrien; Kaysing, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is commonly used to measure variables related to physical activity during physical education (PE). However, SOFIT does not yield detailed information about teacher practices related to children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study describes the modification of SOFIT…

  10. Accelerometer-Measured versus Self-Reported Physical Activity in College Students: Implications for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Andrew; Van Hoomissen, Jacqueline; Lafrenz, Andrew; Julka, Deana L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the level of moderate-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) assessed via self-report and accelerometer in the college population, and to examine intrapersonal and contextual variables associated with physical activity (PA). Participants: Participants were 77 college students at a university in the northwest sampled…

  11. Does a Higher Incidence of Break Times in Primary Schools Result in Children Being More Physically Active?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has multiple benefits to health; however, the majority of schoolchildren do not reach PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) daily. During the school day, break times are often the only opportunity for children to be physically active. This study investigated PA levels during school…

  12. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Objective Instruments for Assessing Physical Activity in 10-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Teresa L.; Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McClain, James J.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2011-01-01

    This study compared step counts detected by four, low-cost, objective, physical-activity-assessment instruments and evaluated their ability to detect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG). Thirty-six 10-11-year-old children wore the NL-1000, Yamax Digiwalker SW 200, Omron HJ-151, and Walk4Life…

  13. Prescribing Activities that Engage Passive Residents. An Innovative Method

    PubMed Central

    Kolanowski, Ann; Buettner, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with dementia are often passive, which places them at risk for further cognitive and functional decline. Recreational activities have been used in research to reduce passive behaviors, but systematic reviews of these studies have found modest effect sizes for many activities. In this article, we describe the further theoretical development of an innovative method for prescribing activities that have a high likelihood of engaging nursing home residents who are passive and present examples for research application and clinical practice. This method may increase the effect size of activity interventions and encourage more widespread adoption of nonpharmacological interventions in practice. PMID:18274300

  14. Accelerometer-Determined Physical Activity and Its Comparison with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Sample of Nigerian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L.; Umar, Maimuna; Oguche, Friday; Aliyu, Salamatu U.; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Accurate assessment of physical activity to identify current levels and changes within the population is dependent on the precision of the measurement tools. The aim of this study was to compare components of physical activity measured with an adapted version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Hausa IPAQ-SF) and the accelerometer in a sample of Nigeria adults. Methods One hundred and forty-four participants (Mean age = 32.6±9.9 years, 40.3% women) in a cross-sectional study wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days and completed the Hausa IPAQ-SF questionnaire on the eighth day. Total physical activity, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) and sedentary time assessed by Hausa IPAQ-SF and accelerometer were compared. The absolute and criterion- related validity of the Hausa IPAQ-SF was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and Spearman Correlation Coefficients, respectively. Specificity and sensitivity were calculated to classify individuals according to the global standard guideline for sufficient physical activity. Results Compared with the accelerometer, higher time in MVPA and total physical activity were reported on the Hausa IPAQ-SF (p<0.001), while low to moderate correlations (Rs = 0.03–0.38) were found between the two methods. The 95% limits of agreement were wide between methods for total physical activity (−23019 to 20375 METmin.d−1) and sedentary time (−510 to 150 min.d−1). The sensitivity (76.2%) of Hausa IPAQ-SF to identify insufficiently active people was good, but its specificity (33.3%) to correctly classify sufficiently active people was low. Conclusions The Hausa IPAQ-SF overestimated components of physical activity among Nigerian adults, and demonstrated poor to moderate evidence of absolute and criterion validity. Further evaluation of IPAQ and other self-report physical activity instruments in other Africa populations could enhance accurate evaluation of physical activity data

  15. A Case Study Objectively Assessing Female Physical Activity Levels within the National Curriculum for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Matthew; Daly-Smith, Andrew; Morley, David; McKenna, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the National Curriculum for Physical Education (NCPE) lesson themes and contexts on the profile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fifteen, Year 9 Physical Education (PE) lessons were assessed within the lesson themes of Outwitting Opponents (OO) (delivered through field hockey…

  16. Environmental Influences on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels in Various Early-Learning Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia; Johnson, Andrew M.; Burke, Shauna M.; Irwin, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to: (a) compare the physical activity (PA) levels (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA] and total PA [TPA]) of preschoolers in 3 different early-learning environments (center-based childcare, home-based childcare, and full-day kindergarten [FDK]); and (b) assess which characteristics (e.g., play equipment, policies, etc.)…

  17. Physical Activity Patterns in Portuguese Adolescents: The Contribution of Extracurricular Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Aires, Luisa; Seabra, Andre; Ribeiro, Jose; Welk, Gregory; Mota, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, two sports systems exist, one through schools and the other in community clubs. The purpose was to determine the impact of extra-curricular sports (EC sports) on boys' and girls' moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). 208 adolescents (79 boys and 129 girls), between 12 and 18 years old, wore an accelerometer over seven days.…

  18. Effect of Team Size in Soccer on Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the percentages of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in soccer games with different team sizes. Twenty-two university physical education majors evenly divided between males and females volunteered for the study. Students were blind to the purpose of the study. Data were collected over three…

  19. A short-term physical activity randomized trial in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a short-term pedometer-based intervention results in immediate increases in time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to a minimal educational intervention. A sample of 43 overweight adults 35 to 64 years of age participated in...

  20. Accuracy of activPAL Self-Attachment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kringen, Nina L.; Healy, Genevieve N.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Clark, Bronwyn K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the accuracy of self-attachment of the activPAL activity monitor. A convenience sample of 50 participants self-attached the monitor after being presented with written material only (WMO) and then written and video (WV) instructions; and completed a questionnaire regarding the acceptability of the instructional methods.…

  1. Social Activity Method (SAM): A Fractal Language for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I shall present and develop my organisational language, "social activity method" (SAM), and illustrate some of its applications. I shall introduce a new scheme for "modes of recontextualisation" that enables the analysis of the ways in which one activity--which might be school mathematics or social research or any…

  2. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  3. PIXE and neutron activation methods in human hair material analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bǎdicǎ, T.; Ciortea, C.; Cojocaru, V.; Ivaşcu, M.; Petrovici, A.; Popa, A.; Popescu, I.; Sǎlǎgean, M.; Spiridon, S.

    1984-04-01

    In order to compare some of the nuclear methods in human hair material analysis, proton induced X-ray excitation and variant techniques of neutron activation analysis have been used. The elemental concentrations are compared with the IAEA-Vienna certified values. The efficiency and reliability of the methods used are briefly discussed.

  4. Effect on Physical Activity of a Randomized Afterschool Intervention for Inner City Children in 3rd to 5th Grade

    PubMed Central

    Crouter, Scott E.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Feldman, Henry A.; Hayman, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min.d-1 physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Methods Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d.wk-1 at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min.d-1, respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min.d-1, respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min.d-1 (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min.d-1 (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min.d-1) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min.d-1); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min.d-1 (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). Conclusions The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential

  5. An in vitro method for evaluating vascular endothelial ADPase activity.

    PubMed

    Caprino, L; Togna, A R; Stella, C; Togna, G

    1996-06-01

    Some xenobiotics, known to promote the development of thrombotic phenomena, affect vascular endothelium ADPase, a regulatory enzyme that inactivates vaso- and platelet-active adenine nucleotides. This proposed new experimental approach represents an improved method of evaluation of vascular endothelial ADPase activity which is assessed by measuring, at pre-established times, the degradation rate of exogenous ADP incubated with aortic bovine patches. The ADP dosage was performed by using a spectrophotometric enzymatic assay. Statistical analyses showed that the method is capable of highlighting the linearity of the ADPase activity time-course, thus indicating that the slopes of time-degradation curves of ADP are a valid index for this endothelial ectoenzyme activity. Results obtained with ADPase inhibiting or stimulating agent confirm that this in vitro method is an efficient tool for estimating the ability of xenobiotics or drugs to modify the nonthrombogenic properties of vascular endothelium.

  6. Digital methods of photopeak integration in activation analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baedecker, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    A study of the precision attainable by several methods of gamma-ray photopeak integration has been carried out. The 'total peak area' method, the methods proposed by Covell, Sterlinski, and Quittner, and some modifications of these methods have been considered. A modification by Wasson of the total peak area method is considered to be the most advantageous due to its simplicity and the relatively high precision obtainable with this technique. A computer routine for the analysis of spectral data from nondestructive activation analysis experiments employing a Ge(Li) detector-spectrometer system is described.

  7. Community level predictors of physical activity among women in the preconception period.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Sun, Haichun; Flory, Sara B; DeBate, Rita; Daley, Ellen M; Thompson, Erika; Bleck, Jennifer; Merrell, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Although physical activity is a key behavior targeted during the preconception period given its significant impact on pregnancy/birth outcomes and psychological well-being, few women meet national guidelines. While intrapersonal factors influencing physical activity among this population have been studied, community factors remain unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine community level predictors of physical activity among preconception women. Data from Add Health were limited to women (Wave III; age 18-28; n = 7,596) and excluded respondents who were pregnant, physically disabled, and missing data. The outcome variable was ≥5 instances of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in 1 week. Community predictor variables included neighborhood-level structural and social determinants (e.g., socio-demographic composition; landscape diversity; urbanization; access to resources; crime; vehicle availability). Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the odds of engaging in ≥5 instances of MVPA. Few women (26 %) reported ≥5 instances of MVPA in 1 week. Adjusted multilevel analysis revealed women in the preconception period were more likely to report high MVPA when living in communities with larger population densities (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.02-1.77) and median household income greater than $50,000 (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.06-1.66). Additionally, a significant inverse trend was found between high MVPA and proportion of the community without a high school diploma. Findings suggest that neighborhood composition may have an impact on preconception physical activity status. Implications include increased efforts targeting community conditions for facilitating physical activity; ultimately, improving health among women and subsequent offspring.

  8. Neutron activation analysis of certified samples by the absolute method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadem, F.; Belouadah, N.; Idiri, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear reactions analysis technique is mainly based on the relative method or the use of activation cross sections. In order to validate nuclear data for the calculated cross section evaluated from systematic studies, we used the neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) to determine the various constituent concentrations of certified samples for animal blood, milk and hay. In this analysis, the absolute method is used. The neutron activation technique involves irradiating the sample and subsequently performing a measurement of the activity of the sample. The fundamental equation of the activation connects several physical parameters including the cross section that is essential for the quantitative determination of the different elements composing the sample without resorting to the use of standard sample. Called the absolute method, it allows a measurement as accurate as the relative method. The results obtained by the absolute method showed that the values are as precise as the relative method requiring the use of standard sample for each element to be quantified.

  9. Short- and Long-Term Theory-Based Predictors of Physical Activity in Women Who Participated in a Weight-Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserkampf, A.; Silva, M. N.; Santos, I. C.; Carraça, E. V.; Meis, J. J. M.; Kremers, S. P. J.; Teixeira, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed psychosocial predictors of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and evaluated their associations with short- and long-term moderate plus vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and lifestyle physical activity (PA) outcomes in women who underwent a weight-management program. 221 participants (age…

  10. Promoting Physical Activity in Middle School Girls: Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Larry S.; Catellier, Diane J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Young, Deborah R.; Elder, John P.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Stevens, June; Jobe, Jared B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity is important for weight control and good health; however, activity levels decline in the adolescent years, particularly in girls. Design Group randomized controlled trial Setting/participants Middle school girls with English-speaking skills and no conditions to prevent participation in physical activity in 36 schools in six geographically diverse areas of the United States. Random, cross-sectional samples were drawn within schools: 6th graders in 2003 (n=1721) and 8th graders in 2005 (n=3504) and 2006 (n=3502). Intervention A 2-year study-directed intervention (fall 2003 to spring 2005) targeted schools, community agencies, and girls to increase opportunities, support, and incentives for increased physical activity. Components included programs linking schools and community agencies, physical education, health education, and social marketing. A third-year intervention used school and community personnel to direct intervention activities. Main outcome measures The primary outcome, daily MET-weighted minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MET-weighted MVPA), was assessed using accelerometry. Percent body fat was assessed using anthropometry. Results After the staff-directed intervention (pre-stated primary outcome), there were no differences (mean= −0.4, 95% CI= CI= −8.2 to 7.4) in adjusted MET-weighted MVPA between 8th-grade girls in schools assigned to intervention or control. Following the Program Champion–directed intervention, girls in intervention schools were more physically active than girls in control schools (mean difference 10.9 MET-weighted minutes of MVPA, 95% CI=0.52–21.2). This difference is about 1.6 minutes of daily MVPA or 80 kcal per week. There were no differences in fitness or percent body fat at either 8th-grade timepoint. Conclusion A school-based, community-linked intervention modestly improved physical activity in girls. PMID:18312804

  11. Observational methods used to assess rat behavior: general activity.

    PubMed

    Paul, Carol Ann; Beltz, Barbara; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne

    2007-09-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe activity-inactivity continuum is an important parameter of behavior, and quantification of overall locomotor activity in the rat should identify it as a naturally nocturnal animal. Disruptions in nocturnal activity can be caused by damage in visual inputs to the brain or damage in the hypothalamus. Many commercial devices are available to measure activity automatically; some can be integrated with a computer to allow overnight monitoring in the absence of an observer. A less sophisticated but still accurate method of measuring activity is to create a home-made activity chamber by replacing the bottom of a box with Plexiglas or by marking lines on the bottom of a clean rat cage so that the observer can record rat activity by noting when the lines are crossed, while simultaneously recording other behaviors. Activity in rat pups can be observed as soon as they are 10 days old using smaller activity chambers. This protocol describes the construction of a home-made activity chamber and how to measure four activities: locomotion, rearing, circling, and grooming.

  12. Effect of a Primary Care Walking Intervention with and without Nurse Support on Physical Activity Levels in 45- to 75-Year-Olds: The Pedometer And Consultation Evaluation (PACE-UP) Cluster Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Tess; Iliffe, Steve; Whincup, Peter H.; Ekelund, Ulf; Furness, Cheryl; Anokye, Nana; Ibison, Judith; DeWilde, Steve; David, Lee; Dale, Rebecca; Cook, Derek G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Pedometers can increase walking and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels, but their effectiveness with or without support has not been rigorously evaluated. We assessed the effectiveness of a pedometer-based walking intervention in predominantly inactive adults, delivered by post or through primary care nurse-supported physical activity (PA) consultations. Methods and Findings A parallel three-arm cluster randomised trial was randomised by household, with 12-mo follow-up, in seven London, United Kingdom, primary care practices. Eleven thousand fifteen randomly selected patients aged 45–75 y without PA contraindications were invited. Five hundred forty-eight self-reporting achieving PA guidelines were excluded. One thousand twenty-three people from 922 households were randomised between 2012–2013 to one of the following groups: usual care (n = 338); postal pedometer intervention (n = 339); and nurse-supported pedometer intervention (n = 346). Of these, 956 participants (93%) provided outcome data (usual care n = 323, postal n = 312, nurse-supported n = 321). Both intervention groups received pedometers, 12-wk walking programmes, and PA diaries. The nurse group was offered three PA consultations. Primary and main secondary outcomes were changes from baseline to 12 mo in average daily step-counts and time in MVPA (in ≥10-min bouts), respectively, measured objectively by accelerometry. Only statisticians were masked to group. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Average baseline daily step-count was 7,479 (standard deviation [s.d.] 2,671), and average time in MVPA bouts was 94 (s.d. 102) min/wk. At 12 mo, mean steps/d, with s.d. in parentheses, were as follows: control 7,246 (2,671); postal 8,010 (2,922); and nurse support 8,131 (3,228). PA increased in both intervention groups compared with the control group; additional steps/d were 642 for postal (95% CI 329–955) and 677 for nurse support (95% CI 365–989); additional MVPA in bouts

  13. A daily process analysis of intentions and physical activity in college students.

    PubMed

    Conroy, David E; Elavsky, Steriani; Doerksen, Shawna E; Maher, Jaclyn P

    2013-10-01

    Social-cognitive theories, such as the theory of planned behavior, posit intentions as proximal influences on physical activity (PA). This paper extends those theories by examining within-person variation in intentions and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as a function of the unfolding constraints in people's daily lives (e.g., perceived time availability, fatigue, soreness, weather, overeating). College students (N = 63) completed a 14-day diary study over the Internet that rated daily motivation, contextual constraints, and MVPA. Key findings from multilevel analyses were that (1) between-person differences represented 46% and 33% of the variability in daily MVPA intentions and behavior, respectively; (2) attitudes, injunctive norms, self-efficacy, perceptions of limited time availability, and weekend status predicted daily changes in intention strength; and (3) daily changes in intentions, perceptions of limited time availability, and weekend status predicted day-to-day changes in MVPA. Embedding future motivation and PA research in the context of people's daily lives will advance understanding of individual PA change processes.

  14. The Risk of Reduced Physical Activity in Children with Probable Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dido; Lingam, Raghu; Mattocks, Calum; Riddoch, Chris; Ness, Andy; Emond, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder have an increased risk of reduced moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), using data from a large population based study. Prospectively collected data from 4331 children (boys = 2065, girls = 2266) who had completed motor…

  15. Longitudinal effects of parental child and neighborhood factors on moderate vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in Latino children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moderate-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA) confers beneficial effects on child musculoskeletal health, cardiovascular fitness, and psychosocial well-being; in contrast, sedentary time (%SED) is emerging as a risk factor for health. This study aimed to identify parental, child and neighborhood facto...

  16. Intervention to induce short-term increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if a short-term pedometer-based educational intervention results in short-term increases in time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to an education-only intervention, and whether increases in the number of steps taken per day correlate with...

  17. Physical activity and cognitive function in bariatric surgery candidates.

    PubMed

    Galioto, Rachel; King, Wendy C; Bond, Dale S; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Gunstad, John

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in severe obesity. Lack of physical activity is a likely contributor to impairment in this population, as many obese persons are inactive and physical activity has been positively and independently associated with cognitive function in healthy and medically-ill samples. This study investigated whether physical activity, measured by self-report of aerobic physical activity in 85 bariatric surgery candidates, was associated with cognitive function. A subset of 31 participants also completed objective activity monitoring. Steps/d and high-cadence min/week, representative of ambulatory moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), were calculated. Approximately one quarter of participants self-reported at least 30 min/d of aerobic MVPA, at least 5 d/week. Median steps/d was 7949 (IQR = 4572) and median MVPA min/week was 105 (IQR = 123). Cognitive deficits were found in 32% of participants (29% memory, 10% executive function, 13% language, 10% attention). Controlling for demographic and medical factors, self-reported aerobic physical activity was weakly correlated with lower attention (r = -0.21, p = 0.04) and executive function (r = -0.27, p < 0.01) and both self-reported aerobic physical activity and objectively-determined MVPA min/week were negatively correlated with memory (r = -0.20, p = 0.04; r = -0.46; p = 0.02, respectively). No other correlations between physical activity measures and cognitive function were significant. Contrary to expectations, greater levels of physical activity were not associated with better cognitive functioning. Such findings encourage future studies to clarify the association among cognitive function and physical activity in obese persons.

  18. Influence of cooking methods on antioxidant activity of vegetables.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Monreal, A M; García-Diz, L; Martínez-Tomé, M; Mariscal, M; Murcia, M A

    2009-04-01

    The influence of home cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, pressure-cooking, griddling, frying, and baking) on the antioxidant activity of vegetables has been evaluated in 20 vegetables, using different antioxidant activity assays (lipoperoxyl and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and TEAC). Artichoke was the only vegetable that kept its very high scavenging-lipoperoxyl radical capacity in all the cooking methods. The highest losses of LOO. scavenging capacity were observed in cauliflower after boiling and microwaving, pea after boiling, and zucchini after boiling and frying. Beetroot, green bean, and garlic kept their antioxidant activity after most cooking treatments. Swiss chard and pepper lost OH. scavenging capacity in all the processes. Celery increased its antioxidant capacity in all the cooking methods, except boiling when it lost 14%. Analysis of the ABTS radical scavenging capacity of the different vegetables showed that the highest losses occurred in garlic with all the methods, except microwaving. Among the vegetables that increased their TEAC values were green bean, celery, and carrot after all cooking methods (except green bean after boiling). These 3 types of vegetables showed a low ABTS radical scavenging capacity. According to the method of analysis chosen, griddling, microwave cooking, and baking alternately produce the lowest losses, while pressure-cooking and boiling lead to the greatest losses; frying occupies an intermediate position. In short, water is not the cook's best friend when it comes to preparing vegetables.

  19. Wearable Sensor/Device (Fitbit One) and SMS Text-Messaging Prompts to Increase Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A.; Natarajan, Loki; White, Martha M.; Madanat, Hala; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Pierce, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Studies have shown self-monitoring can modify health behaviors, including physical activity (PA). This study tested the utility of a wearable sensor/device (Fitbit® One™; Fitbit Inc., San Francisco, CA) and short message service (SMS) text-messaging prompts to increase PA in overweight and obese adults. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adults wore a Fitbit One tracker for 6 weeks; half were randomized to also receive three daily SMS-based PA prompts. The Fitbit One consisted of a wearable tracker for instant feedback on performance and a Web site/mobile application (app) for detailed summaries. Outcome measures were objectively measured steps and minutes of PA by intensity using two accelerometers: Actigraph™ (Pensacola, FL) GT3X+ (primary measure) at baseline and Week 6 and Fitbit One (secondary measure) at baseline and Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Results: Mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of primary measures indicated a significant within-group increase of +4.3 (standard error [SE]=2.0) min/week of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) at 6-week follow-up (p=0.04) in the comparison group (Fitbit only), but no study group differences across PA levels. Secondary measures indicated the SMS text-messaging effect lasted for only 1 week: the intervention group increased by +1,266 steps (SE=491; p=0.01), +17.8 min/week MVPA (SE=8.5; p=0.04), and +38.3 min/week total PA (SE=15.9; p=0.02) compared with no changes in the comparison group, and these between-group differences were significant for steps (p=0.01), fairly/very active minutes (p<0.01), and total active minutes (p=0.02). Conclusions: These data suggest that the Fitbit One achieved a small increase in MVPA at follow-up and that the SMS-based PA prompts were insufficient in increasing PA beyond 1 week. Future studies can test this intervention in those requiring less help and/or test strategies to increase participants' engagement levels. PMID:26431257

  20. The physical environment and health-enhancing activity during the school commute: global positioning system, geographical information systems and accelerometry.

    PubMed

    McMinn, David; Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Aitkenhead, Matt J; Johnston, Derek W; Murtagh, Shemane; Rowe, David A

    2014-05-01

    Active school travel is in decline. An understanding of the potential determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during the school commute may help to inform interventions aimed at reversing these trends. The purpose of this study was to identify the physical environmental factors associated with health-enhancing physical activity during the school commute. Data were collected in 2009 on 166 children commuting home from school in Scotland. Data on location and physical activity were measured using global positioning systems (GPS) and accelerometers, and mapped using geographical information systems (GIS). Multi-level logistic regression models accounting for repeated observations within participants were used to test for associations between each land-use category (road/track/path, other man-made, greenspace, other natural) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Thirty-nine children provided 2,782 matched data points. Over one third (37.1%) of children's school commute time was spent in MVPA. Children commuted approximately equal amounts of time via natural and man-made land-uses (50.2% and 49.8% respectively). Commuting via road/track/path was associated with increased likelihood of MVPA (Exp(B)=1.23, P <0.05), but this association was not seen for commuting via other manmade land-uses. No association was noted between greenspace use and MVPA, but travelling via other natural land-uses was associated with lower odds of MVPA (Exp(B)=0.32, P <0.05). Children spend equal amounts of time commuting to school via man-made and natural land-uses, yet man-made transportation route infrastructure appears to provide greater opportunities for achieving health-enhancing physical activity levels.

  1. A method for measuring total thiaminase activity in fish tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, James L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Brown, Scott B.; Fitzsimons, John D.

    2005-01-01

    An accurate, quantitative, and rapid method for the measurement of thiaminase activity in fish samples is required to provide sufficient information to characterize the role of dietary thiaminase in the onset of thiamine deficiency in Great Lakes salmonines. A radiometric method that uses 14C-thiamine was optimized for substrate and co-substrate (nicotinic acid) concentrations, incubation time, and sample dilution. Total thiaminase activity was successfully determined in extracts of selected Great Lakes fishes and invertebrates. Samples included whole-body and selected tissues of forage fishes. Positive control material prepared from frozen alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in Lake Michigan enhanced the development and application of the method. The method allowed improved discrimination of thiaminolytic activity among forage fish species and their tissues. The temperature dependence of the thiaminase activity observed in crude extracts of Lake Michigan alewives followed a Q10 = 2 relationship for the 1-37??C temperature range, which is consistent with the bacterial-derived thiaminase I protein. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  2. Low-Threshold Active Teaching Methods for Mathematic Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Sebastian M.; Hargis, Jace

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present a large list of low-threshold active teaching methods categorized so the instructor can efficiently access and target the deployment of conceptually based lessons. The categories include teaching strategies for lecture on large and small class sizes; student action individually, in pairs, and groups; games; interaction…

  3. Background and Source Term Identification in Active Neutron Interrogation Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    low MeV neutron energy range, the increased numbers of neutrons from scattering ...reactions for low neutron energy . For U-235, low energy neutrons (thermal neutrons ) are more likely to cause fission than inelastic scattering or...manner. Active neutron interrogation is a sought after method for this since the resulting high energy gamma rays produced by inelastic scattering

  4. An Experimental Method for the Active Learning of Greedy Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez-Iturbide, J. Angel

    2013-01-01

    Greedy algorithms constitute an apparently simple algorithm design technique, but its learning goals are not simple to achieve.We present a didacticmethod aimed at promoting active learning of greedy algorithms. The method is focused on the concept of selection function, and is based on explicit learning goals. It mainly consists of an…

  5. Optical design and active optics methods in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaitre, Gerard R.

    2013-03-01

    Optical designs for astronomy involve implementation of active optics and adaptive optics from X-ray to the infrared. Developments and results of active optics methods for telescopes, spectrographs and coronagraph planet finders are presented. The high accuracy and remarkable smoothness of surfaces generated by active optics methods also allow elaborating new optical design types with high aspheric and/or non-axisymmetric surfaces. Depending on the goal and performance requested for a deformable optical surface analytical investigations are carried out with one of the various facets of elasticity theory: small deformation thin plate theory, large deformation thin plate theory, shallow spherical shell theory, weakly conical shell theory. The resulting thickness distribution and associated bending force boundaries can be refined further with finite element analysis.

  6. A smartphone "app"-delivered randomized factorial trial targeting physical activity in adults.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Jason; Roberts, Sarah; Hillman, Charles H; Mullen, Sean P; Ritterband, Lee; McAuley, Edward

    2017-03-02

    Rapid technological development has challenged researchers developing mobile moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) interventions. This 12-week randomized factorial intervention aimed to determine the individual and combined impact of a self-monitoring smartphone-app (tracking, feedback, education) and two theory-based modules (goal-setting, points-based feedback) on MVPA, key psychosocial outcomes, and application usage. Adults (N = 116; M age  = 41.38 ± 7.57) received (1) a basic self-monitoring app, (2) the basic app plus goal setting, (3) the basic app plus points-based feedback, or (4) the basic app plus both modules. All individuals increased MVPA by more than 11 daily minutes. Those with points-based feedback demonstrated still higher levels of MVPA and more favorable psychosocial and app usage outcomes across the intervention. Those with access to in-app goal setting had higher levels of app usage relative to those without the component. It is imperative that effective digital intervention "ingredients" are identified, and these findings provide early evidence to this effect. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02592590.

  7. Adaptive Current Control Method for Hybrid Active Power Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Minh Thuyen

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive current control method for Hybrid Active Power Filter (HAPF). It consists of a fuzzy-neural controller, identification and prediction model and cost function. The fuzzy-neural controller parameters are adjusted according to the cost function minimum criteria. For this reason, the proposed control method has a capability on-line control clings to variation of the load harmonic currents. Compared to the single fuzzy logic control method, the proposed control method shows the advantages of better dynamic response, compensation error in steady-state is smaller, able to online control is better and harmonics cancelling is more effective. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  8. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-25

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein's ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter's mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na(+)-coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures.

  9. Physical Activity Recognition with Mobile Phones: Challenges, Methods, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Lu, Hong; Liu, Zhigang; Boda, Péter Pál

    In this book chapter, we present a novel system that recognizes and records the physical activity of a person using a mobile phone. The sensor data is collected by built-in accelerometer sensor that measures the motion intensity of the device. The system recognizes five everyday activities in real-time, i.e., stationary, walking, running, bicycling, and in vehicle. We first introduce the sensor's data format, sensor calibration, signal projection, feature extraction, and selection methods. Then we have a detailed discussion and comparison of different choices of feature sets and classifiers. The design and implementation of one prototype system is presented along with resource and performance benchmark on Nokia N95 platform. Results show high recognition accuracies for distinguishing the five activities. The last part of the chapter introduces one demo application built on top of our system, physical activity diary, and a selection of potential applications in mobile wellness, mobile social sharing and contextual user interface domains.

  10. Toxin activity assays, devices, methods and systems therefor

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory Jon

    2016-04-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, system and method for conducting toxin activity assay using sedimentation. The toxin activity assay may include generating complexes which bind to a plurality of beads in a fluid sample. The complexes may include a target toxin and a labeling agent, or may be generated due to presence of active target toxin and/or labeling agent designed to be incorporated into complexes responsive to the presence of target active toxin. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a lower density than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  11. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Merino, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  12. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    DOEpatents

    Merino, Sandra

    2014-10-28

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  13. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    DOEpatents

    Merino, Sandra

    2014-05-27

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  14. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Merino, Sandra

    2015-04-14

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  15. Physical activity and cancer-specific mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Arem, Hannah; Moore, Steve C; Park, Yikyung; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Hollenbeck, Albert; Leitzmann, Michael; Matthews, Charles E

    2014-07-15

    Higher physical activity levels have been associated with a lower risk of developing various cancers and all-cancer mortality, but the impact of pre-diagnosis physical activity on cancer-specific death has not been fully characterized. In the prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study with 293,511 men and women, we studied prediagnosis moderate to vigorous intensity leisure time physical activity (MVPA) in the past 10 years and cancer-specific mortality. Over a median 12.1 years, we observed 15,001 cancer deaths. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for MVPA with cancer mortality overall and by 20 specific cancer sites, adjusting for relevant risk factors. Compared to participants reporting never/rare MVPA, those reporting >7 hr/week MVPA had a lower risk of total cancer mortality (HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.84-0.94; p-trend <0.001). When analyzed by cancer site-specific deaths, comparing those reporting >7 hr/week of MVPA to those reporting never/rare MVPA, we observed a lower risk of death from colon (HR = 0.70; 95% CI 0.57-0.85; p-trend <0.001), liver (0.71; 0.52-0.98; p-trend = 0.012) and lung cancer (0.84; 0.77-0.92; p-trend <0.001) and a significant p-trend for non-Hodgkins lymphoma (0.80; 0.62-1.04; p-trend = 0.017). An unexpected increased mortality p-trend with increasing MVPA was observed for death from kidney cancer (1.42; 0.98-2.03; p-trend = 0.016). Our findings suggest that higher prediagnosis leisure time physical activity is associated with lower risk of overall cancer mortality and mortality from multiple cancer sites. Future studies should confirm observed associations and further explore timing of physical activity and underlying biological mechanisms.

  16. Pre- to Postoperative Physical Activity Changes in Bariatric Surgery Patients: Self-Report vs. Objective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; Jakicic, John M.; Unick, Jessica L.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Pohl, Dieter; Roye, G. Dean; Ryder, Beth A.; Sax, Harry C.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery patients report significant pre- to postoperative increases in physical activity (PA). However, it is unclear whether objective measures would corroborate these changes. The present study compared self-reported and accelerometer-based estimates of changes in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) from pre- (pre-op) to 6 months postsurgery (post-op). Twenty bariatric surgery (65% laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding, 35% gastric bypass) patients (46.2 ± 9.8 years, 88% female, pre-op BMI = 50.8 ± 9.7 kg/m2) wore RT3 accelerometers as an objective measure of MVPA and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) as a subjective measure before and 6 months after bariatric surgery. Time (min/week) spent in MVPA was calculated for the PPAQ and RT3 (≥1-min and ≥10-min bouts) at pre-op and post-op. Self-reported MVPA increased fivefold from pre-op to post-op (44.6 ± 80.8 to 212.3 ± 212.4 min/week; P < 0.005). By contrast, the RT3 showed nonsignificant decreases in MVPA for both ≥1-min (186.0 ± 169.0 to 151.2 ± 118.3 min/week) and ≥10-min (41.3 ± 109.3 to 39.8 ± 71.3 min/ week) bouts. At pre-op, the percentage of participants who accumulated ≥150-min/week of MVPA in bouts ≥10-min according to the PPAQ and RT3 was identical (10%). However, at post-op, 55% of participants reported compliance with the recommendation compared to 5% based on RT3 measurement (P = 0.002). Objectively-measured changes in MVPA from pre-op to 6 months post-op appear to be much smaller than self-reported changes. Further research involving larger samples is needed to confirm these findings and to determine whether self-report and objective PA measures are differentially associated with surgical weight loss outcomes. PMID:20379143

  17. [Development and optimization of the methods for determining activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in plasma].

    PubMed

    Roka-Moĭia, Ia M; Zhernosiekov, D D; Kondratiuk, A S; Hrynenko, T V

    2013-01-01

    The activity and content of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are important indicators of pathological processes, because its content in plasma increases at acute myocardium infarction, tumor, diabetes mellitus, etc. The present work is dedicated to the development and optimization of the methods of PAI-1 activity definition, which can be used in clinical practice. We have proposed the modification of the method COATEST PAI with the usage of chromogenic substrate S2251. According to our modification, the cyanogen bromide fragments of human fibrinogen have been changed into bovine desAB-fibrin. We have also developed the method with the usage of fibrin films. In this method fibrin is used as a stimulator of activation reaction and as a substrate at the same time. Using fibrin, the native substrate of plasmin, we provide high specificity of the reaction and exclude the cross-reaction with other plasma enzymes.

  18. Synthetic Methods, Chemistry, and the Anticonvulsant Activity of Thiadiazoles

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bhawna; Verma, Amita; Prajapati, Sunil; Sharma, Upendra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The chemistry of heterocyclic compounds has been an interesting field of study for a long time. Heterocyclic nucleus 1,3,4-thiadiazole constitutes an important class of compounds for new drug development. The synthesis of novel thiadiazole derivatives and investigation of their chemical and biological behavior have gained more importance in recent decades. The search for antiepileptic compounds with more selective activity and lower toxicity continues to be an active area of intensive investigation in medicinal chemistry. During the recent years, there has been intense investigation of different classes of thiadiazole compounds, many of which possess extensive pharmacological activities, namely, antimicrobial activity, anticonvulsant, antifungal antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antituberculosis activities, and so forth. The resistance towards available drugs is rapidly becoming a major worldwide problem. The need to design new compounds to deal with this resistance has become one of the most important areas of research today. Thiadiazole is a versatile moiety that exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. Thiadiazole moiety acts as “hydrogen binding domain” and “two-electron donor system.” It also acts as a constrained pharmacophore. On the basis of the reported literature, we study here thiadiazole compounds and their synthetic methods chemistry and anticonvulsant activity. PMID:25405032

  19. Associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in childrenand adolescents.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gustavo; Andersen, Lars Bo; Aires, Luisa; Mota, Jorge; Oliveira, Jose; Ribeiro, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The study comprised 310 participants (183 girls and 127 boys) aged 11-18 years. Sports participation was assessed by questionnaire and habitual physical activity (PA) was measured objectively with accelerometers. The 20-m shuttle-run test was used to estimate CRF. Logistic regression analyses were carried out with CRF as the outcome. The odds ratio (OR) for being fit was greater for those who comply with 60 min · day(-1) in MVPA (OR = 2.612; 95%confidence interval [CI] = 1.614-4.225) in comparison with those who do not. Participation in competitive sports at club levels increased the chances of being fit (OR = 13.483; 95%CI = 4.560-39.864), independently of MVPA levels. There were positive and significant trends in CRF and objectively measured PA across the levels of engagement in competitive sports (P < 0.05). Concluding, participation in competitive sports at club level is more effective than other organised or non-organised sports to reach healthier levels of CRF and recommend levels of MVPA.

  20. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children—Psychological Correlates of PA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W. C.; Chen, Tzu-An; Zhang, Shu-Ge

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63). The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference) were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender). This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures. PMID:27754396

  1. Soft-tissues Image Processing: Comparison of Traditional Segmentation Methods with 2D active Contour Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulka, J.; Gescheidtova, E.; Bartusek, K.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with modern methods of image processing, especially image segmentation, classification and evaluation of parameters. It focuses primarily on processing medical images of soft tissues obtained by magnetic resonance tomography (MR). It is easy to describe edges of the sought objects using segmented images. The edges found can be useful for further processing of monitored object such as calculating the perimeter, surface and volume evaluation or even three-dimensional shape reconstruction. The proposed solutions can be used for the classification of healthy/unhealthy tissues in MR or other imaging. Application examples of the proposed segmentation methods are shown. Research in the area of image segmentation focuses on methods based on solving partial differential equations. This is a modern method for image processing, often called the active contour method. It is of great advantage in the segmentation of real images degraded by noise with fuzzy edges and transitions between objects. In the paper, results of the segmentation of medical images by the active contour method are compared with results of the segmentation by other existing methods. Experimental applications which demonstrate the very good properties of the active contour method are given.

  2. A Comparison of Self-Report Scales and Accelerometer-Determined Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Scores of Finnish School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The current article provides an important insight into measurement differences between two commonly used self-reports and accelerometer-determined moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) scores within matched samples across 1 school year. Participants were 998 fifth- through eighth-grade students who completed self-reports and 76 fifth- and…

  3. The Influence of Instructional Climates on Time Spent in Management Tasks and Physical Activity of 2nd-Grade Students during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of two physical education (PE) instructional climates (mastery, performance) on the percentage of time students spent in a) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and b) management tasks during PE in 2nd-grade students. Forty-eight 2nd graders (mastery, n = 23; performance, n = 25)…

  4. Physical Activity Levels and Motivational Responses of Boys and Girls: A Comparison of Direct Instruction and Tactical Games Models of Games Teaching in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lindsey; Harvey, Stephen; Savory, Louise; Fairclough, Stuart; Kozub, Stephen; Kerr, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to independently determine the levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and self-determined motivation of both boys and girls as they participated in prolonged units of invasion games (i.e. 6-12 lessons) through two pedagogical models: direct instruction and the tactical games model (TGM). It was…

  5. Quench Protection System based on Active Power Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanato, Nozomu

    In superconducting coils, local and excessive joule heating may give damage to the superconducting windings when a quench occurs and therefore it is essential that the quench is detected quickly and precisely so that the coils can be safely discharged. We have presented a quench protection system based on the active power method which detects a quench by measuring the instantaneous active power generated in a superconducting coil. The protection system based on this method is strong against the inductive voltage and noise which may cause insufficient quench recognition. However, the proposed system is useful for a single coil but it is vulnerable to the magnetically coupled multi-coil such as high field superconducting coils. Because the proposed system can not avoid insufficient quench recognition by the mutual inductive voltage from the other coils. This paper presents a method to improve the characteristics of the active power method by cancelling the mutual inductive voltage. The experimental results of the quench protection for small Bi2223 coils show that the proposed system is useful for the magnetically coupled coils.

  6. Physical activity behavior predicts endogenous pain modulation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Kelly M; Ohlman, Thomas; Naugle, Keith E; Riley, Zachary A; Keith, NiCole R

    2017-03-01

    Older adults compared with younger adults are characterized by greater endogenous pain facilitation and a reduced capacity to endogenously inhibit pain, potentially placing them at a greater risk for chronic pain. Previous research suggests that higher levels of self-reported physical activity are associated with more effective pain inhibition and less pain facilitation on quantitative sensory tests in healthy adults. However, no studies have directly tested the relationship between physical activity behavior and pain modulatory function in older adults. This study examined whether objective measures of physical activity behavior cross-sectionally predicted pain inhibitory function on the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) test and pain facilitation on the temporal summation (TS) test in healthy older adults. Fifty-one older adults wore an accelerometer on the hip for 7 days and completed the CPM and TS tests. Measures of sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were obtained from the accelerometer. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the relationship of TS and CPM with levels of physical activity, while controlling for demographic, psychological, and test variables. The results indicated that sedentary time and LPA significantly predicted pain inhibitory function on the CPM test, with less sedentary time and greater LPA per day associated with greater pain inhibitory capacity. Additionally, MVPA predicted pain facilitation on the TS test, with greater MVPA associated with less TS of pain. These results suggest that different types of physical activity behavior may differentially impact pain inhibitory and facilitatory processes in older adults.

  7. Evaluation of pozzolanic activity by the electric resistance measurement method

    SciTech Connect

    Tashiro, Chuichi; Ikeda, Ko . Dept. of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering); Inoue, Yoshihiro )

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of electric resistance and amount of consumption of portlandite were carried out in accelerated curing conditions by preparing pastes of Fine Ceraments, fly ash, silica fume, kaolin, acid clay, zeolite and quartz activated with portlandite. Electric resistances of reactive pozzolans showed sharp rises except that of kaolin, whereas that of inactive material, quartz, showed no sharp rise. Electric resistances are proportional to the consumptions of portlandite except for fly ashes. The electric resistance measurement method combined with portlandite consumption measurement is useful to the rapid evaluation of pozzolanic activity.

  8. Iron active electrode and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F.; Seidel, Joseph; Pantier, Earl A.

    1982-10-26

    An iron active electrode and method of preparing same in which iron sulfate is calcined in an oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature in the range of from about 600.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C. for a time sufficient to produce an iron oxide with a trace amount of sulfate. The calcined material is loaded into an electrically conductive support and then heated in a reducing atmosphere at an elevated temperature to produce activated iron having a trace amount of sulfide which is formed into an electrode plate.

  9. Psychosocial determinants of participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among Hispanic and Latina middle school-aged girls.

    PubMed

    Foran, Amanda C; Cermak, Sharon A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2013-01-01

    We examined physical activity (PA)-related psychosocial factors, weight status, and self-reported participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Latina middle school-aged girls. Baseline data from a middle school-based health behavior study (N = 326) was used. Contrasting activity-level groups were identified (81 most active, 144 least active) and compared. More active girls had significantly greater social support for PA, motivation to exercise, and positive meanings of PA than their less active peers. There was no significant difference in body mass index (BMI) percentile, barriers to PA, or negative meanings of PA between groups. Less active girls reported more screen time activities than the highly active girls. Positive psychosocial factors may be predictive of participation in MVPA for middle school-aged Latina youth. However, BMI may not be directly related to PA participation in this population.

  10. Physical activity and self-reported health status among adolescents: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Galán, I; Boix, R; Medrano, M J; Ramos, P; Rivera, F; Pastor-Barriuso, R; Moreno, C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the dose–response relationship between physical activity and health benefits among young people. Our objective was to analyse the association between the frequency of undertaking moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the self-reported health status of the adolescent population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting All regions of Spain. Participants Students aged 11–18 years participating in the Spanish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey 2006. A total of 375 schools and 21 188 students were selected. Main outcomes The frequency of undertaking MVPA was measured by a questionnaire, with the following four health indicators: self-rated health, health complaints, satisfaction with life and health-related quality of life. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyse the association, adjusting for potential confounding variables and the modelling of the dose–response relationship. Results As the frequency of MVPA increased, the association with health benefits was stronger. A linear trend (p<0.05) was found for self-rated health and health complaints in males and females and for satisfaction with life among females; for health-related quality of life this relationship was quadratic for both sexes (p<0.05). For self-reported health and health complaints, the effect was found to be of greater magnitude in males than in females and, in all scales, the benefits were observed from the lowest frequencies of MVPA, especially in males. Conclusions A protective effect of MVPA was found in both sexes for the four health indicators studied, and this activity had a gradient effect. Among males, health benefits were detected from very low levels of physical activity and the magnitude of the relationship was greater than that for females. PMID:23676798

  11. Estimation of Organ Activity using Four Different Methods of Background Correction in Conjugate View Method

    PubMed Central

    Shanei, Ahmad; Afshin, Maryam; Moslehi, Masoud; Rastaghi, Sedighe

    2015-01-01

    To make an accurate estimation of the uptake of radioactivity in an organ using the conjugate view method, corrections of physical factors, such as background activity, scatter, and attenuation are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of four different methods for background correction in activity quantification of the heart in myocardial perfusion scans. The organ activity was calculated using the conjugate view method. A number of 22 healthy volunteers were injected with 17–19 mCi of 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) at rest or during exercise. Images were obtained by a dual-headed gamma camera. Four methods for background correction were applied: (1) Conventional correction (referred to as the Gates' method), (2) Buijs method, (3) BgdA subtraction, (4) BgdB subtraction. To evaluate the accuracy of these methods, the results of the calculations using the above-mentioned methods were compared with the reference results. The calculated uptake in the heart using conventional method, Buijs method, BgdA subtraction, and BgdB subtraction methods was 1.4 ± 0.7% (P < 0.05), 2.6 ± 0.6% (P < 0.05), 1.3 ± 0.5% (P < 0.05), and 0.8 ± 0.3% (P < 0.05) of injected dose (I.D) at rest and 1.8 ± 0.6% (P > 0.05), 3.1 ± 0.8% (P > 0.05), 1.9 ± 0.8% (P < 0.05), and 1.2 ± 0.5% (P < 0.05) of I.D, during exercise. The mean estimated myocardial uptake of 99mTc-MIBI was dependent on the correction method used. Comparison among the four different methods of background activity correction applied in this study showed that the Buijs method was the most suitable method for background correction in myocardial perfusion scan. PMID:26955568

  12. Estimation of Organ Activity using Four Different Methods of Background Correction in Conjugate View Method.

    PubMed

    Shanei, Ahmad; Afshin, Maryam; Moslehi, Masoud; Rastaghi, Sedighe

    2015-01-01

    To make an accurate estimation of the uptake of radioactivity in an organ using the conjugate view method, corrections of physical factors, such as background activity, scatter, and attenuation are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of four different methods for background correction in activity quantification of the heart in myocardial perfusion scans. The organ activity was calculated using the conjugate view method. A number of 22 healthy volunteers were injected with 17-19 mCi of (99m)Tc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) at rest or during exercise. Images were obtained by a dual-headed gamma camera. Four methods for background correction were applied: (1) Conventional correction (referred to as the Gates' method), (2) Buijs method, (3) BgdA subtraction, (4) BgdB subtraction. To evaluate the accuracy of these methods, the results of the calculations using the above-mentioned methods were compared with the reference results. The calculated uptake in the heart using conventional method, Buijs method, BgdA subtraction, and BgdB subtraction methods was 1.4 ± 0.7% (P < 0.05), 2.6 ± 0.6% (P < 0.05), 1.3 ± 0.5% (P < 0.05), and 0.8 ± 0.3% (P < 0.05) of injected dose (I.D) at rest and 1.8 ± 0.6% (P > 0.05), 3.1 ± 0.8% (P > 0.05), 1.9 ± 0.8% (P < 0.05), and 1.2 ± 0.5% (P < 0.05) of I.D, during exercise. The mean estimated myocardial uptake of (99m)Tc-MIBI was dependent on the correction method used. Comparison among the four different methods of background activity correction applied in this study showed that the Buijs method was the most suitable method for background correction in myocardial perfusion scan.

  13. Neutron Field Measurements in Phantom with Foil Activation Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-29

    jI25 Ii III uumu ullli~ S....- - Lb - w * .qJ’ AD-A 192 122 ulJ. IL (pj DNA-TR-87- 10 N EUTRON FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN PHANTOM WITH FOIL ACTIVATION...SAND II Measurements in Phantom 6 4 The 5-Foil Neutron Dosimetry Method 29 5 Comparison of SAND II and Simple 5-Foil Dosimetry Method 34 6 Thermal ...quite reasonable. The monkey phantom spectrum differs from the NBS U-235 fission spectrum in that the former has a I/E tail plus thermal -neutron peak

  14. Photocardiography: a novel method for monitoring cardiac activity in fish.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masayuki; Hirano, Ruriko; Shima, Takao

    2009-05-01

    A non-invasive technique to monitor cardiac activity in small fish, such as goldfish, zebrafish, and medaka, is needed. In the present study, we developed photocardiography (PCG), a non-invasive optical method, to record cardiac activity in small fish. The method monitors changes in near-infrared light transmission through the heart using a phototransistor located outside the body. With this technique, heartbeats in fish of various sizes (14-218 mm) were stably recorded. PCG was applied to monitor the heartbeat during fear-related classical heart rate conditioning in goldfish wherein an electrical shock was used as an unconditioned stimulus. The heartbeats were continuously monitored, even when the beat coincided with the electrical shock, showing that PCG is robust even in an electrically noisy environment. This technique is particularly useful when monitoring the heartbeats of fish of small size or in the presence of ambient electrical noise, conditions in which the use of conventional electrocardiography (ECG) is difficult.

  15. Statistical methods for active pharmacovigilance, with applications to diabetes drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Lan; Farrell, Patrick J; McNair, Doug; Krewski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance aims to identify adverse drug reactions using postmarket surveillance data under real-world conditions of use. Unlike passive pharmacovigilance, which is based on largely voluntary (and hence incomplete) spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions with limited information on patient characteristics, active pharmacovigilance is based on electronic health records containing detailed information about patient populations, thereby allowing consideration of modifying factors such as polypharmacy and comorbidity, as well as sociodemographic characteristics. With the present shift toward active pharmacovigilance, statistical methods capable of addressing the complexities of such data are needed. We describe four such methods here, and demonstrate their application in the analysis of a large retrospective cohort of diabetics taking anti-hyperglycemic medications that may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events.

  16. Method of preparing high specific activity platinum-195m

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-06-15

    A method of preparing high-specific-activity .sup.195m Pt includes the steps of: exposing .sup.193 Ir to a flux of neutrons sufficient to convert a portion of the .sup.193 Ir to .sup.195m Pt to form an irradiated material; dissolving the irradiated material to form an intermediate solution comprising Ir and Pt; and separating the Pt from the Ir by cation exchange chromatography to produce .sup.195m Pt.

  17. Method for preparing high specific activity 177Lu

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-04-06

    A method of separating lutetium from a solution containing Lu and Yb, particularly reactor-produced .sup.177 Lu and .sup.177 Yb, includes the steps of: providing a chromatographic separation apparatus containing LN resin; loading the apparatus with a solution containing Lu and Yb; and eluting the apparatus to chromatographically separate the Lu and the Yb in order to produce high-specific-activity .sup.177 Yb.

  18. Students' objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education.

    PubMed

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Keer, Hilde; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Haerens, Leen

    2012-08-01

    Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, Mage = 14.36 ±1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.

  19. Tooth whitening and temperature rise with two bleaching activation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-02-01

    Objectives: To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and intra-pulpal temperature increase in vitro on extracted upper human incisors after chemical, zoom light and diode laser activated bleaching. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n=10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power zoom activation light, for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. Degree of whitening was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and intrapulpal. Results: The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Conclusions: Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than zoom AP light. Diode lasers used to activate bleaching gels are not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulps using power settings of 2W.

  20. Assessment of antioxidant activity by using different in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Schlesier, K; Harwat, M; Böhm, V; Bitsch, R

    2002-02-01

    In this study, six common tests for measuring antioxidant activity were evaluated by comparing four antioxidants and applying them to beverages (tea and juices): Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC I-III assay), Total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter assay (TRAP assay), 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH assay), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine assay (DMPD assay), Photochemiluminescence assay (PCL assay) and Ferric reducing ability of plasma assay (FRAP assay). The antioxidants included gallic acid representing the group of polyphenols, uric acid as the main antioxidant in human plasma, ascorbic acid as a vitamin widely spread in fruits and Trolox as water soluble vitamin E analogue. The six methods presented can be divided into two groups depending on the oxidising reagent. Five methods use organic radical producers (TEAC I-III, TRAP, DPPH, DMPD, PCL) and one method works with metal ions for oxidation (FRAP). Another difference between these tests is the reaction procedure. Three assays use the delay in oxidation and determine the lag phase as parameter for the antioxidant activity (TEAC I, TRAP, PCL). They determine the delay of radical generation as well as the ability to scavenge the radical. In contrast, the assays TEAC II and III, DPPH, DMPD and FRAP analyse the ability to reduce the radical cation (TEAC II and III, DPPH, DMPD) or the ferric ion (FRAP). The three tests acting by radical reduction use preformed radicals and determine the decrease in absorbance while the FRAP assay measures the formed ferrous ions by increased absorbance. Gallic acid was the strongest antioxidant in all tests with exception of the DMPD assay. In contrast, uric acid and ascorbic acid showed low activity in some assays. Most of the assays determine the antioxidant activity in the micromolar range needing minutes to hours. Only one assay (PCL) is able to analyse the antioxidant activity in the nanomolar range. Black currant juice showed highest

  1. Effect of Accelerometer Cut-Off Points on the Recommended Level of Physical Activity for Obesity Prevention in Children

    PubMed Central

    Dygrýn, Jan; Mitáš, Josef; Jakubec, Lukáš; Frömel, Karel

    2016-01-01

    There is no general consensus regarding which accelerometer cut-off point (CoP) is most acceptable to estimate the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children and choice of an appropriate CoP primarily remains a subjective decision. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the influence of CoP selection on the mean MVPA and to define the optimal thresholds of MVPA derived from different accelerometer CoPs to avoid overweight/obesity and adiposity in children aged 7 to 12 years. Three hundred six children participated. Physical activity (PA) was monitored for seven consecutive days using an ActiGraph accelerometer (model GT3X) and the intensity of PA was estimated using the five most frequently published CoPs. Body adiposity was assessed using a multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. There was found a wide range of mean levels of MVPA that ranged from 27 (Puyau CoP) to 231 min∙d–1 (Freedson 2005 CoP). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the optimal thresholds for counts per minute (cpm) and MVPA derived from the Puyau CoP was the most useful in classifying children according to their body mass index (BMI) and fat mass percentage (FM%). In the total sample, the optimal thresholds of the MVPA derived from the Puyau CoP were 22 and 23 min∙d–1 when the categories based on BMI and FM%, respectively, were used. The children who did not meet these optimal thresholds had a significantly increased risk of being overweight/obese (OR = 2.88, P < 0.01) and risk of having excess fat mass (OR = 2.41, P < 0.01). In conclusion, the decision of selecting among various CoPs significantly influences the optimal levels of MVPA. The Puyau CoP of 3 200 cmp seems to be the most useful for defining the optimal level of PA for pediatric obesity prevention. PMID:27723835

  2. Physical activity during soccer and its contribution to physical activity recommendations in normal weight and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Sacheck, Jennifer M; Nelson, Tara; Ficker, Laura; Kafka, Tamar; Kuder, Julia; Economos, Christina D

    2011-05-01

    Amid the childhood obesity epidemic, understanding how organized sports participation contributes to meeting physical activity recommendations in children is important. Anthropometrics were measured in children (n = 111; 68% female, 9.1 ± 0.8 yr) before one 50-min soccer match. Time spent at different physical activity intensity levels was examined using Actigraph accelerometers. 49% of the match time was spent in sedentary activity (25.4 ± 5.7 min), while 33% of the match (16.9 ± 4.7 min) was spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA; p < .001). 22.5% of the children were overweight/obese and spent more time in sedentary activity (+3.2 ± 1.2 min; p < .05) and less time in MVPA (-3.0 ± 1.0 min; p < .01) compared with the normal weight children. These data demonstrate that playing an organized sport such as soccer only meets a portion (~25%) of the 60 min of MVPA recommended and even less of this recommendation is met by overweight/obese children.

  3. Determination Of The Activity Space By The Stereometric Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloison, Y.; Crete, N.; Mollard, R.

    1980-07-01

    To determine the activity space of a sitting subject, it is necessary to go beyond the mere statistical description of morphology and the knowledge of the displacement volume. An anlysis of the positions or variations of the positions of the diverse segmental elements (arms, hands, lower limbs, etc...) in the course of a given activity is required. Of the various methods used to locate quickly and accurately the spatial positions of anatomical points, stereometry makes it possible to plot the three-dimensional coordinates of any point in space in relation to a fixed trirectangle frame of reference determined by the stereome-tric measuring device. Thus, regardless of the orientation and posture of the subject, his segmental elements can be easily pin-pointed, throughout the experiment, within the space they occupy. Using this method, it is possible for a sample of operators seated at an operation station and applying either manual controls or pedals and belonging to a population statistically defined from the data collected and the analyses produced by the anthropometric study to determine a contour line of reach capability marking out the usable working space and to know, within this working space, a contour line of preferential activity that is limited, in space, by the whole range of optimal reach capability of all the subjects.

  4. Association of self-reported physical activity with obstructive sleep apnea: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    PubMed

    Murillo, Rosenda; Reid, Kathryn J; Arredondo, Elva M; Cai, Jianwen; Gellman, Marc D; Gotman, Nathan M; Marquez, David X; Penedo, Frank J; Ramos, Alberto R; Zee, Phyllis C; Daviglus, Martha L

    2016-12-01

    We examined associations of mild and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; apnea-hypopnea index ≥5 and ≥15, respectively) with recommended amounts of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) or vigorous physical activity (VPA) and by type of activity (i.e., recreational, transportation, and work activity). The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a multicenter population-based study, enrolled individuals from 2008 to 2011 from four U.S. metropolitan areas (Bronx, New York; Chicago, Illinois; Miami, Florida; San Diego, California). Participants in this study included 14,087 self-identified Hispanic/Latino ages 18 to 74years from the HCHS/SOL. Survey logistic regression analysis was used to compute odds ratios [OR] and 95% confidence intervals [CI], adjusting for sociodemographics, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI). Relative to being inactive, performing some MVPA (>0 to <150min/week) or meeting the recommended MVPA (≥150min/week) were associated with lower odds of mild OSA (ORs and 95% CIs 0.70 [0.61-0.82] and 0.76 [0.63-0.91], respectively), as well as moderate to severe OSA (ORs and 95% CIs 0.76 [0.62-0.93] and 0.76 [0.59-0.98], respectively). Associations of VPA with OSA were not significant. Engaging in medium or high levels of transportation activity was associated with lower odds of mild OSA (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74-0.96; OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43-0.95, respectively). Performing some recreational MVPA was associated with lower likelihood of mild and moderate to severe OSA (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.71-0.93; OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64-0.97, respectively). Health promotion and OSA prevention efforts should encourage individuals to engage in at least some MVPA.

  5. Tooth Whitening And Temperature Rise With Two Bleaching Activation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-09-27

    To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and Intrapulpal temperature increase in vitro on freshly extracted upper human central incisors after chemical, Zoom AP light and diode laser activated bleaching. Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n = 10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel, for three applications of 15 min each. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power Zoom activation light (Zoom AP), for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 Watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. The whitening degree was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and Intrapulpal. The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as Zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than Zoom AP light. Diode laser used to activate bleaching gels is not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulp using power settings of 2 W.

  6. Tooth Whitening And Temperature Rise With Two Bleaching Activation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-09-01

    To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and Intrapulpal temperature increase in vitro on freshly extracted upper human central incisors after chemical, Zoom AP light and diode laser activated bleaching. Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n = 10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel, for three applications of 15 min each. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power Zoom activation light (Zoom AP), for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 Watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. The whitening degree was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and Intrapulpal. The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as Zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than Zoom AP light. Diode laser used to activate bleaching gels is not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulp using power settings of 2 W.

  7. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-01

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein’s ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter’s mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na+-coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21016.001 PMID:28121290

  8. Robust activation method for negative electron affinity photocathodes

    DOEpatents

    Mulhollan, Gregory A.; Bierman, John C.

    2011-09-13

    A method by which photocathodes(201), single crystal, amorphous, or otherwise ordered, can be surface modified to a robust state of lowered and in best cases negative, electron affinity has been discovered. Conventional methods employ the use of Cs(203) and an oxidizing agent(207), typically carried by diatomic oxygen or by more complex molecules, for example nitrogen trifluoride, to achieve a lowered electron affinity(404). In the improved activation method, a second alkali, other than Cs(205), is introduced onto the surface during the activation process, either by co-deposition, yo-yo, or sporadic or intermittent application. Best effect for GaAs photocathodes has been found through the use of Li(402) as the second alkali, though nearly the same effect can be found by employing Na(406). Suitable photocathodes are those which are grown, cut from boules, implanted, rolled, deposited or otherwise fabricated in a fashion and shape desired for test or manufacture independently supported or atop a support structure or within a framework or otherwise affixed or suspended in the place and position required for use.

  9. Active structural acoustic control using the remote sensor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheer, Jordan; Daley, Steve

    2016-09-01

    Active structural acoustic control (ASAC) is an effective method of reducing the sound radiation from vibrating structures. In order to implement ASAC systems using only structural actuators and sensors, it is necessary to employ a model of the sound radiation from the structure. Such models have been presented in the literature for simple structures, such as baffled rectangular plates, and methods of determining the radiation modes of more complex practical structures using experimental data have also been explored. A similar problem arises in the context of active noise control, where cancellation of a disturbance is required at positions in space where it is not possible to locate a physical error microphone. In this case the signals at the cancellation points can be estimated from the outputs of remotely located measurement sensors using the “remote microphone method”. This remote microphone method is extended here to the ASAC problem, in which the pressures at a number of microphone locations must be estimated from measurements on the structure of the radiating system. The control and estimation strategies are described and the performance is assessed for a typical structural radiation problem.

  10. Methods of measuring Protein Disulfide Isomerase activity: a critical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Monica; Laurindo, Francisco; Fernandes, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is an essential redox chaperone from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is responsible for correct disulfide bond formation in nascent proteins. PDI is also found in other cellular locations in the cell, particularly the cell surface. Overall, PDI contributes to ER and global cell redox homeostasis and signaling. The knowledge about PDI structure and function progressed substantially based on in vitro studies using recombinant PDI and chimeric proteins. In these experimental scenarios, PDI reductase and chaperone activities are readily approachable. In contrast, assays to measure PDI isomerase activity, the hallmark of PDI family, are more complex. Assessment of PDI roles in cells and tissues mainly relies on gain- or loss-of-function studies. However, there is limited information regarding correlation of experimental readouts with the distinct types of PDI activities. In this mini-review, we evaluate the main methods described for measuring the different kinds of PDI activity: thiol reductase, thiol oxidase, thiol isomerase and chaperone. We emphasize the need to use appropriate controls and the role of critical interferents (e.g., detergent, presence of reducing agents). We also discuss the translation of results from in vitro studies with purified recombinant PDI to cellular and tissue samples, with critical comments on the interpretation of results.

  11. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOEpatents

    Beverly, Claude R.; Ernstberger, Harold G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

  12. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOEpatents

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

    1985-07-03

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

  13. [Method of determining tissue renin activity using heterologous serum].

    PubMed

    Orbetsova, V Ts; Kiprov, D

    1979-01-01

    The authors described a method for determination of tissue renin activity with heterologous substrate. The preparation of the substrate was performed at several stages: salting with amonium sulfate; dialisis of the precipitate till complete separation of amonium sulfate molecules; distruction of angiotensinases by interchangeble souring and alcalization of the medium; lyophylization of the pure substrate. The obtained renin-substrate was preserved in ampules and its usage had a series of advantages--duration, economic, a possibility for standartization of the determination, etc., which were described in details in the article. The described in details also the quantitative determination of the renin activity in the tissues (renal and cerebral) with the help of the obtained substrate as the moments, modiied by the authors, were indicated.

  14. Ward's area location, physical activity, and body composition in 8- and 9-year-old boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Cardadeiro, Graça; Baptista, Fátima; Zymbal, Vera; Rodrigues, Luís A; Sardinha, Luís B

    2010-11-01

    Bone strength is the result of its material composition and structural design, particularly bone mass distribution. The purpose of this study was to analyze femoral neck bone mass distribution by Ward's area location and its relationship with physical activity (PA) and body composition in children 8 and 9 years of age. The proximal femur shape was defined by geometric morphometric analysis in 88 participants (48 boys and 40 girls). Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images, 18 landmarks were digitized to define the proximal femur shape and to identify Ward's area position. Body weight, lean and fat mass, and bone mineral were assessed by DXA, PA by accelerometry, and bone age by the Tanner-Whitehouse III method. Warps analysis with Thin-Plate Spline software showed that the first axis explained 63% of proximal femur shape variation in boys and 58% in girls. Most of this variation was associated with differences in Ward's area location, from the central zone to the superior aspect of the femoral neck in both genders. Regression analysis demonstrated that body composition explained 4% to 7% of the proximal femur shape variation in girls. In boys, body composition variables explained a similar amount of variance, but moderate plus vigorous PA (MVPA) also accounted for 6% of proximal femur shape variation. In conclusion, proximal femur shape variation in children ages 8 and 9 was due mainly to differences in Ward's area position determined, in part, by body composition in both genders and by MVPA in boys. These variables were positively associated with a central Ward's area and thus with a more balanced femoral neck bone mass distribution.

  15. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Tokeer; Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna; Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Al-Shihri, Ayed S.

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m{sup 2}/g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m{sup 2/}g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl{sub 2}, however, NaBH{sub 4} produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m{sup 2}/g for 7 nm and 269 m{sup 2}/g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H{sup +} efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  16. Tensor analysis methods for activity characterization in spatiotemporal data

    SciTech Connect

    Haass, Michael Joseph; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Ochoa, Edward M.

    2014-03-01

    Tensor (multiway array) factorization and decomposition offers unique advantages for activity characterization in spatio-temporal datasets because these methods are compatible with sparse matrices and maintain multiway structure that is otherwise lost in collapsing for regular matrix factorization. This report describes our research as part of the PANTHER LDRD Grand Challenge to develop a foundational basis of mathematical techniques and visualizations that enable unsophisticated users (e.g. users who are not steeped in the mathematical details of matrix algebra and mulitway computations) to discover hidden patterns in large spatiotemporal data sets.

  17. Compositions and methods for adoptive and active immunotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Fahmy, Tarek; Steenblock, Erin

    2014-01-14

    Modular aAPCs and methods of their manufacture and use are provided. The modular aAPCs are constructed from polymeric microparticles. The aAPCs include encapsulated cytokines and coupling agents which modularly couple functional elements including T cell receptor activators, co-stimulatory molecules and adhesion molecules to the particle. The ability of these aAPCs to release cytokines in a controlled manner, coupled with their modular nature and ease of ligand attachment, results in an ideal, tunable APC capable of stimulating and expanding primary T cells.

  18. Neutron activation analysis of biological materials by the monostandard method.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Shinogi, M

    1979-12-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis by the monostandard method has been applied to the analyses of biological NBS standard reference materials; 1571 Orchard Leaves and 1577 Bovine Liver. Aluminum foils containing 0.100% gold or 2.00% cobalt were used as the monostandards. The gamma-ray spectral data were recorded on punched paper tape and were analyzed by a computer assisted data processing. The following 25 elements were determined: Al, Ca, Cl Cu, Mg, Mn, V (by short period irradiation), As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm and Zn (by long period irradiation). The results were compared with the certified values by NBS and the reported values in literatures to prove the reliability and accuracy of the monostandard method.

  19. Subliminal psychodynamic activation method and annihilation anxiety: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, A C

    1992-02-01

    Research with the subliminal psychodynamic activation (SPA) method has led to improvements in subjects' functioning in a variety of areas, including but not limited to weight control, school grades, and feelings of general anxiety. In 1987, Hurvich proposed that the SPA method could be used to further the understanding of annihilation anxiety. 100 nonclinical subjects completed questionnaires pertaining to annihilation anxiety, psychological differentiation, and state anxiety and were tachistoscopically exposed to the subliminal message of symbiotic-like oneness, MOMMY AND I ARE ONE, and to control messages. Analysis showed that women with low annihilation anxiety had significantly lower state anxiety than women with high annihilation anxiety, regardless of the content of the subliminal message; results did not reach significance for men. Correlations among scores on the questionnaires also were noted.

  20. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  1. Why are early maturing girls less active? Links between pubertal development, psychological well-being, and physical activity among girls at ages 11 and 13

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Werder, Jessica L; Trost, Stewart G; Baker, Birgitta L; Birch, Leann L

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has shown that early maturing girls at age 11 have lower subsequent physical activity at age 13 in comparison to later maturing girls. Possible reasons for this association have not been assessed. This study examines girls’ psychological response to puberty and their enjoyment of physical activity as intermediary factors linking pubertal maturation and physical activity. Participants included 178 girls who were assessed at age 11, of whom 168 were reassessed at age 13. All participants were non-Hispanic white and resided in the U.S. Three measures of pubertal development were obtained at age 11 including Tanner breast stage, estradiol levels, and mothers’ reports of girls’ development on the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS). Measures of psychological well-being at ages 11 and 13 included depression, global self worth, perceived athletic competence, maturation fears, and body esteem. At age 13, girls’ enjoyment of physical activity was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and their daily minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using objective monitoring. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess direct and indirect pathways between pubertal development at age 11 and MVPA at age 13. In addition to a direct effect of pubertal development on MVPA, indirect effects were found for depression, global self worth and maturity fears controlling for covariates. In each instance, more advanced pubertal development at age 11 was associated with lower psychological well-being at age 13, which predicted lower enjoyment of physical activity at age 13 and in turn lower MVPA. Results from this study suggest that programs designed to increase physical activity among adolescent girls should address the self-consciousness and discontent that girls’ experience with their bodies during puberty, particularly if they mature earlier than their peers, and identify activities or settings that make differences in

  2. Neutron activation analysis: A primary method of measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Robert R.; Bode, Peter; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.

    2011-03-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), based on the comparator method, has the potential to fulfill the requirements of a primary ratio method as defined in 1998 by the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière — Métrologie en Chimie (CCQM, Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance — Metrology in Chemistry). This thesis is evidenced in this paper in three chapters by: demonstration that the method is fully physically and chemically understood; that a measurement equation can be written down in which the values of all parameters have dimensions in SI units and thus having the potential for metrological traceability to these units; that all contributions to uncertainty of measurement can be quantitatively evaluated, underpinning the metrological traceability; and that the performance of NAA in CCQM key-comparisons of trace elements in complex matrices between 2000 and 2007 is similar to the performance of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS), which had been formerly designated by the CCQM as a primary ratio method.

  3. Extremely Randomized Machine Learning Methods for Compound Activity Prediction.

    PubMed

    Czarnecki, Wojciech M; Podlewska, Sabina; Bojarski, Andrzej J

    2015-11-09

    Speed, a relatively low requirement for computational resources and high effectiveness of the evaluation of the bioactivity of compounds have caused a rapid growth of interest in the application of machine learning methods to virtual screening tasks. However, due to the growth of the amount of data also in cheminformatics and related fields, the aim of research has shifted not only towards the development of algorithms of high predictive power but also towards the simplification of previously existing methods to obtain results more quickly. In the study, we tested two approaches belonging to the group of so-called 'extremely randomized methods'-Extreme Entropy Machine and Extremely Randomized Trees-for their ability to properly identify compounds that have activity towards particular protein targets. These methods were compared with their 'non-extreme' competitors, i.e., Support Vector Machine and Random Forest. The extreme approaches were not only found out to improve the efficiency of the classification of bioactive compounds, but they were also proved to be less computationally complex, requiring fewer steps to perform an optimization procedure.

  4. Habitual physical activity and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Crowley, Vivion E; Hensey, Owen; Broderick, Julie M; McGahey, Ailish; Gormley, John

    2014-09-01

    Adults with cerebral palsy (CP) are known to participate in reduced levels of total physical activity. There is no information available however, regarding levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in this population. Reduced participation in MVPA is associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors. The purpose of this study was firstly to compare levels of sedentary, light, MVPA and total activity in adults with CP to adults without CP. Secondly, the objective was to investigate the association between physical activity components, sedentary behavior and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with CP. Adults with CP (n=41) age 18-62 yr (mean ± SD=36.5 ± 12.5 yr), classified in Gross Motor Function Classification System level I (n=13), II (n=18) and III (n=10) participated in this study. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry in adults with CP and in age- and sex-matched adults without CP over 7 days. Anthropometric indicators of obesity, blood pressure and several biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease were also measured in adults with CP. Adults with CP spent less time in light, moderate, vigorous and total activity, and more time in sedentary activity than adults without CP (p<0.01 for all). Moderate physical activity was associated with waist-height ratio when adjusted for age and sex (β=-0.314, p<0.05). When further adjustment was made for total activity, moderate activity was associated with waist-height ratio (β=-0.538, p<0.05), waist circumference (β=-0.518, p<0.05), systolic blood pressure (β=-0.592, p<0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (β=-0.636, p<0.05). Sedentary activity was not associated with any risk factor. The findings provide evidence that relatively young adults with CP participate in reduced levels of MVPA and spend increased time in sedentary behavior, potentially increasing their risk of developing cardiometabolic disease.

  5. Associations of Body Size and Composition with Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    LOHMAN, TIMOTHY G.; RING, KIMBERLY; SCHMITZ, KATHRYN H.; TREUTH, MARGARITA S.; LOFTIN, MARK; YANG, SONG; SOTHERN, MELINDA; GOING, SCOTT

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether components of body composition (size, fat mass, and fat-free mass) were related to physical activity. Methods A random sample of 60 eligible sixth grade girls at each of 36 schools (six schools per region and six regions in total sample); complete measurements on 1553 girls. Physical activity was assessed over 6 d in each girl using an accelerometer, and body composition was assessed using a multiple regression equation using body mass index and triceps skinfold. Minutes of moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous physical activity were estimated from accelerometer counts per 30 s above threshold values determined from a previous study. Results Significant inverse relationships were found for all measures of body size and composition and all physical activity indices. The combination of fat and fat-free mass expressed as a weight and as an index (divided by height squared) along with race, SES, site, and school were most highly associated with physical activity in multiple regression analysis, accounting for 14–15% of the variance in physical activity. Fat mass was more closely related to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) than fat-free mass with higher standardized regression coefficients. Conclusion We conclude that both fat mass or fat mass index as well as fat-free mass or fat-free mass index make independent contributions in association with physical activity levels. These indices are recommended for future studies. PMID:16775560

  6. A Novel Method for Assessing the Chaperone Activity of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hristozova, Nevena; Tompa, Peter; Kovacs, Denes

    2016-01-01

    Protein chaperones are molecular machines which function both during homeostasis and stress conditions in all living organisms. Depending on their specific function, molecular chaperones are involved in a plethora of cellular processes by playing key roles in nascent protein chain folding, transport and quality control. Among stress protein families–molecules expressed during adverse conditions, infection, and diseases–chaperones are highly abundant. Their molecular functions range from stabilizing stress-susceptible molecules and membranes to assisting the refolding of stress-damaged proteins, thereby acting as protective barriers against cellular damage. Here we propose a novel technique to test and measure the capability for protective activity of known and putative chaperones in a semi-high throughput manner on a plate reader. The current state of the art does not allow the in vitro measurements of chaperone activity in a highly parallel manner with high accuracy or high reproducibility, thus we believe that the method we report will be of significant benefit in this direction. The use of this method may lead to a considerable increase in the number of experimentally verified proteins with such functions, and may also allow the dissection of their molecular mechanism for a better understanding of their function. PMID:27564234

  7. Methods to distinguish various types of protein phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigan, D.L.; Shriner, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To distinguish the action of protein Tyr(P) and protein Ser(P)/Thr(P) phosphatases on /sup 32/P-labeled phosphoproteins in subcellular fractions different inhibitors and activators are utilized. Comparison of the effects of added compounds provides a convenient, indirect method to characterize dephosphorylation reactions. Protein Tyr(P) phosphatases are specifically inhibited by micromolar Zn2+ or vanadate, and show maximal activity in the presence of EDTA. The other class of cellular phosphatases, specific for protein Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues, are inhibited by fluoride and EDTA. In this class of enzymes two major functional types can be distinguished: those sensitive to inhibition by the heat-stable protein inhibitor-2 and not stimulated by polycations, and those not sensitive to inhibition and stimulated by polycations. Preparation of /sup 32/P-labeled Tyr(P) and Ser(P) phosphoproteins also is presented for the direct measurement of phosphatase activities in preparations by the release of acid-soluble (/sup 32/P)phosphate.

  8. Active control: an investigation method for combustion instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinsot, T.; Yip, B.; Veynante, D.; Trouvé, A.; Samaniego, J. M.; Candel, S.

    1992-07-01

    Closed-loop active control methods and their application to combustion instabilities are discussed. In these methods the instability development is impeded with a feedback control loop: the signal provided by a sensor monitoring the flame or pressure oscillations is processed and sent back to actuators mounted on the combustor or on the feeding system. Different active control systems tested on a non-premixed multiple-flame turbulent combustor are described. These systems can suppress all unstable plane modes of oscillation (i.e. low frequency modes). The active instability control (AIC) also constitutes an original and powerful technique for studies of mechanisms leading to instability or resulting from the instability. Two basic applications of this kind are described. In the first case the flame is initially controlled with AIC, the feedback loop is then switched off and the growth of the instability is analysed through high speed Schlieren cinematography and simultaneous sound pressure and reaction rate measurements. Three phases are identified during th growth of the oscillations: (1) a linear phase where acoustic waves induce a flapping motion of the flame sheets without interaction between sheets, (2) a modulation phase, where flame sheets interact randomly and (3) a nonlinear phase where the flame sheets are broken and a limit cycle is reached. In the second case we investigate different types of flame extinctions associated with combustion instability. It is shown that pressure oscillations may lead to partial or total extinctions. Extinctions occur in various forms but usually follow a rapid growth of pressure oscillations. The flame is extinguished during the modulation phase observed in the initiation experiments. In these studies devoted to transient instability phenomena, the control system constitutes a unique investigation tool because it is difficult to obtain the same information by other means. Implications for modelling and prediction of

  9. Identification of sewage leaks by active remote-sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly; Basson, Uri

    2016-04-01

    The increasing length of sewage pipelines, and concomitant risk of leaks due to urban and industrial growth and development is exposing the surrounding land to contamination risk and environmental harm. It is therefore important to locate such leaks in a timely manner, to minimize the damage. Advances in active remote sensing Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Frequency Domain Electromagnetic (FDEM) technologies was used to identify leaking potentially responsible for pollution and to identify minor spills before they cause widespread damage. This study focused on the development of these electromagnetic methods to replace conventional acoustic methods for the identification of leaks along sewage pipes. Electromagnetic methods provide an additional advantage in that they allow mapping of the fluid-transport system in the subsurface. Leak-detection systems using GPR and FDEM are not limited to large amounts of water, but enable detecting leaks of tens of liters per hour, because they can locate increases in environmental moisture content of only a few percentage along the pipes. The importance and uniqueness of this research lies in the development of practical tools to provide a snapshot and monitoring of the spatial changes in soil moisture content up to depths of about 3-4 m, in open and paved areas, at relatively low cost, in real time or close to real time. Spatial measurements performed using GPR and FDEM systems allow monitoring many tens of thousands of measurement points per hectare, thus providing a picture of the spatial situation along pipelines and the surrounding. The main purpose of this study was to develop a method for detecting sewage leaks using the above-proposed geophysical methods, since their contaminants can severely affect public health. We focused on identifying, locating and characterizing such leaks in sewage pipes in residential and industrial areas.

  10. Inter-participant variability in daily physical activity and sedentary time among male youth sport footballers: independent associations with indicators of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Sally A M; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Participation in youth sport is assumed to promote and contribute towards more physically active lifestyles among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine inter-participant variability in objectively measured habitual physical activity (PA) behaviours and sedentary time among youth sport participants and their implications for health. One-hundred-and-eighteen male youth sport footballers (Mean ± s = 11.72 ± 1.60) wore a GT3X accelerometer for 7 days. Average daily PA [min · day(-1), in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and combined moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)] and sedentary time were calculated. Participants' body mass index adjusted for age and sex (BMI-standard deviation score), per cent body fat (BF%), waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed. Results revealed that variability in daily PA behaviours and sedentary time (min · day(-1)) was associated with BMI-standard deviation score [VPA (-), MVPA (-)], BF% [sedentary time (+), VPA (-), MVPA (-)], waist circumference [sedentary time (+), LPA (-)] and cardiorespiratory fitness [sedentary time (-), MPA (+), VPA (+), MVPA (+)]. Whilst sedentary time and MVPA were not related to health outcomes independent of one another, associations with markers of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness were stronger for sedentary time. Sedentary time was also significantly positively related to waist circumference independent of VPA. Results demonstrate inter-participant variability in habitual PA and sedentary time among youth sport participants which holds implications for their health. Thus, promoting PA and, in particular, reducing sedentary time may contribute towards the prevention of adverse health consequences associated with a physically inactive lifestyle for children and adolescents active in the youth sport context.

  11. Improved ex vivo method for microbiocidal activity across vertebrate species

    PubMed Central

    French, Susannah S.; Neuman-Lee, Lorin A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The field of ecoimmunology is currently undergoing rapid expansion, whereby biologists from a wide range of ecological disciplines are increasingly interested in assessing immunocompetence in their study organisms. One of the key challenges to researchers is determining what eco-immune measures to use in a given experiment. Moreover, there are limitations depending on study species, requirements for specific antibodies, and relevance of the methodology to the study organism. Here we introduce an improved ex vivo method for microbiocidal activity across vertebrate species. The utility of this assay is that it determines the ability of an organism to remove a pathogen that could be encountered in the wild, lending ecological relevancy to the technique. The applications of this microbiocidal assay are broad, as it is readily adaptable to different types of microbes as well as a wide variety of study species. We describe a method of microbiocidal analysis that will enable researchers across disciplines to effectively employ this method to accurately quantify microbial killing ability, using readily available microplate absorbance readers. PMID:23213440

  12. Advances in multifocal methods for imaging human brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Thom; Ales, Justin; Klein, Stanley A.

    2006-02-01

    The typical multifocal stimulus used in visual evoked potential (VEP) studies consists of about 60 checkerboard stimulus patches each independently contrast reversed according to an m-sequence. Cross correlation of the response (EEG, MEG, ERG, or fMRI) with the m-sequence results in a series of response kernels for each response channel and each stimulus patch. In the past the number and complexity of stimulus patches has been constrained by graphics hardware, namely the use of look-up-table (LUT) animation methods. To avoid such limitations we replaced the LUTs with true color graphic sprites to present arbitrary spatial patterns. To demonstrate the utility of the method we have recorded simultaneously from 192 cortically scaled stimulus patches each of which activate about 12mm2 of cortex in area V1. Because of the sparseness of cortical folding, very small stimulus patches and robust estimation of dipole source orientation, the method opens a new window on precise spatio-temporal mapping of early visual areas. The use of sprites also enables multiplexing stimuli such that at each patch location multiple stimuli can be presented. We have presented patterns with different orientations (or spatial frequencies) at the same patch locations but independently temporally modulated, effectively doubling the number of stimulus patches, to explore cell population interactions at the same cortical locus. We have also measured nonlinear responses to adjacent pairs of patches, thereby getting an edge response that doubles the spatial sampling density to about 1.8 mm on cortex.

  13. Comparison of children's free-living physical activity derived from wrist and hip raw accelerations during the segmented week.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Robert J; Boddy, Lynne M; Kim, Youngwon; Knowles, Zoe R; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2016-11-14

    This study assessed children's physical activity (PA) levels derived from wrist-worn GENEActiv and hip-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers and examined the comparability of PA levels between the two devices throughout the segmented week. One hundred and twenty-nine 9-10-year-old children (79 girls) wore a GENEActiv (GAwrist) and ActiGraph GT3X+ (AGhip) accelerometer on the left wrist and right hip, respectively, for 7 days. Mean minutes of light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per weekday (whole-day, before-school, school and after-school) and weekend day (whole-day, morning and afternoon-evening) segments were calculated, and expressed as percentage of segment time. Repeated measures analysis of variance examined differences in LPA and MVPA between GAwrist and AGhip for each time segment. Bland-Altman plots assessed between-device agreement for LPA and MVPA for whole weekday and whole weekend day segments. Correlations between GAwrist and AGhip were weak for LPA (r = 0.18-0.28), but strong for MVPA (r = 0.80-0.86). LPA and MVPA levels during all weekday and weekend day segments were significantly higher for GAwrist than AGhip (p < 0.001). The largest inter-device percent difference of 26% was observed in LPA during the school day segment. Our data suggest that correction factors are needed to improve raw PA level comparability between GAwrist and AGhip.

  14. Objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Ortega, Francisco B; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Aparicio, Virginia A; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Femia, Pedro; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterise levels of objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Local Association of Fibromyalgia (Granada, Spain). Participants The study comprised 94 women with diagnosed fibromyalgia who did not have other severe somatic or psychiatric disorders, or other diseases that prevent physical loading, able to ambulate and to communicate and capable and willing to provide informed consent. Primary outcome measures Sedentary time and physical activity were measured by accelerometry and expressed as time spent in sedentary behaviours, average physical activity intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent in moderate intensity and in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Results The proportion of women meeting the physical activity recommendations of 30 min/day of MVPA on 5 or more days a week was 60.6%. Women spent, on average, 71% of their waking time (approximately 10 h/day) in sedentary behaviours. Both sedentary behaviour and physical activity levels were similar across age groups, waist circumference and percentage body fat categories, years since clinical diagnosis, marital status, educational level and occupational status, regardless of the severity of the disease (all p>0.1). Time spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and MVPA was, however, lower in those with greater body mass index (BMI) (−6.6 min and −7 min, respectively, per BMI category increase, <25, 25–30, >30 kg/m2; p values for trend were 0.056 and 0.051, respectively). Women spent, on average, 10 min less on MVPA (p<0.001) and 22 min less on sedentary behaviours during weekends compared with weekdays (p=0.051). Conclusions These data provide an objective measure of the amount of time spent on sedentary activities and on physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. PMID:23794573

  15. Preparation of functionalized and metal-impregnated activated carbon by a single-step activation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dastgheib, Seyed A.; Ren, Jianli; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud; Chang, Ramsay

    2014-01-01

    A rapid method to prepare functionalized and metal-impregnated activated carbon from coal is described in this paper. A mixture of ferric chloride and a sub-bituminous coal was used to demonstrate simultaneous coal activation, chlorine functionalization, and iron/iron oxides impregnation in the resulting porous carbon products. The FeCl3 concentration in the mixture, the method to prepare the FeCl3-coal mixture (solid mixing or liquid impregnation), and activation atmosphere and temperature impacted the surface area and porosity development, Cl functionalization, and iron species impregnation and dispersion in the carbon products. Samples activated in nitrogen or a simulated flue gas at 600 or 1000 °C for 1-2 min had surface areas up to ∼800 m2/g, bulk iron contents up to 18 wt%, and surface chlorine contents up to 27 wt%. Potential catalytic and adsorption application of the carbon materials was explored in catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol and adsorption of ionic mercury from aqueous solutions. Results indicated that impregnated activated carbons outperformed their non-impregnated counterparts in both the CWAO and adsorption tests.

  16. Apparatus and method for gas turbine active combustion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Active Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a gas turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.

  17. Method for regeneration and activity improvement of syngas conversion catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Lucki, Stanley J.; Brennan, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the treatment of single particle iron-containing syngas (synthes.s gas) conversion catalysts comprising iron, a crystalline acidic aluminosilicate zeolite having a silica to alumina ratio of at least 12, a pore size greater than about 5 Angstrom units and a constraint index of about 1-12 and a matrix. The catalyst does not contain promoters and the treatment is applicable to either the regeneration of said spent single particle iron-containing catalyst or for the initial activation of fresh catalyst. The treatment involves air oxidation, hydrogen reduction, followed by a second air oxidation and contact of the iron-containing single particle catalyst with syngas prior to its use for the catalytic conversion of said syngas. The single particle iron-containing catalysts are prepared from a water insoluble organic iron compound.

  18. Analysis of regression methods for solar activity forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, C. A.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the potential use of the most recent solar data to project trends in the next few years. Assuming that a mode of solar influence on weather can be identified, advantageous use of that knowledge presumably depends on estimating future solar activity. A frequently used technique for solar cycle predictions is a linear regression procedure along the lines formulated by McNish and Lincoln (1949). The paper presents a sensitivity analysis of the behavior of such regression methods relative to the following aspects: cycle minimum, time into cycle, composition of historical data base, and unnormalized vs. normalized solar cycle data. Comparative solar cycle forecasts for several past cycles are presented as to these aspects of the input data. Implications for the current cycle, No. 21, are also given.

  19. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (<150 min/week) group. Multiple linear regression models were performed with physical activity measures as dependent variables and cumulative reproductive history index, menopausal symptoms, and pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the

  20. Objectively measured physical activity, brain atrophy, and white matter lesions in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-02-01

    Physical activity may help to prevent or delay brain atrophy. Numerous studies have shown associations between physical activity and age-related changes in the brain. However, most of these studies involved self-reported physical activity, not objectively measured physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity, as determined using accelerometers, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We analyzed 323 older subjects with MCI (mean age 71.4 years) who were recruited from the participants of the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. We recorded demographic data and measured physical activity using a tri-axial accelerometer. Physical activity was classified as light-intensity physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Brain atrophy and the severity of white matter lesions (WML) were determined by MRI. Low levels of LPA and MVPA were associated with severe WML. Subjects with severe WML were older, had lower mobility, and had greater brain atrophy than subjects with mild WML (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that more MVPA was associated with less brain atrophy, even after adjustment for WML (β=-0.126, P=0.015), but LPA was not (β=-0.102, P=0.136). Our study revealed that objectively measured physical activity, especially MVPA, was associated with brain atrophy in MCI subjects, even after adjusting for WML. These findings support the hypothesis that physical activity plays a crucial role in maintaining brain health.

  1. Correlates of Insufficient Physical Activity among Junior High School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study in Xi’an, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Hui, Zhaozhao; Terry, Paul D.; Ma, Mei; Cheng, Li; Deng, Fu; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity plays an important role in individual health at all stages of life. However, evidence is lacking regarding the level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the related factors to insufficient physical activity (IPA). Methods: A sample of 1060 students aged 12–15 years from nine public junior high schools in China were invited to participate in this study. Physical activity was assessed by a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess the factors associated with IPA. Results: 30.1% boys and 43.0% girls in our sample did not engage in sufficient physical activity. Obesity (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.5–2.9) and high socioeconomic status (SES) (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3–4.8) were positively associated with IPA, whereas male sex (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5–0.9), underweight status (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.7), and high family support level for physical activity (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6–0.9) showed inverse associations. Age was not associated with IPA. Conclusions: IPA appears to be a considerable problem in this sample of Chinese youth. Effective interventions to increase physical activity are needed and may include improving family support level for physical activity, especially for girls, the obese and those with high SES. PMID:27043607

  2. Adolescent Sport in Australia: Who, When, Where and What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Tim; Dollman, Jim; Maher, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To describe sports participation in Australian adolescents. Method: Use of time, demographic, pedometer and anthropometric data were collected on a random sample of 2200 9-16 year olds. Results: Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) constituted 29% of all energy expenditure, and sport 58% of MVPA energy expenditure. Sports…

  3. Measuring Physical Activity with Hip Accelerometry among U.S. Older Adults: How Many Days Are Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Dale, William; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Waite, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Accelerometers are increasingly used in research. Four to 7 days of monitoring is preferred to estimate average activity but may be burdensome for older adults. We aimed to investigate: 1) 7-day accelerometry protocol adherence, 2) demographic predictors of adherence, 3) day of the week effect, and 4) average activity calculated from 7 versus fewer days among older adults. Methods We used the 2003–2006 older adult hip accelerometry data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) sample. We determined proportions with 1–7 valid (10–20 hours) wear days and identified wear day correlates using ordinal logistic regression. We determined the day of week effect on 5 accelerometry measures (counts per minute, CPM; % sedentary behavior; % light-lifestyle activity; % moderate-vigorous activity, MVPA; total activity counts) using multivariate linear regression and compared averages estimated over 2 or 3 versus 7 days using correlations, linear regression, and Bland-Altman plots. Results Among 2,208 participants aged 65+, 85% of participants had ≥2 and 44% had 7 valid wear days. Increasing age (p = 0.01) and non-white race (p < 0.001) were associated with fewer days. Daily CPM, % MVPA, and total daily activity counts were similar Monday through Saturday, but significantly lower on Sundays (p < 0.001). Daily % sedentary behavior and % light-lifestyle activity were significantly different on Saturdays (p = 0.04–0.045) and Sundays (p < 0.001) compared to weekdays. Among participants with 7 valid days, 2 or 3 day averages were highly correlated with 7 day averages for all 5 accelerometry measures (2 versus 7 days: r = 0.90–0.93, 3 versus 7 days: r = 0.94–0.96). Conclusions Protocols of 2–3 days, adjusting for Sundays (average CPM, % moderate-vigorous activity, and average total daily activity counts) or weekends (% sedentary behavior and % light-lifestyle activity), give reliable estimates of older adult activity. PMID:28081249

  4. Physical activity maintenance among Spanish-speaking Latinas in a randomized controlled trial of an Internet-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sheri J; Dunsiger, Shira I; Bock, Beth C; Larsen, Britta A; Linke, Sarah; Pekmezi, Dori; Marquez, Becky; Gans, Kim M; Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Marcus, Bess H

    2016-10-17

    Spanish-speaking Latinas have some of the lowest rates of meeting physical activity guidelines in the U.S. and are at high risk for many related chronic diseases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the maintenance of a culturally and individually-tailored Internet-based physical activity intervention for Spanish-speaking Latinas. Inactive Latinas (N  =  205) were randomly assigned to a 6-month Tailored Physical Activity Internet Intervention or a Wellness Contact Control Internet Group, with a 6-month follow-up. Maintenance was measured by assessing group differences in minutes per week of self-reported and accelerometer measured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at 12 months after baseline and changes in MVPA between the end of the active intervention (month 6) and the end of the study (month 12). Potential moderators of the intervention were also examined. Data were collected between 2011 and 2014, and were analyzed in 2015 at the University of California, San Diego. The Intervention Group engaged in significantly more minutes of MVPA per week than the Control Group at the end of the maintenance period for both self-reported (mean diff. = 30.68, SE = 11.27, p = .007) and accelerometer measured (mean diff. = 11.47, SE = 3.19, p = .01) MVPA. There were no significant between- or within-group changes in MVPA from month 6 to 12. Greater intervention effects were seen for those with lower BMI (BMI × intervention = -6.67, SE = 2.88, p = .02) and lower perceived places to walk to in their neighborhood (access × intervention = -43.25, SE = 19.07, p = .02), with a trend for less family support (social support × intervention = -3.49, SE = 2.05, p = .08). Acculturation, health literacy, and physical activity related psychosocial variables were not significant moderators of the intervention effect during the maintenance period. Findings from the current study support the efficacy of an Internet

  5. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in European adolescents: the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Martínez-Gómez, David; Labayen, Idoia; Moreno, Luis A; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Mauro, Beatrice; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Marcos, Ascensión; Beghin, Laurent; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-07-15

    The authors' aim in this cross-sectional study was to characterize levels of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents from 9 European countries. The study comprised 2,200 European adolescents (1,184 girls) participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006-2008). Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and was expressed as average intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent engaging in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Time spent in sedentary behaviors was also objectively measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by means of the 20-m shuttle run test. Level of maternal education was reported by the adolescents. A higher proportion of boys (56.8% of boys vs. 27.5% of girls) met the physical activity recommendations of at least 60 minutes/day of MVPA. Adolescents spent most of the registered time in sedentary behaviors (9 hours/day, or 71% of the registered time). Both average intensity and MVPA were higher in adolescents with high cardiorespiratory fitness, and sedentary time was lower in the high-fitness group. There were no physical activity or sedentary time differences between maternal education categories. These data provide an objective measure of physical activity and amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in a relatively large number of European adolescents.

  6. Social activity method (SAM): A fractal language for mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Paul

    2013-09-01

    In this paper I shall present and develop my organisational language, social activity method (SAM), and illustrate some of its applications. I shall introduce a new scheme for modes of recontextualisation that enables the analysis of the ways in which one activity - which might be school mathematics or social research or any empirically observed regularity of practice - recontextualises the practice of another and I shall also present, deploy, and develop an existing scheme - domains of action - in an analysis of school mathematics examination papers and in the structuring of what I refer to as the esoteric domain. This domain is here conceived as a hybrid domain of, first, linguistic and extralinguistic resources that are unambiguously mathematical in terms of both expression and content and, second, pedagogic theory - often tacit - that enables the mathematical gaze onto other practices and so recontextualises them. A second and more general theme that runs through the paper is the claim that there is nothing that is beyond semiosis, that there is nothing to which we have direct access, unmediated by interpretation. This state of affairs has implications for mathematics education. Specifically, insofar as an individual's mathematical semiotic system is under continuous development - the curriculum never being graspable all at once - understanding - as a stable semiotic moment - of any aspect or object of mathematics is always localised to the individual and is at best transient, and the sequencing of such moments may well also be more individualised than consistent in some correspondence with the sequencing of the curriculum. This being the case, a concentration on understanding as a goal may well serve to inhibit the pragmatic acquisition and deployment of mathematical technologies, which should be the principal aim of mathematics teaching and learning. The paper is primarily concerned with mathematics education. SAM, however, is a language that is available for

  7. English Language Proficiency and Physical Activity among Mexican-Origin Women in South Texas and South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K.; Morales-Campos, Daisy; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between English language proficiency (ELP), physical activity and physical activity-related psychosocial measures (i.e. exercise self-efficacy, exercise social support, perceptions of environmental supports) among Mexican-origin women in South Carolina and Texas. Design Adjusted robust regression and interaction modeling to evaluate baseline questionnaire data on self-reported ELP with CHAMPS leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), accelerometry data, Physical Activity Self-Efficacy, Physical Activity Social Support and Environmental Support for Physical Activity in 118 Mexican-origin women. Results The adjusted regression revealed a significant association between ELP and perceived physical activity self-efficacy (β= 234.2, p=.004), but not with physical activity social support. In South Carolina, CHAMPS leisure-time MVPA (411.4 versus 114.3 minutes, p<.05) was significantly different between women in the high ELP quartile and those in the very low quartile. Among high ELP Mexican-origin women, participants in Texas reported significantly higher MVPA measured by accelerometry (p=.042) than those in South Carolina. Conclusion Our findings indicate that ELP was associated with physical activity and that contextual factors may also play a role. PMID:24509031

  8. Sport Engagement by Accelerometry under Field Conditions in German Adolescents: Results from GINIPlus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maia; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sporting activities differ in their ability to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). To assess adolescents’ engagement in sport under field conditions we used accelerometers to measure their MVPA levels during sport. We pay special attention to differences between team and individual sport and between common sports. Methods Diary data and 7-day accelerometry from 1054 Germans ages 15–17 were combined to measure physical activity. 1373 diaried episodes of more than 40 common sports were identified from 626 participants and grouped into team and individual sport. We modeled the effect of team and individual sport, and described levels of MVPA and episodes of no MVPA for all recorded sports. Results German boys and girls averaged 43 (SD 21) and 37 (SD 24) minutes MVPA per day. Boys got 2.2 times as much MVPA per minute during team compared to individual sport (p<0.0001) but there was no significant difference for girls. Percent of time spent in MVPA during sport ranged from 6% for weight training to 74% for jogging, with individual sports averaging 10–30% and team sports 30–50%. 11% of sport episodes had no MVPA: half of episodes of cycling, 5% of jogging, and none for tennis or badminton. An episode of individual sport was 17 times more likely to have no MVPA than an episode of team sport (p<0.0001). Conclusion Under field condition, adolescents were active for only a fraction of diaried sporting time. As measured by accelerometry, individual sport often produced no MVPA. Characteristics of the sport, such as team vs. individual, were more predictive of MVPA than were characteristics of the participant, such as background activity levels. PMID:26291984

  9. Weekday and weekend patterns of physical activity and sedentary time among Liverpool and Madrid youth.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Rico, Elena; Hilland, Toni A; Foweather, Lawrence; Fernández-Garcia, Emilia; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among English and Spanish youth are high and vary within different regions of each country. Little though is known about these during specific periods of the day. The purpose of this study was to describe physical activity (PA) and sedentary time during segments of the day and week, and compare these critical contexts between youth in the Liverpool and Madrid areas of England and Spain, respectively. PA was objectively assessed in 235 Liverpool- and 241 Madrid youth (aged 10-14 years) who wore accelerometers for seven consecutive days. Minutes of sedentary time, moderate PA, vigorous PA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were calculated for weekdays, weekend days, school time, non-school time and after-school. Between-country differences were analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Madrid youth spent significantly more time in sedentary activities than their Liverpool counterparts. Madrid youth engaged in more minutes of moderate intensity physical activity (MPA) than Liverpool youth during weekdays, school time and non-school time (P<0.01). Liverpool children recorded more time in vigorous physical activity (VPA) than Madrid peers during week days and weekend days (P<0.01) and during school time and after-school periods (P<0.01). The MVPA was significantly higher among Madrid youth during non-school time (P<0.01). Around 25% of all youth achieved recommended levels of MVPA. Low levels of MVPA and systematic differences in sedentary time, MPA and VPA exist between Liverpool and Madrid youth. Interventions targeted at the least-active children during weekends, after-school and non-school periods within the cultural contexts common to each city are required.

  10. Sensitivity method for integrated structure/active control law design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    The development is described of an integrated structure/active control law design methodology for aeroelastic aircraft applications. A short motivating introduction to aeroservoelasticity is given along with the need for integrated structures/controls design algorithms. Three alternative approaches to development of an integrated design method are briefly discussed with regards to complexity, coordination and tradeoff strategies, and the nature of the resulting solutions. This leads to the formulation of the proposed approach which is based on the concepts of sensitivity of optimum solutions and multi-level decompositions. The concept of sensitivity of optimum is explained in more detail and compared with traditional sensitivity concepts of classical control theory. The analytical sensitivity expressions for the solution of the linear, quadratic cost, Gaussian (LQG) control problem are summarized in terms of the linear regulator solution and the Kalman Filter solution. Numerical results for a state space aeroelastic model of the DAST ARW-II vehicle are given, showing the changes in aircraft responses to variations of a structural parameter, in this case first wing bending natural frequency.

  11. Active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Wendy D [Kennewick, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Matson, Dean W [Kennewick, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Stewart, Donald C [Richland, WA; Tonkovich, Annalee Y [Pasco, WA; Zilka, Jennifer L [Pasco, WA; Schmitt, Stephen C [Dublin, OH; Werner, Timothy M [Columbus, OH

    2002-12-10

    The present invention is an active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making, both relying on having (a) at least one inner thin sheet; (b) at least one outer thin sheet; (c) defining at least one first sub-assembly for performing at least one first unit operation by stacking a first of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with a first of the at least one outer thin sheet into a first stack and placing an end block on the at least one inner thin sheet, the at least one first sub-assembly having at least a first inlet and a first outlet; and (d) defining at least one second sub-assembly for performing at least one second unit operation either as a second flow path within the first stack or by stacking a second of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with second of the at least one outer thin sheet as a second stack, the at least one second sub-assembly having at least a second inlet and a second outlet.

  12. Active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Wendy D [Kennewick, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Matson, Dean W [Kennewick, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Stewart, Donald C [Richland, WA; Tonkovich, Annalee Y [Pasco, WA; Zilka, Jennifer L [Pasco, WA; Schmitt, Stephen C [Dublin, OH; Werner, Timothy M [Columbus, OH

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making, both relying on having (a) at least one inner thin sheet; (b) at least one outer thin sheet; (c) defining at least one first sub-assembly for performing at least one first unit operation by stacking a first of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with a first of the at least one outer thin sheet into a first stack and placing an end block on the at least one inner thin sheet, the at least one first sub-assembly having at least a first inlet and a first outlet; and (d) defining at least one second sub-assembly for performing at least one second unit operation either as a second flow path within the first stack or by stacking a second of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with second of the at least one outer thin sheet as a second stack, the at least one second sub-assembly having at least a second inlet and a second outlet.

  13. Feasibility study and pilot cluster-randomised controlled trial of the GoActive intervention aiming to promote physical activity among adolescents: outcomes and lessons learnt

    PubMed Central

    Corder, Kirsten; Brown, Helen E; Schiff, Annie; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Assess the feasibility of implementing the GoActive intervention in secondary schools, to identify improvements, test study procedures, determine preliminary effectiveness to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and inform power calculations to establish programme effectiveness. Setting Feasibility study (1 school) and pilot cluster-randomised controlled trial (CRCT; 2 intervention; 1 control school(s)). Participants 460 participants (46.6% female; 13.2 (0.4) years old). Interventions 8-week intervention (2013) involved: classes choosing weekly activities encouraged by mentors (older adolescents) and in-class peer leaders. Students gain points for trying activities which are entered into an intramural competition. Primary and secondary outcome measures Planned quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (focus groups) process evaluation addressed enjoyment, confidence, participation, suggested improvements. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and follow-up (week 8) in pilot CRCT and included accelerometer-assessed MVPA; adolescent-reported activity type, well-being, peer support, shyness, sociability. Analysis of covariance was used to assess preliminary effectiveness as change in MVPA adjusted for baseline. Results All year 9 students in intervention schools were exposed to the intervention; over all schools 77% of eligible students were measured. 71% boys and 74% girls found GoActive ‘fun’; 38% boys and 32% girls said it increased confidence, and 64% boys and 59% girls said they would continue with a GoActive activity. Suggested improvements included more mentorship; improved training; streamlined points recording. Pilot results indicated potential effectiveness ((adjusted mean difference (95% CI) p value; MVPA mins; 5.1 (1.1 to 9.2) p=0.014)) and suggest recruitment of 16 schools (2400 adolescents) for a full trial. Compared with control, intervention students reported greater peer support 0.5 (0.1 to 0.9) p=0.03, well-being 1

  14. Modifying Middle School Physical Education: Piloting Strategies to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; McMurray, Robert G.; Bassin, Stanley; Pyle, Laura; Bruecker, Steve; Jakicic, John M.; Moe, Esther; Murray, Tinker; Volpe, Stella L.

    2009-01-01

    Two pilot studies were conducted to examine whether 6th grade students can achieve moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) from 1) activity-based physical education (AB-PE) with 585 participants and 2) a curricular-based (CB-PE) program with 1,544 participants and randomly sampled heart rates during lessons. AB-PE participants spent between 54-66% with a heart rate >140 bpm. CB-PE participants spent between 49-58% with a heart rate >140 bpm. Girls' mean heart rate was 3.7 bpm lower than the boys. PE can be readily modified so that students spend more than 50% of time in MVPA. PMID:19556623

  15. Downscaling of climate parameters using Active Learning Method (ALM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, S.; Reimer, E.

    2009-12-01

    This study is a part of main program RIMAX "risk management of extreme flood events“, which concerns itself of extremes floodwater and damage potential in the Bode river basin in Germany with the variable occurrence of flood events in this area for the past 1000 years. The objective of the project is to produce the local climate time series (climate downscaling) as the input for a runoff model in the Bode basin for the last 1000 years on a grid of 5x5 km as well as the estimation of the spatial distributions and temporal variability of the precipitation, the amount of precipitation and further meteorological parameter (temperature, radiation and relative humidity) for this area. A nonlinear downscaling based on Fuzzy rules has been used to produce 1000 year climate time series. The global model ECHO from Max Planck institute for Meteorology (MPI) with T30 resolution and 1000 years data has been used as the global model (GCM). The regional model REMO, with 10 km resolution and 20 years data has been used as the regional input. The observations, which include 30 years precipitation, radiation, temperature, wind and relative humidity, have been used as output (predictand). In this study, two set fuzzy rules have been trained to describe the relationship between ECHO/REMO and REMO/Observation. The Fuzzy method used in this work is Active Learning Method (ALM). The heart of calculation of ALM is a fuzzy interpolation and curve fitting which is entitled Ink Drop Spread (IDS). The IDS searches fuzzily for continuous possible paths of interpolated data points on data planes. The ability of ALM to simulate the high values as well as the fluctuation of time series is much better than Takagi-Sugeno models, which have been used for downscaling in the last decade. In the next steps, considering predictors from the ECHO time series As well as the predictands from the REMO grid points, some ALM models are developed, which describe the fuzzy rules and the relationship between

  16. Comparison of BMI and Physical Activity Between Old Order Amish Children and Non-Amish Children

    PubMed Central

    Hairston, Kristen G.; Ducharme, Julie L.; Treuth, Margarita S.; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Jastreboff, Ania M.; Ryan, Kathy A.; Shi, Xiaolian; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Snitker, Soren

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Old Order Amish (OOA) is a conservative Christian sect of European origin living in Pennsylvania. Diabetes is rare in adult OOA despite a mean BMI rivaling that in the general U.S. non-Hispanic white population. The current study examines childhood factors that may contribute to the low prevalence of diabetes in the OOA by comparing OOA children aged 8–19 years with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data and children from Maryland’s Eastern Shore (ES), a nearby, non-Amish, rural community. We hypothesized that pediatric overweight is less common in OOA children, that physical activity (PA) and BMI are inversely correlated, and that OOA children are more physically active than ES children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We obtained anthropometric data in 270 OOA children and 229 ES children (166 non-Hispanic white, 60 non-Hispanic black, 3 Hispanic). PA was measured by hip-worn accelerometers in all ES children and in 198 OOA children. Instrumentation in 43 OOA children was identical to ES children. RESULTS OOA children were approximately 3.3 times less likely than non-Hispanic white ES children and NHANES estimates to be overweight (BMI ≥85th percentile, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Time spent in moderate/vigorous PA (MVPA) was inversely correlated to BMI z-score (r = −0.24, P = 0.0006). PA levels did not differ by ethnicity within the ES group, but OOA children spent an additional 34 min/day in light activity (442 ± 56 vs. 408 ± 75, P = 0.005) and, impressively, an additional 53 min/day in MVPA (106 ± 54 vs. 53 ± 32, P < 0.0001) compared with ES children. In both groups, boys were more active than girls but OOA girls were easily more active than ES boys. CONCLUSIONS We confirmed all three hypotheses. Together with our previous data, the study implies that the OOA tend to gain their excess weight relatively late in life and that OOA children are very physically active, both of which may provide some

  17. What Is the Effect on Obesity Indicators from Replacing Prolonged Sedentary Time with Brief Sedentary Bouts, Standing and Different Types of Physical Activity during Working Days? A Cross-Sectional Accelerometer-Based Study among Blue-Collar Workers

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Aadahl, Mette; Korshøj, Mette; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to investigate if (a) substituting total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts with standing or various types of physical activity and (b) substituting long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts; is associated with obesity indicators using a cross sectional isotemporal substitution approach among blue-collar workers. Methods A total of 692 workers from transportation, manufacturing and cleaning sectors wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer on the thigh for 1–4 working days. The sedentary (sit and lie), standing, walking, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time on working days was computed using validated Acti4 software. The total sedentary time and uninterrupted sedentary time spent in brief (≤5 mins), moderate (>5 and ≤30 mins), and long (>30mins) bouts, were determined for the whole day and during work and non-work time separately. The obesity indicators, BMI (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm) and fat percentage were objectively measured. Isotemporal substitution modelling was utilized to determine the linear association with obesity indicators of replacing 30 min of total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts with standing, walking or MVPA and separately replacing 30 min of long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts. Results Workers [mean (standard deviation, SD); age = 45.1 (9.9) years, BMI = 27.5 (4.9) kg/m2, %BF = 29.6 (9.5), waist circumference = 94.4 (13.0) cm] sat for 2.4 hours (~32% of the measured time, SD = 1.8 hours) across the day during work period and 5.5 hours (~62% of the measured time, SD = 1.5 hours) during non-work period. Most of the sedentary time was accrued in moderate bouts [work = 1.40 (SD = 1.09) hours] during work and in long bouts during non-work [2.7 (SD = 1.4) hours], while least in long sedentary bouts during work [work = 0.5 (SD = 0.9)] and in brief sedentary bouts [0.5 hours (SD = 0.3)] during non-work. Significant associations with all obesity indicators were

  18. School travel and children’s physical activity: a cross-sectional study examining the influence of distance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Walking to school is associated with higher levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between school travel mode and physical activity using a sampling frame that purposefully locates schools in varying neighbourhoods. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 785 children (10.57 ± 0.7 years) in Toronto, Canada. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and travel mode was self-reported by parents. Linear regression models accounting for school clustering effects examined the associations between mode choice, BMI, and physical activity and were estimated adjusting for age, types of neighbourhoods and travel distance to school. Results Significant associations between walking to school and moderate activity during weekdays were found. Interactions between walking to school and travel distance to school were found only in boys with significant associations between walking to school and higher physical activity levels in those living within 1000–1600 meters from school. Boys walking to school and living in this range accumulated 7.6 more minutes of daily MVPA than boys who were driven. Conclusions Walking to school can make a modest but significant contribution to overall physical activity. This contribution was modified by travel distance and not school neighbourhood socioeconomic status or the built environment. PMID:24330459

  19. Activities for Young Gifted Children: Using the CIBER Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Peggy L.

    1994-01-01

    The acronym CIBER represents five basic principles ensuring that the needs of young gifted children are appropriately and effectively addressed: capitalize, integrate, balance, expose and enhance, and be realistic. Science activities and interdisciplinary learning activities are suggested to enhance development in cognitive, affective,…

  20. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  1. The association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: findings from the GOALS study.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Martin L; De Groot, Renate H; Savelberg, Hans H; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents. Students in Grades 7 and 9 (N = 255) were included. Overall, we found no significant dose-response association between physical activity and academic achievement. However, in Grade 7 total physical activity volume (Total PA) was negatively associated with academic achievement, while moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was negatively associated with both academic achievement and mathematics performance. In contrast, in Grade 9 both Total PA and MVPA were positively associated with mathematics performance. In addition, the overall association between MVPA and academic achievement followed an inverted U-shaped curve. Finally, Total PA was positively associated with executive functioning, while executive functioning in turn mediated the associations between Total PA and both academic achievement and mathematics performance. These results indicate that the association between physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents is complex and might be affected by academic year, physical activity volume and intensity, and school grade.

  2. Physical Activity and Adiposity Markers at Older Ages: Accelerometer Vs Questionnaire Data

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Cogranne, Pol; van Hees, Vincent T.; Bell, Joshua A.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is critically important for successful aging, but its effect on adiposity markers at older ages is unclear as much of the evidence comes from self-reported data on physical activity. We assessed the associations of questionnaire-assessed and accelerometer-assessed physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults. Design/Setting/Participants This was a cross-sectional study on 3940 participants (age range 60-83 years) of the Whitehall II study who completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days in 2012 and 2013. Measurements Total physical activity was estimated using metabolic equivalent hours/week for the questionnaire and mean acceleration for the accelerometer. Time spent in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was also assessed by questionnaire and accelerometer. Adiposity assessment included body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass index. Fat mass index was calculated as fat mass/height² (kg/m²), with fat mass estimated using bioimpedance. Results Greater total physical activity was associated with lower adiposity for all adiposity markers in a dose-response manner. In men, the strength of this association was 2.4 to 2.8 times stronger with the accelerometer than with questionnaire data. In women, it was 1.9 to 2.3 times stronger. For MVPA, questionnaire data in men suggested no further benefit for adiposity markers past 1 hour/week of activity. This was not the case for accelerometer-assessed MVPA where, for example, compared with men undertaking <1 hour/week of accelerometer-assessed MVPA, waist circumference was 3.06 (95% confidence interval 2.06–4.06) cm lower in those performing MVPA 1–2.5 hours/week, 4.69 (3.47–5.91) cm lower in those undertaking 2.5–4 hours/week, and 7.11 (5.93–8.29) cm lower in those performing ≥4 hours/week. Conclusions The association of physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults was

  3. Physical activity in Ontario preschoolers: prevalence and measurement issues.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Joyce; Nguyen, Thanh; Gabel, Leigh; Timmons, Brian W

    2011-04-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for the development of active living behaviours; however, very little is known about the physical activity levels of preschoolers from Canada. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine physical activity in a sample of Ontario preschoolers by using high-frequency accelerometry to determine activity and step counts; (ii) assess the relationship between step counts and physical activity; (iii) examine the influence of epoch length or sampling interval on physical activity; and (iv) compare measured physical activity to existing recommendations. Thirty 3- to 5-year-old children wore accelerometers to monitor habitual physical activity in 3-s epochs over a 7-day period. Preschoolers engaged in an average of 220 min of daily physical activity, 75 min of which were spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and they accumulated 7529 ± 1539 steps·day(-1). Preschoolers who engaged in more MVPA also took more steps on a daily basis (r = 0.81, p < 0.001). Compared with a 3-s epoch, sampling intervals of 15, 30, and 60 s resulted in an average of 2.9, 9.0, and 16.7 missed minutes of MVPA per day, respectively. All 30 preschoolers met the National Association for Sport and Physical Education recommendation of at least 120 min of total physical activity per day for preschool-age children. Our data highlight important methodological considerations when measuring physical activity in preschoolers and the need for preschool-specific physical activity guidelines for Canadian children.

  4. Parental Activity as Influence on Children`s BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Erkelenz, Nanette; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Drenowatz, Clemens; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2014-09-01

    Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children's lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA) and children's BMI percentiles (BMIPCT), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male) and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children's MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children's PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively). There was no association between parental and children's PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively). Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children. Key pointsA higher prevalence of overweight or obese children was found with inactive parents.Children's BMI percentiles were lower if both parents were physically active compared to children whose parents were both inactive or only had one physically

  5. Parental Activity as Influence on Childrenˋs BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Erkelenz, Nanette; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Drenowatz, Clemens; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children’s lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA) and children’s BMI percentiles (BMIPCT), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male) and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children’s MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children’s PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively). There was no association between parental and children’s PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively). Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children. Key points A higher prevalence of overweight or obese children was found with inactive parents. Children’s BMI percentiles were lower if both parents were physically active compared to children whose parents were both inactive or only had one

  6. Using DFT Methods to Study Activators in Optical Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Mao-Hua

    2015-08-17

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of various activators (ranging from transition metal ions, rare-earth ions, ns2 ions, to self-trapped and dopant-bound excitons) in phosphors and scintillators are reviewed. As a single-particle ground-state theory, DFT calculations cannot reproduce the experimentally observed optical spectra, which involve transitions between multi-electronic states. However, DFT calculations can generally provide sufficiently accurate structural relaxation and distinguish different hybridization strengths between an activator and its ligands in different host compounds. This is important because the activator-ligand interaction often governs the trends in luminescence properties in phosphors and scintillators, and can be used to search for new materials.more » DFT calculations of the electronic structure of the host compound and the positions of the activator levels relative to the host band edges in scintillators are also important for finding optimal host-activator combinations for high light yields and fast scintillation response. Mn4+ activated red phosphors, scintillators activated by Ce3+, Eu2+, Tl+, and excitons are shown as examples of using DFT calculations in phosphor and scintillator research.« less

  7. Using DFT Methods to Study Activators in Optical Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Mao-Hua

    2015-08-17

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of various activators (ranging from transition metal ions, rare-earth ions, ns2 ions, to self-trapped and dopant-bound excitons) in phosphors and scintillators are reviewed. As a single-particle ground-state theory, DFT calculations cannot reproduce the experimentally observed optical spectra, which involve transitions between multi-electronic states. However, DFT calculations can generally provide sufficiently accurate structural relaxation and distinguish different hybridization strengths between an activator and its ligands in different host compounds. This is important because the activator-ligand interaction often governs the trends in luminescence properties in phosphors and scintillators, and can be used to search for new materials. DFT calculations of the electronic structure of the host compound and the positions of the activator levels relative to the host band edges in scintillators are also important for finding optimal host-activator combinations for high light yields and fast scintillation response. Mn4+ activated red phosphors, scintillators activated by Ce3+, Eu2+, Tl+, and excitons are shown as examples of using DFT calculations in phosphor and scintillator research.

  8. The associations of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Syväoja, Heidi J; Tammelin, Tuija H; Ahonen, Timo; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kantomaa, Marko T

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls), who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the "WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children" study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose that physical

  9. The Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with Cognitive Functions in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Syväoja, Heidi J.; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Ahonen, Timo; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kantomaa, Marko T.

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls), who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the “WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children” study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose that physical

  10. Calorimetric method for determination of 51Cr neutrino source activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Danshin, S. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Mirmov, I. N.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental study of nonstandard neutrino properties using high-intensity artificial neutrino sources requires the activity of the sources to be determined with high accuracy. In the BEST project, a calorimetric system for measurement of the activity of high-intensity (a few MCi) neutrino sources based on 51Cr with an accuracy of 0.5-1% is created. In the paper, the main factors affecting the accuracy of determining the neutrino source activity are discussed. The calorimetric system design and the calibration results using a thermal simulator of the source are presented.

  11. Associations between students' situational interest, mastery experiences, and physical activity levels in an interactive dance game.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of previous experiences on students' situational interest and physical activity (PA) levels, as well as the relationships between situational interest and PA levels in Dance Dance Revolution (DDR). A total of 135 seventh through ninth graders participated in DDR unit for two weeks, and reported their previous DDR experiences. Students' PA levels were measured by ActiGraph accelerometers for three classes with percentages of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as the outcome variable. They also responded to the Situational Interest Scale (including novelty, challenge, attention demand, exploration intention, and instant enjoyment) at the end of each class. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) yielded a significant main effect for experience. Follow-up tests revealed that students with DDR experiences scored significantly higher than those without experiences at following dimensions: challenge; exploration intention; instant enjoyment; and attention demand. Regression analysis yielded that novelty emerged as the only significant predictor for MVPA. The findings suggested that four dimensions of situational interest differed between students with and without previous experiences. Novelty emerged as the only predictor for MVPA, suggesting that students would have higher PA when they feel the activity provides new information.

  12. Pain rather than self-reported sedentary time explains variation in perceived health and activity limitation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross sectional study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Demmelmaier, Ingrid; Åsenlöf, Pernilla; Bergman, Patrick; Nordgren, Birgitta; Opava, Christina H

    2017-01-25

    To investigate (1) the amount of self-reported time spent sedentary among a large cohort of persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and (2) the contribution of sedentary time to explain perceived health and activity limitation in RA beyond that of previously known correlates. This cross-sectional study used data from a postal questionnaire and the Swedish Rheumatology Quality registers (SRQ). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess sedentary time (sitting) and moderate, vigorous and walking activity (MVPA). Sociodemographics, pain, fatigue, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety/depression, disease duration, MVPA and sedentary time were included in multiple regression models with perceived health (Visual Analogue Scale 0-100) and activity limitation (Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire) as dependent variables.

  13. Methods to Record Circadian Rhythm Wheel Running Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Siepka, Sandra M.; Takahashi, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Forward genetic approaches (phenotype to gene) are powerful methods to identify mouse circadian clock components. The success of these approaches, however, is highly dependent on the quality of the phenotype— specifically, the ability to measure circadian rhythms in individual mice. This article outlines the factors necessary to measure mouse circadian rhythms, including choice of mouse strain, facilities and equipment design and construction, experimental design, high-throughput methods, and finally methods for data analysis. PMID:15817291

  14. A Repeated Measures Experiment of School Playing Environment to Increase Physical Activity and Enhance Self-Esteem in UK School Children

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Carly; Gladwell, Valerie; Barton, Jo

    2014-01-01

    School playtime provides daily opportunities for children to be active outdoors, but only makes small contributions to physical activity (PA) requirements. Natural environments facilitate unstructured PA and children report a preference for play in nature. Thus, play on the school field might encourage children to be more active during playtime. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of the school playing environment on children's PA. Descriptive data and fitness were assessed in 25 children aged 8–9 years from a single primary school. Over two consecutive weeks participants were allocated to either play on the school field or playground during playtime. The order of play in the two areas was randomised and counterbalanced. Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed during playtime on the last two days of each week using accelerometers. There was a significant interaction of environment and sex on MVPA during morning play (F(1,22) = 6.27; P<0.05; np2 = 0.222), but not during lunch (P>0.05; np2 = 0.060) or all of playtime combined (P>0.05; np2 = 0.140). During morning play boys were significantly more active than girls on the playground (t(23) = 1.32; P<0.01; n2 = 0.291), but not on the field (P>0.05; n2 = 0.071). For lunch (F(1,22) = 24,11; P<0.001; np2 = 0.523) and all of playtime combined (F(1,22) = 33.67; P<0.001; np2 = 0.616) there was a significant effect of environment. There was also a significant main effect of sex during lunch (F(1,22) = 11.56; P<0.01; np2 = 0.344) and all of playtime combined (F(1,22) = 12.37; P<0.01; np2 = 0.371). MVPA was higher on the field and boys were more active than girls. Play on the field leads to increases in MVPA, particularly in girls. The promising trend for the effect of the natural environment on MVPA indicates that interventions aimed at increasing MVPA should use the natural environment and that schools should encourage greater use of their

  15. System and method for collisional activation of charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Ibrahim, Yehia M; Belov, Mikhail E; Prior, David C

    2013-09-24

    A collision cell is disclosed that provides ion activation in various selective modes. Ion activation is performed inside selected segments of a segmented quadrupole that provides maximum optimum capture and collection of fragmentation products. The invention provides collisional cooling of precursor ions as well as product fragments and further allows effective transmission of ions through a high pressure interface into a coupled mass analysis instrument.

  16. Low levels of physical activity are associated with dysregulation of energy intake and fat mass gain over 1 year12

    PubMed Central

    Shook, Robin P; Hand, Gregory A; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hebert, James R; Paluch, Amanda E; Blundell, John E; Hill, James O; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that appetite may be dysregulated at low levels of activity, creating an energy imbalance that results in weight gain. Objective: The aim was to examine the relation between energy intake, physical activity, appetite, and weight gain during a 1-y follow-up period in a large sample of adults. Design: Participants included 421 individuals (mean ± SD age: 27.6 ± 3.8 y). Measurements included the following: energy intake with the use of interviewer-administered dietary recalls and calculated by using changes in body composition and energy expenditure, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with the use of an arm-based monitor, body composition with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and questionnaire-derived perceptions of dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and control of eating. Participants were grouped at baseline into quintiles of MVPA (min/d) by sex. Measurements were repeated every 3 mo for 1 y. Results: At baseline, an inverse relation existed between body weight and activity groups, with the least-active group (15.7 ± 9.9 min MVPA/d, 6062 ± 1778 steps/d) having the highest body weight (86.3 ± 13.2 kg) and the most-active group (174.5 ± 60.5 min MVPA/d, 10260 ± 3087 steps/d) having the lowest body weight (67.5 ± 11.0 kg). A positive relation was observed between calculated energy intake and activity group, except in the lowest quintile of activity. The lowest physical activity group reported higher levels of disinhibition (P = 0.07) and cravings for savory foods (P = 0.03) compared with the group with the highest level of physical activity. Over 1 y of follow-up, the lowest activity group gained the largest amount of fat mass (1.7 ± 0.3 kg) after adjustment for change in MVPA and baseline fat mass. The odds of gaining >3% of fat mass were between 1.8 and 3.8 times as high for individuals in the least-active group as for those in the middle activity group. Conclusions: These results suggest

  17. Combining GPS, GIS, and accelerometry to explore the physical activity and environment relationship in children and young people - a review.

    PubMed

    McCrorie, Paul R W; Fenton, Candida; Ellaway, Anne

    2014-09-13

    The environment has long been associated with physical activity engagement, and recent developments in technology have resulted in the ability to objectively quantify activity behaviours and activity context. This paper reviews studies that have combined Global Positioning Systems (GPS), Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and accelerometry to investigate the PA-environment relationship in children and young people (5-18 years old). Literature searches of the following bibliographic databases were undertaken: Sportdiscus, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Psychinfo and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA). Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria, and covered topics including greenspace use, general land use, active travel, and the built environment. Studies were largely cross-sectional and took place across developed countries (UK, USA, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia). Findings suggest that roads and streets, school grounds, and the home location are important locations for total PA, and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). The relationship between greenspace was positive, however, multiple definitions and outcome measures add complexity to the results. MVPA was more likely in those exposed to higher levels of greenspace compared to sedentary individuals. Total MVPA time in greenspace is low, but when framed as a proportion of the total can be quite high. Domestic gardens may be an important area for higher intensity activity.

  18. Strategy to Promote Active Learning of an Advanced Research Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hilary J.; Dovey, Terence M.

    2013-01-01

    Research methods courses aim to equip students with the knowledge and skills required for research yet seldom include practical aspects of assessment. This reflective practitioner report describes and evaluates an innovative approach to teaching and assessing advanced qualitative research methods to final-year psychology undergraduate students. An…

  19. Infusing Active Learning into the Research Methods Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The research methods unit of survey psychology classes introduces important concepts of scientific reasoning and fluency, making it an ideal course in which to deliver enhanced curricula. To increase interest and engagement, the author developed an expanded research methods and statistics module to give students the opportunity to explore…

  20. Obtaining transgenic plants using the bio-active beads method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haibo; Kawabe, Akira; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Murakawa, Tomoko; Mizukami, Atsushi; Yanagisawa, Masanobu; Nagamori, Eiji; Harashima, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Akio; Fukui, Kiichi

    2004-04-01

    Several methods of transformation are currently available for delivering exogenous DNA into animal and plant cells. In this study, a novel and efficient transformation system for DNA delivery/expression with a capacity to transport DNA of high molecular weight was developed. This system can overcome the shortcomings of traditional transformation methods such as Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, particle bombardment, and the electroporation method. The method developed in this study uses calcium alginate micro beads to immobilize DNA molecules in combination with polyethylene glycol treatment. In addition, it is simple and low-cost, and requires limited equipment. Using this method, we have successfully transformed tobacco plants, screening by kanamycin resistance. The transformed genes in the transformants were confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization.

  1. Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Weaver, Charles E.; Chilcoat, Bill R.; Derbyshire, Frank; Jagtoyen, Marit

    2000-01-01

    An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

  2. Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Weaver, Charles E.; Chilcoat, Bill R.; Derbyshire, Frank; Jagtoyen, Marit

    2001-01-01

    An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

  3. Human psychophysiological activity monitoring methods using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Uzieblo-Zyczkowska, B.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the concept of fiber optic sensor system for human psycho-physical activity detection. A fiber optic sensor that utilizes optical phase interferometry or intensity in modalmetric to monitor a patient's vital signs such as respiration cardiac activity, blood pressure and body's physical movements. The sensor, which is non-invasive, comprises an optical fiber interferometer that includes an optical fiber proximately situated to the patient so that time varying acusto-mechanical signals from the patient are coupled into the optical fiber. The system can be implemented in embodiments ranging form a low cost in-home to a high end product for in hospital use.

  4. Active Beam Shaping System and Method Using Sequential Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Colin A. (Inventor); Pueyo, Laurent A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active optical beam shaping system includes a first deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept an entrance beam of light and to provide a first reflected beam of light, a second deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept the first reflected beam of light from the first deformable mirror and to provide a second reflected beam of light, and a signal processing and control system configured to communicate with the first and second deformable mirrors. The first deformable mirror, the second deformable mirror and the signal processing and control system together provide a large amplitude light modulation range to provide an actively shaped optical beam.

  5. A New Method to Study Bat Activity Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, T.C.; Menzel, M.A.; Chapman, B.R.; Miller, K.V.; Lee, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses development of a method to use data loggers that are independent of the receiving system to record data on environmental conditions (temperature, light intensity, and relative humidity) as well as multiple inputs from a radiotransmitter.

  6. Reliability of accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior in school-aged children: a 12-country study

    PubMed Central

    Barreira, T V; Schuna, J M; Tudor-Locke, C; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Focused on the accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary time metrics in 9–11-year-old children, we sought to determine the following: (i) number of days that are necessary to achieve reliable estimates (G⩾0.8); (ii) proportion of variance attributed to different facets (participants and days) of reliability estimates; and (iii) actual reliability of data as collected in The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: The analytical sample consisted of 6025 children (55% girls) from sites in 12 countries. Physical activity and sedentary time metrics measures were assessed for up to 7 consecutive days for 24 h per day with a waist-worn ActiGraph GT3X+. Generalizability theory using R software was used to investigate the objectives i and ii. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were computed using SAS PROC GLM to inform objective iii. Results: The estimated minimum number of days required to achieve a reliability estimate of G⩾0.8 ranged from 5 to 9 for boys and 3 to 11 for girls for light physical activity (LPA); 5 to 9 and 3 to 10, for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); 5 to 10 and 4 to 10 for total activity counts; and 7 to 11 and 6 to 11 for sedentary time, respectively. For all variables investigated, the ‘participant' facet accounted for 30–50% of the variability, whereas the ‘days' facet accounted for ⩽5%, and the interaction (P × D) accounted for 50–70% of the variability. The actual reliability for boys in ISCOLE ranged from ICCs of 0.78 to 0.86, 0.73 to 0.85 and 0.72 to 0.86 for LPA, MVPA and total activity counts, respectively, and 0.67 to 0.79 for sedentary time. The corresponding values for girls were 0.80–0.88, 0.70–0.89, 0.74–0.86 and 0.64–0.80. Conclusions: It was rare that only 4 days from all participants would be enough to achieve desirable reliability estimates. However, asking participants to wear the device for 7 days and requiring

  7. Method of maintaining activity of hydrogen-sensing platinum electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, J. N., III

    1968-01-01

    Three-electrode hydrogen sensor containing a platinum electrode maintained in a highly catalytic state, operates with a minimal response time and maximal sensitivity to the hydrogen gas being sensed. Electronic control and readout circuitry reactivates the working electrode of the sensor to a state of maximal catalytic activity.

  8. Teaching Science Methods Courses with Web-Enhanced Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.

    Learning science in today's classroom does not have to be restricted to text-based curricular resources. Web sites present learners with a wide range of science activities in various formats ranging from text-only information to providing authentic real-time data sets and interactive simulations. This paper discusses reasons for using the Internet…

  9. Physical activity and blood pressure in childhood: findings from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Leary, Sam D; Ness, Andy R; Smith, George Davey; Mattocks, Calum; Deere, Kevin; Blair, Steven N; Riddoch, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The pathological processes associated with development of cardiovascular disease begin early in life. For example, elevated blood pressure (BP) can be seen in childhood and tracks into adulthood. The relationship between physical activity (PA) and BP in adults is well-established, but findings in children have been inconsistent, with few studies measuring PA mechanically. Children aged 11 to 12 years were recruited from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. 5505 had systolic and diastolic BP measurements, plus valid (at least 10 hours for at least 3 days) accelerometer measures of PA; total PA recorded as average counts per minute (cpm) over the period of valid recording, and minutes per day spent in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). Data on a number of possible confounders were also available. Small inverse associations were observed; for systolic BP, beta=-0.44 (95% confidence interval -0.59, -0.28) mm Hg per 100 cpm, and beta=-0.66 (95% CI -0.92, -0.39) mm Hg per 15 minutes/d MVPA, adjusting for child's age and gender. After adjustment for potential confounders, associations were weakened but remained. When PA variables were modeled together, associations with total PA were only a little weaker, whereas those with MVPA were substantially reduced; for systolic BP, beta=-0.42 (95% CI -0.71, -0.13) mm Hg per 100 cpm, and beta=-0.03 (95% CI -0.54, 0.48) mm Hg per 15 minutes/d MVPA. In conclusion, higher levels of PA were associated with lower BP, and results suggested that the volume of activity may be more important than the intensity.

  10. A study of community design, greenness, and physical activity in children using satellite, GPS and accelerometer data.

    PubMed

    Almanza, Estela; Jerrett, Michael; Dunton, Genevieve; Seto, Edmund; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relationships between greenness exposure and free-living physical activity behavior of children in smart growth and conventionally designed communities. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to quantify children's (n=208) greenness exposure at 30-s epoch accelerometer and GPS data points. A generalized linear mixed model with a kernel density smoothing term for addressing spatial autocorrelation was fit to analyze residential neighborhood activity data. Excluding activity at home and during school-hours, an epoch-level analysis found momentary greenness exposure was positively associated with the likelihood of contemporaneous moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This association was stronger for smart growth residents who experienced a 39% increase in odds of MVPA for a 10th to 90th percentile increase in exposure to greenness (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.36-1.44). An individual-level analysis found children who experienced >20 min of daily exposure to greener spaces (>90th percentile) engaged in nearly 5 times the daily rate of MVPA of children with nearly zero daily exposure to greener spaces (95% CI 3.09-7.20).

  11. Machine Learning Methods for Predicting HLA–Peptide Binding Activity

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Heng; Ye, Hao; Ng, Hui Wen; Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida; Mendrick, Donna L.; Hong, Huixiao

    2015-01-01

    As major histocompatibility complexes in humans, the human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) have important functions to present antigen peptides onto T-cell receptors for immunological recognition and responses. Interpreting and predicting HLA–peptide binding are important to study T-cell epitopes, immune reactions, and the mechanisms of adverse drug reactions. We review different types of machine learning methods and tools that have been used for HLA–peptide binding prediction. We also summarize the descriptors based on which the HLA–peptide binding prediction models have been constructed and discuss the limitation and challenges of the current methods. Lastly, we give a future perspective on the HLA–peptide binding prediction method based on network analysis. PMID:26512199

  12. Optimal Recognition Method of Human Activities Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oniga, Stefan; József, Sütő

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research is an exhaustive analysis of the various factors that may influence the recognition rate of the human activity using wearable sensors data. We made a total of 1674 simulations on a publically released human activity database by a group of researcher from the University of California at Berkeley. In a previous research, we analyzed the influence of the number of sensors and their placement. In the present research we have examined the influence of the number of sensor nodes, the type of sensor node, preprocessing algorithms, type of classifier and its parameters. The final purpose is to find the optimal setup for best recognition rates with lowest hardware and software costs.

  13. Libraries of Synthetic TALE-Activated Promoters: Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, T; Tissier, A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of proteins with programmable DNA-binding specificities triggered a whole array of applications in synthetic biology, including genome editing, regulation of transcription, and epigenetic modifications. Among those, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) due to their natural function as transcription regulators, are especially well-suited for the development of orthogonal systems for the control of gene expression. We describe here the construction and testing of libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters which are under the control of a single TALE with a given DNA-binding specificity. These libraries consist of a fixed DNA-binding element for the TALE, a TATA box, and variable sequences of 19 bases upstream and 43 bases downstream of the DNA-binding element. These libraries were cloned using a Golden Gate cloning strategy making them usable as standard parts in a modular cloning system. The broad range of promoter activities detected and the versatility of these promoter libraries make them valuable tools for applications in the fine-tuning of expression in metabolic engineering projects or in the design and implementation of regulatory circuits.

  14. Baited lines: An active nondestructive collection method for burrowing crayfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Foltz, David A.; Welsh, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A new method (baited lines) is described for the collection of burrowing crayfishes, where fishing hooks baited with earthworms and tied to monofilament leaders are used to lure crayfishes from their burrow entrances. We estimated capture rates using baited lines at four locations across West Virginia for a total of four crayfish taxa; the taxa studied were orange, blue, and blue/orange morphs of Cambarus dubius (Upland Burrowing Catfish), and C. thomai (Little Brown Mudbug). Baited-line capture rates were lowest for C. thomai (81%; n = 21 attempts) and highest for the orange morph ofC. dubius (99%; n = 13 attempts). The pooled capture rate across all taxa was 91.5% (n = 50 attempts). Baited lines represent an environmentally nondestructive method to capture burrowing crayfishes without harm to individuals, and without disturbing burrows or the surrounding area. This novel method allows for repeat captures and long-term studies, providing a useful sampling method for ecological studies of burrowing crayfishes.

  15. Reliability and validity of the modified child and adolescent physical activity and nutrition survey (CAPANS-C) questionnaire examining potential correlates of physical activity participation among Chinese-Australian youth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, few questionnaires examining psychosocial influences of physical activity (PA) participation have been psychometrically tested among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) youth. An understanding of these influences may help explain the observed differences in PA among CALD youth. Therefore, this study examined the reliability and predictive validity of a brief self-report questionnaire examining potential psychological and social correlates of physical activity among a sample of Chinese-Australian youth. Methods Two Chinese-weekend cultural schools from eastern metropolitan Melbourne consented to participate in this study. In total, 505 students aged 11 to 16 years were eligible for inclusion in the present study, and of these, 106 students agreed to participate (21% response rate). Participants completed at 37-item self-report questionnaire examining perceived psychological and social influences on physical activity participation twice, with a test–retest interval of 7 days. Predictive validity, internal consistency and test–retest reliability were evaluated using exploratory factor analyses, Cronbach’s α coefficient, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) respectively. Predictive validity was assessed by correlating responses against duration spent in self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results The exploratory factor analysis revealed a nine factor structure, with the majority of factors exhibiting high internal consistency (α ≥ 0.6). In addition, four of the nine factors had an ICC ≥ 0.6. Spearman rank-order correlations coefficients between the nine factors and self-reported minutes spent in MVPA ranged from -0.5 to 0.3 for all participants. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the psychometric properties of a potential psychological and social correlates questionnaire among Chinese-Australian youth. The questionnaire was found to provide reliable estimates on a range

  16. Real-Time Active Cosmic Neutron Background Reduction Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald; Mitchell, Stephen; Guss, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Neutron counting using large arrays of pressurized 3He proportional counters from an aerial system or in a maritime environment suffers from the background counts from the primary cosmic neutrons and secondary neutrons caused by cosmic ray-induced mechanisms like spallation and charge-exchange reaction. This paper reports the work performed at the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Andrews (RSL-A) and results obtained when using two different methods to reduce the cosmic neutron background in real time. Both methods used shielding materials with a high concentration (up to 30% by weight) of neutron-absorbing materials, such as natural boron, to remove the low-energy neutron flux from the cosmic background as the first step of the background reduction process. Our first method was to design, prototype, and test an up-looking plastic scintillator (BC-400, manufactured by Saint Gobain Corporation) to tag the cosmic neutrons and then create a logic pulse of a fixed time duration (~120 μs) to block the data taken by the neutron counter (pressurized 3He tubes running in a proportional counter mode). The second method examined the time correlation between the arrival of two successive neutron signals to the counting array and calculated the excess of variance (Feynman variance Y2F)1 in the neutron count distribution from Poisson distribution. The dilution of this variance from cosmic background values ideally would signal the presence of man-made neutrons.2 The first method has been technically successful in tagging the neutrons in the cosmic-ray flux and preventing them from being counted in the 3He tube array by electronic veto—field measurement work shows the efficiency of the electronic veto counter to be about 87%. The second method has successfully derived an empirical relationship between the percentile non-cosmic component in a neutron flux and the Y2F of the measured neutron count distribution. By using shielding materials alone, approximately 55% of the neutron flux

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling of solar active phenomena via numerical methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical ideal MHD models for the study of solar active phenomena are summarized. Particular attention is given to the following physical phenomena: (1) local heating of a coronal loop in an isothermal and stratified atmosphere, and (2) the coronal dynamic responses due to magnetic field movement. The results suggest that local heating of a magnetic loop will lead to the enhancement of the density of the neighboring loops through MHD wave compression. It is noted that field lines can be pinched off and may form a self-contained magnetized plasma blob that may move outward into interplanetary space.

  18. Progress Report of CNES Activities Regarding the Absolute Calibration Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    several receivers (Ashtech Z12-T, Septentrio PolaRx2, and Dicom GTR50) and a GNSS signal simulator (Spirent 4760) according to the temperature and...laboratories, Ashtech Z12- T, Septentrio PolaRx2, and Dicom GTR50, can be calibrated with the absolute method [6,8]. The last works concerned the...Ashtech, Septentrio, and Dicom receiver calibrations. Table 2. Uncertainty of the different receiver calibrations. Uncertainty Source

  19. Hybrid architecture active wavefront sensing and control system, and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D. (Inventor); Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor); Hyde, Tristram T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    According to various embodiments, provided herein is an optical system and method that can be configured to perform image analysis. The optical system can comprise a telescope assembly and one or more hybrid instruments. The one or more hybrid instruments can be configured to receive image data from the telescope assembly and perform a fine guidance operation and a wavefront sensing operation, simultaneously, on the image data received from the telescope assembly.

  20. Do They Need Goals or Support? A Report from a Goal-Setting Intervention Using Physical Activity Monitors in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Bronikowski, Michal; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Glapa, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and different goal setting and strategies in youth. The study took into consideration different sources of support as well as gender variations. Classmate and Teacher Support scales were used to evaluate support in physical education (PE) classes, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was reported. Garmin Vivofit® activity trackers were used during an 8 week-long intervention to count daily steps. Data was collected from 65 adolescents (mean age 17.2 ± 0.2), 74 young adolescents (mean age 15.3 ± 0.2) and 57 children (mean age 11.5 ± 0.4). An experimental design was employed, with “goal” and “do your best” groups given different step goal strategies. The results show that both groups achieved a comparable number of steps. Two-way ANOVA showed interactional effects between gender and teacher support. There were no such effects for MVPA and number of steps. Although classmate support in PE was reported to be reasonably high, the findings show that it does not play a significant role in increasing MVPA behaviors in youths. However, the problem of significantly lower support given to adolescent girls by PE teachers should be embedded into the teaching context of PE students and counteracted in school setting realities. PMID:27649219

  1. Associations between sleep duration, sedentary time, physical activity, and health indicators among Canadian children and youth using compositional analyses.

    PubMed

    Carson, Valerie; Tremblay, Mark S; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Chastin, Sebastien F M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between movement behaviours (sleep duration, sedentary time, physical activity) and health indicators in a representative sample of children and youth using compositional analyses. Cross-sectional findings are based on 4169 children and youth (aged 6-17 years) from cycles 1 to 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Sedentary time (SB), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) were accelerometer-derived. Sleep duration was subjectively measured. Body mass index z scores, waist circumference, blood pressure, behavioural strengths and difficulties, and aerobic fitness were measured in the full sample. Triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and insulin were measured in a fasting subsample. The composition of movement behaviours was entered into linear regression models via an isometric log ratio transformation and was found to be associated with all health indicators (p < 0.01). Relative to other movement behaviours, time spent in SB or LPA was positively associated (p < 0.04) and time spent in MVPA or sleep was negatively associated (p < 0.02) with obesity risk markers. Similarly, LPA was positively associated (p < 0.005) and sleep was negatively associated (p < 0.03) with unfavourable behavioural strengths and difficulties scores and systolic blood pressure. Relative to other movement behaviours, time spent in SB was negatively associated (p < 0.001) and time spent in MVPA (p < 0.001) was positively associated with aerobic fitness. Likewise, MVPA was also negatively associated with several cardiometabolic risk markers (p < 0.008). Compositional data analyses provide novel insights into collective health implications of 24-h movement behaviours and can facilitate interesting avenues for future investigations.

  2. Analysis of Solar Magnetic Activity with the Wavelet Coherence Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, V. M.; Perez-Peraza, J. A.; Mendoza, B. E.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.; Sosa, O.; Alvarez-Madrigal, M.

    2007-05-01

    The origin, behavior and evolution of the solar magnetic field is one of the main challenges of observational and theoretical solar physics. Up to now the Dynamo theory gives us the best approach to the problem. However, it is not yet able to predict many features of the solar activity, which seems not to be strictly a periodical phenomenon. Among the indicators of solar magnetic variability there is the 11-years cycle of sunspots, as well as the solar magnetic cycle of 22 years (the Hale cycle). In order to provide more elements to the Dynamo theory that could help it in the predicting task, we analyze here the plausible existence of other periodicities associated with the solar magnetic field. In this preliminary work we use historical data (sunspots and aurora borealis), proxies (Be10 and C14) and modern instrumental data (Coronal Holes, Cosmic Rays, sunspots, flare indexes and solar radio flux at 10.7 cm). To find relationships between different time-frequency series we have employed the t Wavelet Coherence technique: this technique indicates if two time-series of solar activity have the same periodicities in a given time interval. If so, it determines whether such relation is a linear one or not. Such a powerful tool indicates that, if some periodicity at a given frequency has a confidence level below 95%, it appears very lessened or does not appear in the Wavelet Spectral Analysis, such periodicity does not exist . Our results show that the so called Glaisberg cycle of 80-90 years and the periodicity of 205 years (the Suess cycle) do not exist . It can be speculated that such fictitious periodicities hav been the result of using the Fourier transform with series with are not of stationary nature, as it is the case of the Be10 and C14 series. In contrast we confirm the presence of periodicities of 1.3, 1.7, 3.5, 5.5, 7, 60, 120 and 240 years. The concept of a Glaisberg cycle falls between those of 60 and 120 years. We conclude that the periodicity of 120 years

  3. Active doublet method for measuring small changes in physical properties

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Peter M.; Fehler, Michael C.; Johnson, Paul A.; Phillips, W. Scott

    1994-01-01

    Small changes in material properties of a work piece are detected by measuring small changes in elastic wave velocity and attenuation within a work piece. Active, repeatable source generate coda wave responses from a work piece, where the coda wave responses are temporally displaced. By analyzing progressive relative phase and amplitude changes between the coda wave responses as a function of elapsed time, accurate determinations of velocity and attenuation changes are made. Thus, a small change in velocity occurring within a sample region during the time periods between excitation origin times (herein called "doublets") will produce a relative delay that changes with elapsed time over some portion of the scattered waves. This trend of changing delay is easier to detect than an isolated delay based on a single arrival and provides a direct measure of elastic wave velocity changes arising from changed material properties of the work piece.

  4. Vesselness-guided Active Contour: A Coronary Vessel Extraction Method

    PubMed Central

    Dehkordi, Maryam Taghizadeh; Jalalat, Morteza; Sadri, Saeed; Doosthoseini, Alimohamad; Ahmadzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Amirfattahi, Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    Vessel extraction is a critical task in clinical practice. In this paper, we propose a new approach for vessel extraction using an active contour model by defining a novel vesselness-based term, based on accurate analysis of the vessel structure in the image. To achieve the novel term, a simple and fast directional filter bank is proposed, which does not employ down sampling and resampling used in earlier versions of directional filter banks. The proposed model not only preserves the performance of the existing models on images with intensity inhomogeneity, but also overcomes their inability both to segment low contrast vessels and to omit non-vessel structures. Experimental results for synthetic images and coronary X-ray angiograms show desirable performance of our model. PMID:24761379

  5. System, Apparatus, and Method for Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, Sr., Anthony D. (Inventor); Kohli, Rajiv (Inventor); Burns, Susan H. (Inventor); Damico, Stephen J. (Inventor); Gruber, David J. (Inventor); Hickey, Christopher J. (Inventor); Lee, David E. (Inventor); Robinson, Travis M. (Inventor); Smith, Jason T. (Inventor); Spehar, Peter T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for removal of orbital debris are provided. In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a spacecraft control unit configured to guide and navigate the apparatus to a target. The apparatus also includes a dynamic object characterization unit configured to characterize movement, and a capture feature, of the target. The apparatus further includes a capture and release unit configured to capture a target and deorbit or release the target. The collection of these apparatuses is then employed as multiple, independent and individually operated vehicles launched from a single launch vehicle for the purpose of disposing of multiple debris objects.

  6. Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) - Active and passive methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Ivanov, J.

    2007-01-01

    The conventional seismic approaches for near-surface investigation have usually been either high-resolution reflection or refraction surveys that deal with a depth range of a few tens to hundreds meters. Seismic signals from these surveys consist of wavelets with frequencies higher than 50 Hz. The multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method deals with surface waves in the lower frequencies (e.g., 1-30 Hz) and uses a much shallower depth range of investigation (e.g., a few to a few tens of meters). ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  7. Engineered enzymatically active bacteriophages and methods of uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Collins, James J [Newton, MA; Kobayashi, Hideki [Yokohama, JP; Kearn, Mads [Ottawa, CA; Araki, Michihiro [Minatoku, JP; Friedland, Ari [Boston, MA; Lu, Timothy Kuan-Ta [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-22

    The present invention provides engineered bacteriophages that express at least one biofilm degrading enzyme on their surface and uses thereof for degrading bacterial biofilms. The invention also provides genetically engineered bacteriophages expressing the biofilm degrading enzymes and proteins necessary for the phage to replicate in different naturally occurring biofilm producing bacteria. The phages of the invention allow a method of biofilm degradation by the use of one or only a few administration of the phage because the system using these phages is self perpetuating, and capable of degrading biofilm even when the concentration of bacteria within the biofilm is low.

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Antimicrobial Peptides Developed Using an Amino Acid-Based Activity Prediction Method

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaozhe; Wang, Zhenling; Li, Xiaolu; Fan, Yingzi; He, Gu; Wan, Yang; Yu, Chaoheng; Tang, Jianying; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Hailong; Xiang, Rong; Pan, Ying; Liu, Yan; Lu, Lian

    2014-01-01

    To design and discover new antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with high levels of antimicrobial activity, a number of machine-learning methods and prediction methods have been developed. Here, we present a new prediction method that can identify novel AMPs that are highly similar in sequence to known peptides but offer improved antimicrobial activity along with lower host cytotoxicity. Using previously generated AMP amino acid substitution data, we developed an amino acid activity contribution matrix that contained an activity contribution value for each amino acid in each position of the model peptide. A series of AMPs were designed with this method. After evaluating the antimicrobial activities of these novel AMPs against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, DP7 was chosen for further analysis. Compared to the parent peptide HH2, this novel AMP showed broad-spectrum, improved antimicrobial activity, and in a cytotoxicity assay it showed lower toxicity against human cells. The in vivo antimicrobial activity of DP7 was tested in a Staphylococcus aureus infection murine model. When inoculated and treated via intraperitoneal injection, DP7 reduced the bacterial load in the peritoneal lavage solution. Electron microscope imaging and the results indicated disruption of the S. aureus outer membrane by DP7. Our new prediction method can therefore be employed to identify AMPs possessing minor amino acid differences with improved antimicrobial activities, potentially increasing the therapeutic agents available to combat multidrug-resistant infections. PMID:24982064

  9. In vitro and in vivo activities of antimicrobial peptides developed using an amino acid-based activity prediction method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaozhe; Wang, Zhenling; Li, Xiaolu; Fan, Yingzi; He, Gu; Wan, Yang; Yu, Chaoheng; Tang, Jianying; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Hailong; Xiang, Rong; Pan, Ying; Liu, Yan; Lu, Lian; Yang, Li

    2014-09-01

    To design and discover new antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with high levels of antimicrobial activity, a number of machine-learning methods and prediction methods have been developed. Here, we present a new prediction method that can identify novel AMPs that are highly similar in sequence to known peptides but offer improved antimicrobial activity along with lower host cytotoxicity. Using previously generated AMP amino acid substitution data, we developed an amino acid activity contribution matrix that contained an activity contribution value for each amino acid in each position of the model peptide. A series of AMPs were designed with this method. After evaluating the antimicrobial activities of these novel AMPs against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, DP7 was chosen for further analysis. Compared to the parent peptide HH2, this novel AMP showed broad-spectrum, improved antimicrobial activity, and in a cytotoxicity assay it showed lower toxicity against human cells. The in vivo antimicrobial activity of DP7 was tested in a Staphylococcus aureus infection murine model. When inoculated and treated via intraperitoneal injection, DP7 reduced the bacterial load in the peritoneal lavage solution. Electron microscope imaging and the results indicated disruption of the S. aureus outer membrane by DP7. Our new prediction method can therefore be employed to identify AMPs possessing minor amino acid differences with improved antimicrobial activities, potentially increasing the therapeutic agents available to combat multidrug-resistant infections.

  10. Physical activity and dietary behaviour in a population-based sample of British 10-year old children: the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people)

    PubMed Central

    van Sluijs, Esther MF; Skidmore, Paula ML; Mwanza, Kim; Jones, Andrew P; Callaghan, Alison M; Ekelund, Ulf; Harrison, Flo; Harvey, Ian; Panter, Jenna; Wareham, Nicolas J; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J

    2008-01-01

    Background The SPEEDY study was set up to quantify levels of physical activity (PA) and dietary habits and the association with potential correlates in 9–10 year old British school children. We present here the analyses of the PA, dietary and anthropometry data. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 2064 children (926 boys, 1138 girls) in Norfolk, England, we collected anthropometry data at school using standardised procedures. Body mass index (BMI) was used to define obesity status. PA was assessed with the Actigraph accelerometer over 7 days. A cut-off of ≥ 2000 activity counts was used to define minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Dietary habits were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School Children food questionnaire. Weight status was defined using published international cut-offs (Cole, 2000). Differences between groups were assessed using independent t-tests for continuous data and chi-squared tests for categorical data. Results Valid PA data (>500 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days) was available for 1888 children. Mean (± SD) activity counts per minute among boys and girls were 716.5 ± 220.2 and 635.6 ± 210.6, respectively (p < 0.001). Boys spent an average of 84.1 ± 25.9 minutes in MVPA per day compared to 66.1 ± 20.8 among girls (p < 0.001), with an average of 69.1% of children accumulating 60 minutes each day. The proportion of children classified as overweight and obese was 15.0% and 4.1% for boys and 19.3% and 6.6% for girls, respectively (p = 0.001). Daily consumption of at least one portion of fruit and of vegetables was 56.8% and 49.9% respectively, with higher daily consumption in girls than boys and in children from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Conclusion Results indicate that almost 70% of children meet national PA guidelines, indicating that a prevention of decline, rather than increasing physical activity levels, might be an appropriate intervention target. Promotion of daily fruit and vegetable intake in this age group is

  11. The Faith, Activity, and Nutrition Program

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Parrot, Allen; Baruth, Megan; Laken, Marilyn; Condrasky, Margaret; Saunders, Ruth; Dowda, Marsha; Evans, Rebecca; Addy, Cheryl; Warren, Tatiana Y.; Kinnard, Deborah; Zimmerman, Lakisha

    2013-01-01

    Background Faith-based interventions hold promise for promoting health in ethnic minority populations. To date, however, few of these interventions have used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, have targeted both physical activity and healthy eating, and have focused on structural changes in the church. Purpose To report the results of a group randomized CBPR intervention targeting physical activity and healthy eating in African-American churches. Design Group RCT. Data were collected from 2007 to 2011. Statistical analyses were conducted in 2012. Setting/participants Seventy-four African Methodist Episcopal (AME) churches in South Carolina and 1257 members within them participated in the study. Intervention Churches were randomized to an immediate (intervention) or delayed (control) 15-month intervention that targeted organizational and environmental changes consistent with the structural ecologic model. A CBPR approach guided intervention development. Intervention churches attended a full-day committee training and a full-day cook training. They also received a stipend and 15 months of mailings and technical assistance calls to support intervention implementation. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were self-reported moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption, and measured blood pressure. Secondary outcomes were self-reported fat- and fiber-related behaviors. Measurements were taken at baseline and 15 months. Intent-to-treat repeated measures ANOVA tested group X time interactions, controlling for church clustering, wave, and size, and participant age, gender, and education. Post hoc ANCOVAs were conducted with measurement completers. Results There was a significant effect favoring the intervention group in self-reported leisure-time MVPA (d=0.18, p=0.02), but no effect for other outcomes. ANCOVA analyses showed an intervention effect for self-reported leisure-time MVPA (d=0

  12. Using wearable cameras to categorise type and context of accelerometer-identified episodes of physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accelerometers can identify certain physical activity behaviours, but not the context in which they take place. This study investigates the feasibility of wearable cameras to objectively categorise the behaviour type and context of participants’ accelerometer-identified episodes of activity. Methods Adults were given an Actical hip-mounted accelerometer and a SenseCam wearable camera (worn via lanyard). The onboard clocks on both devices were time-synchronised. Participants engaged in free-living activities for 3 days. Actical data were cleaned and episodes of sedentary, lifestyle-light, lifestyle-moderate, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were identified. Actical episodes were categorised according to their social and environmental context and Physical Activity (PA) compendium category as identified from time-matched SenseCam images. Results There were 212 days considered from 49 participants from whom SenseCam images and associated Actical data were captured. Using SenseCam images, behaviour type and context attributes were annotated for 386 (out of 3017) randomly selected episodes (such as walking/transportation, social/not-social, domestic/leisure). Across the episodes, 12 categories that aligned with the PA Compendium were identified, and 114 subcategory types were identified. Nineteen percent of episodes could not have their behaviour type and context categorized; 59% were outdoors versus 39% indoors; 33% of episodes were recorded as leisure time activities, with 33% transport, 18% domestic, and 15% occupational. 33% of the randomly selected episodes contained direct social interaction and 22% were in social situations where the participant wasn’t involved in direct engagement. Conclusion Wearable camera images offer an objective method to capture a spectrum of activity behaviour types and context across 81% of accelerometer-identified episodes of activity. Wearable cameras represent the best objective method currently

  13. Changes in physical activity during the transition from primary to secondary school in Belgian children: what is the role of the school environment?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Key life periods have been associated with changes in physical activity (PA). This study investigated (1) how PA changes when primary school children transfer to secondary school, (2) if school environmental characteristics differ between primary and secondary schools and (3) if changes in school environmental characteristics can predict changes in PA in Belgian schoolchildren. Moderating effects of gender and the baseline level of PA were investigated for the first and third research question. Methods In total, 736 children (10–13 years) of the last year of primary school participated in the first phase of this longitudinal study. Two years later, 502 of these children (68.2%) agreed to participate in the second phase. Accelerometers, pedometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire were used to measure PA. School environmental characteristics were reported by the school principals. Cross-classified regression models were conducted to analyze the data. Results S elf-reported active transport to school and accelerometer weekday moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) increased after the transition to secondary school while self-reported extracurricular PA and total PA decreased. Pedometer weekday step counts decreased, but this decrease was only apparent among those who achieved the PA guidelines in primary school. Secondary schools scored higher on the school environmental characteristics: provision of sports and PA during lunch break, active schoolyards and playgrounds and health education policy but lower on sports and PA after-school than primary schools. Changes in the school environmental characteristics: active commuting to school, active schoolyards and playgrounds and health education policy resulted in changes in self-reported extracurricular PA, total PA , pedometer/accelerometer determined step counts and accelerometer determined MVPA. Moderating effects were found for baseline PA and gender. Conclusion PA changed after the transition to

  14. A novel method for the activity measurement of large-area beta reference sources.

    PubMed

    Stanga, D; De Felice, P; Keightley, J; Capogni, M; Ioan, M R

    2016-03-01

    A novel method has been developed for the activity measurement of large-area beta reference sources. It makes use of two emission rate measurements and is based on the weak dependence between the source activity and the activity distribution for a given value of transmission coefficient. The method was checked experimentally by measuring the activity of two ((60)Co and (137)Cs) large-area reference sources constructed from anodized aluminum foils. Measurement results were compared with the activity values measured by gamma spectrometry. For each source, they agree within one standard uncertainty and also agree within the same limits with the certified values of the source activity.

  15. Decoding the individual finger movements from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings of human brain activity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Mengxing; Lei, Du; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Shanmin; Du, Xiaoxia

    2014-06-01

    Multivariate pattern classification analysis (MVPA) has been applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to decode brain states from spatially distributed activation patterns. Decoding upper limb movements from non-invasively recorded human brain activation is crucial for implementing a brain-machine interface that directly harnesses an individual's thoughts to control external devices or computers. The aim of this study was to decode the individual finger movements from fMRI single-trial data. Thirteen healthy human subjects participated in a visually cued delayed finger movement task, and only one slight button press was performed in each trial. Using MVPA, the decoding accuracy (DA) was computed separately for the different motor-related regions of interest. For the construction of feature vectors, the feature vectors from two successive volumes in the image series for a trial were concatenated. With these spatial-temporal feature vectors, we obtained a 63.1% average DA (84.7% for the best subject) for the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex and a 46.0% average DA (71.0% for the best subject) for the contralateral primary motor cortex; both of these values were significantly above the chance level (20%). In addition, we implemented searchlight MVPA to search for informative regions in an unbiased manner across the whole brain. Furthermore, by applying searchlight MVPA to each volume of a trial, we visually demonstrated the information for decoding, both spatially and temporally. The results suggest that the non-invasive fMRI technique may provide informative features for decoding individual finger movements and the potential of developing an fMRI-based brain-machine interface for finger movement.

  16. The active titration method for measuring local hydroxyl radical concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprengnether, Michele; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a method for measuring ambient OH by monitoring its rate of reaction with a chemical species. Our technique involves the local, instantaneous release of a mixture of saturated cyclic hydrocarbons (titrants) and perfluorocarbons (dispersants). These species must not normally be present in ambient air above the part per trillion concentration. We then track the mixture downwind using a real-time portable ECD tracer instrument. We collect air samples in canisters every few minutes for roughly one hour. We then return to the laboratory and analyze our air samples to determine the ratios of the titrant to dispersant concentrations. The trends in these ratios give us the ambient OH concentration from the relation: dlnR/dt = -k(OH). A successful measurement of OH requires that the trends in these ratios be measureable. We must not perturb ambient OH concentrations. The titrant to dispersant ratio must be spatially invariant. Finally, heterogeneous reactions of our titrant and dispersant species must be negligible relative to the titrant reaction with OH. We have conducted laboratory studies of our ability to measure the titrant to dispersant ratios as a function of concentration down to the few part per trillion concentration. We have subsequently used these results in a gaussian puff model to estimate our expected uncertainty in a field measurement of OH. Our results indicate that under a range of atmospheric conditions we expect to be able to measure OH with a sensitivity of 3x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). In our most optimistic scenarios, we obtain a sensitivity of 1x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). These sensitivity values reflect our anticipated ability to measure the ratio trends. However, because we are also using a rate constant to obtain our (OH) from this ratio trend, our accuracy cannot be better than that of the rate constant, which we expect to be about 20 percent.

  17. Making healthy eating and physical activity policy practice: the design and overview of a group randomized controlled trial in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Beets, Michael W; Glenn Weaver, R; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S; Freedman, Darcy A; Saunders, Ruth; Pate, Russell R; Beighle, Aaron; Hutto, Brent; Moore, Justin B

    2014-07-01

    National and state organizations have developed policies calling upon afterschool programs (ASPs, 3-6 pm) to serve a fruit or vegetable (FV) each day for snack, while eliminating foods and beverages high in added-sugars, and to ensure children accumulate a minimum of 30 min/d of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Few efficacious and cost-effective strategies exist to assist ASP providers in achieving these important public health goals. This paper reports on the design and conceptual framework of Making Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) Policy Practice in ASPs, a 3-year group randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of strategies designed to improve snacks served and increase MVPA in children attending community-based ASPs. Twenty ASPs, serving over 1800 children (6-12 years) will be enrolled and match-paired based on enrollment size, average daily min/d MVPA, and days/week FV served, with ASPs randomized after baseline data collection to immediate intervention or a 1-year delayed group. The framework employed, STEPs (Strategies To Enhance Practice), focuses on intentional programming of HEPA in each ASPs' daily schedule, and includes a grocery store partnership to reduce price barriers to purchasing FV, professional development training to promote physical activity to develop core physical activity competencies, as well as ongoing technical support/assistance. Primary outcome measures include children's accelerometry-derived MVPA and time spend sedentary while attending an ASP, direct observation of staff HEPA promoting and inhibiting behaviors, types of snacks served, and child consumption of snacks, as well as, cost of snacks via receipts and detailed accounting of intervention delivery costs to estimate cost-effectiveness.

  18. Active Problem Solving and Applied Research Methods in a Graduate Course on Numerical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maase, Eric L.; High, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    "Chemical Engineering Modeling" is a first-semester graduate course traditionally taught in a lecture format at Oklahoma State University. The course as taught by the author for the past seven years focuses on numerical and mathematical methods as necessary skills for incoming graduate students. Recent changes to the course have included Visual…

  19. Activated region fitting: a robust high-power method for fMRI analysis using parameterized regions of activation.

    PubMed

    Weeda, Wouter D; Waldorp, Lourens J; Christoffels, Ingrid; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2009-08-01

    An important issue in the analysis of fMRI is how to account for the spatial smoothness of activated regions. In this article a method is proposed to accomplish this by modeling activated regions with Gaussian shapes. Hypothesis tests on the location, spatial extent, and amplitude of these regions are performed instead of hypothesis tests of individual voxels. This increases power and eases interpretation. Simulation studies show robust hypothesis tests under misspecification of the shape model, and increased power over standard techniques especially at low signal-to-noise ratios. An application to real single-subject data also indicates that the method has increased power over standard methods.

  20. Examination of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Activities Using Problem Based Learning Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekici, Didem Inel

    2016-01-01

    In this study, both the activities prepared by pre-service science teachers regarding the Problem Based Learning method and the pre-service science teachers' views regarding the method were examined before and after applying their activities in a real class environment. 69 pre-service science teachers studying in the 4th grade of the science…

  1. A straightforward ninhydrin-based method for collagenase activity and inhibitor screening of collagenase using spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfang; Fu, Yun; Zhou, Sufeng; Kang, Lixia; Li, Changzheng

    2013-06-01

    Currently protease assay kits, requiring substrate that is either radiolabeled or fluorescence labeled and specialized instruments, are all expensive. A simple, reliable assay of protease activity and its inhibitor screening for general laboratory is rare. Here we demonstrated a straightforward ninhydrin-based method for assay of collagenase activity and its inhibitor screening using spectrophotometry. In the method, without multistep sample treatments and substrate labeling, the hydrolytic products were directly traced by ninhydrin. The method is expected to be suitable for not only the assay of collagenase activity but also the others matrix metalloproteinases activities, and can be used for kinetic study.

  2. Texting to increase physical activity among teenagers (TXT Me!): Rationale, design, and methods proposal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity decreases from childhood through adulthood. Among youth, teenagers (teens) achieve the lowest levels of physical activity, and high school age youth are particularly at risk of inactivity. Effective methods are needed to increase youth physical activity in a way that can be maintai...

  3. Adolescent Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks: Linkages to Higher Physical Activity, Unhealthy Beverage Patterns, Cigarette Smoking, and Screen Media Use

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole; DeWolfe, Jessica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of adolescent sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and identify behavioral correlates. Design Data were drawn from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study. Setting Adolescents from 20 middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota completed classroom-administered surveys. Participants 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls) in grades 6–12. Variables Measured Beverage patterns; breakfast frequency; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); media use; sleep; and cigarette smoking. Analysis Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between health behaviors and SED consumption, adjusting for demographics. Results Over a third of adolescents consumed sports drinks and 14.7% consumed energy drinks at least once a week. Among boys and girls, both sports and energy drink consumption were related to higher video game use; sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake; and smoking (P<0.05). Sports drink consumption was also significantly related to higher MVPA and organized sport participation for both genders (P<0.01). Conclusions and Implications Although sports drink consumption was associated with higher MVPA, adolescents should be reminded of recommendations to consume these beverages only following vigorous, prolonged activity. There is also a need for future interventions designed to reduce SED consumption to address the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24809865

  4. A Method for Lung Boundary Correction Using Split Bregman Method and Geometric Active Contour Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianxun; Liang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    In order to get the extracted lung region from CT images more accurately, a model that contains lung region extraction and edge boundary correction is proposed. Firstly, a new edge detection function is presented with the help of the classic structure tensor theory. Secondly, the initial lung mask is automatically extracted by an improved active contour model which combines the global intensity information, local intensity information, the new edge information, and an adaptive weight. It is worth noting that the objective function of the improved model is converted to a convex model, which makes the proposed model get the global minimum. Then, the central airway was excluded according to the spatial context messages and the position relationship between every segmented region and the rib. Thirdly, a mesh and the fractal theory are used to detect the boundary that surrounds the juxtapleural nodule. Finally, the geometric active contour model is employed to correct the detected boundary and reinclude juxtapleural nodules. We also evaluated the performance of the proposed segmentation and correction model by comparing with their popular counterparts. Efficient computing capability and robustness property prove that our model can correct the lung boundary reliably and reproducibly. PMID:26089976

  5. A Test of Social Cognitive Theory to Explain Men's Physical Activity During a Gender-Tailored Weight Loss Program.

    PubMed

    Young, Myles D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading contributor to the burden of disease in men. Social-cognitive theories may improve physical activity (PA) interventions by identifying which variables to target to maximize intervention impact. This study tested the utility of Bandura's social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain men's PA during a 3-month weight loss program. Participants were 204 overweight/obese men (M [SD] age = 46.6 [11.3] years; body mass index = 33.1 [3.5] kg/m(2)). A longitudinal, latent variable structural equation model tested the associations between SCT constructs (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, intention, and social support) and self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and examined the total PA variance explained by SCT. After controlling for Time 1 cognitions and behavior, the model fit the data well (χ(2) = 73.9, degrees of freedom = 39, p < .001; normed χ(2) = 1.9; comparative fit index = 0.96; standardized root mean residual = 0.059) and explained 65% of the variance in MVPA at Time 2. At Time 2, self-efficacy demonstrated the largest direct and total effects on MVPA (βdirect = .45, p < .001; βtotal = .67, p = .002). A small-to-medium effect was observed from intention to MVPA, but not from outcome expectations or social support. This study provides some evidence supporting the tenets of SCT when examining PA behavior in overweight and obese men. Future PA and weight loss interventions for men may benefit by targeting self-efficacy and intention, but the utility of targeting social support and outcome expectations requires further examination.

  6. Iso standardization of theoretical activity evaluation method for low and intermediate level activated waste generated at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Makoto Kashiwagi; Garamszeghy, Mike; Lantes, Bertrand; Bonne, Sebastien; Pillette-Cousin, Lucien; Leganes, Jose Luis; Volmert, Ben; James, David W.

    2013-07-01

    Disposal of low-and intermediate-level activated waste generated at nuclear power plants is being planned or carried out in many countries. The radioactivity concentrations and/or total quantities of long-lived, difficult-to-measure nuclides (DTM nuclides), such as C-14, Ni-63, Nb-94, α emitting nuclides etc., are often restricted by the safety case for a final repository as determined by each country's safety regulations, and these concentrations or amounts are required to be known and declared. With respect to waste contaminated by contact with process water, the Scaling Factor method (SF method), which is empirically based on sampling and analysis data, has been applied as an important method for determining concentrations of DTM nuclides. This method was standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and published in 2007 as ISO21238 'Scaling factor method to determine the radioactivity of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants' [1]. However, for activated metal waste with comparatively high concentrations of radioactivity, such as may be found in reactor control rods and internal structures, direct sampling and radiochemical analysis methods to evaluate the DTM nuclides are limited by access to the material and potentially high personnel radiation exposure. In this case, theoretical calculation methods in combination with empirical methods based on remote radiation surveys need to be used to best advantage for determining the disposal inventory of DTM nuclides while minimizing exposure to radiation workers. Pursuant to this objective a standard for the theoretical evaluation of the radioactivity concentration of DTM nuclides in activated waste, is in process through ISO TC85/SC5 (ISO Technical Committee 85: Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection; Subcommittee 5: Nuclear fuel cycle). The project team for this ISO standard was formed in 2011 and is composed of

  7. Radioiodination of interleukin 2 to high specific activities by the vapor-phase chloramine T method

    SciTech Connect

    Siekierka, J.J.; DeGudicibus, S.

    1988-08-01

    Recombinant human interleukin 2 (IL-2) was radioiodinated utilizing the vapor phase chloramine T method of iodination. The method is rapid, reproducible, and allows the efficient radioiodination of IL-2 to specific activities higher than those previously attained with full retention of biological activity. IL-2 radioiodinated by this method binds with high affinity to receptors present on phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes and should be useful for the study of receptor structure and function.

  8. Association of physical activity with muscular strength and fat-free mass in adolescents: the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Ortega, Francisco B; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Rey-Lopez, Juan P; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Widhalm, Kurt; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse the association of objectively assessed physical activity (PA) with muscular strength and fat-free mass in adolescents, and to determine whether meeting the current PA recommendations is associated with higher levels of muscular strength and fat-free mass. The present cross-sectional study comprised 363 Spanish adolescents (180 females) aged 12.5-17.5 years. PA was assessed by accelerometry and expressed as average PA (counts/min), and min/day of inactive, light, moderate, vigorous and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). MVPA was dichotomized into < 60 min/day and > or = 60. Upper body muscular strength was measured with the handgrip strength test, and lower body muscular strength was measured with the standing broad jump, squat jump, counter movement jump and Abalakov tests. Fat-free mass was measured by DXA. We observed positive associations between vigorous PA and all the lower body muscular strength tests except for the counter movement jump in males. PA was not associated with fat-free mass in both males and females. Male adolescents engaged in at least 60 min/day MVPA performed better in the standing broad jump test. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that only vigorous PA is associated with muscular strength, particularly lower-body muscular strength in male adolescents.

  9. Equating accelerometer estimates among youth: the Rosetta Stone 2

    PubMed Central

    Brazendale, Keith; Beets, Michael W.; Bornstein, Daniel B.; Moore, Justin B.; Pate, Russell R.; Weaver, Robert G.; Falck, Ryan S.; Chandler, Jessica L.; Andersen, Lars B.; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Cardon, Greet; Cooper, Ashley; Davey, Rachel; Froberg, Karsten; Hallal, Pedro C.; Janz, Kathleen F.; Kordas, Katarzyna; Kriemler, Susi; Puder, Jardena J.; Reilly, John J.; Salmon, Jo; Sardinha, Luis B.; Timperio, Anna; van Sluijs, Esther MF

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Different accelerometer cutpoints used by different researchers often yields vastly different estimates of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). This is recognized as cutpoint non-equivalence (CNE), which reduces the ability to accurately compare youth MVPA across studies. The objective of this research is to develop a cutpoint conversion system that standardizes minutes of MVPA for six different sets of published cutpoints. Design Secondary data analysis Methods Data from the International Children’s Accelerometer Database (ICAD; Spring 2014) consisting of 43,112 Actigraph accelerometer data files from 21 worldwide studies (children 3-18 years, 61.5% female) were used to develop prediction equations for six sets of published cutpoints. Linear and non-linear modeling, using a leave one out cross-validation technique, was employed to develop equations to convert MVPA from one set of cutpoints into another. Bland Altman plots illustrate the agreement between actual MVPA and predicted MVPA values. Results Across the total sample, mean MVPA ranged from 29.7 MVPA min.d-1 (Puyau) to 126.1 MVPA min.d-1 (Freedson 3 METs). Across conversion equations, median absolute percent error was 12.6% (range: 1.3 to 30.1) and the proportion of variance explained ranged from 66.7% to 99.8%. Mean difference for the best performing prediction equation (VC from EV) was -0.110 min.d-1 (limits of agreement (LOA), -2.623 to 2.402). The mean difference for the worst performing prediction equation (FR3 from PY) was 34.76 min.d-1 (LOA, -60.392 to 129.910). Conclusions For six different sets of published cutpoints, the use of this equating system can assist individuals attempting to synthesize the growing body of literature on Actigraph, accelerometry-derived MVPA. PMID:25747468

  10. Physical activity and osteoarthritis: a consensus study to harmonise self-reporting methods of physical activity across international cohorts.

    PubMed

    Gates, L S; Leyland, K M; Sheard, S; Jackson, K; Kelly, P; Callahan, L F; Pate, R; Roos, E M; Ainsworth, B; Cooper, C; Foster, C; Newton, J L; Batt, M E; Arden, N K

    2017-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) is increasingly recognised as an important factor within studies of osteoarthritis (OA). However, subjective methods used to assess PA are highly variable and have not been developed for use within studies of OA, which creates difficulties when comparing and interpreting PA data in OA research. The aim of this study was, therefore, to gain expert agreement on the appropriate methods to harmonise PA data among existing population cohorts to enable the investigation of the association of PA and OA. The definition of PA in an OA context and methods of harmonization were established via an international expert consensus meeting and modified Delphi exercise using a geographically diverse committee selected on the basis of individual expertise in physical activity, exercise medicine, and OA. Agreement was met for all aims of study: (1) The use of Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) minutes per week (MET-min/week) as a method for harmonising PA variables among cohorts; (2) The determination of methods for treating missing components of MET-min/week calculation; a value will be produced from comparable activities within a representative cohort; (3) Exclusion of the domain of occupation from total MET-min/week; (4) The need for a specific measure of joint loading of an activity in addition to intensity and time, in studies of diseases, such as OA. This study has developed a systematic method to classify and harmonise PA in existing OA cohorts. It also provides minimum requirements for future studies intending to include subjective PA measures.

  11. Physical Activity Is Linked to Greater Moment-To-Moment Variability in Spontaneous Brain Activity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Voss, Michelle W.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Gothe, Neha P.; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60–80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults. PMID:26244873

  12. Effects of curricular activity on students' situational motivation and physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students'situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve students in grades 7-9 participated in three activities (cardiovascular fitness, ultimate football, and Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]) in physical education. ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers were used to measure students' PA levels for three classes for each activity. Students also completed a Situational Motivation Scale (Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) at the end of each class. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that students spent significantly higher percentages of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in fitness and football classes than they did in DDR class. Students reported higher lM and IR toward fitness than DDR They also scored higher in IR toward fitness than football. In contrast, students displayed significantly lower AM toward fitness than football and DDR Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that IM was the only positive predictor for time in MVPA (p = .02), whereas AM was the negative predictor (p < .01). The findings are discussed in regard to the implications for educational practice.

  13. Comparison The Effects of Two Monocyte Isolation Methods, Plastic Adherence and Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting Methods, on Phagocytic Activity of Generated Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Delirezh, Nowruz; Shojaeefar, Ehsan; Parvin, Parva; Asadi, Behnaz

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is believed that monocyte isolation methods and maturation factors affect the phenotypic and functional characteristics of resultant dendritic cells (DC). In the present study, we compared two monocyte isolation methods, including plastic adherence-dendritic cells (Adh-DC) and magnetic activated cell sorting- dendritic cells (MACS-DC), and their effects on phagocytic activity of differentiated immature DCs (immDCs). Materials and Methods: : In this experimental study, immDCs were generated from plastic adherence and MACS isolated monocytes in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in five days. The phagocytic activity of immDCs was analyzed by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated latex bead using flow cytometry. One way ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis of differences among experimental groups, including Adh-DC and MACS-DC groups. Results: We found that phagocytic activity of Adh-DC was higher than MACS-DC, whereas the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of phagocytic cells was higher in MACS-DC (p<0.05). Conclusion: : We concluded that it would be important to consider phagocytosis parameters of generated DCs before making any decision about monocyte isolation methods to have fully functional DCs. PMID:24027662

  14. Short- and long-term theory-based predictors of physical activity in women who participated in a weight-management program.

    PubMed

    Wasserkampf, A; Silva, M N; Santos, I C; Carraça, E V; Meis, J J M; Kremers, S P J; Teixeira, P J

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzed psychosocial predictors of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and evaluated their associations with short- and long-term moderate plus vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and lifestyle physical activity (PA) outcomes in women who underwent a weight-management program. 221 participants (age 37.6 ± 7.02 years) completed a 12-month SDT-based lifestyle intervention and were followed-up for 24 months. Multiple linear regression analyses tested associations between psychosocial variables and self-reported short- and long-term PA outcomes. Regression analyses showed that control constructs of both theories were significant determinants of short- and long-term MVPA, whereas affective and self-determination variables were strong predictors of short- and long-term lifestyle PA. Regarding short-term prediction models, TPB constructs were stronger in predicting MVPA, whereas SDT was more effective in predicting lifestyle PA. For long-term models, both forms of PA were better predicted by SDT in comparison to TPB. These results highlight the importance of comparing health behavior theories to identify the mechanisms involved in the behavior change process. Control and competence constructs are crucial during early adoption of structured PA behaviors, whereas affective and intrinsic sources of motivation are more involved in incidental types of PA, particularly in relation to behavioral maintenance.

  15. Objective assessment of sedentary time and physical activity throughout the week in adolescents with Down syndrome. The UP&DOWN study.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo-Gomez, Rocío; Martínez-Gómez, David; Acha, Aitor; Veiga, Oscar L; Villagra, Ariel; Diaz-Cueto, Mario

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the patterns of sedentary time and physical activity (PA) throughout the week in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). The study comprised 109 adolescents with DS (68 males and 41 females) aged 11-20 years, participating in the UP&DOWN study, but only a total of 100 adolescents provided valid data. Sedentary time and total, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were measured by accelerometers. There were no significant differences in the time spent in sedentary time and PA levels between weekdays vs. weekend days, as well as between school time vs. after school-time periods (all p>0.05). Adolescent males engaged in more total PA, moderate PA, vigorous PA and MVPA than females on weekend days (all p<0.05). Differences between age groups showed that sedentary time increases and PA decreases with advancing age in all analyses, so that the oldest groups were more sedentary and less active (all p<0.05). Only 43% of adolescents with DS met the PA recommendations of ≥60min/day of MVPA. Our findings show valuable information to be considered in future interventions aiming to decrease sedentary time and increase PA levels in adolescents with DS.

  16. Electro-active sensor, method for constructing the same; apparatus and circuitry for detection of electro-active species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electro-active sensor includes a nonconductive platform with a first electrode set attached with a first side of a nonconductive platform. The first electrode set serves as an electrochemical cell that may be utilized to detect electro-active species in solution. A plurality of electrode sets and a variety of additional electrochemical cells and sensors may be attached with the nonconductive platform. The present invention also includes a method for constructing the aforementioned electro-active sensor. Additionally, an apparatus for detection and observation is disclosed, where the apparatus includes a sealable chamber for insertion of a portion of an electro-active sensor. The apparatus allows for monitoring and detection activities. Allowing for control of attached cells and sensors, a dual-mode circuitry is also disclosed. The dual-mode circuitry includes a switch, allowing the circuitry to be switched from a potentiostat to a galvanostat mode.

  17. The fast neutron fluence and the activation detector activity calculations using the effective source method and the adjoint function

    SciTech Connect

    Hep, J.; Konecna, A.; Krysl, V.; Smutny, V.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the application of effective source in forward calculations and the adjoint method to the solution of fast neutron fluence and activation detector activities in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and RPV cavity of a VVER-440 reactor. Its objective is the demonstration of both methods on a practical task. The effective source method applies the Boltzmann transport operator to time integrated source data in order to obtain neutron fluence and detector activities. By weighting the source data by time dependent decay of the detector activity, the result of the calculation is the detector activity. Alternatively, if the weighting is uniform with respect to time, the result is the fluence. The approach works because of the inherent linearity of radiation transport in non-multiplying time-invariant media. Integrated in this way, the source data are referred to as the effective source. The effective source in the forward calculations method thereby enables the analyst to replace numerous intensive transport calculations with a single transport calculation in which the time dependence and magnitude of the source are correctly represented. In this work, the effective source method has been expanded slightly in the following way: neutron source data were performed with few group method calculation using the active core calculation code MOBY-DICK. The follow-up neutron transport calculation was performed using the neutron transport code TORT to perform multigroup calculations. For comparison, an alternative method of calculation has been used based upon adjoint functions of the Boltzmann transport equation. Calculation of the three-dimensional (3-D) adjoint function for each required computational outcome has been obtained using the deterministic code TORT and the cross section library BGL440. Adjoint functions appropriate to the required fast neutron flux density and neutron reaction rates have been calculated for several significant points within the RPV

  18. Towards a Hybrid Method to Categorize Interruptions and Activities in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Brixey, Juliana J.; Robinson, David J.; Johnson, Craig W.; Johnson, Todd R.; Turley, James P.; Patel, Vimla L.; Zhang, Jiajie

    2007-01-01

    Summary Objective Interruptions are known to have a negative impact on activity performance. Understanding how an interruption contributes to human error is limited because there is not a standard method for analyzing and classifying interruptions. Qualitative data are typically analyzed by either a deductive or an inductive method. Both methods have limitations. In this paper a hybrid method was developed that integrates deductive and inductive methods for the categorization of activities and interruptions recorded during an ethnographic study of physicians and registered nurses in a Level One Trauma Center. Understanding the effects of interruptions is important for designing and evaluating informatics tools in particular and for improving healthcare quality and patient safety in general. Method The hybrid method was developed using a deductive a priori classification framework with the provision of adding new categories discovered inductively in the data. The inductive process utilized line-by-line coding and constant comparison as stated in Grounded Theory. Results The categories of activities and interruptions were organized into a three-tiered hierarchy of activity. Validity and reliability of the categories were tested by categorizing a medical error case external to the study. No new categories of interruptions were identified during analysis of the medical error case. Conclusions Findings from this study provide evidence that the hybrid model of categorization is more complete than either a deductive or an inductive method alone. The hybrid method developed in this study provides the methodical support for understanding, analyzing, and managing interruptions and workflow. PMID:17110161

  19. Simultaneous activation/sulfurization method for production of sulfurized activated carbons: characterization and Hg(II) adsorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Shamsijazeyi, Hadi; Kaghazchi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    As an inexpensive method for modification of activated carbons (ACs), sulfurization has attracted significant attention. However, the resulting sulfurized activated carbons (SACs) often are less porous than the original ACs. In this work, we propose a new method for concurrent sulfurization/activation that can lead to preparation of SACs with more porosity than the corresponding non-sulfurized ACs. By using scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and iodine number experiments, the porous structure of the SACs has been compared with that of non-sulfurized ACs. The specific surface areas of SACs are higher than the corresponding ACs, regardless of the type of activation agents used. For instance, the specific surface area of SAC and AC activated with phosphoric acid is 1,637 and 1,338 m(2)/g, respectively. Additionally, sulfur contents and surface charges (pHpzc) of the SACs and non-sulfurized ACs are compared. In fact, the SACs have higher sulfur contents and more acidic surfaces. Furthermore, the Hg(II) adsorption capacity of SACs has been compared with the corresponding non-sulfurized ACs. The Hg(II) adsorption isotherms on a selected SAC is measured at different pH values and temperatures. Hg(II) adsorptions as high as 293 mg/g are observed by using SACs prepared by the method proposed in this study.

  20. The Physically Active Lifestyle of Flemish Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Approach towards Developing a Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogaert, Inge; De Martelaer, Kristine; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to describe and analyse the physical activity and sedentary levels of secondary school teachers in Flanders. A secondary aim was to collect information regarding a possible worksite intervention of special relevance to secondary school teachers. Design: Mixed-methods quantitative and qualitative…

  1. Investigating children's physical activity and sedentary behavior using ecological momentary assessment with mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Liao, Yue; Intille, Stephen S; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Maryann

    2011-06-01

    The risk of obesity during childhood can be significantly reduced through increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behavior. Recent technological advances have created opportunities for the real-time measurement of these behaviors. Mobile phones are ubiquitous and easy to use, and thus have the capacity to collect data from large numbers of people. The present study tested the feasibility, acceptability, and validity of an electronic ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol using electronic surveys administered on the display screen of mobile phones to assess children's physical activity and sedentary behaviors. A total of 121 children (ages 9-13, 51% male, 38% at risk for overweight/overweight) participated in EMA monitoring from Friday afternoon to Monday evening during children's nonschool time, with 3-7 surveys/day. Items assessed current activity (e.g., watching TV/movies, playing video games, active play/sports/exercising). Children simultaneously wore an Actigraph GT2M accelerometer. EMA survey responses were time-matched to total step counts and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) occurring in the 30 min before each EMA survey prompt. No significant differences between answered and unanswered EMA surveys were found for total steps or MVPA. Step counts and the likelihood of 5+ min of MVPA were significantly higher during EMA-reported physical activity (active play/sports/exercising) vs. sedentary behaviors (reading/computer/homework, watching TV/movies, playing video games, riding in a car) (P < 0.001). Findings generally support the acceptability and validity of a 4-day EMA protocol using mobile phones to measure physical activity and sedentary behavior in children during leisure time.

  2. Effect and mechanism of persulfate activated by different methods for PAHs removal in soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of persulfate activation methods on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation was investigated and included thermal, citrate chelated iron, and alkaline, and a hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)-persulfate binary mixture. Thermal activation (60◦C) resulted in t...

  3. Associations between Children's Physical Activities, Sedentary Behaviours and Family Structure: A Sequential Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, T.; Dagkas, S.; Bridge, M.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method paper explored the effect of family structure on children's physical activities and sedentary pursuits. It furthers the limited understanding of how family structure impacts on children's time in, and reasons behind engaging in, certain physical activities. Children from three inner city comprehensive schools in the Midlands,…

  4. Enhanced purity, activity and structural integrity of yeast ribosomes purified using a general chromatographic method.

    PubMed

    Leshin, Jonathan A; Rakauskaitė, Rasa; Dinman, Jonathan D; Meskauskas, Arturas

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing researchers working with eukaryotic ribosomes lies in their lability relative to their eubacterial and archael counterparts. In particular, lysis of cells and purification of eukaryotic ribosomes by conventional differential ultracentrifugation methods exposes them for long periods of time to a wide range of co-purifying proteases and nucleases, negatively impacting their structural integrity and functionality. A chromatographic method using a cysteine charged Sulfolink resin was adapted to address these problems. This fast and simple method significantly reduces co-purifying proteolytic and nucleolytic activities, producing good yields of highly biochemically active yeast ribosomes with fewer nicks in their rRNAs. In particular, the chromatographic purification protocol significantly improved the quality of ribosomes isolated from mutant cells. This method is likely applicable to mammalian ribosomes as well. The simplicity of the method, and the enhanced purity and activity of chromatographically purified ribosome represents a significant technical advancement for the study of eukaryotic ribosomes.

  5. Eating breakfast more frequently is cross-sectionally associated with greater physical activity and lower levels of adiposity in overweight Latina and African American girls1234

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Cheng Kun; Davis, Jaimie N; Shen, Ernest; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena T; Belcher, Britni R; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Weigensberg, Marc J; Goran, Michael I; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Eating breakfast is believed to promote a healthy body weight. Yet, few studies have examined the contribution of energy balance–related behavioral factors to this relation in minority youth. Objective: We assessed the associations between breakfast consumption and dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and adiposity before and after accounting for energy intake and PA in minority girls. Design: Cross-sectional data were obtained on body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (measured by BodPod), dietary intake (measured with 3-d dietary records), and PA (measured with 7-d accelerometry) from 87 Latina and African American girls 8–17 y of age (75% Latina, 80% overweight). Dietary records were used to categorize girls as more frequent breakfast eaters (MF; 2 or 3 of 3 d; n = 57) or less frequent breakfast eaters (LF; 0 or 1 of 3 d; n = 30). Chi-square tests, ANCOVA, and multiple regression analyses were conducted. Mediation was assessed with a Sobel test. Results: Compared with the MF group, the LF group spent 30% less time (12.6 min/d) in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA; P = 0.004) and had a higher percentage body fat (P = 0.029). MVPA accounted for 25% (95% CI: −8.8%, 58.1%; P = 0.139) of the relation between breakfast consumption and percentage body fat. We were unable to show that energy intake or MVPA was a significant mediator of the relation between breakfast consumption and adiposity in this sample. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that among predominantly overweight minority girls, MVPA, but not energy intake, was associated with both breakfast consumption and adiposity; however, a lack of power reduced our ability to detect a significant mediation effect. Other unobserved variables likely contribute to this relation. PMID:23803890

  6. A method to measure thrombin activity in a mixture of fibrinogen and thrombin powders

    PubMed Central

    DeAnglis, Ashley P.; Nur, Israel; Gorman, Anne J.; Meidler, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Thrombin and fibrinogen powders are the active components of advanced surgical hemostasis products including the EVARREST Fibrin Sealant Patch. Measuring the enzymatic activity of thrombin in the presence of fibrinogen is challenging, as hydration of the powders in a neutral aqueous environment will cause the enzyme to rapidly react with the fibrinogen to form a fibrin clot, which in turn binds and entraps the enzyme thus preventing subsequent measurement of thrombin activity. A novel approach has been developed to overcome this challenge. After isolation of the mixture of powders, an alkaline carbonate solution is used to solubilize the proteins, while reversibly inhibiting the activity of thrombin and preventing clot formation. Once the powders have been fully solubilized, thrombin activity can be restored by neutralization in a buffered fibrinogen solution resulting in fibrin clot formulation. The rate of clot formation can be quantified in a coagulometer to determine the thrombin activity of the original powder. Samples coated with powders containing fibrinogen and varying amounts of thrombin were tested using the method described herein. The results demonstrated that the method could consistently measure the activity of (alpha) thrombin in the presence of fibrinogen over a broad range of thrombin activity levels. The test was successfully validated according to International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use Guidelines and thus is suitable for use as part of a commercial manufacturing process. A method has been developed that enables thrombin activity to be measured in a mixture of fibrinogen and thrombin powders. PMID:26991860

  7. "Learning by Doing": A Teaching Method for Active Learning in Scientific Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bot, Ludovic; Gossiaux, Pol-Bernard; Rauch, Carl-Philippe; Tabiou, Safouana

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an active learning method for the teaching of physical sciences and mathematics to engineers. After defining the challenges involved in the training of engineers, we shall describe the answers provided by our method, "learning by doing" (named "Apprentissage Par l"Action" in French), by introducing…

  8. Exercise and physical activity in older adults with knee pain: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Elaine E.; Young, Julie; Hay, Elaine M.; Foster, Nadine E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe and explore current exercise and physical activity behaviour in older adults with knee pain in the UK. Methods. A survey was mailed to 2234 adults ≥50 years of age registered with one general practice within the UK to determine the presence and severity of knee pain and levels of physical activity. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 questionnaire responders with knee pain. Results. The questionnaire response rate was 59% (n = 1276) and 611 respondents reported knee pain. Only ∼40% of individuals with knee pain were sufficiently active to meet physical activity recommendations. Interviews revealed individual differences in the type and setting of physical activity completed and some self-monitored their symptoms in response to physical activity in order to guide future behaviour. Conclusion. Innovative interventions that can be adapted to suit individual needs and preferences are required to help older adults with knee pain become more physically active. PMID:25187640

  9. Antioxidant Activity and Validation of Quantification Method for Lycopene Extracted from Tomato.

    PubMed

    Cefali, Letícia Caramori; Cazedey, Edith Cristina Laignier; Souza-Moreira, Tatiana Maria; Correa, Marcos Antônio; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes; Isaac, Vera Lucia Borges

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene is a carotenoid found in tomatoes with potent antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to obtain an extract containing lycopene from four types of tomatoes, validate a quantification method for the extracts by HPLC, and assess its antioxidant activity. Results revealed that the tomatoes analyzed contained lycopene and antioxidant activity. Salad tomato presented the highest concentration of this carotenoid and antioxidant activity. The quantification method exhibited linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992. Tests for the assessment of precision, accuracy, and robustness achieved coefficients with variation of less than 5%. The LOD and LOQ were 0.0012 and 0.0039 μg/mL, respectively. Salad tomato can be used as a source of lycopene for the development of topical formulations, and based on performed tests, the chosen method for the identification and quantification of lycopene was considered to be linear, precise, exact, selective, and robust.

  10. System and method for coproduction of activated carbon and steam/electricity

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasachar, Srivats; Benson, Steven; Crocker, Charlene; Mackenzie, Jill

    2011-07-19

    A system and method for producing activated carbon comprising carbonizing a solid carbonaceous material in a carbonization zone of an activated carbon production apparatus (ACPA) to yield a carbonized product and carbonization product gases, the carbonization zone comprising carbonaceous material inlet, char outlet and carbonization gas outlet; activating the carbonized product via activation with steam in an activation zone of the ACPA to yield activated carbon and activation product gases, the activation zone comprising activated carbon outlet, activation gas outlet, and activation steam inlet; and utilizing process gas comprising at least a portion of the carbonization product gases or a combustion product thereof; at least a portion of the activation product gases or a combustion product thereof; or a combination thereof in a solid fuel boiler system that burns a solid fuel boiler feed with air to produce boiler-produced steam and flue gas, the boiler upstream of an air heater within a steam/electricity generation plant, said boiler comprising a combustion zone, a boiler-produced steam outlet and at least one flue gas outlet.

  11. Gamification of active travel to school: A pilot evaluation of the Beat the Street physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Emma; Jones, Andy

    2016-05-01

    Beat the Street aims to get children more active by encouraging them to walk and cycle in their neighbourhood using tracking technology with a reward scheme. This pilot study evaluates the impact of Beat the Street on active travel to school in Norwich, UK. Eighty children 8-10 yrs were recruited via an intervention and control school. They wore an accelerometer for 7 days at baseline, mid-intervention and post-intervention (+20 weeks), and completed a travel diary. Physical activity overall was not higher at follow-up amongst intervention children compared to controls. However, there was a positive association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school commute times and the number of days on which children touched a Beat the Street sensor. This equated to 3.46min extra daily MVPA during commute times for children who touched a sensor on 14.5 days (the mean number of days), compared to those who did not engage. We also found weekly active travel increased at the intervention school (+10.0% per child) while it decreased at the control (-7.0%), p=0.056. Further work is needed to understand how improved engagement with the intervention might impact outcomes.

  12. Method for non-referential defect characterization using fractal encoding and active contours

    DOEpatents

    Gleason, Shaun S.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed

    2007-05-15

    A method for identification of anomalous structures, such as defects, includes the steps of providing a digital image and applying fractal encoding to identify a location of at least one anomalous portion of the image. The method does not require a reference image to identify the location of the anomalous portion. The method can further include the step of initializing an active contour based on the location information obtained from the fractal encoding step and deforming an active contour to enhance the boundary delineation of the anomalous portion.

  13. ATPase activity measurement of DNA replicative helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus by malachite green method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Wang, Ganggang

    2016-09-15

    The DnaB helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (DnaBBst) was a model protein for studying the bacterial DNA replication. In this work, a non-radioactive method for measuring ATPase activity of DnaBBst helicase was described. The working parameters and conditions were optimized. Furthermore, this method was applied to investigate effects of DnaG primase, ssDNA and helicase loader protein (DnaI) on ATPase activity of DnaBBst. Our results showed this method was sensitive and efficient. Moreover, it is suitable for the investigation of functional interaction between DnaB and related factors.

  14. Dynamic deformation measurement and analysis of active stressed lap using optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qican; Su, Xianyu; Liu, Yuankun; Xiang, Liqun

    2007-12-01

    The active stressed lap is the heart of polishing process. A novel non-contact optical method of dynamic deformation measurement and analysis of an active stressed lap is put forward. This method, based on structured illumination, is able to record full-field information of the bending and rotating stressed lap dynamically and continuously, while its profile is changed under computer control, and restore the whole process of lap deformation varied with time at different position and rotating angle. It has been verified by experiments that this proposed method will be helpful to the opticians to ensure the stressed lap as expected.

  15. Comparison of active and passive methods for radon exhalation from a high-exposure building material.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, A; Mirekhtiary, F

    2013-12-01

    The radon exhalation rates and radon concentrations in granite stones used in Iran were measured by means of a high-resolution high purity Germanium gamma-spectroscopy system (passive method) and an AlphaGUARD model PQ 2000 (active method). For standard rooms (4.0 × 5.0 m area × 2.8 height) where ground and walls have been covered by granite stones, the radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate by two methods were calculated. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra in the selected granite samples ranged from 3.8 to 94.2 Bq kg(-1). The radon exhalation rate from the calculation of the (226)Ra activity concentration was obtained. The radon exhalation rates were 1.31-7.86 Bq m(-2)h(-1). The direction measurements using an AlphaGUARD were from 218 to 1306 Bq m(-3) with a mean of 625 Bq m(-3). Also, the exhalation rates measured by the passive and active methods were compared and the results of this study were the same, with the active method being 22 % higher than the passive method.

  16. Methods for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.; Dees, H. Craig

    2008-03-18

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method comprises the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention also provides a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  17. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.; Dees, H.C.

    1998-11-10

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. 13 figs.

  18. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.; Dees, H. Craig

    1998-01-01

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  19. A Structured Peer-Mentoring Method for Physical Activity Behavior Change Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laureen H.; Petosa, Rick L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite national guidelines for regular physical activity, most adolescents are not physically active. Schools serve an estimated 60 million youth and provide an educational environment to meet the current physical activity guidelines. The obesity epidemic and chronic disease comorbidities associated with physical inactivity are not likely to be reversed without a strong contribution from local schools. This article describes how a structured peer-mentoring method provides a feasible, flexible, and tailored means to meet the current guidelines for best practice in a school setting. Structured peer mentoring using trained high school mentors to support behavior change in younger peers is an innovative method to meeting the School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Through structured peer mentoring, adolescents are provided consistent social support in a caring and personalized manner. This support builds skills and competencies enhancing self-efficacy to sustain a lifetime of physical activity behavior. PMID:27257081

  20. A consolidated method for screening the endocrine activity of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Chevolleau, Sylvie; Debrauwer, Laurent; Stroheker, Thomas; Viglino, Liza; Mourahib, Issam; Meireles, Maria-Helena; Grimaldi, Marina; Balaguer, Patrick; di Gioia, Lodovico

    2016-12-15

    Endocrine activity of drinking water is a matter of growing interest for scientists as well as health authorities. A concentration technique for endocrine activity screening was developed, optimized, and transposed from 200mL to 10L water samples. To avoid any contamination during concentration, the method was developed using exclusively glass, Teflon and stainless steel materials. Any potential losses were tracked using three model radiolabeled molecules, namely BPA, DEHP and 4n-NP. The final method allowed 10L water samples to be concentrated 5000-fold, with good recovery and repeatability. After validation, by concentrating spiked and non-spiked 10L samples of EVIAN natural mineral water, 14 different drinking water samples were concentrated and screened for endocrine disrupting activity using bioluminescent assays. Samples consisting of bottled water, conditioned in various materials (glass, PET) and subjected to different storage conditions, had no hormone-like activities whereas estrogenic activity was found in the filtered tap water.

  1. A Structured Peer-Mentoring Method for Physical Activity Behavior Change Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laureen H; Petosa, Rick L

    2016-10-01

    Despite national guidelines for regular physical activity, most adolescents are not physically active. Schools serve an estimated 60 million youth and provide an educational environment to meet the current physical activity guidelines. The obesity epidemic and chronic disease comorbidities associated with physical inactivity are not likely to be reversed without a strong contribution from local schools. This article describes how a structured peer-mentoring method provides a feasible, flexible, and tailored means to meet the current guidelines for best practice in a school setting. Structured peer mentoring using trained high school mentors to support behavior change in younger peers is an innovative method to meeting the School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Through structured peer mentoring, adolescents are provided consistent social support in a caring and personalized manner. This support builds skills and competencies enhancing self-efficacy to sustain a lifetime of physical activity behavior.

  2. Exploring techniques for vision based human activity recognition: methods, systems, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Tang, Jinshan; Zhang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong; Qiu, Yimin

    2013-01-25

    With the wide applications of vision based intelligent systems, image and video analysis technologies have attracted the attention of researchers in the computer vision field. In image and video analysis, human activity recognition is an important research direction. By interpreting and understanding human activity, we can recognize and predict the occurrence of crimes and help the police or other agencies react immediately. In the past, a large number of papers have been published on human activity recognition in video and image sequences. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the recent development of the techniques, including methods, systems, and quantitative evaluation towards the performance of human activity recognition.

  3. Method and apparatus for actively controlling a micro-scale flexural plate wave device

    DOEpatents

    Dohner, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    An actively controlled flexural plate wave device provides a micro-scale pump. A method of actively controlling a flexural plate wave device produces traveling waves in the device by coordinating the interaction of a magnetic field with actively controlled currents. An actively-controlled flexural plate wave device can be placed in a fluid channel and adapted for use as a micro-scale fluid pump to cool or drive micro-scale systems, for example, micro-chips, micro-electrical-mechanical devices, micro-fluid circuits, or micro-scale chemical analysis devices.

  4. Development of a method of exposed characteristic points in activity pattern for rat behaviour classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefko, Kamil; Bukowski, Tomasz; Urbański, Michał

    2012-03-01

    A fast method for visual inspection and classification of massive locomotor activity data registered from laboratory rats is presented. Positions in the home cage of one hundred rats have been constantly recorded during 90 day period using photodiodes and beam crossing method with use of custom build system. Direct inspection and comparison of classic form of actograms did not bring information for fast and easy recognition of anomalies in daily behavioural cycle. A method of obtaining fast and easy to compare locomotor activity pattern is presented. The key point of proposed method is exposition of characteristic points in the activity diagram. About 9000 actograms were inspected and classified for investigation with use of ANOVA.

  5. Neighborhood Crime-Related Safety and Its Relation to Children's Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Kneeshaw-Price, Stephanie H; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F; Frank, Lawrence D; Grembowski, David E; Hannon, Peggy A; Smith, Nicholas L; Chan, K C Gary

    2015-06-01

    Crime is both a societal safety and public health issue. Examining different measures and aspects of crime-related safety and their correlations may provide insight into the unclear relationship between crime and children's physical activity. We evaluated five neighborhood crime-related safety measures to determine how they were interrelated. We then explored which crime-related safety measures were associated with children's total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and MVPA in their neighborhoods. Significant positive correlations between observed neighborhood incivilities and parents' perceptions of general crime and disorder were found (r = 0.30, p = 0.0002), as were associations between parents' perceptions of general crime and disorder and perceptions of stranger danger (r = 0.30, p = 0.0002). Parent report of prior crime victimization in their neighborhood was associated with observed neighborhood incivilities (r = 0.22, p = 0.007) and their perceptions of both stranger danger (r = 0.24, p = 0.003) and general crime and disorder (r = 0.37, p < 0.0001). After accounting for covariates, police-reported crime within the census block group in which children lived was associated with less physical activity, both total and in their neighborhood (beta = -0.09, p = 0.005, beta = -0.01, p = 0.02, respectively). Neighborhood-active children living in the lowest crime-quartile neighborhoods based on police reports had 40 min more of total MVPA on average compared to neighborhood-active children living in the highest crime-quartile neighborhoods. Findings suggest that police reports of neighborhood crime may be contributing to lower children's physical activity.

  6. Associations of Monitor-Assessed Activity with Performance-Based Physical Function

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Natasha; Daly, Robin M.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Gardiner, Paul A.; Eakin, Elizabeth G.; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W.; Healy, Genevieve N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations of monitor-derived measures of sedentary time and physical activity with performance-based physical function in healthy Australian adults. Data from 602 participants (mean age 58.1±10.0 years; 58% female) from the 2011/12 wave of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab3) study were analyzed. The thigh-worn activPAL3™ monitor (7-days continuous wear) was used to derive time during waking hours spent: sitting/reclining; standing; and, stepping (overall, and separately as light [<3 METs] and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA; ≥3 METs]), and number of sit-stand transitions. Associations of these (in hours/day, or 15 transitions/day) with physical function measures (8ft Timed Up and Go [TUG-8; log-transformed seconds] and Knee Extensor Strength [KES; kg]) were tested via linear regression, adjusting for confounders. Interactions by sex and age-category (<45; 45–54; 55–64; ≥65 years) were tested. In all participants, KES was significantly (p<0.05) associated with stepping and MVPA stepping only; none of the activity measures were associated with TUG-8. However, subgroup analysis revealed that in older adults (≥65 years), TUG-8 was associated with stepping and MVPA stepping (both p<0.05). All associations with sitting time, standing, sit-stand transition and sex interactions were not statistically significant. In summary, sitting time was not significantly associated with impaired muscle strength or gait/mobility in Australian adults aged 36–80 years, but light- to moderate activity (stepping) was positively associated with muscle strength, and gait/mobility in older adults aged ≥65 years. The direction of causation is not known and remains important to investigate considering the high prevalence of both poor function and limited activity in older age. PMID:27073888

  7. Short-Term Effectiveness of a Mobile Phone App for Increasing Physical Activity and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial (EVIDENT II Study)

    PubMed Central

    Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Martin-Cantera, Carlos; González-Viejo, Mª Natividad; Fernandez-Alonso, Mª Del Carmen; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, Maria Soledad; Schmolling-Guinovart, Yolanda; Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose-Angel; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of mobile phone apps for improving lifestyles has become generalized in the population, although little is still known about their effectiveness in improving health. Objective We evaluate the effect of adding an app to standard counseling on increased physical activity (PA) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, 3 months after implementation. Methods A randomized, multicenter clinical trial was carried out. A total of 833 participants were recruited in six primary care centers in Spain through random sampling: 415 in the app+counseling group and 418 in the counseling only group. Counseling on PA and the Mediterranean diet was given to both groups. The app+counseling participants additionally received training in the use of an app designed to promote PA and the Mediterranean diet over a 3-month period. PA was measured with the 7-day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) questionnaire and an accelerometer; adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener questionnaire. Results Participants were predominantly female in both the app+counseling (249/415, 60.0%) and counseling only (268/418, 64.1%) groups, with a mean age of 51.4 (SD 12.1) and 52.3 (SD 12.0) years, respectively. Leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by 7-day PAR increased in the app+counseling (mean 29, 95% CI 5-53 min/week; P=.02) but not in the counseling only group (mean 17.4, 95% CI –18 to 53 min/week; P=.38). No differences in increase of activity were found between the two groups. The accelerometer recorded a decrease in PA after 3 months in both groups: MVPA mean –55.3 (95% CI –75.8 to –34.9) min/week in app+counseling group and mean –30.1 (95% CI –51.8 to –8.4) min/week in counseling only group. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet increased in both groups (8.4% in app+counseling and 10.4% in counseling only group), with an increase in score of 0.42 and 0.53 points, respectively (P<.001), but no

  8. Selection of a suitable extraction method for mutagenic activity from woodsmoke-impacted air particles

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.; Pasley, T.; Warren, S.; Zweidinger, R.; Watts, R.

    1988-01-01